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Sample records for chub gila cypha

  1. Ontogenesis of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) in the Little Colorado River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Dennis M.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2006-01-01

    The largest population of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha inhabits the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam and the lower 14 km of the Little Colorado River (LCR), Arizona. Currently, adults from both rivers spawn and their progenies grow and recruit to adulthood primarily within the LCR, where we studied G. cypha's life history using hoop net capture data. Humpback chub undergo an ontogenesis from diurnally active, vulnerable, nearshore-reliant young-of-the-year (YOY; 30-90 mm total length) into nocturnally active, large-bodied adults (a?Y180 mm TL). During the day, adults primarily resided in deep midchannel pools; however, at night they dispersed inshore amongst the higher densities of YOY conspecifics. Many YOY G. cypha shifted to nocturnal habitats that provided greater cover, possibly, to avoid inshore invading adults. These findings mirror predator-prey scenarios described in other freshwater assemblages, but do not refute other plausible hypotheses. Gila cypha piscivorous activity may escalate in hoop nets, which can confine fish of disparate sizes together; adults were significantly associated with YOY conspecifics and small dead fish in hoop nets at night and eight G. cypha (156-372 mm TL) regurgitated and/or defecated other fish body parts during handling following capture. Gila cypha can definitely be piscivorous given the opportunity, but the magnitude of their piscivorous activity in the wild is debatable.

  2. Annotated bibliography for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) with emphasis on the Grand Canyon population.

    SciTech Connect

    Goulet, C. T.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-10-05

    Glen Canyon Dam is a hydroelectric facility located on the Colorado River in Arizona that is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for multiple purposes including water storage, flood control, power generation, recreation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife. Glen Canyon Dam operations have been managed for the last several years to improve conditions for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other ecosystem components. An extensive amount of literature has been produced on the humpback chub. We developed this annotated bibliography to assist managers and researchers in the Grand Canyon as they perform assessments, refine management strategies, and develop new studies to examine the factors affecting humpback chub. The U.S. Geological Survey recently created a multispecies bibliography (including references on the humpback chub) entitled Bibliography of Native Colorado River Big Fishes (available at www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/data/COFishBib). That bibliography, while quite extensive and broader in scope than ours, is not annotated, and, therefore, does not provide any of the information in the original literature. In developing this annotated bibliography, we have attempted to assemble abstracts from relevant published literature. We present here abstracts taken unmodified from individual reports and articles except where noted. The bibliography spans references from 1976 to 2009 and is organized in five broad topical areas, including: (1) biology, (2) ecology, (3) impacts of dam operations, (4) other impacts, and (5) conservation and management, and includes twenty subcategories. Within each subcategory, we present abstracts alphabetically by author and chronologically by year. We present relevant articles not specific to either the humpback chub or Glen Canyon Dam, but cited in other included reports, under the Supporting Articles subcategory. We provide all citations in alphabetical order in Section 7.

  3. Evidence for skipped spawning in a potamodromous cyprinid, humpback chub (Gila cypha), with implications for demographic parameter estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Kristen Nicole; Kendall, William; Winkelman, Dana L.; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Our findings reveal evidence for skipped spawning in a potamodromous cyprinid, humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha  ). Using closed robust design mark-recapture models, we found, on average, spawning HBC transition to the skipped spawning state () with a probability of 0.45 (95% CRI (i.e. credible interval): 0.10, 0.80) and skipped spawners remain in the skipped spawning state () with a probability of 0.60 (95% CRI: 0.26, 0.83), yielding an average spawning cycle of every 2.12 years, conditional on survival. As a result, migratory skipped spawners are unavailable for detection during annual sampling events. If availability is unaccounted for, survival and detection probability estimates will be biased. Therefore, we estimated annual adult survival probability (S), while accounting for skipped spawning, and found S remained reasonably stable throughout the study period, with an average of 0.75 ((95% CRI: 0.66, 0.82), process varianceσ2 = 0.005), while skipped spawning probability was highly dynamic (σ2 = 0.306). By improving understanding of HBC spawning strategies, conservation decisions can be based on less biased estimates of survival and a more informed population model structure.

  4. Survival, growth, and movement of subadult humpback chub, Gila cypha, in the Little Colorado River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Stone, Dennis M.; Van Haverbeke, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Ecologists estimate vital rates, such as growth and survival, to better understand population dynamics and identify sensitive life history parameters for species or populations of concern. Here, we assess spatiotemporal variation in growth, movement, density, and survival of subadult humpback chub living in the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ from 2001–2002 and 2009–2013. We divided the Little Colorado River into three reaches and used a multistate mark-recapture model to determine rates of movement and differences in survival and density between sites for different cohorts. Additionally, site-specific and year-specific effects on growth were evaluated using a linear model. Results indicate that summer growth was higher for upstream sites compared with downstream sites. In contrast, there was not a consistent spatial pattern across years in winter growth; however, river-wide winter growth was negatively related to the duration of floods from 1 October to 15 May. Apparent survival was estimated to be lower at the most downstream site compared with the upstream sites; however, this could be because in part of increased emigration into the Colorado River at downstream sites. Furthermore, the 2010 cohort (i.e. fish that are age 1 in 2010) exhibited high apparent survival relative to other years. Movement between reaches varied with year, and some years exhibited preferential upstream displacement. Improving understanding of spatiotemporal effects on age 1 humpback chub survival can help inform current management efforts to translocate humpback chub into new locations and give us a better understanding of the factors that may limit this tributary's carrying capacity for humpback chub.

  5. Tradeoffs between physical captures and PIT tag antenna array detections: A case study for the Lower Colorado River Basin population of humpback chub (Gila cypha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Kristen Nicole; Kendall, William; Winkelman, Dana L.; Persons, William R.

    2016-01-01

    A key component of many monitoring programs for special status species involves capture and handling of individuals as part of capture-recapture efforts for tracking population health and demography. Minimizing negative impacts from sampling, such as through reduced handling, aids prevention of negative impacts on species from monitoring efforts. Using simulation analyses, we found that long-term population monitoring techniques, requiring physical capture (i.e. hoop-net sampling), can be reduced and supplemented with passive detections (i.e. PIT tag antenna array detections) without negatively affecting estimates of adult humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha) survival (S) and skipped spawning probabilities (γ' = spawner transitions to a skipped spawner, γ′ = skipped spawner remains a skipped spawner). Based on our findings of the array’s in situ detection efficiency (0.42), estimability of such demographic parameters would improve over hoop-netting alone. In addition, the array provides insight into HBC population dynamics and movement patterns outside of traditional sampling periods. However, given current timing of sampling efforts, spawner abundance estimates were negatively biased when hoop-netting was reduced, suggesting not all spawning HBC are present during the current sampling events. Despite this, our findings demonstrate that PIT tag antenna arrays, even with moderate potential detectability, may allow for reduced handling of special status species while also offering potentially more efficient monitoring strategies, especially if ideal timing of sampling can be determined.

  6. Effects of Glen Canyon Dam discharges on water velocity and temperatures at the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and implications for habitat for young-of-year humpback chub (Gila cypha-

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Protiva, Frank R.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Stone, Dennis M.; Kohl, Keith A.; Yard, Michael D.; Haden, G. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Water velocity and temperature are physical variables that affect the growth and survivorship of young-of-year (YOY) fishes. The Little Colorado River, a tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, is an important spawning ground and warmwater refuge for the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) from the colder mainstem Colorado River that is regulated by Glen Canyon Dam. The confluence area of the Little Colorado River and the Colorado River is a site where YOY humpback chub (size 30-90 mm) emerging from the Little Colorado River experience both colder temperatures and higher velocities associated with higher mainstem discharge. We used detailed surveying and mapping techniques in combination with YOY velocity and temperature preferenda (determined from field and lab studies) to compare the areal extent of available habitat for young fishes at the confluence area under four mainstem discharges (227, 368, 504, and 878 m3/s). Comparisons revealed that the areal extent of low-velocity, warm water at the confluence decreased when discharges exceeded 368 m3/s. Furthermore, mainstem fluctuations, depending on the rate of upramp, can affect velocity and temperature dynamics in the confluence area within several hours. The amount of daily fluctuations in discharge can result in the loss of approximately 1.8 hectares of habitat favorable to YOY humpback chub. Consequently, flow fluctuations and the accompanying changes in velocity and temperature at the confluence may diminish the recruitment potential of humpback chub that spawn in the tributary stream. This study illustrates the utility of multiple georeferenced data sources to provide critical information related to the influence of the timing and magnitude of discharge from Glen Canyon Dam on potential rearing environment at the confluence area of the Little Colorado River.

  7. Spawning and hatching of endangered Gila Chub in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Andrew A.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Information on reproductive characteristics of the endangered Gila Chub Gila intermedia is largely limited and qualitative, and culture techniques and requirements are virtually unknown. Here we provide the first published data on spawning and selected reproductive and developmental characteristics of Gila Chub. Fish were brought to the laboratory in March 2003 from Sabino Creek, Arizona (12.3°C). Fish were then warmed slowly and spawned at 14.9°C, 10 d after collection. Following this initial spawning, Gila Chub spawned consistently in the laboratory without hormonal, chemical, photoperiod, temperature, or substrate manipulation during all times of the year. Spawns were noted at temperatures ranging from about 15°C to 26°C; however, we noted that Gila Chub spawned less frequently at temperatures above 24°C. Multiple spawning attempts per year per individual are probable. There was a strong, inverse relationship between time to hatch and incubation temperature. The hatch rate of eggs was high (mean = 99.43%), and larval Gila Chub accepted a variety of natural and formulated diets at first feeding. The future of Gila Chub may someday depend in part on hatchery propagation to provide specimens for restocking formerly occupied habitats and establishing refuge populations. Information from our study can aid future efforts to successfully spawn and rear Gila Chub and related species.

  8. Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  9. Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Scott P; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, Rebecca A

    2007-02-01

    We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm.

  10. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de

  11. Comparison of mosquito control provided by the arroyo chub (Gila orcutti) and the mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Van Dam, Alex R; Walton, William E

    2007-12-01

    Two 6-wk trials were conducted in 28-m2 earthen ponds to compare the efficacy of the arroyo chub, Gila orcutti, to the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, as a biological control agent for mosquitoes and a possible replacement for the mosquitofish in sensitive watersheds of southern California. The mosquitofish population growth rate was 1.73 times greater than the arroyo chub population growth rate; however, greater reproduction by the mosquitofish did not result in significantly better reduction of mosquitoes than was provided by the comparatively small populations of arroyo chub. On average across a 6-wk study in the spring, both larvivorous fishes reduced the abundance of 3rd and 4th instars by 4- to 5-fold compared to that observed in the control ponds that lacked fish but contained few invertebrate predators. The abundance of nontarget microinvertebrates in ponds containing the mosquitofish was only 7% of that in ponds containing the arroyo chub during the summer, but did not differ significantly between the fish species treatments when zooplankton was comparatively more abundant during the spring. Even though the number of individuals produced by each fish species during 6 wk in the spring was greater than for fish stocked in the summer, species-specific population growth rates in the spring study (individuals/individual/d; mosquitofish, 0.077; arroyo chub, 0.044) were only slightly higher than in the summer (individuals/individual/d; mosquitofish, 0.068; arroyo chub, 0.039) indicating that differences in the number of fish stocked contributed primarily to the differences in final population size between spring and summer studies. The arroyo chub is native to the South Coastal drainages in California and should be considered as a viable alternative to the mosquitofish for integrated mosquito management programs in riverine wetlands and sensitive watersheds of southern California.

  12. Macrohabitat of Sonora Chub (Gila ditaenia) in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Jeanette; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Physical characteristics and persistence of macrohabitat used by different life stages of Sonora chub (Gila ditaenia) were determined by repeatedly measuring distinct reaches in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, in 1990 and 1991. At the beginning of summer drought, habitats occupied by adult Sonora chub were deeper and larger than areas with only immature fish and unoccupied areas. The medians of maximum depth were 47.0 cm (1990) and 39.7 cm (1991) for habitats with adults, 21.3 cm (1990) and 22.9 cm (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 14.6 cm (1990) and 19.7 cm (1991) for unoccupied areas. At the end of summer drought, adults occupied habitats that were deeper and larger, and the percent decrease in area and depth was less than areas containing only immature fish or no fish. The medians of percent decrease in maximum depth were 13% (1990) and 21% (1991) for habitats with adults, 48% (1990) and 41% (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 42% (1990) and 33% (1991) for unoccupied areas. By the end of summer drought, habitats with only immature fish were not physically different from unoccupied areas. Loss of total surface area was highest in reaches that contained only immature fish or no fish (range = 36% to 94%). Most Sonora chub lost from evaporating surface waters were immature fish. Ephemeral and unoccupied areas had higher percentages of floating cover and coarser substrates than persistent, occupied areas.

  13. Geographic distribution of genetic diversity in populations of Rio Grande Chub Gila pandora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galindo, Rene; Wilson, Wade; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2016-01-01

    In the southwestern United States (US), the Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora) is state-listed as a fish species of greatest conservation need and federally listed as sensitive due to habitat alterations and competition with non-native fishes. Characterizing genetic diversity, genetic population structure, and effective number of breeders will assist with conservation efforts by providing a baseline of genetic metrics. Genetic relatedness within and among G. pandora populations throughout New Mexico was characterized using 11 microsatellite loci among 15 populations in three drainage basins (Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian). Observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.71–0.87 and was similar to expected heterozygosity (0.75–0.87). Rio Ojo Caliente (Rio Grande) had the highest allelic richness (AR = 15.09), while Upper Rio Bonito (Pecos) had the lowest allelic richness (AR = 6.75). Genetic differentiation existed among all populations with the lowest genetic variation occurring within the Pecos drainage. STRUCTURE analysis revealed seven genetic clusters. Populations of G. pandora within the upper Rio Grande drainage (Rio Ojo Caliente, Rio Vallecitos, Rio Pueblo de Taos) had high levels of admixture with Q-values ranging from 0.30–0.50. In contrast, populations within the Pecos drainage (Pecos River and Upper Rio Bonito) had low levels of admixture (Q = 0.94 and 0.87, respectively). Estimates of effective number of breeders (N b ) varied from 6.1 (Pecos: Upper Rio Bonito) to 109.7 (Rio Grande: Rio Peñasco) indicating that populations in the Pecos drainage are at risk of extirpation. In the event that management actions are deemed necessary to preserve or increase genetic diversity of G. pandora, consideration must be given as to which populations are selected for translocation.

  14. Population Structure in the Roundtail Chub (Gila robusta Complex) of the Gila River Basin as Determined by Microsatellites: Evolutionary and Conservation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Thomas E.; Anderson, Corey D.; Marsh, Paul C.; Rosenberg, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ten microsatellite loci were characterized for 34 locations from roundtail chub (Gila robusta complex) to better resolve patterns of genetic variation among local populations in the lower Colorado River basin. This group has had a complex taxonomic history and previous molecular analyses failed to identify species diagnostic molecular markers. Our results supported previous molecular studies based on allozymes and DNA sequences, which found that most genetic variance was explained by differences among local populations. Samples from most localities were so divergent species-level diagnostic markers were not found. Some geographic samples were discordant with current taxonomy due to admixture or misidentification; therefore, additional morphological studies are necessary. Differences in spatial genetic structure were consistent with differences in connectivity of stream habitats, with the typically mainstem species, G. robusta, exhibiting greater genetic connectedness within the Gila River drainage. No species exhibited strong isolation by distance over the entire stream network, but the two species typically found in headwaters, G. nigra and G. intermedia, exhibited greater than expected genetic similarity between geographically proximate populations, and usually clustered with individuals from the same geographic location and/or sub-basin. These results highlight the significance of microevolutionary processes and importance of maintaining local populations to maximize evolutionary potential for this complex. Augmentation stocking as a conservation management strategy should only occur under extreme circumstances, and potential source populations should be geographically proximate stocks of the same species, especially for the headwater forms. PMID:26473600

  15. Population Structure in the Roundtail Chub (Gila robusta Complex) of the Gila River Basin as Determined by Microsatellites: Evolutionary and Conservation Implications.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Thomas E; Anderson, Corey D; Marsh, Paul C; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Ten microsatellite loci were characterized for 34 locations from roundtail chub (Gila robusta complex) to better resolve patterns of genetic variation among local populations in the lower Colorado River basin. This group has had a complex taxonomic history and previous molecular analyses failed to identify species diagnostic molecular markers. Our results supported previous molecular studies based on allozymes and DNA sequences, which found that most genetic variance was explained by differences among local populations. Samples from most localities were so divergent species-level diagnostic markers were not found. Some geographic samples were discordant with current taxonomy due to admixture or misidentification; therefore, additional morphological studies are necessary. Differences in spatial genetic structure were consistent with differences in connectivity of stream habitats, with the typically mainstem species, G. robusta, exhibiting greater genetic connectedness within the Gila River drainage. No species exhibited strong isolation by distance over the entire stream network, but the two species typically found in headwaters, G. nigra and G. intermedia, exhibited greater than expected genetic similarity between geographically proximate populations, and usually clustered with individuals from the same geographic location and/or sub-basin. These results highlight the significance of microevolutionary processes and importance of maintaining local populations to maximize evolutionary potential for this complex. Augmentation stocking as a conservation management strategy should only occur under extreme circumstances, and potential source populations should be geographically proximate stocks of the same species, especially for the headwater forms.

  16. A novel myxosporean parasite Myxobolus klamathellus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) from native blue chub (Gila coerulea) in Klamath Lake, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Stephen Douglas; Banner, Craig Randall

    2017-01-01

    Blue chub, Gila coerulea Girard, 1856 is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland drainages of western North America. It has not previously been recorded as a host of any myxosporean parasite (Cnidaria: Myxosporea), despite myxosporeans being cosmopolitan in freshwater and marine fishes worldwide and sympatric with this host. Herein, we describe a novel myxosporean from subcutaneous cysts in native blue chub from Klamath Lake, Oregon. Myxospores were consistent with genus Myxobolus, being obovoid but compressed in thickness, length 14.3 ± 0.4 (13-15) μm, width 9.7 ± 0.4 (9-10) μm, thickness 7.7 ± 0.3 (7-8) μm; two polar capsules ovoid slightly dissimilar in size, length 6.4 ± 0.4 (6-7) μm, width 3.8 ± 0.3 (3-4) μm, with four (3-5) turns of the polar filament (tubule); capsule openings apical, one in each valve cell. The small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence was up to 97 % similar to Myxobolus spp. from other cyprinids from North America and Europe. Given the novel host, unique myxospore morphometrics, and DNA sequence, we describe this as Myxobolus klamathellus n. sp.

  17. Seasonal changes in 17-ß estradiol of the Rio Grande Chub (Gila pandora) in south-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Colleen A.; Fuller, S. Adam; Gould, William R.; Turner, Paul R.; Hallford, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    Timing of gametogensis and thus spawning can be inferred through changes in plasma concentrations of gonadal hormones. In preparation for ovulation and spawning, mean concentrations of 17ß-estradiol in a population of Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora) occupying the Rio Bonito, New Mexico, peaked at 37.6 ng/mL on 16 June and declined to 1.50 ng/mL by 11 August. Similarly, the gonadal somatic index (GSI) increased from 9.02 on 21 May (n = 9) to 11.85 on 16 June (n = 2) and declined to 6.10 on 11 August (n = 2). Peak concentrations of 17ß-estradiol and elevated GSI in June coincided with peak daylength for the year (14 h and 12 min) and average water temperature of 15.1°C. Concentrations of 17ß-estradiol remained low through 3 October indicating no additional spawning events in the Rio Grande chub population. We demonstrated 17ß-estradiol is a nondestructive and thus useful tool in estimating timing of spawning in a wild fish population.

  18. Grand Canyon Humpback Chub Population Improving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand Canyon, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand Canyon population under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand Canyon increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.

  19. Status and Trends of the Grand Canyon Population of Humpback Chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2009-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin supports one of the most distinctive fish communities in North America, including the federally endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). One of only six remaining populations of this fish is found in Grand Canyon, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators are responsible for monitoring the Grand Canyon population. Analysis of recently collected data indicates that the number of Grand Canyon adult humpback chub - fish 4 years old and older and capable of reproduction - increased approximately 50 percent between 2001 and 2008. When possible model error is considered, the estimated number of adult chub in the Grand Canyon population is between 6,000 and 10,000. The most likely number is estimated at 7,650 individuals.

  20. Comparative growth and consumption potential of rainbow trout and humpback chub in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, under different temperature scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Petersen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    We used bioenergetics models for humpback chub, Gila cypha, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to examine how warmer water temperatures in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, through a proposed selective withdrawal system (SWS) at Glen Canyon Dam, would affect growth, consumption, and predation rates. Consumption by the rainbow trout population was at least 10 times higher than by the smaller humpback chub population. Water temperature increases of 6??C during autumn increased growth of humpback chub and likely increased their survival by reducing the time vulnerable to predation. Water temperature increases caused by drought in 2005 did not alter humpback chub growth as much as the SWS. Increased temperatures might cause changes to the invertebrate community and the distribution and abundance of other warmwater nonnative fishes. The implications on the entire aquatic community need to be considered before any management action that includes increasing water temperatures is implemented.

  1. Translocation of Humpback Chub into tributary streams of the Colorado River: Implications for conservation of large-river fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurgeon, Jonathan J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Healy, Brian D.; Trammell, Melissa; Speas, Dave; Smith, Emily Omana

    2015-01-01

    The Humpback Chub Gila cypha, a large-bodied, endangered cyprinid endemic to the Colorado River basin, is in decline throughout most of its range due largely to anthropogenic factors. Translocation of Humpback Chub into tributaries of the Colorado River is one conservation activity that may contribute to the expansion of the species’ current range and eventually provide population redundancy. We evaluated growth, survival, and dispersal following translocation of approximately 900 Humpback Chub over a period of 3 years (2009, 2010, and 2011) into Shinumo Creek, a tributary stream of the Colorado River within Grand Canyon National Park. Growth and condition of Humpback Chub in Shinumo Creek were consistent among year-classes and equaled or surpassed growth estimates from both the main-stem Colorado River and the Little Colorado River, where the largest (and most stable) Humpback Chub aggregation remains. Based on passive integrated tag recoveries, 53% ( = 483/902) of translocated Humpback Chub dispersed from Shinumo Creek into the main-stem Colorado River as of January 2013, 35% leaving within 25 d following translocation. Annual apparent survival estimates within Shinumo Creek ranged from 0.22 to 0.41, but were strongly influenced by emigration. Results indicate that Shinumo Creek provides favorable conditions for growth and survival of translocated Humpback Chub and could support a new population if reproduction and recruitment occur in the future. Adaptation of translocation strategies of Humpback Chub into tributary streams ultimately may refine the role translocation plays in recovery of the species.

  2. Development of a bioenergetics model for humpback chub and evaluation of water temperature changes in the Grand Canyon, Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Paukert, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    The construction of Glen Canyon Dam above the Grand Canyon (Arizona) has reduced the water temperature in the Colorado River and altered the growth rate and feeding patterns of the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. A bioenergetics model for humpback chub was developed and used to examine how warmer water temperatures in the lower Colorado River (achieved through a temperature control device [TCD] at Glen Canyon Dam) might influence their growth rate and food requirements. Parameter values for humpback chub were developed by Monte Carlo filtering and fitting to laboratory growth. Parameter bounds were established from the literature for Gila species, random parameter sets were selected within these bounds, and the growth of modeled humpback chub was compared with criteria from a laboratory growth experiment at 24??C. This method of parameter estimation could be applied to other imperiled fishes where physiological studies are impractical. Final parameter values were corroborated by comparison with the growth rates of humpback chub from independent field and laboratory studies. Simulations indicated that increasing water temperatures from approximately 9??C to 16??C during summer and fall, the change expected from the TCD, may have a minimal effect on humpback chub growth rate unless food availability also increases with temperature. To evaluate the effects of increased temperatures on humpback chub in the lower Colorado River, it will be essential to monitor their growth rate, the invertebrate community, and the predators of humpback chub, which are also influenced by temperature changes. Bioenergetics models for humpback chub and their predators should be helpful tools for identifying potential scenarios and evaluating the complex interactions resulting from a TCD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  3. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  4. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Walker, David B; Paretti, Nicholas V; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S; Zaugg, Steven D; Furlong, Edward T; Kolpin, Dana W; Matter, William J; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

    2009-11-08

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 microg/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p=0.021) yet higher levels of 17beta-estradiol (p=0.002) and vitellogenin (p=0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17beta-estradiol than control females (p=0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r=0.00) versus control (r=-0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r=-0.45) and control (r=-0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

  5. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, David B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Matter, William J.; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 μg/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17β-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = −0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = −0.45) and control (r = −0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

  6. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, D.B.; Paretti, N.V.; Cordy, G.; Gross, T.S.; Zaugg, S.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Matter, W.J.; Gwinn, J.; McIntosh, D.

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 ??g/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17??-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17??-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = -0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = -0.45) and control (r = -0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of turbidity on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow and brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan; Vaage, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Diet studies of rainbow and brown trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable depending on the physical conditions under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub changes in response to changes in turbidity. In overnight laboratory trials, we exposed hatchery-reared juvenile humpback chub and bonytail Gila elegans (a surrogate for humpback chub) to adult rainbow and brown trout at turbidities ranging from 0 to 1,000 formazin nephlometric units. We found that turbidity as low as 25 formazin nephlometric units significantly reduced predation vulnerability of bonytail to rainbow trout and led to a 36% mean increase in survival (24–60%, 95% CI) compared to trials conducted in clear water. Predation vulnerability of bonytail to brown trout at 25 formazin nephlometric units also decreased with increasing turbidity and resulted in a 25% increase in survival on average (17–32%, 95% CI). Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered humpback chub is important when evaluating management options aimed at preservation of native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park. This research suggests that relatively small changes in turbidity may be sufficient to alter predation dynamics of trout on humpback chub in the mainstem Colorado River and that turbidity manipulation may warrant further investigation as a fisheries management tool.

  8. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2002–14 humpback chub aggregations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, William R.; Van Haverbeke, David R.; Dodrill, Michael J.

    2017-01-31

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered cyprinid species endemic to the Colorado River. The largest remaining population of the species spawns and rears in the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has altered the main-stem Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Cold, clear water releases from the dam result in a river that is generally unsuitable for successful humpback chub reproduction. During the early 1990s, nine locations within the main-stem Colorado River were identified as humpback chub aggregations—areas with a consistent and disjunct group of fish with no significant exchange of individuals with other aggregations. We monitored main-stem Colorado River aggregations of humpback chub in Grand Canyon during 2010 to 2014 and compared our results to previous investigations. Relative abundance, as described by catch per unit effort (fish per hour) of adult humpback chub at most main-stem aggregations, generally increased from the 1990s to 2014. In addition, distribution of humpback chub in the main-stem Colorado River has increased since the 1990s. Movement of humpback chub between the Little Colorado River and other aggregations likely adds fish to those aggregations. There is clear evidence of reproduction near the 30-Mile aggregation, and reproduction at Middle Granite Gorge and downstream seems likely based on catches of gravid fish and captures of very young fish, especially during relatively warm water releases from Glen Canyon Dam, 2004 to 2011. Humpback chub relative abundance at Shinumo and Havasu Creek inflows increased following translocations of young humpback chub starting in 2009. In light of this information, we modify the original nine aggregations, combining two previously separate aggregations and dropping two locations to form six distinct aggregations of humpback chub. Trends in humpback chub abundance at main-stem aggregations, relative to management actions (for example

  9. An individual-based model for population viability analysis of humpback chub in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, William Pine; Healy, Brian; Smith, Emily Omana; Trammell, Melissa; Speas, Dave; Valdez, Rich; Yard, Mike; Walters, Carl; Ahrens, Rob; Vanhaverbeke, Randy; Stone, Dennis; Wilson, Wade

    2013-01-01

    We developed an individual-based population viability analysis model (females only) for evaluating risk to populations from catastrophic events or conservation and research actions. This model tracks attributes (size, weight, viability, etc.) for individual fish through time and then compiles this information to assess the extinction risk of the population across large numbers of simulation trials. Using a case history for the Little Colorado River population of Humpback Chub Gila cypha in Grand Canyon, Arizona, we assessed extinction risk and resiliency to a catastrophic event for this population and then assessed a series of conservation actions related to removing specific numbers of Humpback Chub at different sizes for conservation purposes, such as translocating individuals to establish other spawning populations or hatchery refuge development. Our results suggested that the Little Colorado River population is generally resilient to a single catastrophic event and also to removals of larvae and juveniles for conservation purposes, including translocations to establish new populations. Our results also suggested that translocation success is dependent on similar survival rates in receiving and donor streams and low emigration rates from recipient streams. In addition, translocating either large numbers of larvae or small numbers of large juveniles has generally an equal likelihood of successful population establishment at similar extinction risk levels to the Little Colorado River donor population. Our model created a transparent platform to consider extinction risk to populations from catastrophe or conservation actions and should prove useful to managers assessing these risks for endangered species such as Humpback Chub.

  10. A laboratory evaluation of tagging-related mortality and tag loss in juvenile humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Persons, William R.; Young, Kirk; Stone, Dennis M.; Van Haverbeke, Randy; Knight, William R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified tag retention, survival, and growth in juvenile, captive-reared Humpback Chub Gila cypha marked with three different tag types: (1) Biomark 12.5-mm, 134.2-kHz, full duplex PIT tags injected into the body cavity with a 12-gauge needle; (2) Biomark 8.4-mm, 134.2-kHz, full duplex PIT tags injected with a 16-gauge needle; and (3) Northwest Marine Technology visible implant elastomer (VIE) tags injected under the skin with a 29-gauge needle. Estimates of tag loss, tagging-induced mortality, and growth were evaluated for 60 d with each tag type for four different size-groups of fish: 40–49 mm, 50–59 mm, 60–69 mm, and 70–79 mm TL. Total length was a significant predictor of the probability of PIT tag retention and mortality for both 8-mm and 12-mm PIT tags, and the smallest fish had the highest rates of tag loss (12.5–30.0%) and mortality (7.5–20.0%). Humpback Chub of sizes 40–49 mm TL and tagged with VIE tags had no mortality but did have a 17.5% tag loss. Growth rates of all tagged fish were similar to controls. Our data indicate Humpback Chub can be effectively tagged using either 8-mm or 12-mm PIT tags with little tag loss or mortality at sizes as low as 65 mm TL.

  11. Abundance trends and status of the Little Colorado River population of humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins, L.G.; Pine, William E.; Walters, C.J.; Van Haverbeke, D. R.; Ward, D.; Johnstone, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of the Little Colorado River population of federally listed humpback chub Gila cypha in Grand Canyon has been monitored since the late 1980s by means of catch rate indices and capture-recapture-based abundance estimators. Analyses of data from all sources using various methods are consistent and indicate that the adult population has declined since monitoring began. Intensive tagging led to a high proportion (>80%) of the adult population being marked by the mid-1990s. Analysis of these data using both closed and open abundance estimation models yields results that agree with catch rate indices about the extent of the decline. Survival rates for age-2 and older fish are age dependent but apparently not time dependent. Back-calculation of recruitment using the apparent 1990s population age structure implies periods of higher recruitment in the late 1970s to early 1980s than is now the case. Our analyses indicate that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery criterion of stable abundance is not being met for this population. Also, there is a critical need to develop new abundance indexing and tagging methods so that early, reliable, and rapid estimates of humpback chub recruitment can be obtained to evaluate population responses to management actions designed to facilitate the restoration of Colorado River native fish communities. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  12. A quantitative life history of endangered humpback chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Yackulic, Charles B; Yard, Michael D; Korman, Josh; Haverbeke, David R

    2014-01-01

    While the ecology and evolution of partial migratory systems (defined broadly to include skip spawning) have been well studied, we are only beginning to understand how partial migratory populations are responding to ongoing environmental change. Environmental change can lead to differences in the fitness of residents and migrants, which could eventually lead to changes in the frequency of the strategies in the overall population. Here, we address questions concerning the life history of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) in the regulated Colorado River and the unregulated tributary and primary spawning area, the Little Colorado River. We develop eight multistate models for the population based on three movement hypotheses, in which states are defined in terms of fish size classes and river locations. We fit these models to mark–recapture data collected in 2009–2012. We compare survival and growth estimates between the Colorado River and Little Colorado River and calculate abundances for all size classes. The best model supports the hypotheses that larger adults spawn more frequently than smaller adults, that there are residents in the spawning grounds, and that juveniles move out of the Little Colorado River in large numbers during the monsoon season (July–September). Monthly survival rates for G. cypha in the Colorado River are higher than in the Little Colorado River in all size classes; however, growth is slower. While the hypothetical life histories of life-long residents in the Little Colorado River and partial migrants spending most of its time in the Colorado River are very different, they lead to roughly similar fitness expectations when we used expected number of spawns as a proxy. However, more research is needed because our study period covers a period of years when conditions in the Colorado River for G. cypha are likely to have been better than has been typical over the last few decades. PMID:24772278

  13. A quantitative life history of endangered humpback chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yackulic, Charles B.; Yard, Michael D.; Korman, Josh; Van Haverbeke, David R.

    2014-01-01

    While the ecology and evolution of partial migratory systems (defined broadly to include skip spawning) have been well studied, we are only beginning to understand how partial migratory populations are responding to ongoing environmental change. Environmental change can lead to differences in the fitness of residents and migrants, which could eventually lead to changes in the frequency of the strategies in the overall population. Here, we address questions concerning the life history of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) in the regulated Colorado River and the unregulated tributary and primary spawning area, the Little Colorado River. We develop eight multistate models for the population based on three movement hypotheses, in which states are defined in terms of fish size classes and river locations. We fit these models to mark–recapture data collected in 2009–2012. We compare survival and growth estimates between the Colorado River and Little Colorado River and calculate abundances for all size classes. The best model supports the hypotheses that larger adults spawn more frequently than smaller adults, that there are residents in the spawning grounds, and that juveniles move out of the Little Colorado River in large numbers during the monsoon season (July–September). Monthly survival rates for G. cypha in the Colorado River are higher than in the Little Colorado River in all size classes; however, growth is slower. While the hypothetical life histories of life-long residents in the Little Colorado River and partial migrants spending most of its time in the Colorado River are very different, they lead to roughly similar fitness expectations when we used expected number of spawns as a proxy. However, more research is needed because our study period covers a period of years when conditions in the Colorado River for G. cypha are likely to have been better than has been typical over the last few decades.

  14. A quantitative life history of endangered humpback chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Yackulic, Charles B; Yard, Michael D; Korman, Josh; Haverbeke, David R

    2014-04-01

    While the ecology and evolution of partial migratory systems (defined broadly to include skip spawning) have been well studied, we are only beginning to understand how partial migratory populations are responding to ongoing environmental change. Environmental change can lead to differences in the fitness of residents and migrants, which could eventually lead to changes in the frequency of the strategies in the overall population. Here, we address questions concerning the life history of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) in the regulated Colorado River and the unregulated tributary and primary spawning area, the Little Colorado River. We develop eight multistate models for the population based on three movement hypotheses, in which states are defined in terms of fish size classes and river locations. We fit these models to mark-recapture data collected in 2009-2012. We compare survival and growth estimates between the Colorado River and Little Colorado River and calculate abundances for all size classes. The best model supports the hypotheses that larger adults spawn more frequently than smaller adults, that there are residents in the spawning grounds, and that juveniles move out of the Little Colorado River in large numbers during the monsoon season (July-September). Monthly survival rates for G. cypha in the Colorado River are higher than in the Little Colorado River in all size classes; however, growth is slower. While the hypothetical life histories of life-long residents in the Little Colorado River and partial migrants spending most of its time in the Colorado River are very different, they lead to roughly similar fitness expectations when we used expected number of spawns as a proxy. However, more research is needed because our study period covers a period of years when conditions in the Colorado River for G. cypha are likely to have been better than has been typical over the last few decades.

  15. Of travertine and time: otolith chemistry and microstructure detect provenance and demography of endangered humpback chub in Grand Canyon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Limburg, Karin E.; Hayden, Todd A.; Pine, William E.; Yard, Michael D.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha. Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ13C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River’s water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery.

  16. Of travertine and time: otolith chemistry and microstructure detect provenance and demography of endangered humpback chub in Grand Canyon, USA.

    PubMed

    Limburg, Karin E; Hayden, Todd A; Pine, William E; Yard, Michael D; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha. Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ(13)C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River's water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery.

  17. Of Travertine and Time: Otolith Chemistry and Microstructure Detect Provenance and Demography of Endangered Humpback Chub in Grand Canyon, USA

    PubMed Central

    Limburg, Karin E.; Hayden, Todd A.; Pine, William E.; Yard, Michael D.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha.  Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ13C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River’s water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery. PMID:24358346

  18. Parasitism and body condition in humpback chub from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffnagle, T.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (<150 mm total length) humpback chub from the LCR and those from the Colorado River during 1996a??1999. Both K and AFI were lower and L. cyprinacea prevalence and B. acheilognathi prevalence were higher in LCR fish than in Colorado River fish for all years. Mean K and AFI were 0.622 and 0.48, respectively, in the LCR and 0.735 and 2.02, respectively, in the Colorado River, indicating that fish in the Colorado River were more robust. Mean prevalence of L. cyprinacea was 23.9% and mean intensity was 1.73 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 3.2% and intensity was 1.0 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the Colorado River. Mean prevalence of B. acheilognathi was 51.0% and mean intensity was 25.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 15.8% and intensity was 12.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the Colorado River. Increased parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.

  19. Movement, habitat use, and diet of adult humpback chub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Richard A.; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a big-river cyprinid fish endemic to the Colorado River, where river regulation has contributed to its endangerment. Flooding is essential to reshaping its habitat, redistributing nutrients, flushing terrestrial insects for food, and, in the post-dam river, controlling non-native competitors and predators. Effects of the 1996 controlled flood on movement and habitat use of adults were monitored with radiotelemetry, and diet was evaluated with a non-lethal stomach pump. Movement of 9 radio-tagged adults during the flood (mean, 0.40 km; range, 0-1.24 km) was not significantly different (P≤0.05) from movement in the month preceding the flood (mean, 1.26 km; range, 0.1-2.95 km), indicating no unusual movement or displacement of fish by the flood. Habitat used during the flood, as a percentage of radio-contacts (i.e., 73% eddies, 19% runs, 8% tributary inflows), was similar to that used under normal operations by 69 fish tracked during 1990-1992 (i.e., 74% eddies, 12% runs, 7% backwaters, 6% tributary inflows, 1% pools, <1% riffles). Diet of 43 adults showed dramatic shifts to items scoured by the flood. Simuliidae (68% ash-free dry weight) and Chironomidae (15%) dominated pre-flood diets; Amphipoda (31%), Simuliidae (25%), and terrestrial insects (i.e., beetles, ants, grasshoppers, 20%) were ingested during the flood; and Simuliidae (62%) and Amphipoda (18%) were eaten post-flood. While composition of the diet changed, biomass consumed was not significantly affected by the flood (P = 0.9157). The controlled flood had no detrimental effects on movement, habitat use, or diet of adult humpback chub. Effects of habitat reshaping and nutrient redistribution can only be evaluated through long-term monitoring. Floods of higher magnitude or at a different time of year may have different effects on this endangered species and should be investigated before implementing controlled floods as an element of dam operations.

  20. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  1. Abundance Trends and Status of the Little Colorado River Population of Humpback Chub: An Update Considering 1989-2006 Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.

    2008-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 1967, the humpback chub (Gila cypha) (HBC) was added to the federal list of endangered species and is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Arizona, and one in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The majority of Grand Canyon humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River (LCR)-the largest tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon-and the Colorado River near its confluence with the Little Colorado River. Monitoring and research of the Grand Canyon humpback chub population is overseen by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a Federal initiative to protect and improve resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam. This report provides updated information on the status and trends of the LCR population in light of new information and refined assessment methodology. An earlier assessment of the LCR population (Coggins and others, 2006a) used data collected during 1989?2002; the assessment provided here includes that data and additional data collected through 2006. Catch-rate indices, closed population mark-recapture model abundance estimates, results from the original age-structured mark recapture (ASMR) model (Coggins and others, 2006b), and a newly refined ASMR model are presented. This report also seeks to (1) formally evaluate alternative stock assessment models using Pearson residual analyses and information theoretic procedures, (2) use mark-recapture data to estimate the relationship between HBC age and length, (3) translate uncertainty in the assignment of individual fish age to resulting estimates of recruitment and abundance from the ASMR model, and (4) evaluate past and present stock assessments considering the available data sources and analyses, recognizing the limitations

  2. Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    Like the saguaro cactus (Carnegia gigantea) and the rattlesnake, the Gila monster is emblematic of the desert Southwest. The Gila monster is not only the largest lizard native to the United States, but also one of only two known species of venomous lizard in the Americas. This stout-bodied lizard can grow to 50 cm (20 in) and is covered with black and pink or orange markings and bead-like scales. The Gila monster's range is centered in western and southern Arizona, continuing south to Sonora, Mexico. Despite public fascination with the species, relatively little is known about the ecology and behavior of the Gila monster in the wild. For this reason, managers at Tonto National Monument, Arizona, contacted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to investigate why Gila monsters were being seen in developed areas of the park, particularly crossing the main road. Managers were concerned about possible lizard-human conflicts and the risk of vehicle traffic killing Gila monsters. USGS scientists initiated a research effort in Tonto National Monument beginning in 2004 to provide information needed to make management decisions and improve scientific understanding of the species. Specifically, USGS scientists examined the movement patterns, range requirements, dietary habits, and use of developed areas by Gila monsters within the park. The 2004 research effort also extended a program begun in Tonto National Monument in 1994 to recognize individual Gila monsters based on unique dorsal patterns identified from photographs.

  3. GILA WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical and geophysical indicators delineated during a study of the Gila Wilderness, New Mexico indicate that there are areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, tellurium, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The areas which have resource potential lie along both sides of the western and southwestern boundaries of the wilderness, and adjacent to the access corridor to the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument in the eastern part of the wilderness. Areas marked by geothermal springs along Turkey Creek and Middle Fork of the Gila River have a probable potential for geothermal energy. No other energy-resource potential was identified within the study area.

  4. Cryopreservation of sperm of the endangered gila trout, Oncorhynchus gilae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gila trout, Oncorhynchus gilae, are native to the headwaters of the Gila River drainage in New Mexico and Arizona and the headwaters of the Verde River drainage in Arizona. The species is currently protected as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Cryopreservation of sperm is now a widely us...

  5. Gila Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ratte, J.C.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical indicators delineated during a study of the Gila Wilderness by the USGS and USBM from 1968 to 1971 indicate that there are areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, tellurium, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The areas which have resource potential lie along both sides of the western and southwestern boundaries of the wilderness, and adjacent to the access corridor to the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument in the eastern part of the wilderness. Areas marked by geothermal springs along Turkey Creek and the Middle Fork of the Gila River have a probable potential for geothermal energy. No other energy-resource potential was identified within the study area.

  6. Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program

    Treesearch

    Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson

    2013-01-01

    The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...

  7. Gila San Francisco Decision Support Tool - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Klisa, Geoff; Poplionski, Will

    2014-12-01

    The Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool analyzes the water demand and supply for the Gila San Francisco region spanning four counties in southwestern New Mexico (Catron, Hidalgo, Luna and Grant). Catalyzed by the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act and prompted by a keen awareness for the unique ecology in the region, the model was developed by Sandia with a collaborative modeling team from federal, state, local, and public stakeholders

  8. Habitat suitability index models: Creek chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    The creek chub is a widely-distributed cyprinid ranging from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Coast and from the Gulf of Mexico to southern Manitoba and Quebec (Scott and Crossman 1973). Within its range, it is one of the most characteristic and common fishes of small, clear streams (Trautman 1957).

  9. Forest resources of the Gila National Forest

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...

  10. Directional Gila River crossing saves construction, mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, L.A. )

    1994-12-01

    Directional drilled river crossing technology gained a new convert this fall as El Paso Natural Gas Co. (EPNG) replaced a washed out 10 3/4-in. line that crossed the Gila River and two irrigation canals near Yuma, Ariz. The 1,650-ft bore, the company's first drilled river crossing, saved both construction costs and environmental reporting and mitigation expenses. This paper reviews the planning, engineering, and equipment used to install this river pipeline crossing.

  11. Fate and behavior of rotenone in Diamond Lake, Oregon, USA following invasive tui chub eradication.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Brian J; Eilers, Joseph M; Huchko, Holly A

    2014-07-01

    In September 2006, Diamond Lake (OR, USA) was treated by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with a mixture of powdered and liquid rotenone in the successful eradication of invasive tui chub Gila bicolor. During treatment, the lake was in the middle of a phytoplankton (including cyanobacteria Anabaena sp.) bloom, resulting in an elevated pH of 9.7. Dissipation of rotenone and its major metabolite rotenolone from water, sediment, and macrophytes was monitored. Rotenone dissipated quickly from Diamond Lake water; approximately 75% was gone within 2 d, and the average half-life (t½) value, estimated by using first-order kinetics, was 4.5 d. Rotenolone persisted longer (>46 d) with a short-term t½ value of 16.2 d. Neither compound was found in groundwater, sediments, or macrophytes. The dissipation of rotenone and rotenolone appeared to occur in 2 stages, which was possibly the result of a release of both compounds from decaying phytoplankton following their initial dissipation. Fisheries managers applying rotenone for fish eradication in lentic environments should consider the following to maximize efficacy and regulatory compliance: 1) treat at a minimum of twice the minimum dose demonstrated for complete mortality of the target species and possibly higher depending on the site's water pH and algae abundance, and 2) implement a program that closely monitors rotenone concentrations in the posttreatment management of a treated water body. © 2014 SETAC.

  12. 76 FR 35235 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... (Ptychocheilus lucius), desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), Gila chub (Gila intermedia), Gila topminnow... pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), Gila topminnow...

  13. 4. Photographic copy of map. San Carlos Irrigation Project, Gila ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of map. San Carlos Irrigation Project, Gila River Indian Reservation, Pinal County, Arizona. Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. 1940. (Source: SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  14. 1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of map. Map of Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona, Showing Allotted And Irrigated Land. Department of the Interior. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. July, 1916 (Source: National Archives, Washington, DC) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  15. Endangered fish threatened by Asian fish tapeworm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm, an exotic parasite, has invaded the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) population from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Grand Canyon, Arizona. This parasite causes disease and death in carp in aquaculture settings and may retard growth in hatchery-reared roundtail chub (Gila robusta). Other consequences include destruction and dysfunction of the intestinal lining and adverse changes to certain blood parameters. Introduced into the U.S. in the 1970s with imported grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) was discovered in the Little Colorado River (LCR) by 1990. The LCR is the main tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is an important spawning area for humpback chub.

  16. Riparian restoration framework for the Upper Gila River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Bruce K.; Leverich, Glen L.; Diggory, Zooey E.; Dudley, Tom L.; Hatten, James R.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Orr, Devyn A.

    2014-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the methods and results of a comprehensive riparian restoration planning effort for the Gila Valley Restoration Planning Area, an approximately 53-mile portion of the upper Gila River in Arizona (Figure 1-1). This planning effort has developed a Restoration Framework intended to deliver science-based guidance on suitable riparian restoration actions within the ecologically sensitive river corridor. The framework development was conducted by a restoration science team, led by Stillwater Sciences with contributions from researchers at the Desert Botanical Garden (DBG), Northern Arizona University (NAU), University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All work was coordinated by the Gila Watershed Partnership of Arizona (GWP), whose broader Upper Gila River Project Area is depicted in Figure 1-1, with funding from the Walton Family Foundation’s Freshwater Initiative Program.

  17. 2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map Showing Progress for the Fiscal Year 1927. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1927. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, District #4, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. 75 FR 8733 - Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With... (CCAA) for the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana lutreiventris..., least chub and Columbia spotted frog inhabited a variety of aquatic habitat types throughout the...

  19. Barriers impede upstream spawning migration of flathead chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, David M.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Crockett, Harry J.; Bruce, James F.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Many native cyprinids are declining throughout the North American Great Plains. Some of these species require long reaches of contiguous, flowing riverine habitat for drifting eggs or larvae to develop, and their declining populations have been attributed to habitat fragmentation or barriers (e.g., dams, dewatered channels, and reservoirs) that restrict fish movement. Upstream dispersal is also needed to maintain populations of species with passively drifting eggs or larvae, and prior researchers have suggested that these fishes migrate upstream to spawn. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a mark–recapture study of Flathead Chub Platygobio gracilis within a 91-km reach of continuous riverine habitat in Fountain Creek, Colorado. We measured CPUE, spawning readiness (percent of Flathead Chub expressing milt), and fish movement relative to a channel-spanning dam. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Flathead Chub migrate upstream to spawn during summer. The CPUE was much higher at the base of the dam than at downstream sites; the seasonal increases in CPUE at the dam closely tracked seasonal increases in spawning readiness, and marked fish moved upstream as far as 33 km during the spawning run. The upstream migration was effectively blocked by the dam. The CPUE of Flathead Chub was much lower upstream of the OHDD than at downstream sites, and <0.2% of fish marked at the dam were recaptured upstream. This study provides the first direct evidence of spawning migration for Flathead Chub and supports the general hypothesis that barriers limit adult dispersal of these and other plains fishes.

  20. Gila topminnow interactions with western mosquitofish: An update

    Treesearch

    Douglas K. Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis has major impacts on Gila topminnow Poeciliopsis occidentalis. Thirteen years have passed since information on negative impacts has been published. I will list and discuss additional examples where mosquitofish have impacted topminnow. In addition, it appears that long-term drought has a synergistic and negative effect on this...

  1. Ecological condition of the East Fork of the Gila River and selected tributaries: Gila National Forest, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Ohmart

    1996-01-01

    Ecological condition of riparian habitats along the East Fork of the Gila River, Main Diamond Creek, lower South Diamond Creek, and Black Canyon Creek are all in very heavily degraded condition. Channel cross-sections show extensive entrenchment, high width-to-depth ratios, and numerous reaches where banks are sloughing into the stream, especially on the East Fork of...

  2. Siphateles (Gila) sp. and Catostomus sp. from the Pleistocene OIS-6 Lake Gale, Panamint Valley, Owens River system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which

  3. Origin, radiation, dispersion and allopatric hybridization in the chub Leuciscus cephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, J D; Unlü, E; Doadrio, I; Pipoyan, S; Templeton, A R

    2000-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 492 chub (Leuciscus cephalus) belonging to 89 populations across the species' range were assessed using 600 base pairs of cytochrome b. Furthermore, nine species belonging to the L. cephalus complex were also analysed (over the whole cytochrome b) in order to test potential allopatric hybridization with L. cephalus sensu stricto (i.e. the chub). Our results show that the chub includes four highly divergent lineages descending from a quick radiation that took place three million years ago. The geographical distribution of these lineages and results of the nested clade analysis indicated that the chub may have originated from Mesopotamia. Chub radiation probably occurred during an important vicariant event such as the isolation of numerous Turkish river systems, a consequence of the uplift of the Anatolian Plateau (formerly covered by a broad inland lake). Dispersion of these lineages arose from the changes in the European hydrographic network and, thus, the chub and endemic species of the L. cephalus complex met by secondary contacts. Our results show several patterns of introgression, from Leuciscus lepidus fully introgressed by chub mitochondrial DNA to Leuciscus borysthenicus where no introgression at all was detected. We assume that these hybridization events might constitute an important evolutionary process for the settlement of the chub in new environments in the Mediterranean area. PMID:11467433

  4. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.177 Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in combination with salt (NaCl) to aid...

  5. 75 FR 18107 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub (Oregonichthys crameri); Correction AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), published a final rule to designate critical habitat for the Oregon chub (Oregonichthys crameri... INFORMATION: Background Our March 10, 2010, final rule (75 FR 11010) to designate critical habitat for the...

  6. Influence of different habitat factors on creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) are a North American fish species that is one of the most widespread and commonly occurring stream fishes in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Only a limited amount of information is available on creek chub-habitat relationships within channeli...

  7. Effects of effects of suspended sediment on early-life stage survival of Yaqui chub, an endangered USA–Mexico borderlands cyprinid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barkalow, Stephani L. Clark; Bonar, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of total suspended sediment (TSS) can have negative consequences on fishes, such as altering food supply, lowering food acquisition, clogging gills, and disrupting reproduction. While effects of TSS on salmonids and estuarine fish are well studied, less is known about possible negative impacts of suspended sediment on desert fishes. Several imperiled desert fishes inhabit streams and springs near the U.S.–Mexico border and are potentially threatened by increased sediment loads from borderlands activity such as livestock grazing, road building, illegal traffic, and law enforcement patrols. One such species is the Yaqui Chub Gila purpurea, a federally listed endangered cyprinid. We exposed Yaqui Chub embryos and fry (mean TL = 12.6 mm; SE = 0.42) to a range of TSS levels commonly found in one of the only streams they inhabit, Black Draw, which crosses the Arizona–Mexico border. We tested effects of 0; 300; 500; 1,000; 5,000; and 10,000 mg/L TSS loads on fry and embryos over a 5-d period in three replicate containers for each treatment. Fifty percent hatch rate (i.e., median lethal concentration, LC50) was 3,977 mg/L for embryos. The LC50 for fry (concentration at which half died) was 8,372 mg/L after 12 h of exposure; however, after 5-d exposure, LC50 leveled at 1,197 mg/L. The TL of fry did not change significantly in any treatment over the 5-d period. Suspended sediment in Black Draw reached concentrations lethal to Yaqui Chub embryo and fry during four floods in 2012. Although some desert fishes have evolved in rivers and streams subject to elevated TSS and are tolerant to high TSS concentrations, other fish species are less tolerant and may be impacted by land practices which increase erosion into stream systems. Management of critically endangered desert fishes should include considerations of the effects of increased suspended sediment.

  8. Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

  9. EPA awards $389,000 to Gila River Indian Community for cleaner diesel equipment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO -The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provided $389,000 in Diesel Emission Reduction Act funding to the Gila River Indian Community in Ariz. to replace four construction vehicles operating at Gila River Farms. EPA announced the gran

  10. 76 FR 17028 - Approval and Promulgation of Gila River Indian Community's Tribal Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 49 Approval and Promulgation of Gila River Indian Community's Tribal Implementation... Tribal implementation plan (TIP) submitted by the Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or Tribe) on February... quality standards, permitting requirements for minor sources of air pollution, enforcement authorities...

  11. Taxonomic revision of the Pyrgulopsis gilae (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae) species complex, with descriptions of two new species from the Gila River basin, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hershler, Robert; Ratcliffe, Victoria; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Lang, Brian; Hay, Claire

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species of springsnails (genus Pyrgulopsis) for populations from the middle Fork and upper East Fork of the Gila River Basin (New Mexico) that had been previously identified as P. gilae. We also restrict P. gilae to its originally circumscribed geographic range which consists of a short reach of the East Fork Gila River and a single spring along the Gila River (below the East Fork confluence). These three species form genetically distinct lineages that differ from each other by 3.9-6.3% for mtCOI and 3.7-8.7% for mtNDI (the latter data were newly obtained for this study), and are diagnosable by shell and penial characters. Collectively the three species form a strongly supported clade that is distinguished from other congeners by the unique presence of two glandular strips on the dorsal surface of the penial filament. These findings suggest that the conservation status of P. gilae, which was recently removed from the list of candidates for listing as endangered or threatened by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, should be revisited and that the two new species may also merit protective measures given their narrow geographic ranges.

  12. Characterization of the gila monster (Heloderma suspectum suspectum) venom proteome.

    PubMed

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Thomsen, Line R; Nielsen, Tania A; Brøndum, Lars; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2015-03-18

    The archetypical venomous lizard species are the helodermatids, the gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) and the beaded lizards (Heloderma horridum). In the present study, the gila monster venom proteome was characterized using 2D-gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo peptide sequencing followed by protein identification based on sequence homology. A total of 39 different proteins were identified out of the 58 selected spots that represent the major constituents of venom. Of these proteins, 19 have not previously been identified in helodermatid venom. The data showed that helodermatid venom is complex and that this complexity is caused by genetic isoforms and post-translational modifications including proteolytic processing. In addition, the venom proteome analysis revealed that the major constituents of the gila monster venom are kallikrein-like serine proteinases (EC 3.4.21) and phospholipase A2 (type III) enzymes (EC 3.1.1.4). A neuroendocrine convertase 1 homolog that most likely converts the proforms of the previously identified bioactive exendins into the mature and active forms was identified suggesting that these peptide toxins are secreted as proforms that are activated by proteolytic cleavage following secretion as opposed to being activated intracellularly. The presented global protein identification-analysis provides the first overview of the helodermatid venom composition. The helodermatid lizards are the classical venomous lizards, and the pharmacological potential of the venom from these species has been known for years; best illustrated by the identification of exendin-4, which is now used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Despite the potential, no global analyses of the protein components in the venom exist. A hindrance is the lack of a genome sequence because it prevents protein identification using a conventional approach where MS data are searched against predicted protein sequences based on the genome sequence

  13. Quantitative relationship between reflectance and transpiration of phreatophytes, Gila River test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culler, R. C.; Jones, J. E.; Turner, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    The use of IR aerial photographs for determining the dynamic characteristics of evapotranspiration at the Gila River Test Site is discussed. Evapotranspiration was measured as a function of plant volume, surface conditions, soil moisture storage, and ground water levels.

  14. A previously unreported locality record for the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeff; Haxel, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Although the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum) is widely distributed throughout the Sonoran and portions of the Mojave Deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, details of its distribution in California are imperfectly known, due to the apparent rarity of the species in that state. In their review of Gila Monster records for California, Lovich and Beaman (2007) documented only 26 credible sightings during a period of 153 years. In May 2009 another sighting in California was documented by Ruppert (2010a, b) who photographed a specimen in the Providence Mountains, an area known for previous Gila Monster sightings (Lovich and Beaman 2007). In this paper we report the 28th credible record of a Gila Monster in California.

  15. Chub mackerel gonads support colonization, survival, and proliferation of intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic germ cells.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Ryosuke; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Higuchi, Kentaro; Yatabe, Takashi; Kabeya, Naoki; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2010-05-01

    The production of xenogenic gametes from large-bodied, commercially important marine fish species in closely related smaller host fish species with short generation times may enable rapid and simple seed production of the target species. As a first step toward this goal, we assessed the suitability of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, as a small-bodied recipient species for xenogenic spermatogonial transplantation. Histological observation of the early gonadal development of chub mackerel larvae and transplantation of fluorescent-labeled spermatogonia from Nibe croaker, Nibea mitsukurii, revealed that 5.3-mm chub mackerel larvae were suitable recipients for successful transplantation. Intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic spermatogonia efficiently colonized the gonads of these recipient larvae, and donor-derived Nibe croaker germ cells proliferated rapidly soon after colonization. Moreover, gonadal soma-derived growth factor (gsdf) mRNA, a gonadal somatic cell marker, was expressed in recipient-derived cells surrounding the incorporated donor-derived germ cells, suggesting that donor-derived germ cells had settled at an appropriate location in the recipient gonad. Our data show that xenogenic spermatogonial transplantation was successful in chub mackerel and that the somatic microenvironment of the chub mackerel gonad can support the colonization, survival, and proliferation of intraperitoneally transplanted xenogenic germ cells derived from a donor species of a different taxonomic family.

  16. Salinity of the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon confers anti-parasitic properties on a native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the Little Colorado River within Grand Canyon is naturally high in salt (NaCl), which is known to prohibit development of external fish parasites such as Ich (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). The naturally high salinity (>0.3%) of the Little Colorado River at baseflow may be one factor allowing survival and persistence of larval and juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fishes in Grand Canyon. We compared salinity readings from the Little Colorado River to those reported in the literature as being effective at removing protozoan parasites from fish. In laboratory tests, 10 juvenile roundtail chub (Gila robusta; 61–90 mm TL) were randomly placed into each of 12, 37-L aquaria filled with freshwater, water obtained from the Little Colorado River (0.3% salinity), or freshwater with table salt added until the salinity reached 0.3%. Roundtail chub was used as a surrogate for humpback chub in this study because the species is not listed as endangered but is morphologically and ecologically similar to humpback chub. All roundtail chub infected with Ich recovered and survived when placed in water from the Little Colorado River or water with 0.3% salinity, but all experimental fish placed in freshwater died because of Ich infection. The naturally high salinity of the Little Colorado River at baseflow (0.22%–0.36%), appears sufficiently high to interrupt the life cycle of Ich and may allow increased survival of larval and juvenile humpback chub relative to other areas within Grand Canyon.

  17. An experiment to control nonnative fish in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered native fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. In Grand Canyon, most humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River and its confluence with the Colorado River. For decades, however, nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), which prey on and compete with native fish, have dominated the Grand Canyon fish community. Between 2003 and 2006, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and Arizona Game and Fish Department experimentally removed 23,266 nonnative fish from a 9.4-mile-long reach of the Colorado River near where it joins the Little Colorado River. During the experiment, rainbow trout were reduced by as much as 90% and native fish abundance apparently increased in the reach. Concurrent environmental changes and a decrease in rainbow trout throughout the river make it difficult to determine if the apparent increase in native fish was the result of the experiment.

  18. Postglacial recolonizations, watershed crossings and human translocations shape the distribution of chub lineages around the Swiss Alps.

    PubMed

    Gouskov, Alexandre; Vorburger, Christoph

    2016-09-09

    Distributions of European fish species were shaped by glaciations and the geological history of river networks until human activities partially abrogated the restrictions of biogeographical regions. The nearby origins of the Rhine, Rhone, Danube and Po rivers in the Swiss Alps allow the examination of historical and human-influenced patterns in fish genetic structure over a small geographic scale. We investigated these patterns in the widespread European chub (Squalius cephalus) from the Rhone, Rhine and Danube catchments and its proposed southern sister species Italian chub (Squalius squalus) from the Po catchment. A phylogenetic tree constructed from mitochondrial Cytochrome b and COI sequences was consistent with earlier work in that it showed a separation of European chub and Italian chub, which was also reflected in microsatellite allele frequencies, morphological traits and shape differences quantified by geometric morphometrics. A new finding was that the predominant mitochondrial haplotype of European chub from the Rhine and Rhone catchments was also discovered in some individuals from Swiss populations of the Italian chub, presumably as a result of human translocation. Consistent with postglacial recolonizations from multiple refugia along the major rivers, the nuclear genetic structure of the European chub largely reflected drainage structure, but it was modified by watershed crossings between Rhine and Rhone near Lake Geneva as well as between Danube and Rhine near Lake Constance. Our study adds new insights into the cyprinid colonization history of central Europe by showing that multiple processes shaped the distribution of different chub lineages around the Swiss Alps. Interestingly, we find evidence that cross-catchment migration has been mediated by unusual geological events such as drainage captures or watershed crossings facilitated by retreating glaciers, as well as evidence that human transport has interfered with the historical distribution of

  19. Spectral sensitivity of juvenile chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in visible and ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taro; Ihara, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yoshinari; Yamamoto, Shinji; Murata, Osamu; Ishibashi, Yasunori

    2010-03-01

    Although chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is widely distributed all over the world, the relevance of its visual sensitivity to its ecology is not yet fully understood. We investigated spectral sensitivity in juvenile chub mackerel in the range of ultraviolet (UV) to visible light (369-652 nm) by electroretinogram (ERG) using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Sensitivity peaked at a wavelength of approximately 482 nm in dark-adapted fish and 525 nm in light-adapted fish. A secondary sensitivity peak in the UV range at approximately 382 nm was found in both dark- and light-adapted fish. The UV sensitivity of chub mackerel may be attributable to UV transmissibility of the optical media and to the presence of a beta-band of visible light-sensitive visual pigments, and not to an alpha-band of UV visual pigments. This UV sensitivity may be useful for feeding or communication with other fishes.

  20. Occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) caught off Korea.

    PubMed

    Bak, Tae-Jong; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2014-11-17

    Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is a pelagic fish species widely distributing in the Indo-Pacific and a commercially important fish species in Korea. It is known to harbor anisakid nematodes larvae, and ingesting the raw or undercooked fish can accidentally cause human infection. In this study, we isolated the nematode larvae in 417 chub mackerel caught from 7 sampling locations around the Korean Peninsula in 2011 and 2012, and identified them by PCR-RFLP of the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) of ribosomal DNA and the direct sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cox2 gene. The prevalence of infection was 55.4% (231/417) and the mean intensity was 7.0 (1628/231). Most of the nematodes (1523/1628; 93.6%) were found in the body cavity, while 5.5% (89/1628) were found in the gastrointestinal tract. Four different species were identified by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing. Most of the nematodes (1535/1628; 94.3%) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii, and 2.8% (46/1628) were identified as Hysterothylacium sp. A hybrid genotype (Anisakis simplex sensu stricto×A. pegreffii) and A. simplex sensu stricto were 2.5% (41/1628) and 0.4% (6/1628) of the identified nematodes, respectively. The anisakid nematode assemblage of chub mackerel in Korea was similar to that of chub mackerel from the Tsushima Current stock in Japan, in that A. pegreffii was the dominant species. Since most of the anisakid nematodes were found in the body cavity and most of them were identified as A. pegreffii or Hysterothylacium sp. by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing, chub mackerel may not greatly contribute to human anisakidosis in Korea. Alternately, A. pegreffii may be responsible for human anisakidosis in Korea, in addition to A. simplex sensu stricto. Further studies, such as the molecular diagnosis of human anisakidosis, are necessary for assessing the epidemiological role of chub mackerel in Korea.

  1. Examining the evolution of an ancient irrigation system: the Middle Gila River Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianduowa; Ertsen, Maurits

    2014-05-01

    Studying ancient irrigation systems reinforces to understand the co-evolution process between the society and water systems. In the prehistoric Southwest of America, the irrigation has been a crucial feature of human adaptation to the dry environment. The influences of social arrangements on irrigation managements, and implications of the irrigation organization in social developments are main issues that researchers have been exploring for a long time. The analysis of ceramics pattern and distribution has assisted to the reconstruction of prehistoric social networks. The existing study shows that, a few pottery fragments specially produced by the materials of the middle Gila River valley, were found in the Salt River valley; however, very few specialized ceramics of the Salt River valley occurred in the middle Gila River valley. It might indicate that there were trades or exchanges of potteries or raw materials from the middle Gila River valley to the Salt River valley. The most popular hypothesis of trading for the potteries is crop production. Based on this hypothesis, the ceramics trade was highly tied to the irrigation system change. Therefore, examining the changing relationship among the ceramics distribution along the middle Gila River, canals flow capacity, and available streamflows, can provide an insight into the evolutionary path among the social economy, irrigation and water environment. In this study, we reconstruct the flow capacity of canals along the middle Gila River valley. In combination with available streamflow from the middle Gila River, we can simulate how much water could be delivered to the main canals and lateral canals. Based on the variation and chronology of potteries distribution, we may identify that, the drama of the middle Gila River receiving insufficient flows for crop irrigation caused the development of ceramics exchange; or the rising of potteries exchange triggers the decline of irrigation in the study area.

  2. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Cincotta, Daniel A.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from South Fork Hughes River (Little Kanawha River drainage, WV) were discovered in two museum lots at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. These accessions, collected in 1960 and 1966, represent an addition to the state fauna and are the first distribution records for this species from the Appalachian Plateau, WV

  3. 75 FR 21179 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Oregon Chub From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... that the Oregon chub is not currently in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion... endangered species is any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of... much of its presumed historical range. The risk of extinction has been substantially reduced as threats...

  4. Forest conditions in the Gila River Forest Reserve, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rixon, T.F.

    1905-01-01

    The Gila River Forest Reserve was established by proclamation of President McKinley on March 2, 1899. The following is a statement of the boundaries as laid down in the proclamation: "Beginning at a point on the boundary line between New Mexico and Arizona, where it is intersected by the north line of township five (5) south, range twenty-one (21) west, New Mexico principle meridian, New Mexico; thence easterly along the township line to the northeast corner of township five (5) south, range sixteen (16) west; thence southerly along the range line between ranges fifteen (15) and sixteen (16) west, to the southeast corner of township eight (8) south, range sixteen (16) west; thence easterly along the township line to the northeast corner of township nine (9) south, range fifteen (15) west; thence southerly along the range line to the southeast corner of said township; thence easterly along the township line to the northeast corner of township ten (10) south, range ten (10) west; thence southerly along the first guide meridian west, between ranges nine (9) and ten (10) west, to its intersection with the third (3rd) standard parallel south, between townships fifteen (15) and sixteen (16) south; thence westerly along the said third (3rd) standard parallel south to the southwest corner of township fifteen (15) south, range sixteen (16) west; thence northerly along the range line to the northwest corner of said township; thence westerly along the township line to the northeast corner of township fifteen (15) south, range nineteen (19) west; thence southerly along the range line to its intersection with the third (3d) standard parallel south; thence westerly along the third (3rd) standard parallel south to its intersection with the boundary line between New Mexico and Arizona; thence northerly along said boundary line to the point where it intersects the north line of township five (5) south, range twenty-one (21) west, the place of beginning."

  5. Relative influence of different habitat factors on creek chub population structure within channelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) are commonly found within channelized agricultural headwater streams within the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relationships of this headwater fish species with different habitat factors will provide information that can assist with developing resto...

  6. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Isolation and characterization of nine microsatellite loci from the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus (Perciformes, Scombridae).

    PubMed

    Yagishita, N; Kobayashi, T

    2008-03-01

    The stock abundance of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus - a very important species for fisheries, particularly in Japan - in the Pacific Ocean off Japan has remained at a low level. For studying the population genetics of the chub mackerel, we isolated nine polymorphic microsatellite loci (12-31 alleles/locus; expected heterozygosity, 0.762-0.983) from this species. Cross-species amplification indicated that eight of the nine microsatellite loci in the blue mackerel S. australasicus were polymorphic and functional.

  7. Tamarisk and river restoration along the San Pedro and Gila Rivers

    Treesearch

    Juliet Stromberg; Sharon Lite; Charles Paradzick

    2005-01-01

    The abundance of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima and related species) along the San Pedro and Gila River flood plains varies with differences in stream flow regimes. Tamarisk abundance, relative to Fremont cottonwood and Goodding willow, is greater at sites with more intermittent stream flows and deeper and more fluctuating ground-water levels....

  8. Burn severity of areas reburned by wildfires in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, USA

    Treesearch

    Zachary A. Holden; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    We describe satellite-inferred burn severity patterns of areas that were burned and then reburned by wildland fire from 1984 to 2004 within the Gila Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico, USA. Thirteen fires have burned 27 000 hectares across multiple vegetation types at intervals between fires ranging from 3 yr to 14 yr. Burn severity of reburned areas showed...

  9. Para-Professional Training in Adult Education at Gila River Indian Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Joycelyn

    Major goals of the Gila River Adult Basic Education Experimental Demonstration Project in this program description are identified as: (1) improving the academic skills of hard-to-reach adult dropouts and (2) training non-degreed local residents (people 19 years old or older with an 8th grade performance level) to recruit, counsel, and teach…

  10. Mapping vegetation and fuels for fire management on the Gila National Forest Complex, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Scott A. Mincemoyer; Kirsten M. Schmidt; Donald G. Long; Janice L. Garner

    2000-01-01

    (Please note: This PDF is part of a CD-ROM package only and was not printed on paper.) Fuels and vegetation spatial data layers required by the spatially explicit fire growth model FARSITE were developed for all lands in and around the Gila National Forest in New Mexico. Satellite imagery, terrain modeling, and biophysical simulation were used to create the three...

  11. The 50-horsepower solar-powered irrigation facility located near Gila Bend, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. A.; Alexander, G.; Busch, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    The 50 horsepower solar powered irrigation facility near Gila Bend, Arizona which includes a Rankine cycle demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar powered pumping. The design of a facility specifically for the irrigation farmer using the technology that has been developed over the last four years is proposed.

  12. Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation

  13. Model distribution of Silver Chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana) in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Castiglione, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Silver Chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana) was once a common forage fish in Lake Erie but has declined greatly since the 1950s. Identification of optimal and marginal habitats would help conserve and manage this species. We developed neural networks to use broad-scale habitat variables to predict abundance classes of Silver Chub in western Lake Erie, where its largest remaining population exists. Model performance was good, particularly for predicting locations of habitat with the potential to support the highest and lowest abundances of this species. Highest abundances are expected in waters >5 m deep; water depth and distance to coastal habitats were important model features. These models provide initial tools to help conserve this species, but their resolution can be improved with additional data and consideration of other ecological factors.

  14. Subcutaneous administration of Kiss1 pentadecapeptide accelerates spermatogenesis in prepubertal male chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sethu; Ohga, Hirofumi; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2013-10-01

    Kisspeptins, encoded by kiss genes, have emerged as critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. Our previous studies demonstrated that the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses kiss1 and kiss2 and peripheral administration of synthetic Kiss1 pentadecapeptide (Kiss1-15) but not Kiss2 dodecapeptide (Kiss2-12) induces spermiation in sexually immature adult chub mackerel. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of Kiss1-15, Kiss2-12, and GnRH analogue (GnRHa) to induce pubertal onset in prepubertal chub mackerel. Peptides were administered through subcutaneous injection for three times (bi-weekly) over 6weeks. Interestingly, gonadosomatic index (GSI) of Kiss1-15 treated fish increased significantly in comparison to other treatments. Histologically, 66.7% of Kiss1-15 treated fish exhibited presence of spermatozoa (SPZ) in the testes with only 28.6% of GnRHa treated fish. However, Kiss2-12 treated fish showed only spermatocytes (SC) as the advanced germ cells in the testes. In contrast, only spermatogonia (SPG) were observed in the testes of control fish. Changes in the number of testicular germ cells among treatments revealed a significantly higher number of SC, spermatids and SPZ in the Kiss1-15 treated fish. Gene expression analyses revealed no significant changes in gnrh1 in the telencephalon-preoptic region of the brain, including fshβ and lhβ in the pituitary of experimental fish. However, GnRHa treated fish showed significantly higher lhβ expression. Levels of sex steroids, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol-17β were significantly higher in Kiss1-15 treated fish. These results indicate application of Kiss1-15 peptides for accelerating pubertal onset in chub mackerel.

  15. Evaluation of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) as an indicator of river pollution.

    PubMed

    Barišić, Josip; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Kostov, Vasil; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2015-08-01

    Quantification of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) was performed in 2012 in rivers of north-eastern Macedonia, with the aim to examine the effects of water quality in the rivers (Zletovska and Kriva River-impacted by active Pb/Zn mines; Bregalnica River-contaminated by agricultural waste). The biological alterations in chub were classified as: circulatory disturbances, regressive and progressive changes, but their severity differed. Altogether the mildest changes were observed in the gills of chub from the Bregalnica River, a less polluted river, whereas mining impacted rivers were characterized by more severe alterations. In the gills of chub from the Zletovska River, which is highly contaminated with numerous metals, sulphates and chlorides, the highest lesion indices were found for the regressive changes of both epithelium and supporting tissue, with typical lesions referring to atrophy, thinning and lifting of epithelial cells, necrosis of epithelium and chloride cells, as well as deformations of lamellar cartilaginous base. Gill damages of chub from the Kriva River were overall milder compared to the Zletovska River, in accordance with pollution status. In the gills of chub from that river, progressive changes were more pronounced, specifically severe hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelium in the interlammellar space, leading to fusion of lamellae, as well as hypertrophy of chloride cells. The comparison between seasons indicated higher intensity of progressive changes in all three rivers in autumn, when water level was very low, and consequently, water contamination was more pronounced due to concentration effect. The pattern and severity of histopathological alterations in the chub gills reflected differences in contamination levels and type of contaminants in different rivers and sampling periods, and thus have been proven as a valuable indicator of water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  16. 77 FR 11584 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... National Forest, Silver City, NM, and Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National Forest, Silver City, NM, and in the possession...

  17. 76 FR 43718 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... National Forest, Silver City, NM and Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National Park.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National Forest, Silver City, NM, and in the possession...

  18. Standard weight (Ws) equations for four rare desert fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Didenko, A.V.; Bonar, Scott A.; Matter, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Standard weight (Ws) equations have been used extensively to examine body condition in sport fishes. However, development of these equations for nongame fishes has only recently been emphasized. We used the regression-line-percentile technique to develop standard weight equations for four rare desert fishes: flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnis, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, roundtail chub Gila robusta, and humpback chub G. cypha. The Ws equation for flannelmouth suckers of 100-690 mm total length (TL) was developed from 17 populations: log10Ws = -5.180 + 3.068 log10TL. The Ws equation for razorback suckers of 110-885 mm TL was developed from 12 populations: log 10Ws = -4.886 + 2.985 log10TL. The W s equation for roundtail chub of 100-525 mm TL was developed from 20 populations: log10Ws = -5.065 + 3.015 log10TL. The Ws equation for humpback chub of 120-495 mm TL was developed from 9 populations: log10Ws = -5.278 + 3.096 log 10TL. These equations meet criteria for acceptable standard weight indexes and can be used to calculate relative weight, an index of body condition.

  19. Assessing juvenile native fish demographic responses to a steady flow experiment in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Colton G.; Pine, William E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Michael D.; Gerig, Brandon S.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Korman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, is part of an adaptive management programme which optimizes dam operations to improve various resources in the downstream ecosystem within Grand Canyon. Understanding how populations of federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha respond to these dam operations is a high priority. Here, we test hypotheses concerning temporal variation in juvenile humpback chub apparent survival rates and abundance by comparing estimates between hydropeaking and steady discharge regimes over a 3-year period (July 2009–July 2012). The most supported model ignored flow type (steady vs hydropeaking) and estimated a declining trend in daily apparent survival rate across years (99.90%, 99.79% and 99.67% for 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively). Corresponding abundance of juvenile humpback chub increased temporally; open population model estimates ranged from 615 to 2802 individuals/km, and closed model estimates ranged from 94 to 1515 individuals/km. These changes in apparent survival and abundance may reflect broader trends, or simply represent inter-annual variation. Important findings include (i) juvenile humpback chub are currently surviving and recruiting in the mainstem Colorado River with increasing abundance; (ii) apparent survival does not benefit from steady fall discharges from Glen Canyon Dam; and (iii) direct assessment of demographic parameters for juvenile endangered fish are possible and can rapidly inform management actions in regulated rivers.

  20. Contrasting channel response to floods on the middle Gila River, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckleberry, Gary

    1994-12-01

    Floods of January and February 1993 in Arizona resulted in the most dramatic channel widening on the middle Gila River since 1905. An earlier flood in October 1983 had a larger instantaneous discharge but resulted in little channel change. The 1993 flood was of greater volume and duration, factors important in destabilizing flood-plain vegetation and eroding bank material. The 1983 flood was produced by a dissipating eastern Pacific tropical storm, whereas the 1993 flood was produced by a series of cold fronts from the northern Pacific Ocean supplied with subtropical moisture from a split jet stream. Meridional global circulation patterns enhance the frequency of winter storms that produce sustained flooding in Arizona and are more likely to result in channel widening and flood-plain instability on main trunk streams like the Gila River.

  1. Spawning habitat and behavior of Gila trout, a rare salmonid of the southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The spawning season of Gila trout, Salmo gilae Miller, in three streams in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, began in early April at the lowest elevation and continued through June at the highest elevation. Water temperature and stream flow interacted to induce spawning; however, the former was more important. Spawning commenced at water temperatures near 8 C. Redds were normally in 6 to 15 cm deep water, about a quarter of the stream width from one bank and within 5 m of cover. The substrate was predominantly gravel and small pebble (0.2 to 3.8 cm). Spawning fish selected redd sites based on depth of water and substrate rather than on water velocity. Redds ranged in area from less than 0.1 m/sup 2/ to nearly 2.0 m/sup 2/ and averaged 3 to 4 cm in structural depth. Normally a single fish or a pair of fish occupied a redd, but occupancy by three to four fish was common. Most spawning activity occurred between 1300 and 1600 hours. Fry (15 to 20 mm long) emerged in 8 to 10 weeks and inhibited riffle areas. Absence of fry from pools occupied by adults indicated that cannibalism may occur.

  2. Long term effects of climate on human adaptation in the middle Gila River Valley, Arizona, America.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tianduowa; Ertsen, M W; van der Giesen, N C

    The Hohokam, an irrigation-based society in the American South West, used the river valleys of the Salt and Gila Rivers between 500 and 1500 AD to grow their crops. Such irrigated crops are linking human agency, water sources and the general natural environment. In order to grow crops, water available through rain and river flows needs to be diverted to land where the plants are grown. With a focus on the Gila River, this paper uses the potential harvest of maize (a main Hohokam crop) as a proxy for evaluating the influence of natural water availability and climatic changes on irrigation options for maize. Available climate variables derived from tree-ring proxies are downscaled. These downscaled data are used as input for a crop growth model for the entire sequence of Hohokam occupation along the Gila River. The results of the crop model are used to discuss the potential influence of climatic variability on Hohokam irrigation and society. The results will show that climatic change alone cannot be used as an explanation for developments in Hohokam irrigation. Societal development resulting in growing population and extensive irrigation systems increasing pressure on water sources over time would have been a key factor to include to understand Hohokam society between 500 and 1500 AD.

  3. Feeding ecology of Gila boraxobius (Osteichthyes: Cyprindae) endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.E.; Williams, C.D.

    1980-06-30

    Gila boraxobius is a dwarf species of cyprinid endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon. Despite a relatively depauperate fauna and flora in the lake, 24 food items were found in intestines of G. boraxobius. Ten of the 24 foods, including six insects, were of terrestrial origin. The relative importance of food items fluctuated seasonally. Diatoms, chironomid larvae, microcrustaceans, and dipteran adults were the primary foods during spring. In summer, diatoms decreased and terrestrial insects increased in importance. During autumn important foods were terrestrial insects, chironomid larvae, and diatoms. Diatoms and microcrustaceans increased in importance during winter. Chironomid larvae were of importance in winter, when the importance of terrestrial food items decreased substantially. Similar food habits were observed between juveniles and adults, except that adults consumed more gastropods and diatoms and juveniles consumed more copepods and terrestrial insects. Gila boraxobius feeds opportunistically with individuals commonly containing mostly one food item. Fish typically feed by picking foods from soft bottom sediments or from rocks. However, fish will feed throughout the water column or on the surface if food is abundant there. Gila boraxobius feeds throughout the day, with a peak in feeding activity just after sunset. A daily ration of 11.1 percent body weight was calculated for the species during June. A comparison of food habits among G. boraxobius and populations of G. alvordensis during the summer shows that all are opportunistic in feeding, but that G. boraxobius relies more heavily on terrestrial foods.

  4. Sex chromosomes and karyotype of the (nearly) mythical creature, the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae). If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes). 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates.

  5. Release of exendin-4 is controlled by mechanical action in Gila monsters, Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Christel, Carolyn M; Denardo, Dale F

    2006-01-01

    Exendin-4 is a peptide produced exclusively by the salivary glands of the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum. Although exendin-4 is considered a venom component, circulating plasma levels of exendin-4 have been shown to increase in response to feeding. Previous studies using mammals have demonstrated exendin-4 has prolonged plasma glucose-lowering properties. While these findings suggest a possible role of exendin-4 as a metabolic hormone in the Gila Monster, the mechanism controlling its release by the salivary gland has not previously been studied. We investigated possible factors driving exendin-4 release by testing Gila Monsters' response to one of six treatment groups: fed egg, fed juvenile rat, gastric intubation with egg while under anesthesia, olfactory stimulation from egg without ingestion, unfed control, and biting without feeding. These treatments were designed to separately test actions associated with feeding and different food types. We measured plasma exendin-4 levels using an immunoenzymetric assay before and at three time points after each treatment. Exendin-4 levels increased significantly in groups where considerable biting occurred but not in the other treatment groups. These results suggest that exendin-4 is released from the salivary glands in response to mechanical stimulation and not the detection of food either by smell, taste, or distention of the gut. Further study of exendin-4 in its natural organism is needed to elucidate the functional role of exendin-4 as a venom component and/or a metabolic regulator.

  6. Possible role of the leptin system in controlling puberty in the male chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Hirata, Daisuke; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2017-01-01

    Leptin directly regulates kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus and gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary, making it a central player in the onset of mammalian puberty. Recently, we identified two leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a single leptin receptor (lepr) in the marine perciform fish chub mackerel; however, the expression of these genes did not correlate with the expression of important reproductive genes or ovarian stage during female puberty. Here, we expand upon these initial observations by evaluating the expression of lepa, lepb, and lepr during pubertal transition and under differential feeding conditions in the male chub mackerel. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that lepa was primarily expressed in the liver of pubertal and gonadal recrudescence adults, as well as in the brain of adult fish; lepb was primarily expressed in the brain of all fish tested; and lepr was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. qRT-PCR analyses revealed significant increases in the hepatic expression of lepa in accordance with testicular stage, whereas pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (fshβ) expression increased in unison with hepatic lepa. In contrast, expression of both brain lepa and lepb dramatically decreased during pubertal transition, with brain kisspeptin 1 (kiss1) expression strongly correlating with leptin expression patterns. In pre-pubertal males, lepa, lepb, and lper gene expression in the brain, pituitary gland, and liver decreased in fish given a high feed diet, relative to the controlled feeding group. Taken together, these results indicate high sexual specificity of leptin expression, suggesting a possible role for leptin signaling in endocrine and neuroendocrine functions during spermatogenesis in the pubertal male chub mackerel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nesting habitat use by river chubs in a hydrologically variable Appalachian tailwater

    SciTech Connect

    Peoples, Brandon K.; McManamay, Ryan A.; Orth, Donald J.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2013-07-02

    Hydrologic alteration continues to affect aquatic biodiversity asknowledge of the spawning requirements of fishes, especially keystone or foundation species, becomes more critical for conservation and management. Our objectives are to quantify the spawning micro- and mesohabitat use of river chub Nocomis micropogon, a gravel mound nesting minnow, in a hydrologically regulated river in North Carolina, USA. At the microhabitat scale, substrate sizes on nests were compared with pebble counts in 1-m2 adjacent quadrats. Average depths and current velocities at nests were compared with measurements from paired transects. At the mesohabitat scale, generalised linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to identify the importance of average bed slope, average depth and percentages of rock outcrops (a measure of flow heterogeneity and velocity shelters) for predicting nest presence and abundance. To relate nesting activities to hydrologic alteration from dam operation, nest dimensions were measured before and after a scheduled discharge event approximately six times that of base flow. In addition, linear regression was used to predict changes in the use of flow refugia and overhead cover with increased fluvial distance from the dam. Microhabitats in which nests were placed had, on average, slower current velocities and shallower depths. Gravel diameters of nests were significantly smaller than substrate particles adjacent to nests. GLMMs revealed that mesohabitats with nests were shallower, had more moderate slopes and greater proportions of rock outcrops than mesohabitats without nests. Finally, the scheduled discharge event significantly flattened nests. Near the dam, nests were built in close proximity ( 2 m) to velocity shelters; this relationship diminished with distance from the dam. River chubs are spawning habitat specialists. Because multiple species rely on river chub nests for reproduction and food, the needs of this species should be considered when managing instream

  8. Temporal patterns and behavioral characteristics of aggregation formation and spawning in the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Richard S.; Kadison, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Reef fish spawning aggregations are important life history events that occur at specific times and locations and represent the primary mode of reproduction for many species. This paper provides detailed descriptions of aggregation formation and mass spawning of the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix). Spawning coloration and gamete release of K. sectatrix were observed and filmed at the Grammanik Bank, a deep spawning aggregation site used by many different species located on the southern edge of the Puerto Rican shelf 10 km south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Underwater visual surveys using technical Nitrox and closed circuit re-breathers were conducted from December 2002 to March 2013 and documented spatial and temporal patterns of movement and aggregation formation along 1.5 km of mesophotic reef. The largest aggregations of K. sectatrix (>200 fish) were observed on the Grammanik Bank January to March from 0 to 11 d after the full moon with peak abundance from 60 to 80 d after the winter solstice across all survey years. Aggregation formation of K. sectatrix coincided with the spawning season of Nassau ( Epinephelus striatus) and yellowfin ( Mycteroperca venenosa) groupers. These spatial and temporal patterns of aggregation formation and spawning suggest that K. sectatrix, an herbivore, may also be a transient aggregating species. On several occasions, chubs were observed both pair spawning and mass spawning. Color patterns and behaviors associated with aggregation and spawning are described and compared to spawning characteristics observed in other species, many of which are similar but others that appear unique to K. sectatrix. This represents the first report of a kyphosid species aggregating to spawn and illuminates a portion of the poorly understood life history of the Bermuda chub.

  9. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  10. Functional constraints on nest characteristics of pebble mounds of breeding male hornyhead chub Nocomis biguttatus.

    PubMed

    Wisenden, B D; Unruh, A; Morantes, A; Bury, S; Curry, B; Driscoll, R; Hussein, M; Markegard, S

    2009-11-01

    Breeding male hornyhead chub Nocomis biguttatus constructed nests in areas with relatively high but less than maximum flow rate and greater than average water depth. Nests comprised c. 3000 pebbles for a total mass of 11 kg. Males selected pebbles of smaller diameter but higher density than pebbles in the immediate vicinity. Thus, nests balanced the risk of mound erosion and energetic cost of nest construction with the benefits of protection from egg predators and a stable internal flow rate for oxygenation. These data help establish environmental management goals for the conservation of N. biguttatus and the lotic ecosystems dependent upon them.

  11. Neoplagioporus zacconis (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) from the intestine of the pale chub, Zacco platypus, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Bum; Rim, Han-Jong

    1998-01-01

    Neoplagioporus zacconis (Yamaguti, 1934) (Trematoda: Opecoelidae) was found from the intestine of the pale chub, Zacco platypus, for the first time in Korea. The worms were characterized morphologically by oval body shape, bipartited seminal vesicle, sinistrally located genital pore, and lobed ovary, and distinguished from the two other species of Neoplagioporous by body shape and distribution of vitelline follicles. The morphological characteristics, except the ovary, well corresponded to those of the previous descriptions. The morphological difference of the ovary was considered as a character of geographical phenotypic variation. PMID:9755591

  12. Integration of the Gila River drainage system through the Basin and Range province of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2015-05-01

    The Gila River and its tributaries in southern Arizona and adjoining states incorporate several dozen individual extensional basins of the central Basin and Range province into a single integrated drainage network. Forty basins in the Gila domain contain more than 1000 m (maximum ~ 3500 m) of post-12 Ma basin fill. Subsurface evaporites in many basins document internal drainages terminating in isolated playa lakes during early phases of basin history. The nature of intrabasinal and interbasinal divides and of eroded or sedimented stream passages through mountain ranges intervening between the basins reveal the geomorphic mechanisms that achieved drainage integration over late Miocene to early Pleistocene time. Drainage integration accompanied by headward erosion eastward toward Gila headwaters was a response to Miocene opening of the Gulf of California, into which the Gila River debouched directly before the Pliocene (< 5 Ma) lower course of the Colorado River was established. Residual basins of internal drainage where headward erosion has not yet penetrated into basin fill are most common in the easternmost Gila domain but also persist locally farther west. Most basin fill was dissected during drainage integration within the upstream Gila domain but continued accumulation of undissected basin fill by sediment aggradation is dominant in the downstream Gila domain. Basin dissection was initiated by Pliocene time in the central Gila domain but was delayed until Pleistocene time farther east. In the westernmost Gila domain, interaction with erosional and depositional episodes along the Colorado River influenced the development of Quaternary landscapes along the tributary Gila River. The sedimentary history of the Gila drainage network illustrates the means by which trunk rivers can establish courses across corrugated topography produced by the extensional rupture of continental blocks.

  13. Three Experimental High-Flow Releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona-Effects on the Downstream Colorado River Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Grams, Paul E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Robinson, Christopher T.; Schmidt, John C.; Schmit, Lara M.; Valdez, Richard A.; Wright, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Three high-flow experiments (HFEs) were conducted by the U.S. Department of the Interior at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in March 1996, November 2004, and March 2008. Also known as artificial or controlled floods, these scheduled releases of water above the dam's powerplant capacity were designed to mimic pre-dam seasonal flooding on the Colorado River. The goal of the HFEs was to determine whether high flows could be used to benefit important downstream resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park that have been affected by the existence and operation of Glen Canyon Dam. These downstream resources include native fish, particularly endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), terrestrial and aquatic sandbar habitats, cultural sites, and recreational resources. This Fact Sheet summarizes HFE-related studies published since 1996 and outlines a possible strategy for implementing future HFEs.

  14. Reproductive strategy, spawning induction, spawning temperatures and early life history of captive sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, Janice; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Macrhybopsis reproduction and propagule traits were studied in the laboratory using two temperature regimes and three hormone treatments to determine which methods produced the most spawns. Only sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki spawned successfully although sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida released unfertilized eggs. All temperature and hormone treatments produced M. meeki spawns, but two treatments had similar success rates at 44 and 43%, consisting of a constant daily temperature with no hormone added, or daily temperature fluctuations with hormone added to the water. Spawns consisted of multiple successful demersal circular swimming spawning embraces interspersed with circular swims without embraces. The most spawns observed for one female was four and on average, 327 eggs were collected after each spawn. The water-hardened eggs were semi-buoyant and non-adhesive, the first confirmation of this type of reproductive guild in the Missouri River Macrhybopsis sp. From spawn, larvae swam vertically until 123 accumulated degree days (° D) and 167° D for consumption of first food. Using average water speed and laboratory development time, the predicted drift distance for eggs and larvae could be 468–592 km in the lower Missouri River. Results from this study determined the reproductive biology and early life history of Macrhybopsis spp. and provided insight into their population dynamics in the Missouri River.

  15. Geologic map of the Gila Hot Springs 7.5' quadrangle and the Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratté, James C.; Gaskill, David L.; Chappell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Gila Hot Springs quadrangle is of geologic interest with respect to four major features, which are: 1)\tThe caves of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument 2)\tThe hot springs associated with the faults of the Gila Hot Springs graben 3)\tThe Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center 4)\tA proposed segment of the southeastern wall of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera The Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument consists of two tracts. The caves that were inhabited by the Mogollon people in the 14th century are in the main tract near the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon in the Little Turkey Park 7.5' quadrangle adjoining the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. The second tract includes the Cliff Dwellings National Monument Visitor Center at the confluence of the West and Middle Forks of the Gila River in the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. Both quadrangles are within the Gila National Forest and the Gila Wilderness except for a narrow corridor that provides access to the National Monument and the small ranching and residential community at Gila Center in the Gila River valley. The caves in Cliff Dweller Canyon were developed in the Gila Conglomerate of probable Miocene? and Pleistocene? age in this area by processes of lateral corrosion and spring sapping along the creek in Cliff Dweller Canyon. The hot springs in the Gila River valley are localized along faults in the deepest part of the Gila Hot Springs graben, which cuts diagonally northwest-southeast across the central part of the quadrangle. Some of the springs provide domestic hot water for space heating and agriculture in the Gila River valley and represent a possible thermal resource for development at the Cliff Dwellings National Monument. The Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center in the southwestern part of the quadrangle is a colorful area of altered and mineralized rocks that is satellitic to the larger Copperas Canyon eruptive center, both being

  16. Sex Chromosomes and Karyotype of the (Nearly) Mythical Creature, the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum (Squamata: Helodermatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pokorná, Martina Johnson; Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of sex determination systems exist among squamate reptiles. They can therefore serve as an important model for studies of evolutionary transitions among particular sex determination systems. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of sex determination in certain important lineages of squamates. In this respect, one of the most understudied groups is the family Helodermatidae (Anguimorpha) encompassing the only two venomous species of lizards which are potentially lethal to human beings. We uncovered homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome. The sex chromosomes are morphologically similar to the ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes of monitor lizards (Varanidae). If the sex chromosomes of helodermatids and varanids are homologous, female heterogamety may be ancestral for the whole Anguimorpha group. Moreover, we found that the karyotype of the Gila monster consists of 2n = 36 chromosomes (14 larger metacentric chromosomes and 22 acrocentric microchromosomes). 2n = 36 is the widely distributed chromosomal number among squamates. In his pioneering works representing the only previous cytogenetic examination of the family Helodermatidae, Matthey reported the karyotype as 2n = 38 and suggested a different chromosomal morphology for this species. We believe that this was probably erroneously. We also discovered a strong accumulation of telomeric sequences on several pairs of microchromosomes in the Gila monster, which is a trait documented relatively rarely in vertebrates. These new data fill an important gap in our understanding of the sex determination and karyotype evolution of squamates. PMID:25119263

  17. Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) envenomation: Descriptive analysis of calls to United States Poison Centers with focus on Arizona cases.

    PubMed

    French, Robert; Brooks, Daniel; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Shirazi, Farshad; Chase, Peter; Boesen, Keith; Walter, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) is a venomous lizard native to the deserts of southwestern United States (US) and northern Mexico. The purpose of this study was to describe human exposures to Gila monsters reported to US poison control centers (PCCs) with a focus on Arizona cases. The American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System (NPDS) was used to access and retrospectively review all calls to US PCCs, concerning Gila monsters between January 1, 2000 and October 31, 2011. In addition, detailed records from the two Arizona PCCs were reviewed for the same time period. A total of 319 calls regarding Gila monsters were identified in the NPDS. Of these, 105 (33%) were human exposures; most (79%) occurred in males. A total of 71 (68%) of these 105 cases were referred to a health care facility (HCF); 30 (29%) were managed on-site. Of the 71 HCF referrals, 36 (51%) were discharged home and 17 (24%) were admitted. Most (65%) admissions were to an intensive care unit (ICU). Arizona's PCCs received 70 unique reports of Gila monster bite. Most (77%) of the bites in Arizona involved an upper extremity. Eight (11%) involved patients under the age of 18 years. Eleven (16%) Arizona cases were work-related. Twenty-eight (40%) of the 70 bites in Arizona were evaluated in a HCF, but not admitted. Eleven (16%) were admitted, of which five were to an ICU. Six patients had edema of airway structures; three required emergent airway management, one by cricothyrotomy. There were no deaths. Gila monster bites are uncommon. Many cases did not require hospitalization. Edema of airway structures is an infrequent, but life-threatening complication.

  18. Mineral resources of the Gila Lower Box Wilderness Study Area, Grant and Hilalgo counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, D.H.; Lawrence, V.A.; Barton, H.; Hanna, W.; Duval, J.S. ); Ryan, G.S. )

    1988-01-01

    This report presents an investigation to appraise the identified resources and to assess the potential for undiscovered resources of the Gila Lower Box Wilderness Study Area, southwestern New Mexico. Identified resources of manganese occur within 0.25 mi of the study area boundary, but none are known within the study area. The eastern part of the study area has a high mineral resource potential for manganese, and the western part has a moderate mineral resource potential for manganese. The entire study area has a low mineral and energy resource potential for other metals, gemstone, geothermal energy, oil and gas.

  19. Geohydrologic data along the Salt-Gila aqueduct of the central Arizona project in Maricopa and Pinal counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, B.L.; Wrege, B.M.; Schumann, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is conducting an investigation of land subsidence and earth fissures along the Salt-Gila aqueduct to identify hazard zones and to provide design data for the Central Arizona Project aqueducts. Thirty-three test holes were drilled along the Salt-Gila aqueduct of the Central Arizona Project in Maricopa and Pinal Counties. Included in the report are maps showing locations of test holes and vertical extensometer sites, records of test holes, and tables and graphs showing water-level measurements. (USGS)

  20. Accumulation of metals relevant for agricultural contamination in gills of European chub (Squalius cephalus).

    PubMed

    Dragun, Zrinka; Tepić, Nataša; Krasnići, Nesrete; Teskeredžić, Emin

    2016-08-01

    The study of metal bioaccumulation in the gills of European chub (Squalius cephalus) was conducted in September 2009 at the medium-sized rural river Sutla, characterized by agricultural and municipal type of water contamination. The concentration ranges were established for the first time in the soluble, metabolically available fractions of chub gills for 12 metals, which are environmentally extremely relevant and yet only seldom studied, as follows in a decreasing order: K, 225-895 mg L(-1); Na, 78-366 mg L(-1); Ca, 19-62 mg L(-1); Mg, 13-47 mg L(-1); Rb, 164-1762 μg L(-1); Sr, 24-81 μg L(-1); Ba, 13-67 μg L(-1); Mo, 1.3-16 μg L(-1); Co, 0.7-2.7 μg L(-1); Li, 0.4-2.2 μg L(-1); Cs, 0.2-1.9 μg L(-1); and V, 0.1-1.8 μg L(-1). The concentrations of Fe (1.6-6.4 mg L(-1)) and Mn (16-69 μg L(-1)) were also determined and were in agreement with previous reports. By application of general linear modelling, the influence of different abiotic (metal exposure level) and biotic parameters (fish sex, age, size and condition) on metal bioaccumulation was tested. It was established that bioaccumulation of many metals in fish depended on various physiological conditions, wherein Ba could be singled out as metal exhibiting the strongest association with one of biotic parameters, being significantly higher in smaller fish. However, it was also undoubtedly demonstrated that the concentrations of three metals can be applied as reliable indicators of metal exposure even in the conditions of low or moderate water contamination, such as observed in the Sutla River, and those were nonessential elements Li and Cs and essential element Fe. The results of our study present an important contribution to maintenance of high ecological status of European freshwaters, through enrichment of knowledge on the bioaccumulation of various metals in gills of European chub as frequently applied bioindicator species in monitoring of water pollution.

  1. Does urbanization influence the spatial ecology of Gila monsters in the Sonoran Desert?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kwiatkowski, M.A.; Schuett, G.W.; Repp, R.A.; Nowak, E.M.; Sullivan, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    To assess whether urbanization influences the spatial ecology of a rare and protected venomous reptilian predator, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum, we compared home range (HR) size and movement parameters at three sites varying in degree of urbanization in the Sonoran Desert. We predicted that the urban population of H. suspectum would exhibit smaller HRs, avoid human structures and show less movement. Multivariate analysis indicated that males generally exhibited larger HRs and had higher movement rates and activity levels than females at all three sites. Contrary to our predictions, however, HR size and movement parameters did not vary across the sites in relation to the level of urbanization. At the urban site, individuals often crossed narrow roads and regularly used artificial structures as refuges for extended periods. Furthermore, the population sex ratio at the urban site was female-biased, consistent with the expectation that occupation of larger HRs and higher movement rates results in higher mortality for males in urbanized areas. Gila monsters did not appear to alter certain aspects of their spatial ecology in response to low levels of human activity but additional work will be required to assess population viability and possible effects in the long term and with higher levels of urbanization.

  2. Extending the flood record on the Middle Gila River with Holocene stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Huckleberry, G. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-04-01

    Historical changes in flood frequency and magnitude are correlated to changes in channel geometry for the Middle Gila River (MGR) in south-central Arizona. The author has attempted to reconstruct the frequency of large floods on the MGR for the last 1,000 years by looking at the stratigraphic record with the purpose of modeling channel changes during a period of significant local cultural change, i.e., the Hohokam-Pima cultural transition. After distinguishing and mapping geological surfaces in the eastern part of the Gila River Indian Community. The author placed a series of backhoe trenches on late Holocene MGR terraces. He interprets lithological discontinuities within overbank deposits as boundaries separating temporally discrete floods. Detrital charcoal from within the stratigraphy was submitted to the National Science Foundation-University of Arizona AMS facility for radiocarbon analysis. The stratigraphic record indicates that a minimum of four large floods have occurred on the MGR since A.D. 1300. Three of these floods may correspond to large historical floods in 1833, 1868, and 1905. If so, then it appears that MGR flood frequency increased after A.D. 1800. There is no evidence for increased flood frequency and channel transformations during the cultural decline of the Hohokam in the 15th century.

  3. Using survival analysis to study translocation success in the Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Sheller, Frances J; Fagan, William F; Unmack, Peter J

    2006-10-01

    Translocation, the intentional release of captive-propagated and/or wild-caught animals into the wild in an attempt to establish, reestablish, or augment a population, is a commonly used approach to species conservation. Despite the frequent mention of translocation as an aid in threatened or endangered species recovery plans, translocations have resulted in the establishment of few sustainable populations. To improve the effectiveness of translocation efforts, it is essential to identify and adopt features that contribute to successful translocations. This study analyzed 148 translocations of the endangered Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis) to identify various factors that have significantly influenced translocation success. We quantified success as the "persistence time" of translocated populations and used survival analysis to interpret the role of several factors. The following factors affected persistence times of translocated populations: season in which the fish were translocated, habitat type of the translocation site, and genetic origin of the fish stocked. In general, factors associated with stocking, the population stocked, and the site of translocation can significantly affect the persistence of translocated populations and thus increase the probability of translocation success. For Gila topminnow, future translocations should be undertaken in late summer or fall (not early summer), should occur into ponds (not streams, wells, or tanks), and should generally utilize individuals from genetic lineages other than Monkey Spring. For other species, a key lesson emerging from this work is that life history attributes for each translocated species need to be considered carefully.

  4. Evaluation of ground-water recharge along the Gila River as a result of the flood of October 1983, in and near the Gila River Indian Reservation, Maricopa and Pinal counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.; Anderson, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Flow in the Gila River from the flood of October 1983 infiltrated the stream channel and recharged the groundwater system along the Gila River floodplain from Ashurst-Hayden Dam to the confluence with the Salt River. Changes in groundwater levels from January 1983 to March 1984 confirmed the occurrence of recharge to the groundwater system. The average water level change for 74 wells was +24.2 ft. The water-level rise was greatest in the reach from river mile 15 to river mile 22, where the average water level change for 10 wells was +59.4 ft. The average water level increase for 28 miles from river mile 40 to river mile 71 was +14.2 ft. Estimates of recharge from January 1983 to March 1984 ranged from 440,000 to 640, 000 acre-ft. A water budget method and a water level change method were used to estimate the recharge to the aquifer. At least 46% to 66% of the recharge was the result of streamflow infiltration from the Gila River during October 1983 to February 1984. The increase in aquifer storage was one to two times greater than the quantity of groundwater pumped from the Gila River Indian Reservation during the 10 years preceding the flood. (USGS)

  5. Implementing the expanded prescribed fire program on the Gila National Forest, New Mexico: implications for snag management

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Boucher; William M. Block; Gary V. Benavidez; L. E. Wiebe

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to return natural fire to the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, have resulted in controversy regarding management of snags (standing dead trees). The importance of snags for wildlife, especially cavity-dependent birds, is well documented. Although general uses of snags by birds are known (nesting, roosting, perching, and foraging), we know little about the...

  6. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2007-04-01

    Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit.

  7. Status and ecology of Mexican spotted owls in the Upper Gila Mountains recovery unit, Arizona and New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey; James P. Ward; David W. Willey

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes current knowledge on the status and ecology of the Mexican spotted owl within the Upper Gila Mountains Recovery Unit (UGM RU). It was written at the request of U.S. Forest Service personnel involved in the Four Forests Restoration Initiative (4FRI), a collaborative, landscape-scale restoration effort covering approximately 2.4 million ac (1...

  8. 76 FR 34250 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Gila Lower Box Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... should the BLM design management to enhance the watershed? 2. What management is needed to address the... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Gila... Land Use Plan Amendment AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent....

  9. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.

  10. Histopathology investigation on the Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) populations captured from the rivers impacted by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir

    2016-07-01

    Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna.

  11. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of pituitary GnRH receptor in a commercial scombroid fish, chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Lumayno, Sanny David Pacheco; Ohga, Hirofumi; Selvaraj, Sethu; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2017-01-30

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is essential during pubertal onset, for its regulation of the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins. Its action is mediated by GnRH receptors (GnRHRs) in the pituitary gonadotrophs. Our previous study demonstrated that the chub mackerel brain expresses three GnRH forms (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3), and that only GnRH1 neurons innervate anterior pituitary regions. Furthermore, chub mackerel gnrh1 mRNA exhibited a significant increase at pubertal onset. The present study aimed to isolate the functional GnRHR form involved in chub mackerel puberty. The open reading frame of our cloned receptor encodes 428 amino acids and contains seven transmembrane domains. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated clustering with other teleost-type IIB GnRHRs, mainly those involved in reproduction. Reporter gene assay results showed that all four synthetic peptides (GnRH1, GnRH2, GnRH3, and GnRH analogue) bind to the cloned receptor. Three deduced GnRH ligands stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release from cultured pituitary cells in vitro. Receptor gene expression was mainly detected in the pituitary and showed an increasing trend in the developing gonadal stages of both sexes during the pubertal process; this process was synchronous with previous studies of follicle-stimulating hormone beta (fshβ) and lhβ gene expression in chub mackerel. These results suggest that the cloned receptor is likely involved in the regulation of pubertal onset in this species. Therefore, we have designated the receptor cmGnRHR1.

  12. Does the parasite-mediated selection drive the MHC class IIB diversity in wild populations of European chub (Squalius cephalus)?

    PubMed

    Seifertová, Mária; Jarkovský, Jiří; Šimková, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The genes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provide an excellent opportunity to study host-parasite relationships because they are expected to evolve in response to parasites and variation in parasite communities. In this study, we investigated the potential role of parasite-mediated selection acting on MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in European chub (Squalius cephalus) natural populations. We found significant differences between populations in metazoan parasites, neutral and adaptive genetic diversities. The analyses based on pairwise data revealed that populations with dissimilar MHC allelic profiles were geographically distant populations with significantly different diversity in microsatellites and a dissimilar composition of parasite communities. The results from the generalized estimating equations method (GEE) on the level of individuals revealed that metazoan parasite load in European chub was influenced by the diversity of DAB alleles as well as by the diversity of neutral genetic markers and host traits reflecting condition and immunocompetence. The multivariate co-inertia analysis showed specific associations between DAB alleles and parasite species. DAB1-like alleles were more involved in associations with ectoparasites, while DAB3-like alleles were positively associated with endoparasites which could suggest potential differences between DAB genes caused by different selection pressure. Our study revealed that parasite-mediated selection is not the only variable affecting MHC diversity in European chub; however, we strongly support the role of neutral processes as the main driver of DAB diversity across populations. In addition, our study contributes to the understanding of the evolution of MHC genes in wild living fish.

  13. Identification and inhibition of histamine-forming bacteria in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia-Wei; Cao, Min-Jie; Guo, Shun-Cai; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the differences in histamine accumulation between blue scad and chub mackerel and methods of inhibiting histamine-forming bacteria and controlling histamine accumulation in fish. The free histidine contents in blue scad and chub mackerel were 1.45 and 2.75 mg/g, respectively. The histamine-forming bacteria isolated from them were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter braakii, and Enterobacter aerogenes using 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the VITEK 2 Compact system, and MALDI-TOF MS. The histamine-producing capacities of C. freundii, C. braakii, and E. aerogenes were 470, 1,057, and 4,213 mg/liter, respectively, after culture at 37°C for 48 h. Among the different antimicrobials and preservatives tested, potassium sorbate and sodium diacetate effectively inhibited the histamine-forming bacteria and their histamine production. After chub mackerel was dipped into 0.5% potassium sorbate or sodium diacetate, its histamine content increased more slowly at room temperature. Therefore, a potassium sorbate or sodium diacetate dipping treatment could effectively control histamine accumulation in fish.

  14. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures were conducted (EPA 1994) with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and four endangered fish species: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucias ), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and Gila t...

  15. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures were conducted (EPA 1994) with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and four endangered fish species: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucias ), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and Gila t...

  16. Map showing mineral resource potential of the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Light, Thomas D.; Shride, Andrew F.; Bergquist, Joel R.; Wrucke, Chester T.; Theobald, Paul K.; Duval, Joseph S.; Wilson, Dolores M.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, Sept. 3, 1964) and certain related Acts require the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral-resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the Administration and the Congress. These maps and reports present the results of a geologic and mineral survey of the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area, Gila County, Arizona.

  17. Endocrine disruption in wild populations of chub (Leuciscus cephalus) in contaminated French streams.

    PubMed

    Hinfray, Nathalie; Palluel, Olivier; Piccini, Benjamin; Sanchez, Wilfried; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Noury, Patrice; Gomez, Elena; Geraudie, Perrine; Minier, Christophe; Brion, François; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess endocrine disruptive effects in wild population of fish in five French rivers selected to represent different pollution contexts at two seasons (summer and fall). For that purpose, a panel of biometrical parameters (length, weight, and gonado-somatic index: GSI) and biochemical (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase: EROD, vitellogenin: VTG, and brain aromatase) and histological biomarkers (gonads histology) were used in chub (Leuciscus cephalus), a common cyprinid fish species. In fish from the reference site, EROD activity and VTG levels were low at the two seasons. Brain aromatase activities (AAs) were similar to other species and increased with increasing GSI and gonad maturation. Among the four contaminated sites, the Jalle d'Eysines River was the most impacted site. At this site, fish were exposed to estrogenic substances as demonstrated by the VTG induction in males and the arrest of development of the gonads that led to lower brain AA compared to fish from the reference site. In fish from other contaminated sites, EROD activity was induced as compared to fish from the reference site and some males had elevated concentrations of VTG. Moreover, the presence of aromatase-inhibiting compounds was demonstrated in the sediments of three contaminated sites, even if the precise nature of contaminants is not known. This study provides new data concerning endocrine disruption in wild fish populations inhabiting French rivers and demonstrates that measurements of in vivo and in vitro aromatase could be used as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in field studies.

  18. Effects of dynamic landscape elements on fish dispersal: the example of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus).

    PubMed

    Boizard, J; Magnan, P; Angers, B

    2009-02-01

    Barriers along a watercourse and interconnections between drainage systems are dynamic landscape elements that are expected to play major roles in the dispersal and genetic structure of fish species. The objective of this study was to assess the role of these elements using creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) in the Mastigouche Wildlife Reserve (Québec, Canada) as model. Numerous impassable waterfalls and interconnections among drainage systems were inferred with geographic information systems and confirmed de visu. The analysis of 32 populations using seven nuclear microsatellites revealed the presence of three genetically distinct groups. Some groups were found upstream of impassable barriers and in adjacent portions of distinct drainage systems. Admixture among groups was also detected in some populations. Constraining phylogenetic procedures as well as Mantel correlation tests confirmed that the genetic structure is more likely to result from interconnections between the drainage systems than from the permanent network. This study indicates that landscape elements such as interconnections are of major importance for circumventing impassable barriers and colonizing lakes that are otherwise inaccessible. Such an approach could be relevant for determining the origins of fish species (i.e. native vs. introduced) in the context of conservation.

  19. Habitat use in irrigation channels by the golden venus chub (Hemigrammocypris rasborella) at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Onikura, Norio; Nakajima, Jun; Kouno, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Yoshiko; Kaneto, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Ecological information on the golden venus chub (Hemigrammocypris rasborella Fowler, 1910) was collected during field surveys and used to analyze habitat use by this species at each growth stage. Surveys were conducted every month for approximately 2 years In an irrigation ditch near the Ushizu River, Kyushu Island, Japan. Based on the characteristic nuptial coloration of males, it was estimated that H. rasborella spawns between spring and summer. Size measurements of 2697 individuals indicated two size classes. The population of age class 1 decreased rapidly after the spawning period. On the basis of growth patterns, the life cycle of H. rasborella was classified into three stages: the growth stage (GS) of age class 0 fish from August to November, the no-growth stage (NGS) of age class 0 fish from December to March, and the growing and spawning stage (GSS) of age class 0 and 1 fish from April to August. Habitat use by GS, NGS, and GSS fish was analyzed with a stepwise multiple linear regression. The average number of fish was negatively correlated with the presence of a concrete revetment in the GS; positively and negatively correlated with minimum water depth and submerged plants, respectively, in the NGS; and positively correlated with maximum water temperature in the GSS. These results suggest that maintenance of the water level in the fallow season and not using concrete revetments are essential for the conservation of this species under the present conditions in Japanese rice fields.

  20. Exposure to Deepwater Horizon weathered crude oil increases routine metabolic demand in chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Dane H; Dale, Jonathan J; Machado, Benjamin E; Incardona, John P; Farwell, Charles J; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-15

    During the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident, the continuous release of crude oil from the damaged Macondo 252 wellhead on the ocean floor contaminated surface water habitats for pelagic fish for more than 12weeks. The spill occurred across pelagic, neritic and benthic waters, impacting a variety of ecosystems. Chemical components of crude oil are known to disrupt cardiac function in juvenile fish, and here we investigate the effects of oil on the routine metabolic rate of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus. Mackerel were exposed to artificially weathered Macondo 252 crude oil, prepared as a Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF), for 72 or 96h. Routine metabolic rates were determined pre- and post-exposure using an intermittent-flow, swim tunnel respirometer. Routine energetic demand increased in all mackerels in response to crude oil and reached statistical significance relative to unexposed controls at 96h. Chemical analyses of bile from exposed fish revealed elevated levels of fluorescent metabolites, confirming the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exposure WAF. The observed increase in metabolic demand is likely attributable to the bioenergetic costs of contaminant detoxification. These results indicate that short-term exposure (i.e. days) to oil has sub-lethal toxicity to mackerel and results in physiological stress during the active spill phase of the incident.

  1. Effect of season on heavy metal contents and chemical compositions of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) muscle.

    PubMed

    Bae, J H; Lim, S Y

    2012-02-01

    Seasonal variations of heavy metals concentrations and overall chemical compositions were determined in chub mackerel caught in the Southern Sea of Korea. The average mercury and lead content varied between 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg and between 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively. Seasonal variations were not detected in lead, but mercury displayed maximal values in winter (P < 0.05). A distinct seasonal pattern was found in crude fat content with maximal values in December and minimal values in April. Fatty acid composition showed that monounsaturated fatty acids levels were the highest in August, while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels were the highest in April. The major contributing factors to the seasonal variation of PUFA amounted to 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. The total amino acids content varied from 180.6 to 187.7 mg/g. There were no significant seasonal variations in total amounts of amino acids. Practical Application:  Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is one of the most important fishing resources in Korea. The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the human body have been identified, and consequently, the intake of fish lipids has steadily increased among the human population. There have been few studies on safety and alterations in chemical composition of mackerel attributed to seasonal fluctuations. Therefore, the results presented in this study could be used to improve the safety and nutrition information available to consumers.

  2. Gonadal development and gonadotropin gene expression during puberty in cultured chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kodama, Ryoko; Kato, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2014-06-01

    Understanding puberty is important for establishing aquaculture in fish. In this study, we analyzed the timing and completion of pubertal development along with changes in pituitary gonadotropin genes (fshb and lhb) in cultured chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). At 45 days post-hatching (dph), gonadal sex differentiation was observed. The onset of puberty occurred at 192 dph in females with the start of vitellogenesis, whereas it occurred at 164 dph in males, with the beginning of spermatogenesis (proliferation and differentiation of germ cells). The completion of puberty was at 326 dph in females when vitellogenesis completed, and it was at 338 dph in males during spermiation. All fish sampled during the spawning season completed pubertal development. In the pituitary of female fish, fshb expression was activated during early secondary growth and was maintained high throughout vitellogenesis, whereas lhb expression was highest at the completion of vitellogenesis. In male fish, fshb and lhb expression were activated from the onset of spermatogenesis and further activated during late pubertal development; fshb remained high between late spermatogenesis and spermiation, whereas lhb was highest during spermiation.

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA-Levels, possible sources, and patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Peterman, Paul H.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g-1 wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA--levels, possible sources, and patterns.

    PubMed

    Echols, Kathy R; Peterman, Paul H; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g(-1) wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution.

  5. Collaborative Modeling in New Mexico's Upper Gila and San Francisco River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Sun, A. C.; Klise, G. T.; Peplinski, W. J.; Brainard, J. R.; Aragon, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    The 2005 Arizona Water Settlements Act (AWSA) has given southwestern New Mexico a unique opportunity to appropriate water from the Upper Gila River basin. This appropriation calls for Arizona irrigators to "trade" their existing use of Gila River water for Central Arizona Project water to realize New Mexico's legal right to develop water originating in its portion of the Upper Gila River watershed. The complexity of the AWSA and various stakeholders interested in the implications of the settlement has led to the development of a collaborative modeling team. As a team member, Sandia National Laboratories is tasked with building an integrated basin scale system-dynamics model that can implement the constraints outlined in the AWSA by projecting water supply and demand scenarios into the future. By building this model, stakeholders will gain insight into the hydrologic complexities inherent in a river basin, and it will allow them to evaluate whether alternate water use scenarios will be allowed under the constraints outlined by the AWSA. The model replicates historic surface and ground water conditions in the basin using available data for supply, including gauges that measure stream flow, ditch flow, and precipitation. Demands are measured through annual hydrographic survey records for agricultural production, industrial water use by mining, municipal and domestic use in both urban and rural communities, and riparian evapotranspiration. Within the system-dynamics framework, volumetric flow of water is the dynamic state variable calculated from one river reach to the next. Stream gauge, climate and consumptive use data are used to calibrate the historic baseline flows. There is a great deal of uncertainty that must be addressed when attempting to model a large basin. Integrating a watershed model to add the contribution of ungauged tributaries is part of this effort. Another challenge is the presence of federally listed endangered avian and aquatic species whose flow

  6. Ligula intestinalis infection as a potential source of bias in the bioindication of endocrine disruption in the European chub Leuciscus cephalus.

    PubMed

    Schabuss, M; Gemeiner, M; Gleiss, A; Lewis, J W; Miller, I; Möstl, E; Schober, U; Tschulenk, W; Walter, I; Grillitsch, B

    2005-03-01

    European chub Leuciscus cephalus collected from five localities in the lowland and subalpine regions of Austria were analysed for oestrogenic effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the presence of the plerocercoid of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis. Of 1494 chub analysed, only seven (six males, one female) were found to be infected with single, but large plerocercoids up to 15 cm in length. Ligula-infected fish showed comparatively immature gonads, as demonstrated by the gonadosomatic index and gamete developmental stages. Plasma levels of the egg precursor protein vitellogenin also showed concentrations ranging below the detection limit. The present results indicate that chub infected with L. intestinalis and exposed to exogenous oestrogenic compounds can result in reduced gonadal maturation and produce false oestrogen-positive diagnoses in male fish. For plasma vitellogenin levels, L. intestinalis infections can result in false oestrogen-negative diagnoses in male and female fish.

  7. Changes in the expression of pituitary gonadotropin subunits during reproductive cycle of multiple spawning female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Ohga, Hirofumi; Yoneda, Michio; Shimizu, Akio; Kaneko, Kensuke; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2012-06-01

    The endocrine regulation of reproduction in a multiple spawning fish with an asynchronous-type ovary remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to monitor changes in the mRNA expression of three gonadotropin (GtH) subunits (GPα, FSHβ, and LHβ) during the reproductive cycle of the female chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. Cloning and subsequent sequence analysis revealed that the cDNAs of chub mackerel GPα, FSHβ, and LHβ were 658, 535, and 599 nucleotides in length and encoded 117, 115, and 147 amino acids, respectively. We applied a quantitative real-time PCR assay to quantify the mRNA expression levels of these GtH subunits. During the seasonal reproductive cycle, FSHβ mRNA levels remained high during the vitellogenic stages, while GPα and LHβ mRNA levels peaked at the end of vitellogenesis. The expression of all three GtH subunits decreased during the post-spawning period. These results suggest that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is involved in vitellogenesis, while luteinizing hormone (LH) functions during final oocyte maturation (FOM). Both GPα and FSHβ mRNA levels remained high during the FOM stages of the spawning cycle and increased further just after spawning. Thus, FSH synthesis may be strongly activated just after spawning to accelerate vitellogenesis in preparation for the next spawning. Alternatively, LHβ mRNA levels declined during hydration and then increased after ovulation. This study demonstrates that chub mackerel are a good model for investigating GtH functions in multiple spawning fish.

  8. Identification, characterization, and expression profiles of two subtypes of kisspeptin receptors in a scombroid fish (chub mackerel).

    PubMed

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2013-11-01

    The kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1R) is a cognate receptor for kisspeptin (Kiss), and this Kiss-Kiss1R system has been shown to regulate seasonal reproduction in vertebrates. Our previous study found the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses both kiss1 and kiss2 and exhibits sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. The present study cloned two subtypes of kissr from the chub mackerel brain, and their signal transduction pathways to Kiss1 and Kiss2 were characterized in a mammalian cell line. Results of identification showed that kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs encode 369 and 378 deduced amino acids, respectively, and share 52% similarity in amino acid sequences. In vitro functional analysis revealed that chub mackerel Kiss receptor signals are also preferentially transduced via the protein kinase C (PKC) rather than protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Synthetic chub mackerel Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 peptides showed the highest potency for the activation of KissR1 and KissR2, respectively, stronger than their corresponding Kiss-10 peptides. Tissue distribution analyses indicated that both genes are highly expressed in the brain and that only kissr2 mRNA is expressed in the pituitary of both sexes. Unexpectedly, both kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs were detected only in the testes. Seasonal expression changes showed higher expression levels of both kissr1 and kissr2 mRNAs in the brain of females during the early vitellogenic period; however, no significant differences were found in the brain of males. Pituitary kissr2 mRNA levels showed no significant variations. In the testes, the kissr1 mRNA expression level increased dramatically at spermiation compared with the immature and post-spawning periods. However, kissr2 mRNA levels in the testes did not vary significantly at different testicular stages. These results suggest that both kissr1 and kissr2 likely participate in the seasonal ovarian development of females, and thus in males, we propose a paracrine

  9. Fossilized venom: the unusually conserved venom profiles of Heloderma species (beaded lizards and gila monsters).

    PubMed

    Koludarov, Ivan; Jackson, Timothy N W; Sunagar, Kartik; Nouwens, Amanda; Hendrikx, Iwan; Fry, Bryan G

    2014-12-22

    Research into snake venoms has revealed extensive variation at all taxonomic levels. Lizard venoms, however, have received scant research attention in general, and no studies of intraclade variation in lizard venom composition have been attempted to date. Despite their iconic status and proven usefulness in drug design and discovery, highly venomous helodermatid lizards (gila monsters and beaded lizards) have remained neglected by toxinological research. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of three helodermatid lizards in this study has unravelled an unusual similarity in venom-composition, despite the long evolutionary time (~30 million years) separating H. suspectum from the other two species included in this study (H. exasperatum and H. horridum). Moreover, several genes encoding the major helodermatid toxins appeared to be extremely well-conserved under the influence of negative selection (but with these results regarded as preliminary due to the scarcity of available sequences). While the feeding ecologies of all species of helodermatid lizard are broadly similar, there are significant morphological differences between species, which impact upon relative niche occupation.

  10. An Investigation Into the Ecohydrology of Riparian Wetlands Along the Gila River, NM, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, J.; Stone, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamism of the Gila River, in southwestern New Mexico, USA, has resulted in the creation of a topographically diverse floodplain that supports an array of riparian wetlands. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ecohydrologic and ecohydraulic processes of two of these wetlands, in order to predict their potential response to anthropogenic or natural changes in hydrology. One represents a natural wetland and the other a wetland that exists only as a result of an anthropogenic modification to the river system. A network of 30 wells and 2 weather stations were installed in early 2013 to provide a high resolution of data on surface water and ground water hydrologic conditions. Phreatic surface contour maps were produced to aid in the visualization of sub-surface gradients. Based on these results, an electrical resistivity investigation was conducted to identify paleoflow channels as well as depth to bedrock and other potential areas of interest. These data formed the development of three dimensional ModFlow models that were used to investigate potential future stream flow scenarios on wetland hydrology. The model outputs are being used in tandem with the results of quarterly ecological surveys on vegetation, algae, benthic, and bird communities, to make predictions of potential changes in community structure and function.

  11. Lower Gila South Resource Management Plan, La Paz, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal and Yuma Counties, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Implementation of a resource management plan is proposed for 2.0 million surface acres and 1.9 million acres of subsurface minerals in the Lower Gila South resource area, located in La Paz, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, and Yuma counties, Arizona. The preferred alternative would involve range land improvements consisting of construction of 47 miles of fence, 10 reservoirs and 7 wells. Portions of the New Water Mountains, Eagletail Mountains, Woosley Peak, and Table Top Mountains wilderness study areas (WSAs), totaling 190,391 acres, would be designated as wilderness. The remaining portions of these WSAs and eight other WSAs, totaling 431,540 acres, would not be recommended for wilderness designation and would revert to multiple-use management. Approximately 72,123 acres of isolated land parcels would be made available for sale or exchange, approximately 36,845 acres of nonpublic lands would be acquired, 112,160 acres of state and private mineral estate would be acquired, and 23,645 acres of federal minerals would be disposed of to facilitate management. Ten utility corridors would be designated. Mineral access and off-road vehicle use would be restricted on the lands proposed for wilderness designation.

  12. 75 FR 48880 - Approval and Promulgation of Gila River Indian Community's Tribal Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes to approve the Gila River Indian Community's (GRIC or the Tribe) Tribal Implementation Plan (TIP) under the Clean Air Act (CAA) to regulate air pollution within the exterior boundaries of the Tribe's reservation. The proposed TIP is one of four CAA regulatory programs that comprise the Tribe's Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP). EPA approved the Tribe for treatment in the same manner as a State (Treatment as State or TAS) for purposes of administering the AQMP and other CAA authorities on October 21, 2009. In this action we propose to act only on those portions of the AQMP that constitute a TIP containing severable elements of an implementation plan under CAA section 110(a). The proposed TIP includes general and emergency authorities, ambient air quality standards, permitting requirements for minor sources of air pollution, enforcement authorities, procedures for administrative appeals and judicial review in Tribal court, requirements for area sources of fugitive dust and fugitive particulate matter, general prohibitory rules, and source category-specific emission limitations. The purpose of the proposed TIP is to implement, maintain, and enforce the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in the GRIC reservation. The intended effect of today's proposed action is to make the GRIC TIP federally enforceable.

  13. Barren area evapotranspiration estimates generated from energy budget measurements in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration for 479 successive days were created by using energy budget measurements. The measurement point was on the 2-kilometer wide flood plain of the Gila River in east-central Arizona, about 18 kilometers above Coolidge Dam. The flood plain had been cleared of all tall vegetation for distances of about 20 kilometers upstream and 5 kilometers downstream from the measurement site. Chaining, raking, and burning had been used to clear the area immediately surrounding the measurement site about 6 months before measurements began. Ground cover was sparse volunteer Bermudagrass and scattered seepwillow for a distance of at least 1 kilometer in all directions from the measurement point . The water table was deep , so most of the evaporated water came from rainfall, but some came from soil moisture deeper than 2 meters. The March to March water loss (evapotranspiration less rain) was about 47 millimeters, evapotranspiration demand was 377 millimeters. Daily rates varied from very small amounts of condensation to almost 5 millimeters of evapotranspiration. (USGS)

  14. Evapotranspiration from forage grass replacing native vegetation in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration from an area of forage grass, which had been planted to replace native vegetation of little economic value, were made daily for a 363-day period in 1969 and 1970. The measurement site was located in the Gila River valley in east-central Arizona. The forage, panigrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), grew from seed during the early summer of 1969 and after winterkill, regrew in 1970. Daily evapotranspiration estimates, which were based on energy budget measurements, ranged from a maximum of 9.2 millimeters to small amounts of condensation. Two daily values of substantial condensation (0.9 and 0.4 millimeter) were of dubious quality, but were retained in the record. The annual evapotranspiration was 989 millimeters, of which about 332 millimeters came from precipitation at the site. The water table fluctuated between 210 and 280 centimeters below land surface. However, the measurement site was near a wash, so that undocumented, shallower subterranean flows may have occurred. (USGS)

  15. Fossilized Venom: The Unusually Conserved Venom Profiles of Heloderma Species (Beaded Lizards and Gila Monsters)

    PubMed Central

    Koludarov, Ivan; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Sunagar, Kartik; Nouwens, Amanda; Hendrikx, Iwan; Fry, Bryan G.

    2014-01-01

    Research into snake venoms has revealed extensive variation at all taxonomic levels. Lizard venoms, however, have received scant research attention in general, and no studies of intraclade variation in lizard venom composition have been attempted to date. Despite their iconic status and proven usefulness in drug design and discovery, highly venomous helodermatid lizards (gila monsters and beaded lizards) have remained neglected by toxinological research. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of three helodermatid lizards in this study has unravelled an unusual similarity in venom-composition, despite the long evolutionary time (~30 million years) separating H. suspectum from the other two species included in this study (H. exasperatum and H. horridum). Moreover, several genes encoding the major helodermatid toxins appeared to be extremely well-conserved under the influence of negative selection (but with these results regarded as preliminary due to the scarcity of available sequences). While the feeding ecologies of all species of helodermatid lizard are broadly similar, there are significant morphological differences between species, which impact upon relative niche occupation. PMID:25533521

  16. The Early Oligocene Copperas Creek Volcano and geology along New Mexico Higway 15 between Sapillo Creek and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Grant and Catron Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratté, James C.; Mack, Greg; Witcher, James; Lueth, Virgil W.

    2008-01-01

    The section of New Mexico Highway 15 between the intersection of NM-15 and NM 35 (aka Sapillo junction) at the south and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument at the north end of NM –15 occupies an approximately 18 mile long, mile wide, corridor through the eastern part of the Gila Wilderness (Fig. 1). Whereas most of the Gila Wilderness is dominated by silicic, caldera-forming supervolcanoes of Eocene to Oligocene age, this part of NM-15 traverses a volcanic terrain of similar age, but composed mainly of intermediate composition lava flows and minor associated rhyolitic intrusions and pyroclastic rocks, which are related to the here-named Copperas Creek volcano. This volcanic complex is bounded by Basin and Range structures: on the south by the Sapillo Creek graben, and on the north by the Gila Hot Springs graben, both of which are filled with Gila Conglomerate of late Tertiary to Pleistocene(?) age. Hot springs in the Gila River valley are localized along faults in the deepest part of the Gila Hot Springs graben. The cliff dwellings of the National Monument were constructed in caves in Gila Conglomerate in the western part of the Gila Hot Springs graben. The eastern edge of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera is buried by younger rocks east of the cliff dwellings, but spectacular cliffs of Bloodgood Canyon Tuff, which fills the caldera, can be viewed along the West Fork of the Gila River from the trail starting at the cliff dwellings. Although this is not intended as a formal road log, highway mileage markers (MM) will be used to locate geologic features more or less progressively from south to north along NM-15.

  17. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  18. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Cole, Rebecca A

    2004-10-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  19. Do management actions to restore rare habitat benefit native fish conservation? Distribution of juvenile native fish among shoreline habitats of the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Gerig, Brandon; Pine, William E.; Korman, Josh; Finch, Colton

    2015-01-01

    Many management actions in aquatic ecosystems are directed at restoring or improving specific habitats to benefit fish populations. In the Grand Canyon reach of the Colorado River, experimental flow operations as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program have been designed to restore sandbars and associated backwater habitats. Backwaters can have warmer water temperatures than other habitats, and native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha, are frequently observed in backwaters, leading to a common perception that this habitat is critical for juvenile native fish conservation. However, it is unknown how fish densities in backwaters compare with that in other habitats or what proportion of juvenile fish populations reside in backwaters. Here, we develop and fit multi-species hierarchical models to estimate habitat-specific abundances and densities of juvenile humpback chub, bluehead suckerCatostomus discobolus, flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnis and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus in a portion of the Colorado River. Densities of all four native fish were greatest in backwater habitats in 2009 and 2010. However, backwaters are rare and ephemeral habitats, so they contain only a small portion of the overall population. For example, the total abundance of juvenile humpback chub in this study was much higher in talus than in backwater habitats. Moreover, when we extrapolated relative densities based on estimates of backwater prevalence directly after a controlled flood, the majority of juvenile humpback chub were still found outside of backwaters. This suggests that the role of controlled floods in influencing native fish population trends may be limited in this section of the Colorado River. 

  20. Yield and dynamics of destabilized chub (Coregonus spp.) populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron, 1950-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H.; Argyle, Ray L.; Payne, N. Robert; Holey, Mark E.

    1987-01-01

    Deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) or 'chubs' of Lake Michigan far surpassed those of Lake Huron in yield, population density, and resilience following severe depletion in the 1960s and 1970s, when the bloater (C. hoyi) composed more than 90% of the stocks. The population decline of bloaters in recent decades was mainly attributed to exploitation, to the depression of chub recruitment (e.g. from inferred predation on early life stage) by nonendemic alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and to complications arising from extreme female predominance that was best documented for Lake Michigan. The various interactions between bloaters and the nonendemic species, which were intensified after the loss of large predators to sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), would help to explain why a stock-recruitment relation was not shown for the Lake Michigan bloater. We hypothesize that reproductive inefficiency caused by a shift to strong female predominance in the bloater depresses recruitment and thus helps to regulate abundance. However, the low resilience that sex imbalance seems to impart makes the stock unstable when exploited. It should therefore be exploited conservatively during such periods. Also, the sex ratio and its direction of change appear to be important qualifiers when surplus production is estimated from stock size.

  1. Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

    2008-11-01

    Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

  2. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  3. Assessing predation risks for small fish in a large river ecosystem between contrasting habitats and turbidity conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Mike; Pine, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined predation risk for juvenile native fish between two riverine shoreline habitats, backwater and debris fan, across three discrete turbidity levels (low, intermediate, high) to understand environmental risks associated with habitat use in a section of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ. Inferences are particularly important to juvenile native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. This species uses a variety of habitats including backwaters which are often considered important rearing areas. Densities of two likely predators, adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and adult humpback chub, were estimated between habitats using binomial mixture models to examine whether higher predator density was associated with patterns of predation risk. Tethering experiments were used to quantify relative predation risk between habitats and turbidity conditions. Under low and intermediate turbidity conditions, debris fan habitat showed higher relative predation risk compared to backwaters. In both habitats the highest predation risk was observed during intermediate turbidity conditions. Density of likely predators did not significantly differ between these habitats. This information can help managers in Grand Canyon weigh flow policy options designed to increase backwater availability or extant turbidity conditions.

  4. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Sterner, Mauritz C.; Linder, Chad; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger

    2012-01-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n=14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n=12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  5. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Linder, Chad M; Cole, Rebecca A; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger; Sterner, Mauritz

    2012-02-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha ) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n = 14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n = 12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  6. Distribution of Rio Grande cutthroat trout and its co-occurrence with the Rio Grande sucker and Rio Grande chub on the Carson and Santa Fe National Forests

    Treesearch

    Bob Calamusso; John N. Rinne

    1996-01-01

    Studies were initiated in June, 1994 by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station to update knowledge on the distribution of the Rio Grande cutthroat trout a Forest Service Sensitive Species, and its co-occurrence with two native cypriniforms, Rio Grande sucker and Rio Grande Chub. The Rio Grande sucker IS listed as endangered by the...

  7. The status of Moapa coriacea and Gila seminuda and status information on other fishes of the Muddy River, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Rissler, P.H.; Nielsen, M.B.; Harvey, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Moapa coriacea is endemic to the headwaters (Warm Springs area) of the Muddy River, Clark County, Nevada. The Warm Springs area was snorkeled and Moapa coriacea and Gila seminuda enumerated in August 1994 after a fire, and in May 1997 after a diversion dam had been removed from the downstream end. Gila seminuda had been reported in greatest abundance downstream from the Warm Springs area and we estimated the population there through mark and recapture from January to March 1995. There was a dramatic reduction in native fishes in the Warm Springs area between 1994 and 1997, coinciding with the invasion of Oreochromis aurea. Downstream from the Warm Springs area Gila seminuda was the most frequently netted species while O. aurea was relatively scarce. The fish population (native and non-native) decreased in a downstream direction; the causative factor(s) have not been identified.

  8. Ponderosa pine snag densities following multiple fires in the Gila Wilderness, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holden, Z.A.; Morgan, P.; Rollins, M.G.; Wright, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fires create and consume snags (standing dead trees), an important structural and ecological component of ponderosa pine forests. The effects of repeated fires on snag densities in ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern USA have not been studied. Line intercept sampling was used to estimate snag densities in areas of the Gila Wilderness that had burned one to three times under Wildland Fire Use for Resource Benefit (WFU), a fire management policy implemented since 1974 aimed at restoring natural fire regimes. Twenty randomly located transects were measured in areas burned since 1946; six in once-burned areas, six in twice-burned areas and eight in thrice-burned areas. The mean density ?? standard errors of large (>47.5 cm dbh) snags for areas that burned once, twice and thrice was 7.0 ?? 2.7, 4.4 ?? 1.1 and 4.1 ?? 1.3 snags/ha, respectively. Differences in snag densities between once- and multiple-burned areas were significant (F-test; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in density of large snags between twice- and thrice-burned areas. Proportions of type 1 snags (recently created) were higher in once- and twice-burned areas than in areas that burned three times, likely reflecting high tree mortality and snag recruitment resulting from an initial entry fire. Type 3 snags (charred by previous fire) were more abundant in areas that burned multiple times. The lack of differences in snag densities between areas that burned two and three times suggests that repeated fires leave many snags standing. The increasing proportion of type 3 snags with repeated fires supports this conclusion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long term effects of Climate change on Human adaptation in Middle Gila River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianduowa; Ertsen, Maurits

    2013-04-01

    Climate change has been one of key concerning factors for the origin and evolution of hydraulic engineering projects. The study of ancient irrigation systems in the context of long-term climate change enables us to improve the understanding on the response of human beings to variations on their environment. And niche construction starts to be used to explain the development of early small-scale irrigation canals in a view of biological evolution. Therefore, the study of early irrigation canals within a frame of long-term timescale may help to explore the roles of niche construction theory on canals' operation and further expansion. In this paper, the Hohokam canals in the middle Gila River of Southwest America are used as case study, in order to explore the influences of climate change on human behavior. A prehistoric large-scale irrigation network, the Hohokam irrigation system was composed of interconnected sections organized by local independent communities, rather than under the supervision of a central government. This common operation for water distribution without centralization provides us with the opportunity to focus on the relationship between humans and their environment. The aim of this paper is to model the process of human adaptation to their environment, including water flows, crops production and canal maintenance in long term, with the assistance of archaeological surveys and reconstructed climatological data. The results provide us with an insight on how the variation of the configuration of the canals is clearly conditioned by the interaction and adaptation of human settlements. This evolution can be explained by the combination of human food needs to the restrictions of the changing climate given by water availability. The balance of human demand and water availability guides the direction of human dynamics.

  10. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Analysis of Mafic Volcanic Rocks Near Gila Bend, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, A. T.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-12-01

    Mapping the variability of rocks on the surface of Mars provides one means of studying the geologic history of the planet. The primary igneous rocks identified on Mars using the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) include basaltic to andesitic compositions. While these rock types have been distinguished in the thermal infrared using the spectral resolutions afforded by spectrometers, they have not been well characterized using multispectral instruments such as the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) currently en route to Mars. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) offer an opportunity to study terrestrial mafic rock compositions with multispectral instruments where there is the opportunity to compare results to field based studies and laboratory analysis of collected samples. Both the TIMS and ASTER instruments have coarser spectral resolution than THEMIS. TIMS provides 6 bands and ASTER provides 5, in contrast to the 9 unique bands for THEMIS. However, if these rock types are distinguishable at lower spectral resolutions in field conditions on Earth, THEMIS is likely to exceed their abilities at Mars. In this study, several basaltic to andesitic flows ranging in age from Tertiary ( ~20 Ma) to Quaternary (3 Ma) in the Gila Bend Mountains of southwestern Arizona are analyzed using ASTER and TIMS remote sensing data. The multispectral remote sensing data are deconvolved using laboratory mineral spectra resampled to the ASTER and TIMS instrument spectral resolutions. Comparison to laboratory and portable spectrometer data, as well as thin section analysis, provides the means to determine the accuracy of the deconvolution. Since these rocks differ in age, they exhibit variable amounts of weathering and rock varnish. These variable properties can be used to determine the proportion of the spectral signature that is due to coatings and weathering rinds versus host rock

  11. Sedimentary fluorite in a lacustrine zeolitic tuff of the Gila Conglomerate near Buckhorn, Grant County, New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheppard, R.A.; Mumpton, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fluorite makes up 20-30% of a zeolitic tuff in a Pliocene or Pleistocene lacustrine facies of the Gila Conglomerate that has not been subjected to hydrothermal activity. The fluorite occurs as prolate pellets and, rarely, as ooids that are mostly 0.1-0.3 mm in size are probably the result of primary precipitation of fluorite and magadiite where dilute, calcium-bearing water from springs or streams mixed with the saline, alkaline lake water that had a high fluorine content.-from Authors

  12. Summary of Fluvial Sediment Collected at Selected Sites on the Gunnison River in Colorado and the Green and Duchesne Rivers in Utah, Water Years 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Cory A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Elliott, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin provides habitat for 14 native fish, including four endangered species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 - Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), bonytail (Gila elegans), and humpback chub (Gila cypha). These endangered fish species once thrived in the Colorado River system, but water-resource development, including the building of numerous diversion dams and several large reservoirs, and the introduction of nonnative fish, resulted in large reductions in the numbers and range of the four species. Knowledge of sediment dynamics in river reaches important to specifc life-stages of the endangered fishes is critical to understanding the effects of flow regimes on endangered fish habitats. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Wyoming State Engineer's Office, implemented daily sediment sampling at three locations in critical habitat reaches in the Upper Colorado River Basin. This report presents a summary of data collected at these sites, including water and suspended-sediment discharge, streambed compositions, and channel and flood-plain topography. The locations are at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations 09152500, Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado; 09261000, Green River near Jensen, Utah; and 09302000, Duchesne River near Randlett, Utah.

  13. Effective time closures: quantifying the conservation benefits of input control for the Pacific chub mackerel fishery.

    PubMed

    Ichinokawa, Momoko; Okamura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Chikako; Kawabata, Atsushi; Oozeki, Yoshioki

    2015-09-01

    Restricting human access to a specific wildlife species, community, or ecosystem, i.e., input control, is one of the most popular tools to control human impacts for natural resource management and wildlife conservation. However, quantitative evaluations of input control are generally difficult, because it is unclear how much human impacts can actually be reduced by the control. We present a model framework to quantify the effectiveness of input control using day closures to reduce actual fishing impact by considering the observed fishery dynamics. The model framework was applied to the management of the Pacific stock of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fishery, in which fishing was suspended for one day following any day when the total mackerel catch exceeded a threshold level. We evaluated the management measure according to the following steps: (1) we fitted the daily observed catch and fishing effort data to a generalized linear model (GLM) or generalized autoregressive state-space model (GASSM), (2) we conducted population dynamics simulations based on annual catches randomly generated from the parameters estimated in the first step, (3) we quantified the effectiveness of day closures by comparing the results of two simulation scenarios with and without day closures, and (4) we conducted additional simulations based on different sets of explanatory variables and statistical models (sensitivity analysis). In the first step, we found that the GASSM explained the observed data far better than the simple GLM. The model parameterized with the estimates from the GASSM demonstrated that the day closures implemented from 2004 to 2009 would have decreased exploitation fractions by ~10% every year and increased the 2009 stock biomass by 37-46% (median), relative to the values without day closures. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the effectiveness of day closures was particularly influenced by autoregressive processes in the fishery data and by positive

  14. Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice

    PubMed Central

    Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Åbrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell–derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell–deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

  15. Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice.

    PubMed

    Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Abrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2011-10-01

    Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell-derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell-deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function.

  16. Water supplementation affects the behavioral and physiological ecology of Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) in the Sonoran Desert.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2009-01-01

    In desert species, seasonal peaks in animal activity often correspond with times of higher rainfall. However, the underlying reason for such seasonality can be hard to discern because the rainy season is often associated with shifts in temperature as well as water and food availability. We used a combination of the natural climate pattern of the Sonoran Desert and periodic water supplementation to determine the extent to which water intake influenced both the behavioral ecology and the physiological ecology of a long-lived desert lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) (Cope 1869). Water-supplemented lizards had lower plasma osmolality (i.e., were more hydrated) and maintained urinary bladder water reserves better during seasonal drought than did control lizards. During seasonal drought, water-supplemented lizards were surface active a significantly greater proportion of time than were controls. This increased surface activity can lead to greater food acquisition for supplemental Gila monsters because tail volume (an index of caudal lipid stores) was significantly greater in supplemented lizards compared with controls in one of the two study years.

  17. Predicting future threats to the long-term survival of Gila Trout using a high-resolution simulation of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Thomas L.; Gutzler, David S.; Leung, Lai R.

    2008-11-20

    Regional climates are a major factor in determining the distribution of many species. Anthropogenic inputs of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere have been predicted to cause rapid climatic changes in the next 50-100 years. Species such as the Gila Trout (Onchorhynchus gilae) that have small ranges, limited dispersal capabilities, and narrow physiological tolerances will become increasingly susceptible to extinction as their climate envelope changes. This study uses a regional climate change simulation (Leung et al. 2004) to determine changes in the climate envelope for Gila Trout, which is sensitive to maximum temperature, associated with a plausible scenario for greenhouse gas increases. The model predicts approximately a 2° C increase in temperature and a doubling by the mid 21st Century in the annual number of days during which temperature exceeds 37°C, and a 25% increase in the number of days above 32°C, across the current geographical range of Gila Trout. At the same time summer rainfall decreases by more than 20%. These climate changes would reduce their available habitat by decreasing the size of their climate envelope. Warmer temperatures coupled with a decrease in summer precipitation would also tend to increase the intensity and frequency of forest fires that are a major threat to their survival. The climate envelope approach utilized here could be used to assess climate change threats to other rare species with limited ranges and dispersal capabilities.

  18. A Case Study of Gila River Indian Community (Arizona) and Its Role as a Partner in the NSF-Supported UCAN Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russon, Craig; Horn, Jerry; Oliver, Steve

    This case study examines the history and current circumstances of education in the Gila River Indian Community (Arizona) in the context of its participation in the Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Rural Systemic Initiative (UCAN RSI), which aims to improve science and mathematics achievement through systemic reform. This report describes…

  19. Explaining streamflow variability of the Gila and Rio Grande rivers : Pacific teleconnections and catchment-scale interaction of the hydrological cycle with vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascolini-Campbell, M.; Seager, R.

    2015-12-01

    The streamflows of the Gila River, N.M. and the upper Rio Grande, with headwaters in Colorado are influenced by a range of drivers including the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and, for the Gila, the North American Monsoon. At the catchment scale, runoff to the river is modulated by the interaction of snowmelt, rainfall, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and vegetation. A simple eco-hydological model is used to explain the seasonal cycles of flow of the Gila (strong spring peak, weak summer peak) and upper Rio Grande (single spring peak) in terms of precipitation, snowpack, and evapotranspiration. We then examine the drivers of streamflow variability using USGS gages located upstream of human extraction, precipitation and temperature data from PRISM, and SST data from ERSST. High spring streamflow tends to occur in response to prior winter El Nino but not all high and low streamflow events can be explained by the Pacific teleconnection. Decadal variations, including low flows in the Gila and upper Rio Grande since the mid 1990s, are explained in terms of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean decadal variability.

  20. Summary statistics and trend analysis of water-quality data at sites in the Gila River basin, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Ham, L.K.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Summary statistics and temporal trends for 19 water-chemistry constituents and for turbidity were computed for 13 study sites in the Gila River basin, Arizona and New Mexico. A nonparametric technique, the seasonal Kendall tau test for flow-adjusted data, was used to analyze temporal changes in water-chemistry data. For the 19 selected constituents and turbidity, decreasing trends in concentrations outnumbered increasing trends by more than two to one. Decreasing trends in concentrations of constituents were found for 49 data sets at the 13 study sites. Gila River at Calva and Gila River above diversions, at Gillespie Dam (eight each) had the most decreasing trends for individual sites. The largest number of decreasing trends measured for a constituent was six for dissolved lead. The next largest number of decreasing trends for a constituent was for dissolved solids and total manganese (five each). Hardness, dissolved sodium, and dissolved chloride had decreasing trends at four of the study sites. Increasing trends in concen- trations of constituents were found for 24 data sets at the 13 study sites. The largest number of increasing trends measured for a single constituent was for pH (four), dissolved sulfate (three), dissolved chromium (three) and total manganese (three). Increased concentrations of constituents generally were found in three areas in the basin-at Pinal Creek above Inspiration Dam, at sites above reservoirs, and at sites on the main stem of the Gila River from Gillespie Dam to the mouth.

  1. Historical and current fire management practices in two wilderness areas in the southwestern United States: The Saguaro Wilderness Area and the Gila-Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex

    Treesearch

    Molly E. Hunter; Jose M. Iniguez; Calvin A. Farris

    2014-01-01

    Fire suppression has been the dominant fire management strategy in the West over the last century. However, managers of the Gila and Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex in New Mexico and the Saguaro Wilderness Area in Arizona have allowed fire to play a more natural role for decades. This report summarizes the effects of these fire management practices on key resources,...

  2. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and mRNA expression profiles of two Kiss genes in the adult male and female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) during different gonadal stages.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Ohga, Hirofumi; Yoneda, Michio; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Shimizu, Akio; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2010-10-01

    Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, have emerged as key modulators of reproduction in mammals. In contrast to the placental mammals, some teleosts express two Kiss genes, Kiss1 and Kiss2. In the present study, full-length cDNAs of Kiss1 and Kiss2 in the chub mackerel were cloned and sequenced. Chub mackerel Kiss1 and Kiss2 cDNAs encode 105 and 123 amino acids, respectively. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of chub mackerel Kiss1 and Kiss2 with those of other vertebrate species showed a high degree of conservation only in the kisspeptin-10 region (Kp-10). The Kp-10 of chub mackerel Kiss1 (YNFNSFGLRY) and Kiss2 (FNFNPFGLRF) showed variations at three amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that the Kiss1 and Kiss2 transcripts were expressed in different tissues of adult chub mackerel. In addition, their levels in the adipose tissue exhibited sexually dimorphic expression. Further, to have a basic understanding on the involvement of Kiss1 and Kiss2 in the seasonal gonadal development, their relative mRNA expression profiles in the brain, pituitary, and gonads at different gonadal stages were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Kiss1 and Kiss2 levels in the brain showed a differential expression profile between male and female fish. In males, Kiss1 and Kiss2 levels gradually decreased from the immature stage to spermiation and reached a minimal level during the post-spawning period. In contrast, Kiss1 levels in the brain of females did not vary significantly among the different gonadal stages. However, Kiss2 levels fluctuated as that of males, gradually declining from the immature stage to the post-spawning period. The pituitary Kiss1 levels did not show significant fluctuations. However, Kiss1 levels in the gonads were highly elevated during spermiation and late vitellogenesis compared to the immature and post-spawning period. These results suggest the possible involvement of two Kiss genes in the brain and

  3. mRNA levels of kisspeptins, kisspeptin receptors, and GnRH1 in the brain of chub mackerel during puberty.

    PubMed

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Adachi, Hayato; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kato, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its cognate receptor (Kiss1R), implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion in mammals, have been proposed to be the key factors in regulating puberty. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of puberty in fish are poorly understood. The chub mackerel Scomber japonicus expresses two forms of Kiss (kiss1 and kiss2) and two Kiss receptor (kissr1 and kissr2) genes in the brain, which exhibit sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. This indicates that the kisspeptin system plays an important role in gonadal recrudescence of chub mackerel; however, the involvement of the kisspeptin system in the pubertal process has not been identified. In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression of kiss1, kiss2, kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 (hypophysiotropic form) in the brain of a chub mackerel during puberty. In male fish, kiss2, kissr1 and kissr2 levels increased significantly at 14weeks post-hatch (wph), synchronously with an increase in type A spermatogonial populations in the testis; kiss2 and gnrh1 levels significantly increased at 22wph, just before the onset of meiosis in the testes. In female fish, kiss2 increased significantly at 14wph, synchronously with an increase in the number of perinucleolar oocytes in the ovary; kiss1 and kiss2 levels significantly increased concomitantly with an increase in the kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 levels at 24wph, just before the onset of vitellogenesis in oocytes. The present results suggest positive involvement of the kisspeptin-GnRH system in the pubertal process in the captive reared chub mackerel.

  4. Mineral resource potential map of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Study Area, Graham and Greenlee counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donlad H.; Klein, Douglas P.; Lawrence, Viki A.; Lane, Michael

    1982-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Study Area (AZ-040-022/023/024) is low (fig. 2). Although favorable geologic environments for placer gold deposits and manganese vein deposits are present in the study area, the probability of discovering economically exploitable deposits of these metals is low, and not encouraging. Even more speculative is the study area's porphyry copper potential which is based solely on the possibility of favorable host terranes underlying the study area at depth. The study area does contain substantial deposits of pumice, but their economic significance is probably minor. A part of the study area has been previously designated a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA).

  5. Molecular systematics and distribution review of the endemic cyprinid species, Persian chub, Acanthobrama persidis (Coad, 1981) in Southern Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Zarei, Neda; Gholamhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The Iranian Persian chub is an endemic species of the family Cyprinidae known only from few localities in drainages of Southern Iran. It was originally described in the genus Pseudophoxinus as (Pseudophoxinus persidis) and then Petroleuciscus (as Petroleuciscus persidis). In this study, we examined phylogenetic relationships of the Iranian Persian chub with other relatives in the family Cyprinidae based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to estimate the phylogenetic (and taxonomic) position of the species. Our molecular phylogenies show that new fish sequences from the drainages in southern Iran are clustered with sequences of the genus Acanthobrama from GenBank while the sequences from two other genera (Pseudophoxinus and Petroleuciscus) are in distinct clade. Therefore, we conclude that the populations of Persian Chub in drainages of southern Iran (i.e., Kol, Kor, Maharlu and Persis) belong to the genus Acanthobrama and species Acanthobrama persidis. The predicted geographic distributions for the species showed a large area of suitable climate for A. persidis across south and west of Iran especially in the Kor River basin. Some other parts in the Persis and Tigris are also might have been suitable habitats for this cyprinid species showing possible dispersal route of Acanthobrama from Tigris to the Persis, Kor and Kol basins. PMID:27844011

  6. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  7. Does bioelectrical impedance analysis accurately estimate the condition of threatened and endangered desert fish species?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yard, Micheal D.; Ward, David L.; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a nonlethal tool with which to estimate the physiological condition of animals that has potential value in research on endangered species. However, the effectiveness of BIA varies by species, the methodology continues to be refined, and incidental mortality rates are unknown. Under laboratory conditions we tested the value of using BIA in addition to morphological measurements such as total length and wet mass to estimate proximate composition (lipid, protein, ash, water, dry mass, energy density) in the endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha and Bonytail G. elegans and the species of concern Roundtail Chub G. robusta and conducted separate trials to estimate the mortality rates of these sensitive species. Although Humpback and Roundtail Chub exhibited no or low mortality in response to taking BIA measurements versus handling for length and wet-mass measurements, Bonytails exhibited 14% and 47% mortality in the BIA and handling experiments, respectively, indicating that survival following stress is species specific. Derived BIA measurements were included in the best models for most proximate components; however, the added value of BIA as a predictor was marginal except in the absence of accurate wet-mass data. Bioelectrical impedance analysis improved the R2 of the best percentage-based models by no more than 4% relative to models based on morphology. Simulated field conditions indicated that BIA models became increasingly better than morphometric models at estimating proximate composition as the observation error around wet-mass measurements increased. However, since the overall proportion of variance explained by percentage-based models was low and BIA was mostly a redundant predictor, we caution against the use of BIA in field applications for these sensitive fish species.

  8. Nonnative fish control in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: An effective program or serendipitous timing?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.; Pine, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River within Grand Canyon is currently the focus of a multiyear program of ecosystem-level experimentation designed to improve native fish survival and promote population recovery as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. A key element of this experiment was a 4-year effort to remove nonnative fishes from critical humpback chub habitat, thereby reducing potentially negative interactions between native and nonnative fishes. Over 36,500 fish from 15 species were captured in the mechanical removal reach during 2003–2006. The majority (64%) of the catch consisted of nonnative fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (19,020), fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (2,569), common carp Cyprinus carpio (802), and brown trout Salmo trutta (479). Native fish (13,268) constituted 36% of the total catch and included flannelmouth suckers Catostomus latipinnis (7,347), humpback chub (2,606), bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus (2,243), and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus (1,072). The contribution of rainbow trout to the overall species composition fell steadily throughout the study period from a high of approximately 90% in January 2003 to less than 10% in August 2006. Overall, the catch of nonnative fish exceeded 95% in January 2003 and fell to less than 50% after July 2005. Our results suggest that removal efforts were successful in rapidly shifting the fish community from one dominated numerically by nonnative species to one dominated by native species. Additionally, increases in juvenile native fish abundance within the removal reach suggest that removal efforts may have promoted greater survival and recruitment. However, drought-induced increases in river water temperature and a systemwide decrease in rainbow trout abundance concurrent with our experiment made it difficult to determine the cause of the apparent increase in juvenile native fish survival and recruitment

  9. Dim-light photoreceptor of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and the photoresponse upon illumination with LEDs of different wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jun-Chul; Choi, Mi-Jin; Yang, Yong-Soo; Lee, Hyung-Been; Yu, Young-Moon; Kim, Jong-Myoung

    2016-06-01

    To study the absorption characteristics of rhodopsin, a dim-light photoreceptor, in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and the relationship between light wavelengths on the photoresponse, the rod opsin gene was cloned into an expression vector, pMT4. Recombinant opsin was transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and reconstituted with 11-cis-retinal. Cells containing the regenerated rhodopsin were solubilized and subjected to UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis in the dark and upon illumination. Difference spectra from the lysates indicated an absorption maximum of mackerel rhodopsin around 500 nm. Four types of light-emitting diode (LED) modules with different wavelengths (red, peak 627 nm; cyan, 505 nm; blue, 442 nm; white, 447 + 560 nm) were constructed to examine their effects on the photoresponse in chub mackerel. Behavioral responses of the mackerels, including speed and frequencies acclimated in the dark and upon LED illumination, were analyzed using an underwater acoustic camera. Compared to an average speed of 22.25 ± 1.57 cm/s of mackerel movement in the dark, speed increased to 22.97 ± 0.29, 24.66 ± 1.06, 26.28 ± 2.28, and 25.19 ± 1.91 cm/s upon exposure to red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs, respectively. There were increases of 103.48 ± 1.58, 109.37 ± 5.29, 118.48 ± 10.82, and 109.43 ± 3.92 %, respectively, in the relative speed of the fishes upon illumination with red, blue, cyan, and white LEDs compared with that in the dark (set at 100 %). Similar rate of wavelength-dependent responses was observed in a frequency analysis. These results indicate that an LED emitting a peak wavelength close to an absorption maximum of rhodopsin is more effective at eliciting a response to light.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Expeditionary Training at Gila Bend Air Force Auxiliary Field and the Barry M. Goldwater Range East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    inhabited the area, although other cultural groups such as the Quechan, Cocopah, Yavapai, Apache , Maricopa, and the Tohono O’odham used portions of...and probably ventured south of the Gila River into the western Papaguería at times. Apaches made brief forays to engage in raiding. Late Historical...Terry O. Enos, Chairman Nancy Nelson, Cultural Resource Manager, Ak-Chin Him Dak Eco Museum & Archives Cocopah Tribe Sherry Cordova , Chairman

  11. Biomarkers of Contaminant Exposure in Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) – Biomonitoring of Major Rivers in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Havelkova, Marcela; Blahova, Jana; Kroupova, Hana; Randak, Tomas; Slatinska, Iveta; Leontovycova, Drahomira; Grabic, Roman; Pospisil, Richard; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical analysis of organisms to assess exposure to environmental contaminants is of great potential use. Biochemical markers, specifically liver enzymes of the first and the second phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 (CYP 450), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and tripeptide reduced glutathione (GSH) - were used to assess contamination of the aquatic environment at 12 locations near the mouths of major rivers in the Czech Republic. These rivers were the Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra. The indicator species selected was the Chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.). The highest levels of CYP 450 and EROD catalytic activity were found in livers of fish from the Labe (Obříství; (0.32±0.10 nmol mg−1 protein and 1061.38±545.51 pmol min−1 mg−1 protein, respectively). The highest levels of GST catalytic activity and GSH content were found in fish from the Otava (35.39±13.35 nmol min−1 mg−1 protein and 4.29±2.10 nmol GSH mg−1 protein, respectively). They were compared with levels of specific inductors of these biochemical markers in muscle. The results confirmed contamination of some river locations (Labe Obříství, Svratka;. PMID:27879837

  12. The effects of turbulent eddies on the stability and critical swimming speed of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus).

    PubMed

    Tritico, H M; Cotel, A J

    2010-07-01

    The effect of turbulent eddy diameter, vorticity and orientation on the 2 min critical swimming speed and stability of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) is reported. Turbulent eddies were visualized and their properties were quantified using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flow fields with an increasing range in eddy diameter were created by inserting cylinder arrays upstream from the swimming test section. Eddy vorticity increased with increasing velocity. Two orientations of eddies, eddies spinning about a vertical axis and eddies spinning about a horizontal (wall-to-wall) axis, were investigated. Stability challenges were not observed until the largest (95th percentile) eddy diameters reached 76% of the fish body total length. Under these conditions fish were observed to spin in an orientation consistent with the rotational axis of the large eddies and translate downstream. These losses in postural control were termed 'spills'. Spills were 230% more frequent and lasted 24% longer in turbulent flow fields dominated by horizontal eddies than by vertical eddies of the same diameter. The onset of spills coincided with a 10% and 22% reduction in critical swimming speed in turbulent flows dominated by large vertical and horizontal eddies, respectively. These observations confirm predictions by Pavlov et al., Cada and Odeh, Lupandin, and Liao that the eddy diameter, vorticity and orientation play an important role in the swimming capacity of fishes.

  13. Chemical composition, antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of lipid classes in ordinary and dark muscles from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin Han; Lim, Sun Young

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated to compare lipid profiles in ordinary and dark muscles from chub mackerel and to examine antiproliferative and antioxidative properties of lipid classes. The average levels of neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and phospholipids (PL) in ordinary muscle were 92.32±0.19%, 5.10±0.48%, and 2.58±0.46%; in dark muscle were 96.88±0.15%, 2.59±0.36%, and 0.54±0.29%, respectively. The fatty acid composition indicated that PL had a higher percentage of PUFA (especially 22:6n-3) with lower percentages of SFA and MUFA compared to NL and GL (p<0.05). The main ion peaks of GL in ordinary and dark muscles showed that monocharged and bischarged molecular ion were presented at m/z 876.9 and 438.8, respectively. In MTT assay, inhibition of AGS and HT-29 cell proliferation was greatest with the 0.5 and 1.0 mg mL(-1) GL treatments. The GL of ordinary muscle with 0.05 mg mL(-1) concentrations markedly decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 compared to the control (p<0.05). From our results, GL might have antiproliferative and antioxidant properties based on protective effect against the production of intracellular ROS.

  14. Effect of vacuum packaging and low-dose irradiation on the microbial, chemical and sensory characteristics of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Mbarki, Raouf; Ben Miloud, Najla; Selmi, Salah; Dhib, Soukeina; Sadok, Saloua

    2009-12-01

    The effects of vacuum packaging followed by gamma irradiation treatment (1.5 kGy) on the shelf-life of fillets of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) were examined, during chill storage. The control and the treated packs were analyzed periodically for chemical (TMA, TBARS, biogenic amines) and microbial characteristics. Based on chemical and microbial data, vacuum packaging - by itself - was improper in extending the shelf-life of chub mackerel, estimated to 7 days. On the 7th day, TMA and Histamine contents reached the defect action levels, associated with the presence of mesophiles (3.7 log UFC/g); total coliforms (3.5 log UFC/g); staphylococci (1.9 log UFC/g) and the emergence of Pseudomonas (1.7 log UFC/g), in both the control and the vacuum packaged lots. Combination of vacuum packaging and gamma-irradiation was found to delay the spoilage during 14 days of refrigerated storage, based on chemical and microbial analyses. Similarly, consumer hedonic tests were performed to determine the effect of different treatments on the taste of fish fillets. For all treatments, consumers failed to discriminate treated samples from the control, on the 2nd day of storage (p > 0.05). The acceptability test showed that low-dose irradiation (1.5 kGy) optimised the sensory quality, on the 3rd day of storage (p < 0.05). The employment of vacuum packaging combined to a low-dose gamma-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on chub mackerel is recommended to enhance microbiological quality (4 log reduction), alleviate chemical changes and extend the shelf-life by 7 days, leading to consumer appreciation of these products.

  15. The development of Byetta (exenatide) from the venom of the Gila monster as an anti-diabetic agent.

    PubMed

    Furman, Brian L

    2012-03-15

    The development of Byetta (synthetic exendin-4; exenatide) as a treatment of diabetes arose from two, parallel lines of investigation. The development of the 'incretin concept' which hypothesised that hormones from the gut contributed to the insulin secretion in response to meals, led to the identification of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) as an important 'incretin' hormone. GLP-1 not only increases insulin secretion but increases β-cell proliferation and survival, suppresses glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying and suppresses appetite, all of these actions contributing to a potential anti-diabetic effect. However, GLP-1 has a very short half due to its rapid breakdown by dipeptidyl peptidase IV and ectopeptidases. A systematic investigation of the composition and activity of venom from the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum, led to the isolation of a 39-amino acid peptide, designated exendin-4, showing 53% structural homology with GLP-1(7-36). Exendin-4 mimicked GLP-1 through stimulating the GLP-1 receptor. The much greater stability of exendin-4 led to its experimental and clinical evaluation as an anti-diabetic agent and its introduction to the market in 2005.

  16. In situ impact assessment of wastewater effluents by integrating multi-level biomarker responses in the pale chub (Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Jung, Jinho

    2016-06-01

    The integration of biomarker responses ranging from the molecular to the individual level is of great interest for measuring the toxic effects of hazardous chemicals or effluent mixtures on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents on the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus by using multi-level biomarker responses at molecular [mRNA expression of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and metallothionein (MT)], biochemical (enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, GST, and concentration of MT), and physiological [condition factor (CF) and liver somatic index (LSI)] levels. The mRNA expression levels of GST and MT in Z. platypus from a site downstream of a WWTP significantly increased by 2.2- and 4.5-fold (p<0.05) when compared with those from an upstream site. However, the enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in fish from the downstream site significantly decreased by 43%, 98%, and 13%, respectively (p<0.05), except for an increase in MT concentration (41%). In addition, a significant increase in LSI (46%) was observed in Z. platypus from the downstream site (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the liver of Z. platypus were higher (530%, 353%, 800%, and 2,200%, respectively) in fish from a downstream site than in fish from an upstream location, and several multi-level biomarker responses were significantly correlated with the accumulated metals in Z. platypus (p<0.05). Integrated biomarker responses at molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels (multi-level IBR) were much higher (about 4-fold) at the downstream site than at the upstream site. This study suggests that the multi-level IBR approach is very useful for quantifying in situ adverse effects of WWTP effluents.

  17. Possibilities to control Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation with medicated feed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Ghada; Lahnsteiner, Franz; Mansour, Nabil

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with medicated feed was investigated in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chub, Leuciscus cephalus. The anti-parasitics toltrazuril and imidocarb; the antibiotics doxycycline, erythromycin and sulphadiazine and the anti-inflammatory acetylsalicylic acid were tested. In vitro experiment revealed that all tested anti-parasitics and antibiotics were effective in killing the isolated trophonts and theronts. Minimum doses for killing 100 % of the viable trophonts and for inhibiting the development of theronts were 3 mg/L for doxycycline, 30 mg/L for erythromycin, 2 mg/L for imidocarb dipropionate, 30 mg/L for sulphadiazine and 20 mg/L for toltrazuril. Acetylsalicylic acid (40 mg/kg fish/day), doxycycline (3 and 6 mg/kg/day), erythromycin (40 mg/kg/day), imidocarb dipropionate (5.0 mg/kg/day), sulphadiazine (40 mg/kg/day), toltrazuril (20 and 40 mg/kg/day) and combinations of doxycycline and toltrazuril (3 + 20 mg/kg/day, 6 + 40 mg/kg/day) were tested as medicated feed. When administered as medicated feed, only doxycycline, toltrazuril and combinations of doxycycline and toltrazuril reduced the fish mortality and infestation level. Best results were obtained by feeding a combination of 6 mg/kg/day doxycycline and 40 mg/kg/day toltrazuril. In O. mykiss, this treatment reduced the mortality rate from 100 to 50 ± 14 % after 10 days and the infestation level from grade 4 (≥100 trophonts per skin mucus sample) to 3.5 (50-100 trophonts). In L. cephalus, the mortality rate was decreased from 100 to 39 ± 5 % and the infestation level from grades 4 to 2 (ten to 50 trophonts) after 10 days.

  18. Habitat and fish assemblage associations and current status of northern leatherside chub Lepidomeda copei in western Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Luke; Cavalli, Pete; Sexauer, Hilda; Zafft, David

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have extensively altered native fish assemblages and their habitats in the western United States. Conservation and restoration for long-term persistence of these fishes requires knowledge of their distributional patterns and life history requirements. Northern leatherside chub Lepidomeda copei (hereafter northern leatherside) is a cyprinid native to the Snake and Bear River Basins of Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah, and it is believed to have declined in distribution relative to historical records. To address information gaps in the species' ecology and assess its status in the state, the objectives of this study were first to document the distribution (2010–2011) of northern leatherside in Wyoming and then to examine habitat factors related to the entire fish assemblage and to evaluate specific habitat associations of northern leatherside in the Bear River Basin, Wyoming. In the Bear River and Upper Snake River Basins, we documented the distribution of northern leatherside and compared it to the previously known distribution. Across the Bear River Basin, we used habitat measurements to assess abiotic features related to the distribution and abundance of northern leatherside. Northern leatherside was found across the Bear River Basin and was present in 2 streams each in the Upper Snake River and Green River Basins in Wyoming. Populations in Wyoming appear to represent the core of northern leatherside range, and our work provided a finer-scale delineation of the species' occurrence. Northern leatherside was collected from a variety of habitats, but multivariate analyses and occurrence modeling indicated it was associated with increased channel depth and depth variability, and positively associated with other native fishes (including mountain sucker Catostomus platyrhynchus, redside shiner Richardsonius balteatus, and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus). These findings on the distribution and ecology of northern leatherside provide

  19. Effects of exposure to four endocrine disrupting-chemicals on fertilization and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li

    2013-09-01

    The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 μg L-1 for NP and 100 μg L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 μg L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μg L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 μg L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.

  20. Characterization, localization, and stage-dependent gene expression of gonadotropin receptors in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kitano, Hajime; Shimizu, Akio; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2013-06-01

    The pituitary gonadotropins (GtHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are key regulators of gametogenesis in teleosts. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms by which GtHs regulate asynchronous oocyte development in multiple-spawning marine fishes. We cloned cDNAs encoding GtH receptors (FSHR and LHR) from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). FSH and LH were purified by anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and concanavalinA-agarose. When expressed in mammalian cells, FSHR and LHR responded strongly to their own ligands. By separating LH into two subunits by the use of reverse-phase chromatography, we found that the beta-subunit is responsible for signal transduction and the alpha-subunit may be important for holding hormone-receptor complex. In situ hybridization showed that only fshr was expressed in prefollicle and granulosa cells in oocytes at the perinucleolus and cortical alveolus stages, suggesting that FSH is involved in the primary and early secondary growth of oocytes. In ovarian follicles during vitellogenesis, both fshr and lhr were expressed in granulosa and thecal cells, and lhr was strongly expressed during germinal vesicle migration (GVM). Real-time PCR analysis of stage-dependent fshr and lhr expression showed that fshr expression was high in ovarian follicles throughout vitellogenesis and decreased during GVM, whereas lhr expression was low in early vitellogenesis, but increased markedly in the late phase of vitellogenesis, remaining high during GVM. These findings suggest that switching of the expression of FSHR to LHR controls the effects of FSH and/or LH on vitellogenesis and final oocyte maturation via steroid production in granulosa and thecal cells.

  1. Factors controlling the abundance of rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in a reach utilized by endangered humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the abundance, survival, movement, and recruitment of non-native rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon to determine what controls their abundance near the Little Colorado River (LCR) confluence where endangered humpback chub rear. Over a 3-year period, we tagged more than 70,000 trout and recovered over 8,200 tagged fish. Trout density was highest (10,000-25,000 fish/km) in the reach closest to Glen Canyon Dam where the majority of trout recruitment occurs, and was 30-50-fold lower (200-800 fish/km) in reaches near the LCR confluence ~100 km downstream. The extent of rainbow trout movement was limited with less than 1% of recaptures making movements greater than 20 km. However, due to high trout densities in upstream source areas, this small dispersal rate was sufficient to explain the 3-fold increase in the relatively small population near the LCR. Reducing dispersal rates of trout from upstream sources is the most feasible solution to maintain low densities near the LCR to minimize negative effects of competition and predation on humpback chub.

  2. Relevance of biotic parameters in the assessment of the spatial distribution of gastrointestinal metal and protein levels during spawning period of European chub (Squalius cephalus L.).

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Raspor, Biserka

    2014-06-01

    The present field study, conducted during the spawning period (April/May) of European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Sava River in Croatia, indicates that seasonal changes of fish physiological state might cause variability in gastrointestinal metal (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), total cytosolic protein and metallothionein (MT) levels. During the period of fish spawning and increased metabolic activity, a significant relationship with chub hepatosomatic index was evident for Fe and Mn in gastrointestinal tissue (r = 0.35 and 0.26, respectively) and in cytosolic fraction (r = 0.32 and 0.41, respectively) and for Zn and Fe in the gut content (r = 0.36 and 0.31, respectively). Total cytosolic protein and MT concentrations followed the same spatial distribution as Fe and Mn in all gastrointestinal fractions and as Zn in the sub-cellular fractions, with higher levels at upstream locations. Due to the role of essential metals in metabolic processes and gonad development, increased feeding and spawning activity in April/May resulted in higher gastrointestinal essential metal (Fe, Mn and Zn) and MT concentrations, which probably follow an increase in Zn concentrations, known as the primary MT inducer. Therefore, biotic factors should be considered as important confounding factors in metal exposure assessment, while their influence on gastrointestinal metal and protein levels should be interpreted depending on the season studied.

  3. Connectivity maps for biosimilar drug discovery in venoms: the case of Gila monster venom and the anti-diabetes drug Byetta®.

    PubMed

    Aramadhaka, Lavakumar Reddy; Prorock, Alyson; Dragulev, Bojan; Bao, Yongde; Fox, Jay W

    2013-07-01

    Like most natural product libraries animal venoms have long been recognized as potentially rich source of biologically active molecules with the potential to be mined for the discovery of drugs, drug leads and/or biosimilars. In this work we demonstrate as a proof of concept a novel approach to explore venoms for potential biosimilarity to other drugs based on their ability to alter the transcriptomes of test cell lines followed by informatic searches and Connectivity Mapping to match the action of the venom on the cell gene expression to that of other drugs in the Connectivity Map (C-Map) database. As our test animal venom we chose Heloderma suspectum venom (Gila monster) since exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, isolated from the venom is currently on the market to treat type 2 diabetes. The action of Byetta(®) (exentide, synthetic exendin-4), was also used in transcriptome studies. Analysis of transcriptomes from cells treated with the venom or the drug showed similarities as well as differences. The former case was primarily attributed to the fact that Gila monster venom likely contains a variety of biologically active molecules that could alter the MCF7 cell transcriptome compared to that of the single perturbant Byetta(®). Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling was identified in the category of "Top Canonical Pathways" for both the venom and Byetta(®). In the category of "Top Molecules" up-regulated, both venom and Byetta(®) shared IL-8, cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NR4A3), dexamethasone-induced Ras-related protein 1 (RASD1) and early growth response protein 1, (EGR-1) all with potential relevance in diabetes. Using Connectivity Mapping, Gila monster venom showed positive correlation with 1732 instances and negative correlation with 793 instances in the Connectivity database whereas Byetta(®) showed positive correlation with 1692

  4. Hematology, leukocyte cytochemical analysis, plasma biochemistry, and plasma electrophoresis of wild-caught and captive-bred Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum).

    PubMed

    Cooper-Bailey, Kerri; Smith, Stephen A; Zimmerman, Kurt; Lane, Rosalie; Raskin, Rose E; DeNardo, Dale

    2011-09-01

    The Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), one of several venomous lizard species in the world, is found within the United States and Mexico and is recognized as an iconic symbol of the American Southwest. Thus, Gila monsters are of growing interest in the captive reptile trade and within zoological and educational institutions. The aims of this study were to determine results for CBCs, describe cytochemical reactions in WBCs, and obtain plasma biochemical and protein electrophoresis results from wild-caught and captive-bred H. suspectum. Ventral tail vein blood samples were obtained from 16 captive (14 wild-caught and 2 captive-bred) Gila monsters. CBCs, RBC morphometric analysis, plasma biochemical analysis, and protein electrophoresis were performed. Leukocytes were stained for peroxidase, Sudan black B (SBB), chloroacetate esterase, napthyl butyrate esterase, and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, and blood smears were examined for the presence of hemoparasites. The median (range) PCV was 37% (22-50%) and WBC count was 4.6 × 10(3) /μL (3.3-6.4 × 10(3) /μL) with approximately 50% heterophils and fewer lymphocytes, basophils, azurophils, and monocytes in decreasing order. Cytochemical reactions were unique among reptiles with strong staining for peroxidase and SBB in monocytes/azurophils. Biochemical results were similar to those of earlier reports with slight increases in uric acid and urea concentrations. Plasma electrophoretic results indicated that albumin was approximately equal to the combined globulin fractions. Results of blood analysis in healthy wild-caught and captive-bred H. suspectum may be useful for monitoring health status in this species. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Geoelectric structure of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Area, Graham and Greenlee counties, Arizona from audio-magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, D.P.; Baer, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction data using distant field sources, mostly of natural origin, in the frequency range of 4.5-27,000 Hz are analyzed to depict the geoelectric structure in an area of volcanic-rock cover located in southeastern Arizona between the Morenci and Safford porphyry copper deposits. The data for each station consist of scalar electromagnetic measurements at descrete frequencies for two-orthogonal magnetic and electric field pairs. Observations spaced about 5-km apart indicate resistivities in the range of 100-700 ohm-m for the unweathered Tertiary volcanic rocks to a depth of 200 to 500 m. Beneath this zone the data indicate resistivities in the range of 10-100 ohm-m that suggest the existence of an older volcanic rock unit. The less resistive unit appears to be displaced upward beneath Turtle Mountain, an area bounded to the northeast and southwest by mapped Basin and Range faults, and bounded to the southeast by an unmapped fault of older origin that trends northeast. Lateral changes in the resistivity of the two main geoelectric layers result in lowered resistivity in an area of known hot-springs near the confluence of the Gila and San Francisco Rivers, as well as along a north-south trending zone located on the east flank of Turtle Mountain, about 5-km (3-mi) west-northwest of the hot springs. This second anomaly is at a probable depth of 400-500 m and is interpreted to indicate a buried fault or fracture zone.

  6. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2000 to 2009 summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Makinster, Andrew S.; Persons, William R.; Avery, Luke A.; Bunch, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term fish monitoring in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam is an essential component of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). The GCDAMP is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam is met. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is responsible for the program's long-term fish monitoring, which is implemented in cooperation with the Arizona Game and Fish Department, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SWCA Environmental Consultants, and others. Electrofishing and tagging protocols have been developed and implemented for standardized annual monitoring of Colorado River fishes since 2000. In 2009, sampling occurred throughout the river between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead for 38 nights over two trips. During the two trips, scientists captured 6,826 fish representing 11 species. Based on catch-per-unit-effort, salmonids (for example, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)) increased eightfold between 2006 and 2009. Flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) catch rates were twice as high in 2009 as in 2006. Humpback chub (Gila cypha) catches were low throughout the 10-year sampling period.

  7. The effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    The Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River-a 16-mile segment from Glen Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Paria River-supports an important recreational rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery. In Grand Canyon, nonnative rainbow trout prey on and compete for habitat and food with native fish, such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Experimental flow fluctuations from the dam during winter and spring 2003-5 dewatered and killed a high proportion of rainbow trout eggs in gravel spawning bars, but this mortality had no measurable effect on the abundance of juvenile fish. Flow fluctuations during summer months reduced growth of juvenile trout relative to steadier flows. A high-flow experiment in March 2008 increased both trout survival rates for early life stages and fish abundance. These findings demonstrate that Glen Canyon Dam operations directly affect the trout population in the Lees Ferry reach and could be used to regulate nonnative fish abundance to limit potential negative effects of trout on native fish in Grand Canyon.

  8. Incorporating temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions into a somatic growth model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating environmental effects on fish growth can be challenging because environmental conditions may vary at relatively fine temporal scales compared to sampling occasions. Here we develop a Bayesian state-space growth model to evaluate effects of monthly environmental data on growth of fish that are observed less frequently (e.g., from mark-recapture data where time between captures can range from months to years). We assess effects of temperature, turbidity duration, food availability, flow variability, and trout abundance on subadult humpback chub (Gila cypha) growth in two rivers, the Colorado River (CR) and the Little Colorado River (LCR), and we use out-of-sample prediction to rank competing models. Environmental covariates explained a high proportion of the variation in growth in both rivers; however, the best growth models were river-specific and included either positive temperature and turbidity duration effects (CR) or positive temperature and food availability effects (LCR). Our approach to analyzing environmental controls on growth should be applicable in other systems where environmental data vary over relatively short time scales compared to animal observations.

  9. Abundance Trends and Status of the Little Colorado River Population of Humpback Chub: An Update Considering Data From 1989-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Walters, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Mark-recapture methods have been used for the past two decades to assess trends in adult abundance and recruitment of the Little Colorado River (LCR) population of humpback chub. These methods indicate that the adult population declined through the 1980s and early 1990s but has been increasing for the past decade. Recruitment appears also to have increased, particularly in the 2003-4 period. Considering a range of assumed natural mortality-rates and magnitude of ageing error, it is unlikely that there are currently less than 6,000 adults or more than 10,000 adults. Our best estimate of the current adult (age 4 years or more) population is approximately 7,650 fish. Recent humpback chub assessments using the Age-Structured Mark-Recapture model (ASMR) and reported in 2006 (Melis and others, 2006) and 2008 (Coggins, 2008a,b) have provided abundance and recruitment trend estimates that have changed progressively over time as more data are considered by the model. The general pattern of change implies a less severe decline in adult abundance during the late 1980s through early 1990s, with attendant changes in recruitment supporting this demographic pattern. We have been concerned that these changes are not indicative of the true population and may be associated with a 'retrospective' bias as additional data are included in the ASMR model. To investigate this possibility, we developed a realistic individual-based simulation model (IBM) to generate replicate artificial data sets with similar characteristics to the true humpback chub data. The artificial data have known abundance trends and we analyzed these data with ASMR. On the basis of these simulations, we believe that errors in assigning age (and therefore brood-year) to fish based on their length are likely to have caused the retrospective bias pattern seen in the assessments and to have caused both less severe trends in the adult abundance estimates and progressively more severe downward bias in estimates of adult

  10. O, H and S Isotopes as Tracers of Groundwater Discharge Into the Rio Grande and the Gila River, Southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, C. J.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J. F.; Harris, R. C.

    2004-05-01

    In the semi-arid Basin-and-Range province, large rivers commonly enter and exit basins through hard-rock barriers impermeable to groundwater. Isotopic contrasts characteristically exist between river water entering a basin and locally-derived groundwater in basin-fill sediment. Basin aquifers must discharge to the river near the river exit point, and may contribute significantly to river water and solute load. O, H and S isotopes can potentially indicate the location of discharge zones. At times of low river flow, the Gila River enters Safford Basin with isotope delta values, here presented as [d18O‰ , dD‰ , d34S‰ ], of [-8.5, -65, +4.5]. Deep basin water has values [-11.5, -85, +11], the d34S reflecting gypsum evaporite. Values in river water change by km 50 to [-7.5, -60, +4.5] and between km 50 and 80 to [-8.5, -65, +7.5]. The increase in d18O and dD from 0-50 km indicates irrigation water discharge; the change from 50-80 km is accompanied by doubling of sulfate content and requires addition of deep basin water. The Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson with isotope composition [-6.5 to -8.5, -65 to -75, +2 to +4], the d18O and dD values defining an evaporation line (RGEL) resulting from passage of water through upstream reservoirs. Basin groundwater is sulfate-rich and has variable isotope composition: [-9 to -11, -66 to -76, +5 to +10]; it includes both evaporated and non-evaporated types. Groundwater discharge is generally insufficient to shift water away from the RGEL, but d34S values in river water increase to +5 to +9‰ with increasing sulfate content downstream of Fabens, TX, indicating discharge of high-d34S groundwater. Variable sewage discharge from Ciudad Juàrez limits the possibility of detecting isotope shifts in Rio Grande water.

  11. Effects of a test flood on fishes of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, R.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; McIvor, C.C.; McKinney, T.; Leibfried, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    A beach/habitat-building flow (i.e., test flood) of 1274 m3/s, released from Glen Canyon Dam down the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, had little effect on distribution, abundance, or movement of native fishes, and only short-term effects on densities of some nonnative species Shoreline and backwater catch rates of native fishes, including juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha), flannelmouth suckers (Catostomus latipinnis), and bluehead suckers (C. discobolus), and all ages of speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus), were not significantly different before and after the flood. Annual spring spawning migrations of flannelmouth suckers into the Paria River and endangered humpback chub into the Little Colorado River (LCR) took place during and after the flood, indicating no impediment to fish migrations. Pre-spawning adults staged in large slack water pools formed at the mouths of these tributaries during the flood. Net movement and habitat used by nine radio-tagged adult humpback chub during the flood were not significantly different from prior observations. Diet composition of adult humpback chub varied, but total biomass did not differ significantly before, during, and after the flood, indicating opportunistic feeding for a larger array of available food items displaced by the flood. Numbers of nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) <152 mm total length decreased by ???8% in electrofishing samples from the dam tailwaters (0-25 km downstream of the dam) during the flood. Increased catch rates in the vicinity of the LCR (125 km downstream of the dam) and Hell's Hollow (314 km downstream of the dam) suggest that these young trout were displaced downstream by the flood, although displacement distance was unknown since some fish could have originated from local populations associated with intervening tributaries. Abundance, catch rate, body condition, and diet of adult rainbow trout in the dam tailwaters were not significantly affected by the flood, and the flood

  12. Comparison of electrofishing and trammel netting variability for sampling native fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The variability in size structure and relative abundance (CPUE; number of fish ???200 mm total length, LT, collected per hour of electrofishing or trammel netting) of three native Colorado River fishes, the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha, flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnus and bluehead sucker Calostomus discobolus, collected from electrofishing and trammel nets was assessed to determine which gear was most appropriate to detect trends in relative abundance of adult fishes. Coefficient of variation (CV) of CPUE ranged from 210 to 566 for electrofishing and 128 to 575 for trammel netting, depending on season, diel period and species. Mean CV was lowest for trammel nets for humpback chub (P = 0.004) and tended to be lower for flannelmouth sucker (P = 0.12), regardless of season or diel period. Only one bluehead sucker >200 mm was collected with electrofishing. Electrofishing and trammel netting CPUE were not related for humpback chub (r = -0.32. P = 0.43) or flannelmouth sucker (r = -0.27, P = 0.46) in samples from the same date, location and hour set. Electrofishing collected a higher proportion of smaller (<200 mm LT) humpback chub (P < 0.001), flannelmouth suckers (P < 0.001) and bluehead suckers (P< 0.001) than trammel netting, suggesting that conclusions derived from one gear may not be the same as from the other gear. This is probably because these gears fished different habitats, which are occupied by different fish life stages. To detect a 25% change in CPUE at a power of 0.9. at least 473 trammel net sets or 1918 electrofishing samples would be needed in this 8 km reach. This unattainable amount of samples for both trammel netting and electrofishing indicates that detecting annual changes in CPUE may not be practical and analysis of long-term data or stock assessment models using mark-recapture methods may be needed to assess trends in abundance of Colorado River native fishes, and probably other rare fishes as well. ?? 2004 The Fisheries Society

  13. Effects of increased discharge on spawning and age-0 recruitment of rainbow trout in the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Luke A.; Korman, Josh; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Negative interactions of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha pose challenges to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) to manage for both species in the Colorado River. Operations to enhance the Rainbow Trout tailwater fishery may lead to an increase in downstream movement of the trout to areas where they are likely to interact with Humpback Chub. We evaluated the effects of dam operations on age-0 Rainbow Trout in the tailwater fishery to inform managers about how GCD operations could benefit a tailwater fishery for Rainbow Trout; although this could affect a Humpback Chub population farther downstream. A near year-long increase in discharge at GCD in 2011 enabled us to evaluate whether high and stable flows led to increased spawning and production of age-0 Rainbow Trout compared with other years. Rainbow Trout spawning was monitored by fitting a model to observed redd counts to estimate the number of redds created over a spawning season. Data collected during electrofishing trips in July–September and November were used to acquire age-0 trout population and mortality rate estimates. We found that high and stable flows in 2011 resulted in 3,062 redds (1.7 times the mean of all survey years) and a population estimate of 686,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout (second highest on record). Despite high initial abundance, mortality remained low through the year (0.0043%/d) resulting in significant recruitment with a record high November population estimate of 214,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout. Recent monitoring indicates this recruitment event was followed by an increase in downstream migration, which may lead to increased interactions with downstream populations of Humpback Chub. Consequently, while our results indicate that manipulating flow at GCD can be used to manage Rainbow Trout spawning and recruitment, fisheries managers should use flow manipulation in moderation to minimize downstream migration in order to reduce negative

  14. Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of major rivers in the Czech Republic using biliary metabolite in chub, Leuciscus cephalus L.

    PubMed

    Blahova, Jana; Leontovycova, Drahomira; Kodes, Vit; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of the major rivers in the Czech Republic using 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) content in chub bile as a biomarker. The highest concentration of 1-OHP was found in the Otava River at Topělec (80.5 ng mg protein(-1)); the lowest content of 1-OHP was found in the Vltava at Zelčín (9.6 ng mg protein(-1)). At all sites, bottom sediment samples were collected and analyzed for PAH content. The PAH content ranged between 1.2 and 15.2 mg kg dry mass(-1) at all sites. Statistically significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) between biliary 1-OHP and sediment PAH content were found. Correlation coefficients for total and individual priority PAHs ranged from 0.63 to 0.77.

  15. Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n = 15) measuring 9.5-11.4 μm in width, 7.3-8.6 μm in suture width, 8.9-10.9 μm in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 μm in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 μm by 1.8-2.3 μm. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n

  16. Letter of August 3 from L. C. Halpenny to Arizona State Commission, concerning the ground-water situation along the Gila River from Lateral 23 westward to the vicinity of Buckeye, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heindl, Leopold Alexander; Ernst, Roger

    1954-01-01

    Having attended the hearing on the Salt River Critical Area, you are conversant with the controversy in connection with the exclusion of certain lands from the critical area along the Gila Ricer from Lateral 23 westward to the vicinity of Buckeye.

  17. 78 FR 15736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... population monitoring activities in Texas, Oklahoma, Nevada, ] Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, South Dakota... Boxall, Amnis Opes Institute, LLC, 4755 Elk Run Dr., Albany, Oregon, 97321. The applicant requests a... (Acipenser transmontanus), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus Lucius), humpback...

  18. Predator-driven intra-species variation in locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference in pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Fu, Shi-Jian; Yuan, Xin-Zhong; Cao, Zhen-Dong

    2015-01-15

    Fish inhabit environments that vary greatly in terms of predation intensity, and these predation regimes are generally expected to be a major driver of divergent natural selection. To test whether there is predator-driven intra-species variation in the locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference of pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river, we measured unsteady and steady swimming and water velocity preference among fish collected from both high- and low-predation habitats in the Wujiang River. We also measured the routine metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed (Uopt). The fish from the high-predation populations showed a shorter response latency, elevated routine metabolism, lower swimming efficiency at low swimming speed and lower water velocity preference compared with those from the low-predation populations. Neither of the kinematic parameters fast-start and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) showed a significant difference between the high- and low-predation populations. The fish from the high-predation populations may improve their predator avoidance capacity primarily through an elevated routine metabolism and shorter response latency to achieve advanced warning and escape, rather than an improved fast-start swimming speed or acceleration. Thus, the cost of this strategy is an elevated RMR, and no trade-off between unsteady and steady swimming performance was observed in the pale chub population under various predation stresses. It was interesting to find that the high-predation fish showed an unexpected lower velocity preference, which might represent a compromise between predation avoidance, foraging and energy saving. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Two leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene of female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression in different obesity indices and pubertal stages.

    PubMed

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that regulates the amount of fat stored in the body and conveys nutritional status to the reproductive axis in mammals. In the present study we identified two subtypes of leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a leptin receptor gene (lepr) from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and there gene expression under different feeding conditions (control and high-feed) and pubertal development stages was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. The protein lengths of LepA, LepB and LepR were 161 amino acids (aa), 163 aa and 1149 aa, respectively and both leptin subtypes shared only 15% similarity in aa sequences. In pubertal females, lepa was expressed in the brain, pituitary gland, liver, adipose tissue and ovary; however, in adult (gonadal maturation after the second in the life) females, lepa was expressed only in the liver. lepb was expressed primarily in the brain of all fish tested and was expressed strongly in the adipose tissue of adults. lepr was characterized by expression in the pituitary. The high-feed group showed a high conditioning factor level; unexpectedly, hepatic lepa and brain lepr were significantly more weakly expressed compared with the control-feed group. Furthermore, the expression levels of lepa, lepb and lepr genes showed no significant differences between pre-pubertal and post-pubertal fish. On the other hand, pituitary fshβ and lhβ showed no significant differences between different feeding groups of pre-pubertal fish. In contrast, fshβ and lhβ expressed abundantly in the post-pubertal fish of control feed group. Based on these results, whether leptin plays an important role in the nutritional status and pubertal onset of chub mackerel remains unknown.

  20. Immunoreactivity of gonadotrophs (FSH and LH Cells) and gonadotropin subunit gene expression in the male chub mackerel Scomber japonicus pituitary during the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Shiraishi, Tetsuro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Shimizu, Akio; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2012-09-01

    The gonadotropins (GtHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are heterodimers composed of a common α subunit (GPα) and a unique β subunit (FSHβ or LHβ); they are synthesized in and secreted from gonadotrophs (FSH and LH cells) in the pituitary. Little is known about the roles of FSH and LH during spermatogenesis in perciform fishes. In this study, we examined immunoreactive changes in FSH and LH cells, and changes in the gene expression of the three gonadotropin subunits in the pituitary of male chub mackerel Scomber japonicus during testicular development. FSHβ-immunoreactive (ir) and LHβ-ir cell area were measured immuno-histochemically based on the FSH and LH cell-occupying area in the proximal pars distalis. The FSHβ-ir cell area increased significantly during spermiation, while FSHβ mRNA levels, already high at the beginning of spermatogenesis, increased further, peaking during spermiation. In contrast, LHβ-ir cell area and LHβ mRNA levels, which were low at the beginning of spermatogenesis, increased significantly during late spermatogenesis, peaking during spermiation. For both FSH and LH, GtHβ-ir cell area and GtHβ mRNA levels decreased until gonadal resting. GPα mRNA levels showed similar changes to LHβ mRNA levels. These results suggest that in the chub mackerel, FSH may play an important role in the early and late phases of spermatogenesis, and that LH may play a role during late spermatogenesis and spermiation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that changes in GtHβ-ir cell area were accompanied by similar changes in the expression of the FSHβ and LHβ genes, both of which increased during testicular development.

  1. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  2. Geochemical assessment of metals and dioxin in sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir and the Gila, San Carlos, and San Francisco Rivers, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Marot, Marci E.; Fey, David L.; Adams, Monique; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann

    2005-01-01

    In October 2004, we sampled stream-bed sediment, terrace sediment, and sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir to determine the spatial and chronological variation of six potentially toxic metals-Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, and Hg. Water levels in the San Carlos Reservoir were at a 20-year low at an elevation of 2,409 ft (734.3 m). Four cores were taken from the reservoir: one from the San Carlos River arm, one from the Gila River arm, and two from the San Carlos Reservoir just west of the Pinal County line. Radioisotope chronometry (7Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb) conducted on sediment from the reservoir cores provides a good chronological record back to 1959. Chronology prior to that, during the 1950s, is based on our interpretation of the 137Cs anomaly in reservoir cores. During and prior to the 1950s, the reservoir was dry and sediment-accumulation rates were irregular; age control based on radioisotope data was not possible. We recovered sediment at the base of one 4-m-long core that may date back to the late 1930s. The sedimentological record contains two discrete events, one about 1978-83 and one about 1957, where the Cu concentration in reservoir sediment exceeded recommended sediment quality guidelines and should have had an effect on sensitive aquatic and benthic organisms. Concentrations of Zn determined in sediment deposited during the 1957(?) event also exceeded recommended sediment quality guidelines. Concentration data for Cu from the four cores clearly indicate that the source of this material was upstream on the Gila River. Lead isotope data, coupled with the geochemical data from a 2M HCl-1 percent H2O2 leach of selected sediment samples, show two discrete populations of data. One represents the dominant sediment load derived from the Safford Valley, and a second reflects sediment derived from the San Francisco River. The Cu concentration spikes in the reservoir cores have chemical and Pb isotope signatures that indicate that deposits in a porphyry copper deposit

  3. Determination of selenium in fish from designated critical habitat of the Gunnison River, Colorado, summer 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results for the summer 2011 sampling of muscle plugs from common carps (Cyprinus Linnaeus), roundtail chub (Gila robusta), and bonytail chub (Gila elegans) inhabiting critical habitat in the Gunnison River in Western Colorado. Total selenium in fish muscle plugs was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total selenium concentrations (range and mean ± standard deviation) in micrograms per gram dry weight for each species were as follows: common carp: 8.5 to 35, 13 ± 7.8; roundtail chub: 5.5 to 11.2, 7.3 ± 1.6; bonytail chub: 0.8 to 8.6, 3.9 ± 4.2. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from 4 out of 15 roundtail chub, all 15 common carp, and 2 out of 5 bonytail chub exceeded the 8 micrograms per gram dry weight toxicity guideline for selenium in fish muscle tissue.

  4. Effects of a chemically polluted discharge on the relationship between fecundity and parasitic infections in the chub (Leuciscus cephalus) from a river in southern England.

    PubMed

    Morley, N J; Costa, H H; Lewis, J W

    2010-04-01

    In fish there is a close association between endocrine and immune function that during seasonal changes in reproductive status can affect the fishes susceptibility to parasitic infection. The effects of endocrine-disrupting pollution on this association are not known. The present study investigates the effects of a chemically polluted (ammoniacal nitrogen, zinc, bromide) discharge in Cranleigh Waters, a river in southern England, on the fecundity and parasitism of chub, Leuciscus cephalus, over an 18-month period. In the polluted site, the gonado-somatic index (GSI) of fish was lower in females and higher in males compared to an unpolluted upstream site, indicating an androgenic effect on reproduction. Parasite species richness, especially the intestinal helminths Proteocephalus torulosus and Pomphorynchus laevis, was increased in fish in the polluted site. However, the occurrence of the two most common parasite species in the river-Myxobulus sp. 1, a gill myxozoan, and Diplostomum sp., a trematode found in the eye-was unchanged between polluted and unpolluted river sites. Nevertheless, there was a significant relationship between GSI and the prevalence of these two parasite species in the unpolluted site but not the polluted site suggesting that endocrine disruption of reproduction did not lead to an increase in host susceptibility. The reasons for this are discussed.

  5. Biodiversity of parasites in a freshwater environment with respect to pollution: metazoan parasites of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) as a model for statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dusek, L; Gelnar, M; Sebelová, S

    1998-10-01

    This paper represents an attempt to evaluate the environmental indicative potential of the biodiversity of monogenean parasites using hierarchically structured species-abundance data. A logical set of statistical methods integrating standard diversity indices, a novel approach to quantitative analysis of cumulative species-abundance curves and species-abundance models was applied for this purpose. Applicability of biodiversity measures was demonstrated using experimental data from a 1-year study on the ecology of metazoan parasites of chub (Leuciscus cephalus) in one polluted and one control site in the Morava river, Czech Republic. Analyses at the component community level revealed a significant decrease in the number of parasite species with a more equal distribution of their abundances in the polluted site compared with the control site. In order to reach a better understanding of the changes, diversity of Monogenea as a dominant part of the community was further examined within categories of species created according to: (1) specificity of infection (specialists and generalists), (2) monogenean genera (Dactylogyrus, Gyrodactylus and Paradiplozoon) and (3) inhabited guilds (skin + fins, gills). Assemblages of specialists in the polluted site exhibited a significantly reduced species richness and unequal distribution of abundances. The opposite pattern was observed in the case of generalists. The influence of pollution was also reflected by the distribution of species abundances within communities of Dactylogyrus and Paradiplozoon, while no significant shift was identified in the genus Gyrodactylus.

  6. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area and in the western Mexico drainage area, Maricopa, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona; 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, S.A.; Clay, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome and the western Mexican drainage areas include about 4,700 square miles in southwestern Arizona. The main water-bearing unit is the alluvium along the Gila River and its tributaries and in the valleys that separate the mountains. Most of the ground-water development has taken place in the Wellton-Mohawk area in the northern part of the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area. The use of imported Colorado River water for irrigation caused the water levels to rise, and in the early 1970 's the water levels were within 6 feet of the land surface in most of the area. Since 1961, a network of about 70 wells has been pumping about 200,000 acre-feet of ground water annually for drainage of the waterlogged land in the area. The ground water in the Wellton-Mohawk area is of unsuitable chemical quality for most uses. Information shown on the maps includes depth to water , well depth, altitude of the water level, irrigated area, and specific conductance and Fluoride concentration in the water, A table of historical pumpage also is included. Scale 1:125.000. (Kosco-USGS)

  7. Using large-scale flow experiments to rehabilitate Colorado River ecosystem function in Grand Canyon: Basis for an adaptive climate-resilient strategy: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Pine, William E.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Jain, Shaleen; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Miller, Kathleen; Hamlet, Alan F.; Kenney, Douglas S.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive management of Glen Canyon Dam is improving downstream resources of the Colorado River in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP), a federal advisory committee of 25 members with diverse special interests tasked to advise the U.S. Department of the Interior), was established in 1997 in response to the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act. Adaptive management assumes that ecosystem responses to management policies are inherently complex and unpredictable, but that understanding and management can be improved through monitoring. Best known for its high-flow experiments intended to benefit physical and biological resources by simulating one aspect of pre-dam conditions—floods, the AMP promotes collaboration among tribal, recreation, hydropower, environmental, water and other natural resource management interests. Monitoring has shown that high flow experiments move limited new tributary sand inputs below the dam from the bottom of the Colorado River to shorelines; rebuilding eroded sandbars that support camping areas and other natural and cultural resources. Spring-timed high flows have also been shown to stimulate aquatic productivity by disturbing the river bed below the dam in Glen Canyon. Understanding about how nonnative tailwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and downstream endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) respond to dam operations has also increased, but this learning has mostly posed “surprise” adaptation opportunities to managers. Since reoperation of the dam to Modified Low Fluctuating Flows in 1996, rainbow trout now benefit from more stable daily flows and high spring releases, but possibly at a risk to humpback chub and other native fishes downstream. In contrast, humpback chub have so far proven robust to all flows, and native fish have increased under the combination of warmer river temperatures associated with reduced storage in Lake Powell, and a

  8. Distribution of selected essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn) and nonessential (Cd, Pb) trace elements among protein fractions from hepatic cytosol of European chub (Squalius cephalus L.).

    PubMed

    Krasnići, Nesrete; Dragun, Zrinka; Erk, Marijana; Raspor, Biserka

    2013-04-01

    Association of selected essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn) and nonessential (Cd, Pb) trace elements with cytosolic proteins of different molecular masses was described for the liver of European chub (Squalius cephalus) from weakly contaminated Sutla River in Croatia. The principal aim was to establish basic trace element distributions among protein fractions characteristic for the fish living in the conditions of low metal exposure in the water. The fractionation of chub hepatic cytosols was carried out by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC; Superdex™ 200 10/300 GL column), and measurements were performed by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS). Elution profiles of essential elements were mostly characterized by broad peaks covering wide range of molecular masses, as a sign of incorporation of essential elements in various proteins within hepatic cytosol. Exceptions were Cu and Fe, with elution profiles characterized by sharp, narrow peaks indicating their probable association with specific proteins, metallothionein (MT), and ferritin, respectively. The main feature of the elution profile of nonessential metal Cd was also single sharp, narrow peak, coinciding with MT elution time, and indicating almost complete Cd detoxification by MT under the conditions of weak metal exposure in the water (dissolved Cd concentration ≤0.3 μg L(-1)). Contrary, nonessential metal Pb was observed to bind to wide spectrum of proteins, mostly of medium molecular masses (30-100 kDa), after exposure to dissolved Pb concentration of ~1 μg L(-1). The obtained information within this study presents the starting point for identification and characterization of specific metal/metalloid-binding proteins in chub hepatic cytosol, which could be further used as markers of metal/metalloid exposure or effect on fish.

  9. Geohydrology of the San Agustin Basin, Alamosa Creek Basin upstream from Monticello Box, and upper Gila Basin in parts of Catron, Socorro, and Sierra counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, R.G.; Everheart, J.T.; Wilson, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The San Agustin Basin, the Alamosa Creek Basin upstream from Monticello Box, and the upper Gila Basin are located in parts of Catron, Socorro, and Sierra Counties in west-central New Mexico. Four major aquifers are within the study area: (1) the San Agustin bolson-fill aquifer; (2) the Datil aquifer; (3) the shallow upland aquifers; and (4) the Alamosa Creek shallow aquifer. Two minor aquifers, the Baca Formation at the northern edge of the San Agustin Basin and a basalt to basaltic andesite unit overlying the Datil Group, yield some water to wells. Sixty-three vertical electrical- resistivity soundings were used to estimate the depth to bedrock and the saline/freshwater interface in the San Agustin bolson-fill aquifer. The dissolved-solids concentration of ground-water samples ranged from 74 to 23,500 milligrams per liter. The dominant cations varied; the dominant anion of freshwater generally was bicarbonate. Point-of-discharge temperatures of well or spring water that exceed 21 degrees Celsius are associated with faults in the areas of shallow or exposed bedrock. The dissolved-solids concentration of this warm water ranged from 120 to 1,200 milligrams per liter.

  10. HLA class II variation in the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona: alleles, haplotypes, and a high frequency epitope at the HLA-DR locus.

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; McAuley, J E

    1992-01-01

    A genetic distribution for the HLA class II loci is described for 349 "full-blooded" Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians (Pimans) in the Gila River Indian Community. A high frequency epitope in the *DRw52 family was defined by reactions with 31 alloantisera, which we have designated *DR3X6. It segregates as a codominant allele at HLA-DR with alleles *DR2, *DR4, and *DRw8, and has the highest frequency yet reported for an HLA-DR specificity, 0.735. It forms a common haplotype with *DRw52 and *DQw3 that is a valuable marker for genetic admixture and anthropological studies. Phenotype and allele frequencies, and haplotype frequencies for two and three loci, are presented. Variation at these loci is highly restricted, the mean heterozygosity for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ being 0.361. The Pimans represent a contemporary model for the Paleo-Indians who first entered North America 20,000 to 40,000 years ago.

  11. HLA class I variation controlled for genetic admixture in the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona: a model for the Paleo-Indians.

    PubMed

    Williams, R C; McAuley, J E

    1992-01-01

    The genetic distribution of the HLA class I loci is presented for 619 "full blooded" Pima and Tohono O'odham Native Americans (Pimans) in the Gila River Indian Community. Variation in the Pimans is highly restricted. There are only three polymorphic alleles at the HLA-A locus, *A2, *A24, and *A31, and only 10 alleles with a frequency greater than 0.01 at HLA-B where *Bw48 (0.187), *B35 (0.173), and the new epitope *BN21 (0.143) have the highest frequencies. Two and three locus disequilibria values and haplotype frequencies are presented. Ten three-locus haplotypes account for more than 50% of the class I variation, with *A24 *BN21 *Cw3 (0.085) having the highest frequency. Gm allotypes demonstrate that little admixture from non-Indian populations has entered the Community since the 17th century when Europeans first came to this area. As a consequence many alleles commonly found in Europeans and European Americans are efficient markers for Caucasian admixture, while the "private" Indian alleles, *BN21 and *Bw48, can be used to measure Native American admixture in Caucasian populations. It is suggested that this distribution in "full blooded" Pimans approximates that of the Paleo-Indian migrants who first entered the Americas between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago.

  12. Streamflow losses and changes in ground-water levels along the Salt and Gila Rivers near Phoenix, Arizona; February 1978 to June 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Rohne, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    From March 1978 to June 1980, high runoff from the Salt and Verde drainage basins combined with large carryover storage in a reservoir system led to the release of about 8.26 million acre-feet of water. About 2.89 million acre-feet of the water was diverted above Granite Reef Dam, and about 5.45 million acre-feet was released into the normally dry channel of the Salt River. The total streamflow losses in the 74-mile reach between Granite Reef and Gillespie Dams were at least 474,000 acre-feet. Most of the water infiltrated into the permeable alluvial deposits along the Sal and Gila Rivers and increased the amount of ground water in storage. From February 1978 to May 1980, ground-water levels in 169 wells that tap the alluvial deposits in the Salt River Valley rose an average of 35.5 feet. The rise in ground-water levels was a direct result of the infiltrating floodwaters and a marked decrease in ground-water pumpage. (USGS)

  13. Effects of an experimental short-term cortisol challenge on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus in mesocosm and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Nagrodski, A; Murchie, K J; Stamplecoskie, K M; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

    2013-04-01

    The consequences of stress on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus outside the reproductive period were studied using a single intra-coelomic injection of cortisol, suspended in coconut butter, to experimentally raise plasma cortisol levels. Behaviour between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected with coconut butter) and control S. atromaculatus was compared in a mesocosm system, using a passive integrated transponder array, and in a natural stream system (excluding shams), using surgically implanted radio transmitters. While laboratory time-course studies revealed that the cortisol injection provided a physiologically relevant challenge, causing prolonged (c. 3 days) elevations of plasma cortisol similar to that achieved with a standardized chasing protocol, no differences in fine-scale movements were observed between cortisol-treated, sham-treated and control S. atromaculatus nor in the large-scale movements of cortisol-treated and control S. atromaculatus. Moreover, no differences were observed in diel activity patterns among treatments. Differential mortality, however, occurred starting 10 days after treatment where cortisol-treated S. atromaculatus exhibited nearly twice as many mortalities as shams and controls. These results suggest that, although the experimental manipulation of cortisol titres was sufficient to cause mortality in some individuals, there were compensatory mechanisms that maintained behaviours (i.e. including activity and movement) prior to death. This study is one of the first to use experimental cortisol implants outside a laboratory environment and during the non-reproductive period and yields insight into how wild animals respond to additional challenges (in this case elevated cortisol) using ecologically meaningful endpoints.

  14. Diet diversity of jack and chub mackerels and ecosystem changes in the northern Humboldt Current system: A long-term study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Espino, Marco; Espinoza, Pepe; Dioses, Teobaldo; Ñiquen, Miguel; Navarro, Iván; Simier, Monique; Ménard, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (JM) and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (CM) are medium size pelagic fish predators and highly exploited resources. Here we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of JM and CM diet composition using a large dataset of stomach samples collected from 1973 to 2013 along the Peruvian coast. In total 47,535 stomachs (18,377 CM and 29,158 JM) were analysed, of which 23,570 (12,476 CM and 11,094 JM) were non-empty. Results show that both species are opportunistic and present a trophic overlap. However, despite their smaller maximal size, CM consumed more fish than JM. Both diets presented high spatiotemporal variability. Spatially, the shelf break appears as a strong biogeographical barrier affecting prey species distribution and thus CM and JM diet. Opportunistic foragers are often considered as actual indicators of ecosystem changes; we show here that diet composition of CM and JM reveal ecosystem changes but is not always a good indicator of changes in prey biomass as prey accessibility and energy content can also play an important role. In addition we found that El Niño events have a surprisingly weak effect on stomach fullness and diet. Finally our results show that the classic paradigm of positive correlation between diversity and temperature is unlikely to occur in the Humboldt Current system where productivity seems to be the main driver. We show how energy content of forage species and the strength of the oxygen minimum zone most likely play an important role prey diversity and accessibility, and thus in fish foraging behaviour.

  15. [The parasite fauna of the chub mackerel (Scombridae: Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1782) in the central-eastern Atlantic (Atlantic coast of the Northern Africa and the Azores Archipelago banks)].

    PubMed

    Shukhgalter, O A

    2004-01-01

    The parasite fauna of the chub mackerel Scomber japonicus Houtuym, 1782 was studied from the neritic areas of Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania and from the banks of the Azores Archipelago (the Great Meteor Bank, the Hyeres Bank and the Irving Bank) in 1994-2001. Twenty eight species of parasites of following group have been were found: Coccidia (1 species), Microsporidia (1), Myxosporea (4), Monogenea (4), Cestoda (5), Trematoda (5), Acanthocephala (1) and Nematoda (6). The differences between mackerel parasite fauna in the neritic areas and from of the Azores Archipelago banks were established. Peculiarities of the mackerel parasite fauna in two areas (Morocco--Western Sahara and Mauritania) corroborate the hypothesis that two populations of chub mackerel are available: "Sahara-Moroccan" and "Senegal-Mauritanian". Ontogenetic variability of parasite fauna was related to food demands of mackerel and its feeding habits in the areas Morocco and Mauritania. Kudoa histolytica has negative influence on the commercial value of S. japonicus. These parasites were localized in the muscles of mackerel from Mauritania (40%, TL = 20-25 cm). Parasites being dangerous for human health were presented by larvae of Bolbosoma sp. (occurred on the banks of the Azores Archipelago), Anisakis simplex and Contracaecum sp. (occurred in all areas investigated).

  16. Expression changes of mRNAs encoding kisspeptins and their receptors and gonadotropin-releasing hormones during early development and gonadal sex differentiation periods in the brain of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Ohga, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, brain kisspeptin system has been shown to be involved in diverse reproductive function, including sexual differentiation in vertebrates. Our previous reports demonstrated that the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses two kisspeptin (kiss1, kiss2), two kisspeptin receptor (kissr1, kissr2) and three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh1, gnrh2, gnrh3) genes. In the present study, using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, we analysed expression changes of these genes during early development (0-30dphs) and gonadal sex differentiation periods (37-60dphs). Absolute expression level of kiss-kissr-gnrh in the whole head was higher between 0 and 15dphs, in comparison to later developmental periods. Histological analyses revealed presence of sexually differentiated males and females with testicular and ovarian features at 37, 45, and 60dphs. In both males and females, kiss2, kissr1, and kissr2 levels were higher at 37dph, in comparison to 45 and 60dphs, with kiss1 showing no significant differences. Levels of all three gnrh mRNAs were higher at 45dph, in comparison to 60dph. Changes in the expression level of kiss-kissr-gnrh mRNAs in different brain regions of sexually differentiated males and females indicated differences in their regional distribution. These results suggest possible involvement of Kiss-KissR-GnRH systems during early development and gonadal sex differentiation in the chub mackerel.

  17. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  18. Trout piscivory in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon: Effects of turbidity, temperature, and fish prey availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, Michael D.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Baxter, Colden V.; Bennett, Glenn E.; Korman, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative salmonids, such as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta, have affected native fishes worldwide in unforeseen and undesirable ways. Predation and other interactions with nonnative rainbow trout and brown trout have been hypothesized as contributing to the decline of native fishes (including the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha) in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. A multiyear study was conducted to remove nonnative fish from a 15-km segment of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence. We evaluated how sediment, temperature, fish prey availability, and predator abundance influenced the incidence of piscivory (IP) by nonnative salmonids. Study objectives were addressed through spatial (upstream and downstream of the Little Colorado River confluence) and temporal (seasonal and annual) comparisons of prey availability and predator abundance. Data were then evaluated by modeling the quantity of fish prey ingested by trout during the first 2 years (2003–2004) of the mechanical removal period. Field effort resulted in the capture of 20,000 nonnative fish, of which 90% were salmonids. Results indicated that the brown trout IP was higher (8–70%) than the rainbow trout IP (0.5–3.3%); however, rainbow trout were 50 times more abundant than brown trout in the study area. We estimated that during the study period, over 30,000 fish (native and nonnative species combined) were consumed by rainbow trout (21,641 fish) and brown trout (11,797 fish). On average, rainbow trout and brown trout ingested 85% more native fish than nonnative fish in spite of the fact that native fish constituted less than 30% of the small fish available in the study area. Turbidity may mediate piscivory directly by reducing prey detection, but this effect was not apparent in our data, as rainbow trout IP was greater when suspended sediment levels (range = 5.9–20,000 mg/L) were higher.

  19. The Glen Canyon Dam adaptive management program: progress and immediate challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.; Melis, Theodore S.; Boon, Philip J.; Raven, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management emerged as an important resource management strategy for major river systems in the United States (US) in the early 1990s. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (‘the Program’) was formally established in 1997 to fulfill a statutory requirement in the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA). The GCPA aimed to improve natural resource conditions in the Colorado River corridor in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona that were affected by the Glen Canyon dam. The Program achieves this by using science and a variety of stakeholder perspectives to inform decisions about dam operations. Since the Program started the ecosystem is now much better understood and several biological and physical improvements have been achieved. These improvements include: (i) an estimated 50% increase in the adult population of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) between 2001 and 2008, following previous decline; (ii) a 90% decrease in non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which are known to compete with and prey on native fish, as a result of removal experiments; and (iii) the widespread reappearance of sandbars in response to an experimental high-flow release of dam water in March 2008.Although substantial progress has been made, the Program faces several immediate challenges. These include: (i) defining specific, measurable objectives and desired future conditions for important natural, cultural and recreational attributes to inform science and management decisions; (ii) implementing structural and operational changes to improve collaboration among stakeholders; (iii) establishing a long-term experimental programme and management plan; and (iv) securing long-term funding for monitoring programmes to assess ecosystem and other responses to management actions. Addressing these challenges and building on recent progress will require strong and consistent leadership from the US Department of the Interior

  20. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the northern part of the Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill area, Maricopa, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Natalie D.; Leake, S.A.; Clay, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill area includes about 3,000 square miles in southwestern Arizona. Ground-water development has taken place only in the northern part of the area, and only this part is included in the report. The southwestward-flowing Gila River drains the 1 ,900-square-mile northern part of the area. The main water-bearing unit is the valley-fill deposits. Since 1967, the estimated ground-water pumpage has exceeded 100,000 acre-feet per year, and in 1977 the ground-water pumpage was 210,000 acre-feet; the ground water is used mainly for irrigation. The ground-water withdrawals have resulted in general water-level declines in most of the area. Information shown on the maps includes change in water level, 1965-78 and 1973-78, and irrigated area; depth to water, altitude of the water level, and well depth; and specific conductance and fluoride concentration in the water. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. Scale 1:250 ,000. (Kosco-USGS)

  1. Summary report of responses of key resources to the 2000 Low Steady Summer Flow experiment, along the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 2000, a series of steady discharges of water from Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River were used to evaluate the effects of aquatic habitat stability and water temperatures on native fish growth and survival, with a special focus on the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), downstream from the dam in Grand Canyon. The steady releases were bracketed by peak powerplant releases in late-May and early-September. The duration and volume of releases from the dam varied between spring and summer. The intent of the experimental hydrograph was to mimic predam river discharge patterns by including a high, steady discharge in the spring and a low, steady discharge in the summer. The hydrologic experiment was called the Low Steady Summer Flow (LSSF) experiment because steady discharges of 226 m3/s dominated the hydrograph for 4 months from June through September 2000. The experimental hydrograph was developed in response to one of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Recommended and Prudent Alternatives (RPA) in its Biological Opinion of the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement. The RPA focused on the hypothesis that seasonally adjusted steady flows were dam operations that might benefit humpback chub more than the Record of Decision operations, known as Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) operations. Condensed timelines between planning and implementation (2 months) of the experiment and the time required for logistics, purchasing, and contracting resulted in limited data collection during the high-release part of the experiment that occurred in spring. The LSSF experiment is the longest planned hydrograph that departed from the MLFF operations since Record of Decision operations began in 1996. As part of the experiment, several studies focused on the responses of physical properties related to environments that young-of-year (YOY) native fish might occupy (for example, measuring mainstem and shoreline water

  2. A novel varanic acid epimer--(24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid--is a major biliary bile acid in two varanid lizards and the Gila monster.

    PubMed

    Hagey, Lee R; Ogawa, Shoujiro; Kato, Narimi; Satoh née Okihara, Rika; Une, Mizuho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    A key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway by which C(24) bile acids are formed from cholesterol has long been considered to be varanic acid, (24ξ,25ξ)-3α,7α,12α-24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid. The (24R,25R)-epimer of this tetrahydroxy bile acid, in the form of its taurine N-acyl amidate, was thought to be the major biliary bile acid in lizards of the family Varanidae. We report here that a major biliary bile acid of three lizard species - the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), Gray's monitor (Varanus olivaceus), and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) - is a novel epimer of varanic acid. The epimer was shown to be (24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid (present in bile as its taurine conjugate). The structure was established by mass spectroscopy and by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, as well as by synthesis of the compound.

  3. Comprehensive Needs Assessment: Gila River Career Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicino, F. L.; DeGracie, J. S.

    An indepth needs assessment was conducted to identify and prioritize institutional goals specified in terms of the vocational needs of the clientele that the training center is committed to serve. Following a task workshop to develop a list of institutional program areas of concern, a survey instrument was designed to determine the extent and…

  4. USGS Workshop on Scientific Aspects of a Long-Term Experimental Plan for Glen Canyon Dam, April 10-11, 2007, Flagstaff, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    ), one of the four research stations within the USGS Southwest Biological Science Center. On April 10 and 11, 2007, at the behest of Reclamation, the GCMRC convened a workshop with scientific experts to identify one or more scientifically credible, long-term experimental options for Reclamation to consider for the LTEP EIS that would be consistent with the purpose and need for the plan. Workshop participants included government, academic, and private scientists with broad experience in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and regulated rivers around the world. Resource managers and GCDAMP participants were also present on the second day of the workshop. In advance of the workshop, Reclamation and LTEP EIS cooperating agencies identified 14 core scientific questions. Workshop participants were asked to consider how proposed options would address these questions, which fall primarily into four areas: (1) conservation of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other high-priority biological resources, (2) conservation of sediment resources, (3) enhancement of recreational resources, and (4) preservation of cultural resources. A secondary objective of the workshop was the evaluation of four long-term experimental options developed by the GCDAMP Science Planning Group (SPG) (appendix B). The flow and nonflow treatments called for in the four experimental options were an important starting point for workshop discussions. At the beginning of the workshop, participants were provided with the final LTEP EIS scoping report prepared by Reclamation. Participants were also advised that Reclamation had committed to ?make every effortEto ensure that a new population of humpback chub is established in the mainstem or one or more of the tributaries within Grand Canyon? in the 1995 Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995). This decision was consistent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service?s 1995 bi

  5. Behaviors of southwestern native fishes in response to introduced catfish predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Figiel, Chester R.

    2013-01-01

    Native fishes reared in hatcheries typically suffer high predation mortality when stocked into natural environments. We evaluated the behavior of juvenile bonytail Gila elegans, roundtail chub Gila robusta, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, and Sonora sucker Catostomus insignis in response to introduced channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris. Our laboratory tests indicate these species did not inherently recognize catfish as a threat, but they can quickly (within 12 h) change their behavior in response to a novel predator paired with the sight and scent of a dead conspecific. Chubs appear to avoid predation by swimming away from the threat, whereas suckers reduced movement. Effects of antipredator conditioning on survival of fish reared in hatcheries is unknown; however, our results suggest some native fish can be conditioned to recognize introduced predators, which could increase poststocking survival.

  6. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  7. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part III. Effluent toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, F J; Hardesty, D K; Henke, C E; Ingersoll, C G; Whites, D W; Augspurger, T; Canfield, T J; Mount, D R; Mayer, F L

    2005-02-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia--or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  8. Gila Bend AAF, Gila Bend, Arizona, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-23

    Environmental Technical Appl . CenterScott AFB IL 6i2225 II. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME ANO ADDRESS 12 RpPO-Dr USAFETAC/CBD 23 Dec 75 ’Air Weather Service (MAC) 13...LOCATION CHANCE LOCATION TRANSMITTER RECORDER GROUND 1 No% 48 N/A N/A N/A N/A 2 May 69 Same AN/ GMO -20 Same 13 Ft 3 Aug 75 Same Same Same Same

  9. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center's Role in Colorado River Ecosystem Science Below Glen Canyon Dam: An Overview on Science-Based River Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenn, D. B.; Melis, T. S.

    2002-12-01

    Impacts of Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations on downstream resources have been intensively studied by scientists and engineers since the early 1970s. In 1989, the Secretary of the Interior directed the Bureau of Reclamation to conduct the first-ever retroactive environmental compliance on operations of a large dam. Studies focused on linkages between flows and depletion of sand bars, endangered species conservation, including the humpback chub (Gila cypha), recreation and economic resources, as well as archeological sites preserved in fluvial deposits. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) was established in 1995, following completion of this major environmental impact statement (EIS). The EIS preferred alternative, was incorporated into the Secretary of the Interior's Record-of-Decision (ROD) in 1996, following successful completion of a large-scale flow experiment. The modified-low-fluctuating-flow operating strategy at Glen Canyon Dam allows for continued diurnal fluctuations to meet power demand, but restricts up-ramp and down-ramp rates and total daily range of fluctuations. In 1997, the Secretary established the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Workgroup (AMP) as a Federal advisory committee. The purpose of the committee is to provide recommendations to the Secretary on the effectiveness of the ROD, as well as to identify and recommend science-based adjustments to the ROD that might better achieve restoration and maintenance of downstream resources. Adaptive management is based on the premise that ecosystem responses to management actions are often unpredictable. However, if such actions are undertaken as scientific experiments, then outcomes can provide new information to managers on the range of possibilities that exist for achieving restoration objectives. Large-scale flow experiments at Glen Canyon Dam, as well as ongoing monitoring and research since 1995, have refuted some of the original EIS hypotheses. Some resource trends under the

  10. Effects of the 2008 high-flow experiment on water quality in Lake Powell and Glen Canyon Dam releases, Utah-Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vernieu, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey`s Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) conducted a high-flow experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) from March 4 through March 9, 2008. This experiment was conducted under enriched sediment conditions in the Colorado River within Grand Canyon and was designed to rebuild sandbars, aid endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), and benefit various downstream resources, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the aquatic food base, riparian vegetation, and archaeological sites. During the experiment, GCD discharge increased to a maximum of 1,160 m3/s and remained at that rate for 2.5 days by near-capacity operation of the hydroelectric powerplant at 736 m3/s, augmented by discharge from the river outlet works (ROW) at 424 m3/s. The ROW releases water from Lake Powell approximately 30 m below the powerplant penstock elevation and bypasses the powerplant turbines. During the HFE, the surface elevation of Lake Powell was reduced by 0.8 m. This report describes studies that were conducted before and after the experiment to determine the effects of the HFE on (1) the stratification in Lake Powell in the forebay immediately upstream of GCD and (2) the water quality of combined GCD releases and changes that occurred through the tailwater below the dam. The effects of the HFE to the water quality and stratigraphy in the water column of the GCD forebay and upstream locations in Lake Powell were minimal, compared to those during the beach/habitat-building flow experiment conducted in 1996, in which high releases of 1,273 m3/s were sustained for a 9-day period. However, during the 2008 HFE, there was evidence of increased advective transport of reservoir water at the penstock withdrawal depth and subsequent mixing of this withdrawal current with water above and below this depth. Reservoir hydrodynamics during the HFE period were largely being controlled by a winter inflow

  11. Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the desert southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Archdeacon, Thomas P; Iles, Alison; Kline, S Jason; Bonar, Scott A

    2010-12-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs between January 2005 and April 2007. The Asian fish tapeworm was present in the Gila River, Salt River, Verde River, San Pedro River, Aravaipa Creek, and Fossil Creek, Arizona, and in Lake Tuendae at Zzyzx Springs and Afton Canyon of the Mojave River, California. Overall prevalence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Arizona fish populations was 19% (range = 0-100%) and varied by location, time, and fish species. In California, the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of the Asian fish tapeworm in Mohave tui chub Gila bicolor mohavensis were higher during warmer months than during cooler months. Three new definitive host species--Yaqui chub G. purpurea, headwater chub G. nigra, and longfin dace agosia chrysogaster--were identified. Widespread occurrence of the Asian fish tapeworm in southwestern U.S. waters suggests that the lack of detection in other systems where nonnative fishes occur is due to a lack of effort as opposed to true absence of the parasite. To limit further spread of diseases to small, isolated systems, we recommend treatment for both endo- and exoparasites when management actions include translocation of fishes.

  12. Gila Bend Indian Reservation Lands Replacement Clarification Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Franks, Trent [R-AZ-2

    2011-09-15

    06/20/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Gila Bend Indian Reservation Lands Replacement Clarification Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Franks, Trent [R-AZ-2

    2011-09-15

    Senate - 06/20/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Lake trout consumption and recent changes in the fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, D.L. ); Luecke, C. )

    1993-11-01

    Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the consumption dynamics of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Analysis of diet and population estimates of different size-classes of lake trout indicated that kokanees Oncorhynchus nerka made up the greatest proportion of prey biomass. Examination of growth rates of forage fish and predator-prey size ratios indicated that Utah chub Gila atraria were more vulnerable than kokanees to lake trout predation. Utah chub grow slower than kokanees and thus were susceptible to piscivores over a longer age span. The authors conclude the kokanees will make up an even large proportion of the pelagic fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir in future years. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Prey capture behavior of native vs. nonnative fishes: a case study from the Colorado River drainage basin (USA).

    PubMed

    Arena, Anthony; Ferry, Lara A; Gibb, Alice C

    2012-02-01

    The Colorado River drainage basin is home to a diverse but imperiled fish fauna; one putative challenge facing natives is competition with nonnatives. We examined fishes from Colorado River tributaries to address the following questions: Do natives and nonnatives from the same trophic guild consume the same prey items? Will a given species alter its behavior when presented with different prey types? Do different species procure the same prey types via similar feeding behaviors? Roundtail chub (Gila robusta) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), midwater predators, and Sonora sucker (Catostomus insignis) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), benthic omnivores, were offered six ecologically relevant prey types in more than 600 laboratory trials. Native species consumed a broader array of prey than nonnatives, and species from a given trophic guild demonstrated functional convergence in key aspects of feeding behavior. For example, roundtail chub and smallmouth bass consume prey attached to the substrate by biting, then ripping the prey from its point of attachment; in contrast, Sonora sucker remove attached prey via scraping. When presented with different prey types, common carp, roundtail chub, and smallmouth bass altered their prey capture behavior by modifying strike distance, gape, and angle of attack. Gape varied among the species examined here, with smallmouth bass demonstrating the largest functional and anatomical gape at a given body size. Because fish predators are gape-limited, smallmouth bass will be able to consume a variety of large prey items in the wild, including large, invasive crayfish and young roundtail chub-their presumptive trophic competitors.

  16. Short-Term Effects of the 2008 High-Flow Experiment on Macroinvertebrates in Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Kincaid, Dustin W.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Kelly, Holly A.W.; Behn, Kathrine A.; White, Tyler; Hall, Robert O.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically altered the physical environment (especially discharge regime, water temperatures, and sediment inputs) of the Colorado River. High-flow experiments (HFE) that mimic one aspect of the natural hydrograph (floods) were implemented in 1996, 2004, and 2008. The primary goal of these experiments was to increase the size and total area of sandbar habitats that provide both camping sites for recreational users and create backwaters (areas of stagnant flow in the lee of return-current eddies) that may be important as rearing habitat for native fish. Experimental flows might also positively or negatively alter the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery in the clear tailwater reach below Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., and native fish populations in downstream reaches (for example, endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha) through changes in available food resources. We examined the short-term response of benthic macroinvertebrates to the March 2008 HFE at three sites [river mile 0 (RM 0, 15.7 miles downriver from the dam), RM 62, and RM 225] along the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam by sampling immediately before and then 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after the HFE. We selected these sites because of their importance to management; RM 0 has a valuable trout fishery, and RM 62 is the location of the largest population of the endangered humpback chub in the Grand Canyon. In addition to the short-term collection of samples, as part of parallel investigations, we collected 3 years of monthly (quarterly for RM 62) benthic macroinvertebrate samples that included 15 months of post-HFE data for all three sites, but processing of the samples is only complete for one site (RM 0). At RM 0, the HFE caused an immediate 1.75 g AFDM/m2 (expressed as grams ash-free dry mass, or AFDM) reduction of macroinvertebrate biomass that was driven by significant reductions in the biomass of the two dominant taxa in this reach-Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New

  17. An occupancy-based quantification of the highly imperiled status of desert fishes of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Conner, Mary M; Salant, Nira L; Macfarlane, William W

    2015-08-01

    Desert fishes are some of the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide due to their low economic worth and because they compete with humans for water. An ecological complex of fishes, 2 suckers (Catostomus latipinnis, Catostomus discobolus) and a chub (Gila robusta) (collectively managed as the so-called three species) are endemic to the U.S. Colorado River Basin, are affected by multiple stressors, and have allegedly declined dramatically. We built a series of occupancy models to determine relationships between trends in occupancy, local extinction, and local colonization rates, identify potential limiting factors, and evaluate the suitability of managing the 3 species collectively. For a historical period (1889-2011), top performing models (AICc) included a positive time trend in local extinction probability and a negative trend in local colonization probability. As flood frequency decreased post-development local extinction probability increased. By the end of the time series, 47% (95% CI 34-61) and 15% (95% CI 6-33) of sites remained occupied by the suckers and the chub, respectively, and models with the 2 species of sucker as one group and the chub as the other performed best. For a contemporary period (2001-2011), top performing (based on AICc ) models included peak annual discharge. As peak discharge increased, local extinction probability decreased and local colonization probability increased. For the contemporary period, results of models that split all 3 species into separate groups were similar to results of models that combined the 2 suckers but not the chub. Collectively, these results confirmed that declines in these fishes were strongly associated with water development and that relative to their historic distribution all 3 species have declined dramatically. Further, the chub was distinct in that it declined the most dramatically and therefore may need to be managed separately. Our modeling approach may be useful in other situations in which targeted

  18. Exploring crowded trophic niche space in a novel reservoir fish assemblage: how many predators is too many?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Lisa K.; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-01-01

    In highly managed reservoir systems, species interactions within novel fish assemblages can be difficult to predict. In high-elevation Scofield Reservoir in Utah the unintentional introduction of Utah Chub Gila atraria and subsequent population expansion prompted a shift from stocking exclusively Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to include tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and Bonneville Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii utah, which composed a novel suite of top predators and potential competitors. We examined the interspecific interactions among Scofield Reservoir piscivores using a multifaceted approach including gut analyses, stable isotopes, and gape limitation. Large Cutthroat Trout consumed 50–100% Utah Chub and tiger trout consumed 45–80%. In contrast, small and large Rainbow Trout consumed primarily invertebrate prey and exhibited significant overlap with small tiger trout, Cutthroat Trout, and Utah Chub. Large Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout occupy a top piscivore trophic niche and are more littoral, while Rainbow Trout occupy an omnivore niche space and are more pelagic. Both Cutthroat and tiger trout varied in niche space with respect to size-class, demonstrating an ontogenetic shift to piscivory at approximately 350 mm TL. Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout are capable of consuming prey up to 50% of their own size, which is larger than predicted based on their theoretical gape limit. Because it appears food resources (Utah Chub) are not limited, and performance metrics are high, competition is unlikely between Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout. In contrast, apparent survival of Rainbow Trout has recently declined significantly, potentially due to shared food resources with Utah Chub or negative behavioral interactions with other members of the community. Collectively, this research aids in understanding biotic interactions within a top-heavy and novel fish community and assists towards developing

  19. Infection by a black spot-causing species of Uvulifer and associated opercular alterations in fishes from a high-desert stream in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Black spot is a common disease syndrome of freshwater fishes. This study provides information on the rank of density of the black spot agent and opercular bone alterations associated with at least one digenean, Uvulifer sp., infecting native and non-native catostomids and cyprinids of the Upper Colorado River Basin. We evaluated the density rank of pigmented metacercariae and associated alterations in the operculum of the bluehead sucker Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth sucker C. latipinnis, white sucker C. commersoni, catostomid hybrids, roundtail chub Gila robusta, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, sampled from Muddy Creek, Wyoming, USA in 2003 or 2004. All fish species contained individuals that exhibited gross signs of the black spot agent. Bluehead and flannelmouth suckers had 100% prevalence of infection. Although the other suckers and chubs contained encysted metacercariae in at least one individual, the presence of pigmented metacercariae was not apparent (i.e. based on gross observations) in many individuals. Catostomids had higher densities of metacercariae than cyprinids, as shown by frequency distributions of density ranks. Opercular holes (i.e. holes that completely penetrated the opercle and were in direct association with the pigment associated metacercariae) and pockets (depressions on the external surface of the opercle associated with metacercariae) were abundant among catostomids but rare among cyprinids. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  20. Maintaining population persistence in the face of an extremely altered hydrograph: implications for three sensitive fishes in a tributary of the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottcher, Jared L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an organism to disperse to suitable habitats, especially in modified and fragmented systems, determines individual fitness and overall population viability. The bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta) are three species native to the upper Colorado River Basin that now occupy only 50% of their historic range. Despite these distributional declines, populations of all three species are present in the San Rafael River, a highly regulated tributary of the Green River, Utah, providing an opportunity for research. Our goal was to determine the timing and extent of movement, habitat preferences, and limiting factors, ultimately to guide effective management and recovery of these three species. In 2007-2008, we sampled fish from 25 systematically selected, 300-m reaches in the lower 64 km of the San Rafael River, spaced to capture the range of species, life-stages, and habitat conditions present. We implanted all target species with a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, installed a passive PIT tag antennae, and measured key habitat parameters throughout each reach and at the site of native fish capture. We used random forest modeling to identify and rank the most important abiotic and biotic predictor variables, and reveal potential limiting factors in the San Rafael River. While flannelmouth sucker were relatively evenly distributed within our study area, highest densities of roundtail chub and bluehead sucker occurred in isolated, upstream reaches characterized by complex habitat. In addition, our movement and length-frequency data indicate downstream drift of age-0 roundtail chub, and active upstream movement of adult flannelmouth sucker, both from source populations, providing the lower San Rafael River with colonists. Our random forest analysis highlights the importance of pools, riffles, and distance-to-source populations, suggesting that bluehead sucker and roundtail

  1. Identifying preservation and restoration priority areas for desert fishes in an increasingly invaded world.

    PubMed

    Pool, Thomas K; Strecker, Angela L; Olden, Julian D

    2013-03-01

    A commonly overlooked aspect of conservation planning assessments is that wildlife managers are increasingly focused on habitats that contain non-native species. We examine this management challenge in the Gila River basin (150,730 km(2)), and present a new planning strategy for fish conservation. By applying a hierarchical prioritization algorithm to >850,000 fish records in 27,181 sub-watersheds we first identified high priority areas (PAs) termed "preservation PAs" with high native fish richness and low non-native richness; these represent traditional conservation targets. Second, we identified "restoration PAs" with high native fish richness that also contained high numbers of non-native species; these represent less traditional conservation targets. The top 10 % of preservation and restoration PAs contained common native species (e.g., Catostomus clarkii, desert sucker; Catostomus insignis, Sonora sucker) in addition to native species with limited distributions (i.e., Xyrauchen texanus, razorback sucker; Oncorhynchus gilae apache, Apache trout). The top preservation and restoration PAs overlapped by 42 %, indicating areas with high native fish richness range from minimally to highly invaded. Areas exclusively identified as restoration PAs also encompassed a greater percentage of native species ranges than would be expected by the random addition of an equivalent basin area. Restoration PAs identified an additional 19.0 and 26.6 % of the total ranges of two federally endangered species-Meda fulgida (spikedace) and Gila intermedia (Gila chub), respectively, compared to top preservation PAs alone-despite adding only 5.8 % of basin area. We contend that in addition to preservation PAs, restoration PAs are well suited for complementary management activities benefiting native fishes.

  2. Identifying Preservation and Restoration Priority Areas for Desert Fishes in an Increasingly Invaded World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, Thomas K.; Strecker, Angela L.; Olden, Julian D.

    2013-03-01

    A commonly overlooked aspect of conservation planning assessments is that wildlife managers are increasingly focused on habitats that contain non-native species. We examine this management challenge in the Gila River basin (150,730 km2), and present a new planning strategy for fish conservation. By applying a hierarchical prioritization algorithm to >850,000 fish records in 27,181 sub-watersheds we first identified high priority areas (PAs) termed "preservation PAs" with high native fish richness and low non-native richness; these represent traditional conservation targets. Second, we identified "restoration PAs" with high native fish richness that also contained high numbers of non-native species; these represent less traditional conservation targets. The top 10 % of preservation and restoration PAs contained common native species (e.g., Catostomus clarkii, desert sucker; Catostomus insignis, Sonora sucker) in addition to native species with limited distributions (i.e., Xyrauchen texanus, razorback sucker; Oncorhynchus gilae apache, Apache trout). The top preservation and restoration PAs overlapped by 42 %, indicating areas with high native fish richness range from minimally to highly invaded. Areas exclusively identified as restoration PAs also encompassed a greater percentage of native species ranges than would be expected by the random addition of an equivalent basin area. Restoration PAs identified an additional 19.0 and 26.6 % of the total ranges of two federally endangered species— Meda fulgida (spikedace) and Gila intermedia (Gila chub), respectively, compared to top preservation PAs alone—despite adding only 5.8 % of basin area. We contend that in addition to preservation PAs, restoration PAs are well suited for complementary management activities benefiting native fishes.

  3. Homoploid hybrid speciation in animals.

    PubMed

    Mavárez, Jesús; Linares, Mauricio

    2008-10-01

    Among animals, evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS, i.e. the creation of a hybrid lineage without a change in chromosome number) was limited until recently to the virgin chub, Gila seminuda, and some controversial data in support of hybrid status for the red wolf, Canis rufus. This scarcity of evidence, together with pessimistic attitudes among zoologists about the evolutionary importance of hybridisation, prompted the view that HHS is extremely rare among animals, especially as compared with plants. However, in recent years, the literature on animal HHS has expanded to include several new putative examples in butterflies, ants, flies and fishes. We argue that this evidence suggests that HHS is far more common than previously thought and use it to provide insights into some of the genetic and ecological aspects associated with this type of speciation among animals.

  4. 75 FR 11010 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... with the highest diversity of native fish, amphibian, reptile and plant species (Scheerer and Apke 1998... habitats that support these diverse native species assemblages (Scheerer and Apke 1998, p. 45). Conversely... fine substrates, but protected from excessive sedimentation. When excessive sediment is...

  5. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subsequent storage and distribution. All shipping containers, retail packages, and shipping records shall... held under refrigeration (38 °F or below) until consumed. (e) To assure safe use of the additive:...

  6. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subsequent storage and distribution. All shipping containers, retail packages, and shipping records shall... held under refrigeration (38 °F or below) until consumed. (e) To assure safe use of the additive:...

  7. The age, growth, and bathymetric distribution of Reighard's chub, Leucichthys reighardi koelz, in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1943-01-01

    The females were always strongly dominant in the samples except during May and June 1931 and May 1932 when the sexes occurred in about equal numbers. The relative abundance of the sexes did not change materially in age-groups II to V. There were no males assigned to age-groups VI and VII.

  8. Squalius namak, a new chub from Lake Namak basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Khaefi, Roozbehan; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Sayyadzadeh, Golnaz; Geiger, Matthias F; Freyhof, Jörg

    2016-09-19

    Squalius namak, new species, from the endorheic Lake Namak and Kavir basins in Iran, is distinguished from the species of the genus Squalius in the Persian Gulf and the southern Caspian Sea basins by having a wide and thick symphysial knob on the lower jaw, a convex posterior anal-fin margin, a bold, dark-grey or brown, roundish or crescent-shaped blotch at the posterior tip of each flank scale and orange caudal-, anal- and pelvic-fin rays in life. Squalius namak is also characterized by four fixed, diagnostic nucleotide substitutions in the mtDNA COI barcode region.

  9. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in combination with salt (NaCl) to aid in... has a salt (NaCl) content of not less than 3.5 percent, as measured in the loin muscle, and the...

  10. 78 FR 74159 - Programmatic Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances for Least Chub Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ...: Address all written comments to Larry Crist, by U.S. mail at the Utah Field Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... by email to larry_crist@fws.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Larry Crist, Utah Field Office..., ] Weber, Wasatch, and Washington. However, the CCAA is programmatic, and, as such, we cannot identify...

  11. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... safely used in combination with salt (NaCl) to aid in inhibiting the outgrowth and toxin formation from... the edible portion of the finished smoked product has a salt (NaCl) content of not less than 3.5...

  12. Effects of capture by trammel net on Colorado River native fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Teresa A.; Ward, David L.; Propper, Catherine R.; Gibb, Alice C.

    2012-01-01

    Trammel nets are commonly used to sample rare fishes; however, little research has assessed delayed mortality associated with this capture technique. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate the effects of capture by trammel net on bonytail Gila elegans, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, and roundtail chub Gila robusta, at 15, 20, and 25uC. Fish (139–288 mm total length) were entangled in a trammel net for 2 h or captured by seine net and then monitored for mortality for at least 14 d. Blood samples were collected immediately after capture, and plasma cortisol levels were quantified as an index of capture-related stress. The cortisol response varied by species, but mean cortisol levels were higher for fish captured by trammel netting (295.9 ng/mL) relative to fish captured by seine netting (215.8 ng/mL). Only one fish (of 550) died during capture and handling, but 42% of the trammel-netted fish and 11% of the seine-netted fish died within 14 d after capture. In general, mortality after capture by trammel net increased with increased water temperature and at 25uC was 88% for bonytail, 94% for razorback sucker, and 25% for roundtail chub. Delayed mortality of wild-caught fish captured by trammel net has the potential to be high, at least under some circumstances. We suggest that sampling frequency, timing of sampling (relative to reproductive cycles), and water temperature all be considered carefully when using trammel nets to sample diminished populations of imperiled native fishes.

  13. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    18 Andesite ............................................ 18 Infilling Material................................. 18 Tuffaceous Agglomerate...6 Tuff .................................................... 61 F’ow Breccia ............................................ 62 Andesite ...71 Lithologic Units ........................................... 72 Porphyritic Andesite .................................... 72 Alluvium

  14. 78 FR 7391 - Motorized Travel Management Plan, Tonto National Forest; Gila, Maricopa, Pinal, and Counties, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... restrictions on allowed uses, classes of vehicles, and/or seasons of use for specific routes. There is also a... nature and scope of the environmental, social, and economic issues, and possible alternatives related to...

  15. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Report. Volume IIB. Gila Bend Group and White Sands Missile Range Extension.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-07

    SbdokMbsmn Trigo Mountains V-erckMbsmn Chocolate Mountains V bedrock/d basement:11Castle Dome Mountains V bedrock/G basemebt Palomas Mountain V...are: (1) portions of the San Andrea* systaft 11n greater than 100 nm to the northwest; (2) the Agua -640 Slanc fut lying approximately __nm to the

  16. Voices from the Gila: health care issues for rural elders in south-western New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Averill, Jennifer B

    2002-12-01

    A goal of the Healthy People 2010 initiative is to reduce or eliminate health disparities in vulnerable populations, including populations from rural and minority ethnic backgrounds. Rural communities, including elderly populations, experience lower rates of personal income, educational attainment, health-insurance coverage, access to emergency and specialty care services, and reported health status than do urban communities. A need exists to address identified research priorities, such as the perceptions of rural elders, their family members, and health care providers. The purposes of this study were to explore the health care perceptions, needs, and definitions of health for multicultural rural elders in one county of south-western New Mexico, and to consider practice implications. Informed consent procedures followed the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center Human Research Review Committee guidelines. Research methods. This critical ethnography incorporated ethnographic interviews, ethnographic participant observation, photography, review of pertinent documents, and analysis of contextual factors. The sample consisted of 22 participants. Definitions of health varied with socioeconomic status, encompassing avoidance of contact with the health care system, obtaining needed medications, remaining independent, a sense of spiritual belonging, eating wisely, and exercising moderately. Three major concerns emerged from the analysis: the escalating cost of prescription drugs, access-to-care issues, and social isolation. The primary limitation was the small sample size. Although the researcher's position as an outsider to local communities may also have affected the outcome, it provided fresh insight to regional problems. The study addressed national research priorities for a vulnerable group of rural elders. Nursing implications include the need for expanded knowledge and educational preparation regarding elder issues and community-level services, inclusion of elders' perspectives in the planning and delivery of health services, and the need for community-level, interdisciplinary collaboration and advocacy.

  17. Prehistory and History of the Upper Gila River, Arizona and New Mexico: An Archaeological Overview.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    style cremation area was found at the site, but the inhabitants contemporary with the crema - tions may already have been living in pueblo-l Ke...destroyed in order to build cotton fields. Inci- dentally , there seems to be some confusion in the historic preservation records between Camp Goodwin, Fort

  18. Aeromagnetic map of the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, Yavapai, Gila, and Coconino counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, W.E.; Weir, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic anomalies and patterns on the aeromagnetic map reflect variations of magnetization in the underlying rocks. Basaltic rocks contain moderate amounts of magnetic minerals, mainly magnetite, and possess strong intensities of magnetization. The more silicic volcanic rocks have much lower magnetization intensities. Sedimentary rocks contain little or no magnetite and are virtually nonmagnetic.

  19. Aeromagnetic maps of the Mazatzal Wilderness and contiguous roadless areas, Gila, Maricopa, and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, C.K.; Abrams, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the geology, geochemistry (Marsh and others, 1983a, b, Erickson, 1984), mines and prospects (Ellis, 1982), and mineral resource potential (Wrucke and others, 1983) of the Mazatzal Wilderness and contiguous roadless areas have been published elsewhere.

  20. 75 FR 1802 - Termination of the Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Gila Cliff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... significant/major effects on the human environment as they focus on different ways of protecting resources, providing appropriate visitor experiences, and addressing joint NPS/Forest Service operations. For these... ways of protecting resources, providing appropriate visitor experiences, and addressing joint NPS...

  1. Aeromagnetic map of the Hells Gate Roadless Area, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Paleozoic strata have been stripped by subsequent erosion. Early Proterozoic rocks constitute about ninety percent of the exposed rocks in the roadless area and are composed of granite, granophyre, and intrusive and extrusive rhyolite (Conway, 1983).

  2. Cave Buttes Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Dike No. 1. CP drill setting pipe for grout holes in the zone TI area. 25 Jan 78 .................................. 77 87. Dike No. 1. Pressure...the town of Cave -reek. The creek crosses six miles of alluvial plain before it bends northeast at a point one mile north of Cave Buttes Dam. The plain...resolved by puddling grout at the surface to seal the surface fractures. The holes were filled to the ground surface by hand and the pipe above ground

  3. Master Plan Tucson Diversion Channel, Recreation Development Program, Gila River and Tributaries Arizona and New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    opportunities for the teen and preteen -age groups. The people of Tucson believe that recreational opportunity may help reduce crime rates and keep these...for the preteen and teen age groups, bicycle and equestrian trails. and areas for organized team sports. For example, there is an acute need for

  4. Master Plan, Tucson Diversion Channel, Recreation Development Program. Gila River and Tributaries, Arizona and New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    area. • A need for recreation opportunities for the preteen and teen- age groups. The people of Tucson believe recreation oppor- tunity might help...be able to accommodate large group activities and have adequate onsite parking. Also needed are facilities for the preteen and teen-age groups

  5. Establishment of a fish community in the hayden-rhodes and salt-gila aqueducts, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.

    1996-01-01

    Fish populations were studied in the Central Arizona Project's canal system during the first 4 years of aqueduct operation (1986-1989). Ichthyoplankton entering the canal from Lake Havasu averaged 1 larva/m3 during April-June 1987 and 1988. Larval fish densities increased significantly in downstream samples, substantiating diver observations that fish were spawning in the canal system. Of the 16 fish species collected, 14 were assumed to have originated from Lake Havasu and 2 were introduced by anglers from their bait buckets. Initially, the fish community was dominated numerically by threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense (>88%), centrarchids (< 10%), cyprinids (<2%), and striped bass Morone saxatilis (<1%). However, as annual water diversions increased from 13 x 108 m3 in 1986 to 9.4 x 108 m3 in 1989, community composition shifted from clupeids to centrarchids (70%). Fish densities dropped from an estimated 1,260 fish/ha in 1986 to 17 fish/ha in 1989, and biomass dropped from 116 to 73 kg/ha. Declines were attributed to higher operational velocities, associated scour, deprivation, and predation. Although initial populations adjusted downward to planned operational conditions, the fish community continued to represent a potentially valuable, but as yet unused, resource.

  6. 75 FR 26711 - Plan Revision for Coconino National Forest; Coconino, Gila and Yavapai Counties, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ..., noxious weeds, and additional direction for the Mexican spotted owl, the northern goshawk, and old growth... related concerns include increased use of developed recreation areas; changing populations; increased... service- based economy, the influence of forest management activities on the local economy, population...

  7. Determination of selenium in fish from designated critical habitat in the Gunnison River, Colorado, March through October, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results for the summer 2012 sam-pling of muscle plugs from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptycho-cheilus lucius), and razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) inhabiting critical habitat in the Gunnison River in western Colorado. Total selenium in fish muscle plugs was determinedby instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total selenium concentrations (range and mean ± standard deviation) in micrograms per gram dry weight were 6.0 to 10.7, 8.8 ± 1.3 for common carp; 2.9 to 8.7, 5.6 ± 2.4 for Colorado pikemin-now; and 1.4 to 7.3, 3.4 ± 2.7 for razorback sucker. The selenium concentration for one bonytail chub sample was 0.8 micrograms per gram dry weight. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from 1 Colorado pikeminnow and 12 common carp exceeded the 8 micrograms per gram dry weight toxicity guideline for selenium in fish muscle tissue.

  8. An evaluation of the efficiency of minnow traps for estimating the abundance of minnows in desert spring systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Scheerer, Paul D.; Clements, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Desert springs are sensitive aquatic ecosystems that pose unique challenges to natural resource managers and researchers. Among the most important of these is the need to accurately quantify population parameters for resident fish, particularly when the species are of special conservation concern. We evaluated the efficiency of baited minnow traps for estimating the abundance of two at-risk species, Foskett Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus ssp. and Borax Lake Chub Gila boraxobius, in desert spring systems in southeastern Oregon. We evaluated alternative sample designs using simulation and found that capture–recapture designs with four capture occasions would maximize the accuracy of estimates and minimize fish handling. We implemented the design and estimated capture and recapture probabilities using the Huggins closed-capture estimator. Trap capture probabilities averaged 23% and 26% for Foskett Speckled Dace and Borax Lake Chub, respectively, but differed substantially among sample locations, through time, and nonlinearly with fish body size. Recapture probabilities for Foskett Speckled Dace were, on average, 1.6 times greater than (first) capture probabilities, suggesting “trap-happy” behavior. Comparison of population estimates from the Huggins model with the commonly used Lincoln–Petersen estimator indicated that the latter underestimated Foskett Speckled Dace and Borax Lake Chub population size by 48% and by 20%, respectively. These biases were due to variability in capture and recapture probabilities. Simulation of fish monitoring that included the range of capture and recapture probabilities observed indicated that variability in capture and recapture probabilities in time negatively affected the ability to detect annual decreases by up to 20% in fish population size. Failure to account for variability in capture and recapture probabilities can lead to poor quality data and study inferences. Therefore, we recommend that fishery researchers and

  9. Helminth parasites of the chub mackerel Scomber colias off the Tunisian coast and their use in stock discrimination.

    PubMed

    Feki, M; Châari, M; Neifar, L; Boudaya, L

    2017-02-20

    Nine helminth parasites were used as biological tags to discriminate diverse areas of Scomber colias Gmelin, 1789. During three seasons, a total of 369 fish were examined in four zones off the Tunisian coast, including Bizerte in the north, Kelibia and Mahdia in the centre and Zarzis in the south. Discriminant analyses were used to identify distinct areas of S. colias. Fish from Bizerte were grouped as one area and were correlated negatively with the monogenean Grubea cochlear and the digenean Lecithocladium excisum. Specimens from Kelibia and Mahdia were grouped together and were characterized by the ectoparasite Pseudokuhnia minor and by endoparasites Prodistomum orientalis, Monascus filiformis and anisakid larvae. Fish from Zarzis were grouped as one area and were positively correlated with the monogenean G. cochlear and the digenean L. excisum. These results were corroborated by comparing the prevalence and mean abundance of parasites among zones. Results of other discriminant analyses used for the classification of S. colias between localities after pooling specimens from the central areas of Kelibia and Mahdia also allowed the identification of three distinct areas: one in the north, correlated negatively with G. cochlear and L. excisum; one in the centre, characterized by P. minor, P. orientalis, M. filiformis and anisakid larvae; and one in the south, from Zarzis, characterized by G. cochlear and L. excisum. Results of comparisons of infection parameters between seasons and those of seasonal discrminant analyses showed a seasonal stability of communities from the northern and the southern areas. Specimens from the central regions showed variability between seasons, suggesting migratory movements.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CREEK CHUBS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of genetic diversity within and among populations of stream fishes may provide a powerful method for assessing the status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences (590 bases of cytochrome B) and nuclear DNA loci (109 amp...

  11. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae) from southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Felipe Bisaggio; Pereira, Aldenice de Nazaré; Timi, Juan Tomás; Luque, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) (Kyphosidae), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva) comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis. PMID:23828003

  12. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe Bisaggio; Pereira, Aldenice de Nazaré; Timi, Juan Tomás; Luque, José Luis

    2013-06-01

    A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) (Kyphosidae), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva) comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CREEK CHUBS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of genetic diversity within and among populations of stream fishes may provide a powerful method for assessing the status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences (590 bases of cytochrome B) and nuclear DNA loci (109 amp...

  14. Comparative phylogeography of two monogenean species (Mazocraeidae) on the host of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, along the coast of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Pin; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, the phylogeographies of two monogenean species, Pseudokuhnia minor and Kuhnia scombri, on the same species of host, Scomber japonicus, were studied. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were sequenced for 264 individuals of P. minor and 224 individuals of K. scombri collected from 10 localities along the coast of China. Genetic diversity of K. scombri was higher than that of P. minor, which may imply that P. minor has a lower evolution rate and/or is a younger species. The neighbour-joining (NJ) trees of both parasites were comprised of two clades without association to sample sites, which is the signature of remixing populations following past division. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index revealed different genetic structures for the populations of these two closely related species along the coast of China: P. minor without significant genetic structure, while K. scombri has some genetic differentiation. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution suggested that the populations of these two species of parasites experienced population expansion in the late Pleistocene era due to the glacial-interglacial cycles induced by climatic oscillations.

  15. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report: Adobe Dam Gila River Basin, New River and Phoenix City Streams, Arizona.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    direction, and generally is steeply dipping. Igneous rocks in the area consist of granite, rhyolite, andesite , dacite, vesicular basalt flows, tuff...from the mid-Tertiary (late Oligeocene and early Miocene) orogency, which produced great quantities of rhyolite to andesitic tuffs, breccias, and flows...which vary in thickness from a thin veneer to many feet. The flows are composed of dark-gray vesicular olivine basalt, andesite , flow breccia

  16. Forced to Abandon Their Farms: Water Deprivation and Starvation among the Gila River Pima, 1892-1904

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the water problems faced by the people of the Pima tribe. On June 17, 1902, after more than a decade of political debate and maneuvering, the National Reclamation Act became law. This legislation provided direct federal subsidies for the development of irrigation projects across the arid West. The Reclamation Act generated…

  17. Microsomal EROD data of fish liver sample assay from species collected in the Salt and Gila Rivers, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicks, Diane

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes microsomal ERDO data from an assay done with liver samples from several fish species that are found in Arizona at sites that are being assessed for PBDE contamination. The data was created in September and October 2016.

  18. 77 FR 43799 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Gila...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... 2010, p. 2). The petition states that aluminum is toxic to aquatic insects and cite several papers in... of pollutants from roads and off-road vehicle trails, introduction of bacteria and excess nutrients... warranted. The petition states that aluminum is toxic to aquatic insects and cite several papers in...

  19. Map showing ground-water conditions in the lower Verde River area, Maricopa, Yavapai, and Gila Counties, Arizona, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    Arizona is divided into 67 ground-water areas, and individual areas are selected for intensive data collection once every 6 years. The data collected in the lower Verde River area are given on a map that shows altitude of the water level, depth of water, well depth, chemical quality of the water, and irrigated area. Scale 1:125,000. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Forced to Abandon Their Farms: Water Deprivation and Starvation among the Gila River Pima, 1892-1904

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the water problems faced by the people of the Pima tribe. On June 17, 1902, after more than a decade of political debate and maneuvering, the National Reclamation Act became law. This legislation provided direct federal subsidies for the development of irrigation projects across the arid West. The Reclamation Act generated…

  1. Novel venom proteins produced by differential domain-expression strategies in beaded lizards and gila monsters (genus Heloderma).

    PubMed

    Fry, Bryan G; Roelants, Kim; Winter, Kelly; Hodgson, Wayne C; Griesman, Laura; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scanlon, Denis; Karas, John; Shaw, Chris; Wong, Lily; Norman, Janette A

    2010-02-01

    The origin and evolution of venom proteins in helodermatid lizards were investigated by multidisciplinary techniques. Our analyses elucidated novel toxin types resultant from three unique domain-expression processes: 1) The first full-length sequences of lethal toxin isoforms (helofensins) revealed this toxin type to be constructed by an ancestral monodomain, monoproduct gene (beta-defensin) that underwent three tandem domain duplications to encode a tetradomain, monoproduct with a possible novel protein fold; 2) an ancestral monodomain gene (encoding a natriuretic peptide) was medially extended to become a pentadomain, pentaproduct through the additional encoding of four tandemly repeated proline-rich peptides (helokinestatins), with the five discrete peptides liberated from each other by posttranslational proteolysis; and 3) an ancestral multidomain, multiproduct gene belonging to the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/glucagon family being mutated to encode for a monodomain, monoproduct (exendins) followed by duplication and diversification into two variant classes (exendins 1 and 2 and exendins 3 and 4). Bioactivity characterization of exendin and helokinestatin elucidated variable cardioactivity between isoforms within each class. These results highlight the importance of utilizing evolutionary-based search strategies for biodiscovery and the virtually unexplored potential of lizard venoms in drug design and discovery.

  2. Native fish population and habitat study, Santa Ana River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulff, Marissa L.; Brown, Larry R.; May, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Collection of additional data on the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae) and the Arroyo Chub (Gila orcutti) has been identified as a needed task to support development of the upper Santa Ana River Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP; http://www.uppersarhcp.com/). The ability to monitor population abundance and understanding the habitats used by species are important when developing such plans. The Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae) is listed as a threatened species under federal legislation and is considered a species of special concern in California by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Moyle 2002). The Arroyo Chub (Gila orcutti) is considered a species of special concern in California by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (Moyle 2002). Both species are present in the Santa Ana River watershed in the area being evaluated for establishment of the upper Santa Ana River Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP; http://www.uppersarhcp.com/). The HCP is a collaborative effort involving the water resource agencies of the Santa Ana River Watershed, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, California Department of Fish and Wildlife, and other government agencies and stakeholder organizations. The goals of the HCP are to: 1) enable the water resource agencies to provide a reliable water supply for human uses; 2) conserve and maintain natural rivers and streams that provide habitat for a diversity of unique and rare species; and 3) maintain recreational opportunities for activities such as hiking, fishing, and wildlife viewing, provided by the protection of these habitats and the river systems they depend on. The HCP will specify how species and their habitats will be protected and managed in the future and will provide the incidental take permits needed by the water resource agencies under the federal and State endangered species acts to maintain, operate, and improve their water resource infrastructure. Although the Santa Ana Sucker has been the subject of

  3. Predation on larval suckers in the Williamson River Delta revealed by molecular genetic assays—A pilot study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Burdick, Summer M.

    2016-06-13

    Predation of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) during larval egress to Upper Klamath Lake from the Williamson River is poorly understood but may be an important factor limiting recruitment into adult spawning populations. Native and non-native piscivores are abundant in nursery wetland habitat, but larval predation has not been directly studied for all species. Larvae lack hard body structures and digest rapidly in predator digestive systems. Therefore, traditional visual methods for diet analysis may fail to identify the extent of predation on larvae. The goals of this study were to (1) use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays developed for Lost River and shortnose suckers to assay predator stomach contents for sucker DNA, and (2) to assess our ability to use this technique to study predation. Predators were captured opportunistically during larval sucker egress. Concurrent feeding trials indicate that most predators—yellow perch (Perca flaverscens), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), blue chub (Gila coerulea), Klamath tui chub (Siphatales bicolor bicolor), Klamath Lake sculpin (Cottus princeps), slender sculpin (Cottus tenuis)—preyed on sucker larvae in the laboratory. However, sucker DNA was not detected in fathead minnow stomachs. Of the stomachs screened from fish captured in the Williamson River Delta, 15.6 percent of yellow perch contained sucker DNA. This study has demonstrated that the application of qPCR and SNP assays is effective for studying predation on larval suckers. We suggest that techniques associated with dissection or detection of sucker DNA from fathead minnow stomachs need improvement.

  4. Presence and effects of pharmaceutical and personal care products on the Baca National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Zenobio, Jenny E; Sanchez, Brian C; Leet, Jessica K; Archuleta, Laura C; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2015-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have raised concerns due to their potential effects to aquatic organisms. These chemicals appear in mixtures at very low concentrations thus making their detection and quantification difficult. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) concentrate trace levels of chemicals over time increasing method sensitivity and thus represent a cost-effective screening tool for biomonitoring studies. The Baca National Wildlife Refuge (BNWR), Colorado, is home for several endemic fish species, including Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora). The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the types and concentrations of PPCPs in the Refuge, (2) compare and contrast two methods (grab and POCIS) for the quantification of PPCPs from surface water, and (3) determine effects due to PPCP exposure in fish. Between 2011 and 2013, 141 PPCPs were quantified using a combination of grab samples and POCIS. Although no PPCPs were detected from the grab samples, high concentrations of N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) and triclosan were detected in all fish sampling sites with POCIS. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Rio Grande chubs of both sexes were collected in 2011 and 2012. Several biological responses were observed in both species from creeks contaminated with PPCPs; however the presence of PPCPs in the reference site did not allow for valid data comparison and interpretation. We conclude that POCIS is a sensitive method for the detection and quantification of PPCPs and for identification of reference sites and that appropriate "reference" sites need to be identified at the BNWR for follow-up studies with native fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Complex influences of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in a Colorado River tributary system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, R.J.; Rahel, F.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Low-head dams in arid regions restrict fish movement and create novel habitats that have complex effects on fish assemblages. The influence of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in Muddy Creek, a tributary of the Colorado River system in the USA was examined. Upstream, fish assemblages were dominated by native species including two species of conservation concern, bluehead sucker, Catostomus discobolus Cope, and roundtail chub, Gila robusta Baird and Girard. The artificial wetlands contained almost exclusively non-native fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, and white sucker, Catostomus commersonii (Lacep??de). Downstream, fish assemblages were dominated by non-native species. Upstream spawning migrations by non-native white suckers were blocked by dams associated with the wetlands. However, the wetlands do not provide habitat for native fishes and likely inhibit fish movement. The wetlands appear to be a source habitat for non-native fishes and a sink habitat for native fishes. Two non-native species, sand shiner, Notropis stramineus (Cope), and redside shiner, Richardsonius balteatus (Richardson), were present only downstream of the wetlands, suggesting a beneficial role of the wetlands in preventing upstream colonisation by non-native fishes. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Influences of fragmentation on three species of native warmwater fishes in a Colorado River Basin headwater stream system, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compton, R.I.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.; Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of constructed instream structures on movements and demographics of bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth suckers C. latipinnis, and roundtail chub Gila robusta in the upstream portion of Muddy Creek, an isolated headwater stream system in the upper Colorado River basin of Wyoming. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate upstream and downstream movements of these three native species past a small dam built to divert irrigation water from the stream and a barrier constructed to prevent upstream movements of nonnative salmonids and (2) describe population characteristics in stream segments created by these structures. Our results indicated that upstream and downstream movements of the three target fishes were common. Fish of all three species moved frequently downstream over both structures, displayed some upstream movements over the irrigation diversion dam, and did not move upstream over the fish barrier. Spawning migrations by some fish into an intermittent tributary, which was not separated from Muddy Creek by a barrier, were observed for all three species. Both the irrigation diversion dam and the fish barrier contributed to fragmentation of the native fish populations, and considerable differences in population features were observed among segments. The instream structures may eventually cause extirpation of some native species in one or more of the segments created by the structures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF CREEK CHUB (SEMOTILUS ATROMACULATUS) POPULATIONS IN COAL MINING-IMPACTED AREAS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES, AS DETERMINED BY MTDNA SEQUENCING AND AFLP ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of intraspecific patterns in genetic diversity of stream fishes provides a potentially powerful method for assessing the status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (590 bases of cytochrome B) and nuclear DNA...

  8. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF CREEK CHUB (SEMOTILUS ATROMACULATUS) POPULATIONS IN COAL MINING-IMPACTED AREAS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES, AS DETERMINED BY MTDNA SEQUENCING AND AFLP ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of intraspecific patterns in genetic diversity of stream fishes provides a potentially powerful method for assessing the status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (590 bases of cytochrome B) and nuclear DNA...

  9. Multi-locus species tree of the chub genus Squalius (Leuciscinae: Cyprinidae) from western Iberia: new insights into its evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Waap, Silke; Amaral, Ana R; Gomes, Bruno; Manuela Coelho, M

    2011-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the genus Squalius are believed to be well established based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Here, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of all species inhabiting most of the western Iberia river systems using a nuclear multi-locus approach and different species tree methods: concatenation and coalescent-based methods (BEST and minimize-deep-coalescence). The dataset comprised sequences of seven coding and three non-coding regions belonging to seven nuclear genes, which were chosen to cover multiple biological functions: amh, bmp4, ef1a, egr2, irbp, rh and rpl8. We provide evidence for a conflicting topology between the nuDNA species tree and the widely reported mtDNA gene tree. S. pyrenaicus is rendered paraphyletic in all nuDNA species trees, with populations of the Tagus/Colares clustering with S. carolitertii, while populations from the Guadiana, Sado and Almargem form a separate clade. Although a larger sampling size encompassing the full spectrum of Squalius populations in western Iberia is still needed to fully elucidate the phylogeography and species delimitation of this genus, our results suggest that the two S. pyrenaicus clades may represent different species.

  10. Map showing the distribution of minerals in the heavy-mineral concentrate of stream sediments in the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, R.B.; Barton, H.N.; Negri, J.C.; Theobald, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Reconnaissance geochemical and mineralogical sampling was done in the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area during April and May 1978. This map shows the distribution of chalcopyrite, florite, galena, scheelite, and lead-rich iron oxides in the nonmagnetic fraction of the heavy-mineral concentrate of stream sediment samples collected during the reconnaissance study. 

  11. Quaternary stratigraphy and tectonics, and late prehistoric agriculture of the Safford Basin (Gila and San Simon river valleys), Graham County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, Brenda B.; Pearthree, Phillip A.; Homburg, Jeffry A.; Thrasher, Lawrence C.

    2004-01-01

    This guidebook accompanied the 46th annual meeting of the Rocky Mountain Cell of the Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) and the 2002 Fall Field Trip of the Arizona Geological Society. The meeting and field trip were held in the Safford Basin, southeastern Arizona. The Friends of the Pleistocene is an informal gathering of Quaternary geologists, geomorphologists, and pedologists who meet annually for a field conference. The first part of the guidebook consists of road logs with descriptions of stops covering the three days of the field trip. An overview of the geology of the Safford Basin is given in Stop 1-1. The second part of the guidebook consists of four short papers that discuss adjacent areas or that expand upon the road log descriptions of the field trip stops. The first paper by Reid and Buffler is a summary of upper Cenozoic depositional facies in the Duncan Basin, the first basin to the east of the Safford Basin. The next three papers expand upon (1) the soil study of the gridded field agricultural complex (Stop 2-3, Homburg and Sandor), (2) the vertebrate fossils of the San Simon Valley in the southeastern part of the Safford Basin (Stop 3-1, Thrasher), and (3) paleoIndian irrigation systems and settlements in Lefthand Canyon at the foot of the Pinaleno Mountains (Stop 3-2, Neely and Homburg).

  12. Spatial Digital Database for the Geology of the San Pedro River Basin in Cochise, Gila, Graham, Pima, and Pinal Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolm, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    The map area is located in southeastern Arizona. This report describes the map units, the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, and the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships; and it explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. See figures 2 and 3 for page-size versions of the map compilation.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of Maintenance and Storage Facility, Perimeter Fence Upgrade and Demolition of Three Buildings and Two Structures Gila River Air Force Space Surveillance Station Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    to 4.0 pico- Curies per liter. The threshold set by USEPA is 4.0 pico- Curies per liter. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Based on the 2003 External...of this EA: Melissa Trenchik, 21st Environmental Site Support B.S., 1992, Agriculture Years of Experience: 20 Mary Ellen Richards, PB&A, Inc

  14. Twentieth-century fire patterns in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area, Idaho/Montana, and the Gila/Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex, New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Matthew Rollins; Tom Swetnam; Penelope Morgan

    2000-01-01

    Twentieth century fire patterns were analyzed for two large, disparate wilderness areas in the Rocky Mountains. Spatial and temporal patterns of fires were represented as GIS-based digital fire atlases compiled from archival Forest Service data. We find that spatial and temporal fire patterns are related to landscape features and changes in land use. The rate and...

  15. Water Resources Data, New Mexico, Water Year 1999. Volume 2. The Arkansas River Basin; the San Juan River Basin; the Gila River Basin; and Ground-Water Wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, David; Lange, Kathy M.; Beal, Linda

    2000-01-01

    wells. Also included are 80 crest-stage, partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Mexico.

  16. Water Resources Data, New Mexico, Water Year 1998. Volume 2. The Arkansas River Basin; the San Juan River Basin; the Gila River Basin; and Ground-Water Wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, David; Lange, Kathy M.; Beal, Linda

    1999-01-01

    26 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 34 gaging stations, 23 wells, and 41 partial-record stations and miscellaneous sites; and water levels at 122 observation wells. Also included are 36 crest- stage, partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in New Mexico.

  17. Spatial digital database of the geologic map of Catalina Core Complex and San Pedro Trough, Pima, Pinal, Gila, Graham, and Cochise counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, William R.; digital database by Hirschberg, Douglas M.; Pitts, G. Stephen; Bolm, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map of Catalina Core Complex and San Pedro Trough by Dickinson (1992) was digitized for input into a geographic information system (GIS) by the U.S. Geological Survey staff and contractors in 2000-2001. This digital geospatial database is one of many being created by the U.S. Geological Survey as an ongoing effort to provide geologic information in a geographic information system (GIS) for use in spatial analysis. The resulting digital geologic map database data can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps and derivative products. Digital base map data (topography, roads, towns, rivers, lakes, and so forth) are not included; they may be obtained from a variety of commercial and government sources. This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale larger than 1:125,000 (for example, 1:100,000 or 1:24,000). The digital geologic map plot files that are provided herein are representations of the database. The map area is located in southern Arizona. This report lists the geologic map units, the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships, and explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. The manuscript and digital data review by Lorre Moyer (USGS) is greatly appreciated.

  18. Aquatic assemblages of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Burton, C.A.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the structure of periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages and their associations with environmental variables at 17 sites on streams of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin in Southern California. All assemblages exhibited strong differences between highly urbanized sites in the valley and the least-impacted sites at the transition between the valley and undeveloped mountains. Results within the urbanized area differed among taxa. Periphyton assemblages were dominated by diatoms (>75% of total taxa). Periphyton assemblages within the urbanized area were not associated with any of the measured environmental variables, suggesting that structure of urban periphyton assemblages might be highly dependent on colonization dynamics. The number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera (EPT) taxa included in macroinvertebrate assemblages ranged from 0 to 6 at urbanized sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages had significant correlations with several environmental variables within the urban area, suggesting that stream size and permanence were important determinants of distribution among the species able to survive conditions in urban streams. Only 4 of 16 fish species collected were native to the drainage. Fish assemblages of urbanized sites included two native species, arroyo chub Gila orcuttii and Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae, at sites that were intermediate in coefficient of variation of bank-full width, depth, bed substrate, and water temperature. Alien species dominated urbanized sites with lesser or greater values for these variables. These results suggest that urban streams can be structured to enhance populations of native fishes. Continued study of urban streams in the Santa Ana River basin and elsewhere will contribute to the basic understanding of ecological principles and help preserve the maximum ecological value of streams in highly urbanized areas.

  19. 15. VIEW OF GRAVEL PLANT, WEST SIDE OF RIVER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF GRAVEL PLANT, WEST SIDE OF RIVER AND DOWNSTREAM OF DAM SITE WITH EMPLOYEE HOUSING AT RIGHT. TRAMWAY BUCKETS ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE, November 1, 1927 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  20. 77 FR 11571 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Service, Gila National Forest, Silver City, NM; Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ... control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National Forest, Silver City, NM,...

  1. WelltonMohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, WelltonMohawk Canal, North side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  2. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frysinger, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal cycling and performance tests, performed to verify the package integrity, life, and stability of the chub packaged materials system for storage coolness with application to residential air conditioning, are described. The moisture vapor retention characteristics of the laminate film for long term chub performance was determined. The stability, mechanical integrity, and thermal performance of chubs following mechanical shock, vibration, and temperature extremes is reported.

  3. GENERAL PLANS AND SECTIONS. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PLANS AND SECTIONS. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2422, dated January 19, 1949, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. Pacific Sardine Characteristics Affecting the Conduct of an Acoustic Clutter Experiment off the West Coast of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-15

    Pelagic Species include Pacific sardine, Pacific herring, northern anchovy, chub mackerel , jack mackerel , and bonito. Highly Migratory Species include...Chub Mackerel —Jack Mackerel —Bonito 2000 2005 Figure 1 - US catches of Coastal Pelagic Species —Tunas —Swordfish 1980 1985

  5. 76 FR 6056 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... the following nearby counties: (i) In Arizona, the counties of Cochise, Gila, Graham, La Paz, Maricopa..., Gila, Graham, La Paz, Maricopa, Pima, Yavapai, and Yuma counties, and, except as noted below, Indian..., Graham, La Paz, Pima, Yavapai, and Yuma Counties) surrounding the Phoenix-Mesa- Scottsdale CBSA,\\4\\...

  6. 40 CFR 81.303 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Apache County Cochise County Coconino County Gila County Graham County Greenlee County La Paz County... La Paz County Maricopa County (part) area outside of Phoenix Mohave County Navajo County Pima County.../Attainment Apache County Cochise County Coconino County Gila County Graham County Greenlee County La...

  7. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO.. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO.. 1. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2328, dated August 2, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  8. ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2359, dated November 24, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. 78 FR 26384 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Rancheria, California Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming... Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona... California Jena Band of Choctaw Indians Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians...

  10. Wasteway, intake side. The floatoperated radial gates are housed behind ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wasteway, intake side. The float-operated radial gates are housed behind the concrete (below water level), view to the northwest - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. 40 CFR 49.5511 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan for the Gila River Indian Community § 49.5511 Identification of plan. (a) Purpose and scope. This section contains the approved implementation plan for the Gila River Indian Community dated August..., ambient air quality standards, permitting requirements for minor sources of air pollution, enforcement...

  12. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to the Salt River) Queen Creek (Headwaters to the Superior WWTP) Queen Creek (Below Potts Canyon)...

  13. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to the Salt River) Queen Creek (Headwaters to the Superior WWTP) Queen Creek (Below Potts Canyon)...

  14. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to the Salt River) Queen Creek (Headwaters to the Superior WWTP) Queen Creek (Below Potts Canyon)...

  15. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 3033 North Central Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85012): COLORADO MAIN STEM RIVER BASIN: Hualapai Wash MIDDLE GILA RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to the Salt River) Queen Creek (Headwaters to the Superior WWTP) Queen Creek (Below Potts Canyon)...

  16. Dutchwoman Butte revisited: Examining paradigms for livestock grazing exclusion

    Treesearch

    Jim Sprinkle; Mick Holder; Chas Erickson; Al Medina; Dan Robinett; George Ruyle; Jim Maynard; Sabrina Tuttle; John Hays; Walt Meyer; Scott Stratton; Alix Rogstad; Kevin Eldredge; Joe Harris; Larry Howery; Wesley Sprinkle

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, a collaborative range-monitoring program, "Reading the Range," was established with the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension in Gila County, the Gila County Cattle Growers, and the Tonto National Forest with the assistance of the US Department of Agriculture Renewable Resources Extension Act grant program. Funding for Reading the Range has...

  17. 146. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING STRAIGHT ON, OF CAST IRON LAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING STRAIGHT ON, OF CAST IRON LAMP STANDARD. THIS AND OTHER LAMP STANDARDS WERE REMOVED FROM THE LAMP COLUMNS ON THE PARAPET WALLS DURING WORLD WAR II AND STORED INSIDE THE DAM (January 1991) - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  18. 75 FR 23802 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Reservation, Arizona; Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona; Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona; and the Tohono O'odham Nation of..., Hopi and Zuni migration traditions indicate that clans originating from areas south of the Colorado...

  19. Restoration of Delta Streams: A Case History and Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    both: threadfin shad, dollar sunfish, golden topminnow, tadpole madtom, bantam sunfish, and speckled chub. Several species were rare (ɘ.1 percent...Speckled chub * ə[ə] 13 Notemigonus crysoleucas Golden shiner 4.1[1.51] ə[ə] 7.2[1.97] 85 Notropis atherinoides Emerald shiner ə[ə] 2 N...72 Family Aphredoderidae Aphredoderus sayanus Pirate perch ə[ə] 2 Family Fundulidae Fundulus chrysotus Golden topminnow * 2.33[ə] 3.6

  20. Cloning and expression analysis of a ubiquitin gene ( Ub L40 ) in the haemocytes of Crassostrea hongkongensis under bacterial challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dingkun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin, a highly conserved stress-related protein, is assigned multiple functions, such as DNA processing, protein degradation, and ribosome synthesis. The Crassostrea hongkongensis ubiquitin gene (designated ChUb L40 ) was cloned by a combination of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of ChUb L40 is 496 bp in length, consisting of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 34 bp, a 3'-UTR of 75 bp and an open reading frame of 387 bp encoding a ubiquitin fusion protein of 128 amino acids. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of ChUb L40 reveals that Ub L40 is highly conservative during evolution. The expression patterns of ChUb L40 gene in various tissues were examined by real-time PCR. The expression level of ChUb L40 in haemocytes is down-regulated at 4 h and gradually returned to its original level from 6 h to 24 h after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Our results suggest that ChUb L40 is ubiquitously expressed and plays an important role in immune defense against bacterial challenge.

  1. FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE INSTALLATION. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE INSTALLATION. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2497, dated March 8, 1949, Denver Colorado. Sheet 1 of 7 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  2. FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY LIST OF PARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY - LIST OF PARTS - BASE-CRANK. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2511, dated May 3, 1949, Denver Colorado. Sheet 1 of 2 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. 8. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF OPERATING HOUSE. 'WORTHINGTON PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF OPERATING HOUSE. 'WORTHINGTON PUMP AND MACHINE COMPANY' PUMP AND MOTOR TO OPERATE GAMES - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  4. 78 FR 58987 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Navajo Nation; Regional Haze Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...'s Action I. Background NGS is a coal-fired power plant located on the Navajo Nation Indian... Community (Gila River, or the Community), Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District...

  5. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... remaining portion of Pinal County, the surrounding deferred counties (Cochise, Gila, Graham, La Paz..., Graham, La Paz, Pima, Yavapai and Yuma counties) surrounding the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale CBSA,\\6\\...

  6. New Mexico Play Fairway Analysis: Particle Tracking ArcGIS Map Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Pepin

    2015-11-15

    These are map packages used to visualize geochemical particle-tracking analysis results in ArcGIS. It includes individual map packages for several regions of New Mexico including: Acoma, Rincon, Gila, Las Cruces, Socorro and Truth or Consequences.

  7. 2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ITS WAY TOWARD THE CEMENT MILL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, November 19, 1907 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  8. 40 CFR 131.31 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RIVER BASIN: Agua Fria River (Camelback Road to Avondale WWTP) Galena Gulch Gila River (Felix Road to... PEDRO RIVER BASIN: Copper Creek SANTA CRUZ RIVER BASIN: Agua Caliente Wash Nogales Wash Sonoita...

  9. 25. LOOKING UP THE SALT RIVER FROM THE INTAKE GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LOOKING UP THE SALT RIVER FROM THE INTAKE GATES OF THE SALT RIVER POWER CANAL, SHOWING HEADWORKS OF POWER CANAL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, October 17, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  10. 4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL WITH NEWER CHECK AND TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN FOREGROUND - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. 12. CONCRETE DROP STRUCTURE ON NORTH SIDE CANAL WITH TWO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CONCRETE DROP STRUCTURE ON NORTH SIDE CANAL WITH TWO TURNOUTS IN BACKGROUND, T4S R7E S24. VIEW LOOKING EAST - San Carlos Irrigation Project, North Side Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. 78 FR 36716 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Navajo Nation; Regional Haze Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...-month period for public comments, to close on May 6, 2013. The Navajo Nation, Gila River Indian... FR 8274). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 49 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Indians...

  13. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations for Mohave and Yuma Counties in the Mohave-Yuma Intrastate Region or Pinal-Gila Counties in the... 8-1-3.6 (Particulates—Process Industries) of the Yuma County Air Pollution Control Regulations, and...

  14. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations for Mohave and Yuma Counties in the Mohave-Yuma Intrastate Region or Pinal-Gila Counties in the... 8-1-3.6 (Particulates—Process Industries) of the Yuma County Air Pollution Control Regulations, and...

  15. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III...

  16. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations for Mohave and Yuma Counties in the Mohave-Yuma Intrastate Region or Pinal-Gila Counties in the... 8-1-3.6 (Particulates—Process Industries) of the Yuma County Air Pollution Control Regulations, and...

  17. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III...

  18. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III...

  19. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III...

  20. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations for Mohave and Yuma Counties in the Mohave-Yuma Intrastate Region or Pinal-Gila Counties in the... 8-1-3.6 (Particulates—Process Industries) of the Yuma County Air Pollution Control Regulations, and...

  1. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III...

  2. 25 CFR 162.607 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Pojoaque, Tesuque, and Zuni, N. Mex.; and land on the Colorado River Reservation, Ariz., and Calif.; which... Reservation, Nev.; the Gila River Reservation, Ariz.; the San Carlos Apache Reservation, Ariz.; the...

  3. 25 CFR 162.607 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., Pojoaque, Tesuque, and Zuni, N. Mex.; and land on the Colorado River Reservation, Ariz., and Calif.; which... Reservation, Nev.; the Gila River Reservation, Ariz.; the San Carlos Apache Reservation, Ariz.; the...

  4. 25 CFR 162.607 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Pojoaque, Tesuque, and Zuni, N. Mex.; and land on the Colorado River Reservation, Ariz., and Calif.; which... Reservation, Nev.; the Gila River Reservation, Ariz.; the San Carlos Apache Reservation, Ariz.; the...

  5. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... meanders of the present left bank of the Colorado River in section 29, Township 16 South, Range 22 East..., Arizona, on dates indicated. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gila and Salt River Meridian, Arizona The...

  6. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOODWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  7. 21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING SOUTH. WOOD BURNING PLANT AT RIGHT, INTAKE GATES AT CENTER LEFT. Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, June 13, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  8. 73. GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MECHANISM, FOR OPERATING DIVERSION DAM SLUICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF MECHANISM, FOR OPERATING DIVERSION DAM SLUICE GATES Courtesy of U.S.R.S., Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  9. 3. Photographic copy of map, dated October 1932, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of map, dated October 1932, in possession of San Carlos Irrigation and Drainage District. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. PICACHO RESERVOI - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Picacho Resevoir, South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  10. 11. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 10, 1922, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 10, 1922, in possession of SCIP, Coolidge, AZ. GENERAL PLAN - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. 17. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated June, 1921, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated June, 1921, in possession of SCIP, Coolidge, AZ. REGULATOR GATE ASSEMBLY - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. Classroom in the Cactus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum uses such quaint teaching tools as the Gila monster and the boojum tree to tell the story of its vast and fascinating but often misunderstood desert environment. (Editor)

  13. 12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS AND UNDERSIDE OF STEEL DECKING. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  14. 13. DETAIL OF END POST UPPER CHORD CONNECTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF END POST - UPPER CHORD CONNECTION, SHOWING PORTAL STRUT, LATERAL BRACING AND DIAGONAL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  15. 14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL UPPER CHORD VERTICAL CONNECTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL UPPER CHORD - VERTICAL CONNECTION, SHOWING STRUT, LATERAL BRACING AND DIAGONALS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  16. 11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS AND GUARDRAILS. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  17. Detail of expansion bearing shoe of Span No. 1 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of expansion bearing shoe of Span No. 1 on Abutment No. 1, view to south - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Detail of a storage and work bench on the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of a storage and work bench on the north wall at the east end of Motor Room - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. Classroom in the Cactus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum uses such quaint teaching tools as the Gila monster and the boojum tree to tell the story of its vast and fascinating but often misunderstood desert environment. (Editor)

  20. Detail, cyclops 15ton overhead traveling crane and rails running the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, cyclops 15-ton overhead traveling crane and rails running the length of the building - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  1. Community-driven Environmental Solutions in EPA’s Pacific Southwest Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet describes accomplishments in community-driven environmental Solutions in EPA’s Pacific Southwest Region, including Imperial Valley (CA), American Samoa, Las Vegas Valley (NV), Gila River Indian Community (AZ) and Gilroy (CA).

  2. 41. A TYPICAL OVERFLOW WEIR WITHOUT FLASH BOARDS. THE SALT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. A TYPICAL OVERFLOW WEIR WITHOUT FLASH BOARDS. THE SALT RIVER CAN BE SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Mark Durben, 1984 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  3. 77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE BY CONTRACT Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  4. Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on discharge side of pump - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  5. 1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN BE SEEN AT TOP OF PHOTOGRAPH Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, May 10, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  6. DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 452+32.00. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2370, dated November 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  7. PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 452+32. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2368, dated June 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  8. 3. Photographic copy of map. San Carlos Project, Arizona. Irrigation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of map. San Carlos Project, Arizona. Irrigation System. Department of the Interior. United States Indian Service. No date. Circa 1939. (Source: Henderson, Paul. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. Supplemental Storage Reservoir, Gila River. November 10, 1939, RG 115, San Carlos Project, National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO.) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  9. Context view, looking southwest along the WelltonMohawk Canal. The wasteway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view, looking southwest along the Wellton-Mohawk Canal. The wasteway is marked by the white posts on either side of the access road. The pipe across the canal safely carries storm runoff over the canal and is not part of Wasteway No. 1 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. Vegetation success, seepage, and erosion on tailing sites reclaimed with cattle and biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, J.; Jones, B.; Milczarek, M.; Hammermeister, D.; Word, J.

    1999-07-01

    Reclamation field studies were designed at the Phelps Dodge Morenci Mine in Arizona to evaluate the benefits of biosolids, cattle impact, and other treatment variables on soil-capped tailings. First-year monitoring has provided preliminary data about soil chemical and physical parameters, soil matrix potential profiles, erosion, and vegetation measurements of ground cover, biomass production and frequency. Plots were first seeded in January 1998 with a cover crop of oats or barley. Plots were seeded again in August 1998 with native and native plus non-native plant species. Early productivity from the second seeding was inversely related to seedling density. Plots capped with unamended Gila conglomerate (Gila) materials contained meager plant nutrient levels and produced numerous small seedlings that were poorly rooted and had little standing biomass. Vegetation on the cattle and biosolids treatments was vigorous and productive but at a much lower density than unamended Gila plots. Cattle treatment added little plant-nutrient value to the Gila cap compared to biosolids amendment. However, high rates of biosolids brought excessive salinity. Straw from the cattle treatment provided an effective mulch to improve soil moisture storage but increased the potential for deep seepage. Unamended Gila and biosolids plots had intermediate moisture storage and a modest potential for seepage compared to bare tailings. Mulch cover plus a lower rate of biosolids on Gila is seen as a promising, cost-effective amendment combination for future evaluation.

  11. Cellular responses in the cyprinid Leuciscus cephalus from a contaminated freshwater ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Frenzilli, G; Falleni, A; Scarcelli, V; Del Barga, I; Pellegrini, S; Savarino, G; Mariotti, V; Benedetti, M; Fattorini, D; Regoli, F; Nigro, M

    2008-09-17

    The response of wild chubs (Leuciscus cephalus) to chemical pollution was assessed in a metal contaminated river (Cecina River, Italy) through a wide battery of biomarkers which included: Comet assay detecting DNA strand breaks; diffusion assay for apoptosis induction; micronucleus test assessing chromosomal alterations; ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity for the induction of cytochrome P 4501A; acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity responsive to pesticide exposure; vitellogenin gene expression in males revealing estrogenic effects. Bioaccumulation of mercury, chromium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was also determined. Levels of mercury and PAHs were higher in tissues of chubs sampled from the most downstream station, reflecting an anthropogenic pollution of industrial origin. Otherwise, accumulation of Cr was quite similar in fish along the entire course of Cecina River confirming a natural origin due to local geochemical features. Biomarker responses revealed a significant increase of apoptotic cells, DNA stand breaks and micronucleus frequency in chubs from the more impacted sites. A slight EROD induction and AChE inhibition were only seen at the most downstream station demonstrating a limited impact due to PAHs and pesticides. On the other hand, the induction of vitellogenin gene in male chubs was measured in all the sites, suggesting a diffuse estrogenic effect. This study confirmed the utility of large batteries of biomarkers in biomonitoring studies and the suitability of wild chub as bioindicator organism for river basins.

  12. Distributions of small nongame fishes in the lower Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, Michael B.; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is the longest unimpounded river in the conterminous United States. It has a relatively natural flow regime, which helps maintain diverse habitats and fish assemblages uncommon in large rivers elsewhere. The lower Yellowstone River was thought to support a diverse nongame fish assemblage including several species of special concern. However, comprehensive data on the small nongame fish assemblage of the lower Yellowstone River is lacking. Therefore, we sampled the Yellowstone River downstream of its confluence with the Clark’s Fork using fyke nets and otter trawls to assess distributions and abundances of small nongame fishes. We captured 42 species (24 native and 18 nonnative) in the lower Yellowstone River with fyke nets. Native species constituted over 99% of the catch. Emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, western silvery minnows Hybognathus argyritis, flathead chubs Platygobio gracilis, sand shiners Notropis stramineus, and longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae composed nearly 94% of fyke net catch and were caught in every segment of the study area. We captured 24 species by otter trawling downstream of the Tongue River. Sturgeon chubs Macrhybopsis gelida, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, flathead chubs, stonecats Noturus flavus, and sicklefin chubs Macrhybopsis meeki composed 89% of the otter trawl catch. The upstream distributional limit of sturgeon chubs in the Yellowstone River was the Tongue River; few sicklefin chubs were captured above Intake Diversion Dam. This study not only provides biologists with baseline data for future monitoring efforts on the Yellowstone River but serves as a benchmark for management and conservation efforts in large rivers elsewhere as the Yellowstone River represents one of the best references for a naturally functioning Great Plains river.

  13. Food web implications of delta13C and delta15N variability over 370 km of the regulated Colorado River USA.

    PubMed

    Shannon, J P; Blinn, D W; Haden, G A; Benenati, E P; Wilson, K P

    2001-01-01

    Dual stable isotope analysis in the regulated Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park, USA, revealed a food web that varied spatially through this arid biome. Down-river enrichment of delta13C data was detected across three trophic levels resulting in shifted food webs. Humpack chub delta13C and delta15N values from muscle plugs and fin clips did not differ significantly. Humpback chub and rainbow trout trophic position is positively correlated with standard length indicating an increase in piscivory by larger fishes. Recovery of the aquatic community from impoundment by Glen Canyon Dam and collecting refinements for stable isotope analysis within large rivers are discussed.

  14. Effectiveness of fermentation/drying and post-process pressurization on viability of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in Genoa salami

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the effectiveness of fermentation and drying alone and in combination with high pressure processing (HPP) to inactivate five-strain cocktails of L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. (ca. 7.0 log10 per gram of each in batter) in Genoa salami. The inoculated chubs were fermented at 20 degr...

  15. BAFS AND BSAFS FOR CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioaccumulation factors and biota-sediment accumulation factors have been measured for tetra- to octa- polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans for forage fishes, i.e., alewife, bloater chub, deep water sculpin, slimy sculpin, smelt and for lake trout, age classes of ...

  16. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  17. Does fish reproduction and metabolic activity influence metal levels in fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, during fish spawning and post-spawning period?

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Raspor, Biserka

    2014-10-01

    Application of fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, as bioindicators in metal exposure assessment usually involves estimation of their metal levels and bioconcentration factors. Metal levels in parasite final host, fishes, are influenced by fish physiology but there is no data for acanthocephalan metal levels. Gastrointestinal Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ag levels in European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Sava River were significantly higher during chub spawning (April/May) compared to the post-spawning period (September). In acanthocephalans (Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae) significantly higher metal levels during chub spawning were observed only for Zn in P. laevis. Bioconcentration factors were twice as high for Fe, Mn, Ag, Pb in the post-spawning period, probably as a consequence of lower gastrointestinal metal levels in fish rather than metal exposure. Therefore, bioconcentration factors should be interpreted with caution, due to their possible variability in relation to fish physiology. In addition, gastrointestinal Cu, Cd and Pb levels were lower in infected than uninfected chub, indicating that metal variability in fishes might be affected by the presence of acanthocephalans.

  18. Comparative Efficacy of Potassium Levulinate with/without Potassium Diacetate and Potassium Propionate vs Potassium Lactate and Sodium Diacetate for Control of Listeria monocytogenes on commercially prepared uncured t.breast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the efficacy of potassium levulinate, potassium diacetate, and potassium propionate to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes on commercially-prepared, uncured turkey breast during refrigerated storage. Whole muscle, uncured turkey breast chubs (ca. 5 kg each) were formulated with or without po...

  19. The near extinction of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1957-01-01

    Comparisons in 1949 and 1950 of numbers of legal-sized lake trout caught in large-mesh nets with numbers of small fish taken in chub nets showed that both large and small lake trout declined over the same period, and that by these years the decline may have been greater among small than among legal-sized fish.

  20. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  1. 75 FR 35398 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Least...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis), a fish, as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the least chub as threatened or endangered under the Act is warranted. Currently, however, listing the least chub is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add the least chub to our list of candidate species with a listing priority number (LPN) of 7. We will develop a proposed rule to list this species as our priorities and funding allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. In the interim, we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  2. Low Temperature Storage of Red-Meat Fish-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Inaba, Minoru

    In order to find out a suitable method for freezing and storage of chub mackerel, a kind of fatty fish, the round fish were frozen experimentally by liquid nitrogen spraying metho d (LN2-freezing) and usual contact freezing as a control experiment, and stored at -10, - 20 and -40°C for 6 months. Quality change of the fish meat during frozen storage was checked using indices such as pH, POV and VBN. The quality was also evaluated by histological observation and sensory score. Results are as follows : (l)The present data did not always show the superiority of ultra-rapid freezing with LN2 in quality of frozen-stored chub mackerel as compared with contact freezing, regardless of storage temperature. (2) It seemd to be necessary to store fatty chub mackerel at a temperature below -20°C, such as -25 - -30°C being advisable. (3) Quality of chub mackerel was observed to change more markedly than that of sardine tested already during frozen storage.

  3. An Exploration of Team Information Processing in a Dynamic Group Choice Task Involving Uncertainty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    computer-based aids in solving a complex int~rnational c:iaig problem. The system elicited a decision tree from the group based on pooled inputs from...Huber’s program model neems to provide a reasonable description of the group decision procens in the context of this ntudy CHUB26l3. Further, it seems

  4. Evaluating the trophic transfer of selenium in aquatic ecosystems using caged fish, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Phibbs, James; Franz, Eric; Hauck, Dominic; Gallego, Maria; Tse, Justin J; Pickering, Ingrid J; Liber, Karsten; Janz, David M

    2011-10-01

    This research evaluated the dominant exposure pathways with regard to the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of selenium (Se) in caged small-bodied fish inhabiting the receiving waters of a uranium-processing mill in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. A 21-day cage study was conducted using wild naïve lake chub (Couesius plumbeus) collected from a reference lake and caged in a reference and an exposure lake downstream of the mill discharge. Caged fish were fed commercially produced Chironomus spp. diets of 1.5 (basal - commercial food) and 5.5 (lab reared in Se-spiked water) μgSe/g (dry weight) at a feeding ration of 10 percent percent body weight/day. Lake chub fed the Se-spiked diet and caged in the reference lake showed increased whole-body Se concentrations compared to chub fed the basal diet after 21 days. Lake chub caged in the exposure lake from both the elevated Se and basal diet groups had significantly greater whole-body Se concentrations compared to the reference lake, and were not significantly different from each other. The use of stable carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and sulphur (S) isotope analyses indicated that alternate benthic food sources native to the exposure lake were likely consumed in conjunction with the controlled diets. Stable isotope analysis of both wild and caged lake chub indicated that the N and S isotopic signatures decreased with increasing Se exposure, which was reflective of the differences in isotopic signatures of the food sources. Dose-dependent substitution of Se for S in methionine as a consequence of dietary Se exposure was illustrated by a decreasing whole-body S isotope signature and an increasing proportion of selenomethionine-like compounds (as measured by synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy) with increasing Se exposure. Speciation results from caged lake chub indicated that Se substituted for S in methionine was the dominant Se species found in caged lake chub exposed to dietary sources of Se. Copyright © 2011

  5. Phylogenetic signals in detoxification pathways in Cyprinid and Centrarchid species in relation to sensitivity to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Peter; Gerzel, Lindsay E; Calomiris, Peter; Haney, Dennis C

    2017-07-01

    Observations in a previous study on biomarker responses in fish collected from urban creeks in Greenville, SC, indicated that there might be considerable differences in the expression of biotransformation enzymes in chub and sunfish species. To further investigate these species differences a dosing experiment was performed in which bluehead and creek chub (Nocomis leptocephalus and Semotilus atromaculatus), and redbreast sunfish, pumpkinseed, and bluegill (Lepomis auritus, L. gibbosus, and L. macrochirus) were injected with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as a model compound for common pollutants in urban creeks. Fish were injected with BaP doses of 0, 25 and 50mg/kg, and after 3days BaP metabolites in bile, and enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were measured. CYP1A activity was significantly increased after BaP dosing in both species groups, but chubs had significantly lower levels than were observed in the dosed sunfish. The UGT activity in unexposed animals was comparable in both species groups, and significantly increased in both groups as a result of BaP dosage. Finally, GST activity was significantly higher in chubs, but did not change in either species group as a result of BaP exposure. There were no significant differences between species within each species group, and the results confirmed that unexposed chubs have much lower CYP1A activity, but a much higher GST activity than unexposed sunfish. The metabolized BaP was excreted in both species groups, but at the time of sampling there were no differences in the amount of BaP metabolites in the bile of dosed animals. The differences in baseline enzyme activity and induction capacity between both species groups are an example of phylogenetically determined differences between fish families, and may explain why chubs are in general more sensitive to exposure to environmental pollutants than sunfish. This conclusion was corroborated

  6. A comparison of measures of riverbed form for evaluating distributions of benthic fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Lamberson, Peter J.; Galat, David L.

    2003-01-01

    A method to quantitatively characterize the bed forms of a large river and a preliminary test of the relationship between bed-form characteristics and catch per unit area of benthic fishes is presented. We used analog paper recordings of bathymetric data from the Missouri River and fish data collected from 1996 to 1998 at both the segment (???101-102-km) and macrohabitat (???10-1-100-km) spatial scales. Bed-form traces were transformed to digital data with image analysis software. The slope, mean residual, and SD of the residuals of the regression of depth versus distance along the bottom, as well as mean depth, were estimated for each trace. These four metrics were compared with sinuosity, fractal dimension, critical scale, and maximum mean angle for the same traces. Mean depth and sinuosity differed among segments and macrohabitats. Fractal-based measures of the relative depth of bottom troughs (critical scale) and smoothness (maximum mean angle) differed among segments. Statistics-based measures of the relative depth of bottom troughs (mean residual) and smoothness (SD of the residuals) differed among macrohabitats. Sites with shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus were shallower and smoother than sites without shovelnose sturgeon. When compared with sites without sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki, sites with sicklefin chub were shallower, had shallower troughs, and sloped more out of the flow of the river. Sites with sturgeon chub M. gelida were shallower, had shallower troughs, and were smoother than sites without sturgeon chub. Sites with and without channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus did not differ for any bed-form variables measured. Nonzero shovelnose sturgeon density increased with depth, whereas nonzero sturgeon chub density decreased with depth. Indices of bed-form structure demonstrated potential for describing the distribution and abundance of Missouri River benthic fishes. The observed fish patterns, though limited, provide valuable

  7. Floods of November 1978 to March 1979 in Arizona and west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, Byron Neil; Hales, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in parts of the Little Colorado and Gila River basins as a result of a storm that occurred December 17-20, 1978. The central highlands received 3 to 10 inches of precipitation that was augmented by snowmelt to altitudes of 10,000 feet. The storm was preceded by extremely large amounts of rainfall and runoff in November and was followed by other periods of high runoff in January and March 1979. In some areas flood peaks in November, January, or March were higher than the peak of December 1978. At Winslow, the discharge of the Little Colorado River in December 1978 was the highest since at least 1952. The discharge of the Gila River above the San Francisco River was probably the highest since at least 1891, and in the Safford Valley, the peak was the highest since 1916. The Agua Fria River below Waddell Dam had the highest discharge since 1919. The flood of December 1978 caused 12 deaths and caused damage that was probably in excess of $150 million in Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Damage was estimated to be $51.8 million in Maricopa County, Arizona. Floods caused extensive agricultural damage along the Gila River in Virden Valley in New Mexico and in Duncan, York, and Safford Valleys in Arizona. Duncan, Arizona, was flooded with as much as 7 feet of water. The flood crest on the Gila River in December 1978 moved from Redrock, New Mexico, to Duncan, Arizona, in about 6 hours, which is more rapid than during other recent floods but is comparable to the travel-time recorded in 1941. Travel-time in the reach varies with discharge and is about 14 hours for discharges of 10,000 cubic feet per second and 5 hours for discharges of more than 40,000 cubic feet per second. Water-conservation reservoirs on the Gila, Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers and a flood-control reservoir on the Gila River had a major influence on the magnitude of floods downstream from the reservoirs. All runoff from the Gila River basin upstream from Coolidge Dam, Arizona

  8. North front, or intake side of Pumping Plant. The three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North front, or intake side of Pumping Plant. The three small regulatory pumps to the right of the building were installed ca. 1974-1975 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. Geologic influences on Apache trout habitat in the White Mountains of Arizona

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina

    2006-01-01

    Geologic variation has important influences on habitat quality for species of concern, but it can be difficult to evaluate due to subtle variations, complex terminology, and inadequate maps. To better understand habitat of the Apache trout (Onchorhynchus apache or O. gilae apache Miller), a threatened endemic species of the White...

  10. A Photographic Essay of the San Carlos Apache Indians, Volume 2-Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Ed; And Others

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on the San Carlos Apache Reservation founded in the late 1800's and located in Arizona's Gila County. An historical narrative and discussion questions accompany each of the 12 photographs. Photographic…

  11. 75 FR 45680 - Arizona Disaster #AZ-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arizona Disaster AZ-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arizona dated 07/27... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Gila; Yavapai. Contiguous Counties: Arizona: Coconino...

  12. 78 FR 57923 - Arizona Disaster #AZ-00029

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arizona Disaster AZ-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arizona dated 09/13/2013... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Yavapai. Contiguous Counties: Arizona: Coconino, Gila...

  13. Woodpecker use and fall rates of snags created by killing ponderosa pine infected with dwarf mistletoe.

    Treesearch

    Catherine G. Parks; David A. Conklin; Larry Bednar; Helen. Maffei

    1999-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) killed as part of a forest management project to reduce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, were evaluated for wildlife value. One hundred and two dwarf mistletoe-infected trees were killed by basal burning, basal girdling, or by a...

  14. Nest-location and nest-survival of black-chinned hummingbirds in New Mexico: A comparison between rivers with differing levels of regulation and invasion of nonnative plants

    Treesearch

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2014-01-01

    We compared plants used as sites for nests and survival of nests of black-chinned hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) along two rivers in New Mexico. Along the free-flowing Gila River which was dominated by native plants, most nests were constructed in boxelder (Acer negundo). Along the flow-restricted Middle Rio Grande which was dominated by nonnative plants, most...

  15. Nesting ecology and nest success of the Blue Grosbeak along two rivers in New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth; Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    From 1997 through 2008, we studied the nesting habits and nest success of the Blue Grosbeak (Passerina cerulean) along the middle Gila River (1997-2001) and the middle Rio Grande (2000-2008) in New Mexico. A riparian forest of cottonwoods grows along both rivers. but the forest along the Rio Grande is a much more intensively managed ecosystem, with an understory...

  16. Arizona Public Library Statistics. 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1994-95. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise,and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups: (1)…

  17. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is a compilation of information supplied by Arizona public libraries. Data is arranged by a separate index divider for each of these county groups: Apache, Cochise, and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. Each section contains tables of the…

  18. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Jan, Comp.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  19. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  20. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1995-96. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise, and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups:…

  1. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The "Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999" is compiled from information supplied by the state's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Within each of these…

  2. 75 FR 53332 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Bureau of Reclamation San Carlos Irrigation Project, Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior... of San Carlos Irrigation Project (SCIP) water delivery facilities near the communities of Casa Grande, Coolidge, and Florence in Pinal County, Arizona. SCIP canals convey irrigation water from the Gila River...

  3. NASA Spacecraft Images New Mexico Wildfire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-02

    NASA Terra spacecraft passed over the Silver Fire in western New Mexico on June 7, 2013. It has since consumed more than 137,000 acres of timber in a rugged area of the Gila National Forest that has not seen large fires for nearly a century.

  4. 76 FR 36049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Utah...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... 50 CFR 424.14(a). In an April 5, 2010, letter to the petitioners, we responded that we had reviewed... of typically four or five black bands alternating with a pale yellow or orange background on the body... et al. 2007, p. 5). Adult Gila monsters in one population in Arizona had a mean life expectancy of...

  5. Quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the southwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Joseph C. Dysthe; Kellie J. Carim; Yvette M. Paroz; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species’ distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed...

  6. ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2360, dated Novermber 24, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  7. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2343, dated October 26, 1948, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  8. DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 717+62.95. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2380, dated November 30, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2361, dated November 24, 1948, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2352, dated December 2, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 972-64.99. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. cut off, dated November 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  12. PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 972-64.99. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2385, dated June 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. 7. VIEW OF RIVER SIDE OF MAIN CANAL HEADGATES WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF RIVER SIDE OF MAIN CANAL HEADGATES WITH NON-ORIGINAL GATES. POWER HOUSE IS IN BACKGROUND - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  14. 77 FR 47868 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the Bureau of Indian Affairs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... Tribal Town Alturas Indian Rancheria, California Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River... Indian Tribe of Arizona, California & Nevada Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Gila River Indian...'Klallam Tribe Jamul Indian Village of California Jena Band of Choctaw Indians Jicarilla Apache Nation,...

  15. 75 FR 60810 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Tribes of Texas Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Oklahoma Alturas Indian Rancheria, California Apache Tribe... Indian Tribe of Arizona, California & Nevada Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Gila River Indian... Jamul Indian Village of California Jena Band of Choctaw Indians, Louisiana Jicarilla Apache Nation,...

  16. Instructional Centers for Pima Culture. Final Report: Academic Year 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Bill J., Comp.; Bell, John E., Comp.

    The document contains the final report of the establishment of instructional centers for schools of Arizona's Gila River Indian Community. The project was made possible through Title III funds of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and was intended (1) to provide programs, services, and materials for making learning experiences more…

  17. A Comprehensive Evaluation of OEO Community Action Programs on Six Selected American Indian Reservations. Report 4 - Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James G. E.; And Others

    The impact of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) Community Action Programs (CAP) on 6 selected American Indian reservations (Gila River and Papago, Arizona; Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico; Pine Ridge, South Dakota; Turtle Mountain, North Dakota, and White Earth Chippewa, Minnesota) are evaluated. After considering the development of Indian…

  18. Safe Harbor: a tool to help recover topminnow and pupfish in Arizona

    Treesearch

    Douglas K. Duncan; Jeremy Voeltz

    2005-01-01

    The Arizona Game and Fish Department (Department) has developed a Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) for four native fishes in Arizona. The SHA will allow Gila and Yaqui topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis and P. sonoriensis) and desert and Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius and C. eremus)...

  19. 75 FR 4842 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Yuma Field Office Resource Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... the ROD/Approved Plan include the recalculation of Geographic Information System acreage to ensure....html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James T. Shoaff, Field Manager, Bureau of Land Management, Yuma Field Office, 2555 Gila Ridge Road, Yuma, Arizona 85365. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: One of BLM's...

  20. Evaluation of novel thermally enhanced spectral indices for mapping fire perimeters and comparisons with fire atlas data

    Treesearch

    Z.A Holden; P. Morgan; A.M.S. Smith; M Rollins; P.E. Gessler

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the potential of two novel thermally enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)-derived spectral indices for discriminating burned areas and for producing fire perimeter data (as a potential surrogate to digital fire atlas data) within two wildland fires (1985 and 1993) in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of the Gila Wilderness, New...

  1. Near vertical view of Phoenix, Arizona as seen from Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-09

    AS09-22-3441 (March 1969) --- Near vertical view of the Phoenix, Arizona area as photographed from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its Earth-orbital mission. Farmland patterns checkerboard the area along the Gila River. Phoenix is located right of center near the clouds.

  2. 6. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, VIEW OF LAST SECTION OF PIPE BEING LOWERED IN THE TRENCH FEBRUARY 17, 1935 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  3. 7. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. No date. Photographer unknown. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, VIEW SHOWING PIPE LAID IN TRENCH, ALSO SHOWING OPENING WHERE MONOLITHIC SECTION WAS BUILT AND IN WHICH A MAN HOLE AND STAND PIPE VENT WAS INSTALLED - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  4. Native American Children, Youth, and Families. Part 2. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Sacaton, AZ, January 9, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    The House Select Committee met to hear testimony of six witnesses from tribes in the Phoenix, Arizona area concerning the status of Native American children and their families. General topics were the nature of existing human service programs, adequacy of federal funding, and magnitude of health and welfare needs. Tom White of the Gila River…

  5. Culturally Oriented Instructional Materials for Pima Children. Final Report, Academic Year 1969-70, for an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Weston L., Comp.

    Culturally oriented instructional materials for Pima children are described in this final report of a 3-year study funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III. The reported objective of the project was to assist the Pima children living on the Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona to develop a positive self-image and a sense…

  6. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Jan, Comp.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  7. Arizona Public Library Statistics. 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1994-95. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise,and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups: (1)…

  8. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The "Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999" is compiled from information supplied by the state's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Within each of these…

  9. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is a compilation of information supplied by Arizona public libraries. Data is arranged by a separate index divider for each of these county groups: Apache, Cochise, and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. Each section contains tables of the…

  10. 40 CFR 49.5511 - Identification of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identification of plan. 49.5511 Section... Implementation Plan for the Gila River Indian Community § 49.5511 Identification of plan. (a) Purpose and scope...-specific emission limitations and standards. (b) Incorporation by reference. (1) Material listed in...

  11. 27. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated August 1922, corrected ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated August 1922, corrected 4/8/1925, in the possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. SLUICEWAY AND HEADGATES, SOUTH ABUTMENT - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. 28. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 3/22/1923, corrected 4/8/1925, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 3/22/1923, corrected 4/8/1925, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. SECTIONS OF SOUTHSIDE INTAKE - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  13. 29. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated April 1923, corrected ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated April 1923, corrected 4/6/1925, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. PIER DETAILS - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  14. 31. Photographic copy of construction drawing, no date, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of construction drawing, no date, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. Untitled. DETAIL OF BRIDGE SPAN AND LAMP POST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  15. 30. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 11/19/1928, corrected 4/8/1925, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 11/19/1928, corrected 4/8/1925, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. ELEVATION AND SECTIONS BRIDGE SPAN - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  16. 26. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated August 1922, corrected ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated August 1922, corrected 4/6/1925, in the possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. PLAN OF DAM AND GUIDE BANK - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  17. 32. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 4/28/1925, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 4/28/1925, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. CANAL SPAN - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  18. 13. Photographic copy of drawing, dated March 1929, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of drawing, dated March 1929, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. CONCRETE PIPE SIPHON, NORTH SIDE CANAL, STATION 171+04 TO 172+34 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, North Side Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  20. 12. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 1920, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 1920, in possession of SCIP, Coolidge, AZ. MAP OF PRELIMINARY WORK - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 16. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated Sept. 30, 1921, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated Sept. 30, 1921, in possession of SCIP, Coolidge, AZ. REGULATOR GATE WALL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  2. 15. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 1920, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 1920, in possession of SCIP, Coolidge, AZ. DETAIL DRAWING OF CABLE RAILWAY - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  3. 14. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 1920, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 1920, in possession of SCIP, Coolidge, AZ. MAP OF FINAL WORK - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  4. 13. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 1920, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated May 1920, in possession of SCIP, Coolidge, AZ. MAP OF INTERMEDIATE WORK - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  5. 34. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 11/30/1927, approved 12/29/1927, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 11/30/1927, approved 12/29/1927, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. PROPOSED CONDUIT - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  6. Meal consumption is ineffective at maintaining or correcting water balance in a desert lizard, Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christian D; Jackson, Marin L; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-04-15

    Many xeric organisms maintain water balance by relying on dietary and metabolic water rather than free water, even when free water may be available. For such organisms, hydric state may influence foraging decisions, since meal consumption is meeting both energy and water demands. To understand foraging decisions it is vital to understand the role of dietary water in maintaining water balance. We investigated whether meal consumption was sufficient to maintain water balance in captive Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) at varying levels of dehydration. Gila monsters could not maintain water balance over long time scales through meal consumption alone. Animals fed a single meal took no longer to dehydrate than controls when both groups were deprived of free water. Additionally, meal consumption imparts an acute short-term hydric cost regardless of hydration state. Meal consumption typically resulted in a significant elevation in osmolality at 6 h post-feeding, and plasma osmolality never fell below pre-feeding levels despite high water content (~70%) of meals. These results failed to support our hypothesis that dietary water is valuable to Gila monsters during seasonal drought. When considered in conjunction with previous research, these results demonstrate that Gila monsters, unlike many xeric species, are heavily reliant on seasonal rainfall and the resulting free-standing water to maintain water balance.

  7. Breeding biology of Lucy's Warbler in southwestern New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Scott H. Stoleson; Roland S. Shook; Deborah M. Finch

    2000-01-01

    We found Lucy's Warblers breeding abundantly in mid-elevation broadleaf riparian forests in the lower Gila River valley of southwestern New Mexico. They arrived en masse in the third week of March. Patterns of singing suggested that Lucy's Warblers might raise two broods. Few were heard or seen after late July. Estimated population densities ranged from 1. 7...

  8. Detail, Unit 4, Worthington MixFlo Pump, Harrison, New Jersey, USA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Unit 4, Worthington Mix-Flo Pump, Harrison, New Jersey, USA. All six pump units are of the same size, make, and model - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  9. 8. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. No date. Photographer unknown. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, GATE FOR DELIVERY TO LATERAL ON RIGHT, TRASH RACK AT SIPHON ENTRANCE, VENT OR STAND PIPE AND STEVENS AUTOMATIC GAGING STATION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  10. 82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF SLUICE GATES AND CANAL INTAKE GATES AT DIVERSION DAM Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  11. 33. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 4/1925, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 4/1925, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. CONSTRUCTION CAMP - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet and cement pipes along the south wall are being temporarily stored in the Pumping Plant and are not part of the original equipment - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power distribution cabinets for valve motors along north wall at left. View to east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. Detail, unit 5, pump motor. This motor is also 1,100 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 5, pump motor. This motor is also 1,100 hp and is manufactured by the Electric Products Company. Note additional gauges and box attached to side. Unit 6 is identical to this unit - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. Main Control Room, view to the east. The door to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main Control Room, view to the east. The door to the motor room is to the right, and the main control cabinets are to the left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  16. Detail of field breakers in the motor control cabinet for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of field breakers in the motor control cabinet for unit 3. Control cabinet and breaker panel built by Cutler-Hammer - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  17. Detail, unit 3, 1,100 horsepower (hp) pump motor. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 3, 1,100 horsepower (hp) pump motor. Manufactured by the Electric Products Company, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Units 1,2, and 4 are identical to this unit - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  18. West end of Motor Room. Visible, from left to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of Motor Room. Visible, from left to right, are the unit 6 pump motor, stairs to the basement, a ladder to the overhead traveling crane, a bathroom in the northwest corner, and a work bench at right - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 6. CLOSEUP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLOSE-UP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION SERVICE BENCHMARKS ON TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN T3S, R5E, S14 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  2. Afterbay, showing the six discharge channels and six hydraulic gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, showing the six discharge channels and six hydraulic gate check cylinders, one for each of the discharge pipes. A stilling well is in the right foreground, and the Pumping Plant is visible in the background. View to the north - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. 43 CFR 402.22 - Provisions of subpart A applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Provisions of subpart A applicable. 402.22 Section 402.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... Lands; Gila Project, Arizona § 402.22 Provisions of subpart A applicable. The regulations in subpart A...

  4. 43 CFR 402.22 - Provisions of subpart A applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisions of subpart A applicable. 402.22 Section 402.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... Lands; Gila Project, Arizona § 402.22 Provisions of subpart A applicable. The regulations in subpart A...

  5. 43 CFR 402.22 - Provisions of subpart A applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Provisions of subpart A applicable. 402.22 Section 402.22 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... Lands; Gila Project, Arizona § 402.22 Provisions of subpart A applicable. The regulations in subpart A...

  6. Dutchwoman Butte revisited: Examining paradigms for livestock grazing exclusion

    Treesearch

    J. Sprinkle; M. Holder; C. Erickson; A. Medina; D. Robinett; G. Ruyle; J. Maynard; S. Tuttle; Jr. J. Hays; W. Meyer; S. Stratton; A. Rogstad; K. Eldredge; J. Harris; L. Howery; W. Sprinkle

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, a collaborative rangeland monitoring program was established with the University of Arizona, Gila County Cattlegrowers, and the Tonto National Forest. Dutchwoman Butte (DWB) is an isolated, ungrazed 40 ha mesa with relict vegetation. Our objective was to contrast the vegetation of DWB to that of a grazed site, Whiskey tank (WT), across multiple years (2001,...

  7. 2. Photographic copy of photograph, undated, in possession of Arizona ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of photograph, undated, in possession of Arizona Historical Society. Photograph #793. Photographer unknown. BUILDING FLORENCE RESERVOIR (PRESUMABLY PICACHO RESERVOIR) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Picacho Resevoir, South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  8. 40 CFR 52.126 - Control strategy and regulations: Particulate matter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... process weight rate identified for such source: Process weight rate Emission rate Process weight rate... having a process weight rate in excess of 250,000 lb/h. (3) No owner or operator of a Portland cement plant in Gila, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, or Santa Cruz County with a process weight rate in excess of 250...

  9. "Left High and Dry": Federal Land Policies and Pima Agriculture, 1860-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejong, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The Akimel O'odham, or "River People" (Pima), have lived in the middle Gila River Valley for centuries, irrigating and cultivating the same land as their Huhugam ancestors did for millennia. Continuing their irrigated agricultural economy bequeathed to them by their Huhugam ancestors, the Pima leveraged a favorable geopolitical setting into a…

  10. 43 CFR 402.21 - Purpose of this subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Small Tracts; Public and Acquired Lands; Gila Project, Arizona § 402.21 Purpose of this subpart. The regulations in this subpart apply to the... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose of this subpart. 402.21 Section...

  11. 43 CFR 402.23 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special provisions. 402.23 Section 402.23 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Small Tracts; Public and Acquired Lands; Gila...

  12. 43 CFR 402.23 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special provisions. 402.23 Section 402.23 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SALE OF LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Small Tracts; Public and Acquired Lands; Gila...

  13. 75 FR 67757 - List of Programs Eligible for Inclusion in Fiscal Year 2011 Funding Agreements To Be Negotiated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... for Fiscal Year 2010 A. Bureau of Land Management (none) B. Bureau of Reclamation (5) Gila River... Land Management (BLM) Programs The BLM carries out some of its activities in the management of public lands through contracts and cooperative agreements. These and other activities, dependent upon...

  14. 78 FR 34130 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Archaeological Foundation. The three unassociated funerary objects are two ceramic bowls and one ceramic scoop... Maricopa County, AZ, during legally authorized excavations conducted by the Gila Pueblo Archaeological..., mortuary practices, ceramic types, and other items of material culture at this ruin are consistent with...

  15. 77 FR 14513 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ...-1193-000. Applicants: PacifiCorp. Description: Wolverine Creek Goshen Phase 2 Amended and Restated LGIA.... Description: Amendment to Service Agreement 174; Gila River and Sundevil IOA to be effective 2/6/2012. Filed... Operator, Inc. Description: 03-01-2012 MVP ARR Compliance to be effective 9/1/ 2012. Filed Date: 3/1/12...

  16. Assessment of the geothermal potential of southwestern New Mexico. Final report, July 1, 1978-April 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Elston, W.E.

    1981-07-01

    Results are reported of geologic mapping of geothermal anomalies in the Gila Hot Springs KGRA/Mimbres Hot Springs area, Grant County. They suggest that both hot-spring occurrences are structurally controlled by the intersection of a major Basin and Range fault and the disturbed margin of an ash-flow tuff cauldron. Hydrothermal alteration in both areas is related to mid-Tertiary volcanism, not to modern hot springs. At Gila Hot Springs, the geothermal aquifer is a zone at the contact between the unwelded top of a major ash-flow tuff sheet (Bloodgood Canyon Rhyolite Tuff) and a succession of interlayered vesicular basaltic andesite flows and thin sandstone beds (Bearwallow Mountain Formation). Scattered groups of natural hot springs occur at intersections of this zone and the faults bordering the northeastern side of the Gila Hot Springs graben. Hydrothermal alteration of Bloodgood Canyon Rhyolite Tuff near major faults seems to have increased its permeability. At Mimbres Hot Springs, a single group of hot springs is controlled by the intersection of the Mimbres Hot Springs fault and a fractured welded ash-flow tuff that fills the Emory cauldron (Kneeling Nun Tuff). Gila Hot Springs and Mimbres Hot Springs do not seem to be connected by throughgoing faults. At both localities, hot spring water is used locally for space heating and domestic hot water; at Gila Hot Springs, water of 65.6/sup 0/C (150/sup 0/F) is used to generate electricity by means of a 10 kw freon Rankine Cycle engine. This is the first such application in New Mexico.

  17. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Frysinger, G.R.

    1980-07-01

    A low-cost laminated plastic film which is used to contain a Glauber's salt-based phase change thermal energy storage material in sausage-like containers called Chubs is discussed. The results of tests performed on the Chub packages themselves and on the thermal energy storage capacity of the packaged phase change material are described. From the test results, a set of specifications have been drawn up for a film material which will satisfactorily contain the phase change material under anticipated operating conditions. Calorimetric testing of the phase change material with thermal cycling indicates that a design capacity of 45 to 50 Btu/lb for a ..delta..T of 30/sup 0/F can be used for the packaged material.

  18. Compilation of 1989 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Tabs G, H

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    species mean from populations reported in the literature in all years. Creek chubs declined in condition from above the-species mean in 1984 and 1985 to...tagged at FEX and FCD declined from a -high of 314 in 1984 to 126 in 1985 and 82 in 1986 reflecting a decline in the brook trout population . Numbers of...Blake et j al. 1988) revealed differences between treatment and control plots. The difference most likely to influence bird populations was

  19. Compilation of 1990 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Tabs G thru I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    populations on treatment segments relative to those on control segments. Populations of many species have I declined in abundance during this study (Fig. 4) but... populations reported in the literature in all years. Creek chubs declined in condition from above the species mean in 1984 and 1985 to approximately 5 - 10...1985 and 82 in 1986 reflecting a decline in the brook trout population . Numbers of fish tagged increased to 170 fish in 1987 and dropped slightly to

  20. Environmental Impact Statement. Preliminary Draft. Realignment of Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-15

    diversity. Most amphibian species are associated with riparian habitats and playa lakes. Reptiles are found in all terrestrial habitat types but are...at a 40-site campground. Fishing is permitted from May to September, and no hunting is allowed. There is a 1/2-mile trail to dinosaur tracks. The...girardi Recent occurrence unlikely Speckled chub Hybol aestivalis Recent occurrence unlikely I Reptiles Western ribbon snake Thamnophis proximus Less than