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Sample records for chub gila cypha

  1. Ontogenesis of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) in the Little Colorado River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Dennis M.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2006-01-01

    The largest population of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha inhabits the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam and the lower 14 km of the Little Colorado River (LCR), Arizona. Currently, adults from both rivers spawn and their progenies grow and recruit to adulthood primarily within the LCR, where we studied G. cypha's life history using hoop net capture data. Humpback chub undergo an ontogenesis from diurnally active, vulnerable, nearshore-reliant young-of-the-year (YOY; 30-90 mm total length) into nocturnally active, large-bodied adults (a?Y180 mm TL). During the day, adults primarily resided in deep midchannel pools; however, at night they dispersed inshore amongst the higher densities of YOY conspecifics. Many YOY G. cypha shifted to nocturnal habitats that provided greater cover, possibly, to avoid inshore invading adults. These findings mirror predator-prey scenarios described in other freshwater assemblages, but do not refute other plausible hypotheses. Gila cypha piscivorous activity may escalate in hoop nets, which can confine fish of disparate sizes together; adults were significantly associated with YOY conspecifics and small dead fish in hoop nets at night and eight G. cypha (156-372 mm TL) regurgitated and/or defecated other fish body parts during handling following capture. Gila cypha can definitely be piscivorous given the opportunity, but the magnitude of their piscivorous activity in the wild is debatable.

  2. Annotated bibliography for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) with emphasis on the Grand Canyon population.

    SciTech Connect

    Goulet, C. T.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-10-05

    Glen Canyon Dam is a hydroelectric facility located on the Colorado River in Arizona that is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for multiple purposes including water storage, flood control, power generation, recreation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife. Glen Canyon Dam operations have been managed for the last several years to improve conditions for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other ecosystem components. An extensive amount of literature has been produced on the humpback chub. We developed this annotated bibliography to assist managers and researchers in the Grand Canyon as they perform assessments, refine management strategies, and develop new studies to examine the factors affecting humpback chub. The U.S. Geological Survey recently created a multispecies bibliography (including references on the humpback chub) entitled Bibliography of Native Colorado River Big Fishes (available at www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/data/COFishBib). That bibliography, while quite extensive and broader in scope than ours, is not annotated, and, therefore, does not provide any of the information in the original literature. In developing this annotated bibliography, we have attempted to assemble abstracts from relevant published literature. We present here abstracts taken unmodified from individual reports and articles except where noted. The bibliography spans references from 1976 to 2009 and is organized in five broad topical areas, including: (1) biology, (2) ecology, (3) impacts of dam operations, (4) other impacts, and (5) conservation and management, and includes twenty subcategories. Within each subcategory, we present abstracts alphabetically by author and chronologically by year. We present relevant articles not specific to either the humpback chub or Glen Canyon Dam, but cited in other included reports, under the Supporting Articles subcategory. We provide all citations in alphabetical order in Section 7.

  3. Evidence for skipped spawning in a potamodromous cyprinid, humpback chub (Gila cypha), with implications for demographic parameter estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, Kristen Nicole; Kendall, William; Winkelman, Dana L.; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Our findings reveal evidence for skipped spawning in a potamodromous cyprinid, humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha  ). Using closed robust design mark-recapture models, we found, on average, spawning HBC transition to the skipped spawning state () with a probability of 0.45 (95% CRI (i.e. credible interval): 0.10, 0.80) and skipped spawners remain in the skipped spawning state () with a probability of 0.60 (95% CRI: 0.26, 0.83), yielding an average spawning cycle of every 2.12 years, conditional on survival. As a result, migratory skipped spawners are unavailable for detection during annual sampling events. If availability is unaccounted for, survival and detection probability estimates will be biased. Therefore, we estimated annual adult survival probability (S), while accounting for skipped spawning, and found S remained reasonably stable throughout the study period, with an average of 0.75 ((95% CRI: 0.66, 0.82), process varianceσ2 = 0.005), while skipped spawning probability was highly dynamic (σ2 = 0.306). By improving understanding of HBC spawning strategies, conservation decisions can be based on less biased estimates of survival and a more informed population model structure.

  4. Survival, growth, and movement of subadult humpback chub, Gila cypha, in the Little Colorado River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Stone, Dennis M.; Van Haverbeke, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Ecologists estimate vital rates, such as growth and survival, to better understand population dynamics and identify sensitive life history parameters for species or populations of concern. Here, we assess spatiotemporal variation in growth, movement, density, and survival of subadult humpback chub living in the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, AZ from 2001–2002 and 2009–2013. We divided the Little Colorado River into three reaches and used a multistate mark-recapture model to determine rates of movement and differences in survival and density between sites for different cohorts. Additionally, site-specific and year-specific effects on growth were evaluated using a linear model. Results indicate that summer growth was higher for upstream sites compared with downstream sites. In contrast, there was not a consistent spatial pattern across years in winter growth; however, river-wide winter growth was negatively related to the duration of floods from 1 October to 15 May. Apparent survival was estimated to be lower at the most downstream site compared with the upstream sites; however, this could be because in part of increased emigration into the Colorado River at downstream sites. Furthermore, the 2010 cohort (i.e. fish that are age 1 in 2010) exhibited high apparent survival relative to other years. Movement between reaches varied with year, and some years exhibited preferential upstream displacement. Improving understanding of spatiotemporal effects on age 1 humpback chub survival can help inform current management efforts to translocate humpback chub into new locations and give us a better understanding of the factors that may limit this tributary's carrying capacity for humpback chub.

  5. Effects of Glen Canyon Dam discharges on water velocity and temperatures at the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and implications for habitat for young-of-year humpback chub (Gila cypha-

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Protiva, Frank R.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Stone, Dennis M.; Kohl, Keith A.; Yard, Michael D.; Haden, G. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Water velocity and temperature are physical variables that affect the growth and survivorship of young-of-year (YOY) fishes. The Little Colorado River, a tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, is an important spawning ground and warmwater refuge for the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) from the colder mainstem Colorado River that is regulated by Glen Canyon Dam. The confluence area of the Little Colorado River and the Colorado River is a site where YOY humpback chub (size 30-90 mm) emerging from the Little Colorado River experience both colder temperatures and higher velocities associated with higher mainstem discharge. We used detailed surveying and mapping techniques in combination with YOY velocity and temperature preferenda (determined from field and lab studies) to compare the areal extent of available habitat for young fishes at the confluence area under four mainstem discharges (227, 368, 504, and 878 m3/s). Comparisons revealed that the areal extent of low-velocity, warm water at the confluence decreased when discharges exceeded 368 m3/s. Furthermore, mainstem fluctuations, depending on the rate of upramp, can affect velocity and temperature dynamics in the confluence area within several hours. The amount of daily fluctuations in discharge can result in the loss of approximately 1.8 hectares of habitat favorable to YOY humpback chub. Consequently, flow fluctuations and the accompanying changes in velocity and temperature at the confluence may diminish the recruitment potential of humpback chub that spawn in the tributary stream. This study illustrates the utility of multiple georeferenced data sources to provide critical information related to the influence of the timing and magnitude of discharge from Glen Canyon Dam on potential rearing environment at the confluence area of the Little Colorado River.

  6. Evidence of experimental postcyclic transmission of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in bonytail chub (Gila elegans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role that predation of infected conspecific fish and postcyclic transmission might play in the life cycle of the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) Yamaguti, 1934. Young-of-the-year (YOY) bonytail chub (Gila elegans) were exposed to copepods infected with B. acheilognathi and subsequently fed to subadult bonytail chub. Within 1 wk after consumption of the YOY chub, subadults were necropsied and found infected with gravid and nongravid tapeworms. This study provides evidence that postcyclic transfer of B. acheilognathi can occur. Postcyclic transmission may be an important life history trait of B. acheilognathi that merits consideration when studying the impact and distribution of this invasive and potentially pathogenic tapeworm. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  7. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de

  8. Macrohabitat of Sonora Chub (Gila ditaenia) in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Jeanette; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Physical characteristics and persistence of macrohabitat used by different life stages of Sonora chub (Gila ditaenia) were determined by repeatedly measuring distinct reaches in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, in 1990 and 1991. At the beginning of summer drought, habitats occupied by adult Sonora chub were deeper and larger than areas with only immature fish and unoccupied areas. The medians of maximum depth were 47.0 cm (1990) and 39.7 cm (1991) for habitats with adults, 21.3 cm (1990) and 22.9 cm (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 14.6 cm (1990) and 19.7 cm (1991) for unoccupied areas. At the end of summer drought, adults occupied habitats that were deeper and larger, and the percent decrease in area and depth was less than areas containing only immature fish or no fish. The medians of percent decrease in maximum depth were 13% (1990) and 21% (1991) for habitats with adults, 48% (1990) and 41% (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 42% (1990) and 33% (1991) for unoccupied areas. By the end of summer drought, habitats with only immature fish were not physically different from unoccupied areas. Loss of total surface area was highest in reaches that contained only immature fish or no fish (range = 36% to 94%). Most Sonora chub lost from evaporating surface waters were immature fish. Ephemeral and unoccupied areas had higher percentages of floating cover and coarser substrates than persistent, occupied areas.

  9. Geographic distribution of genetic diversity in populations of Rio Grande Chub Gila pandora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galindo, Rene; Wilson, Wade; Caldwell, Colleen A.

    2016-01-01

    In the southwestern United States (US), the Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora) is state-listed as a fish species of greatest conservation need and federally listed as sensitive due to habitat alterations and competition with non-native fishes. Characterizing genetic diversity, genetic population structure, and effective number of breeders will assist with conservation efforts by providing a baseline of genetic metrics. Genetic relatedness within and among G. pandora populations throughout New Mexico was characterized using 11 microsatellite loci among 15 populations in three drainage basins (Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian). Observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.71–0.87 and was similar to expected heterozygosity (0.75–0.87). Rio Ojo Caliente (Rio Grande) had the highest allelic richness (AR = 15.09), while Upper Rio Bonito (Pecos) had the lowest allelic richness (AR = 6.75). Genetic differentiation existed among all populations with the lowest genetic variation occurring within the Pecos drainage. STRUCTURE analysis revealed seven genetic clusters. Populations of G. pandora within the upper Rio Grande drainage (Rio Ojo Caliente, Rio Vallecitos, Rio Pueblo de Taos) had high levels of admixture with Q-values ranging from 0.30–0.50. In contrast, populations within the Pecos drainage (Pecos River and Upper Rio Bonito) had low levels of admixture (Q = 0.94 and 0.87, respectively). Estimates of effective number of breeders (N b ) varied from 6.1 (Pecos: Upper Rio Bonito) to 109.7 (Rio Grande: Rio Peñasco) indicating that populations in the Pecos drainage are at risk of extirpation. In the event that management actions are deemed necessary to preserve or increase genetic diversity of G. pandora, consideration must be given as to which populations are selected for translocation.

  10. Population Structure in the Roundtail Chub (Gila robusta Complex) of the Gila River Basin as Determined by Microsatellites: Evolutionary and Conservation Implications.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Thomas E; Anderson, Corey D; Marsh, Paul C; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Ten microsatellite loci were characterized for 34 locations from roundtail chub (Gila robusta complex) to better resolve patterns of genetic variation among local populations in the lower Colorado River basin. This group has had a complex taxonomic history and previous molecular analyses failed to identify species diagnostic molecular markers. Our results supported previous molecular studies based on allozymes and DNA sequences, which found that most genetic variance was explained by differences among local populations. Samples from most localities were so divergent species-level diagnostic markers were not found. Some geographic samples were discordant with current taxonomy due to admixture or misidentification; therefore, additional morphological studies are necessary. Differences in spatial genetic structure were consistent with differences in connectivity of stream habitats, with the typically mainstem species, G. robusta, exhibiting greater genetic connectedness within the Gila River drainage. No species exhibited strong isolation by distance over the entire stream network, but the two species typically found in headwaters, G. nigra and G. intermedia, exhibited greater than expected genetic similarity between geographically proximate populations, and usually clustered with individuals from the same geographic location and/or sub-basin. These results highlight the significance of microevolutionary processes and importance of maintaining local populations to maximize evolutionary potential for this complex. Augmentation stocking as a conservation management strategy should only occur under extreme circumstances, and potential source populations should be geographically proximate stocks of the same species, especially for the headwater forms.

  11. Population Structure in the Roundtail Chub (Gila robusta Complex) of the Gila River Basin as Determined by Microsatellites: Evolutionary and Conservation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Thomas E.; Anderson, Corey D.; Marsh, Paul C.; Rosenberg, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ten microsatellite loci were characterized for 34 locations from roundtail chub (Gila robusta complex) to better resolve patterns of genetic variation among local populations in the lower Colorado River basin. This group has had a complex taxonomic history and previous molecular analyses failed to identify species diagnostic molecular markers. Our results supported previous molecular studies based on allozymes and DNA sequences, which found that most genetic variance was explained by differences among local populations. Samples from most localities were so divergent species-level diagnostic markers were not found. Some geographic samples were discordant with current taxonomy due to admixture or misidentification; therefore, additional morphological studies are necessary. Differences in spatial genetic structure were consistent with differences in connectivity of stream habitats, with the typically mainstem species, G. robusta, exhibiting greater genetic connectedness within the Gila River drainage. No species exhibited strong isolation by distance over the entire stream network, but the two species typically found in headwaters, G. nigra and G. intermedia, exhibited greater than expected genetic similarity between geographically proximate populations, and usually clustered with individuals from the same geographic location and/or sub-basin. These results highlight the significance of microevolutionary processes and importance of maintaining local populations to maximize evolutionary potential for this complex. Augmentation stocking as a conservation management strategy should only occur under extreme circumstances, and potential source populations should be geographically proximate stocks of the same species, especially for the headwater forms. PMID:26473600

  12. Population Structure in the Roundtail Chub (Gila robusta Complex) of the Gila River Basin as Determined by Microsatellites: Evolutionary and Conservation Implications.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Thomas E; Anderson, Corey D; Marsh, Paul C; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Ten microsatellite loci were characterized for 34 locations from roundtail chub (Gila robusta complex) to better resolve patterns of genetic variation among local populations in the lower Colorado River basin. This group has had a complex taxonomic history and previous molecular analyses failed to identify species diagnostic molecular markers. Our results supported previous molecular studies based on allozymes and DNA sequences, which found that most genetic variance was explained by differences among local populations. Samples from most localities were so divergent species-level diagnostic markers were not found. Some geographic samples were discordant with current taxonomy due to admixture or misidentification; therefore, additional morphological studies are necessary. Differences in spatial genetic structure were consistent with differences in connectivity of stream habitats, with the typically mainstem species, G. robusta, exhibiting greater genetic connectedness within the Gila River drainage. No species exhibited strong isolation by distance over the entire stream network, but the two species typically found in headwaters, G. nigra and G. intermedia, exhibited greater than expected genetic similarity between geographically proximate populations, and usually clustered with individuals from the same geographic location and/or sub-basin. These results highlight the significance of microevolutionary processes and importance of maintaining local populations to maximize evolutionary potential for this complex. Augmentation stocking as a conservation management strategy should only occur under extreme circumstances, and potential source populations should be geographically proximate stocks of the same species, especially for the headwater forms. PMID:26473600

  13. Seasonal changes in 17-ß estradiol of the Rio Grande Chub (Gila pandora) in south-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Colleen A.; Fuller, S. Adam; Gould, William R.; Turner, Paul R.; Hallford, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    Timing of gametogensis and thus spawning can be inferred through changes in plasma concentrations of gonadal hormones. In preparation for ovulation and spawning, mean concentrations of 17ß-estradiol in a population of Rio Grande chub (Gila pandora) occupying the Rio Bonito, New Mexico, peaked at 37.6 ng/mL on 16 June and declined to 1.50 ng/mL by 11 August. Similarly, the gonadal somatic index (GSI) increased from 9.02 on 21 May (n = 9) to 11.85 on 16 June (n = 2) and declined to 6.10 on 11 August (n = 2). Peak concentrations of 17ß-estradiol and elevated GSI in June coincided with peak daylength for the year (14 h and 12 min) and average water temperature of 15.1°C. Concentrations of 17ß-estradiol remained low through 3 October indicating no additional spawning events in the Rio Grande chub population. We demonstrated 17ß-estradiol is a nondestructive and thus useful tool in estimating timing of spawning in a wild fish population.

  14. Grand Canyon Humpback Chub Population Improving

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand Canyon, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand Canyon population under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand Canyon increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.

  15. Status and Trends of the Grand Canyon Population of Humpback Chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2009-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin supports one of the most distinctive fish communities in North America, including the federally endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). One of only six remaining populations of this fish is found in Grand Canyon, Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators are responsible for monitoring the Grand Canyon population. Analysis of recently collected data indicates that the number of Grand Canyon adult humpback chub - fish 4 years old and older and capable of reproduction - increased approximately 50 percent between 2001 and 2008. When possible model error is considered, the estimated number of adult chub in the Grand Canyon population is between 6,000 and 10,000. The most likely number is estimated at 7,650 individuals.

  16. Comparative growth and consumption potential of rainbow trout and humpback chub in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, under different temperature scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Petersen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    We used bioenergetics models for humpback chub, Gila cypha, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to examine how warmer water temperatures in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona, through a proposed selective withdrawal system (SWS) at Glen Canyon Dam, would affect growth, consumption, and predation rates. Consumption by the rainbow trout population was at least 10 times higher than by the smaller humpback chub population. Water temperature increases of 6??C during autumn increased growth of humpback chub and likely increased their survival by reducing the time vulnerable to predation. Water temperature increases caused by drought in 2005 did not alter humpback chub growth as much as the SWS. Increased temperatures might cause changes to the invertebrate community and the distribution and abundance of other warmwater nonnative fishes. The implications on the entire aquatic community need to be considered before any management action that includes increasing water temperatures is implemented.

  17. Translocation of Humpback Chub into tributary streams of the Colorado River: Implications for conservation of large-river fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spurgeon, Jonathan J.; Paukert, Craig P.; Healy, Brian D.; Trammell, Melissa; Speas, Dave; Smith, Emily Omana

    2015-01-01

    The Humpback Chub Gila cypha, a large-bodied, endangered cyprinid endemic to the Colorado River basin, is in decline throughout most of its range due largely to anthropogenic factors. Translocation of Humpback Chub into tributaries of the Colorado River is one conservation activity that may contribute to the expansion of the species’ current range and eventually provide population redundancy. We evaluated growth, survival, and dispersal following translocation of approximately 900 Humpback Chub over a period of 3 years (2009, 2010, and 2011) into Shinumo Creek, a tributary stream of the Colorado River within Grand Canyon National Park. Growth and condition of Humpback Chub in Shinumo Creek were consistent among year-classes and equaled or surpassed growth estimates from both the main-stem Colorado River and the Little Colorado River, where the largest (and most stable) Humpback Chub aggregation remains. Based on passive integrated tag recoveries, 53% ( = 483/902) of translocated Humpback Chub dispersed from Shinumo Creek into the main-stem Colorado River as of January 2013, 35% leaving within 25 d following translocation. Annual apparent survival estimates within Shinumo Creek ranged from 0.22 to 0.41, but were strongly influenced by emigration. Results indicate that Shinumo Creek provides favorable conditions for growth and survival of translocated Humpback Chub and could support a new population if reproduction and recruitment occur in the future. Adaptation of translocation strategies of Humpback Chub into tributary streams ultimately may refine the role translocation plays in recovery of the species.

  18. Development of a bioenergetics model for humpback chub and evaluation of water temperature changes in the Grand Canyon, Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Paukert, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    The construction of Glen Canyon Dam above the Grand Canyon (Arizona) has reduced the water temperature in the Colorado River and altered the growth rate and feeding patterns of the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. A bioenergetics model for humpback chub was developed and used to examine how warmer water temperatures in the lower Colorado River (achieved through a temperature control device [TCD] at Glen Canyon Dam) might influence their growth rate and food requirements. Parameter values for humpback chub were developed by Monte Carlo filtering and fitting to laboratory growth. Parameter bounds were established from the literature for Gila species, random parameter sets were selected within these bounds, and the growth of modeled humpback chub was compared with criteria from a laboratory growth experiment at 24??C. This method of parameter estimation could be applied to other imperiled fishes where physiological studies are impractical. Final parameter values were corroborated by comparison with the growth rates of humpback chub from independent field and laboratory studies. Simulations indicated that increasing water temperatures from approximately 9??C to 16??C during summer and fall, the change expected from the TCD, may have a minimal effect on humpback chub growth rate unless food availability also increases with temperature. To evaluate the effects of increased temperatures on humpback chub in the lower Colorado River, it will be essential to monitor their growth rate, the invertebrate community, and the predators of humpback chub, which are also influenced by temperature changes. Bioenergetics models for humpback chub and their predators should be helpful tools for identifying potential scenarios and evaluating the complex interactions resulting from a TCD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  19. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, David B.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Cordy, Gail; Gross, Timothy S.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Matter, William J.; Gwinn, Jessica; McIntosh, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 μg/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17β-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17β-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = −0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = −0.45) and control (r = −0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed.

  20. Changes in reproductive biomarkers in an endangered fish species (bonytail chub, Gila elegans) exposed to low levels of organic wastewater compounds in a controlled experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, D.B.; Paretti, N.V.; Cordy, G.; Gross, T.S.; Zaugg, S.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Matter, W.J.; Gwinn, J.; McIntosh, D.

    2009-01-01

    In arid regions of the southwestern United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants commonly discharge treated effluent directly into streams that would otherwise be dry most of the year. A better understanding is needed of how effluent-dependent waters (EDWs) differ from more natural aquatic ecosystems and the ecological effect of low levels of environmentally persistent organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) with distance from the pollutant source. In a controlled experiment, we found 26 compounds common to municipal effluent in treatment raceways all at concentrations <1.0 ??g/L. Male bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in tanks containing municipal effluent had significantly lower levels of 11-ketotestosterone (p = 0.021) yet higher levels of 17??-estradiol (p = 0.002) and vitellogenin (p = 0.036) compared to control male fish. Female bonytail chub in treatment tanks had significantly lower concentrations of 17??-estradiol than control females (p = 0.001). The normally inverse relationship between primary male and female sex hormones, expected in un-impaired fish, was greatly decreased in treatment (r = 0.00) versus control (r = -0.66) female fish. We found a similar, but not as significant, trend between treatment (r = -0.45) and control (r = -0.82) male fish. Measures of fish condition showed no significant differences between male or female fish housed in effluent or clean water. Inter-sex condition did not occur and testicular and ovarian cells appeared normal for the respective developmental stage and we observed no morphological alteration in fish. The population-level impacts of these findings are uncertain. Studies examining the long-term, generational and behavioral effects to aquatic organisms chronically exposed to low levels of OWC mixtures are needed. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effects of water temperature and fish size on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow trout and brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan

    2015-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Diet studies of Rainbow Trout and Brown Trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species do eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable, depending on prey size, predator size, and the water temperatures under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile native fish changes in response to fish size and water temperature using captivity-reared Humpback Chub, Bonytail, and Roundtail Chub. Juvenile chub 45–90 mm total length (TL) were exposed to adult Rainbow and Brown trouts at 10, 15, and 20°C to measure predation vulnerability as a function of water temperature and fish size. A 1°C increase in water temperature decreased short-term predation vulnerability of Humpback Chub to Rainbow Trout by about 5%, although the relationship is not linear. Brown Trout were highly piscivorous in the laboratory at any size > 220 mm TL and at all water temperatures we tested. Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered Humpback Chub is critical in evaluating management options aimed at preserving native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park.

  2. Effects of turbidity on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow and brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan; Vaage, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Diet studies of rainbow and brown trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable depending on the physical conditions under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub changes in response to changes in turbidity. In overnight laboratory trials, we exposed hatchery-reared juvenile humpback chub and bonytail Gila elegans (a surrogate for humpback chub) to adult rainbow and brown trout at turbidities ranging from 0 to 1,000 formazin nephlometric units. We found that turbidity as low as 25 formazin nephlometric units significantly reduced predation vulnerability of bonytail to rainbow trout and led to a 36% mean increase in survival (24–60%, 95% CI) compared to trials conducted in clear water. Predation vulnerability of bonytail to brown trout at 25 formazin nephlometric units also decreased with increasing turbidity and resulted in a 25% increase in survival on average (17–32%, 95% CI). Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered humpback chub is important when evaluating management options aimed at preservation of native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park. This research suggests that relatively small changes in turbidity may be sufficient to alter predation dynamics of trout on humpback chub in the mainstem Colorado River and that turbidity manipulation may warrant further investigation as a fisheries management tool.

  3. A laboratory evaluation of tagging-related mortality and tag loss in juvenile humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Persons, William R.; Young, Kirk; Stone, Dennis M.; Van Haverbeke, Randy; Knight, William R.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified tag retention, survival, and growth in juvenile, captive-reared Humpback Chub Gila cypha marked with three different tag types: (1) Biomark 12.5-mm, 134.2-kHz, full duplex PIT tags injected into the body cavity with a 12-gauge needle; (2) Biomark 8.4-mm, 134.2-kHz, full duplex PIT tags injected with a 16-gauge needle; and (3) Northwest Marine Technology visible implant elastomer (VIE) tags injected under the skin with a 29-gauge needle. Estimates of tag loss, tagging-induced mortality, and growth were evaluated for 60 d with each tag type for four different size-groups of fish: 40–49 mm, 50–59 mm, 60–69 mm, and 70–79 mm TL. Total length was a significant predictor of the probability of PIT tag retention and mortality for both 8-mm and 12-mm PIT tags, and the smallest fish had the highest rates of tag loss (12.5–30.0%) and mortality (7.5–20.0%). Humpback Chub of sizes 40–49 mm TL and tagged with VIE tags had no mortality but did have a 17.5% tag loss. Growth rates of all tagged fish were similar to controls. Our data indicate Humpback Chub can be effectively tagged using either 8-mm or 12-mm PIT tags with little tag loss or mortality at sizes as low as 65 mm TL.

  4. An individual-based model for population viability analysis of humpback chub in Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, William Pine; Healy, Brian; Smith, Emily Omana; Trammell, Melissa; Speas, Dave; Valdez, Rich; Yard, Mike; Walters, Carl; Ahrens, Rob; Vanhaverbeke, Randy; Stone, Dennis; Wilson, Wade

    2013-01-01

    We developed an individual-based population viability analysis model (females only) for evaluating risk to populations from catastrophic events or conservation and research actions. This model tracks attributes (size, weight, viability, etc.) for individual fish through time and then compiles this information to assess the extinction risk of the population across large numbers of simulation trials. Using a case history for the Little Colorado River population of Humpback Chub Gila cypha in Grand Canyon, Arizona, we assessed extinction risk and resiliency to a catastrophic event for this population and then assessed a series of conservation actions related to removing specific numbers of Humpback Chub at different sizes for conservation purposes, such as translocating individuals to establish other spawning populations or hatchery refuge development. Our results suggested that the Little Colorado River population is generally resilient to a single catastrophic event and also to removals of larvae and juveniles for conservation purposes, including translocations to establish new populations. Our results also suggested that translocation success is dependent on similar survival rates in receiving and donor streams and low emigration rates from recipient streams. In addition, translocating either large numbers of larvae or small numbers of large juveniles has generally an equal likelihood of successful population establishment at similar extinction risk levels to the Little Colorado River donor population. Our model created a transparent platform to consider extinction risk to populations from catastrophe or conservation actions and should prove useful to managers assessing these risks for endangered species such as Humpback Chub.

  5. Distribution and movement of humpback chub in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, based on recaptures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Coggins, L.G.; Flaccus, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Mark-recapture data from the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, were analyzed from 1989 to 2002 to determine large-scale movement patterns and distribution. A total of 14,674 recaptures from 7,127 unique fish were documented; 87% of the recaptures occurred in the same main-stem river reach or tributary as the original captures, suggesting restricted distribution by most fish. A total of 99% of all recaptures were from in and around the Little Colorado River (LCR), a tributary of the Colorado River and primary aggregation and spawning location of humpback chub in Grand Canyon. Time at liberty averaged 394 d, but some fish were recaptured near their main-stem capture location over 10 years later. Proportionally fewer large (>300-mm) humpback chub exhibited restricted distribution than small (<200-mm) fish. However, several fish did move more than 154 km throughout Grand Canyon between capture and recapture, suggesting that limited movement occurs throughout Grand Canyon. The majority of the recaptured fish remained in or returned to the LCR or the Colorado River near the LCR. Although many large-river fishes exhibit extensive migrations to fulfill their life history requirements, most of the humpback chub in Grand Canyon appear to remain in or come back to the LCR and LCR confluence across multiple sizes and time scales. Detecting trends in the overall abundance of this endangered fish in Grand Canyon can probably be accomplished by monitoring the area in and around the LCR.

  6. Abundance trends and status of the Little Colorado River population of humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins, L.G.; Pine, William E.; Walters, C.J.; Van Haverbeke, D. R.; Ward, D.; Johnstone, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance of the Little Colorado River population of federally listed humpback chub Gila cypha in Grand Canyon has been monitored since the late 1980s by means of catch rate indices and capture-recapture-based abundance estimators. Analyses of data from all sources using various methods are consistent and indicate that the adult population has declined since monitoring began. Intensive tagging led to a high proportion (>80%) of the adult population being marked by the mid-1990s. Analysis of these data using both closed and open abundance estimation models yields results that agree with catch rate indices about the extent of the decline. Survival rates for age-2 and older fish are age dependent but apparently not time dependent. Back-calculation of recruitment using the apparent 1990s population age structure implies periods of higher recruitment in the late 1970s to early 1980s than is now the case. Our analyses indicate that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery criterion of stable abundance is not being met for this population. Also, there is a critical need to develop new abundance indexing and tagging methods so that early, reliable, and rapid estimates of humpback chub recruitment can be obtained to evaluate population responses to management actions designed to facilitate the restoration of Colorado River native fish communities. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  7. A quantitative life history of endangered humpback chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Yackulic, Charles B; Yard, Michael D; Korman, Josh; Haverbeke, David R

    2014-01-01

    While the ecology and evolution of partial migratory systems (defined broadly to include skip spawning) have been well studied, we are only beginning to understand how partial migratory populations are responding to ongoing environmental change. Environmental change can lead to differences in the fitness of residents and migrants, which could eventually lead to changes in the frequency of the strategies in the overall population. Here, we address questions concerning the life history of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) in the regulated Colorado River and the unregulated tributary and primary spawning area, the Little Colorado River. We develop eight multistate models for the population based on three movement hypotheses, in which states are defined in terms of fish size classes and river locations. We fit these models to mark–recapture data collected in 2009–2012. We compare survival and growth estimates between the Colorado River and Little Colorado River and calculate abundances for all size classes. The best model supports the hypotheses that larger adults spawn more frequently than smaller adults, that there are residents in the spawning grounds, and that juveniles move out of the Little Colorado River in large numbers during the monsoon season (July–September). Monthly survival rates for G. cypha in the Colorado River are higher than in the Little Colorado River in all size classes; however, growth is slower. While the hypothetical life histories of life-long residents in the Little Colorado River and partial migrants spending most of its time in the Colorado River are very different, they lead to roughly similar fitness expectations when we used expected number of spawns as a proxy. However, more research is needed because our study period covers a period of years when conditions in the Colorado River for G. cypha are likely to have been better than has been typical over the last few decades. PMID:24772278

  8. A quantitative life history of endangered humpback chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yackulic, Charles B.; Yard, Michael D.; Korman, Josh; Van Haverbeke, David R.

    2014-01-01

    While the ecology and evolution of partial migratory systems (defined broadly to include skip spawning) have been well studied, we are only beginning to understand how partial migratory populations are responding to ongoing environmental change. Environmental change can lead to differences in the fitness of residents and migrants, which could eventually lead to changes in the frequency of the strategies in the overall population. Here, we address questions concerning the life history of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) in the regulated Colorado River and the unregulated tributary and primary spawning area, the Little Colorado River. We develop eight multistate models for the population based on three movement hypotheses, in which states are defined in terms of fish size classes and river locations. We fit these models to mark–recapture data collected in 2009–2012. We compare survival and growth estimates between the Colorado River and Little Colorado River and calculate abundances for all size classes. The best model supports the hypotheses that larger adults spawn more frequently than smaller adults, that there are residents in the spawning grounds, and that juveniles move out of the Little Colorado River in large numbers during the monsoon season (July–September). Monthly survival rates for G. cypha in the Colorado River are higher than in the Little Colorado River in all size classes; however, growth is slower. While the hypothetical life histories of life-long residents in the Little Colorado River and partial migrants spending most of its time in the Colorado River are very different, they lead to roughly similar fitness expectations when we used expected number of spawns as a proxy. However, more research is needed because our study period covers a period of years when conditions in the Colorado River for G. cypha are likely to have been better than has been typical over the last few decades.

  9. A quantitative life history of endangered humpback chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Yackulic, Charles B; Yard, Michael D; Korman, Josh; Haverbeke, David R

    2014-04-01

    While the ecology and evolution of partial migratory systems (defined broadly to include skip spawning) have been well studied, we are only beginning to understand how partial migratory populations are responding to ongoing environmental change. Environmental change can lead to differences in the fitness of residents and migrants, which could eventually lead to changes in the frequency of the strategies in the overall population. Here, we address questions concerning the life history of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) in the regulated Colorado River and the unregulated tributary and primary spawning area, the Little Colorado River. We develop eight multistate models for the population based on three movement hypotheses, in which states are defined in terms of fish size classes and river locations. We fit these models to mark-recapture data collected in 2009-2012. We compare survival and growth estimates between the Colorado River and Little Colorado River and calculate abundances for all size classes. The best model supports the hypotheses that larger adults spawn more frequently than smaller adults, that there are residents in the spawning grounds, and that juveniles move out of the Little Colorado River in large numbers during the monsoon season (July-September). Monthly survival rates for G. cypha in the Colorado River are higher than in the Little Colorado River in all size classes; however, growth is slower. While the hypothetical life histories of life-long residents in the Little Colorado River and partial migrants spending most of its time in the Colorado River are very different, they lead to roughly similar fitness expectations when we used expected number of spawns as a proxy. However, more research is needed because our study period covers a period of years when conditions in the Colorado River for G. cypha are likely to have been better than has been typical over the last few decades.

  10. A quantitative life history of endangered humpback chub that spawn in the Little Colorado River: variation in movement, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Yackulic, Charles B; Yard, Michael D; Korman, Josh; Haverbeke, David R

    2014-04-01

    While the ecology and evolution of partial migratory systems (defined broadly to include skip spawning) have been well studied, we are only beginning to understand how partial migratory populations are responding to ongoing environmental change. Environmental change can lead to differences in the fitness of residents and migrants, which could eventually lead to changes in the frequency of the strategies in the overall population. Here, we address questions concerning the life history of the endangered Gila cypha (humpback chub) in the regulated Colorado River and the unregulated tributary and primary spawning area, the Little Colorado River. We develop eight multistate models for the population based on three movement hypotheses, in which states are defined in terms of fish size classes and river locations. We fit these models to mark-recapture data collected in 2009-2012. We compare survival and growth estimates between the Colorado River and Little Colorado River and calculate abundances for all size classes. The best model supports the hypotheses that larger adults spawn more frequently than smaller adults, that there are residents in the spawning grounds, and that juveniles move out of the Little Colorado River in large numbers during the monsoon season (July-September). Monthly survival rates for G. cypha in the Colorado River are higher than in the Little Colorado River in all size classes; however, growth is slower. While the hypothetical life histories of life-long residents in the Little Colorado River and partial migrants spending most of its time in the Colorado River are very different, they lead to roughly similar fitness expectations when we used expected number of spawns as a proxy. However, more research is needed because our study period covers a period of years when conditions in the Colorado River for G. cypha are likely to have been better than has been typical over the last few decades. PMID:24772278

  11. Of travertine and time: otolith chemistry and microstructure detect provenance and demography of endangered humpback chub in Grand Canyon, USA.

    PubMed

    Limburg, Karin E; Hayden, Todd A; Pine, William E; Yard, Michael D; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha. Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ(13)C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River's water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery. PMID:24358346

  12. Of travertine and time: otolith chemistry and microstructure detect provenance and demography of endangered humpback chub in Grand Canyon, USA.

    PubMed

    Limburg, Karin E; Hayden, Todd A; Pine, William E; Yard, Michael D; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha. Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ(13)C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River's water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery.

  13. Of Travertine and Time: Otolith Chemistry and Microstructure Detect Provenance and Demography of Endangered Humpback Chub in Grand Canyon, USA

    PubMed Central

    Limburg, Karin E.; Hayden, Todd A.; Pine, William E.; Yard, Michael D.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha.  Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ13C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River’s water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery. PMID:24358346

  14. Of travertine and time: otolith chemistry and microstructure detect provenance and demography of endangered humpback chub in Grand Canyon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Limburg, Karin E.; Hayden, Todd A.; Pine, William E.; Yard, Michael D.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Valley, John W.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a geochemical atlas of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in its tributary, the Little Colorado River, and used it to identify provenance and habitat use by Federally Endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha. Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ13C) discriminate best between the two rivers, but fine scale analysis in otoliths requires rare, expensive instrumentation. We therefore correlated other tracers (SrSr, Ba, and Se in ratio to Ca) to δ13C that are easier to quantify in otoliths with other microchemical techniques. Although the Little Colorado River’s water chemistry varies with major storm events, at base flow or near base flow (conditions occurring 84% of the time in our study) its chemistry differs sufficiently from the mainstem to discriminate one from the other. Additionally, when fish egress from the natal Little Colorado River to the mainstem, they encounter cold water which causes the otolith daily growth increments to decrease in size markedly. Combining otolith growth increment analysis and microchemistry permitted estimation of size and age at first egress; size at first birthday was also estimated. Emigrants < 1 year old averaged 51.2 ± 4.4 (SE) days and 35.5 ± 3.6 mm at egress; older fish that had recruited to the population averaged 100 ± 7.8 days old and 51.0 ± 2.2 mm at egress, suggesting that larger, older emigrants recruit better. Back-calculated size at age 1 was unimodal and large (78.2 ± 3.3 mm) in Little Colorado caught fish but was bimodally distributed in Colorado mainstem caught fish (49.9 ± 3.6 and 79 ± 4.9 mm) suggesting that humpback chub can also rear in the mainstem. The study demonstrates the coupled usage of the two rivers by this fish and highlights the need to consider both rivers when making management decisions for humpback chub recovery.

  15. Parasitism and body condition in humpback chub from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffnagle, T.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (<150 mm total length) humpback chub from the LCR and those from the Colorado River during 1996a??1999. Both K and AFI were lower and L. cyprinacea prevalence and B. acheilognathi prevalence were higher in LCR fish than in Colorado River fish for all years. Mean K and AFI were 0.622 and 0.48, respectively, in the LCR and 0.735 and 2.02, respectively, in the Colorado River, indicating that fish in the Colorado River were more robust. Mean prevalence of L. cyprinacea was 23.9% and mean intensity was 1.73 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 3.2% and intensity was 1.0 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the Colorado River. Mean prevalence of B. acheilognathi was 51.0% and mean intensity was 25.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 15.8% and intensity was 12.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the Colorado River. Increased parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.

  16. Movement, habitat use, and diet of adult humpback chub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Richard A.; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a big-river cyprinid fish endemic to the Colorado River, where river regulation has contributed to its endangerment. Flooding is essential to reshaping its habitat, redistributing nutrients, flushing terrestrial insects for food, and, in the post-dam river, controlling non-native competitors and predators. Effects of the 1996 controlled flood on movement and habitat use of adults were monitored with radiotelemetry, and diet was evaluated with a non-lethal stomach pump. Movement of 9 radio-tagged adults during the flood (mean, 0.40 km; range, 0-1.24 km) was not significantly different (P≤0.05) from movement in the month preceding the flood (mean, 1.26 km; range, 0.1-2.95 km), indicating no unusual movement or displacement of fish by the flood. Habitat used during the flood, as a percentage of radio-contacts (i.e., 73% eddies, 19% runs, 8% tributary inflows), was similar to that used under normal operations by 69 fish tracked during 1990-1992 (i.e., 74% eddies, 12% runs, 7% backwaters, 6% tributary inflows, 1% pools, <1% riffles). Diet of 43 adults showed dramatic shifts to items scoured by the flood. Simuliidae (68% ash-free dry weight) and Chironomidae (15%) dominated pre-flood diets; Amphipoda (31%), Simuliidae (25%), and terrestrial insects (i.e., beetles, ants, grasshoppers, 20%) were ingested during the flood; and Simuliidae (62%) and Amphipoda (18%) were eaten post-flood. While composition of the diet changed, biomass consumed was not significantly affected by the flood (P = 0.9157). The controlled flood had no detrimental effects on movement, habitat use, or diet of adult humpback chub. Effects of habitat reshaping and nutrient redistribution can only be evaluated through long-term monitoring. Floods of higher magnitude or at a different time of year may have different effects on this endangered species and should be investigated before implementing controlled floods as an element of dam operations.

  17. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  18. The role of introgressive hybridization in the evolution of the Gila robusta complex (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Gerber, A S; Tibbets, C A; Dowling, T E

    2001-10-01

    The extent and impact of introgressive hybridization was examined in the Gila robusta complex of cyprinid fishes using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation. Lower Colorado River basin populations of G. robusta, G. elegans, and G. cypha exhibited distinct mtDNAs, with only limited introgression of G. elegans into G. cypha. The impact of hybridization was significant in upper Colorado River basin populations; most upper basin fishes sampled exhibited only G. cypha mtDNA haplotypes, with some individuals exhibiting mtDNA from G. elegans. The complete absence of G. robusta mtDNA, even in populations of morphologically pure G. robusta, indicates extensive introgression that predates human influence. Analysis of the geographic distribution of variation identified two distinctive G. elegans lineages; however, the small number of individuals and localities sampled precluded a comprehensive analysis. Analysis of haplotype and population networks for G. cypha mtDNAs from 15 localities revealed low divergence among haplotypes; however, significant frequency differences among populations within and among drainages were found, largely attributable to samples in the Little Colorado River region. This structure was not associated with G. cypha and G. robusta, as morphotypes from the same location are more similar than conspecific forms in other locations. This indicates that morphological and mtDNA variation are affected by different evolutionary forces in Colorado River Gila and illustrates how both hybridization and local adaptation can play important roles in evolution. PMID:11761063

  19. Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    Like the saguaro cactus (Carnegia gigantea) and the rattlesnake, the Gila monster is emblematic of the desert Southwest. The Gila monster is not only the largest lizard native to the United States, but also one of only two known species of venomous lizard in the Americas. This stout-bodied lizard can grow to 50 cm (20 in) and is covered with black and pink or orange markings and bead-like scales. The Gila monster's range is centered in western and southern Arizona, continuing south to Sonora, Mexico. Despite public fascination with the species, relatively little is known about the ecology and behavior of the Gila monster in the wild. For this reason, managers at Tonto National Monument, Arizona, contacted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to investigate why Gila monsters were being seen in developed areas of the park, particularly crossing the main road. Managers were concerned about possible lizard-human conflicts and the risk of vehicle traffic killing Gila monsters. USGS scientists initiated a research effort in Tonto National Monument beginning in 2004 to provide information needed to make management decisions and improve scientific understanding of the species. Specifically, USGS scientists examined the movement patterns, range requirements, dietary habits, and use of developed areas by Gila monsters within the park. The 2004 research effort also extended a program begun in Tonto National Monument in 1994 to recognize individual Gila monsters based on unique dorsal patterns identified from photographs.

  20. Abundance Trends and Status of the Little Colorado River Population of Humpback Chub: An Update Considering 1989-2006 Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.

    2008-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 1967, the humpback chub (Gila cypha) (HBC) was added to the federal list of endangered species and is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Arizona, and one in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The majority of Grand Canyon humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River (LCR)-the largest tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon-and the Colorado River near its confluence with the Little Colorado River. Monitoring and research of the Grand Canyon humpback chub population is overseen by the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP), a Federal initiative to protect and improve resources downstream of Glen Canyon Dam. This report provides updated information on the status and trends of the LCR population in light of new information and refined assessment methodology. An earlier assessment of the LCR population (Coggins and others, 2006a) used data collected during 1989?2002; the assessment provided here includes that data and additional data collected through 2006. Catch-rate indices, closed population mark-recapture model abundance estimates, results from the original age-structured mark recapture (ASMR) model (Coggins and others, 2006b), and a newly refined ASMR model are presented. This report also seeks to (1) formally evaluate alternative stock assessment models using Pearson residual analyses and information theoretic procedures, (2) use mark-recapture data to estimate the relationship between HBC age and length, (3) translate uncertainty in the assignment of individual fish age to resulting estimates of recruitment and abundance from the ASMR model, and (4) evaluate past and present stock assessments considering the available data sources and analyses, recognizing the limitations

  1. GILA WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical and geophysical indicators delineated during a study of the Gila Wilderness, New Mexico indicate that there are areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, tellurium, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The areas which have resource potential lie along both sides of the western and southwestern boundaries of the wilderness, and adjacent to the access corridor to the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument in the eastern part of the wilderness. Areas marked by geothermal springs along Turkey Creek and Middle Fork of the Gila River have a probable potential for geothermal energy. No other energy-resource potential was identified within the study area.

  2. Cryopreservation of sperm of the endangered gila trout, Oncorhynchus gilae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gila trout, Oncorhynchus gilae, are native to the headwaters of the Gila River drainage in New Mexico and Arizona and the headwaters of the Verde River drainage in Arizona. The species is currently protected as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. Cryopreservation of sperm is now a widely us...

  3. Why does Gila elegans have a bony tail? A study of swimming morphology convergence.

    PubMed

    Moran, Clinton J; Ferry, Lara A; Gibb, Alice C

    2016-06-01

    Caudal-fin-based swimming is the primary form of locomotion in most fishes. As a result, many species have developed specializations to enhance performance during steady swimming. Specializations that enable high swimming speeds to be maintained for long periods of time include: a streamlined body, high-aspect-ratio (winglike) caudal fin, a shallow caudal peduncle, and high proportions of slow-twitch ("red") axial muscle. We described the locomotor specializations of a fish species native to the Colorado River and compared those specializations to other fish species from this habitat, as well as to a high-performance marine swimmer. The focal species for this study was the bonytail (Gila elegans), which has a distinct morphology when compared with closely related species from the Southwestern United States. Comparative species used in this study were the roundtail chub (Gila robusta), a closely related species from low-flow habitats; the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), an invasive cyprinid also found in low-flow habitats; and the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), a model high-performance swimmer from the marine environment. The bonytail had a shallow caudal peduncle and a high-aspect-ratio tail that were similar to those of the chub mackerel. The bonytail also had a more streamlined body than the roundtail chub and the common carp, although not as streamlined as the chub mackerel. The chub mackerel had a significantly higher proportion of red muscle than the other three species, which did not differ from one another. Taken together, the streamlined body, narrow caudal peduncle, and high-aspect-ratio tail of the bonytail suggest that this species has responded to the selection pressures of the historically fast-flowing Colorado River, where flooding events and base flows may have required native species to produce and sustain very high swimming speeds to prevent being washed downstream. PMID:27157474

  4. Directional Gila River crossing saves construction, mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, L.A. )

    1994-12-01

    Directional drilled river crossing technology gained a new convert this fall as El Paso Natural Gas Co. (EPNG) replaced a washed out 10 3/4-in. line that crossed the Gila River and two irrigation canals near Yuma, Ariz. The 1,650-ft bore, the company's first drilled river crossing, saved both construction costs and environmental reporting and mitigation expenses. This paper reviews the planning, engineering, and equipment used to install this river pipeline crossing.

  5. 4. Photographic copy of map. San Carlos Irrigation Project, Gila ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photographic copy of map. San Carlos Irrigation Project, Gila River Indian Reservation, Pinal County, Arizona. Department of the Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. 1940. (Source: SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  6. Fate and behavior of rotenone in Diamond Lake, Oregon, USA following invasive tui chub eradication.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Brian J; Eilers, Joseph M; Huchko, Holly A

    2014-07-01

    In September 2006, Diamond Lake (OR, USA) was treated by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife with a mixture of powdered and liquid rotenone in the successful eradication of invasive tui chub Gila bicolor. During treatment, the lake was in the middle of a phytoplankton (including cyanobacteria Anabaena sp.) bloom, resulting in an elevated pH of 9.7. Dissipation of rotenone and its major metabolite rotenolone from water, sediment, and macrophytes was monitored. Rotenone dissipated quickly from Diamond Lake water; approximately 75% was gone within 2 d, and the average half-life (t½) value, estimated by using first-order kinetics, was 4.5 d. Rotenolone persisted longer (>46 d) with a short-term t½ value of 16.2 d. Neither compound was found in groundwater, sediments, or macrophytes. The dissipation of rotenone and rotenolone appeared to occur in 2 stages, which was possibly the result of a release of both compounds from decaying phytoplankton following their initial dissipation. Fisheries managers applying rotenone for fish eradication in lentic environments should consider the following to maximize efficacy and regulatory compliance: 1) treat at a minimum of twice the minimum dose demonstrated for complete mortality of the target species and possibly higher depending on the site's water pH and algae abundance, and 2) implement a program that closely monitors rotenone concentrations in the posttreatment management of a treated water body. PMID:24733691

  7. Riparian restoration framework for the Upper Gila River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, Bruce K.; Leverich, Glen L.; Diggory, Zooey E.; Dudley, Tom L.; Hatten, James R.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Orr, Devyn A.

    2014-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the methods and results of a comprehensive riparian restoration planning effort for the Gila Valley Restoration Planning Area, an approximately 53-mile portion of the upper Gila River in Arizona (Figure 1-1). This planning effort has developed a Restoration Framework intended to deliver science-based guidance on suitable riparian restoration actions within the ecologically sensitive river corridor. The framework development was conducted by a restoration science team, led by Stillwater Sciences with contributions from researchers at the Desert Botanical Garden (DBG), Northern Arizona University (NAU), University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All work was coordinated by the Gila Watershed Partnership of Arizona (GWP), whose broader Upper Gila River Project Area is depicted in Figure 1-1, with funding from the Walton Family Foundation’s Freshwater Initiative Program.

  8. 2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of map. Gila River Project, General Map Showing Progress for the Fiscal Year 1927. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1927. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, District #4, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  9. 75 FR 8733 - Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Least Chub and Columbia Spotted Frog Candidate Conservation Agreement With... (CCAA) for the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis) and Columbia spotted frog (Rana lutreiventris..., least chub and Columbia spotted frog inhabited a variety of aquatic habitat types throughout...

  10. Barriers impede upstream spawning migration of flathead chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, David M.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Crockett, Harry J.; Bruce, James F.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Many native cyprinids are declining throughout the North American Great Plains. Some of these species require long reaches of contiguous, flowing riverine habitat for drifting eggs or larvae to develop, and their declining populations have been attributed to habitat fragmentation or barriers (e.g., dams, dewatered channels, and reservoirs) that restrict fish movement. Upstream dispersal is also needed to maintain populations of species with passively drifting eggs or larvae, and prior researchers have suggested that these fishes migrate upstream to spawn. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a mark–recapture study of Flathead Chub Platygobio gracilis within a 91-km reach of continuous riverine habitat in Fountain Creek, Colorado. We measured CPUE, spawning readiness (percent of Flathead Chub expressing milt), and fish movement relative to a channel-spanning dam. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Flathead Chub migrate upstream to spawn during summer. The CPUE was much higher at the base of the dam than at downstream sites; the seasonal increases in CPUE at the dam closely tracked seasonal increases in spawning readiness, and marked fish moved upstream as far as 33 km during the spawning run. The upstream migration was effectively blocked by the dam. The CPUE of Flathead Chub was much lower upstream of the OHDD than at downstream sites, and <0.2% of fish marked at the dam were recaptured upstream. This study provides the first direct evidence of spawning migration for Flathead Chub and supports the general hypothesis that barriers limit adult dispersal of these and other plains fishes.

  11. Siphateles (Gila) sp. and Catostomus sp. from the Pleistocene OIS-6 Lake Gale, Panamint Valley, Owens River system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which

  12. Effects of effects of suspended sediment on early-life stage survival of Yaqui chub, an endangered USA–Mexico borderlands cyprinid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barkalow, Stephani L. Clark; Bonar, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of total suspended sediment (TSS) can have negative consequences on fishes, such as altering food supply, lowering food acquisition, clogging gills, and disrupting reproduction. While effects of TSS on salmonids and estuarine fish are well studied, less is known about possible negative impacts of suspended sediment on desert fishes. Several imperiled desert fishes inhabit streams and springs near the U.S.–Mexico border and are potentially threatened by increased sediment loads from borderlands activity such as livestock grazing, road building, illegal traffic, and law enforcement patrols. One such species is the Yaqui Chub Gila purpurea, a federally listed endangered cyprinid. We exposed Yaqui Chub embryos and fry (mean TL = 12.6 mm; SE = 0.42) to a range of TSS levels commonly found in one of the only streams they inhabit, Black Draw, which crosses the Arizona–Mexico border. We tested effects of 0; 300; 500; 1,000; 5,000; and 10,000 mg/L TSS loads on fry and embryos over a 5-d period in three replicate containers for each treatment. Fifty percent hatch rate (i.e., median lethal concentration, LC50) was 3,977 mg/L for embryos. The LC50 for fry (concentration at which half died) was 8,372 mg/L after 12 h of exposure; however, after 5-d exposure, LC50 leveled at 1,197 mg/L. The TL of fry did not change significantly in any treatment over the 5-d period. Suspended sediment in Black Draw reached concentrations lethal to Yaqui Chub embryo and fry during four floods in 2012. Although some desert fishes have evolved in rivers and streams subject to elevated TSS and are tolerant to high TSS concentrations, other fish species are less tolerant and may be impacted by land practices which increase erosion into stream systems. Management of critically endangered desert fishes should include considerations of the effects of increased suspended sediment.

  13. Origin, radiation, dispersion and allopatric hybridization in the chub Leuciscus cephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Durand, J D; Unlü, E; Doadrio, I; Pipoyan, S; Templeton, A R

    2000-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 492 chub (Leuciscus cephalus) belonging to 89 populations across the species' range were assessed using 600 base pairs of cytochrome b. Furthermore, nine species belonging to the L. cephalus complex were also analysed (over the whole cytochrome b) in order to test potential allopatric hybridization with L. cephalus sensu stricto (i.e. the chub). Our results show that the chub includes four highly divergent lineages descending from a quick radiation that took place three million years ago. The geographical distribution of these lineages and results of the nested clade analysis indicated that the chub may have originated from Mesopotamia. Chub radiation probably occurred during an important vicariant event such as the isolation of numerous Turkish river systems, a consequence of the uplift of the Anatolian Plateau (formerly covered by a broad inland lake). Dispersion of these lineages arose from the changes in the European hydrographic network and, thus, the chub and endemic species of the L. cephalus complex met by secondary contacts. Our results show several patterns of introgression, from Leuciscus lepidus fully introgressed by chub mitochondrial DNA to Leuciscus borysthenicus where no introgression at all was detected. We assume that these hybridization events might constitute an important evolutionary process for the settlement of the chub in new environments in the Mediterranean area. PMID:11467433

  14. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of smoked chub in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) All fish in smoking... has a salt (NaCl) content of not less than 3.5 percent, as measured in the loin muscle, and the sodium... million and not greater than 200 parts per million, as measured in the loin muscle. (c) Smoked chub...

  15. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of smoked chub in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) All fish in smoking... has a salt (NaCl) content of not less than 3.5 percent, as measured in the loin muscle, and the sodium... million and not greater than 200 parts per million, as measured in the loin muscle. (c) Smoked chub...

  16. 75 FR 1802 - Termination of the Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan, Gila Cliff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ..., Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior... Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS) is terminating..., Superintendent, Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, HC 68 Box 100, Silver City, NM 88061. Telephone (575)...

  17. Taxonomic revision of the Pyrgulopsis gilae (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae) species complex, with descriptions of two new species from the Gila River basin, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hershler, Robert; Ratcliffe, Victoria; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Lang, Brian; Hay, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species of springsnails (genus Pyrgulopsis) for populations from the middle Fork and upper East Fork of the Gila River Basin (New Mexico) that had been previously identified as P. gilae. We also restrict P. gilae to its originally circumscribed geographic range which consists of a short reach of the East Fork Gila River and a single spring along the Gila River (below the East Fork confluence). These three species form genetically distinct lineages that differ from each other by 3.9–6.3% for mtCOI and 3.7–8.7% for mtNDI (the latter data were newly obtained for this study), and are diagnosable by shell and penial characters. Collectively the three species form a strongly supported clade that is distinguished from other congeners by the unique presence of two glandular strips on the dorsal surface of the penial filament. These findings suggest that the conservation status of P. gilae, which was recently removed from the list of candidates for listing as endangered or threatened by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, should be revisited and that the two new species may also merit protective measures given their narrow geographic ranges. PMID:25147471

  18. Taxonomic revision of the Pyrgulopsis gilae (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae) species complex, with descriptions of two new species from the Gila River basin, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hershler, Robert; Ratcliffe, Victoria; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Lang, Brian; Hay, Claire

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species of springsnails (genus Pyrgulopsis) for populations from the middle Fork and upper East Fork of the Gila River Basin (New Mexico) that had been previously identified as P. gilae. We also restrict P. gilae to its originally circumscribed geographic range which consists of a short reach of the East Fork Gila River and a single spring along the Gila River (below the East Fork confluence). These three species form genetically distinct lineages that differ from each other by 3.9-6.3% for mtCOI and 3.7-8.7% for mtNDI (the latter data were newly obtained for this study), and are diagnosable by shell and penial characters. Collectively the three species form a strongly supported clade that is distinguished from other congeners by the unique presence of two glandular strips on the dorsal surface of the penial filament. These findings suggest that the conservation status of P. gilae, which was recently removed from the list of candidates for listing as endangered or threatened by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, should be revisited and that the two new species may also merit protective measures given their narrow geographic ranges.

  19. Taxonomic revision of the Pyrgulopsis gilae (Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae) species complex, with descriptions of two new species from the Gila River basin, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hershler, Robert; Ratcliffe, Victoria; Liu, Hsiu-Ping; Lang, Brian; Hay, Claire

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species of springsnails (genus Pyrgulopsis) for populations from the middle Fork and upper East Fork of the Gila River Basin (New Mexico) that had been previously identified as P. gilae. We also restrict P. gilae to its originally circumscribed geographic range which consists of a short reach of the East Fork Gila River and a single spring along the Gila River (below the East Fork confluence). These three species form genetically distinct lineages that differ from each other by 3.9-6.3% for mtCOI and 3.7-8.7% for mtNDI (the latter data were newly obtained for this study), and are diagnosable by shell and penial characters. Collectively the three species form a strongly supported clade that is distinguished from other congeners by the unique presence of two glandular strips on the dorsal surface of the penial filament. These findings suggest that the conservation status of P. gilae, which was recently removed from the list of candidates for listing as endangered or threatened by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, should be revisited and that the two new species may also merit protective measures given their narrow geographic ranges. PMID:25147471

  20. Nearshore temperature findings for the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: possible implications for native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Robert P.; Vernieu, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Since the completion of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in 1963, downstream water temperatures in the main channel of the Colorado River in Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons are much colder in summer. This has negatively affected humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fish adapted to seasonally warm water, reducing main-channel spawning activity and impeding the growth and development of larval and juvenile fish. Recently published studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists found that under certain conditions some isolated nearshore environments in Grand Canyon allow water to become separated from the main-channel current and to warm, providing refuge areas for the development of larval and juvenile fish.

  1. Quantitative relationship between reflectance and transpiration of phreatophytes, Gila River test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culler, R. C.; Jones, J. E.; Turner, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    The use of IR aerial photographs for determining the dynamic characteristics of evapotranspiration at the Gila River Test Site is discussed. Evapotranspiration was measured as a function of plant volume, surface conditions, soil moisture storage, and ground water levels.

  2. A previously unreported locality record for the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeff; Haxel, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Although the Gila Monster (Heloderma suspectum) is widely distributed throughout the Sonoran and portions of the Mojave Deserts of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, details of its distribution in California are imperfectly known, due to the apparent rarity of the species in that state. In their review of Gila Monster records for California, Lovich and Beaman (2007) documented only 26 credible sightings during a period of 153 years. In May 2009 another sighting in California was documented by Ruppert (2010a, b) who photographed a specimen in the Providence Mountains, an area known for previous Gila Monster sightings (Lovich and Beaman 2007). In this paper we report the 28th credible record of a Gila Monster in California.

  3. Examining the evolution of an ancient irrigation system: the Middle Gila River Canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianduowa; Ertsen, Maurits

    2014-05-01

    Studying ancient irrigation systems reinforces to understand the co-evolution process between the society and water systems. In the prehistoric Southwest of America, the irrigation has been a crucial feature of human adaptation to the dry environment. The influences of social arrangements on irrigation managements, and implications of the irrigation organization in social developments are main issues that researchers have been exploring for a long time. The analysis of ceramics pattern and distribution has assisted to the reconstruction of prehistoric social networks. The existing study shows that, a few pottery fragments specially produced by the materials of the middle Gila River valley, were found in the Salt River valley; however, very few specialized ceramics of the Salt River valley occurred in the middle Gila River valley. It might indicate that there were trades or exchanges of potteries or raw materials from the middle Gila River valley to the Salt River valley. The most popular hypothesis of trading for the potteries is crop production. Based on this hypothesis, the ceramics trade was highly tied to the irrigation system change. Therefore, examining the changing relationship among the ceramics distribution along the middle Gila River, canals flow capacity, and available streamflows, can provide an insight into the evolutionary path among the social economy, irrigation and water environment. In this study, we reconstruct the flow capacity of canals along the middle Gila River valley. In combination with available streamflow from the middle Gila River, we can simulate how much water could be delivered to the main canals and lateral canals. Based on the variation and chronology of potteries distribution, we may identify that, the drama of the middle Gila River receiving insufficient flows for crop irrigation caused the development of ceramics exchange; or the rising of potteries exchange triggers the decline of irrigation in the study area.

  4. Salinity of the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon confers anti-parasitic properties on a native fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the Little Colorado River within Grand Canyon is naturally high in salt (NaCl), which is known to prohibit development of external fish parasites such as Ich (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). The naturally high salinity (>0.3%) of the Little Colorado River at baseflow may be one factor allowing survival and persistence of larval and juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other native fishes in Grand Canyon. We compared salinity readings from the Little Colorado River to those reported in the literature as being effective at removing protozoan parasites from fish. In laboratory tests, 10 juvenile roundtail chub (Gila robusta; 61–90 mm TL) were randomly placed into each of 12, 37-L aquaria filled with freshwater, water obtained from the Little Colorado River (0.3% salinity), or freshwater with table salt added until the salinity reached 0.3%. Roundtail chub was used as a surrogate for humpback chub in this study because the species is not listed as endangered but is morphologically and ecologically similar to humpback chub. All roundtail chub infected with Ich recovered and survived when placed in water from the Little Colorado River or water with 0.3% salinity, but all experimental fish placed in freshwater died because of Ich infection. The naturally high salinity of the Little Colorado River at baseflow (0.22%–0.36%), appears sufficiently high to interrupt the life cycle of Ich and may allow increased survival of larval and juvenile humpback chub relative to other areas within Grand Canyon.

  5. Origin of Gila seminuda (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) through introgressive hybridization: implications for evolution and conservation.

    PubMed Central

    DeMarais, B D; Dowling, T E; Douglas, M E; Minckley, W L; Marsh, P C

    1992-01-01

    Morphological and genetic characters from cyprinid fishes of the genus Gila were examined to assess a hypothesized hybrid origin of Gila seminuda from the Virgin River, Arizona-Nevada-Utah. The presumed parents, Gila robusta robusta and Gila elegans, are clearly differentiated from one another based on morphology, allozymes, and mtDNA haplotypes. G. seminuda is morphologically intermediate and polymorphic at allozyme loci diagnostic for the parental species. Restriction endonuclease analysis of mtDNA showed G. seminuda nearly identical to G. elegans. These results support an origin of the bisexual taxon G. seminuda through introgressive hybridization. The Gila population in the Moapa River, Nevada, also appears to be of hybrid origin and is considered a distinctive population of G. seminuda. Inter-specific hybridization is potentially an important mode of evolution among western North American fishes, and valid species of hybrid origin may exist in other groups as well. Consideration of this mode of evolution argues for the need to conserve entire species complexes. PMID:1557380

  6. An experiment to control nonnative fish in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered native fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. In Grand Canyon, most humpback chub are found in the Little Colorado River and its confluence with the Colorado River. For decades, however, nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), which prey on and compete with native fish, have dominated the Grand Canyon fish community. Between 2003 and 2006, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey and Arizona Game and Fish Department experimentally removed 23,266 nonnative fish from a 9.4-mile-long reach of the Colorado River near where it joins the Little Colorado River. During the experiment, rainbow trout were reduced by as much as 90% and native fish abundance apparently increased in the reach. Concurrent environmental changes and a decrease in rainbow trout throughout the river make it difficult to determine if the apparent increase in native fish was the result of the experiment.

  7. The 50-horsepower solar-powered irrigation facility located near Gila Bend, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. A.; Alexander, G.; Busch, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    The 50 horsepower solar powered irrigation facility near Gila Bend, Arizona which includes a Rankine cycle demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar powered pumping. The design of a facility specifically for the irrigation farmer using the technology that has been developed over the last four years is proposed.

  8. 75 FR 11010 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ....pdf and the March 10, 2009, proposed rule (74 FR 10412). Description and Taxonomy The Oregon chub... with the highest diversity of native fish, amphibian, reptile and plant species (Scheerer and Apke 1998...; this reach represented just 2 percent of the species' historical range (58 FR 53800). Very...

  9. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... has a salt (NaCl) content of not less than 3.5 percent, as measured in the loin muscle, and the sodium... million and not greater than 200 parts per million, as measured in the loin muscle. (c) Smoked chub...

  10. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... has a salt (NaCl) content of not less than 3.5 percent, as measured in the loin muscle, and the sodium... million and not greater than 200 parts per million, as measured in the loin muscle. (c) Smoked chub...

  11. 75 FR 18107 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... INFORMATION: Background Our March 10, 2010, final rule (75 FR 11010) to designate critical habitat for the... (75 FR 11010). For a more complete discussion of the ecology and life history of the species, please see our March 10, 2009, proposed rule (74 FR 10412), and the Oregon Chub 5-year Review Summary...

  12. 75 FR 21179 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Oregon Chub From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... as a Category 2 candidate species (47 FR 58454). Category 2 candidates, a designation no longer used.... The Oregon chub maintained its Category 2 status in both the September 18, 1985 (50 FR 37958) and January 6, 1989 (54 FR 554) Notices of Review. On April 10, 1990, the Service received a petition to...

  13. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Cincotta, Daniel A.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from South Fork Hughes River (Little Kanawha River drainage, WV) were discovered in two museum lots at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. These accessions, collected in 1960 and 1966, represent an addition to the state fauna and are the first distribution records for this species from the Appalachian Plateau, WV

  14. Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation

  15. Relative influence of different habitat factors on creek chub population structure within channelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) are commonly found within channelized agricultural headwater streams within the Midwestern United States. Understanding the relationships of this headwater fish species with different habitat factors will provide information that can assist with developing resto...

  16. Occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) caught off Korea.

    PubMed

    Bak, Tae-Jong; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2014-11-17

    Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is a pelagic fish species widely distributing in the Indo-Pacific and a commercially important fish species in Korea. It is known to harbor anisakid nematodes larvae, and ingesting the raw or undercooked fish can accidentally cause human infection. In this study, we isolated the nematode larvae in 417 chub mackerel caught from 7 sampling locations around the Korean Peninsula in 2011 and 2012, and identified them by PCR-RFLP of the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) of ribosomal DNA and the direct sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA cox2 gene. The prevalence of infection was 55.4% (231/417) and the mean intensity was 7.0 (1628/231). Most of the nematodes (1523/1628; 93.6%) were found in the body cavity, while 5.5% (89/1628) were found in the gastrointestinal tract. Four different species were identified by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing. Most of the nematodes (1535/1628; 94.3%) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii, and 2.8% (46/1628) were identified as Hysterothylacium sp. A hybrid genotype (Anisakis simplex sensu stricto×A. pegreffii) and A. simplex sensu stricto were 2.5% (41/1628) and 0.4% (6/1628) of the identified nematodes, respectively. The anisakid nematode assemblage of chub mackerel in Korea was similar to that of chub mackerel from the Tsushima Current stock in Japan, in that A. pegreffii was the dominant species. Since most of the anisakid nematodes were found in the body cavity and most of them were identified as A. pegreffii or Hysterothylacium sp. by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing, chub mackerel may not greatly contribute to human anisakidosis in Korea. Alternately, A. pegreffii may be responsible for human anisakidosis in Korea, in addition to A. simplex sensu stricto. Further studies, such as the molecular diagnosis of human anisakidosis, are necessary for assessing the epidemiological role of chub mackerel in Korea. PMID:25268324

  17. Gila Regional Medical Center doubles as art gallery. Open house marks southwestern New Mexico hospital's expansion.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Gila Regional Medical Center, Silver City, N.M., is home to a unique kind of art gallery. Though the small town boasts 30 art galleries, one more was added when the newly expanded and renovated hospital opened its doors to the public in February. More than 100 pieces of loaned art estimated to be worth more than $12,000 are on exhibit, in an effort to create a more healing atmosphere for the hospital.

  18. Model distribution of Silver Chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana) in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Castiglione, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Silver Chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana) was once a common forage fish in Lake Erie but has declined greatly since the 1950s. Identification of optimal and marginal habitats would help conserve and manage this species. We developed neural networks to use broad-scale habitat variables to predict abundance classes of Silver Chub in western Lake Erie, where its largest remaining population exists. Model performance was good, particularly for predicting locations of habitat with the potential to support the highest and lowest abundances of this species. Highest abundances are expected in waters >5 m deep; water depth and distance to coastal habitats were important model features. These models provide initial tools to help conserve this species, but their resolution can be improved with additional data and consideration of other ecological factors.

  19. Spawning habitat and behavior of Gila trout, a rare salmonid of the southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The spawning season of Gila trout, Salmo gilae Miller, in three streams in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, began in early April at the lowest elevation and continued through June at the highest elevation. Water temperature and stream flow interacted to induce spawning; however, the former was more important. Spawning commenced at water temperatures near 8 C. Redds were normally in 6 to 15 cm deep water, about a quarter of the stream width from one bank and within 5 m of cover. The substrate was predominantly gravel and small pebble (0.2 to 3.8 cm). Spawning fish selected redd sites based on depth of water and substrate rather than on water velocity. Redds ranged in area from less than 0.1 m/sup 2/ to nearly 2.0 m/sup 2/ and averaged 3 to 4 cm in structural depth. Normally a single fish or a pair of fish occupied a redd, but occupancy by three to four fish was common. Most spawning activity occurred between 1300 and 1600 hours. Fry (15 to 20 mm long) emerged in 8 to 10 weeks and inhibited riffle areas. Absence of fry from pools occupied by adults indicated that cannibalism may occur.

  20. Feeding ecology of Gila boraxobius (Osteichthyes: Cyprindae) endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.E.; Williams, C.D.

    1980-06-30

    Gila boraxobius is a dwarf species of cyprinid endemic to a thermal lake in southeastern Oregon. Despite a relatively depauperate fauna and flora in the lake, 24 food items were found in intestines of G. boraxobius. Ten of the 24 foods, including six insects, were of terrestrial origin. The relative importance of food items fluctuated seasonally. Diatoms, chironomid larvae, microcrustaceans, and dipteran adults were the primary foods during spring. In summer, diatoms decreased and terrestrial insects increased in importance. During autumn important foods were terrestrial insects, chironomid larvae, and diatoms. Diatoms and microcrustaceans increased in importance during winter. Chironomid larvae were of importance in winter, when the importance of terrestrial food items decreased substantially. Similar food habits were observed between juveniles and adults, except that adults consumed more gastropods and diatoms and juveniles consumed more copepods and terrestrial insects. Gila boraxobius feeds opportunistically with individuals commonly containing mostly one food item. Fish typically feed by picking foods from soft bottom sediments or from rocks. However, fish will feed throughout the water column or on the surface if food is abundant there. Gila boraxobius feeds throughout the day, with a peak in feeding activity just after sunset. A daily ration of 11.1 percent body weight was calculated for the species during June. A comparison of food habits among G. boraxobius and populations of G. alvordensis during the summer shows that all are opportunistic in feeding, but that G. boraxobius relies more heavily on terrestrial foods.

  1. Subcutaneous administration of Kiss1 pentadecapeptide accelerates spermatogenesis in prepubertal male chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Sethu; Ohga, Hirofumi; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2013-10-01

    Kisspeptins, encoded by kiss genes, have emerged as critical regulator of reproductive function in vertebrates. Our previous studies demonstrated that the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) brain expresses kiss1 and kiss2 and peripheral administration of synthetic Kiss1 pentadecapeptide (Kiss1-15) but not Kiss2 dodecapeptide (Kiss2-12) induces spermiation in sexually immature adult chub mackerel. In the present study, we evaluated the potency of Kiss1-15, Kiss2-12, and GnRH analogue (GnRHa) to induce pubertal onset in prepubertal chub mackerel. Peptides were administered through subcutaneous injection for three times (bi-weekly) over 6weeks. Interestingly, gonadosomatic index (GSI) of Kiss1-15 treated fish increased significantly in comparison to other treatments. Histologically, 66.7% of Kiss1-15 treated fish exhibited presence of spermatozoa (SPZ) in the testes with only 28.6% of GnRHa treated fish. However, Kiss2-12 treated fish showed only spermatocytes (SC) as the advanced germ cells in the testes. In contrast, only spermatogonia (SPG) were observed in the testes of control fish. Changes in the number of testicular germ cells among treatments revealed a significantly higher number of SC, spermatids and SPZ in the Kiss1-15 treated fish. Gene expression analyses revealed no significant changes in gnrh1 in the telencephalon-preoptic region of the brain, including fshβ and lhβ in the pituitary of experimental fish. However, GnRHa treated fish showed significantly higher lhβ expression. Levels of sex steroids, 11-ketotestosterone and estradiol-17β were significantly higher in Kiss1-15 treated fish. These results indicate application of Kiss1-15 peptides for accelerating pubertal onset in chub mackerel. PMID:23774588

  2. Concentration of heavy metals in water and chub, Leuciscus cephalus (Linn.) from the river Yildiz, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Agtas, Semsettin; Gey, Huseyin; Gul, Suleyman

    2007-10-01

    The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Fe and Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the river water and the edible muscle tissues of chub, Leuciscus cephalus, from river Yildiz, Turkey, and in the waste water The following results were found in the water of the river Yildiz: Cu 0.03-0.53, Fe 0.91-1.96 and Zn, 053-1.49 microgl(-1), in the waste water Cu 0.20-0.52, Fe 1.22-2.29 and Zn 0.92-1.46 microgl(-1) and in the edible muscle of chub: Cu 1.00-3.79, Fe 7.21-17.04 and Zn 4.12-18.33 microg g(-1) wet weight respectively. Among the heavy metals studied Pb, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Mn were not detected in the river water, waste water and chub samples. Heavy metal contents in these samples were evaluated and the highest concentrations of Cu, Fe and Zn were found in the muscle tissue. The levels of the heavy metals were detected in decreasing order as iron> zinc> copper. All the samples contained comparatively lower amounts of metals as suggested by international and national regulatory bodies. Thus, we recommend periodic monitoring of these metals in the fish consumed by local people.

  3. Nitrite loss and spoilage microflora development in chub-packed luncheon meat.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G; De Lacy, K M

    1983-12-01

    Residual nitrite was lost from chub-packed luncheon meat during storage through both chemical breakdown and microbial consumption. The relative importance of these mechanisms in this pasteurized product was determined by the speed of development of the spoilage microflora, which is influenced by storage conditions. The nitrite half-life due to chemical loss was 13 d at 25 degrees C and 36 d at 10 degrees C. When microbial growth occurred these half-lives were reduced to 2.6 d and 21 d, respectively. Qualitative differences in the microflora that developed at these two temperatures (denitrifying Bacillus spp. at 25 degrees C and non-denitrifying Streptococcus spp. at 10 degrees C) account for the large temperature effect. Growth of Streptococcus spp. increased the rate of chemical nitrite loss in chubs by reducing the pH value. Nitrite did not inhibit the aerobic growth of either Bacillus or Streptococcus species associated with spoilage but did inhibit the anaerobic growth of Bacillus spp. This bacteriostatic effect of residual nitrite in anaerobic conditions will decrease during storage as nitrite level falls and oxygen penetrates the chub pack. Nitrite-mediated bacteriostasis does not obviate the need for refrigerated storage but does afford a real, if ephemeral, safeguard against spoilage occurring during short periods of temperature abuse.

  4. Population genetic structure of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific inferred from microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiao; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Song, Na; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Marine pelagic fishes are usually characterized by subtle but complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are influenced by both historical process and contemporary gene flow. Genetic population differentiation of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, was examined across most of its range in the Northwestern Pacific by screening variation of eight microsatellite loci. Our genetic analysis detected a weak but significant genetic structure of chub mackerel, which was characterized by areas of gene flow and isolation by distance. Consistent with previous estimates of stock structure, we found genetic discontinuity between Japan and China samples. Local-scale pattern of genetic differentiation was observed between samples from the Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea and those from the East China Sea, which we ascribed to differences in spawning time and migratory behavior. Furthermore, the observed homogeneity among collections of chub mackerel from the East and South China Seas could be the result of an interaction between biological characteristics and marine currents. The present study underlies the importance of understanding the biological significance of genetic differentiation to establish management strategies for exploited fish populations.

  5. Evaluation of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) as an indicator of river pollution.

    PubMed

    Barišić, Josip; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Kostov, Vasil; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2015-08-01

    Quantification of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) was performed in 2012 in rivers of north-eastern Macedonia, with the aim to examine the effects of water quality in the rivers (Zletovska and Kriva River-impacted by active Pb/Zn mines; Bregalnica River-contaminated by agricultural waste). The biological alterations in chub were classified as: circulatory disturbances, regressive and progressive changes, but their severity differed. Altogether the mildest changes were observed in the gills of chub from the Bregalnica River, a less polluted river, whereas mining impacted rivers were characterized by more severe alterations. In the gills of chub from the Zletovska River, which is highly contaminated with numerous metals, sulphates and chlorides, the highest lesion indices were found for the regressive changes of both epithelium and supporting tissue, with typical lesions referring to atrophy, thinning and lifting of epithelial cells, necrosis of epithelium and chloride cells, as well as deformations of lamellar cartilaginous base. Gill damages of chub from the Kriva River were overall milder compared to the Zletovska River, in accordance with pollution status. In the gills of chub from that river, progressive changes were more pronounced, specifically severe hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelium in the interlammellar space, leading to fusion of lamellae, as well as hypertrophy of chloride cells. The comparison between seasons indicated higher intensity of progressive changes in all three rivers in autumn, when water level was very low, and consequently, water contamination was more pronounced due to concentration effect. The pattern and severity of histopathological alterations in the chub gills reflected differences in contamination levels and type of contaminants in different rivers and sampling periods, and thus have been proven as a valuable indicator of water quality. PMID:25938696

  6. Evaluation of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) as an indicator of river pollution.

    PubMed

    Barišić, Josip; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Kostov, Vasil; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2015-08-01

    Quantification of histopathological alterations in the gills of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis Karaman) was performed in 2012 in rivers of north-eastern Macedonia, with the aim to examine the effects of water quality in the rivers (Zletovska and Kriva River-impacted by active Pb/Zn mines; Bregalnica River-contaminated by agricultural waste). The biological alterations in chub were classified as: circulatory disturbances, regressive and progressive changes, but their severity differed. Altogether the mildest changes were observed in the gills of chub from the Bregalnica River, a less polluted river, whereas mining impacted rivers were characterized by more severe alterations. In the gills of chub from the Zletovska River, which is highly contaminated with numerous metals, sulphates and chlorides, the highest lesion indices were found for the regressive changes of both epithelium and supporting tissue, with typical lesions referring to atrophy, thinning and lifting of epithelial cells, necrosis of epithelium and chloride cells, as well as deformations of lamellar cartilaginous base. Gill damages of chub from the Kriva River were overall milder compared to the Zletovska River, in accordance with pollution status. In the gills of chub from that river, progressive changes were more pronounced, specifically severe hyperplasia of mucous cells and epithelium in the interlammellar space, leading to fusion of lamellae, as well as hypertrophy of chloride cells. The comparison between seasons indicated higher intensity of progressive changes in all three rivers in autumn, when water level was very low, and consequently, water contamination was more pronounced due to concentration effect. The pattern and severity of histopathological alterations in the chub gills reflected differences in contamination levels and type of contaminants in different rivers and sampling periods, and thus have been proven as a valuable indicator of water quality.

  7. Standard weight (Ws) equations for four rare desert fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Didenko, A.V.; Bonar, Scott A.; Matter, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Standard weight (Ws) equations have been used extensively to examine body condition in sport fishes. However, development of these equations for nongame fishes has only recently been emphasized. We used the regression-line-percentile technique to develop standard weight equations for four rare desert fishes: flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnis, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, roundtail chub Gila robusta, and humpback chub G. cypha. The Ws equation for flannelmouth suckers of 100-690 mm total length (TL) was developed from 17 populations: log10Ws = -5.180 + 3.068 log10TL. The Ws equation for razorback suckers of 110-885 mm TL was developed from 12 populations: log 10Ws = -4.886 + 2.985 log10TL. The W s equation for roundtail chub of 100-525 mm TL was developed from 20 populations: log10Ws = -5.065 + 3.015 log10TL. The Ws equation for humpback chub of 120-495 mm TL was developed from 9 populations: log10Ws = -5.278 + 3.096 log 10TL. These equations meet criteria for acceptable standard weight indexes and can be used to calculate relative weight, an index of body condition.

  8. Assessing juvenile native fish demographic responses to a steady flow experiment in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Colton G.; Pine, William E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Michael D.; Gerig, Brandon S.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Korman, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, is part of an adaptive management programme which optimizes dam operations to improve various resources in the downstream ecosystem within Grand Canyon. Understanding how populations of federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha respond to these dam operations is a high priority. Here, we test hypotheses concerning temporal variation in juvenile humpback chub apparent survival rates and abundance by comparing estimates between hydropeaking and steady discharge regimes over a 3-year period (July 2009–July 2012). The most supported model ignored flow type (steady vs hydropeaking) and estimated a declining trend in daily apparent survival rate across years (99.90%, 99.79% and 99.67% for 2009, 2010 and 2011, respectively). Corresponding abundance of juvenile humpback chub increased temporally; open population model estimates ranged from 615 to 2802 individuals/km, and closed model estimates ranged from 94 to 1515 individuals/km. These changes in apparent survival and abundance may reflect broader trends, or simply represent inter-annual variation. Important findings include (i) juvenile humpback chub are currently surviving and recruiting in the mainstem Colorado River with increasing abundance; (ii) apparent survival does not benefit from steady fall discharges from Glen Canyon Dam; and (iii) direct assessment of demographic parameters for juvenile endangered fish are possible and can rapidly inform management actions in regulated rivers.

  9. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  10. Integration of the Gila River drainage system through the Basin and Range province of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2015-05-01

    The Gila River and its tributaries in southern Arizona and adjoining states incorporate several dozen individual extensional basins of the central Basin and Range province into a single integrated drainage network. Forty basins in the Gila domain contain more than 1000 m (maximum ~ 3500 m) of post-12 Ma basin fill. Subsurface evaporites in many basins document internal drainages terminating in isolated playa lakes during early phases of basin history. The nature of intrabasinal and interbasinal divides and of eroded or sedimented stream passages through mountain ranges intervening between the basins reveal the geomorphic mechanisms that achieved drainage integration over late Miocene to early Pleistocene time. Drainage integration accompanied by headward erosion eastward toward Gila headwaters was a response to Miocene opening of the Gulf of California, into which the Gila River debouched directly before the Pliocene (< 5 Ma) lower course of the Colorado River was established. Residual basins of internal drainage where headward erosion has not yet penetrated into basin fill are most common in the easternmost Gila domain but also persist locally farther west. Most basin fill was dissected during drainage integration within the upstream Gila domain but continued accumulation of undissected basin fill by sediment aggradation is dominant in the downstream Gila domain. Basin dissection was initiated by Pliocene time in the central Gila domain but was delayed until Pleistocene time farther east. In the westernmost Gila domain, interaction with erosional and depositional episodes along the Colorado River influenced the development of Quaternary landscapes along the tributary Gila River. The sedimentary history of the Gila drainage network illustrates the means by which trunk rivers can establish courses across corrugated topography produced by the extensional rupture of continental blocks.

  11. Geologic map of the Gila Hot Springs 7.5' quadrangle and the Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratté, James C.; Gaskill, David L.; Chappell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Gila Hot Springs quadrangle is of geologic interest with respect to four major features, which are: 1)\tThe caves of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument 2)\tThe hot springs associated with the faults of the Gila Hot Springs graben 3)\tThe Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center 4)\tA proposed segment of the southeastern wall of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera The Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument consists of two tracts. The caves that were inhabited by the Mogollon people in the 14th century are in the main tract near the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon in the Little Turkey Park 7.5' quadrangle adjoining the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. The second tract includes the Cliff Dwellings National Monument Visitor Center at the confluence of the West and Middle Forks of the Gila River in the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. Both quadrangles are within the Gila National Forest and the Gila Wilderness except for a narrow corridor that provides access to the National Monument and the small ranching and residential community at Gila Center in the Gila River valley. The caves in Cliff Dweller Canyon were developed in the Gila Conglomerate of probable Miocene? and Pleistocene? age in this area by processes of lateral corrosion and spring sapping along the creek in Cliff Dweller Canyon. The hot springs in the Gila River valley are localized along faults in the deepest part of the Gila Hot Springs graben, which cuts diagonally northwest-southeast across the central part of the quadrangle. Some of the springs provide domestic hot water for space heating and agriculture in the Gila River valley and represent a possible thermal resource for development at the Cliff Dwellings National Monument. The Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center in the southwestern part of the quadrangle is a colorful area of altered and mineralized rocks that is satellitic to the larger Copperas Canyon eruptive center, both being

  12. Geohydrologic data along the Salt-Gila aqueduct of the central Arizona project in Maricopa and Pinal counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, B.L.; Wrege, B.M.; Schumann, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is conducting an investigation of land subsidence and earth fissures along the Salt-Gila aqueduct to identify hazard zones and to provide design data for the Central Arizona Project aqueducts. Thirty-three test holes were drilled along the Salt-Gila aqueduct of the Central Arizona Project in Maricopa and Pinal Counties. Included in the report are maps showing locations of test holes and vertical extensometer sites, records of test holes, and tables and graphs showing water-level measurements. (USGS)

  13. Functional constraints on nest characteristics of pebble mounds of breeding male hornyhead chub Nocomis biguttatus.

    PubMed

    Wisenden, B D; Unruh, A; Morantes, A; Bury, S; Curry, B; Driscoll, R; Hussein, M; Markegard, S

    2009-11-01

    Breeding male hornyhead chub Nocomis biguttatus constructed nests in areas with relatively high but less than maximum flow rate and greater than average water depth. Nests comprised c. 3000 pebbles for a total mass of 11 kg. Males selected pebbles of smaller diameter but higher density than pebbles in the immediate vicinity. Thus, nests balanced the risk of mound erosion and energetic cost of nest construction with the benefits of protection from egg predators and a stable internal flow rate for oxygenation. These data help establish environmental management goals for the conservation of N. biguttatus and the lotic ecosystems dependent upon them.

  14. Does urbanization influence the spatial ecology of Gila monsters in the Sonoran Desert?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kwiatkowski, M.A.; Schuett, G.W.; Repp, R.A.; Nowak, E.M.; Sullivan, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    To assess whether urbanization influences the spatial ecology of a rare and protected venomous reptilian predator, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum, we compared home range (HR) size and movement parameters at three sites varying in degree of urbanization in the Sonoran Desert. We predicted that the urban population of H. suspectum would exhibit smaller HRs, avoid human structures and show less movement. Multivariate analysis indicated that males generally exhibited larger HRs and had higher movement rates and activity levels than females at all three sites. Contrary to our predictions, however, HR size and movement parameters did not vary across the sites in relation to the level of urbanization. At the urban site, individuals often crossed narrow roads and regularly used artificial structures as refuges for extended periods. Furthermore, the population sex ratio at the urban site was female-biased, consistent with the expectation that occupation of larger HRs and higher movement rates results in higher mortality for males in urbanized areas. Gila monsters did not appear to alter certain aspects of their spatial ecology in response to low levels of human activity but additional work will be required to assess population viability and possible effects in the long term and with higher levels of urbanization. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  15. Using survival analysis to study translocation success in the Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Sheller, Frances J; Fagan, William F; Unmack, Peter J

    2006-10-01

    Translocation, the intentional release of captive-propagated and/or wild-caught animals into the wild in an attempt to establish, reestablish, or augment a population, is a commonly used approach to species conservation. Despite the frequent mention of translocation as an aid in threatened or endangered species recovery plans, translocations have resulted in the establishment of few sustainable populations. To improve the effectiveness of translocation efforts, it is essential to identify and adopt features that contribute to successful translocations. This study analyzed 148 translocations of the endangered Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis) to identify various factors that have significantly influenced translocation success. We quantified success as the "persistence time" of translocated populations and used survival analysis to interpret the role of several factors. The following factors affected persistence times of translocated populations: season in which the fish were translocated, habitat type of the translocation site, and genetic origin of the fish stocked. In general, factors associated with stocking, the population stocked, and the site of translocation can significantly affect the persistence of translocated populations and thus increase the probability of translocation success. For Gila topminnow, future translocations should be undertaken in late summer or fall (not early summer), should occur into ponds (not streams, wells, or tanks), and should generally utilize individuals from genetic lineages other than Monkey Spring. For other species, a key lesson emerging from this work is that life history attributes for each translocated species need to be considered carefully.

  16. Using survival analysis to study translocation success in the Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis).

    PubMed

    Sheller, Frances J; Fagan, William F; Unmack, Peter J

    2006-10-01

    Translocation, the intentional release of captive-propagated and/or wild-caught animals into the wild in an attempt to establish, reestablish, or augment a population, is a commonly used approach to species conservation. Despite the frequent mention of translocation as an aid in threatened or endangered species recovery plans, translocations have resulted in the establishment of few sustainable populations. To improve the effectiveness of translocation efforts, it is essential to identify and adopt features that contribute to successful translocations. This study analyzed 148 translocations of the endangered Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis) to identify various factors that have significantly influenced translocation success. We quantified success as the "persistence time" of translocated populations and used survival analysis to interpret the role of several factors. The following factors affected persistence times of translocated populations: season in which the fish were translocated, habitat type of the translocation site, and genetic origin of the fish stocked. In general, factors associated with stocking, the population stocked, and the site of translocation can significantly affect the persistence of translocated populations and thus increase the probability of translocation success. For Gila topminnow, future translocations should be undertaken in late summer or fall (not early summer), should occur into ponds (not streams, wells, or tanks), and should generally utilize individuals from genetic lineages other than Monkey Spring. For other species, a key lesson emerging from this work is that life history attributes for each translocated species need to be considered carefully. PMID:17069370

  17. Extending the flood record on the Middle Gila River with Holocene stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Huckleberry, G. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-04-01

    Historical changes in flood frequency and magnitude are correlated to changes in channel geometry for the Middle Gila River (MGR) in south-central Arizona. The author has attempted to reconstruct the frequency of large floods on the MGR for the last 1,000 years by looking at the stratigraphic record with the purpose of modeling channel changes during a period of significant local cultural change, i.e., the Hohokam-Pima cultural transition. After distinguishing and mapping geological surfaces in the eastern part of the Gila River Indian Community. The author placed a series of backhoe trenches on late Holocene MGR terraces. He interprets lithological discontinuities within overbank deposits as boundaries separating temporally discrete floods. Detrital charcoal from within the stratigraphy was submitted to the National Science Foundation-University of Arizona AMS facility for radiocarbon analysis. The stratigraphic record indicates that a minimum of four large floods have occurred on the MGR since A.D. 1300. Three of these floods may correspond to large historical floods in 1833, 1868, and 1905. If so, then it appears that MGR flood frequency increased after A.D. 1800. There is no evidence for increased flood frequency and channel transformations during the cultural decline of the Hohokam in the 15th century.

  18. Three Experimental High-Flow Releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona-Effects on the Downstream Colorado River Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Grams, Paul E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Robinson, Christopher T.; Schmidt, John C.; Schmit, Lara M.; Valdez, Richard A.; Wright, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Three high-flow experiments (HFEs) were conducted by the U.S. Department of the Interior at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, in March 1996, November 2004, and March 2008. Also known as artificial or controlled floods, these scheduled releases of water above the dam's powerplant capacity were designed to mimic pre-dam seasonal flooding on the Colorado River. The goal of the HFEs was to determine whether high flows could be used to benefit important downstream resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park that have been affected by the existence and operation of Glen Canyon Dam. These downstream resources include native fish, particularly endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), terrestrial and aquatic sandbar habitats, cultural sites, and recreational resources. This Fact Sheet summarizes HFE-related studies published since 1996 and outlines a possible strategy for implementing future HFEs.

  19. The urinary bladder as a physiological reservoir that moderates dehydration in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2007-04-01

    Animals inhabiting xeric environments use a variety of behavioral and physiological strategies to balance water budgets. We studied the potential contribution of the urinary bladder to osmoregulation in a large desert lizard, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum. Here we present results of a series of in vivo laboratory experiments which tested the hypothesis that the Gila monster urinary bladder serves as a physiological reservoir, as in amphibians and chelonians, providing water that buffers increases in plasma osmolality when food and water are unavailable. Adult Gila monsters absorbed water from the urinary bladder into circulation and absorption of water from the urinary bladder and drinking water provided similar osmoregulatory benefits within 24 h, although drinking water provided a more immediate osmotic benefit. During food and water deprivation, plasma osmolality increased 2.5 times faster in lizards with an empty urinary bladder compared with those with a full bladder. During rehydration, stereotyped binge drinking behavior increased body mass nearly 22%, which resulted in a 24% reduction in plasma osmolality and a substantial increase in bladder water within 24 h. These results support our hypothesis and demonstrate for the first time in an adult lizard that the urinary bladder can function as a long-term physiological water reservoir. This trait can provide a critical benefit to osmoregulation during the 2- to 3-month summer dry season characteristic of the deserts that Gila monsters inhabit. PMID:17401130

  20. 76 FR 34250 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Gila Lower Box Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Gila Lower Box Area of Critical Environmental Concern, Hidalgo and Grant Counties, New Mexico and Possible... Lower Box Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC), which would allow the BLM to provide...

  1. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus.

  2. Molecular characterization of muscle-parasitizing didymozoid from a chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Abe, Niichiro; Okamoto, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    Didymozoids found in the muscles of marine fish are almost always damaged because they are usually found after being sliced. Therefore, identifying muscle-parasitizing didymozoids is difficult because of the difficulty in collecting non-damaged worms and observing their organs as key points for morphological identification. Moreover, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids are not easily found because they parasitize at the trunk muscles. Therefore, muscle-parasitizing didymozoid classification has not progressed because there are few opportunities to detect them. Our recent report was the first to describe the usefulness of sequencing analysis for discrimination among muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Recently, we found a didymozoid in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel Scomber japonicus. The present study genetically compares the present isolate with other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. The present isolate differs markedly from the previously unidentified didymozoid from an Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus by phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA. It also differs from other muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from other host species based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S, 28S rDNAs, and coxI loci. These results suggest that sequencing analysis is useful for the discrimination of muscle-parasitizing didymozoids. Combining the present data with earlier data for sequencing analysis, muscle-parasitizing didymozoids from seven marine fish species were classified as seven species. We proposed appellations for six distinct muscle-parasitizing didymozoids for future analysis: sweetlips fish type from Diagramma pictum and Plectorhinchus cinctus, red sea bream type from Pagrus major, flying fish type from Cypselurus heterurus, Atlantic mackerel type from Scomber scombrus, chub mackerel type from S. japonicus, and purple rockcod type from Epinephelus cyanopodus. PMID:26204013

  3. Phylogeography and postglacial dispersion of the chub (Leuciscus cephalus) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Durand, J D; Persat, H; Bouvet, Y

    1999-06-01

    A phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in order to test the hypothesis of a postglacial recolonization of mid- and north-European rivers from a Danubian refuge. Over 345 chub specimens from European rivers covering most of the species' native range were investigated using 600 bp of the cytochrome b gene. Chub in European rivers belong to four highly divergent mitochondrial groups (lineages) differing by mean divergence estimates from 5.2% to 7.89%. These four lineages have a largely allopatric distribution, implying four geographical sets: two Mediterranean, and two north-European sets. This pattern provided strong evidence for: (i) the eradication of this species from most of Europe during maximum ice extent; (ii) its survival in four refugia (Adriatic side of the Balkans, eastern Greece (Aegean Rivers), southern tributaries of the Danube, and periphery of Black and Caspian Seas); (iii) a differential postglacial recolonization of mid- and northern Europe from the last two refugia only; (iv) the occurrence of this recolonization in two steps for the Danubian (western) lineage that entered western Europe (Rhine-Rhone-Loire drainages) during the Riss-Würm interglacial period and survived the last glaciation there before colonizing Garonne, UK and German drainages up to the Elbe during the Holocene; and (v) the occurrence of this recolonization in a single step for the Ponto-Caspian (eastern) lineage that entered the Baltic area as far as the Oder in the Holocene. Both lineages came into contact in the River Elbe without evident mixing. PMID:10434419

  4. Variability in DNA damage of chub (Squalius cephalus L.) blood, gill and liver cells during the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Sunjog, K; Kolarević, S; Kračun-Kolarević, M; Gačić, Z; Skorić, S; Ðikanović, V; Lenhardt, M; Vuković-Gačić, B

    2014-05-01

    In this work the genotoxic potential of water in three localities in Serbia, which differ by the nature and degree of pollution, was determined in tissues of European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) on monthly basis over the 2011/2012 year season using the alkaline comet assay. Specimen samples of chub were taken from Special Nature Reserve "Uvac", as control site, and Pestan and Beljanica Rivers, as polluted sites at Kolubara basin, surrounded with coal mines. Three tissues, blood, gills and liver were used for assessing the level of DNA damage. Analysis was done by software (Comet Assay IV). The control site at Reserve "Uvac" showed the lowest DNA damage values for all three tissues compared to Pestan and Beljanica. Blood has the lowest level of DNA damage in comparison with liver and gills. Decreased damage for all three tissues was observed at summer, while during the spring and autumn damage increased. PMID:24709324

  5. Variability in DNA damage of chub (Squalius cephalus L.) blood, gill and liver cells during the annual cycle.

    PubMed

    Sunjog, K; Kolarević, S; Kračun-Kolarević, M; Gačić, Z; Skorić, S; Ðikanović, V; Lenhardt, M; Vuković-Gačić, B

    2014-05-01

    In this work the genotoxic potential of water in three localities in Serbia, which differ by the nature and degree of pollution, was determined in tissues of European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) on monthly basis over the 2011/2012 year season using the alkaline comet assay. Specimen samples of chub were taken from Special Nature Reserve "Uvac", as control site, and Pestan and Beljanica Rivers, as polluted sites at Kolubara basin, surrounded with coal mines. Three tissues, blood, gills and liver were used for assessing the level of DNA damage. Analysis was done by software (Comet Assay IV). The control site at Reserve "Uvac" showed the lowest DNA damage values for all three tissues compared to Pestan and Beljanica. Blood has the lowest level of DNA damage in comparison with liver and gills. Decreased damage for all three tissues was observed at summer, while during the spring and autumn damage increased.

  6. Map showing mineral resource potential of the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Light, Thomas D.; Shride, Andrew F.; Bergquist, Joel R.; Wrucke, Chester T.; Theobald, Paul K.; Duval, Joseph S.; Wilson, Dolores M.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, Sept. 3, 1964) and certain related Acts require the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral-resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the Administration and the Congress. These maps and reports present the results of a geologic and mineral survey of the Sierra Ancha Wilderness and Salome Study Area, Gila County, Arizona.

  7. Maximum sustainable speeds and cost of swimming in juvenile kawakawa tuna (Euthynnus affinis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, C; Dickson, K A

    2000-10-01

    Tunas (Scombridae) have been assumed to be among the fastest and most efficient swimmers because they elevate the temperature of the slow-twitch, aerobic locomotor muscle above the ambient water temperature (endothermy) and because of their streamlined body shape and use of the thunniform locomotor mode. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that juvenile tunas swim both faster and more efficiently than their ectothermic relatives. The maximum sustainable swimming speed (U(max), the maximum speed attained while using a steady, continuous gait powered by the aerobic myotomal muscle) and the net cost of transport (COT(net)) were compared at 24 degrees C in similar-sized (116-255 mm fork length) juvenile scombrids, an endothermic tuna, the kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis) and the ectothermic chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). U(max) and COT(net) were measured by forcing individual fish to swim in a temperature-controlled, variable-speed swimming tunnel respirometer. There were no significant interspecific differences in the relationship between U(max) and body mass or fork length or in the relationship between COT(net) and body mass or fork length. Muscle temperatures were elevated by 1.0-2.3 degrees C and 0.1-0.6 degrees C above water temperature in the kawakawa and chub mackerel, respectively. The juvenile kawakawa had significantly higher standard metabolic rates than the chub mackerel, because the total rate of oxygen consumption at a given swimming speed was higher in the kawakawa when the effects of fish size were accounted for. Thus, juvenile kawakawa are not capable of higher sustainable swimming speeds and are not more efficient swimmers than juvenile chub mackerel.

  8. Histopathology investigation on the Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) populations captured from the rivers impacted by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir

    2016-07-01

    Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna. PMID:26986024

  9. Histopathology investigation on the Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) populations captured from the rivers impacted by mining activities.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Dragun, Zrinka; Ramani, Sheriban; Ivanova, Lozenka; Kostov, Vasil; Valić, Damir; Krasnići, Nesrete; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Kapetanović, Damir

    2016-07-01

    Many natural freshwater ecosystems, especially in the north eastern Macedonia, are polluted with heavy metals, which are released by active mines. Long-term exposure to high levels of dissolved metals might result in increased metal bioaccumulation in organs of aquatic organisms, and consequently might cause various sub-toxic and toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the health of Vardar chub (Squalius vardarensis) inhabiting mining impacted rivers Zletovska and Kriva, in comparison with chub from the reference Bregalnica River. It was done by use of indicators of tissue damage (histopathology of liver and gonads) and general indicators of exposure to environmental stressors (condition factor, organo-somatic indices and external/internal macroscopic lesions). Histological assessment of gonads revealed good reproductive health in all three rivers, indicating high tolerance of gonads to contaminant exposure. Contrary, several external/internal lesions were more pronounced in chub from severely metal contaminated Zletovska River. Prevalence of hepatic lesions was also higher in mining impacted rivers (in Kriva, 70%; in Zletovska, 59%) compared to Bregalnica River (38%). The spectrum of histological lesions observed in chub liver varied from non-specific minor degenerative conditions, such as lymphocyte infiltration, fibrosis, parasites, granulomas and lipidosis, to extensive and/or more severe changes such as bile duct proliferation, necrosis, megalocytosis, light-dark hepatocytes and hepatocytes regeneration. The results of histopathological investigation for all three rivers showed clear signs of water contamination, especially prominent in mining influenced rivers. More research efforts should be devoted to study of environmental conditions and metal contamination in the mining impacted rivers worldwide, especially of their effects on health of local ichthyofauna.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA-Levels, possible sources, and patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Peterman, Paul H.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g-1 wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolism in field collected fish from the Gila River, Arizona, USA--levels, possible sources, and patterns.

    PubMed

    Echols, Kathy R; Peterman, Paul H; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Orazio, Carl E

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in fish collected from the Gila River, Arizona, a tributary of the Colorado River in the lower part of the Colorado River Basin. Fish samples were collected at sites on the Gila River downstream from Hayden, Phoenix, and Arlington, Arizona in late summer 2003. The Gila River is ephemeral upstream of the Phoenix urban area due to dams and irrigation projects and has limited perennial flow downstream of Phoenix due to wastewater and irrigation return flows. Fifty PBDE congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry using labeled surrogate standards in composite samples of male and female common carp (Cyrpinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The predominant PBDE congeners detected and quantified were 47, 100, 153, 49, 28, and 17. Concentrations of total PBDEs in these fish ranged from 1.4 to 12700 ng g(-1) wet weight, which are some of the highest concentrations reported in fish from the United States. Differences in metabolism of several PBDE congeners by carp is clear at the Phoenix site; congeners with at least one ring of 2,4,5-substitution are preferentially metabolized as are congeners with 2,3,4-substitution. PMID:22939514

  12. Collaborative Modeling in New Mexico's Upper Gila and San Francisco River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Sun, A. C.; Klise, G. T.; Peplinski, W. J.; Brainard, J. R.; Aragon, C. A.

    2007-12-01

    The 2005 Arizona Water Settlements Act (AWSA) has given southwestern New Mexico a unique opportunity to appropriate water from the Upper Gila River basin. This appropriation calls for Arizona irrigators to "trade" their existing use of Gila River water for Central Arizona Project water to realize New Mexico's legal right to develop water originating in its portion of the Upper Gila River watershed. The complexity of the AWSA and various stakeholders interested in the implications of the settlement has led to the development of a collaborative modeling team. As a team member, Sandia National Laboratories is tasked with building an integrated basin scale system-dynamics model that can implement the constraints outlined in the AWSA by projecting water supply and demand scenarios into the future. By building this model, stakeholders will gain insight into the hydrologic complexities inherent in a river basin, and it will allow them to evaluate whether alternate water use scenarios will be allowed under the constraints outlined by the AWSA. The model replicates historic surface and ground water conditions in the basin using available data for supply, including gauges that measure stream flow, ditch flow, and precipitation. Demands are measured through annual hydrographic survey records for agricultural production, industrial water use by mining, municipal and domestic use in both urban and rural communities, and riparian evapotranspiration. Within the system-dynamics framework, volumetric flow of water is the dynamic state variable calculated from one river reach to the next. Stream gauge, climate and consumptive use data are used to calibrate the historic baseline flows. There is a great deal of uncertainty that must be addressed when attempting to model a large basin. Integrating a watershed model to add the contribution of ungauged tributaries is part of this effort. Another challenge is the presence of federally listed endangered avian and aquatic species whose flow

  13. Identification and inhibition of histamine-forming bacteria in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia-Wei; Cao, Min-Jie; Guo, Shun-Cai; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the differences in histamine accumulation between blue scad and chub mackerel and methods of inhibiting histamine-forming bacteria and controlling histamine accumulation in fish. The free histidine contents in blue scad and chub mackerel were 1.45 and 2.75 mg/g, respectively. The histamine-forming bacteria isolated from them were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter braakii, and Enterobacter aerogenes using 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the VITEK 2 Compact system, and MALDI-TOF MS. The histamine-producing capacities of C. freundii, C. braakii, and E. aerogenes were 470, 1,057, and 4,213 mg/liter, respectively, after culture at 37°C for 48 h. Among the different antimicrobials and preservatives tested, potassium sorbate and sodium diacetate effectively inhibited the histamine-forming bacteria and their histamine production. After chub mackerel was dipped into 0.5% potassium sorbate or sodium diacetate, its histamine content increased more slowly at room temperature. Therefore, a potassium sorbate or sodium diacetate dipping treatment could effectively control histamine accumulation in fish. PMID:25710155

  14. Identification and inhibition of histamine-forming bacteria in blue scad (Decapterus maruadsi) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia-Wei; Cao, Min-Jie; Guo, Shun-Cai; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the differences in histamine accumulation between blue scad and chub mackerel and methods of inhibiting histamine-forming bacteria and controlling histamine accumulation in fish. The free histidine contents in blue scad and chub mackerel were 1.45 and 2.75 mg/g, respectively. The histamine-forming bacteria isolated from them were identified as Citrobacter freundii, Citrobacter braakii, and Enterobacter aerogenes using 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the VITEK 2 Compact system, and MALDI-TOF MS. The histamine-producing capacities of C. freundii, C. braakii, and E. aerogenes were 470, 1,057, and 4,213 mg/liter, respectively, after culture at 37°C for 48 h. Among the different antimicrobials and preservatives tested, potassium sorbate and sodium diacetate effectively inhibited the histamine-forming bacteria and their histamine production. After chub mackerel was dipped into 0.5% potassium sorbate or sodium diacetate, its histamine content increased more slowly at room temperature. Therefore, a potassium sorbate or sodium diacetate dipping treatment could effectively control histamine accumulation in fish.

  15. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures were conducted (EPA 1994) with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and four endangered fish species: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucias ), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and Gila t...

  16. Evapotranspiration from forage grass replacing native vegetation in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration from an area of forage grass, which had been planted to replace native vegetation of little economic value, were made daily for a 363-day period in 1969 and 1970. The measurement site was located in the Gila River valley in east-central Arizona. The forage, panigrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), grew from seed during the early summer of 1969 and after winterkill, regrew in 1970. Daily evapotranspiration estimates, which were based on energy budget measurements, ranged from a maximum of 9.2 millimeters to small amounts of condensation. Two daily values of substantial condensation (0.9 and 0.4 millimeter) were of dubious quality, but were retained in the record. The annual evapotranspiration was 989 millimeters, of which about 332 millimeters came from precipitation at the site. The water table fluctuated between 210 and 280 centimeters below land surface. However, the measurement site was near a wash, so that undocumented, shallower subterranean flows may have occurred. (USGS)

  17. Barren area evapotranspiration estimates generated from energy budget measurements in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration for 479 successive days were created by using energy budget measurements. The measurement point was on the 2-kilometer wide flood plain of the Gila River in east-central Arizona, about 18 kilometers above Coolidge Dam. The flood plain had been cleared of all tall vegetation for distances of about 20 kilometers upstream and 5 kilometers downstream from the measurement site. Chaining, raking, and burning had been used to clear the area immediately surrounding the measurement site about 6 months before measurements began. Ground cover was sparse volunteer Bermudagrass and scattered seepwillow for a distance of at least 1 kilometer in all directions from the measurement point . The water table was deep , so most of the evaporated water came from rainfall, but some came from soil moisture deeper than 2 meters. The March to March water loss (evapotranspiration less rain) was about 47 millimeters, evapotranspiration demand was 377 millimeters. Daily rates varied from very small amounts of condensation to almost 5 millimeters of evapotranspiration. (USGS)

  18. Fossilized venom: the unusually conserved venom profiles of Heloderma species (beaded lizards and gila monsters).

    PubMed

    Koludarov, Ivan; Jackson, Timothy N W; Sunagar, Kartik; Nouwens, Amanda; Hendrikx, Iwan; Fry, Bryan G

    2014-12-22

    Research into snake venoms has revealed extensive variation at all taxonomic levels. Lizard venoms, however, have received scant research attention in general, and no studies of intraclade variation in lizard venom composition have been attempted to date. Despite their iconic status and proven usefulness in drug design and discovery, highly venomous helodermatid lizards (gila monsters and beaded lizards) have remained neglected by toxinological research. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of three helodermatid lizards in this study has unravelled an unusual similarity in venom-composition, despite the long evolutionary time (~30 million years) separating H. suspectum from the other two species included in this study (H. exasperatum and H. horridum). Moreover, several genes encoding the major helodermatid toxins appeared to be extremely well-conserved under the influence of negative selection (but with these results regarded as preliminary due to the scarcity of available sequences). While the feeding ecologies of all species of helodermatid lizard are broadly similar, there are significant morphological differences between species, which impact upon relative niche occupation.

  19. Fossilized Venom: The Unusually Conserved Venom Profiles of Heloderma Species (Beaded Lizards and Gila Monsters)

    PubMed Central

    Koludarov, Ivan; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Sunagar, Kartik; Nouwens, Amanda; Hendrikx, Iwan; Fry, Bryan G.

    2014-01-01

    Research into snake venoms has revealed extensive variation at all taxonomic levels. Lizard venoms, however, have received scant research attention in general, and no studies of intraclade variation in lizard venom composition have been attempted to date. Despite their iconic status and proven usefulness in drug design and discovery, highly venomous helodermatid lizards (gila monsters and beaded lizards) have remained neglected by toxinological research. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of three helodermatid lizards in this study has unravelled an unusual similarity in venom-composition, despite the long evolutionary time (~30 million years) separating H. suspectum from the other two species included in this study (H. exasperatum and H. horridum). Moreover, several genes encoding the major helodermatid toxins appeared to be extremely well-conserved under the influence of negative selection (but with these results regarded as preliminary due to the scarcity of available sequences). While the feeding ecologies of all species of helodermatid lizard are broadly similar, there are significant morphological differences between species, which impact upon relative niche occupation. PMID:25533521

  20. Lower Gila South Resource Management Plan, La Paz, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal and Yuma Counties, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Implementation of a resource management plan is proposed for 2.0 million surface acres and 1.9 million acres of subsurface minerals in the Lower Gila South resource area, located in La Paz, Maricopa, Pima, Pinal, and Yuma counties, Arizona. The preferred alternative would involve range land improvements consisting of construction of 47 miles of fence, 10 reservoirs and 7 wells. Portions of the New Water Mountains, Eagletail Mountains, Woosley Peak, and Table Top Mountains wilderness study areas (WSAs), totaling 190,391 acres, would be designated as wilderness. The remaining portions of these WSAs and eight other WSAs, totaling 431,540 acres, would not be recommended for wilderness designation and would revert to multiple-use management. Approximately 72,123 acres of isolated land parcels would be made available for sale or exchange, approximately 36,845 acres of nonpublic lands would be acquired, 112,160 acres of state and private mineral estate would be acquired, and 23,645 acres of federal minerals would be disposed of to facilitate management. Ten utility corridors would be designated. Mineral access and off-road vehicle use would be restricted on the lands proposed for wilderness designation.

  1. An Investigation Into the Ecohydrology of Riparian Wetlands Along the Gila River, NM, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, J.; Stone, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamism of the Gila River, in southwestern New Mexico, USA, has resulted in the creation of a topographically diverse floodplain that supports an array of riparian wetlands. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ecohydrologic and ecohydraulic processes of two of these wetlands, in order to predict their potential response to anthropogenic or natural changes in hydrology. One represents a natural wetland and the other a wetland that exists only as a result of an anthropogenic modification to the river system. A network of 30 wells and 2 weather stations were installed in early 2013 to provide a high resolution of data on surface water and ground water hydrologic conditions. Phreatic surface contour maps were produced to aid in the visualization of sub-surface gradients. Based on these results, an electrical resistivity investigation was conducted to identify paleoflow channels as well as depth to bedrock and other potential areas of interest. These data formed the development of three dimensional ModFlow models that were used to investigate potential future stream flow scenarios on wetland hydrology. The model outputs are being used in tandem with the results of quarterly ecological surveys on vegetation, algae, benthic, and bird communities, to make predictions of potential changes in community structure and function.

  2. The Early Oligocene Copperas Creek Volcano and geology along New Mexico Higway 15 between Sapillo Creek and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Grant and Catron Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratté, James C.; Mack, Greg; Witcher, James; Lueth, Virgil W.

    2008-01-01

    The section of New Mexico Highway 15 between the intersection of NM-15 and NM 35 (aka Sapillo junction) at the south and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument at the north end of NM –15 occupies an approximately 18 mile long, mile wide, corridor through the eastern part of the Gila Wilderness (Fig. 1). Whereas most of the Gila Wilderness is dominated by silicic, caldera-forming supervolcanoes of Eocene to Oligocene age, this part of NM-15 traverses a volcanic terrain of similar age, but composed mainly of intermediate composition lava flows and minor associated rhyolitic intrusions and pyroclastic rocks, which are related to the here-named Copperas Creek volcano. This volcanic complex is bounded by Basin and Range structures: on the south by the Sapillo Creek graben, and on the north by the Gila Hot Springs graben, both of which are filled with Gila Conglomerate of late Tertiary to Pleistocene(?) age. Hot springs in the Gila River valley are localized along faults in the deepest part of the Gila Hot Springs graben. The cliff dwellings of the National Monument were constructed in caves in Gila Conglomerate in the western part of the Gila Hot Springs graben. The eastern edge of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera is buried by younger rocks east of the cliff dwellings, but spectacular cliffs of Bloodgood Canyon Tuff, which fills the caldera, can be viewed along the West Fork of the Gila River from the trail starting at the cliff dwellings. Although this is not intended as a formal road log, highway mileage markers (MM) will be used to locate geologic features more or less progressively from south to north along NM-15.

  3. Effects of dynamic landscape elements on fish dispersal: the example of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus).

    PubMed

    Boizard, J; Magnan, P; Angers, B

    2009-02-01

    Barriers along a watercourse and interconnections between drainage systems are dynamic landscape elements that are expected to play major roles in the dispersal and genetic structure of fish species. The objective of this study was to assess the role of these elements using creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) in the Mastigouche Wildlife Reserve (Québec, Canada) as model. Numerous impassable waterfalls and interconnections among drainage systems were inferred with geographic information systems and confirmed de visu. The analysis of 32 populations using seven nuclear microsatellites revealed the presence of three genetically distinct groups. Some groups were found upstream of impassable barriers and in adjacent portions of distinct drainage systems. Admixture among groups was also detected in some populations. Constraining phylogenetic procedures as well as Mantel correlation tests confirmed that the genetic structure is more likely to result from interconnections between the drainage systems than from the permanent network. This study indicates that landscape elements such as interconnections are of major importance for circumventing impassable barriers and colonizing lakes that are otherwise inaccessible. Such an approach could be relevant for determining the origins of fish species (i.e. native vs. introduced) in the context of conservation. PMID:19161466

  4. Exposure to Deepwater Horizon weathered crude oil increases routine metabolic demand in chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Dane H; Dale, Jonathan J; Machado, Benjamin E; Incardona, John P; Farwell, Charles J; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-15

    During the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident, the continuous release of crude oil from the damaged Macondo 252 wellhead on the ocean floor contaminated surface water habitats for pelagic fish for more than 12weeks. The spill occurred across pelagic, neritic and benthic waters, impacting a variety of ecosystems. Chemical components of crude oil are known to disrupt cardiac function in juvenile fish, and here we investigate the effects of oil on the routine metabolic rate of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus. Mackerel were exposed to artificially weathered Macondo 252 crude oil, prepared as a Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF), for 72 or 96h. Routine metabolic rates were determined pre- and post-exposure using an intermittent-flow, swim tunnel respirometer. Routine energetic demand increased in all mackerels in response to crude oil and reached statistical significance relative to unexposed controls at 96h. Chemical analyses of bile from exposed fish revealed elevated levels of fluorescent metabolites, confirming the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exposure WAF. The observed increase in metabolic demand is likely attributable to the bioenergetic costs of contaminant detoxification. These results indicate that short-term exposure (i.e. days) to oil has sub-lethal toxicity to mackerel and results in physiological stress during the active spill phase of the incident. PMID:26210587

  5. Chub (Leuciscus cephalus) as a bioindicator of contamination of the Vltava River by synthetic musk fragrances.

    PubMed

    Hájková, K; Pulkrabová, J; Hajslová, J; Randák, T; Zlábek, V

    2007-10-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances, which are contained in almost all scented consumer products, enter aquatic environment mainly by way of wastewater paths. To monitor contamination of the Vltava River by these relatively persistent chemicals in the surroundings of Prague industrialized agglomeration, chub (Leuciscus cephalus) was employed as a bioindicator. Validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was used for fish sample examination. Polycyclic musks, represented by 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta-(gamma)-2-benzopyran (galaxolide) and 1-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-ethanone (tonalide) were the most abundant representatives of this group; their levels in fillets were in the range of 1.7 to 105.9 microg/kg and 0.9 to 19.3 microg/kg wet weight, respectively. Nitro-musks, musk ketone, and musk xylene were also detected in most samples; nevertheless, their levels were lower,

  6. Effects of dynamic landscape elements on fish dispersal: the example of creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus).

    PubMed

    Boizard, J; Magnan, P; Angers, B

    2009-02-01

    Barriers along a watercourse and interconnections between drainage systems are dynamic landscape elements that are expected to play major roles in the dispersal and genetic structure of fish species. The objective of this study was to assess the role of these elements using creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) in the Mastigouche Wildlife Reserve (Québec, Canada) as model. Numerous impassable waterfalls and interconnections among drainage systems were inferred with geographic information systems and confirmed de visu. The analysis of 32 populations using seven nuclear microsatellites revealed the presence of three genetically distinct groups. Some groups were found upstream of impassable barriers and in adjacent portions of distinct drainage systems. Admixture among groups was also detected in some populations. Constraining phylogenetic procedures as well as Mantel correlation tests confirmed that the genetic structure is more likely to result from interconnections between the drainage systems than from the permanent network. This study indicates that landscape elements such as interconnections are of major importance for circumventing impassable barriers and colonizing lakes that are otherwise inaccessible. Such an approach could be relevant for determining the origins of fish species (i.e. native vs. introduced) in the context of conservation.

  7. Exposure to Deepwater Horizon weathered crude oil increases routine metabolic demand in chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Dane H; Dale, Jonathan J; Machado, Benjamin E; Incardona, John P; Farwell, Charles J; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-15

    During the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident, the continuous release of crude oil from the damaged Macondo 252 wellhead on the ocean floor contaminated surface water habitats for pelagic fish for more than 12weeks. The spill occurred across pelagic, neritic and benthic waters, impacting a variety of ecosystems. Chemical components of crude oil are known to disrupt cardiac function in juvenile fish, and here we investigate the effects of oil on the routine metabolic rate of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus. Mackerel were exposed to artificially weathered Macondo 252 crude oil, prepared as a Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF), for 72 or 96h. Routine metabolic rates were determined pre- and post-exposure using an intermittent-flow, swim tunnel respirometer. Routine energetic demand increased in all mackerels in response to crude oil and reached statistical significance relative to unexposed controls at 96h. Chemical analyses of bile from exposed fish revealed elevated levels of fluorescent metabolites, confirming the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exposure WAF. The observed increase in metabolic demand is likely attributable to the bioenergetic costs of contaminant detoxification. These results indicate that short-term exposure (i.e. days) to oil has sub-lethal toxicity to mackerel and results in physiological stress during the active spill phase of the incident.

  8. Biochemical indicators and biomarkers in chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Sava River.

    PubMed

    Mihailović, Mirjana; Blagojević, Duško; Ogrinc, Nives; Simonović, Predrag; Simić, Vladica; Vidaković, Melita; Dinić, Svetlana; Uskoković, Aleksandra; Grdović, Nevena; Arambašić-Jovanović, Jelena; Đorđević, Miloš; Tolić, Anja; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kolarević, Stoimir; Piria, Marina; Paunović, Momir

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical indicators and biomarkers were analyzed in the liver and gills of chub caught in three localities along the Sava River exposed to different environmental impacts. Sampling sites were: downstream from Zagreb (Zgd), downstream Sremska Mitrovica (SM) and downstream from Belgrade (Bgd). We observed that the relative amounts and levels of activity of Cu, Zn containing superoxide dismutase and glutathione in both the liver and gills, and the relative amounts of heat shock protein (HSP90) and metallothioneins in the gills were highest in the Zgd locality, suggesting a higher impact of metal pollution. The Zgd locality had higher concentrations of trace metals in the water, especially iron. In the SM and Bgd localities, higher relative levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase were recorded (especially in SM) as compared to the Zgd locality, pointing to the presence of hydrogen peroxide and different classes of organic peroxides. Low water oxygen and high temperature levels in the Bgd locality suggesting different metabolic activity between examined locations. Our results suggest that different presence and concentrations of individual environmental factors (total environment) influence the way how fish establish homeostasis. PMID:26170114

  9. The status of Moapa coriacea and Gila seminuda and status information on other fishes of the Muddy River, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Rissler, P.H.; Nielsen, M.B.; Harvey, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Moapa coriacea is endemic to the headwaters (Warm Springs area) of the Muddy River, Clark County, Nevada. The Warm Springs area was snorkeled and Moapa coriacea and Gila seminuda enumerated in August 1994 after a fire, and in May 1997 after a diversion dam had been removed from the downstream end. Gila seminuda had been reported in greatest abundance downstream from the Warm Springs area and we estimated the population there through mark and recapture from January to March 1995. There was a dramatic reduction in native fishes in the Warm Springs area between 1994 and 1997, coinciding with the invasion of Oreochromis aurea. Downstream from the Warm Springs area Gila seminuda was the most frequently netted species while O. aurea was relatively scarce. The fish population (native and non-native) decreased in a downstream direction; the causative factor(s) have not been identified.

  10. Geology and ground-water resources of the San Carlos Indian Reservation, Gila, Graham, and Pinal counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The San Carlos Indian Reservation includes about 2,900 sq mi in east- central Arizona. Relatively impermeable pre-Tertiary rocks are exposed in about 23% of the reservation and underlie water-bearing Tertiary and quaternary basin fill and Quaternary stream alluvium in much of the southern part of the reservation. About 9,000 members of the San Carlos Apache Tribe live on the reservation and rely on groundwater to meet public supply, irrigation, and other needs. Basin fill is widespread in the valley of the San Carlos and Gila Rivers and consists of fine sand, silt, limestone, clay, and pyroclastic volcanics that may attain a total maximum thickness of more than 3,200 ft in the reservation. Quaternary stream alluvium overlies the basin fill along many streams and washes. Stream alluvium consists of poorly sorted, unconsolidated, gravelly, muddy, sand; and sandy gravel and reaches a maximum thickness of 100 ft along the San Carlos and Gila Rivers. The volume of recoverable water stored in the basin fill to a depth of 1,200 ft is estimated to be about 20 million acre-ft. The volume of recoverable water stored in the stream alluvium on the reservation is estimated to be more than 100,000 acre-ft. The stream alluvium along the San Carlos River supplies most of the water used for drinking. Water throughout much of the reservation is suitable for most uses except for that in the alluvium along the Gila River, which contains large concentrations of dissolved solids. (USGS)

  11. Ponderosa pine snag densities following multiple fires in the Gila Wilderness, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holden, Z.A.; Morgan, P.; Rollins, M.G.; Wright, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fires create and consume snags (standing dead trees), an important structural and ecological component of ponderosa pine forests. The effects of repeated fires on snag densities in ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern USA have not been studied. Line intercept sampling was used to estimate snag densities in areas of the Gila Wilderness that had burned one to three times under Wildland Fire Use for Resource Benefit (WFU), a fire management policy implemented since 1974 aimed at restoring natural fire regimes. Twenty randomly located transects were measured in areas burned since 1946; six in once-burned areas, six in twice-burned areas and eight in thrice-burned areas. The mean density ?? standard errors of large (>47.5 cm dbh) snags for areas that burned once, twice and thrice was 7.0 ?? 2.7, 4.4 ?? 1.1 and 4.1 ?? 1.3 snags/ha, respectively. Differences in snag densities between once- and multiple-burned areas were significant (F-test; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in density of large snags between twice- and thrice-burned areas. Proportions of type 1 snags (recently created) were higher in once- and twice-burned areas than in areas that burned three times, likely reflecting high tree mortality and snag recruitment resulting from an initial entry fire. Type 3 snags (charred by previous fire) were more abundant in areas that burned multiple times. The lack of differences in snag densities between areas that burned two and three times suggests that repeated fires leave many snags standing. The increasing proportion of type 3 snags with repeated fires supports this conclusion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long term effects of Climate change on Human adaptation in Middle Gila River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tianduowa; Ertsen, Maurits

    2013-04-01

    Climate change has been one of key concerning factors for the origin and evolution of hydraulic engineering projects. The study of ancient irrigation systems in the context of long-term climate change enables us to improve the understanding on the response of human beings to variations on their environment. And niche construction starts to be used to explain the development of early small-scale irrigation canals in a view of biological evolution. Therefore, the study of early irrigation canals within a frame of long-term timescale may help to explore the roles of niche construction theory on canals' operation and further expansion. In this paper, the Hohokam canals in the middle Gila River of Southwest America are used as case study, in order to explore the influences of climate change on human behavior. A prehistoric large-scale irrigation network, the Hohokam irrigation system was composed of interconnected sections organized by local independent communities, rather than under the supervision of a central government. This common operation for water distribution without centralization provides us with the opportunity to focus on the relationship between humans and their environment. The aim of this paper is to model the process of human adaptation to their environment, including water flows, crops production and canal maintenance in long term, with the assistance of archaeological surveys and reconstructed climatological data. The results provide us with an insight on how the variation of the configuration of the canals is clearly conditioned by the interaction and adaptation of human settlements. This evolution can be explained by the combination of human food needs to the restrictions of the changing climate given by water availability. The balance of human demand and water availability guides the direction of human dynamics.

  13. Sedimentary fluorite in a lacustrine zeolitic tuff of the Gila Conglomerate near Buckhorn, Grant County, New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheppard, R.A.; Mumpton, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fluorite makes up 20-30% of a zeolitic tuff in a Pliocene or Pleistocene lacustrine facies of the Gila Conglomerate that has not been subjected to hydrothermal activity. The fluorite occurs as prolate pellets and, rarely, as ooids that are mostly 0.1-0.3 mm in size are probably the result of primary precipitation of fluorite and magadiite where dilute, calcium-bearing water from springs or streams mixed with the saline, alkaline lake water that had a high fluorine content.-from Authors

  14. Does the parasite-mediated selection drive the MHC class IIB diversity in wild populations of European chub (Squalius cephalus)?

    PubMed

    Seifertová, Mária; Jarkovský, Jiří; Šimková, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The genes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provide an excellent opportunity to study host-parasite relationships because they are expected to evolve in response to parasites and variation in parasite communities. In this study, we investigated the potential role of parasite-mediated selection acting on MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in European chub (Squalius cephalus) natural populations. We found significant differences between populations in metazoan parasites, neutral and adaptive genetic diversities. The analyses based on pairwise data revealed that populations with dissimilar MHC allelic profiles were geographically distant populations with significantly different diversity in microsatellites and a dissimilar composition of parasite communities. The results from the generalized estimating equations method (GEE) on the level of individuals revealed that metazoan parasite load in European chub was influenced by the diversity of DAB alleles as well as by the diversity of neutral genetic markers and host traits reflecting condition and immunocompetence. The multivariate co-inertia analysis showed specific associations between DAB alleles and parasite species. DAB1-like alleles were more involved in associations with ectoparasites, while DAB3-like alleles were positively associated with endoparasites which could suggest potential differences between DAB genes caused by different selection pressure. Our study revealed that parasite-mediated selection is not the only variable affecting MHC diversity in European chub; however, we strongly support the role of neutral processes as the main driver of DAB diversity across populations. In addition, our study contributes to the understanding of the evolution of MHC genes in wild living fish. PMID:26693717

  15. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  16. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Cole, Rebecca A

    2004-10-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub.

  17. Do management actions to restore rare habitat benefit native fish conservation? Distribution of juvenile native fish among shoreline habitats of the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Gerig, Brandon; Pine, William E.; Korman, Josh; Finch, Colton

    2015-01-01

    Many management actions in aquatic ecosystems are directed at restoring or improving specific habitats to benefit fish populations. In the Grand Canyon reach of the Colorado River, experimental flow operations as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program have been designed to restore sandbars and associated backwater habitats. Backwaters can have warmer water temperatures than other habitats, and native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha, are frequently observed in backwaters, leading to a common perception that this habitat is critical for juvenile native fish conservation. However, it is unknown how fish densities in backwaters compare with that in other habitats or what proportion of juvenile fish populations reside in backwaters. Here, we develop and fit multi-species hierarchical models to estimate habitat-specific abundances and densities of juvenile humpback chub, bluehead suckerCatostomus discobolus, flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnis and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus in a portion of the Colorado River. Densities of all four native fish were greatest in backwater habitats in 2009 and 2010. However, backwaters are rare and ephemeral habitats, so they contain only a small portion of the overall population. For example, the total abundance of juvenile humpback chub in this study was much higher in talus than in backwater habitats. Moreover, when we extrapolated relative densities based on estimates of backwater prevalence directly after a controlled flood, the majority of juvenile humpback chub were still found outside of backwaters. This suggests that the role of controlled floods in influencing native fish population trends may be limited in this section of the Colorado River. 

  18. Parasites of native and nonnative fishes of the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Anindo; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Cole, Rebecca A

    2004-10-01

    A 2-yr, seasonal, parasitological study of 1,435 fish, belonging to 4 species of native fishes and 7 species of nonnative fishes from the lower Little Colorado River (LCR) and tributary creeks, Grand Canyon, Arizona, yielded 17 species of parasites. These comprised 1 myxozoan (Henneguya exilis), 2 copepods (Ergasilus arthrosis and Lernaea cyprinacea), 1 acarine (Oribatida gen. sp.), 1 piscicolid leech (Myzobdella lugubris), 4 monogeneans (Gyrodactylus hoffmani, Gyrodactylus sp., Dactylogyrus extensus, and Ligictaluridus floridanus), 4 nematodes (Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., Rhabdochona sp., and Truttaedacnitis truttae), 3 cestodes (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Corallobothrium fimbriatum, and Megathylacoides giganteum), and 2 trematodes (Ornithodiplostomum sp. and Posthodiplostomum sp.). Rhabdochona sp. was the only adult parasite native to the LCR. Infection intensities of Ornithodiplostomum sp. and B. acheilognathi were positively correlated with length of the humpback chub Gila cypha. Adult helminths showed a high degree of host specificity, except B. acheilognathi, which was recovered from all fish species examined but was most abundant in cyprinids. Abundance of B. acheilognathi in the humpback chub was highest in the fall and lowest in the summer in both reaches of the LCR. There was no major taxonomic difference in parasite assemblages between the 2 different reaches of the river (LC1 and LC2). Parasite community diversity was very similar in humpback chub, regardless of sampling site or time. The parasite fauna of the LCR is numerically dominated by B. acheilognathi and metacercariae of Ornithodiplostomum sp. The richest and most diverse component community occurred in a nonnative species, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, but infracommunity species richness was highest in a native host, humpback chub. PMID:15562604

  19. Water supplementation affects the behavioral and physiological ecology of Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) in the Sonoran Desert.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon R; DeNardo, Dale F

    2009-01-01

    In desert species, seasonal peaks in animal activity often correspond with times of higher rainfall. However, the underlying reason for such seasonality can be hard to discern because the rainy season is often associated with shifts in temperature as well as water and food availability. We used a combination of the natural climate pattern of the Sonoran Desert and periodic water supplementation to determine the extent to which water intake influenced both the behavioral ecology and the physiological ecology of a long-lived desert lizard, the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) (Cope 1869). Water-supplemented lizards had lower plasma osmolality (i.e., were more hydrated) and maintained urinary bladder water reserves better during seasonal drought than did control lizards. During seasonal drought, water-supplemented lizards were surface active a significantly greater proportion of time than were controls. This increased surface activity can lead to greater food acquisition for supplemental Gila monsters because tail volume (an index of caudal lipid stores) was significantly greater in supplemented lizards compared with controls in one of the two study years.

  20. Age and growth of chub mackerel ( Xcomber japonicus) in the East China and Yellow Seas using sectioned otolith samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Xinjun; Feng, Bo

    2008-11-01

    Although chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) is a primary pelagic fish species, we have only limited knowledge on its key life history processes. The present work studied the age and growth of chub mackerel in the East China and Yellow Seas. Age was determined by interpreting and counting growth rings on the sagitta otoliths of 252 adult fish caught by the Chinese commercial purse seine fleet during the period from November 2006 to January 2007 and 150 juveniles from bottom trawl surveys on the spawning ground in May 2006. The difference between the assumed birth date of 1st April and date of capture was used to adjust the age determined from counting the number of complete translucent rings. The parameters of three commonly used growth models, the von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz models, were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion ( AIC), the von Bertalanffy growth model was found to be the most appropriate model. The size-at-age and size-at-maturity values were also found to decrease greatly compared with the results achieved in the 1950s, which was caused by heavy exploitation over the last few decades.

  1. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  2. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Sterner, Mauritz C.; Linder, Chad; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger

    2012-01-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n=14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n=12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  3. Assessing predation risks for small fish in a large river ecosystem between contrasting habitats and turbidity conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yard, Mike; Pine, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined predation risk for juvenile native fish between two riverine shoreline habitats, backwater and debris fan, across three discrete turbidity levels (low, intermediate, high) to understand environmental risks associated with habitat use in a section of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ. Inferences are particularly important to juvenile native fish, including the federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. This species uses a variety of habitats including backwaters which are often considered important rearing areas. Densities of two likely predators, adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and adult humpback chub, were estimated between habitats using binomial mixture models to examine whether higher predator density was associated with patterns of predation risk. Tethering experiments were used to quantify relative predation risk between habitats and turbidity conditions. Under low and intermediate turbidity conditions, debris fan habitat showed higher relative predation risk compared to backwaters. In both habitats the highest predation risk was observed during intermediate turbidity conditions. Density of likely predators did not significantly differ between these habitats. This information can help managers in Grand Canyon weigh flow policy options designed to increase backwater availability or extant turbidity conditions.

  4. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Linder, Chad M; Cole, Rebecca A; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger; Sterner, Mauritz

    2012-02-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha ) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n = 14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n = 12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  5. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Linder, Chad M; Cole, Rebecca A; Hoffnagle, Timothy L; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger; Sterner, Mauritz

    2012-02-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha ) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n = 14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n = 12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae. PMID:21793700

  6. Summary statistics and trend analysis of water-quality data at sites in the Gila River basin, New Mexico and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Ham, L.K.; Fossum, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    Summary statistics and temporal trends for 19 water-chemistry constituents and for turbidity were computed for 13 study sites in the Gila River basin, Arizona and New Mexico. A nonparametric technique, the seasonal Kendall tau test for flow-adjusted data, was used to analyze temporal changes in water-chemistry data. For the 19 selected constituents and turbidity, decreasing trends in concentrations outnumbered increasing trends by more than two to one. Decreasing trends in concentrations of constituents were found for 49 data sets at the 13 study sites. Gila River at Calva and Gila River above diversions, at Gillespie Dam (eight each) had the most decreasing trends for individual sites. The largest number of decreasing trends measured for a constituent was six for dissolved lead. The next largest number of decreasing trends for a constituent was for dissolved solids and total manganese (five each). Hardness, dissolved sodium, and dissolved chloride had decreasing trends at four of the study sites. Increasing trends in concen- trations of constituents were found for 24 data sets at the 13 study sites. The largest number of increasing trends measured for a single constituent was for pH (four), dissolved sulfate (three), dissolved chromium (three) and total manganese (three). Increased concentrations of constituents generally were found in three areas in the basin-at Pinal Creek above Inspiration Dam, at sites above reservoirs, and at sites on the main stem of the Gila River from Gillespie Dam to the mouth.

  7. Predicting future threats to the long-term survival of Gila Trout using a high-resolution simulation of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Thomas L.; Gutzler, David S.; Leung, Lai R.

    2008-11-20

    Regional climates are a major factor in determining the distribution of many species. Anthropogenic inputs of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere have been predicted to cause rapid climatic changes in the next 50-100 years. Species such as the Gila Trout (Onchorhynchus gilae) that have small ranges, limited dispersal capabilities, and narrow physiological tolerances will become increasingly susceptible to extinction as their climate envelope changes. This study uses a regional climate change simulation (Leung et al. 2004) to determine changes in the climate envelope for Gila Trout, which is sensitive to maximum temperature, associated with a plausible scenario for greenhouse gas increases. The model predicts approximately a 2° C increase in temperature and a doubling by the mid 21st Century in the annual number of days during which temperature exceeds 37°C, and a 25% increase in the number of days above 32°C, across the current geographical range of Gila Trout. At the same time summer rainfall decreases by more than 20%. These climate changes would reduce their available habitat by decreasing the size of their climate envelope. Warmer temperatures coupled with a decrease in summer precipitation would also tend to increase the intensity and frequency of forest fires that are a major threat to their survival. The climate envelope approach utilized here could be used to assess climate change threats to other rare species with limited ranges and dispersal capabilities.

  8. Explaining streamflow variability of the Gila and Rio Grande rivers : Pacific teleconnections and catchment-scale interaction of the hydrological cycle with vegetation and soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascolini-Campbell, M.; Seager, R.

    2015-12-01

    The streamflows of the Gila River, N.M. and the upper Rio Grande, with headwaters in Colorado are influenced by a range of drivers including the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and, for the Gila, the North American Monsoon. At the catchment scale, runoff to the river is modulated by the interaction of snowmelt, rainfall, evapotranspiration, soil moisture and vegetation. A simple eco-hydological model is used to explain the seasonal cycles of flow of the Gila (strong spring peak, weak summer peak) and upper Rio Grande (single spring peak) in terms of precipitation, snowpack, and evapotranspiration. We then examine the drivers of streamflow variability using USGS gages located upstream of human extraction, precipitation and temperature data from PRISM, and SST data from ERSST. High spring streamflow tends to occur in response to prior winter El Nino but not all high and low streamflow events can be explained by the Pacific teleconnection. Decadal variations, including low flows in the Gila and upper Rio Grande since the mid 1990s, are explained in terms of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean decadal variability.

  9. Summary of Fluvial Sediment Collected at Selected Sites on the Gunnison River in Colorado and the Green and Duchesne Rivers in Utah, Water Years 2005-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Cory A.; Gerner, Steven J.; Elliott, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin provides habitat for 14 native fish, including four endangered species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973 - Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), bonytail (Gila elegans), and humpback chub (Gila cypha). These endangered fish species once thrived in the Colorado River system, but water-resource development, including the building of numerous diversion dams and several large reservoirs, and the introduction of nonnative fish, resulted in large reductions in the numbers and range of the four species. Knowledge of sediment dynamics in river reaches important to specifc life-stages of the endangered fishes is critical to understanding the effects of flow regimes on endangered fish habitats. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Wyoming State Engineer's Office, implemented daily sediment sampling at three locations in critical habitat reaches in the Upper Colorado River Basin. This report presents a summary of data collected at these sites, including water and suspended-sediment discharge, streambed compositions, and channel and flood-plain topography. The locations are at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations 09152500, Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado; 09261000, Green River near Jensen, Utah; and 09302000, Duchesne River near Randlett, Utah.

  10. Effective time closures: quantifying the conservation benefits of input control for the Pacific chub mackerel fishery.

    PubMed

    Ichinokawa, Momoko; Okamura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Chikako; Kawabata, Atsushi; Oozeki, Yoshioki

    2015-09-01

    Restricting human access to a specific wildlife species, community, or ecosystem, i.e., input control, is one of the most popular tools to control human impacts for natural resource management and wildlife conservation. However, quantitative evaluations of input control are generally difficult, because it is unclear how much human impacts can actually be reduced by the control. We present a model framework to quantify the effectiveness of input control using day closures to reduce actual fishing impact by considering the observed fishery dynamics. The model framework was applied to the management of the Pacific stock of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fishery, in which fishing was suspended for one day following any day when the total mackerel catch exceeded a threshold level. We evaluated the management measure according to the following steps: (1) we fitted the daily observed catch and fishing effort data to a generalized linear model (GLM) or generalized autoregressive state-space model (GASSM), (2) we conducted population dynamics simulations based on annual catches randomly generated from the parameters estimated in the first step, (3) we quantified the effectiveness of day closures by comparing the results of two simulation scenarios with and without day closures, and (4) we conducted additional simulations based on different sets of explanatory variables and statistical models (sensitivity analysis). In the first step, we found that the GASSM explained the observed data far better than the simple GLM. The model parameterized with the estimates from the GASSM demonstrated that the day closures implemented from 2004 to 2009 would have decreased exploitation fractions by ~10% every year and increased the 2009 stock biomass by 37-46% (median), relative to the values without day closures. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the effectiveness of day closures was particularly influenced by autoregressive processes in the fishery data and by positive

  11. Effective time closures: quantifying the conservation benefits of input control for the Pacific chub mackerel fishery.

    PubMed

    Ichinokawa, Momoko; Okamura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Chikako; Kawabata, Atsushi; Oozeki, Yoshioki

    2015-09-01

    Restricting human access to a specific wildlife species, community, or ecosystem, i.e., input control, is one of the most popular tools to control human impacts for natural resource management and wildlife conservation. However, quantitative evaluations of input control are generally difficult, because it is unclear how much human impacts can actually be reduced by the control. We present a model framework to quantify the effectiveness of input control using day closures to reduce actual fishing impact by considering the observed fishery dynamics. The model framework was applied to the management of the Pacific stock of the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fishery, in which fishing was suspended for one day following any day when the total mackerel catch exceeded a threshold level. We evaluated the management measure according to the following steps: (1) we fitted the daily observed catch and fishing effort data to a generalized linear model (GLM) or generalized autoregressive state-space model (GASSM), (2) we conducted population dynamics simulations based on annual catches randomly generated from the parameters estimated in the first step, (3) we quantified the effectiveness of day closures by comparing the results of two simulation scenarios with and without day closures, and (4) we conducted additional simulations based on different sets of explanatory variables and statistical models (sensitivity analysis). In the first step, we found that the GASSM explained the observed data far better than the simple GLM. The model parameterized with the estimates from the GASSM demonstrated that the day closures implemented from 2004 to 2009 would have decreased exploitation fractions by ~10% every year and increased the 2009 stock biomass by 37-46% (median), relative to the values without day closures. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the effectiveness of day closures was particularly influenced by autoregressive processes in the fishery data and by positive

  12. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  13. The early Oligocene Copperas Creek volcano and geology along New Mexico Highway 15 between Sapillo Creek and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Grant and Catron counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Mack, Greg; Lueth, Virgil W.; Ratte, James C.

    2008-01-01

    New Mexico Highway 15 between Sapillo Creek and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument provides a tour through the eroded remains of the ~ 30 million year old Copperas Creek volcano, as preserved between the west-northwest -trending Sapillo Creek and Gila Hot Springs grabens of Basin and Range age. Colorful exposures of altered volcanic rocks in road cuts and a scenic overlook of the Alum Mountain eruptive center are witness to the hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in a Yellowstone-type hot spring environment here in Oligocene time. New Mexico Highway 15 ends at the Gila Cliff Dwellings where alcoves in Gila Conglomerate were occupied by members of the Mogollon culture 700-800 years ago.

  14. Integration of multi-level biomarker responses to cadmium and benzo[k]fluoranthene in the pale chub (Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Park, June-Woo; Choi, Kyungho; Cargo, Jordan; Schlenk, Daniel; Jung, Jinho

    2014-12-01

    The Cd exposure for 14 days significantly increased both the molecular (DNA single-strand breaks) and biochemical (metallothionein concentrations) biomarkers in the freshwater pale chub, Zacco platypus, whereas changes in the histological and physiological biomarker responses were negligible. The BkF exposure for 14 days led to significant increases in the mRNA expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase enzymatic activity and DNA single-strand breakage at the molecular and biochemical levels. In addition, exposure to 50μg/L of BkF induced histological alteration in the liver, with significant changes to the liver somatic index and condition factor at the physiological level. The integration of multi-level biomarker responses at the molecular, biochemical and physiological levels was highly correlated with the concentrations of Cd and BkF. PMID:25217733

  15. Cloacal evaporative cooling: a previously undescribed means of increasing evaporative water loss at higher temperatures in a desert ectotherm, the Gila monster Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    DeNardo, Dale F; Zubal, Tricia E; Hoffman, Ty C M

    2004-02-01

    The Gila monster Heloderma suspectum is an active forager in an environment that, at times, can be extremely hot and arid. Thus, Gila monsters face extreme thermostatic and hydrostatic demands. For a desert ectotherm routinely risking dehydration, evaporative water loss (EWL) is typically viewed as detrimental. Yet evaporation simultaneously dehydrates and cools an animal. We explored EWL in Gila monsters by measuring cutaneous, ventilatory and cloacal EWL at five ambient temperatures between 20.5 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Our results show that Gila monsters have high EWL rates relative to body mass. Cutaneous EWL underwent a consistent, temperature-dependent increase over the entire range of test temperatures (Q(10)=1.61, with EWL ranging from 0.378 to 0.954 mg g(-1) h(-1)). Ventilatory EWL did not show a significant temperature-dependent response, but ranged from 0.304 to 0.663 mg g(-1) h(-1). Cloacal EWL was extremely low and relatively constant between 20.5 degrees C and 35 degrees C, but rose dramatically above 35 degrees C (Q(10) >8.3 x 10(7), from 0.0008 at 35 degrees C to 7.30 mg g(-1) h(-1) at 40 degrees C). This steep rise in cloacal EWL coincided with an increasing suppression of body temperature relative to ambient temperature. Dehydration to 80% of initial body mass led to a delay in the onset and an attenuation of the dramatic increase in cloacal EWL. These results emphasize the potential value of EWL for thermoregulation in ectotherms and demonstrate for the first time the role of the cloaca in this process.

  16. Nonnative fish control in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona: An effective program or serendipitous timing?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.; Pine, William E.

    2011-01-01

    The federally endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River within Grand Canyon is currently the focus of a multiyear program of ecosystem-level experimentation designed to improve native fish survival and promote population recovery as part of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program. A key element of this experiment was a 4-year effort to remove nonnative fishes from critical humpback chub habitat, thereby reducing potentially negative interactions between native and nonnative fishes. Over 36,500 fish from 15 species were captured in the mechanical removal reach during 2003–2006. The majority (64%) of the catch consisted of nonnative fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (19,020), fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (2,569), common carp Cyprinus carpio (802), and brown trout Salmo trutta (479). Native fish (13,268) constituted 36% of the total catch and included flannelmouth suckers Catostomus latipinnis (7,347), humpback chub (2,606), bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus (2,243), and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus (1,072). The contribution of rainbow trout to the overall species composition fell steadily throughout the study period from a high of approximately 90% in January 2003 to less than 10% in August 2006. Overall, the catch of nonnative fish exceeded 95% in January 2003 and fell to less than 50% after July 2005. Our results suggest that removal efforts were successful in rapidly shifting the fish community from one dominated numerically by nonnative species to one dominated by native species. Additionally, increases in juvenile native fish abundance within the removal reach suggest that removal efforts may have promoted greater survival and recruitment. However, drought-induced increases in river water temperature and a systemwide decrease in rainbow trout abundance concurrent with our experiment made it difficult to determine the cause of the apparent increase in juvenile native fish survival and recruitment

  17. Tissue-specific antioxidant responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper and benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Park, June-Woo; Lim, Eun-Suk; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jungkon; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sang-Woo; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho

    2014-05-01

    In this study, antioxidant responses including lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were evaluated in the liver, gill and muscle tissues of pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Cu exposure induced significant antioxidant responses in Z. platypus, particularly in the liver, whereas BaP exposure had a negligible effect. Following Cu exposure, both SOD and CAT activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner, showing significant correlations with malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a measure of LPO (r = 0.646 and 0.663, respectively). SOD, CAT and GST mRNA levels were also enhanced following Cu exposure, except at 20 μg L(-1), although significant correlations with antioxidant enzyme activities were not found. The results of this study suggest that combined information on SOD and CAT activities together with LPO levels in the liver could be a useful indicator for assessing oxidative stress in freshwater fish. PMID:24477393

  18. Connectivity maps for biosimilar drug discovery in venoms: the case of Gila monster venom and the anti-diabetes drug Byetta®.

    PubMed

    Aramadhaka, Lavakumar Reddy; Prorock, Alyson; Dragulev, Bojan; Bao, Yongde; Fox, Jay W

    2013-07-01

    Like most natural product libraries animal venoms have long been recognized as potentially rich source of biologically active molecules with the potential to be mined for the discovery of drugs, drug leads and/or biosimilars. In this work we demonstrate as a proof of concept a novel approach to explore venoms for potential biosimilarity to other drugs based on their ability to alter the transcriptomes of test cell lines followed by informatic searches and Connectivity Mapping to match the action of the venom on the cell gene expression to that of other drugs in the Connectivity Map (C-Map) database. As our test animal venom we chose Heloderma suspectum venom (Gila monster) since exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, isolated from the venom is currently on the market to treat type 2 diabetes. The action of Byetta(®) (exentide, synthetic exendin-4), was also used in transcriptome studies. Analysis of transcriptomes from cells treated with the venom or the drug showed similarities as well as differences. The former case was primarily attributed to the fact that Gila monster venom likely contains a variety of biologically active molecules that could alter the MCF7 cell transcriptome compared to that of the single perturbant Byetta(®). Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling was identified in the category of "Top Canonical Pathways" for both the venom and Byetta(®). In the category of "Top Molecules" up-regulated, both venom and Byetta(®) shared IL-8, cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NR4A3), dexamethasone-induced Ras-related protein 1 (RASD1) and early growth response protein 1, (EGR-1) all with potential relevance in diabetes. Using Connectivity Mapping, Gila monster venom showed positive correlation with 1732 instances and negative correlation with 793 instances in the Connectivity database whereas Byetta(®) showed positive correlation with 1692

  19. Geoelectric structure of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Area, Graham and Greenlee counties, Arizona from audio-magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, D.P.; Baer, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction data using distant field sources, mostly of natural origin, in the frequency range of 4.5-27,000 Hz are analyzed to depict the geoelectric structure in an area of volcanic-rock cover located in southeastern Arizona between the Morenci and Safford porphyry copper deposits. The data for each station consist of scalar electromagnetic measurements at descrete frequencies for two-orthogonal magnetic and electric field pairs. Observations spaced about 5-km apart indicate resistivities in the range of 100-700 ohm-m for the unweathered Tertiary volcanic rocks to a depth of 200 to 500 m. Beneath this zone the data indicate resistivities in the range of 10-100 ohm-m that suggest the existence of an older volcanic rock unit. The less resistive unit appears to be displaced upward beneath Turtle Mountain, an area bounded to the northeast and southwest by mapped Basin and Range faults, and bounded to the southeast by an unmapped fault of older origin that trends northeast. Lateral changes in the resistivity of the two main geoelectric layers result in lowered resistivity in an area of known hot-springs near the confluence of the Gila and San Francisco Rivers, as well as along a north-south trending zone located on the east flank of Turtle Mountain, about 5-km (3-mi) west-northwest of the hot springs. This second anomaly is at a probable depth of 400-500 m and is interpreted to indicate a buried fault or fracture zone.

  20. Effects of exposure to four endocrine disrupting-chemicals on fertilization and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li

    2013-09-01

    The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 μg L-1 for NP and 100 μg L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 μg L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μg L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 μg L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.

  1. Integrative assessment of biomarker responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) exposed to copper and benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Lee, Sung-Kyu; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho

    2013-06-01

    Multi-level biomarker responses (molecular/biochemical and histological/physiological levels) were studied to assess the sublethal toxicities of copper (Cu: 1.25, 5, and 20μg/L) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP: 0.5, 5, and 50μg/L) induced in the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus. Except for the kidney tissues when exposed to 20μg Cu/L, no significant differences were observed at the histological or physiological levels among the treatment groups. However, various molecular and biochemical responses were observed in Z. platypus, and these responses primarily depended on exposure time. Upon Cu exposure, both DNA single-strand breaks (COMET) and metallothionein (MT) concentration significantly increased after 4 days, whereas there were no significant changes after 14 days of exposure. Both 4 and 14 days of BaP exposure induced significant increases in COMET and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, but there was no significant difference between them. Additionally, both Cu and BaP induced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity only after 14 days of exposure. The current findings demonstrate that the differences in the responses of MT and EROD are associated with each chemical's particular mode of action. Biomarker responses at the molecular and biochemical levels were quantized in terms of the integrated biomarker response (IBR) index to compare the toxicities of Cu and BaP. The IBR values were well correlated with the concentrations of Cu and BaP, and the correlations were enhanced at 4 days of exposure (r(2)=0.849 and 0.945, respectively) compared with 14 days (r(2)=0. 412 and 0.634, respectively). These results suggest that the IBR index may be a useful tool for the integrative quantification of the molecular and biochemical biomarker responses in a short-term exposure to Cu and BaP. PMID:23478165

  2. In situ impact assessment of wastewater effluents by integrating multi-level biomarker responses in the pale chub (Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Keun; Jung, Jinho

    2016-06-01

    The integration of biomarker responses ranging from the molecular to the individual level is of great interest for measuring the toxic effects of hazardous chemicals or effluent mixtures on aquatic organisms. This study evaluated the effects of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents on the freshwater pale chub Zacco platypus by using multi-level biomarker responses at molecular [mRNA expression of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and metallothionein (MT)], biochemical (enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, GST, and concentration of MT), and physiological [condition factor (CF) and liver somatic index (LSI)] levels. The mRNA expression levels of GST and MT in Z. platypus from a site downstream of a WWTP significantly increased by 2.2- and 4.5-fold (p<0.05) when compared with those from an upstream site. However, the enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in fish from the downstream site significantly decreased by 43%, 98%, and 13%, respectively (p<0.05), except for an increase in MT concentration (41%). In addition, a significant increase in LSI (46%) was observed in Z. platypus from the downstream site (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the liver of Z. platypus were higher (530%, 353%, 800%, and 2,200%, respectively) in fish from a downstream site than in fish from an upstream location, and several multi-level biomarker responses were significantly correlated with the accumulated metals in Z. platypus (p<0.05). Integrated biomarker responses at molecular, biochemical, and physiological levels (multi-level IBR) were much higher (about 4-fold) at the downstream site than at the upstream site. This study suggests that the multi-level IBR approach is very useful for quantifying in situ adverse effects of WWTP effluents. PMID:26967356

  3. The intestinal parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) interferes with the uptake and accumulation of lead (210Pb) in its fish host chub (Leuciscus cephalus).

    PubMed

    Sures, Bernd; Dezfuli, Bahram S; Krug, Harald F

    2003-12-01

    Uninfected chub as well as fish experimentally infected with the acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus laevis were exposed to (210)Pb(2+) for up to 38 days and the uptake and distribution of lead within different fish organs and the parasites was determined at various time points. Highest metal concentrations were detected in the acanthocephalans, followed by intestine, bile, liver, gill and muscle of the fish host. Infected chub had significantly lower (210)Pb levels in the gills on day 17 (P< or =0.01), in the bile on day 24 (P< or =0.05) and in the gills as well as in the intestine on day 38 compared with uninfected fish. A subsequent polynomial regression revealed that lead levels for the infected fish ranged below the levels determined for uninfected fish during most of the exposure period. This is the first proof that P. laevis reduces lead levels in the bile thereby diminishing or even impeding the hepatic intestinal cycling of lead, which may reduce the amount of metals available for the fish organs. This is especially important for ecotoxicological research. For example, organisms used as accumulation indicators may erroneously indicate low levels of pollution if they are infected with parasites which alter their pollutant uptake mechanisms. Additionally, the results gave further experimental evidence for acanthocephalans as accumulation indicators for metals.

  4. Factors controlling the abundance of rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in a reach utilized by endangered humpback chub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the abundance, survival, movement, and recruitment of non-native rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon to determine what controls their abundance near the Little Colorado River (LCR) confluence where endangered humpback chub rear. Over a 3-year period, we tagged more than 70,000 trout and recovered over 8,200 tagged fish. Trout density was highest (10,000-25,000 fish/km) in the reach closest to Glen Canyon Dam where the majority of trout recruitment occurs, and was 30-50-fold lower (200-800 fish/km) in reaches near the LCR confluence ~100 km downstream. The extent of rainbow trout movement was limited with less than 1% of recaptures making movements greater than 20 km. However, due to high trout densities in upstream source areas, this small dispersal rate was sufficient to explain the 3-fold increase in the relatively small population near the LCR. Reducing dispersal rates of trout from upstream sources is the most feasible solution to maintain low densities near the LCR to minimize negative effects of competition and predation on humpback chub.

  5. O, H and S Isotopes as Tracers of Groundwater Discharge Into the Rio Grande and the Gila River, Southwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, C. J.; Hibbs, B. J.; Hogan, J. F.; Harris, R. C.

    2004-05-01

    In the semi-arid Basin-and-Range province, large rivers commonly enter and exit basins through hard-rock barriers impermeable to groundwater. Isotopic contrasts characteristically exist between river water entering a basin and locally-derived groundwater in basin-fill sediment. Basin aquifers must discharge to the river near the river exit point, and may contribute significantly to river water and solute load. O, H and S isotopes can potentially indicate the location of discharge zones. At times of low river flow, the Gila River enters Safford Basin with isotope delta values, here presented as [d18O‰ , dD‰ , d34S‰ ], of [-8.5, -65, +4.5]. Deep basin water has values [-11.5, -85, +11], the d34S reflecting gypsum evaporite. Values in river water change by km 50 to [-7.5, -60, +4.5] and between km 50 and 80 to [-8.5, -65, +7.5]. The increase in d18O and dD from 0-50 km indicates irrigation water discharge; the change from 50-80 km is accompanied by doubling of sulfate content and requires addition of deep basin water. The Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson with isotope composition [-6.5 to -8.5, -65 to -75, +2 to +4], the d18O and dD values defining an evaporation line (RGEL) resulting from passage of water through upstream reservoirs. Basin groundwater is sulfate-rich and has variable isotope composition: [-9 to -11, -66 to -76, +5 to +10]; it includes both evaporated and non-evaporated types. Groundwater discharge is generally insufficient to shift water away from the RGEL, but d34S values in river water increase to +5 to +9‰ with increasing sulfate content downstream of Fabens, TX, indicating discharge of high-d34S groundwater. Variable sewage discharge from Ciudad Juàrez limits the possibility of detecting isotope shifts in Rio Grande water.

  6. The effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    The Lees Ferry reach of the Colorado River-a 16-mile segment from Glen Canyon Dam to the confluence with the Paria River-supports an important recreational rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery. In Grand Canyon, nonnative rainbow trout prey on and compete for habitat and food with native fish, such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Experimental flow fluctuations from the dam during winter and spring 2003-5 dewatered and killed a high proportion of rainbow trout eggs in gravel spawning bars, but this mortality had no measurable effect on the abundance of juvenile fish. Flow fluctuations during summer months reduced growth of juvenile trout relative to steadier flows. A high-flow experiment in March 2008 increased both trout survival rates for early life stages and fish abundance. These findings demonstrate that Glen Canyon Dam operations directly affect the trout population in the Lees Ferry reach and could be used to regulate nonnative fish abundance to limit potential negative effects of trout on native fish in Grand Canyon.

  7. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2000 to 2009 summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Makinster, Andrew S.; Persons, William R.; Avery, Luke A.; Bunch, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term fish monitoring in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam is an essential component of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). The GCDAMP is a federally authorized initiative to ensure that the primary mandate of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992 to protect resources downstream from Glen Canyon Dam is met. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center is responsible for the program's long-term fish monitoring, which is implemented in cooperation with the Arizona Game and Fish Department, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SWCA Environmental Consultants, and others. Electrofishing and tagging protocols have been developed and implemented for standardized annual monitoring of Colorado River fishes since 2000. In 2009, sampling occurred throughout the river between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead for 38 nights over two trips. During the two trips, scientists captured 6,826 fish representing 11 species. Based on catch-per-unit-effort, salmonids (for example, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)) increased eightfold between 2006 and 2009. Flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) catch rates were twice as high in 2009 as in 2006. Humpback chub (Gila cypha) catches were low throughout the 10-year sampling period.

  8. Incorporating temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions into a somatic growth model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating environmental effects on fish growth can be challenging because environmental conditions may vary at relatively fine temporal scales compared to sampling occasions. Here we develop a Bayesian state-space growth model to evaluate effects of monthly environmental data on growth of fish that are observed less frequently (e.g., from mark-recapture data where time between captures can range from months to years). We assess effects of temperature, turbidity duration, food availability, flow variability, and trout abundance on subadult humpback chub (Gila cypha) growth in two rivers, the Colorado River (CR) and the Little Colorado River (LCR), and we use out-of-sample prediction to rank competing models. Environmental covariates explained a high proportion of the variation in growth in both rivers; however, the best growth models were river-specific and included either positive temperature and turbidity duration effects (CR) or positive temperature and food availability effects (LCR). Our approach to analyzing environmental controls on growth should be applicable in other systems where environmental data vary over relatively short time scales compared to animal observations.

  9. Letter of August 3 from L. C. Halpenny to Arizona State Commission, concerning the ground-water situation along the Gila River from Lateral 23 westward to the vicinity of Buckeye, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heindl, Leopold Alexander; Ernst, Roger

    1954-01-01

    Having attended the hearing on the Salt River Critical Area, you are conversant with the controversy in connection with the exclusion of certain lands from the critical area along the Gila Ricer from Lateral 23 westward to the vicinity of Buckeye.

  10. Abundance Trends and Status of the Little Colorado River Population of Humpback Chub: An Update Considering Data From 1989-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coggins,, Lewis G.; Walters, Carl J.

    2009-01-01

    Mark-recapture methods have been used for the past two decades to assess trends in adult abundance and recruitment of the Little Colorado River (LCR) population of humpback chub. These methods indicate that the adult population declined through the 1980s and early 1990s but has been increasing for the past decade. Recruitment appears also to have increased, particularly in the 2003-4 period. Considering a range of assumed natural mortality-rates and magnitude of ageing error, it is unlikely that there are currently less than 6,000 adults or more than 10,000 adults. Our best estimate of the current adult (age 4 years or more) population is approximately 7,650 fish. Recent humpback chub assessments using the Age-Structured Mark-Recapture model (ASMR) and reported in 2006 (Melis and others, 2006) and 2008 (Coggins, 2008a,b) have provided abundance and recruitment trend estimates that have changed progressively over time as more data are considered by the model. The general pattern of change implies a less severe decline in adult abundance during the late 1980s through early 1990s, with attendant changes in recruitment supporting this demographic pattern. We have been concerned that these changes are not indicative of the true population and may be associated with a 'retrospective' bias as additional data are included in the ASMR model. To investigate this possibility, we developed a realistic individual-based simulation model (IBM) to generate replicate artificial data sets with similar characteristics to the true humpback chub data. The artificial data have known abundance trends and we analyzed these data with ASMR. On the basis of these simulations, we believe that errors in assigning age (and therefore brood-year) to fish based on their length are likely to have caused the retrospective bias pattern seen in the assessments and to have caused both less severe trends in the adult abundance estimates and progressively more severe downward bias in estimates of adult

  11. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  12. Geochemical assessment of metals and dioxin in sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir and the Gila, San Carlos, and San Francisco Rivers, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Marot, Marci E.; Fey, David L.; Adams, Monique; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann

    2005-01-01

    In October 2004, we sampled stream-bed sediment, terrace sediment, and sediment from the San Carlos Reservoir to determine the spatial and chronological variation of six potentially toxic metals-Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, and Hg. Water levels in the San Carlos Reservoir were at a 20-year low at an elevation of 2,409 ft (734.3 m). Four cores were taken from the reservoir: one from the San Carlos River arm, one from the Gila River arm, and two from the San Carlos Reservoir just west of the Pinal County line. Radioisotope chronometry (7Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb) conducted on sediment from the reservoir cores provides a good chronological record back to 1959. Chronology prior to that, during the 1950s, is based on our interpretation of the 137Cs anomaly in reservoir cores. During and prior to the 1950s, the reservoir was dry and sediment-accumulation rates were irregular; age control based on radioisotope data was not possible. We recovered sediment at the base of one 4-m-long core that may date back to the late 1930s. The sedimentological record contains two discrete events, one about 1978-83 and one about 1957, where the Cu concentration in reservoir sediment exceeded recommended sediment quality guidelines and should have had an effect on sensitive aquatic and benthic organisms. Concentrations of Zn determined in sediment deposited during the 1957(?) event also exceeded recommended sediment quality guidelines. Concentration data for Cu from the four cores clearly indicate that the source of this material was upstream on the Gila River. Lead isotope data, coupled with the geochemical data from a 2M HCl-1 percent H2O2 leach of selected sediment samples, show two discrete populations of data. One represents the dominant sediment load derived from the Safford Valley, and a second reflects sediment derived from the San Francisco River. The Cu concentration spikes in the reservoir cores have chemical and Pb isotope signatures that indicate that deposits in a porphyry copper deposit

  13. Effects of a test flood on fishes of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, R.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; McIvor, C.C.; McKinney, T.; Leibfried, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    A beach/habitat-building flow (i.e., test flood) of 1274 m3/s, released from Glen Canyon Dam down the Colorado River through Grand Canyon, had little effect on distribution, abundance, or movement of native fishes, and only short-term effects on densities of some nonnative species Shoreline and backwater catch rates of native fishes, including juvenile humpback chub (Gila cypha), flannelmouth suckers (Catostomus latipinnis), and bluehead suckers (C. discobolus), and all ages of speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus), were not significantly different before and after the flood. Annual spring spawning migrations of flannelmouth suckers into the Paria River and endangered humpback chub into the Little Colorado River (LCR) took place during and after the flood, indicating no impediment to fish migrations. Pre-spawning adults staged in large slack water pools formed at the mouths of these tributaries during the flood. Net movement and habitat used by nine radio-tagged adult humpback chub during the flood were not significantly different from prior observations. Diet composition of adult humpback chub varied, but total biomass did not differ significantly before, during, and after the flood, indicating opportunistic feeding for a larger array of available food items displaced by the flood. Numbers of nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) <152 mm total length decreased by ???8% in electrofishing samples from the dam tailwaters (0-25 km downstream of the dam) during the flood. Increased catch rates in the vicinity of the LCR (125 km downstream of the dam) and Hell's Hollow (314 km downstream of the dam) suggest that these young trout were displaced downstream by the flood, although displacement distance was unknown since some fish could have originated from local populations associated with intervening tributaries. Abundance, catch rate, body condition, and diet of adult rainbow trout in the dam tailwaters were not significantly affected by the flood, and the flood

  14. Effects of increased discharge on spawning and age-0 recruitment of rainbow trout in the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Luke A.; Korman, Josh; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Negative interactions of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha pose challenges to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) to manage for both species in the Colorado River. Operations to enhance the Rainbow Trout tailwater fishery may lead to an increase in downstream movement of the trout to areas where they are likely to interact with Humpback Chub. We evaluated the effects of dam operations on age-0 Rainbow Trout in the tailwater fishery to inform managers about how GCD operations could benefit a tailwater fishery for Rainbow Trout; although this could affect a Humpback Chub population farther downstream. A near year-long increase in discharge at GCD in 2011 enabled us to evaluate whether high and stable flows led to increased spawning and production of age-0 Rainbow Trout compared with other years. Rainbow Trout spawning was monitored by fitting a model to observed redd counts to estimate the number of redds created over a spawning season. Data collected during electrofishing trips in July–September and November were used to acquire age-0 trout population and mortality rate estimates. We found that high and stable flows in 2011 resulted in 3,062 redds (1.7 times the mean of all survey years) and a population estimate of 686,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout (second highest on record). Despite high initial abundance, mortality remained low through the year (0.0043%/d) resulting in significant recruitment with a record high November population estimate of 214,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout. Recent monitoring indicates this recruitment event was followed by an increase in downstream migration, which may lead to increased interactions with downstream populations of Humpback Chub. Consequently, while our results indicate that manipulating flow at GCD can be used to manage Rainbow Trout spawning and recruitment, fisheries managers should use flow manipulation in moderation to minimize downstream migration in order to reduce negative

  15. Comparison of electrofishing and trammel netting variability for sampling native fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The variability in size structure and relative abundance (CPUE; number of fish ???200 mm total length, LT, collected per hour of electrofishing or trammel netting) of three native Colorado River fishes, the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha, flannelmouth sucker Catostomus latipinnus and bluehead sucker Calostomus discobolus, collected from electrofishing and trammel nets was assessed to determine which gear was most appropriate to detect trends in relative abundance of adult fishes. Coefficient of variation (CV) of CPUE ranged from 210 to 566 for electrofishing and 128 to 575 for trammel netting, depending on season, diel period and species. Mean CV was lowest for trammel nets for humpback chub (P = 0.004) and tended to be lower for flannelmouth sucker (P = 0.12), regardless of season or diel period. Only one bluehead sucker >200 mm was collected with electrofishing. Electrofishing and trammel netting CPUE were not related for humpback chub (r = -0.32. P = 0.43) or flannelmouth sucker (r = -0.27, P = 0.46) in samples from the same date, location and hour set. Electrofishing collected a higher proportion of smaller (<200 mm LT) humpback chub (P < 0.001), flannelmouth suckers (P < 0.001) and bluehead suckers (P< 0.001) than trammel netting, suggesting that conclusions derived from one gear may not be the same as from the other gear. This is probably because these gears fished different habitats, which are occupied by different fish life stages. To detect a 25% change in CPUE at a power of 0.9. at least 473 trammel net sets or 1918 electrofishing samples would be needed in this 8 km reach. This unattainable amount of samples for both trammel netting and electrofishing indicates that detecting annual changes in CPUE may not be practical and analysis of long-term data or stock assessment models using mark-recapture methods may be needed to assess trends in abundance of Colorado River native fishes, and probably other rare fishes as well. ?? 2004 The Fisheries Society

  16. Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of major rivers in the Czech Republic using biliary metabolite in chub, Leuciscus cephalus L.

    PubMed

    Blahova, Jana; Leontovycova, Drahomira; Kodes, Vit; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of the major rivers in the Czech Republic using 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) content in chub bile as a biomarker. The highest concentration of 1-OHP was found in the Otava River at Topělec (80.5 ng mg protein(-1)); the lowest content of 1-OHP was found in the Vltava at Zelčín (9.6 ng mg protein(-1)). At all sites, bottom sediment samples were collected and analyzed for PAH content. The PAH content ranged between 1.2 and 15.2 mg kg dry mass(-1) at all sites. Statistically significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) between biliary 1-OHP and sediment PAH content were found. Correlation coefficients for total and individual priority PAHs ranged from 0.63 to 0.77.

  17. Characterization of the ribosomal RNA gene of Kudoa neothunni (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) in tunas (Thunnus spp.) and Kudoa scomberi n. sp. in a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Chun; Sato, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2013-05-01

    Kudoa neothunni is the first described Kudoa species having six shell valves and polar capsules, previously assigned to the genus Hexacapsula Arai and Matsumoto, 1953. Since its genetic analyses remain to be conducted, the present study characterizes the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) using two isolates from a yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) with post-harvest myoliquefaction and a northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) without tissue degradation. Spores of the two isolates localized in the myofiber of trunk muscles, forming pseudocysts, and showed typical morphology of K. neothunni with six equal-sized shell valves radially arranged in apical view: spores (n = 15) measuring 9.5-11.4 μm in width, 7.3-8.6 μm in suture width, 8.9-10.9 μm in thickness, and 7.3-7.7 μm in length; and polar capsules measuring 3.6-4.1 μm by 1.8-2.3 μm. In lateral view, the spores were pyramidal in shape without apical protrusions. Their 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences were essentially identical, but variations in the ITS1 (62.4 % similarity across 757-bp length), ITS2 (66.9 % similarity across 599-bp length), and 28S (99.0 % similarity across 2,245-bp length) rDNA regions existed between the two isolates. On phylogenetic trees based on the 18S or 28S rDNA sequence, K. neothunni formed a clade with Kudoa spp. with more than four shell valves and polar capsules, particularly K. grammatorcyni and K. scomberomori. Semiquadrate spores of a kudoid species with four shell valves and polar capsules were detected from minute cysts (0.30-0.75 mm by 0.20-0.40 mm) embedded in the trunk muscle of a chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) fished in the Sea of Japan. Morphologically, it resembled K. caudata described from a chub mackerel fished in the southeastern Pacific Ocean off Peru; however, it lacked filamentous projections on the shell valves of spores. Additionally, it morphologically resembled K. thunni described from a yellowfin tuna also fished in the Pacific Ocean; spores (n

  18. Predator-driven intra-species variation in locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference in pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Fu, Shi-Jian; Yuan, Xin-Zhong; Cao, Zhen-Dong

    2015-01-15

    Fish inhabit environments that vary greatly in terms of predation intensity, and these predation regimes are generally expected to be a major driver of divergent natural selection. To test whether there is predator-driven intra-species variation in the locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference of pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river, we measured unsteady and steady swimming and water velocity preference among fish collected from both high- and low-predation habitats in the Wujiang River. We also measured the routine metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed (Uopt). The fish from the high-predation populations showed a shorter response latency, elevated routine metabolism, lower swimming efficiency at low swimming speed and lower water velocity preference compared with those from the low-predation populations. Neither of the kinematic parameters fast-start and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) showed a significant difference between the high- and low-predation populations. The fish from the high-predation populations may improve their predator avoidance capacity primarily through an elevated routine metabolism and shorter response latency to achieve advanced warning and escape, rather than an improved fast-start swimming speed or acceleration. Thus, the cost of this strategy is an elevated RMR, and no trade-off between unsteady and steady swimming performance was observed in the pale chub population under various predation stresses. It was interesting to find that the high-predation fish showed an unexpected lower velocity preference, which might represent a compromise between predation avoidance, foraging and energy saving.

  19. Two leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene of female chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression in different obesity indices and pubertal stages.

    PubMed

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Kitano, Hajime; Nagano, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-10-01

    Leptin is a hormone produced by fat cells that regulates the amount of fat stored in the body and conveys nutritional status to the reproductive axis in mammals. In the present study we identified two subtypes of leptin genes (lepa and lepb) and a leptin receptor gene (lepr) from chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and there gene expression under different feeding conditions (control and high-feed) and pubertal development stages was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. The protein lengths of LepA, LepB and LepR were 161 amino acids (aa), 163 aa and 1149 aa, respectively and both leptin subtypes shared only 15% similarity in aa sequences. In pubertal females, lepa was expressed in the brain, pituitary gland, liver, adipose tissue and ovary; however, in adult (gonadal maturation after the second in the life) females, lepa was expressed only in the liver. lepb was expressed primarily in the brain of all fish tested and was expressed strongly in the adipose tissue of adults. lepr was characterized by expression in the pituitary. The high-feed group showed a high conditioning factor level; unexpectedly, hepatic lepa and brain lepr were significantly more weakly expressed compared with the control-feed group. Furthermore, the expression levels of lepa, lepb and lepr genes showed no significant differences between pre-pubertal and post-pubertal fish. On the other hand, pituitary fshβ and lhβ showed no significant differences between different feeding groups of pre-pubertal fish. In contrast, fshβ and lhβ expressed abundantly in the post-pubertal fish of control feed group. Based on these results, whether leptin plays an important role in the nutritional status and pubertal onset of chub mackerel remains unknown.

  20. Predator-driven intra-species variation in locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference in pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cheng; Fu, Shi-Jian; Yuan, Xin-Zhong; Cao, Zhen-Dong

    2015-01-15

    Fish inhabit environments that vary greatly in terms of predation intensity, and these predation regimes are generally expected to be a major driver of divergent natural selection. To test whether there is predator-driven intra-species variation in the locomotion, metabolism and water velocity preference of pale chub (Zacco platypus) along a river, we measured unsteady and steady swimming and water velocity preference among fish collected from both high- and low-predation habitats in the Wujiang River. We also measured the routine metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed (Uopt). The fish from the high-predation populations showed a shorter response latency, elevated routine metabolism, lower swimming efficiency at low swimming speed and lower water velocity preference compared with those from the low-predation populations. Neither of the kinematic parameters fast-start and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) showed a significant difference between the high- and low-predation populations. The fish from the high-predation populations may improve their predator avoidance capacity primarily through an elevated routine metabolism and shorter response latency to achieve advanced warning and escape, rather than an improved fast-start swimming speed or acceleration. Thus, the cost of this strategy is an elevated RMR, and no trade-off between unsteady and steady swimming performance was observed in the pale chub population under various predation stresses. It was interesting to find that the high-predation fish showed an unexpected lower velocity preference, which might represent a compromise between predation avoidance, foraging and energy saving. PMID:25452504

  1. Determination of selenium in fish from designated critical habitat of the Gunnison River, Colorado, summer 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results for the summer 2011 sampling of muscle plugs from common carps (Cyprinus Linnaeus), roundtail chub (Gila robusta), and bonytail chub (Gila elegans) inhabiting critical habitat in the Gunnison River in Western Colorado. Total selenium in fish muscle plugs was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total selenium concentrations (range and mean ± standard deviation) in micrograms per gram dry weight for each species were as follows: common carp: 8.5 to 35, 13 ± 7.8; roundtail chub: 5.5 to 11.2, 7.3 ± 1.6; bonytail chub: 0.8 to 8.6, 3.9 ± 4.2. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from 4 out of 15 roundtail chub, all 15 common carp, and 2 out of 5 bonytail chub exceeded the 8 micrograms per gram dry weight toxicity guideline for selenium in fish muscle tissue.

  2. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area and in the western Mexico drainage area, Maricopa, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona; 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, S.A.; Clay, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome and the western Mexican drainage areas include about 4,700 square miles in southwestern Arizona. The main water-bearing unit is the alluvium along the Gila River and its tributaries and in the valleys that separate the mountains. Most of the ground-water development has taken place in the Wellton-Mohawk area in the northern part of the Gila River drainage from Texas Hill to Dome area. The use of imported Colorado River water for irrigation caused the water levels to rise, and in the early 1970 's the water levels were within 6 feet of the land surface in most of the area. Since 1961, a network of about 70 wells has been pumping about 200,000 acre-feet of ground water annually for drainage of the waterlogged land in the area. The ground water in the Wellton-Mohawk area is of unsuitable chemical quality for most uses. Information shown on the maps includes depth to water , well depth, altitude of the water level, irrigated area, and specific conductance and Fluoride concentration in the water, A table of historical pumpage also is included. Scale 1:125.000. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. Streamflow losses and changes in ground-water levels along the Salt and Gila Rivers near Phoenix, Arizona; February 1978 to June 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.J.; Rohne, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    From March 1978 to June 1980, high runoff from the Salt and Verde drainage basins combined with large carryover storage in a reservoir system led to the release of about 8.26 million acre-feet of water. About 2.89 million acre-feet of the water was diverted above Granite Reef Dam, and about 5.45 million acre-feet was released into the normally dry channel of the Salt River. The total streamflow losses in the 74-mile reach between Granite Reef and Gillespie Dams were at least 474,000 acre-feet. Most of the water infiltrated into the permeable alluvial deposits along the Sal and Gila Rivers and increased the amount of ground water in storage. From February 1978 to May 1980, ground-water levels in 169 wells that tap the alluvial deposits in the Salt River Valley rose an average of 35.5 feet. The rise in ground-water levels was a direct result of the infiltrating floodwaters and a marked decrease in ground-water pumpage. (USGS)

  4. Effects of an experimental short-term cortisol challenge on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus in mesocosm and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Nagrodski, A; Murchie, K J; Stamplecoskie, K M; Suski, C D; Cooke, S J

    2013-04-01

    The consequences of stress on the behaviour of wild creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus outside the reproductive period were studied using a single intra-coelomic injection of cortisol, suspended in coconut butter, to experimentally raise plasma cortisol levels. Behaviour between cortisol-treated, sham-treated (injected with coconut butter) and control S. atromaculatus was compared in a mesocosm system, using a passive integrated transponder array, and in a natural stream system (excluding shams), using surgically implanted radio transmitters. While laboratory time-course studies revealed that the cortisol injection provided a physiologically relevant challenge, causing prolonged (c. 3 days) elevations of plasma cortisol similar to that achieved with a standardized chasing protocol, no differences in fine-scale movements were observed between cortisol-treated, sham-treated and control S. atromaculatus nor in the large-scale movements of cortisol-treated and control S. atromaculatus. Moreover, no differences were observed in diel activity patterns among treatments. Differential mortality, however, occurred starting 10 days after treatment where cortisol-treated S. atromaculatus exhibited nearly twice as many mortalities as shams and controls. These results suggest that, although the experimental manipulation of cortisol titres was sufficient to cause mortality in some individuals, there were compensatory mechanisms that maintained behaviours (i.e. including activity and movement) prior to death. This study is one of the first to use experimental cortisol implants outside a laboratory environment and during the non-reproductive period and yields insight into how wild animals respond to additional challenges (in this case elevated cortisol) using ecologically meaningful endpoints. PMID:23557296

  5. Diet diversity of jack and chub mackerels and ecosystem changes in the northern Humboldt Current system: A long-term study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Espino, Marco; Espinoza, Pepe; Dioses, Teobaldo; Ñiquen, Miguel; Navarro, Iván; Simier, Monique; Ménard, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (JM) and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (CM) are medium size pelagic fish predators and highly exploited resources. Here we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of JM and CM diet composition using a large dataset of stomach samples collected from 1973 to 2013 along the Peruvian coast. In total 47,535 stomachs (18,377 CM and 29,158 JM) were analysed, of which 23,570 (12,476 CM and 11,094 JM) were non-empty. Results show that both species are opportunistic and present a trophic overlap. However, despite their smaller maximal size, CM consumed more fish than JM. Both diets presented high spatiotemporal variability. Spatially, the shelf break appears as a strong biogeographical barrier affecting prey species distribution and thus CM and JM diet. Opportunistic foragers are often considered as actual indicators of ecosystem changes; we show here that diet composition of CM and JM reveal ecosystem changes but is not always a good indicator of changes in prey biomass as prey accessibility and energy content can also play an important role. In addition we found that El Niño events have a surprisingly weak effect on stomach fullness and diet. Finally our results show that the classic paradigm of positive correlation between diversity and temperature is unlikely to occur in the Humboldt Current system where productivity seems to be the main driver. We show how energy content of forage species and the strength of the oxygen minimum zone most likely play an important role prey diversity and accessibility, and thus in fish foraging behaviour.

  6. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the northern part of the Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill area, Maricopa, Pima, and Yuma counties, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Natalie D.; Leake, S.A.; Clay, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill area includes about 3,000 square miles in southwestern Arizona. Ground-water development has taken place only in the northern part of the area, and only this part is included in the report. The southwestward-flowing Gila River drains the 1 ,900-square-mile northern part of the area. The main water-bearing unit is the valley-fill deposits. Since 1967, the estimated ground-water pumpage has exceeded 100,000 acre-feet per year, and in 1977 the ground-water pumpage was 210,000 acre-feet; the ground water is used mainly for irrigation. The ground-water withdrawals have resulted in general water-level declines in most of the area. Information shown on the maps includes change in water level, 1965-78 and 1973-78, and irrigated area; depth to water, altitude of the water level, and well depth; and specific conductance and fluoride concentration in the water. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. Scale 1:250 ,000. (Kosco-USGS)

  7. The Paradox of Restoring Native River Landscapes and Restoring Native Ecosystems in the Colorado River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River basin (CRb), scientists and river managers collaborate to improve native ecosystems. Native ecosystems have deteriorated due to construction of dams and diversions that alter natural flow, sediment supply, and temperature regimes, trans-basin diversions that extract large amounts of water from some segments of the channel network, and invasion of non-native animals and plants. These scientist/manager collaborations occur in large, multi-stakeholder, adaptive management programs that include the Lower Colorado River Multi-Species Conservation Program, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program, and the Upper Colorado River Endangered Species Recovery Program. Although a fundamental premise of native species recovery is that restoration of predam flow regimes inevitably leads to native species recovery, such is not the case in many parts of the CRb. For example, populations of the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) are largest in the sediment deficit, thermally altered conditions of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, but these species occur in much smaller numbers in the upper CRb even though the flow regime, sediment supply, and sediment mass balance are less perturbed. Similar contrasts in the physical and biological response of restoration of predam flow regimes occurs in floodplains dominated by nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) where reestablishment of floods has the potential to exacerbate vertical accretion processes that disconnect the floodplain from the modern flow regime. A significant challenge in restoring segments of the CRb is to describe this paradox of physical and biological response to reestablishment of pre-dam flow regimes, and to clearly identify objectives of environmentally oriented river management. In many cases, understanding the nature of the perturbation to sediment mass balance caused by dams and diversions and understanding the constraints imposed by societal commitments to provide

  8. Trout piscivory in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon: Effects of turbidity, temperature, and fish prey availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yard, Michael D.; Coggins,, Lewis G.; Baxter, Colden V.; Bennett, Glenn E.; Korman, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Introductions of nonnative salmonids, such as rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta, have affected native fishes worldwide in unforeseen and undesirable ways. Predation and other interactions with nonnative rainbow trout and brown trout have been hypothesized as contributing to the decline of native fishes (including the endangered humpback chub Gila cypha) in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon. A multiyear study was conducted to remove nonnative fish from a 15-km segment of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence. We evaluated how sediment, temperature, fish prey availability, and predator abundance influenced the incidence of piscivory (IP) by nonnative salmonids. Study objectives were addressed through spatial (upstream and downstream of the Little Colorado River confluence) and temporal (seasonal and annual) comparisons of prey availability and predator abundance. Data were then evaluated by modeling the quantity of fish prey ingested by trout during the first 2 years (2003–2004) of the mechanical removal period. Field effort resulted in the capture of 20,000 nonnative fish, of which 90% were salmonids. Results indicated that the brown trout IP was higher (8–70%) than the rainbow trout IP (0.5–3.3%); however, rainbow trout were 50 times more abundant than brown trout in the study area. We estimated that during the study period, over 30,000 fish (native and nonnative species combined) were consumed by rainbow trout (21,641 fish) and brown trout (11,797 fish). On average, rainbow trout and brown trout ingested 85% more native fish than nonnative fish in spite of the fact that native fish constituted less than 30% of the small fish available in the study area. Turbidity may mediate piscivory directly by reducing prey detection, but this effect was not apparent in our data, as rainbow trout IP was greater when suspended sediment levels (range = 5.9–20,000 mg/L) were higher.

  9. The Glen Canyon Dam adaptive management program: progress and immediate challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.; Melis, Theodore S.; Boon, Philip J.; Raven, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management emerged as an important resource management strategy for major river systems in the United States (US) in the early 1990s. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (‘the Program’) was formally established in 1997 to fulfill a statutory requirement in the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA). The GCPA aimed to improve natural resource conditions in the Colorado River corridor in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona that were affected by the Glen Canyon dam. The Program achieves this by using science and a variety of stakeholder perspectives to inform decisions about dam operations. Since the Program started the ecosystem is now much better understood and several biological and physical improvements have been achieved. These improvements include: (i) an estimated 50% increase in the adult population of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) between 2001 and 2008, following previous decline; (ii) a 90% decrease in non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which are known to compete with and prey on native fish, as a result of removal experiments; and (iii) the widespread reappearance of sandbars in response to an experimental high-flow release of dam water in March 2008.Although substantial progress has been made, the Program faces several immediate challenges. These include: (i) defining specific, measurable objectives and desired future conditions for important natural, cultural and recreational attributes to inform science and management decisions; (ii) implementing structural and operational changes to improve collaboration among stakeholders; (iii) establishing a long-term experimental programme and management plan; and (iv) securing long-term funding for monitoring programmes to assess ecosystem and other responses to management actions. Addressing these challenges and building on recent progress will require strong and consistent leadership from the US Department of the Interior

  10. Summary report of responses of key resources to the 2000 Low Steady Summer Flow experiment, along the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    In the spring and summer of 2000, a series of steady discharges of water from Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River were used to evaluate the effects of aquatic habitat stability and water temperatures on native fish growth and survival, with a special focus on the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), downstream from the dam in Grand Canyon. The steady releases were bracketed by peak powerplant releases in late-May and early-September. The duration and volume of releases from the dam varied between spring and summer. The intent of the experimental hydrograph was to mimic predam river discharge patterns by including a high, steady discharge in the spring and a low, steady discharge in the summer. The hydrologic experiment was called the Low Steady Summer Flow (LSSF) experiment because steady discharges of 226 m3/s dominated the hydrograph for 4 months from June through September 2000. The experimental hydrograph was developed in response to one of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Recommended and Prudent Alternatives (RPA) in its Biological Opinion of the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement. The RPA focused on the hypothesis that seasonally adjusted steady flows were dam operations that might benefit humpback chub more than the Record of Decision operations, known as Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF) operations. Condensed timelines between planning and implementation (2 months) of the experiment and the time required for logistics, purchasing, and contracting resulted in limited data collection during the high-release part of the experiment that occurred in spring. The LSSF experiment is the longest planned hydrograph that departed from the MLFF operations since Record of Decision operations began in 1996. As part of the experiment, several studies focused on the responses of physical properties related to environments that young-of-year (YOY) native fish might occupy (for example, measuring mainstem and shoreline water

  11. A novel varanic acid epimer--(24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid--is a major biliary bile acid in two varanid lizards and the Gila monster.

    PubMed

    Hagey, Lee R; Ogawa, Shoujiro; Kato, Narimi; Satoh née Okihara, Rika; Une, Mizuho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    A key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway by which C(24) bile acids are formed from cholesterol has long been considered to be varanic acid, (24ξ,25ξ)-3α,7α,12α-24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid. The (24R,25R)-epimer of this tetrahydroxy bile acid, in the form of its taurine N-acyl amidate, was thought to be the major biliary bile acid in lizards of the family Varanidae. We report here that a major biliary bile acid of three lizard species - the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), Gray's monitor (Varanus olivaceus), and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) - is a novel epimer of varanic acid. The epimer was shown to be (24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid (present in bile as its taurine conjugate). The structure was established by mass spectroscopy and by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, as well as by synthesis of the compound.

  12. A novel varanic acid epimer--(24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid--is a major biliary bile acid in two varanid lizards and the Gila monster.

    PubMed

    Hagey, Lee R; Ogawa, Shoujiro; Kato, Narimi; Satoh née Okihara, Rika; Une, Mizuho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    A key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway by which C(24) bile acids are formed from cholesterol has long been considered to be varanic acid, (24ξ,25ξ)-3α,7α,12α-24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid. The (24R,25R)-epimer of this tetrahydroxy bile acid, in the form of its taurine N-acyl amidate, was thought to be the major biliary bile acid in lizards of the family Varanidae. We report here that a major biliary bile acid of three lizard species - the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), Gray's monitor (Varanus olivaceus), and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) - is a novel epimer of varanic acid. The epimer was shown to be (24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid (present in bile as its taurine conjugate). The structure was established by mass spectroscopy and by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, as well as by synthesis of the compound. PMID:22986074

  13. 78 FR 15736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...R6ES@fws.gov (email). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) prohibits..., subject to the requirements of the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a) and Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C... (Acipenser transmontanus), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus Lucius),...

  14. USGS Workshop on Scientific Aspects of a Long-Term Experimental Plan for Glen Canyon Dam, April 10-11, 2007, Flagstaff, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    ), one of the four research stations within the USGS Southwest Biological Science Center. On April 10 and 11, 2007, at the behest of Reclamation, the GCMRC convened a workshop with scientific experts to identify one or more scientifically credible, long-term experimental options for Reclamation to consider for the LTEP EIS that would be consistent with the purpose and need for the plan. Workshop participants included government, academic, and private scientists with broad experience in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and regulated rivers around the world. Resource managers and GCDAMP participants were also present on the second day of the workshop. In advance of the workshop, Reclamation and LTEP EIS cooperating agencies identified 14 core scientific questions. Workshop participants were asked to consider how proposed options would address these questions, which fall primarily into four areas: (1) conservation of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other high-priority biological resources, (2) conservation of sediment resources, (3) enhancement of recreational resources, and (4) preservation of cultural resources. A secondary objective of the workshop was the evaluation of four long-term experimental options developed by the GCDAMP Science Planning Group (SPG) (appendix B). The flow and nonflow treatments called for in the four experimental options were an important starting point for workshop discussions. At the beginning of the workshop, participants were provided with the final LTEP EIS scoping report prepared by Reclamation. Participants were also advised that Reclamation had committed to ?make every effortEto ensure that a new population of humpback chub is established in the mainstem or one or more of the tributaries within Grand Canyon? in the 1995 Operation of Glen Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995). This decision was consistent with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service?s 1995 bi

  15. Behaviors of southwestern native fishes in response to introduced catfish predators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Figiel, Chester R.

    2013-01-01

    Native fishes reared in hatcheries typically suffer high predation mortality when stocked into natural environments. We evaluated the behavior of juvenile bonytail Gila elegans, roundtail chub Gila robusta, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, and Sonora sucker Catostomus insignis in response to introduced channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris. Our laboratory tests indicate these species did not inherently recognize catfish as a threat, but they can quickly (within 12 h) change their behavior in response to a novel predator paired with the sight and scent of a dead conspecific. Chubs appear to avoid predation by swimming away from the threat, whereas suckers reduced movement. Effects of antipredator conditioning on survival of fish reared in hatcheries is unknown; however, our results suggest some native fish can be conditioned to recognize introduced predators, which could increase poststocking survival.

  16. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  17. Effects of the 2008 high-flow experiment on water quality in Lake Powell and Glen Canyon Dam releases, Utah-Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vernieu, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey`s Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) conducted a high-flow experiment (HFE) at Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) from March 4 through March 9, 2008. This experiment was conducted under enriched sediment conditions in the Colorado River within Grand Canyon and was designed to rebuild sandbars, aid endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha), and benefit various downstream resources, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the aquatic food base, riparian vegetation, and archaeological sites. During the experiment, GCD discharge increased to a maximum of 1,160 m3/s and remained at that rate for 2.5 days by near-capacity operation of the hydroelectric powerplant at 736 m3/s, augmented by discharge from the river outlet works (ROW) at 424 m3/s. The ROW releases water from Lake Powell approximately 30 m below the powerplant penstock elevation and bypasses the powerplant turbines. During the HFE, the surface elevation of Lake Powell was reduced by 0.8 m. This report describes studies that were conducted before and after the experiment to determine the effects of the HFE on (1) the stratification in Lake Powell in the forebay immediately upstream of GCD and (2) the water quality of combined GCD releases and changes that occurred through the tailwater below the dam. The effects of the HFE to the water quality and stratigraphy in the water column of the GCD forebay and upstream locations in Lake Powell were minimal, compared to those during the beach/habitat-building flow experiment conducted in 1996, in which high releases of 1,273 m3/s were sustained for a 9-day period. However, during the 2008 HFE, there was evidence of increased advective transport of reservoir water at the penstock withdrawal depth and subsequent mixing of this withdrawal current with water above and below this depth. Reservoir hydrodynamics during the HFE period were largely being controlled by a winter inflow

  18. Gila Bend Indian Reservation Lands Replacement Clarification Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Franks, Trent [R-AZ-2

    2011-09-15

    06/20/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Lake trout consumption and recent changes in the fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, D.L. ); Luecke, C. )

    1993-11-01

    Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the consumption dynamics of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Analysis of diet and population estimates of different size-classes of lake trout indicated that kokanees Oncorhynchus nerka made up the greatest proportion of prey biomass. Examination of growth rates of forage fish and predator-prey size ratios indicated that Utah chub Gila atraria were more vulnerable than kokanees to lake trout predation. Utah chub grow slower than kokanees and thus were susceptible to piscivores over a longer age span. The authors conclude the kokanees will make up an even large proportion of the pelagic fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir in future years. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Prey capture behavior of native vs. nonnative fishes: a case study from the Colorado River drainage basin (USA).

    PubMed

    Arena, Anthony; Ferry, Lara A; Gibb, Alice C

    2012-02-01

    The Colorado River drainage basin is home to a diverse but imperiled fish fauna; one putative challenge facing natives is competition with nonnatives. We examined fishes from Colorado River tributaries to address the following questions: Do natives and nonnatives from the same trophic guild consume the same prey items? Will a given species alter its behavior when presented with different prey types? Do different species procure the same prey types via similar feeding behaviors? Roundtail chub (Gila robusta) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), midwater predators, and Sonora sucker (Catostomus insignis) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), benthic omnivores, were offered six ecologically relevant prey types in more than 600 laboratory trials. Native species consumed a broader array of prey than nonnatives, and species from a given trophic guild demonstrated functional convergence in key aspects of feeding behavior. For example, roundtail chub and smallmouth bass consume prey attached to the substrate by biting, then ripping the prey from its point of attachment; in contrast, Sonora sucker remove attached prey via scraping. When presented with different prey types, common carp, roundtail chub, and smallmouth bass altered their prey capture behavior by modifying strike distance, gape, and angle of attack. Gape varied among the species examined here, with smallmouth bass demonstrating the largest functional and anatomical gape at a given body size. Because fish predators are gape-limited, smallmouth bass will be able to consume a variety of large prey items in the wild, including large, invasive crayfish and young roundtail chub-their presumptive trophic competitors.

  1. Short-Term Effects of the 2008 High-Flow Experiment on Macroinvertebrates in Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Kincaid, Dustin W.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Kelly, Holly A.W.; Behn, Kathrine A.; White, Tyler; Hall, Robert O.; Baxter, Colden V.

    2010-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically altered the physical environment (especially discharge regime, water temperatures, and sediment inputs) of the Colorado River. High-flow experiments (HFE) that mimic one aspect of the natural hydrograph (floods) were implemented in 1996, 2004, and 2008. The primary goal of these experiments was to increase the size and total area of sandbar habitats that provide both camping sites for recreational users and create backwaters (areas of stagnant flow in the lee of return-current eddies) that may be important as rearing habitat for native fish. Experimental flows might also positively or negatively alter the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sport fishery in the clear tailwater reach below Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., and native fish populations in downstream reaches (for example, endangered humpback chub, Gila cypha) through changes in available food resources. We examined the short-term response of benthic macroinvertebrates to the March 2008 HFE at three sites [river mile 0 (RM 0, 15.7 miles downriver from the dam), RM 62, and RM 225] along the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam by sampling immediately before and then 1, 7, 14, and 30 days after the HFE. We selected these sites because of their importance to management; RM 0 has a valuable trout fishery, and RM 62 is the location of the largest population of the endangered humpback chub in the Grand Canyon. In addition to the short-term collection of samples, as part of parallel investigations, we collected 3 years of monthly (quarterly for RM 62) benthic macroinvertebrate samples that included 15 months of post-HFE data for all three sites, but processing of the samples is only complete for one site (RM 0). At RM 0, the HFE caused an immediate 1.75 g AFDM/m2 (expressed as grams ash-free dry mass, or AFDM) reduction of macroinvertebrate biomass that was driven by significant reductions in the biomass of the two dominant taxa in this reach-Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New

  2. Exploring crowded trophic niche space in a novel reservoir fish assemblage: how many predators is too many?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, Lisa K.; Budy, Phaedra

    2015-01-01

    In highly managed reservoir systems, species interactions within novel fish assemblages can be difficult to predict. In high-elevation Scofield Reservoir in Utah the unintentional introduction of Utah Chub Gila atraria and subsequent population expansion prompted a shift from stocking exclusively Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to include tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) and Bonneville Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii utah, which composed a novel suite of top predators and potential competitors. We examined the interspecific interactions among Scofield Reservoir piscivores using a multifaceted approach including gut analyses, stable isotopes, and gape limitation. Large Cutthroat Trout consumed 50–100% Utah Chub and tiger trout consumed 45–80%. In contrast, small and large Rainbow Trout consumed primarily invertebrate prey and exhibited significant overlap with small tiger trout, Cutthroat Trout, and Utah Chub. Large Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout occupy a top piscivore trophic niche and are more littoral, while Rainbow Trout occupy an omnivore niche space and are more pelagic. Both Cutthroat and tiger trout varied in niche space with respect to size-class, demonstrating an ontogenetic shift to piscivory at approximately 350 mm TL. Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout are capable of consuming prey up to 50% of their own size, which is larger than predicted based on their theoretical gape limit. Because it appears food resources (Utah Chub) are not limited, and performance metrics are high, competition is unlikely between Cutthroat Trout and tiger trout. In contrast, apparent survival of Rainbow Trout has recently declined significantly, potentially due to shared food resources with Utah Chub or negative behavioral interactions with other members of the community. Collectively, this research aids in understanding biotic interactions within a top-heavy and novel fish community and assists towards developing

  3. An occupancy-based quantification of the highly imperiled status of desert fishes of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Conner, Mary M; Salant, Nira L; Macfarlane, William W

    2015-08-01

    Desert fishes are some of the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide due to their low economic worth and because they compete with humans for water. An ecological complex of fishes, 2 suckers (Catostomus latipinnis, Catostomus discobolus) and a chub (Gila robusta) (collectively managed as the so-called three species) are endemic to the U.S. Colorado River Basin, are affected by multiple stressors, and have allegedly declined dramatically. We built a series of occupancy models to determine relationships between trends in occupancy, local extinction, and local colonization rates, identify potential limiting factors, and evaluate the suitability of managing the 3 species collectively. For a historical period (1889-2011), top performing models (AICc) included a positive time trend in local extinction probability and a negative trend in local colonization probability. As flood frequency decreased post-development local extinction probability increased. By the end of the time series, 47% (95% CI 34-61) and 15% (95% CI 6-33) of sites remained occupied by the suckers and the chub, respectively, and models with the 2 species of sucker as one group and the chub as the other performed best. For a contemporary period (2001-2011), top performing (based on AICc ) models included peak annual discharge. As peak discharge increased, local extinction probability decreased and local colonization probability increased. For the contemporary period, results of models that split all 3 species into separate groups were similar to results of models that combined the 2 suckers but not the chub. Collectively, these results confirmed that declines in these fishes were strongly associated with water development and that relative to their historic distribution all 3 species have declined dramatically. Further, the chub was distinct in that it declined the most dramatically and therefore may need to be managed separately. Our modeling approach may be useful in other situations in which targeted

  4. An occupancy-based quantification of the highly imperiled status of desert fishes of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Conner, Mary M; Salant, Nira L; Macfarlane, William W

    2015-08-01

    Desert fishes are some of the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide due to their low economic worth and because they compete with humans for water. An ecological complex of fishes, 2 suckers (Catostomus latipinnis, Catostomus discobolus) and a chub (Gila robusta) (collectively managed as the so-called three species) are endemic to the U.S. Colorado River Basin, are affected by multiple stressors, and have allegedly declined dramatically. We built a series of occupancy models to determine relationships between trends in occupancy, local extinction, and local colonization rates, identify potential limiting factors, and evaluate the suitability of managing the 3 species collectively. For a historical period (1889-2011), top performing models (AICc) included a positive time trend in local extinction probability and a negative trend in local colonization probability. As flood frequency decreased post-development local extinction probability increased. By the end of the time series, 47% (95% CI 34-61) and 15% (95% CI 6-33) of sites remained occupied by the suckers and the chub, respectively, and models with the 2 species of sucker as one group and the chub as the other performed best. For a contemporary period (2001-2011), top performing (based on AICc ) models included peak annual discharge. As peak discharge increased, local extinction probability decreased and local colonization probability increased. For the contemporary period, results of models that split all 3 species into separate groups were similar to results of models that combined the 2 suckers but not the chub. Collectively, these results confirmed that declines in these fishes were strongly associated with water development and that relative to their historic distribution all 3 species have declined dramatically. Further, the chub was distinct in that it declined the most dramatically and therefore may need to be managed separately. Our modeling approach may be useful in other situations in which targeted

  5. Infection by a black spot-causing species of Uvulifer and associated opercular alterations in fishes from a high-desert stream in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Black spot is a common disease syndrome of freshwater fishes. This study provides information on the rank of density of the black spot agent and opercular bone alterations associated with at least one digenean, Uvulifer sp., infecting native and non-native catostomids and cyprinids of the Upper Colorado River Basin. We evaluated the density rank of pigmented metacercariae and associated alterations in the operculum of the bluehead sucker Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth sucker C. latipinnis, white sucker C. commersoni, catostomid hybrids, roundtail chub Gila robusta, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, sampled from Muddy Creek, Wyoming, USA in 2003 or 2004. All fish species contained individuals that exhibited gross signs of the black spot agent. Bluehead and flannelmouth suckers had 100% prevalence of infection. Although the other suckers and chubs contained encysted metacercariae in at least one individual, the presence of pigmented metacercariae was not apparent (i.e. based on gross observations) in many individuals. Catostomids had higher densities of metacercariae than cyprinids, as shown by frequency distributions of density ranks. Opercular holes (i.e. holes that completely penetrated the opercle and were in direct association with the pigment associated metacercariae) and pockets (depressions on the external surface of the opercle associated with metacercariae) were abundant among catostomids but rare among cyprinids. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  6. Maintaining population persistence in the face of an extremely altered hydrograph: implications for three sensitive fishes in a tributary of the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottcher, Jared L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an organism to disperse to suitable habitats, especially in modified and fragmented systems, determines individual fitness and overall population viability. The bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta) are three species native to the upper Colorado River Basin that now occupy only 50% of their historic range. Despite these distributional declines, populations of all three species are present in the San Rafael River, a highly regulated tributary of the Green River, Utah, providing an opportunity for research. Our goal was to determine the timing and extent of movement, habitat preferences, and limiting factors, ultimately to guide effective management and recovery of these three species. In 2007-2008, we sampled fish from 25 systematically selected, 300-m reaches in the lower 64 km of the San Rafael River, spaced to capture the range of species, life-stages, and habitat conditions present. We implanted all target species with a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, installed a passive PIT tag antennae, and measured key habitat parameters throughout each reach and at the site of native fish capture. We used random forest modeling to identify and rank the most important abiotic and biotic predictor variables, and reveal potential limiting factors in the San Rafael River. While flannelmouth sucker were relatively evenly distributed within our study area, highest densities of roundtail chub and bluehead sucker occurred in isolated, upstream reaches characterized by complex habitat. In addition, our movement and length-frequency data indicate downstream drift of age-0 roundtail chub, and active upstream movement of adult flannelmouth sucker, both from source populations, providing the lower San Rafael River with colonists. Our random forest analysis highlights the importance of pools, riffles, and distance-to-source populations, suggesting that bluehead sucker and roundtail

  7. Aeromagnetic map of the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, Yavapai, Gila, and Coconino counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, W.E.; Weir, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetic anomalies and patterns on the aeromagnetic map reflect variations of magnetization in the underlying rocks. Basaltic rocks contain moderate amounts of magnetic minerals, mainly magnetite, and possess strong intensities of magnetization. The more silicic volcanic rocks have much lower magnetization intensities. Sedimentary rocks contain little or no magnetite and are virtually nonmagnetic.

  8. 76 FR 17028 - Approval and Promulgation of Gila River Indian Community's Tribal Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... described in our August 12, 2010 proposal. The TIP includes general and emergency authorities, ambient air quality standards, permitting requirements for minor sources of air pollution, enforcement authorities... August 12, 2010 (75 FR 48880), EPA proposed to approve a TIP submitted by the GRIC on February 21,...

  9. 75 FR 26711 - Plan Revision for Coconino National Forest; Coconino, Gila and Yavapai Counties, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... planning rule. Authority: 16 U.S.C. 1600-1614; 36 CFR 219.35 (74 FR 67073- 67074.) Dated: May 4, 2010. M... invasive animals (including invertebrates) and grasses. Ensure plan components address concerns of...

  10. Establishment of a fish community in the hayden-rhodes and salt-gila aqueducts, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.

    1996-01-01

    Fish populations were studied in the Central Arizona Project's canal system during the first 4 years of aqueduct operation (1986-1989). Ichthyoplankton entering the canal from Lake Havasu averaged 1 larva/m3 during April-June 1987 and 1988. Larval fish densities increased significantly in downstream samples, substantiating diver observations that fish were spawning in the canal system. Of the 16 fish species collected, 14 were assumed to have originated from Lake Havasu and 2 were introduced by anglers from their bait buckets. Initially, the fish community was dominated numerically by threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense (>88%), centrarchids (< 10%), cyprinids (<2%), and striped bass Morone saxatilis (<1%). However, as annual water diversions increased from 13 x 108 m3 in 1986 to 9.4 x 108 m3 in 1989, community composition shifted from clupeids to centrarchids (70%). Fish densities dropped from an estimated 1,260 fish/ha in 1986 to 17 fish/ha in 1989, and biomass dropped from 116 to 73 kg/ha. Declines were attributed to higher operational velocities, associated scour, deprivation, and predation. Although initial populations adjusted downward to planned operational conditions, the fish community continued to represent a potentially valuable, but as yet unused, resource.

  11. Hydrogeology and hydrologic system of Pinal Creek Basin, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neaville, C.C.; Brown, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Acidic water that contains elevated concentrations of metals has contaminated a stream and alluvial aquifer in a mining district near Globe, Arizona. The contaminated aquifer is a narrow layer of unconsolidated alluvium along Miami Wash and Pinal Creek. The alluvium overlies basin fill, which extends throughout most of the Pinal Creek basin. The alluvium and basin fill compose the primary aquifer in the basin. Horizontal hydraulic con- ductivities were estimated at about 200 meters per day in the alluvium, and average linear ground- water flow velocities are about 5 meters per day. Water levels in the aquifer respond rapidly to periods of extended runoff in the basin and variable rates of ground-water pumping. Fluctuations of as much as 2.5 meters in 6 months have been measured. Ground-water levels were near record highs during spring 1985 and declined as much as 13 meters by spring 1989. Measured hydraulic gradients indicate that flow is generally upward from the basin fill to the alluvium. From 1980 to 1984, seepage of 155 liters per second from Webster Lake and 279 liters per second streamflow infiltration were estimated to be the two largest sources of inflow to the regional aquifer. Major outflows from the aquifer were 166 liters per second of pumpage and 240 liters per second of natural ground-water discharge to Pinal Creek.

  12. Aeromagnetic map of the Hells Gate Roadless Area, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Paleozoic strata have been stripped by subsequent erosion. Early Proterozoic rocks constitute about ninety percent of the exposed rocks in the roadless area and are composed of granite, granophyre, and intrusive and extrusive rhyolite (Conway, 1983).

  13. 78 FR 7391 - Motorized Travel Management Plan, Tonto National Forest; Gila, Maricopa, Pinal, and Counties, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... vehicles may be driven off designated roads for the sole purpose of motorized dispersed camping or big game... the authority of the Tonto National Forest decision maker. Dispersed camping: Motorized travel for the purpose of dispersed camping would not be allowed off designated roads and trails. Vehicles would...

  14. 75 FR 48880 - Approval and Promulgation of Gila River Indian Community's Tribal Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, CA 94105-3901. Hand Delivery: Wienke Tax, Air Planning Office, Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 Office, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, CA 94105-3901. Such... other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. certain other material, such as...

  15. Aeromagnetic maps of the Mazatzal Wilderness and contiguous roadless areas, Gila, Maricopa, and Yavapai counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, C.K.; Abrams, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of the geology, geochemistry (Marsh and others, 1983a, b, Erickson, 1984), mines and prospects (Ellis, 1982), and mineral resource potential (Wrucke and others, 1983) of the Mazatzal Wilderness and contiguous roadless areas have been published elsewhere.

  16. Homoploid hybrid speciation in animals.

    PubMed

    Mavárez, Jesús; Linares, Mauricio

    2008-10-01

    Among animals, evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS, i.e. the creation of a hybrid lineage without a change in chromosome number) was limited until recently to the virgin chub, Gila seminuda, and some controversial data in support of hybrid status for the red wolf, Canis rufus. This scarcity of evidence, together with pessimistic attitudes among zoologists about the evolutionary importance of hybridisation, prompted the view that HHS is extremely rare among animals, especially as compared with plants. However, in recent years, the literature on animal HHS has expanded to include several new putative examples in butterflies, ants, flies and fishes. We argue that this evidence suggests that HHS is far more common than previously thought and use it to provide insights into some of the genetic and ecological aspects associated with this type of speciation among animals.

  17. Effects of capture by trammel net on Colorado River native fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Teresa A.; Ward, David L.; Propper, Catherine R.; Gibb, Alice C.

    2012-01-01

    Trammel nets are commonly used to sample rare fishes; however, little research has assessed delayed mortality associated with this capture technique. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate the effects of capture by trammel net on bonytail Gila elegans, razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus, and roundtail chub Gila robusta, at 15, 20, and 25uC. Fish (139–288 mm total length) were entangled in a trammel net for 2 h or captured by seine net and then monitored for mortality for at least 14 d. Blood samples were collected immediately after capture, and plasma cortisol levels were quantified as an index of capture-related stress. The cortisol response varied by species, but mean cortisol levels were higher for fish captured by trammel netting (295.9 ng/mL) relative to fish captured by seine netting (215.8 ng/mL). Only one fish (of 550) died during capture and handling, but 42% of the trammel-netted fish and 11% of the seine-netted fish died within 14 d after capture. In general, mortality after capture by trammel net increased with increased water temperature and at 25uC was 88% for bonytail, 94% for razorback sucker, and 25% for roundtail chub. Delayed mortality of wild-caught fish captured by trammel net has the potential to be high, at least under some circumstances. We suggest that sampling frequency, timing of sampling (relative to reproductive cycles), and water temperature all be considered carefully when using trammel nets to sample diminished populations of imperiled native fishes.

  18. 78 FR 74159 - Programmatic Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances for Least Chub Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... voluntarily undertake management activities on their property to enhance, restore, or maintain habitat... section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Act, encourage private and other non-Federal property owners to implement conservation efforts for species by assuring property owners that they will not be subjected to increased...

  19. 21 CFR 172.177 - Sodium nitrite used in processing smoked chub.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....177 Section 172.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... prescribed conditions: (a) All fish in smoking establishments shall be clean and wholesome and shall be...) The finished product shall be cooled to a temperature of 50 °F or below within 3 hours after...

  20. The age, growth, and bathymetric distribution of Reighard's chub, Leucichthys reighardi koelz, in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1943-01-01

    The females were always strongly dominant in the samples except during May and June 1931 and May 1932 when the sexes occurred in about equal numbers. The relative abundance of the sexes did not change materially in age-groups II to V. There were no males assigned to age-groups VI and VII.

  1. Random versus fixed-site sampling when monitoring relative abundance of fishes in headwater streams of the upper Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Gerow, K.G.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) have declined in distribution and abundance due to habitat degradation and interactions with normative fishes. Consequently, monitoring populations of both native and nonnative fishes is important for conservation of native species. We used data collected from Muddy Creek, Wyoming (2003-2004), to compare sample size estimates using a random and a fixed-site sampling design to monitor changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) of native bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth suckers C. latipinnis, roundtail chub Gila robusta, and speckled dace Rhinichthys osculus, as well as nonnative creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and white suckers C. commersonii. When one-pass backpack electrofishing was used, detection of 10% or 25% changes in CPUE (fish/100 m) at 60% statistical power required 50-1,000 randomly sampled reaches among species regardless of sampling design. However, use of a fixed-site sampling design with 25-50 reaches greatly enhanced the ability to detect changes in CPUE. The addition of seining did not appreciably reduce required effort. When detection of 25-50% changes in CPUE of native and nonnative fishes is acceptable, we recommend establishment of 25-50 fixed reaches sampled by one-pass electrofishing in Muddy Creek. Because Muddy Creek has habitat and fish assemblages characteristic of other headwater streams in the UCRB, our results are likely to apply to many other streams in the basin. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  2. Determination of selenium in fish from designated critical habitat in the Gunnison River, Colorado, March through October, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results for the summer 2012 sam-pling of muscle plugs from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptycho-cheilus lucius), and razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) inhabiting critical habitat in the Gunnison River in western Colorado. Total selenium in fish muscle plugs was determinedby instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total selenium concentrations (range and mean ± standard deviation) in micrograms per gram dry weight were 6.0 to 10.7, 8.8 ± 1.3 for common carp; 2.9 to 8.7, 5.6 ± 2.4 for Colorado pikemin-now; and 1.4 to 7.3, 3.4 ± 2.7 for razorback sucker. The selenium concentration for one bonytail chub sample was 0.8 micrograms per gram dry weight. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from 1 Colorado pikeminnow and 12 common carp exceeded the 8 micrograms per gram dry weight toxicity guideline for selenium in fish muscle tissue.

  3. An evaluation of the efficiency of minnow traps for estimating the abundance of minnows in desert spring systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Scheerer, Paul D.; Clements, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Desert springs are sensitive aquatic ecosystems that pose unique challenges to natural resource managers and researchers. Among the most important of these is the need to accurately quantify population parameters for resident fish, particularly when the species are of special conservation concern. We evaluated the efficiency of baited minnow traps for estimating the abundance of two at-risk species, Foskett Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus ssp. and Borax Lake Chub Gila boraxobius, in desert spring systems in southeastern Oregon. We evaluated alternative sample designs using simulation and found that capture–recapture designs with four capture occasions would maximize the accuracy of estimates and minimize fish handling. We implemented the design and estimated capture and recapture probabilities using the Huggins closed-capture estimator. Trap capture probabilities averaged 23% and 26% for Foskett Speckled Dace and Borax Lake Chub, respectively, but differed substantially among sample locations, through time, and nonlinearly with fish body size. Recapture probabilities for Foskett Speckled Dace were, on average, 1.6 times greater than (first) capture probabilities, suggesting “trap-happy” behavior. Comparison of population estimates from the Huggins model with the commonly used Lincoln–Petersen estimator indicated that the latter underestimated Foskett Speckled Dace and Borax Lake Chub population size by 48% and by 20%, respectively. These biases were due to variability in capture and recapture probabilities. Simulation of fish monitoring that included the range of capture and recapture probabilities observed indicated that variability in capture and recapture probabilities in time negatively affected the ability to detect annual decreases by up to 20% in fish population size. Failure to account for variability in capture and recapture probabilities can lead to poor quality data and study inferences. Therefore, we recommend that fishery researchers and

  4. 77 FR 43799 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Gila...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range... Regional Office. On December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66866), we published a partial 90-day finding on the petition... from dog and horse waste, manipulation and alteration of streamflow by swimmers, and the trampling...

  5. 77 FR 11584 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...) published in the Federal Register for human remains and associated funerary objects from these sites (63 FR 39293-39294, July 22, 1998; 70 FR 44686-44687, August 3, 2005; 70 FR 56483-56484, September 27, 2005; 71 FR 38413-38415, July 6, 2006; and 76 FR 43718- 43719, July 21, 2011). Following these...

  6. 76 FR 43718 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gila National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Federal Register for these sites (63 FR 39293-39294, July 22, 1998; 70 FR 44686-44687, August 3, 2005; 70 FR 56483-56484, September 27, 2005; and 71 FR 38413, July 6, 2006). The human remains and associated... National Forest, Silver City, NM and Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL AGENCY: National...

  7. Forced to Abandon Their Farms: Water Deprivation and Starvation among the Gila River Pima, 1892-1904

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the water problems faced by the people of the Pima tribe. On June 17, 1902, after more than a decade of political debate and maneuvering, the National Reclamation Act became law. This legislation provided direct federal subsidies for the development of irrigation projects across the arid West. The Reclamation Act generated…

  8. Novel venom proteins produced by differential domain-expression strategies in beaded lizards and gila monsters (genus Heloderma).

    PubMed

    Fry, Bryan G; Roelants, Kim; Winter, Kelly; Hodgson, Wayne C; Griesman, Laura; Kwok, Hang Fai; Scanlon, Denis; Karas, John; Shaw, Chris; Wong, Lily; Norman, Janette A

    2010-02-01

    The origin and evolution of venom proteins in helodermatid lizards were investigated by multidisciplinary techniques. Our analyses elucidated novel toxin types resultant from three unique domain-expression processes: 1) The first full-length sequences of lethal toxin isoforms (helofensins) revealed this toxin type to be constructed by an ancestral monodomain, monoproduct gene (beta-defensin) that underwent three tandem domain duplications to encode a tetradomain, monoproduct with a possible novel protein fold; 2) an ancestral monodomain gene (encoding a natriuretic peptide) was medially extended to become a pentadomain, pentaproduct through the additional encoding of four tandemly repeated proline-rich peptides (helokinestatins), with the five discrete peptides liberated from each other by posttranslational proteolysis; and 3) an ancestral multidomain, multiproduct gene belonging to the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/glucagon family being mutated to encode for a monodomain, monoproduct (exendins) followed by duplication and diversification into two variant classes (exendins 1 and 2 and exendins 3 and 4). Bioactivity characterization of exendin and helokinestatin elucidated variable cardioactivity between isoforms within each class. These results highlight the importance of utilizing evolutionary-based search strategies for biodiscovery and the virtually unexplored potential of lizard venoms in drug design and discovery.

  9. Long-term transportation, by road and air, of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda).

    PubMed

    Correia, João P S; Graça, José T C; Hirofumi, Morikawa; Kube, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    During the second semester of 2009, three trips were made from Olhão (Southern Portugal) to Stralsund (Northern Germany) carrying 2.122 animals, which included multiple teleosts, elasmobranchs and invertebrates. This group included scombrids, such as 1.869 Scomber japonicus and 9 Sarda sarda, which are notoriously difficult to transport. However, multiple adaptations to transport regimes adopted regularly have allowed the authors to successfully move these animals by road and air over a total of up to 25 hr. Such adaptations included maintaining oxygen saturation rates at approximately 200%, and also the constant addition of AmQuel(®) , sodium bicarbonate, and sodium carbonate. Different formulations were used during the three trips, with the best results corresponding to 20/30/30 ppm of the three aforementioned chemicals, respectively. The authors suggest, however, that a modified formula of 20/40/40 ppm will allow for an even more stable pH on future trips. PMID:20853412

  10. Comparative phylogeography of two monogenean species (Mazocraeidae) on the host of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, along the coast of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Pin; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, the phylogeographies of two monogenean species, Pseudokuhnia minor and Kuhnia scombri, on the same species of host, Scomber japonicus, were studied. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were sequenced for 264 individuals of P. minor and 224 individuals of K. scombri collected from 10 localities along the coast of China. Genetic diversity of K. scombri was higher than that of P. minor, which may imply that P. minor has a lower evolution rate and/or is a younger species. The neighbour-joining (NJ) trees of both parasites were comprised of two clades without association to sample sites, which is the signature of remixing populations following past division. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index revealed different genetic structures for the populations of these two closely related species along the coast of China: P. minor without significant genetic structure, while K. scombri has some genetic differentiation. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution suggested that the populations of these two species of parasites experienced population expansion in the late Pleistocene era due to the glacial-interglacial cycles induced by climatic oscillations.

  11. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe Bisaggio; Pereira, Aldenice de Nazaré; Timi, Juan Tomás; Luque, José Luis

    2013-06-01

    A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus) (Kyphosidae), off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva) comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CREEK CHUBS IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of genetic diversity within and among populations of stream fishes may provide a powerful method for assessing the status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences (590 bases of cytochrome B) and nuclear DNA loci (109 amp...

  13. Predation on larval suckers in the Williamson River Delta revealed by molecular genetic assays—A pilot study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Burdick, Summer M.

    2016-06-13

    Predation of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) during larval egress to Upper Klamath Lake from the Williamson River is poorly understood but may be an important factor limiting recruitment into adult spawning populations. Native and non-native piscivores are abundant in nursery wetland habitat, but larval predation has not been directly studied for all species. Larvae lack hard body structures and digest rapidly in predator digestive systems. Therefore, traditional visual methods for diet analysis may fail to identify the extent of predation on larvae. The goals of this study were to (1) use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays developed for Lost River and shortnose suckers to assay predator stomach contents for sucker DNA, and (2) to assess our ability to use this technique to study predation. Predators were captured opportunistically during larval sucker egress. Concurrent feeding trials indicate that most predators—yellow perch (Perca flaverscens), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), blue chub (Gila coerulea), Klamath tui chub (Siphatales bicolor bicolor), Klamath Lake sculpin (Cottus princeps), slender sculpin (Cottus tenuis)—preyed on sucker larvae in the laboratory. However, sucker DNA was not detected in fathead minnow stomachs. Of the stomachs screened from fish captured in the Williamson River Delta, 15.6 percent of yellow perch contained sucker DNA. This study has demonstrated that the application of qPCR and SNP assays is effective for studying predation on larval suckers. We suggest that techniques associated with dissection or detection of sucker DNA from fathead minnow stomachs need improvement.

  14. Predation on larval suckers in the Williamson River Delta revealed by molecular genetic assays—A pilot study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Burdick, Summer M.

    2016-01-01

    Predation of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) during larval egress to Upper Klamath Lake from the Williamson River is poorly understood but may be an important factor limiting recruitment into adult spawning populations. Native and non-native piscivores are abundant in nursery wetland habitat, but larval predation has not been directly studied for all species. Larvae lack hard body structures and digest rapidly in predator digestive systems. Therefore, traditional visual methods for diet analysis may fail to identify the extent of predation on larvae. The goals of this study were to (1) use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays developed for Lost River and shortnose suckers to assay predator stomach contents for sucker DNA, and (2) to assess our ability to use this technique to study predation. Predators were captured opportunistically during larval sucker egress. Concurrent feeding trials indicate that most predators—yellow perch (Perca flaverscens), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), blue chub (Gila coerulea), Klamath tui chub (Siphatales bicolor bicolor), Klamath Lake sculpin (Cottus princeps), slender sculpin (Cottus tenuis)—preyed on sucker larvae in the laboratory. However, sucker DNA was not detected in fathead minnow stomachs. Of the stomachs screened from fish captured in the Williamson River Delta, 15.6 percent of yellow perch contained sucker DNA. This study has demonstrated that the application of qPCR and SNP assays is effective for studying predation on larval suckers. We suggest that techniques associated with dissection or detection of sucker DNA from fathead minnow stomachs need improvement.

  15. Influences of fragmentation on three species of native warmwater fishes in a Colorado River Basin headwater stream system, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Compton, R.I.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.; Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of constructed instream structures on movements and demographics of bluehead suckers Catostomus discobolus, flannelmouth suckers C. latipinnis, and roundtail chub Gila robusta in the upstream portion of Muddy Creek, an isolated headwater stream system in the upper Colorado River basin of Wyoming. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate upstream and downstream movements of these three native species past a small dam built to divert irrigation water from the stream and a barrier constructed to prevent upstream movements of nonnative salmonids and (2) describe population characteristics in stream segments created by these structures. Our results indicated that upstream and downstream movements of the three target fishes were common. Fish of all three species moved frequently downstream over both structures, displayed some upstream movements over the irrigation diversion dam, and did not move upstream over the fish barrier. Spawning migrations by some fish into an intermittent tributary, which was not separated from Muddy Creek by a barrier, were observed for all three species. Both the irrigation diversion dam and the fish barrier contributed to fragmentation of the native fish populations, and considerable differences in population features were observed among segments. The instream structures may eventually cause extirpation of some native species in one or more of the segments created by the structures. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics of North American phoxinins (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Leuciscidae) based on RAG1 and S7 nuclear DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Bufalino, Angelo P; Mayden, Richard L

    2010-04-01

    Most molecular phylogenetic hypotheses for North American (NA) phoxinins are based on mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and the resulting hypotheses are rather variable, though there is general support for three major lineages of NA phoxinins: western, creek chub-plagopterin (CC-P), and open posterior myodome (OPM) clades. Support for a monophyletic NA phoxinin group has varied among studies. This study utilizes nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequences from the RAG1 (exon 3) and S7 (intron 1) gene regions to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships and monophyly of NA phoxinins. Results from the nDNA analyses provide overall support for the western, CC-P, and OPM clades. The CC-P clade had the best overall resolution and support in the individual and combined analyses of the nDNA data. Resolution of the western clade was fairly good, with most analyses recovering a monophyletic Gila clade. The OPM clade demonstrated the highest degree of topological variability among the analyses. The RAG1 analyses failed to recover a monophyletic NA phoxinin group by resolving the European leuciscins, inclusive Notemigonus crysoleucas, within the NA phoxinin topology. Most analyses recovered a strongly supported shiner clade though, similar to several mtDNA studies; there was a high degree of topological variability among the results.

  17. Complex influences of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in a Colorado River tributary system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beatty, R.J.; Rahel, F.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Low-head dams in arid regions restrict fish movement and create novel habitats that have complex effects on fish assemblages. The influence of low-head dams and artificial wetlands on fishes in Muddy Creek, a tributary of the Colorado River system in the USA was examined. Upstream, fish assemblages were dominated by native species including two species of conservation concern, bluehead sucker, Catostomus discobolus Cope, and roundtail chub, Gila robusta Baird and Girard. The artificial wetlands contained almost exclusively non-native fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, and white sucker, Catostomus commersonii (Lacep??de). Downstream, fish assemblages were dominated by non-native species. Upstream spawning migrations by non-native white suckers were blocked by dams associated with the wetlands. However, the wetlands do not provide habitat for native fishes and likely inhibit fish movement. The wetlands appear to be a source habitat for non-native fishes and a sink habitat for native fishes. Two non-native species, sand shiner, Notropis stramineus (Cope), and redside shiner, Richardsonius balteatus (Richardson), were present only downstream of the wetlands, suggesting a beneficial role of the wetlands in preventing upstream colonisation by non-native fishes. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Spatial digital database of the geologic map of Catalina Core Complex and San Pedro Trough, Pima, Pinal, Gila, Graham, and Cochise counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, William R.; digital database by Hirschberg, Douglas M.; Pitts, G. Stephen; Bolm, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map of Catalina Core Complex and San Pedro Trough by Dickinson (1992) was digitized for input into a geographic information system (GIS) by the U.S. Geological Survey staff and contractors in 2000-2001. This digital geospatial database is one of many being created by the U.S. Geological Survey as an ongoing effort to provide geologic information in a geographic information system (GIS) for use in spatial analysis. The resulting digital geologic map database data can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps and derivative products. Digital base map data (topography, roads, towns, rivers, lakes, and so forth) are not included; they may be obtained from a variety of commercial and government sources. This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale larger than 1:125,000 (for example, 1:100,000 or 1:24,000). The digital geologic map plot files that are provided herein are representations of the database. The map area is located in southern Arizona. This report lists the geologic map units, the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships, and explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. The manuscript and digital data review by Lorre Moyer (USGS) is greatly appreciated.

  19. Spatial Digital Database for the Geology of the San Pedro River Basin in Cochise, Gila, Graham, Pima, and Pinal Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolm, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    The map area is located in southeastern Arizona. This report describes the map units, the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, and the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships; and it explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. See figures 2 and 3 for page-size versions of the map compilation.

  20. Quaternary stratigraphy and tectonics, and late prehistoric agriculture of the Safford Basin (Gila and San Simon river valleys), Graham County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, Brenda B.; Pearthree, Phillip A.; Homburg, Jeffry A.; Thrasher, Lawrence C.

    2004-01-01

    This guidebook accompanied the 46th annual meeting of the Rocky Mountain Cell of the Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) and the 2002 Fall Field Trip of the Arizona Geological Society. The meeting and field trip were held in the Safford Basin, southeastern Arizona. The Friends of the Pleistocene is an informal gathering of Quaternary geologists, geomorphologists, and pedologists who meet annually for a field conference. The first part of the guidebook consists of road logs with descriptions of stops covering the three days of the field trip. An overview of the geology of the Safford Basin is given in Stop 1-1. The second part of the guidebook consists of four short papers that discuss adjacent areas or that expand upon the road log descriptions of the field trip stops. The first paper by Reid and Buffler is a summary of upper Cenozoic depositional facies in the Duncan Basin, the first basin to the east of the Safford Basin. The next three papers expand upon (1) the soil study of the gridded field agricultural complex (Stop 2-3, Homburg and Sandor), (2) the vertebrate fossils of the San Simon Valley in the southeastern part of the Safford Basin (Stop 3-1, Thrasher), and (3) paleoIndian irrigation systems and settlements in Lefthand Canyon at the foot of the Pinaleno Mountains (Stop 3-2, Neely and Homburg).

  1. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF CREEK CHUB (SEMOTILUS ATROMACULATUS) POPULATIONS IN COAL MINING-IMPACTED AREAS OF THE EASTERN UNITED STATES, AS DETERMINED BY MTDNA SEQUENCING AND AFLP ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of intraspecific patterns in genetic diversity of stream fishes provides a potentially powerful method for assessing the status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (590 bases of cytochrome B) and nuclear DNA...

  2. Multi-locus species tree of the chub genus Squalius (Leuciscinae: Cyprinidae) from western Iberia: new insights into its evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Waap, Silke; Amaral, Ana R; Gomes, Bruno; Manuela Coelho, M

    2011-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the genus Squalius are believed to be well established based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Here, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of all species inhabiting most of the western Iberia river systems using a nuclear multi-locus approach and different species tree methods: concatenation and coalescent-based methods (BEST and minimize-deep-coalescence). The dataset comprised sequences of seven coding and three non-coding regions belonging to seven nuclear genes, which were chosen to cover multiple biological functions: amh, bmp4, ef1a, egr2, irbp, rh and rpl8. We provide evidence for a conflicting topology between the nuDNA species tree and the widely reported mtDNA gene tree. S. pyrenaicus is rendered paraphyletic in all nuDNA species trees, with populations of the Tagus/Colares clustering with S. carolitertii, while populations from the Guadiana, Sado and Almargem form a separate clade. Although a larger sampling size encompassing the full spectrum of Squalius populations in western Iberia is still needed to fully elucidate the phylogeography and species delimitation of this genus, our results suggest that the two S. pyrenaicus clades may represent different species. PMID:21898047

  3. Virtual simulation training using the Storz C-HUB to support distance airway training for the Spanish Medical Corps and NATO partners.

    PubMed

    Abadia de Barbara, Alberto H; Nicholas Iv, Thomas A; Del Real Colomo, Antonio; Boedeker, David; Bernhagen, Mary A; Hillan Garcia, Laura; Setién, Fernando; Boedeker, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    In medicine, the advancement of new technologies creates challenges to providers both in learning and in maintaining competency in required skills. For those medical providers located in remote environments, access to learning can be even more formidable. This work describes a collaboration created to facilitate the use of new communication technologies in providing distance training and support to health care personnel deployed in remote areas. PMID:23138073

  4. Multi-locus species tree of the chub genus Squalius (Leuciscinae: Cyprinidae) from western Iberia: new insights into its evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Waap, Silke; Amaral, Ana R; Gomes, Bruno; Manuela Coelho, M

    2011-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the genus Squalius are believed to be well established based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Here, we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of all species inhabiting most of the western Iberia river systems using a nuclear multi-locus approach and different species tree methods: concatenation and coalescent-based methods (BEST and minimize-deep-coalescence). The dataset comprised sequences of seven coding and three non-coding regions belonging to seven nuclear genes, which were chosen to cover multiple biological functions: amh, bmp4, ef1a, egr2, irbp, rh and rpl8. We provide evidence for a conflicting topology between the nuDNA species tree and the widely reported mtDNA gene tree. S. pyrenaicus is rendered paraphyletic in all nuDNA species trees, with populations of the Tagus/Colares clustering with S. carolitertii, while populations from the Guadiana, Sado and Almargem form a separate clade. Although a larger sampling size encompassing the full spectrum of Squalius populations in western Iberia is still needed to fully elucidate the phylogeography and species delimitation of this genus, our results suggest that the two S. pyrenaicus clades may represent different species.

  5. Aquatic assemblages of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Burton, C.A.; Belitz, K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the structure of periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages and their associations with environmental variables at 17 sites on streams of the highly urbanized Santa Ana River basin in Southern California. All assemblages exhibited strong differences between highly urbanized sites in the valley and the least-impacted sites at the transition between the valley and undeveloped mountains. Results within the urbanized area differed among taxa. Periphyton assemblages were dominated by diatoms (>75% of total taxa). Periphyton assemblages within the urbanized area were not associated with any of the measured environmental variables, suggesting that structure of urban periphyton assemblages might be highly dependent on colonization dynamics. The number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera (EPT) taxa included in macroinvertebrate assemblages ranged from 0 to 6 at urbanized sites. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages had significant correlations with several environmental variables within the urban area, suggesting that stream size and permanence were important determinants of distribution among the species able to survive conditions in urban streams. Only 4 of 16 fish species collected were native to the drainage. Fish assemblages of urbanized sites included two native species, arroyo chub Gila orcuttii and Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae, at sites that were intermediate in coefficient of variation of bank-full width, depth, bed substrate, and water temperature. Alien species dominated urbanized sites with lesser or greater values for these variables. These results suggest that urban streams can be structured to enhance populations of native fishes. Continued study of urban streams in the Santa Ana River basin and elsewhere will contribute to the basic understanding of ecological principles and help preserve the maximum ecological value of streams in highly urbanized areas.

  6. 77 FR 37886 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Barry M. Goldwater Range, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Gila Bend, Arizona. Public meetings will be announced in the following Arizona newspapers: Yuma Sun, West Valley View (Glendale), the Gila Bend Sun, Arizona Daily Star (Tucson), and the Ajo Copper...

  7. WelltonMohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, WelltonMohawk Canal, North side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  8. 15. VIEW OF GRAVEL PLANT, WEST SIDE OF RIVER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF GRAVEL PLANT, WEST SIDE OF RIVER AND DOWNSTREAM OF DAM SITE WITH EMPLOYEE HOUSING AT RIGHT. TRAMWAY BUCKETS ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE, November 1, 1927 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  9. 34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF COOLIDGE DAM COMPLETED. POWER HOUSE, INTAKE TOWERS, WEST SPILLWAY CHANNEL AND DECORATIVE EAGLES ALL CLEARLY VISIBLE, c. 1928 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  10. 14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF DAM SITE, LOOKING SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM). MIXING PLANT IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT, COFFER DAM IS UPSTREAM OF PLACING TOWER. EAST DOME IS VISIBLE AT LEFT OF TOWER, c. 1927 - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  11. 76 FR 56469 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The University of Maine, Hudson Museum, Orono, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... forensic anthropologist in consultation with representatives of the Gila River Indian Community of the Gila... the Gila River Indian Community, provides a preponderance of evidence-- archeological, linguistic... between the Hohokam culture and the present-day O'odham. Linguistic evidence indicates that all of the...

  12. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frysinger, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal cycling and performance tests, performed to verify the package integrity, life, and stability of the chub packaged materials system for storage coolness with application to residential air conditioning, are described. The moisture vapor retention characteristics of the laminate film for long term chub performance was determined. The stability, mechanical integrity, and thermal performance of chubs following mechanical shock, vibration, and temperature extremes is reported.

  13. GENERAL PLANS AND SECTIONS. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PLANS AND SECTIONS. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2422, dated January 19, 1949, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. 75 FR 14643 - Arizona Disaster #AZ-00011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... disaster: Primary Counties: Apache, Coconino, Gila, Greenlee, La Paz, Mohave, Navajo, Yavapai, and the Gila River Indian Community, Hopi Tribe, Navajo Nation, San Carlos Apache, Tohono O'odham Nation, and White Mountain Apache Tribe. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage: Non-Profit Organizations...

  15. 77 FR 11575 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Grand Rapids Public Museum, Grand Rapids, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Reservation, Arizona; Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona; and the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona. The Zuni Tribe of the Zuni... builder culture, Missouri is not an area traditionally occupied by the Hohokam, and the vessel type...

  16. 78 FR 34130 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ..., mortuary practices, ceramic types, and other items of material culture at this ruin are consistent with the...; Hopi Tribe of Arizona; Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona...; Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona; Hopi Tribe of Arizona;...

  17. 75 FR 71138 - Land Acquisitions; Navajo Nation, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... East, Gila and Salt River Meridian, Coconino County, Arizona, described as follows: Beginning at a set aluminum cap marked ``RLS 18215'' at the corner common to Sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, Township 21 North, Range 11 East, Gila and Salt River Meridian, Coconino County, Arizona. Thence North 00 25'51'' West,...

  18. Wasteway, intake side. The floatoperated radial gates are housed behind ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Wasteway, intake side. The float-operated radial gates are housed behind the concrete (below water level), view to the northwest - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS, WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2359, dated November 24, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  20. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO.. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO.. 1. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2328, dated August 2, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  1. 75 FR 15454 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 14 Southwestern Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ..., 1991 (56 FR 49646). Gila trout Oncorhynchus gilae Threatened........ U.S.A. (AZ, NM)... May 11, 2005 (70 FR 24750). ] Hualapai Mexican vole Microtus mexicanus Endangered........ U.S.A. (AZ)....... October 1, 1987 hualpaiensis. (52 FR 36776). Loach minnow Tiaroga cobitis... Threatened........ U.S.A....

  2. 146. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING STRAIGHT ON, OF CAST IRON LAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    146. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING STRAIGHT ON, OF CAST IRON LAMP STANDARD. THIS AND OTHER LAMP STANDARDS WERE REMOVED FROM THE LAMP COLUMNS ON THE PARAPET WALLS DURING WORLD WAR II AND STORED INSIDE THE DAM (January 1991) - Coolidge Dam, Gila River, Peridot, Gila County, AZ

  3. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Salt River from Roosevelt Dam upstream to U.S Highway 60 bridge. (ii) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai... River from backwaters of San Carlos Reservoir upstream to Arizona/New Mexico State line. (iii) Arizona... Mexico State line. (iv) Arizona: Gila County. Tonto Creek, from Punkin Center upstream to Gisela....

  4. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Salt River from Roosevelt Dam upstream to U.S Highway 60 bridge. (ii) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai... River from backwaters of San Carlos Reservoir upstream to Arizona/New Mexico State line. (iii) Arizona... Mexico State line. (iv) Arizona: Gila County. Tonto Creek, from Punkin Center upstream to Gisela....

  5. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Salt River from Roosevelt Dam upstream to U.S Highway 60 bridge. (ii) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai... River from backwaters of San Carlos Reservoir upstream to Arizona/New Mexico State line. (iii) Arizona... Mexico State line. (iv) Arizona: Gila County. Tonto Creek, from Punkin Center upstream to Gisela....

  6. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Salt River from Roosevelt Dam upstream to U.S Highway 60 bridge. (ii) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai... River from backwaters of San Carlos Reservoir upstream to Arizona/New Mexico State line. (iii) Arizona... Mexico State line. (iv) Arizona: Gila County. Tonto Creek, from Punkin Center upstream to Gisela....

  7. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Salt River from Roosevelt Dam upstream to U.S Highway 60 bridge. (ii) Arizona: Gila and Yavapai... River from backwaters of San Carlos Reservoir upstream to Arizona/New Mexico State line. (iii) Arizona... Mexico State line. (iv) Arizona: Gila County. Tonto Creek, from Punkin Center upstream to Gisela....

  8. Design and demonstration of a storage-assisted air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuto, J. E.

    1981-03-01

    The system is a peak-shaving system designed to provide a levelized air conditioning load. The system also requires minimum air conditioner and thermal storage capacity. The storage-assisted air conditioning system uses a Glauber's salt-based phase change material in sausage like containers called CHUBS. The CHUBS are two (2) inches in diameter and 20 inches long. They are stacked in modules of 64 CHUBS which are appropriately spaced and oriented in the storage system so that air may pass perpendicular to the long axis of the CHUBS. The phase change material, has a thermal storage capacity in the range of 45 to 50 Btu/lb and a transition temperature of approximately 55 F.

  9. FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE INSTALLATION. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE INSTALLATION. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2497, dated March 8, 1949, Denver Colorado. Sheet 1 of 7 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY LIST OF PARTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE HOIST ASSEMBLY - LIST OF PARTS - BASE-CRANK. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2511, dated May 3, 1949, Denver Colorado. Sheet 1 of 2 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of a ubiquitin gene ( Ub L40 ) in the haemocytes of Crassostrea hongkongensis under bacterial challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dingkun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin, a highly conserved stress-related protein, is assigned multiple functions, such as DNA processing, protein degradation, and ribosome synthesis. The Crassostrea hongkongensis ubiquitin gene (designated ChUb L40 ) was cloned by a combination of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of ChUb L40 is 496 bp in length, consisting of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 34 bp, a 3'-UTR of 75 bp and an open reading frame of 387 bp encoding a ubiquitin fusion protein of 128 amino acids. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of ChUb L40 reveals that Ub L40 is highly conservative during evolution. The expression patterns of ChUb L40 gene in various tissues were examined by real-time PCR. The expression level of ChUb L40 in haemocytes is down-regulated at 4 h and gradually returned to its original level from 6 h to 24 h after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Our results suggest that ChUb L40 is ubiquitously expressed and plays an important role in immune defense against bacterial challenge.

  12. 2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ITS WAY TOWARD THE CEMENT MILL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, November 19, 1907 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  13. 21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. THE WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION CAMP AT THE DIVERSION DAM, FACING SOUTH. WOOD BURNING PLANT AT RIGHT, INTAKE GATES AT CENTER LEFT. Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, June 13, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  14. 75 FR 15453 - Arizona; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... as adversely affected by this major disaster: Apache, Coconino, Gila, Greenlee, La Paz, Mohave... Apache, Tohono O'odham Nation, and White Mountain Apache Tribe for Public Assistance. All counties...

  15. 40 CFR 80.215 - What is the scope of the geographic phase-in program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are included in the GPA: (i) The list of counties follows: Arizona Apache Coconino Gila Greenlee... Indian reservations follows: Burns Paiute, Cheyenne River, Colville, Duck Valley, Ely Colony, Fort...

  16. Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on discharge side of pump - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  17. Pyrocumulus Clouds Tower Over Silver Fire in New Mexico

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... uncontained due to the rugged terrain of the Gila National Forest. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on ... project:  MISR category:  gallery Fires date:  June 12, 2013 Images:  ...

  18. New Mexico Play Fairway Analysis: Particle Tracking ArcGIS Map Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Pepin

    2015-11-15

    These are map packages used to visualize geochemical particle-tracking analysis results in ArcGIS. It includes individual map packages for several regions of New Mexico including: Acoma, Rincon, Gila, Las Cruces, Socorro and Truth or Consequences.

  19. 77 FR 58862 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ..., Arizona, on dates indicated. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gila and Salt River Meridian, Arizona The plat..., Suite 800, Phoenix, Arizona, 85004-4427. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf...

  20. 77 FR 66631 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ..., Arizona, on dates indicated. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gila and Salt River Meridian, Arizona The plat..., Suite 800, Phoenix, Arizona 85004-4427. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf...

  1. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ..., Arizona, on dates indicated. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Gila and Salt River Meridian, Arizona The plat... Central Avenue, Suite 800, Phoenix, Arizona 85004-4427. Persons who use a telecommunications device...

  2. Classroom in the Cactus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    The Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum uses such quaint teaching tools as the Gila monster and the boojum tree to tell the story of its vast and fascinating but often misunderstood desert environment. (Editor)

  3. Detail, cyclops 15ton overhead traveling crane and rails running the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, cyclops 15-ton overhead traveling crane and rails running the length of the building - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. 1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOODWATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT TURNOUT ON SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  5. 77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE BY CONTRACT Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  6. 8. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF OPERATING HOUSE. 'WORTHINGTON PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF OPERATING HOUSE. 'WORTHINGTON PUMP AND MACHINE COMPANY' PUMP AND MOTOR TO OPERATE GAMES - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  7. 12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS AND UNDERSIDE OF STEEL DECKING. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  8. Detail of expansion bearing shoe of Span No. 1 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of expansion bearing shoe of Span No. 1 on Abutment No. 1, view to south - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 25. LOOKING UP THE SALT RIVER FROM THE INTAKE GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LOOKING UP THE SALT RIVER FROM THE INTAKE GATES OF THE SALT RIVER POWER CANAL, SHOWING HEADWORKS OF POWER CANAL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, October 17, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  10. 3. Photographic copy of map. San Carlos Project, Arizona. Irrigation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of map. San Carlos Project, Arizona. Irrigation System. Department of the Interior. United States Indian Service. No date. Circa 1939. (Source: Henderson, Paul. U.S. Indian Irrigation Service. Supplemental Storage Reservoir, Gila River. November 10, 1939, RG 115, San Carlos Project, National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, CO.) - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Lands North & South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 452+32.00. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2370, dated November 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  12. PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 452+32. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2368, dated June 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Context view, looking southwest along the WelltonMohawk Canal. The wasteway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view, looking southwest along the Wellton-Mohawk Canal. The wasteway is marked by the white posts on either side of the access road. The pipe across the canal safely carries storm runoff over the canal and is not part of Wasteway No. 1 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. Vegetation success, seepage, and erosion on tailing sites reclaimed with cattle and biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, J.; Jones, B.; Milczarek, M.; Hammermeister, D.; Word, J.

    1999-07-01

    Reclamation field studies were designed at the Phelps Dodge Morenci Mine in Arizona to evaluate the benefits of biosolids, cattle impact, and other treatment variables on soil-capped tailings. First-year monitoring has provided preliminary data about soil chemical and physical parameters, soil matrix potential profiles, erosion, and vegetation measurements of ground cover, biomass production and frequency. Plots were first seeded in January 1998 with a cover crop of oats or barley. Plots were seeded again in August 1998 with native and native plus non-native plant species. Early productivity from the second seeding was inversely related to seedling density. Plots capped with unamended Gila conglomerate (Gila) materials contained meager plant nutrient levels and produced numerous small seedlings that were poorly rooted and had little standing biomass. Vegetation on the cattle and biosolids treatments was vigorous and productive but at a much lower density than unamended Gila plots. Cattle treatment added little plant-nutrient value to the Gila cap compared to biosolids amendment. However, high rates of biosolids brought excessive salinity. Straw from the cattle treatment provided an effective mulch to improve soil moisture storage but increased the potential for deep seepage. Unamended Gila and biosolids plots had intermediate moisture storage and a modest potential for seepage compared to bare tailings. Mulch cover plus a lower rate of biosolids on Gila is seen as a promising, cost-effective amendment combination for future evaluation.

  15. Responses of Squalius cephalus intestinal mucous cells to Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Giampaolo; Sayyaf Dezfuli, Bahram

    2015-04-01

    Intestinal mucous cell numbers and their glycoconjugate composition were investigated by histochemical methods in uninfected chub, Squalius cephalus, and in conspecifics naturally parasitised with the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis. A sub-population of 42 chub from the River Tiber (Perugia, Italy) were sampled and screened for ecto and endoparasites. No parasites were found in gills and in other visceral organs of chub and P. laevis appeared to be the only enteric worm encountered. In all infected chub (twenty-eight out of 42) this acanthocephalan was encountered mainly in the mid-gut. In situ, an excessive yellowish mucus or catarrh was observed around each acanthocephalan. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the mucous cells were only evident near the site of P. laevis attachment where the total number of mucous cells and the number of those containing acidic, particularly non-sulphated mucins, or mixed glycoconjugates were significantly higher. In intestinal regions of infected fish far away from the point of parasite attachment, there were no statistical differences in the density of mucous cells in comparison to uninfected fish. Interestingly, in parasitised chub, the length of intestinal folds was significantly larger close to the sites at which P. laevis attach when compared to the length of the intestinal folds located further away from the acanthocephalans and/or in uninfected intestines. The effect of P. laevis on intestinal mucous cells of S. cephalus was compared to other parasite-host systems and the role of enhanced mucus production in parasitized intestines was discussed. PMID:25486440

  16. Electroretinographic analysis of night vision in juvenile pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taro; Ihara, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yoshinari; Okada, Tokihiko; Kurata, Michio; Sawada, Yoshifumi; Ishibashi, Yasunori

    2009-10-01

    We used electroretinogram recordings to investigate visual function in the dark-adapted eyes of the juvenile scombrid fishes Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) and chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) and the carangid fish striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex). Despite the fast swimming speed of the Pacific bluefin tuna, analysis of flicker electroretinograms showed that visual temporal resolution in this species was inferior to that in chub mackerel. Peak wavelengths of spectral sensitivity in Pacific bluefin tuna and striped jack were 479 and 512 nm, respectively. The light sensitivity of Pacific bluefin tuna was comparable to that of chub mackerel but lower than that of striped jack. The Pacific bluefin tuna may not need high-level visual function under dim light conditions in natural habitat because it is a diurnal fish. However, this low temporal resolution and light sensitivity probably explain the mass deaths from contact or collisions with net walls in cultured Pacific bluefin tuna. PMID:19875819

  17. Distributions of small nongame fishes in the lower Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, Michael B.; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is the longest unimpounded river in the conterminous United States. It has a relatively natural flow regime, which helps maintain diverse habitats and fish assemblages uncommon in large rivers elsewhere. The lower Yellowstone River was thought to support a diverse nongame fish assemblage including several species of special concern. However, comprehensive data on the small nongame fish assemblage of the lower Yellowstone River is lacking. Therefore, we sampled the Yellowstone River downstream of its confluence with the Clark’s Fork using fyke nets and otter trawls to assess distributions and abundances of small nongame fishes. We captured 42 species (24 native and 18 nonnative) in the lower Yellowstone River with fyke nets. Native species constituted over 99% of the catch. Emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, western silvery minnows Hybognathus argyritis, flathead chubs Platygobio gracilis, sand shiners Notropis stramineus, and longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae composed nearly 94% of fyke net catch and were caught in every segment of the study area. We captured 24 species by otter trawling downstream of the Tongue River. Sturgeon chubs Macrhybopsis gelida, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, flathead chubs, stonecats Noturus flavus, and sicklefin chubs Macrhybopsis meeki composed 89% of the otter trawl catch. The upstream distributional limit of sturgeon chubs in the Yellowstone River was the Tongue River; few sicklefin chubs were captured above Intake Diversion Dam. This study not only provides biologists with baseline data for future monitoring efforts on the Yellowstone River but serves as a benchmark for management and conservation efforts in large rivers elsewhere as the Yellowstone River represents one of the best references for a naturally functioning Great Plains river.

  18. Comparative Efficacy of Potassium Levulinate with/without Potassium Diacetate and Potassium Propionate vs Potassium Lactate and Sodium Diacetate for Control of Listeria monocytogenes on commercially prepared uncured t.breast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the efficacy of potassium levulinate, potassium diacetate, and potassium propionate to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes on commercially-prepared, uncured turkey breast during refrigerated storage. Whole muscle, uncured turkey breast chubs (ca. 5 kg each) were formulated with or without po...

  19. Bioaccumulation and speciation of selenium in fish and insects collected from a mountaintop removal coal mining-impacted stream in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Arnold, M C; Lindberg, T Ty; Liu, Y T; Porter, K A; Hsu-Kim, H; Hinton, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2014-07-01

    A major contaminant of concern for mountaintop removal/valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining is selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient that can be toxic to fish. Creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus), green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), and composite insect samples were collected in March-July, 2011-2013 at two sites within the Mud River, West Virginia. One site (MR7) receives MTR/VF coal mining effluent, while the reference site (LFMR) does not. MR7 water had significantly higher concentrations of soluble Se (p < 0.01) and conductivity (p < 0.005) compared to LFMR. MR7 whole insects contained significantly higher concentrations of Se compared to LFMR insects (p < 0.001). MR7 creek chubs had significantly higher Se in fillets, liver, and ovary tissues compared to LFMR samples (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.02, respectively). MR7 green sunfish fillets contained significantly higher Se (p < 0.0001). Histological examination showed LFMR creek chub gills contained a typical amount of parasitic infestations; however MR7 gills contained minimal to no visible parasites. X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses revealed that MR7 whole insects and creek chub tissues primarily contained organic Se and selenite. These two species of Mud River fish were shown to specifically accumulate Se differently in tissues compartments. Tissue-specific concentrations of Se may be useful in determining potential reproductive consequences of Se exposure in wild fish populations.

  20. 76 FR 20911 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Prairie...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... trends, including: (a) Habitat requirements for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and... Lake, Salt Fork of the Red River, Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River, Buck Creek, Pease River... Robinson 2004, p. 126). The peppered and prairie chubs are considered sister species with similar...

  1. Does fish reproduction and metabolic activity influence metal levels in fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, during fish spawning and post-spawning period?

    PubMed

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Raspor, Biserka

    2014-10-01

    Application of fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, as bioindicators in metal exposure assessment usually involves estimation of their metal levels and bioconcentration factors. Metal levels in parasite final host, fishes, are influenced by fish physiology but there is no data for acanthocephalan metal levels. Gastrointestinal Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ag levels in European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Sava River were significantly higher during chub spawning (April/May) compared to the post-spawning period (September). In acanthocephalans (Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae) significantly higher metal levels during chub spawning were observed only for Zn in P. laevis. Bioconcentration factors were twice as high for Fe, Mn, Ag, Pb in the post-spawning period, probably as a consequence of lower gastrointestinal metal levels in fish rather than metal exposure. Therefore, bioconcentration factors should be interpreted with caution, due to their possible variability in relation to fish physiology. In addition, gastrointestinal Cu, Cd and Pb levels were lower in infected than uninfected chub, indicating that metal variability in fishes might be affected by the presence of acanthocephalans. PMID:25048939

  2. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  3. 75 FR 35398 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Least...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Candidate Species (47 FR 58454). Category 2 included taxa for which information in the Service's possession... review, and reclassified the least chub as a Category 1 Candidate Species (54 FR 554). Category 1... endangered with critical habitat (60 FR 50518). A listing moratorium, imposed by Congress in 1995,...

  4. The near extinction of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1957-01-01

    Comparisons in 1949 and 1950 of numbers of legal-sized lake trout caught in large-mesh nets with numbers of small fish taken in chub nets showed that both large and small lake trout declined over the same period, and that by these years the decline may have been greater among small than among legal-sized fish.

  5. Floods of November 1978 to March 1979 in Arizona and west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, Byron Neil; Hales, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in parts of the Little Colorado and Gila River basins as a result of a storm that occurred December 17-20, 1978. The central highlands received 3 to 10 inches of precipitation that was augmented by snowmelt to altitudes of 10,000 feet. The storm was preceded by extremely large amounts of rainfall and runoff in November and was followed by other periods of high runoff in January and March 1979. In some areas flood peaks in November, January, or March were higher than the peak of December 1978. At Winslow, the discharge of the Little Colorado River in December 1978 was the highest since at least 1952. The discharge of the Gila River above the San Francisco River was probably the highest since at least 1891, and in the Safford Valley, the peak was the highest since 1916. The Agua Fria River below Waddell Dam had the highest discharge since 1919. The flood of December 1978 caused 12 deaths and caused damage that was probably in excess of $150 million in Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Damage was estimated to be $51.8 million in Maricopa County, Arizona. Floods caused extensive agricultural damage along the Gila River in Virden Valley in New Mexico and in Duncan, York, and Safford Valleys in Arizona. Duncan, Arizona, was flooded with as much as 7 feet of water. The flood crest on the Gila River in December 1978 moved from Redrock, New Mexico, to Duncan, Arizona, in about 6 hours, which is more rapid than during other recent floods but is comparable to the travel-time recorded in 1941. Travel-time in the reach varies with discharge and is about 14 hours for discharges of 10,000 cubic feet per second and 5 hours for discharges of more than 40,000 cubic feet per second. Water-conservation reservoirs on the Gila, Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers and a flood-control reservoir on the Gila River had a major influence on the magnitude of floods downstream from the reservoirs. All runoff from the Gila River basin upstream from Coolidge Dam, Arizona

  6. A comparison of measures of riverbed form for evaluating distributions of benthic fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Lamberson, Peter J.; Galat, David L.

    2003-01-01

    A method to quantitatively characterize the bed forms of a large river and a preliminary test of the relationship between bed-form characteristics and catch per unit area of benthic fishes is presented. We used analog paper recordings of bathymetric data from the Missouri River and fish data collected from 1996 to 1998 at both the segment (???101-102-km) and macrohabitat (???10-1-100-km) spatial scales. Bed-form traces were transformed to digital data with image analysis software. The slope, mean residual, and SD of the residuals of the regression of depth versus distance along the bottom, as well as mean depth, were estimated for each trace. These four metrics were compared with sinuosity, fractal dimension, critical scale, and maximum mean angle for the same traces. Mean depth and sinuosity differed among segments and macrohabitats. Fractal-based measures of the relative depth of bottom troughs (critical scale) and smoothness (maximum mean angle) differed among segments. Statistics-based measures of the relative depth of bottom troughs (mean residual) and smoothness (SD of the residuals) differed among macrohabitats. Sites with shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus were shallower and smoother than sites without shovelnose sturgeon. When compared with sites without sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki, sites with sicklefin chub were shallower, had shallower troughs, and sloped more out of the flow of the river. Sites with sturgeon chub M. gelida were shallower, had shallower troughs, and were smoother than sites without sturgeon chub. Sites with and without channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus did not differ for any bed-form variables measured. Nonzero shovelnose sturgeon density increased with depth, whereas nonzero sturgeon chub density decreased with depth. Indices of bed-form structure demonstrated potential for describing the distribution and abundance of Missouri River benthic fishes. The observed fish patterns, though limited, provide valuable

  7. 82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF SLUICE GATES AND CANAL INTAKE GATES AT DIVERSION DAM Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  8. 76 FR 80401 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Gila Plain Sites. In the Federal Register (66 FR 55957-55958, Monday, November 5, 2001) paragraph... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Denver Department of Anthropology and Museum of Anthropology, Denver, CO; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION:...

  9. A Photographic Essay of the San Carlos Apache Indians, Volume 2-Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Ed; And Others

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on the San Carlos Apache Reservation founded in the late 1800's and located in Arizona's Gila County. An historical narrative and discussion questions accompany each of the 12 photographs. Photographic…

  10. 75 FR 18783 - Transfer of Land to the Department of Interior

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... approximately 157 acres of National Forest System lands to the administrative jurisdiction of the National Park... County at Book 4560, Page 216. The lands are described as follows: Coconino National Forest Gila and Salt...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Transfer of Land to the Department of Interior AGENCY:...

  11. 51. FRED TEICHMAN'S ROTATING SCREEN AT TERMINUS OF THE POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. FRED TEICHMAN'S ROTATING SCREEN AT TERMINUS OF THE POWER CANAL. SETTLING BASIN IS LOCATED IN BOTTOM LEFT OF PHOTO. UPSTREAM SIDE OF ROOSEVELT DAM IS VISIBLE Photographer: Mark Durben, 1984 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  12. Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power distribution cabinets for valve motors along north wall at left. View to east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Detail, unit 5, pump motor. This motor is also 1,100 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 5, pump motor. This motor is also 1,100 hp and is manufactured by the Electric Products Company. Note additional gauges and box attached to side. Unit 6 is identical to this unit - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. West end of Motor Room. Visible, from left to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West end of Motor Room. Visible, from left to right, are the unit 6 pump motor, stairs to the basement, a ladder to the overhead traveling crane, a bathroom in the northwest corner, and a work bench at right - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. 77 FR 41146 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source.... SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 112(l) of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, EPA is proposing to grant delegation of specific national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) to the Gila...

  16. Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet and cement pipes along the south wall are being temporarily stored in the Pumping Plant and are not part of the original equipment - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  17. 42. THE PINTO SETTLING BASIN. THE SIPHON INTAKE GATES CAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. THE PINTO SETTLING BASIN. THE SIPHON INTAKE GATES CAN BE SEEN AT CENTER RIGHT AND THE SLUICE GATES ARE AT THE CENTER. THE POWER CANAL ENTERS THE BASIN FROM THE LEFT. See Photo No. AZ-4-13. Photographer: Mark Durben, 1984 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  18. 13. Photographic copy of drawing, dated March 1929, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of drawing, dated March 1929, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. CONCRETE PIPE SIPHON, NORTH SIDE CANAL, STATION 171+04 TO 172+34 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, North Side Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  19. 7. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. No date. Photographer unknown. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, VIEW SHOWING PIPE LAID IN TRENCH, ALSO SHOWING OPENING WHERE MONOLITHIC SECTION WAS BUILT AND IN WHICH A MAN HOLE AND STAND PIPE VENT WAS INSTALLED - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. 8. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. No date. Photographer unknown. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, GATE FOR DELIVERY TO LATERAL ON RIGHT, TRASH RACK AT SIPHON ENTRANCE, VENT OR STAND PIPE AND STEVENS AUTOMATIC GAGING STATION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 6. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, VIEW OF LAST SECTION OF PIPE BEING LOWERED IN THE TRENCH FEBRUARY 17, 1935 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  2. 9. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of photograph, in possession of SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ. No date. Photographer unknown. MCCLELLAN WASH SIPHON, GENERAL VIEW OF PIPE YARD AFTER MOST OF THE PIPE WAS MANUFACTURED - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Southside Canal, South Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  3. 75 FR 45680 - Arizona Disaster #AZ-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arizona Disaster AZ-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arizona dated 07/27... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Gila; Yavapai. Contiguous Counties: Arizona:...

  4. 75 FR 4842 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Yuma Field Office Resource Management Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... the ROD/Approved Plan include the recalculation of Geographic Information System acreage to ensure....html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James T. Shoaff, Field Manager, Bureau of Land Management, Yuma Field Office, 2555 Gila Ridge Road, Yuma, Arizona 85365. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: One of...

  5. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  6. Detail, Unit 4, Worthington MixFlo Pump, Harrison, New Jersey, USA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Unit 4, Worthington Mix-Flo Pump, Harrison, New Jersey, USA. All six pump units are of the same size, make, and model - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  7. "Left High and Dry": Federal Land Policies and Pima Agriculture, 1860-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejong, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The Akimel O'odham, or "River People" (Pima), have lived in the middle Gila River Valley for centuries, irrigating and cultivating the same land as their Huhugam ancestors did for millennia. Continuing their irrigated agricultural economy bequeathed to them by their Huhugam ancestors, the Pima leveraged a favorable geopolitical setting into a…

  8. Instructional Centers for Pima Culture. Final Report: Academic Year 1968-69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Bill J., Comp.; Bell, John E., Comp.

    The document contains the final report of the establishment of instructional centers for schools of Arizona's Gila River Indian Community. The project was made possible through Title III funds of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and was intended (1) to provide programs, services, and materials for making learning experiences more…

  9. 1. Photographic copy of photograph, no date, in possession of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of photograph, no date, in possession of Arizona Historical Society Library. Photograph #718. Photographer unknown. BUILDING THE FLORENCE CANAL AND RESERVOIR. Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Florence Canal, South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  10. 2. Photographic copy of photograph, undated, in possession of Arizona ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of photograph, undated, in possession of Arizona Historical Society. Photograph #793. Photographer unknown. BUILDING FLORENCE RESERVOIR (PRESUMABLY PICACHO RESERVOIR) Photograph is an 8'x10' enlargement from a 4'x5' negative. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Picacho Resevoir, South of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The "Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999" is compiled from information supplied by the state's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Within each of these sections,…

  12. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is a compilation of information supplied by Arizona public libraries. Data is arranged by a separate index divider for each of these county groups: Apache, Cochise, and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. Each section contains tables of the…

  13. 40 CFR 81.303 - Arizona.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... citations affecting § 81.303 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section... Apache County Cochise County Coconino County Gila County Graham County Greenlee County La Paz County... La Paz County Maricopa County (part) area outside of Phoenix Mohave County Navajo County Pima...

  14. Arizona Public Library Statistics. 1994-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1994-95. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise,and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups: (1)…

  15. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Jan, Comp.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  16. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  17. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1995-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The statistics in this document were provided by Arizona public libraries for 1995-96. The counties are grouped as follows: Apache, Cochise, and Coconino; Gila, Graham, Greenlee, and La Paz; Maricopa and Mohave; Navajo, Pima, and Pinal; and Santa Cruz, Yavapai, and Yuma. The following data is presented in table form for each of the five groups:…

  18. Native American Children, Youth, and Families. Part 2. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Sacaton, AZ, January 9, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    The House Select Committee met to hear testimony of six witnesses from tribes in the Phoenix, Arizona area concerning the status of Native American children and their families. General topics were the nature of existing human service programs, adequacy of federal funding, and magnitude of health and welfare needs. Tom White of the Gila River…

  19. 78 FR 55091 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Texas. Permit TE-829996 Applicant: Houston Zoo, Houston, Texas. Applicant requests a renewal to a... pupfish (Cyprinodon bovinus) Permit TE-13600B Applicant: Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo and Aquarium, Omaha... holding of woundfin (Plagopterus argentissimus) and Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis) at the...

  20. North front, or intake side of Pumping Plant. The three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North front, or intake side of Pumping Plant. The three small regulatory pumps to the right of the building were installed ca. 1974-1975 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  1. 77 FR 11583 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... published in the Federal Register (65 FR 79120-79121, December 18, 2000) to include the Gila River Indian... the Federal Register (65 FR 79120-79121, December 18, 2000), paragraph three is corrected by... Register (65 FR 79120-79121, December 18, 2000), paragraph six is corrected by substituting the...

  2. DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 717+62.95. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2380, dated November 30, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.121 Classification of regions....

  4. PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 972-64.99. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2385, dated June 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  5. DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 972-64.99. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. cut off, dated November 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  6. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.121 Classification of regions....

  7. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2343, dated October 26, 1948, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  8. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.121 Classification of regions....

  9. ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2360, dated Novermber 24, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  10. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.121 Classification of regions....

  11. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2352, dated December 2, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  12. ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARCHITECTURAL EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 3. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2361, dated November 24, 1948, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. 40 CFR 52.121 - Classification of regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I Northern Arizona Intrastate (Apache, Coconino, Navajo, Yavapai) I III III III III Mohave-Yuma Intrastate (Mohave, Yuma) I III III III III Central Arizona Intrastate (Gila, Pinal) I IA III III III... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.121 Classification of regions....

  14. 6. CLOSEUP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CLOSE-UP OF U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE AND U.S. RECLAMATION SERVICE BENCHMARKS ON TURNOUT STRUCTURE IN T3S, R5E, S14 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Flood Water Canal, North Side of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  15. 1. ABANDONED TURNOUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ABANDONED TURN-OUT (CALLED CAPTAIN WHEEL) TO SAN TAN INDIAN CANAL OFF OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL, T4S, R6E, S11/12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, San Tan Indian Canal, North of Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  16. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  17. Afterbay, showing the six discharge channels and six hydraulic gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, showing the six discharge channels and six hydraulic gate check cylinders, one for each of the discharge pipes. A stilling well is in the right foreground, and the Pumping Plant is visible in the background. View to the north - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  18. Underside of Span No. 1, with pier no. 2 in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underside of Span No. 1, with pier no. 2 in background, showing floor beams, stringers, lower chords, lower lateral braces and underside of deck slab, view to west - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 50 CFR 17.96 - Critical habitat-plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... schaffneriana var. recurva (Huachuca water umbel). Critical habitat includes the stream courses identified in... or no adverse effect on resources available for Lilaeopsis growth and reproduction; and (4) In.... Gila and Salt Principal Meridian, Arizona: T. 20 S., R. 16 E., beginning at a point on Sonoita Creek...

  20. 50 CFR 17.96 - Critical habitat-plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... schaffneriana var. recurva (Huachuca water umbel). Critical habitat includes the stream courses identified in... or no adverse effect on resources available for Lilaeopsis growth and reproduction; and (4) In.... Gila and Salt Principal Meridian, Arizona: T. 20 S., R. 16 E., beginning at a point on Sonoita Creek...

  1. Meal consumption is ineffective at maintaining or correcting water balance in a desert lizard, Heloderma suspectum.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christian D; Jackson, Marin L; DeNardo, Dale F

    2013-04-15

    Many xeric organisms maintain water balance by relying on dietary and metabolic water rather than free water, even when free water may be available. For such organisms, hydric state may influence foraging decisions, since meal consumption is meeting both energy and water demands. To understand foraging decisions it is vital to understand the role of dietary water in maintaining water balance. We investigated whether meal consumption was sufficient to maintain water balance in captive Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) at varying levels of dehydration. Gila monsters could not maintain water balance over long time scales through meal consumption alone. Animals fed a single meal took no longer to dehydrate than controls when both groups were deprived of free water. Additionally, meal consumption imparts an acute short-term hydric cost regardless of hydration state. Meal consumption typically resulted in a significant elevation in osmolality at 6 h post-feeding, and plasma osmolality never fell below pre-feeding levels despite high water content (~70%) of meals. These results failed to support our hypothesis that dietary water is valuable to Gila monsters during seasonal drought. When considered in conjunction with previous research, these results demonstrate that Gila monsters, unlike many xeric species, are heavily reliant on seasonal rainfall and the resulting free-standing water to maintain water balance.

  2. 33. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 4/1925, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of construction drawing, dated 4/1925, in possession of SCIP Office, Coolidge, AZ. United States Indian Service, Irrigation. CONSTRUCTION CAMP - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  3. 77 FR 12874 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands in the State of Arizona Associated With the Proposed Mohave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... not the mineral leasing or material sales acts, for a period of 2 years. This segregation is being... rights, from appropriation under the public land laws, including the mining law, but not the mineral leasing or the material sales acts: Gila and Salt River Meridian, Arizona T. 28 N., R. 19 W., Sec. 6;...

  4. Assessment of the geothermal potential of southwestern New Mexico. Final report, July 1, 1978-April 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Elston, W.E.

    1981-07-01

    Results are reported of geologic mapping of geothermal anomalies in the Gila Hot Springs KGRA/Mimbres Hot Springs area, Grant County. They suggest that both hot-spring occurrences are structurally controlled by the intersection of a major Basin and Range fault and the disturbed margin of an ash-flow tuff cauldron. Hydrothermal alteration in both areas is related to mid-Tertiary volcanism, not to modern hot springs. At Gila Hot Springs, the geothermal aquifer is a zone at the contact between the unwelded top of a major ash-flow tuff sheet (Bloodgood Canyon Rhyolite Tuff) and a succession of interlayered vesicular basaltic andesite flows and thin sandstone beds (Bearwallow Mountain Formation). Scattered groups of natural hot springs occur at intersections of this zone and the faults bordering the northeastern side of the Gila Hot Springs graben. Hydrothermal alteration of Bloodgood Canyon Rhyolite Tuff near major faults seems to have increased its permeability. At Mimbres Hot Springs, a single group of hot springs is controlled by the intersection of the Mimbres Hot Springs fault and a fractured welded ash-flow tuff that fills the Emory cauldron (Kneeling Nun Tuff). Gila Hot Springs and Mimbres Hot Springs do not seem to be connected by throughgoing faults. At both localities, hot spring water is used locally for space heating and domestic hot water; at Gila Hot Springs, water of 65.6/sup 0/C (150/sup 0/F) is used to generate electricity by means of a 10 kw freon Rankine Cycle engine. This is the first such application in New Mexico.

  5. Life and stability testing of packaged low-cost energy storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Frysinger, G.R.

    1980-07-01

    A low-cost laminated plastic film which is used to contain a Glauber's salt-based phase change thermal energy storage material in sausage-like containers called Chubs is discussed. The results of tests performed on the Chub packages themselves and on the thermal energy storage capacity of the packaged phase change material are described. From the test results, a set of specifications have been drawn up for a film material which will satisfactorily contain the phase change material under anticipated operating conditions. Calorimetric testing of the phase change material with thermal cycling indicates that a design capacity of 45 to 50 Btu/lb for a ..delta..T of 30/sup 0/F can be used for the packaged material.

  6. Multielement analysis in the fish hepatic cytosol as a screening tool in the monitoring of natural waters.

    PubMed

    Dragun, Zrinka; Fiket, Zeljka; Vuković, Marijana; Raspor, Biserka

    2013-03-01

    The possibility of direct measurement of trace elements in hepatic cytosol of European chub (Squalius cephalus) by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR ICP-MS) after cytosol dilution with Milli-Q water and subsequent acidification was investigated. Due to low detection limits of this procedure, determination of 13 elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, V and Zn) was possible in the chub hepatic cytosol, exhibiting excellent measurement repeatability in duplicates. Some of these elements were also measured by HR ICP-MS in acid digested cytosols (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, V and Zn). Good agreement of the results obtained after sample dilution and sample digestion indicated that complex organic matrix of hepatic cytosol did not affect measurement reliability. Cytosolic concentrations of 13 trace elements in the chub liver were quantified in the following order: Fe, Zn>Cu>Mn>Mo>Sr, V, Cd>Co>As, Pb>Sn>Sb. Unlike Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn for which the cytosolic concentrations were previously reported after measurement by AAS, cytosolic concentrations of eight additional trace elements characteristic for the liver of chubs inhabiting the low contaminated river water were reported here for the first time (in nanogrammes per gramme)-Mo, 136.8-183.6; Sr, 32.7-63.0; V, 17.5-69.0; Co, 24.3-30.7; As, 9.9-29.5; Pb, 5.8-35.6; Sn, 5.5-12.4; and Sb, 0.9-2.6. The simultaneous measurement of large number of trace elements in the cytosolic fractions of fish tissues, which comprise potentially metal-sensitive sub-cellular pools, could be beneficial as a screening tool in the monitoring of natural waters, because it would enable timely recognition of increased fish exposure to metals.

  7. Larval fish dynamics in spring pools in middle Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Goldsworthy, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We used lighted larval traps to assess reproduction by fishes inhabiting nine spring pools in the Barrens Plateau region of middle Tennessee between May and September 2004. The traps (n = 162 deployments) captured the larval or juvenile forms of Etheostoma crossopterum (Fringed Darter) (n = 188), Gambusia affinis (Western Mosquitofish) (n = 139), Hemitremia flammea (Flame Chub) (n = 55), the imperiled Fundulus julisia (Barrens Topminnow) (n = 10), and Forbesichthys agassizii (Spring Cavefish) (n = 1). The larval forms of four other species (Families Centrarchidae, Cyprinidae, and Cottidae) were not collected, despite the presence of adults. Larval Barrens Topminnow hatched over a protracted period (early June through late September); in contrast, hatching intervals were much shorter for Fringed Darter (mid-May through early June). Flame Chub hatching began before our first samples in early May and concluded by late-May. Juvenile Western Mosquitofish were collected between early June and late August. Our sampling revealed that at least two species (Flame Chub and Fringed Darter) were able to reproduce and recruit in habitats harboring the invasive Western Mosquitofish, while Barrens Topminnow could not.

  8. Microchemical analysis of selenium in otoliths of two West Virginia fishes captured near mountaintop removal coal mining operations.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Mariah C; Friedrich, Lisa A; Lindberg, T Ty; Ross, Matthew; Halden, Norman M; Bernhardt, Emily; Palace, Vince P; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2015-05-01

    Otoliths, calcified inner ear structures, were collected from creek chubs (Semotilus atromaculatus) and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) living in mountaintop mining-impacted and reference streams and analyzed for selenium (Se) content using laser ablation-inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Significant differences in otolith Se were found between the 2 fish species. Results from the present study suggest that a retrospective reconstruction of Se concentrations in muscle can be derived from Se concentrations in otoliths in creek chub but not green sunfish, exemplifying the importance of species differences when determining partitioning of Se among specific tissues. Green sunfish otoliths from all sites contained background (<1 μg/g) or low (1-4 μg/g) average concentrations of whole-otolith Se. In contrast, creek chub otoliths from the historically mined site contained much higher (≥5 μg/g) concentrations of Se than for the same species in the unmined site or for the green sunfish. These data suggest that body burdens of Se in fish can vary considerably over time and that both the timing of sampling and species choice could heavily influence Se assessments.

  9. Assessment of status of three water bodies in Serbia based on tissue metal and metalloid concentration (ICP-OES) and genotoxicity (comet assay).

    PubMed

    Sunjog, Karolina; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Višnjić-Jeftić, Željka; Skorić, Stefan; Gačić, Zoran; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Vasić, Nebojša; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-06-01

    Metals and metalloids are natural components of the biosphere, which are not produced per se by human beings, but whose form and distribution can be affected by human activities. Like all substances, they are a contaminant if present in excess compared to background levels and/or in a form that would not normally occur in the environment. Samples of liver, gills, gonads and muscle from European chub, Squalius cephalus, were analyzed for Al, As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sr and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to highlight the importance of tissue selection in monitoring research. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was selected as an in vivo genotoxicity assay, a rapid and sensitive method for measuring genotoxic effects in blood, liver and gills of the European chub. Microscopic images of comets were scored using Comet IV Computer Software (Perceptive Instruments, UK). The objective of our study was to investigate two reservoirs, Zlatar and Garasi, and one river, Pestan by: (i) determining and comparing metal and metalloid concentrations in sediment, water and tissues of European chub: liver, gills, muscle and gonads (ii) comparing these findings with genotoxicity of water expressed through DNA damage of fish tissues. A clear link between the level of metals in water, sediment and tissues and between metal and genotoxicity levels at examined sites was not found. This suggests that other xenobiotics (possibly the organic compounds), contribute to DNA damage.

  10. Assessment of status of three water bodies in Serbia based on tissue metal and metalloid concentration (ICP-OES) and genotoxicity (comet assay).

    PubMed

    Sunjog, Karolina; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Višnjić-Jeftić, Željka; Skorić, Stefan; Gačić, Zoran; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Vasić, Nebojša; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-06-01

    Metals and metalloids are natural components of the biosphere, which are not produced per se by human beings, but whose form and distribution can be affected by human activities. Like all substances, they are a contaminant if present in excess compared to background levels and/or in a form that would not normally occur in the environment. Samples of liver, gills, gonads and muscle from European chub, Squalius cephalus, were analyzed for Al, As, B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sr and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to highlight the importance of tissue selection in monitoring research. The comet assay or single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was selected as an in vivo genotoxicity assay, a rapid and sensitive method for measuring genotoxic effects in blood, liver and gills of the European chub. Microscopic images of comets were scored using Comet IV Computer Software (Perceptive Instruments, UK). The objective of our study was to investigate two reservoirs, Zlatar and Garasi, and one river, Pestan by: (i) determining and comparing metal and metalloid concentrations in sediment, water and tissues of European chub: liver, gills, muscle and gonads (ii) comparing these findings with genotoxicity of water expressed through DNA damage of fish tissues. A clear link between the level of metals in water, sediment and tissues and between metal and genotoxicity levels at examined sites was not found. This suggests that other xenobiotics (possibly the organic compounds), contribute to DNA damage. PMID:27016612

  11. Reach-scale land use drives the stress responses of a resident stream fish.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Zachary W; Wahl, David H; Suski, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Abstract To date, relatively few studies have tried to determine the practicality of using physiological information to help answer complex ecological questions and assist in conservation actions aimed at improving conditions for fish populations. In this study, the physiological stress responses of fish were evaluated in-stream between agricultural and forested stream reaches to determine whether differences in these responses can be used as tools to evaluate conservation actions. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus sampled directly from forested and agricultural stream segments did not show differences in a suite of physiological indicators. When given a thermal challenge in the laboratory, creek chub sampled from cooler forested stream reaches had higher cortisol levels and higher metabolic stress responses to thermal challenge than creek chub collected from warmer and more thermally variable agricultural reaches within the same stream. Despite fish from agricultural and forested stream segments having different primary and secondary stress responses, fish were able to maintain homeostasis of other physiological indicators to thermal challenge. These results demonstrate that local habitat conditions within discrete stream reaches may impact the stress responses of resident fish and provide insight into changes in community structure and the ability of tolerant fish species to persist in agricultural areas.

  12. Early life history of three pelagic-spawning minnows Macrhybopsis spp. in the lower Missouri River.

    PubMed

    Starks, T A; Miller, M L; Long, J M

    2016-04-01

    Life-history characteristics of age-0 sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, shoal chub Macrhybopsis hyostoma and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki were compared using several methods. All Macrhybopsis species consumed mostly midge pupae, but M. meeki had the most general diet (Levins' index, B = 0.22) compared with M. hyostoma (B = 0.02) and M. gelida (B = 0.09). Morisita's diet overlap index among species pairs ranged from 0.62 to 0.97 and was highest between M. hyostoma and M. gelida. Daily ages estimated from lapilli otoliths for each species ranged from 15 to 43 days for M. gelida, 19 to 44 for M. hyostoma and from 16 to 64 days for M. meeki. Mean growth rates ranged from 0.79 mm day(-1) for M. meeki to 1.39 mm day(-1) for M. gelida. Mortality estimates indicated high daily survivorship rates for M. meeki (0.985), but could not be estimated for the other two species. Hatch date histograms were congruent with the belief that M. hyostoma and M. gelida spawn periodically from June to September. Macrhybopsis meeki, however, appeared to respond to a specific spawning cue as hatch dates were unimodal with a peak in July. These results fill a gap in current knowledge of these imperilled species that can be used to guide management decisions. PMID:26887788

  13. Alternative to the soft-agar assay that permits high-throughput drug and genetic screens for cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Asaf; Janzer, Andreas; Izar, Benjamin; Ji, Zhe; Doench, John G.; Garraway, Levi A.; Struhl, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Colony formation in soft agar is the gold-standard assay for cellular transformation in vitro, but it is unsuited for high-throughput screening. Here, we describe an assay for cellular transformation that involves growth in low attachment (GILA) conditions and is strongly correlated with the soft-agar assay. Using GILA, we describe high-throughput screens for drugs and genes that selectively inhibit or increase transformation, but not proliferation. Such molecules are unlikely to be found through conventional drug screening, and they include kinase inhibitors and drugs for noncancer diseases. In addition to known oncogenes, the genetic screen identifies genes that contribute to cellular transformation. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of Food and Drug Administration-approved noncancer drugs to selectively kill ovarian cancer cells derived from patients with chemotherapy-resistant disease, suggesting this approach may provide useful information for personalized cancer treatment. PMID:25902495

  14. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems.

    PubMed

    Le, T T Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A Jan; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub

  15. Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1968-01-01

    The species composition of fish in the Great Lakes has undergone continual change since the earliest records. Some changes were caused by enrichment of the environment, but others primarily by an intensive and selective fishery for certain species. Major changes related to the fishery were less frequent before the late 1930's than in recent years and involved few species. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were overexploited knowingly during the late 1800's because they interfered with fishing for preferred species; sturgeon were greatly reduced in all lakes by the early 1900's. Heavy exploitation accompanied sharp declines of lake herring (Leucichthys artedi) in Lake Erie during the 1920's and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron during the 1930's. A rapid succession of fish species in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior that started about 1940 has been caused by selective predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on native predatory species, and the resultant shifting emphasis of the fishery and species interaction as various species declined. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and burbot (Lota lota), the deepwater predators, were depleted first; this favored their prey, the chubs (Leucichthys spp.). The seven species of chubs were influenced differently according to differences in size. Fishing emphasis and predation by sea lampreys were selective for the largest species of chubs as lake trout and burbot declined. A single slow-growing chub, the bloater, was favored and increased, but as the large chubs declined the bloater was exploited by a new trawl fishery. The growth rate and size of the bloater increased, making it more vulnerable to conventional gillnet fishery and lamprey predation. This situation in Lakes Michigan and Huron favored the small alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) which had recently become established in the upper Great Lakes, and the alewife increased rapidly and dominated the fish stocks of the lakes. The successive

  16. Use and usability of experimental monitoring data and temperature modeling to inform adaptive management of the Colorado River's thermal regime for native fish conservation below Glen Canyon Dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal thermal variability of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon was severely decreased by closure of Glen Canyon Dam and filling of Lake Powell reservoir that was achieved in 1980. From 1973 to 2002, downstream summer river temperatures at Lees Ferry were about 18°C below pre-dam conditions, and limited juvenile native fish growth and survival. A large-scale flow experiment to improve the river's thermal regime for spawning and rearing habitat of endangered native humpback chub and other native fish in eastern Grand Canyon was conducted in Water Year 2000. Monitoring revealed warming, but well below the 16-18°C optimum for chub 124 km below the dam near the Little Colorado River confluence, and no measurable chub population increase in Grand Canyon. Fall-timed stable flow experiments to improve shoreline chub nursery habitat (2008-12) were also inconclusive relative to juvenile chub growth and recruitment. Field studies also showed that daytime warming of shoreline habitats used by fish under steady flows is limited by high daily exchange rates with main channel water. Monthly averaged and higher resolution temperature models have also been developed and used to support more recent experimental management planning. Temperature simulations have been useful for screening dam release scenarios under varied reservoir storage conditions with and without use of previously proposed but never constructed multilevel intake structures on the dam's hydroelectric units. Most importantly, modeling revealed the geophysical limits on downstream warming under existing water management and dam operating policies. Hourly unsteady flow simulations in 2006 predicted equivalent levels of average downstream river warming under either fluctuating or steady flows for a given monthly release volume. River warming observed since 2002, has resulted from reduced Lake Powell storage resulting from drier upper basin hydrology. In support of new environmental compliance on dam operations

  17. Development and Validation of a Biodynamic Model for Mechanistically Predicting Metal Accumulation in Fish-Parasite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Le, T. T. Yen; Nachev, Milen; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A. Jan; Sures, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Because of different reported effects of parasitism on the accumulation of metals in fish, it is important to consider parasites while interpreting bioaccumulation data from biomonitoring programmes. Accordingly, the first step is to take parasitism into consideration when simulating metal bioaccumulation in the fish host under laboratory conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of metals in fish-parasite systems was simulated by a one-compartment toxicokinetic model and compared to uninfected conspecifics. As such, metal accumulation in fish was assumed to result from a balance of different uptake and loss processes depending on the infection status. The uptake by parasites was considered an efflux from the fish host, similar to elimination. Physiological rate constants for the uninfected fish were parameterised based on the covalent index and the species weight while the parameterisation for the infected fish was carried out based on the reported effects of parasites on the uptake kinetics of the fish host. The model was then validated for the system of the chub Squalius cephalus and the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis following 36-day exposure to waterborne Pb. The dissolved concentration of Pb in the exposure tank water fluctuated during the exposure, ranging from 40 to 120 μg/L. Generally, the present study shows that the one-compartment model can be an effective method for simulating the accumulation of metals in fish, taking into account effects of parasitism. In particular, the predicted concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb in the uninfected chub as well as in the infected chub and the acanthocephalans were within one order of magnitude of the measurements. The variation in the absorption efficiency and the elimination rate constant of the uninfected chub resulted in variations of about one order of magnitude in the predicted concentrations of Pb. Inclusion of further assumptions for simulating metal accumulation in the infected chub

  18. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. 25. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1928. Vol I. Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, BIA-Phoenix, BOx 40, National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region.) SACATON DAM SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF CONDUIT AND EXCAVATION OF GRAVEL, APRIL 10, 1928 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. 14. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE, CONSTRUCTION BRIDGE PIERS - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 9. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1928 Vol I. Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, BIA-Phoenix, Box 40, National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region) Photographer unknown. CASA BLANCA CANAL, HEADING AND FLUME, APRIL 10, 1928 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Casa Blanca Canal, Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  2. 17. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE, CONSTRUCTION OF WEIR, 1/17/25 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  3. 21. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1926. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM, UPSTREAM SIDE FROM SOUTH END, 8/29/25 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  4. 20. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1926. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM, BRIDGE FROM SOUTH END, 8/29/25 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  5. 11. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE SITE FROM QUARRY HILL, 10/1/24 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  6. 10. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1919. Vol. I, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 25, National Archives, Washington, DC.) ASHURST-HAYDEN (FLORENCE) DAM SITE, BRUSH DAM ACROSS THE RIVER - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Ashurst-Hayden Dam, Gila River, T4S R11E S7, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  7. 22. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1926. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM, SOUTH END WITH CANAL AND ROADWAY, 8/29/25 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  8. 24. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1928. Vol I. Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, BIA-Phoenix, Box 40, National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM, CONDUIT ANCHORING AND REINFORCING STEEL, APRIL 10, 1928 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  9. 13. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE, CONSTRUCTION OF MAIN APRON, 12/9/24 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  10. 23. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1926. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 29, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown, SACATON DAM, NORTH SIDE SIPHON AND INTAKE GATES, 2/23/26 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  11. 10. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1928. Vol I. Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, BIA-Phoenix, Box 40, National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region) Photographer unknown. CASA BLANCA CANAL, HEADING AND FLUME, APRIL 10, 1928 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Casa Blanca Canal, Gila River, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  12. Afterbay, looking west at the discharge channels and hydraulic gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Afterbay, looking west at the discharge channels and hydraulic gate check cylinders. The outlet at left without a hydraulic cylinder is the outlet for the ca. 1974-1975 outdoor regulatory pumps. The gate box for the spillback is visible at the far left on the west side of the canal - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND OUTLINE. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND OUTLINE. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+00. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3187, dated January 10, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL STA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+82.15. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3200, dated February 7, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. LOCATION PLAN. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOCATION PLAN. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+00. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3186, dated January 25, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  16. 15. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE, CONSTRUCTION BRIDGE DECK, 4/5/25 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  17. RADIAL GATE CHECK DROP. WELLTON CANAL STA. 525+30.00. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RADIAL GATE CHECK DROP. WELLTON CANAL - STA. 525+30.00. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2878, dated March 1, 1951, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Radial Gate Check with Drop, Wellton Canal 9.9, West of Avenue 34 East & north of County Ninth Street, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  18. PLAN AND SECTION, WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLAN AND SECTION, WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 2. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 717+62.95. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2378, dated June 30, 1948, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

    2011-12-01

    The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to

  20. 10. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1919. Vol. I, RG 75, Entry 655, BOx 25, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) Photographer unknown. SACATION DAM SITE LOOKING SOUTH SHOWING HEADWORKS OF SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 10. WHITNEY'S FLUME AND VIEW OF THE CONFLUENCE OF TONTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WHITNEY'S FLUME AND VIEW OF THE CONFLUENCE OF TONTO CREEK AND THE SALT RIVER. AREA SHOWN IS PRESENTLY UNDER WATER. TONTO CREEK FLOWS FROM BACKGROUND CENTER TO LEFT, AND THE SALT RIVER FLOWS FROM RIGHT TO LEFT IN THE PHOTO. DAM IS LOCATED OFF THE PHOTO TO THE LEFT Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, March 3, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  2. Looking east along the operating deck above the intake toward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east along the operating deck above the intake toward the Main Control Room. An evaporative-cooling system is to the left of the Control Room, and a motor-operated, geared trolly hoist and rake for removing debris from the trash rack is in the foreground - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  3. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Anning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Salton Sea accounting unit.

  4. Streamflow projections for a Southwestern river: Climate change and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutzler, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate projections for flows in the upper Gila River in southwestern New Mexico are assessed. The State of New Mexico is currently considering proposals for new consumptive uses of water extracted from the Gila, pursuant to a recent interstate stream settlement. Among the factors being considered is the prospect of decreasing flow in this snow-fed river associated with projected 21st Century climate change. Southwestern North America already exhibits a sustained and pronounced trend toward warmer temperature. Policymakers requested a projection for the next several decades as input to their ongoing deliberations over new extractions from the river. For lead times of several decades the predictability derived from current climatic conditions, the source of most prediction skill for seasonal forecasts, is minimal. On the other hand, the magnitude of the signal of greenhouse-gas forced long-term climate change in streamflow, driven largely by temperature change, is modest compared to the large natural decadal variability of flow. The upper Gila is known to exhibit tremendous decadal variability, driven largely by precipitation, as seen in a century of instrumental gage data and from a much longer dendrochronological reconstruction of flow. We have compared dynamical projections of flow in the upper Gila generated by the Bureau of Reclamation's West-Wide Climate Risk Assessment, with a statistical projection derived from a regression of observed precipitation and temperature onto historical flows. The latter approach assumes statistical stationarity. We show that the stationarity assumption will be violated by mid-century but is defensible on the time scale of interest set by policymakers. These two approaches yield consistent projections of 5-10% average decline in flow on the upper Gila for the period 2021-2050, if -- and only if -- a long historical period is chosen to represent baseline "average" flow. An averaging period much longer than the 30 year "climate

  5. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  6. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers in fish from the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Timothy S.; Echols, Kathy R.; Davis, Anne P.; May, Tom W.; Orazio, Carl E.; Coyle, James J.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    Seven fish species were collected from 14 sites on rivers in the Colorado River Basin (CDRB) from August to October 2003. Spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants were documented and contaminant effects on the fish were assessed. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Colorado River and on the Yampa, Green, Gunnison, San Juan, and Gila Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal anomalies, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using performance-based and instrumental methods. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) was measured using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations were elevated throughout the CDRB, and pesticides concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 ?g/g ww) at all sites except from the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 ?g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 ?g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 ?g/g ww). Concentrations of other banned pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds

  7. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gross, T.S.; May, T.W.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (> 1.0????g/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (> 0.1????g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (> 1.0????g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (> 0.5????g/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, ??-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; > 0.11????g/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (> 5??pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites showed

  8. Adaptive Management of Glen Canyon Dam: Two Decades of Large Scale Experimental Treatments Intended to Benefit Resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Theodore

    2010-05-01

    Glen Canyon Dam was closed in 1963, primarily to store water for the rapidly developing southwestern United States. The dam's hydropower plant, with a generating capacity of up to 1,300 megawatts of electrical energy, was initially operated without daily peaking constraints from 1966 to 1990, resulting in daily tides on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park of up to 4 meters. The influences of Glen Canyon Dam's peaking operations on downstream river resources through Grand Canyon have been intensively studied for nearly four decades. Following experimental reoperation of the dam in summer 1990, and five years of studies associated with a major environmental impact statement, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program was created in 1997, to evaluate whether a new experimental flow regime, combined with other non-flow treatments, can mitigate the detrimental effects of the former hydropeaking flow regime. Experimental flow treatments associated with the program over the last two decades have included the adoption of hourly and daily operating rules that now govern and constrain hydropeaking, periodic release of experimental controlled floods to rebuild sandbar habitats along shorelines and occasional steady flow tests intended to benefit the river's endangered humpback chub; one of the endemic fish of the Colorado River basin that experienced a population decline following dam closure. Other non-flow experimental treatments being evaluated by the program include removal of nonnative fish species, such as rainbow trout and other exotic fish, as well as translocation of humpback chub into other habitats below the dam where they might successfully spawn. Since 1995, three controlled flood experiments have been released from the dam to determine whether the remaining sand supplies that enter the Colorado River below the dam (about 6 to 16 percent of the predam sand supply) can be managed to create and maintain sandbar habitats used by humpback chub

  9. Refuge habitats for fishes during seasonal drying in an intermittent stream: movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, S.W.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    Drought and summer drying can be important disturbance events in many small streams leading to intermittent or isolated habitats. We examined what habitats act as refuges for fishes during summer drying, hypothesizing that pools would act as refuge habitats. We predicted that during drying fish would show directional movement into pools from riffle habitats, survival rates would be greater in pools than in riffles, and fish abundance would increase in pool habitats. We examined movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species, bigeye shiner (Notropis boops), highland stoneroller (Campostoma spadiceum) and creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), during seasonal stream drying in an Ozark stream using a closed robust multi-strata mark-recapture sampling. Population parameters were estimated using plausible models within program MARK, where a priori models are ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Creek chub showed directional movement into pools and increased survival and abundance in pools during drying. Highland stonerollers showed strong directional movement into pools and abundance increased in pools during drying, but survival rates were not significantly greater in pools than riffles. Bigeye shiners showed high movement rates during drying, but the movement was non-directional, and survival rates were greater in riffles than pools. Therefore, creek chub supported our hypothesis and pools appear to act as refuge habitats for this species, whereas highland stonerollers partly supported the hypothesis and bigeye shiners did not support the pool refuge hypothesis. Refuge habitats during drying are species dependent. An urgent need exists to further understand refuge habitats in streams given projected changes in climate and continued alteration of hydrological regimes.

  10. Refuge habitats for fishes during seasonal drying in an intermittent stream: Movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, S.W.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Drought and summer drying can be important disturbance events in many small streams leading to intermittent or isolated habitats. We examined what habitats act as refuges for fishes during summer drying, hypothesizing that pools would act as refuge habitats. We predicted that during drying fish would show directional movement into pools from riffle habitats, survival rates would be greater in pools than in riffles, and fish abundance would increase in pool habitats. We examined movement, survival and abundance of three minnow species, bigeye shiner (Notropis boops), highland stoneroller (Campostoma spadiceum) and creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), during seasonal stream drying in an Ozark stream using a closed robust multi-strata mark-recapture sampling. Population parameters were estimated using plausible models within program MARK, where a priori models are ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Creek chub showed directional movement into pools and increased survival and abundance in pools during drying. Highland stonerollers showed strong directional movement into pools and abundance increased in pools during drying, but survival rates were not significantly greater in pools than riffles. Bigeye shiners showed high movement rates during drying, but the movement was non-directional, and survival rates were greater in riffles than pools. Therefore, creek chub supported our hypothesis and pools appear to act as refuge habitats for this species, whereas highland stonerollers partly supported the hypothesis and bigeye shiners did not support the pool refuge hypothesis. Refuge habitats during drying are species dependent. An urgent need exists to further understand refuge habitats in streams given projected changes in climate and continued alteration of hydrological regimes. ?? 2011 Springer Basel AG (outside the USA).

  11. Early life history of three pelagic-spawning minnows Macrhybopsis spp. in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Starks, T. A.; Miller, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history characteristics of age-0 sturgeon chub Macrhybopsis gelida, shoal chub Macrhybopsis hyostoma and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki were compared using several methods. AllMacrhybopsis species consumed mostly midge pupae, but M. meeki had the most general diet (Levins' index, B = 0·22) compared with M. hyostoma (B = 0·02) and M. gelida (B = 0·09). Morisita's diet overlap index among species pairs ranged from 0·62 to 0·97 and was highest between M. hyostoma and M. gelida. Daily ages estimated from lapilli otoliths for each species ranged from 15 to 43 days for M. gelida, 19 to 44 for M. hyostoma and from 16 to 64 days for M. meeki. Mean growth rates ranged from 0·79 mm day−1 for M. meeki to 1·39 mm day−1 for M. gelida. Mortality estimates indicated high daily survivorship rates for M. meeki (0·985), but could not be estimated for the other two species. Hatch date histograms were congruent with the belief that M. hyostoma and M. gelida spawn periodically from June to September. Macrhybopsis meeki, however, appeared to respond to a specific spawning cue as hatch dates were unimodal with a peak in July. These results fill a gap in current knowledge of these imperilled species that can be used to guide management decisions.

  12. Identity of Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from Istra Peninsula in Croatia (Adriatic Sea basin).

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Primoz; Mrakovcic, Milorad; Marcic, Zoran; Naseka, Alexander M; Bogutskaya, Nina G

    2010-08-27

    A chub of previously ambiguous identity from the Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers (south-eastern Istra Peninsula) was studied and compared with geographically close Squalius squalus, Squalius zrmanja, and Squalius janae recently described from the Dragonja River drainage in the Adriatic Sea basin in Slovenia. It was shown that the chub from the south-eastern Istra Peninsula differs from all know species of Squalius but one: Squalius janae. Three samples examined from Boljunscica and Pazincica rivers and Squalius janae from its type locality, Dragonja River, show the following characters typical for the latter species: a long head (the head length 27-32% SL); a pointed conical snout with a clearly projecting upper jaw; a long straight mouth cleft, the lower jaw length (39-45% HL) exceeding the caudal peduncle depth; a large eye; commonly 9? branched anal-fin rays; commonly 44 total vertebrae (24+20 or 25+19); bright silvery colouration, scales easily lost; iris, pectoral, pelvic and anal fin pigmentation with yellow shades. The data on the distribution of Squalius chubs in the northern Adriatic basin support the assumption that the range of Squalius janae is determined by the geology of the Trieste Flysch Basin and the Pazin Flysch Basin forming the base of the Istra Peninsula. The distribution pattern of this species does not support a simple model of fish dispersal and a complete connectivity within the whole Palaeo-Po historical drainage. Indeed, it indicates a disrupted surface palaeohydrography that was heavily fragmented by karstification in the whole Dinaric area.

  13. On-site effluent toxicity studies at the Goodyear Atomic Corporation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, J.G.; Bean, D.J.

    1986-04-01

    Acute on-site, flow-through bioassays were conducted with effluents from outfalls 001 and 002 at the Goodyear Atomic facility in Piketon, Ohio. Data collected during this study indicate that the effluents were not toxic to the two species of fish (creek chub and fathead minnow) and one species of invertebrates (crayfish) used as test organisms. The only evidence of an adverse effect was observed in the response of Daphnia magna to effluent 001, which produced a ''ballooning'' effect in laboratory studies while dilution and laboratory water failed to elicit the same response.

  14. Bed disturbance via foraging fish increases bedload transport during subsequent high flows and is controlled by fish size and species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pledger, A. G.; Rice, S. P.; Millett, J.

    2016-01-01

    Benthic foraging by fish can modify the nature and rates of fine sediment accrual and the structure and topography of coarse-grained fluvial substrates, with the potential to alter bed material characteristics, particle entrainment thresholds, and bedload transport fluxes. However, knowledge of what controls the nature, extent, and intensity of benthic foraging and the consequent influence of these controls on geomorphic impact remain rudimentary. An ex-situ experiment utilising Barbel Barbus barbus and Chub Leuciscus cephalus extended previous work by considering the role of fish size and species as controls of sediment disturbance by foraging and the implications for bed material characteristics and bedload transport. In a laboratory flume, changes in bed microtopography and structure were measured when a water-worked bed of 5.6-22.6 mm gravels was exposed to four size classes of Barbel (4-5″, 5-6″, 6-8″, 8-10″ in length) and a single size class of Chub (8-10″). In line with other studies that have investigated animal size as a control of zoogeomorphic agency, increasing the size of Barbel had a significant effect on measured disturbance and transport metrics. Specifically, the area of disturbed substrate, foraging depth, and the fish's impact on microtopographic roughness and imbrication all increased as a function of fish size. In a comparison of the foraging effects of like-sized Barbel and Chub, 8-10″ in length, Barbel foraged a larger area of the test bed and had a greater impact on microtopographic roughness and sediment structure. Relative to water-worked beds that were not foraged, bed conditioning by both species was associated with increased bedload transport during the subsequent application of high flows. However, the bedload flux after foraging by Barbel, which is a specialist benthivore, was 150% higher than that following foraging by Chub, which feed opportunistically from the bed, and the total transported mass of sediment was 98

  15. Ground-water resources of Catron County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basabilvazo, G.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water and related surface-water resources in Catron County, the largest county in New Mexico. The county is located in the Lower Colorado River Basin and the Rio Grande Basin, and the Continental Divide is the boundary between the two river basins. Increases in water used for mining activities (coal, mineral, and geothermal), irrigated agriculture, reservoir construction, or domestic purposes could affect the quantity or quality of ground- water and surface-water resources in the county. Parts of seven major drainage basins are within the two regional river basins in the county--Carrizo Wash, North Plains, Rio Salado, San Agustin, Alamosa Creek, Gila, and San Francisco Basins. The San Francisco, Gila, and Tularosa Rivers typically flow perennially. During periods of low flow, most streamflow is derived from baseflow. The stream channels of the Rio Salado and Carrizo Wash Basins are commonly perennial in their upper reaches and ephemeral in their lower reaches. Largo Creek in the Carrizo Wash Basin is perennial downstream from Quemado Lake and ephemeral in the lower reaches. Aquifers in Catron County include Quaternary alluvium and bolson fill; Quaternary to Tertiary Gila Conglomerate; Tertiary Bearwallow Mountain Andesite, Datil Group, and Baca Formation; Cretaceous Mesaverde Group, Crevasse Canyon Formation, Gallup Sandstone, Mancos Shale, and Dakota Sandstone; Triassic Chinle Formation; and undifferentiated rocks of Permian age. Water in the aquifers in the county generally is unconfined; however, confined conditions may exist where the aquifers are overlain by other units of lower permeability. Yields of ground water from the Quaternary alluvium in the county range from 1 to 375 gallons per minute. Yields of ground water from the alluvium in the Carrizo Wash Basin are as much as 250 gallons per minute for short time periods. North of the Plains of San Agustin, ground-water yields from the

  16. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Anning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

  17. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10(kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000(kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000(kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1

    PubMed Central

    Anning, David W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

  19. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  20. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and Spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Dysthe, Joseph C; Carim, Kellie J; Paroz, Yvette M; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species' distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur.

  1. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  2. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and Spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Dysthe, Joseph C; Carim, Kellie J; Paroz, Yvette M; McKelvey, Kevin S; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species' distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur. PMID:27583576

  3. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  4. 2. William Beardsley standing along the Agua Fria River near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. William Beardsley standing along the Agua Fria River near construction site of the Agua Fria project. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler, James D. 'Report on the Water Supply of the Agua Fria River, and the Storage Reservoir Project of the Agua Fria Water and Land Company For Irrigation in the Gila River Valley, Arizona,' (September 29, 1903). Arizona Historical Collection, Hayden Library, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. (Typewritten.) - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 19. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE, CANAL BRIDGE, OPERATING HOUSE AND INTAKE, SOUTH END, 2/14/25 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  6. 16. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol, I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE, SHOWING WEIR APRONS AND BRIDGE, 6/18/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  7. 12. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE FROM QUARRY HILL, PRACTICALLY COMPLETED, 6/18/25 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  8. Quantitative PCR Assays for Detecting Loach Minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and Spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Carim, Kellie J.; Paroz, Yvette M.; McKelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species’ distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow and spikedace DNA in environmental samples. Each assay reliably detected low concentrations of target DNA without detection of non-target species, including other cyprinid fishes with which they co-occur. PMID:27583576

  9. Detection and Analysis of Six Lizard Adenoviruses by Consensus Primer PCR Provides Further Evidence of a Reptilian Origin for the Atadenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wellehan, James F. X.; Johnson, April J.; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P.; Johnson, Calvin M.; Garner, Michael M.; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R.

    2004-01-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses. PMID:15542689

  10. Detection and analysis of six lizard adenoviruses by consensus primer PCR provides further evidence of a reptilian origin for the atadenoviruses.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Harrach, Balázs; Benkö, Mária; Pessier, Allan P; Johnson, Calvin M; Garner, Michael M; Childress, April; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2004-12-01

    A consensus nested-PCR method was designed for investigation of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. Gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from six novel adenoviruses from seven lizard species, including four species from which adenoviruses had not previously been reported. Host species included Gila monster, leopard gecko, fat-tail gecko, blue-tongued skink, Tokay gecko, bearded dragon, and mountain chameleon. This is the first sequence information from lizard adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these viruses belong to the genus Atadenovirus, supporting the reptilian origin of atadenoviruses. This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel adenoviruses.

  11. DISCHARGE PIPE AND OUTLET TRANSITION. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCHARGE PIPE AND OUTLET TRANSITION. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+00.00. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3199, dated January 26, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  12. INLET TRANSITION WEIR SPILLWAY OUTLET STRUCTURE. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INLET TRANSITION - WEIR SPILLWAY OUTLET STRUCTURE. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+00.00. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3198, dated January 24, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. RADIAL GATE AND HOIST INSTALLATIONS. WELLTON CANAL CHECKS. STA. 30+20.00, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RADIAL GATE AND HOIST INSTALLATIONS. WELLTON CANAL CHECKS. STA. 30+20.00, 222+90.00, 268+25.00, 322+60.00, 406+50.00, 476+80.00, 525+30.00, 586+45.00 AND 618+00.00. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2845, dated January 8, 1951, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Radial Gate Check with Drop, Wellton Canal 9.9, West of Avenue 34 East & north of County Ninth Street, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. Arizona Geology Trip - February 25-28, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Gretchen A.; Ross, Amy J.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of hardware developers, crew, mission planners, and headquarters personnel traveled to Gila Bend, Arizona, in February 2008 for a CxP Lunar Surface Systems Team geology experience. Participating in this field trip were the CxP Space Suit System (EC5) leads: Thomas (PLSS) and Ross (PGS), who presented the activities and findings learned from being in the field during this KC. As for the design of a new spacesuit system, this allowed the engineers to understand the demands this type of activity will have on NASA's hardware, systems, and planning efforts. The engineers also experienced the methods and tools required for lunar surface activity.

  15. 18. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of photograph. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation Service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. SACATON DAM AND BRIDGE, SOUTH END SLUICEWAY, INTAKE CANAL BRIDGE, OPERATING HOUSE, AND MAIN BRIDGE, 6/18/25 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  16. Occurrence of immune cells in the intestinal wall of Squalius cephalus infected with Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; DePasquale, Joseph A; Bosi, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    A sub-population of 34 specimens of chub, Squalius cephalus, was sampled from the River Brenta (Northern Italy) and examined for ecto- and endo-parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) was the only enteric helminth encountered. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of chub. Near the site of parasite's attachment, mucous cells, mast cells (MCs), neutrophils and rodlet cells (RCs) were found to co-occur within the intestinal epithelium. The numbers of mucous cells, MCs and neutrophils were significantly higher in infected fish (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Dual immunofluorescence staining with the lectin Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) and the macrophage-specific MAC387 monoclonal antibody, with parallel transmission electron microscopy, revealed that epithelial MCs often made intimate contact with the mucous cells. Degranulation of a large number of MCs around the site of the acanthocephalan's attachment and in proximity to mucous cells was also documented. MCs and neutrophils were abundant in the submucosa. Immune cells of the intestinal epithelium have been described at the ultrastructural level and their possible functions and interactions are discussed.

  17. Data Collection and Simulation of Ecological Habitat and Recreational Habitat in the Shenandoah River, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Time-series analyses were used to investigate changes in habitat availability with increased water withdrawals of 10, 20, and almost 50 percent (48.6 percent) up to the 2040 amounts projected by local water supply plans. Adult and sub-adult smallmouth bass frequently had habitat availability outside the normal range for habitat conditions during drought years, yet 10- or 20-percent increases in withdrawals did not contribute to a large reduction in habitat. When withdrawals were increased by 50 percent, there was an additional decrease in habitat. During 2002 drought scenarios, reduced habitat availability for sub-adult redbreast sunfish or river chub was only slightly evident with 50-percent increased withdrawal scenarios. Recreational habitat represented by canoeing decreased lower than normal during the 2002 drought. For a recent normal year, like 2012, increased water-withdrawal scenarios did not affect habitat availability for fish such as adult and sub-adult smallmouth bass, sub-adult redbreast sunfish, or river chub. Canoeing habitat availability was within the normal range most of 2012, and increased water-withdrawal scenarios showed almost no affect. For both ecological fish habitat and recreational canoeing habitat, the antecedent conditions (habitat within normal range of habitat or below normal) appear to govern whether additional water withdrawals will affect habitat availability. As human populations and water demands increase, many of the ecological or recreational stresses may be lessened by managing the timing of water withdrawals from the system.

  18. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish Squalius lucumonis and three other Italian leuciscines using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA probes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes.

  19. Fish abundance, distribution, and habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Valdez, Richard A.; Speas, David W.

    The 1996 controlled flood in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, was designed, in part, to improve conditions for juvenile native fishes by reshaping habitat and displacing non-native fishes. We examined changes in abundance and distributions of native and non-native fishes immediately before and after the controlled flood and recovery of affected species 2.5 and 6 months after. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of humpback chub and flannelmouth sucker did not differ in pre- versus post-flood periods. CPUE of plains killifish, bluehead sucker and fathead minnow decreased following the flood, and CPUE of speckled dace and rainbow trout increased. Juvenile humpback chub remained primarily along talus shorelines at all discharges, while at higher discharges, speckled dace shifted from mid-channel riffles to debris fans and talus and fathead minnows used primarily vegetated shorelines. There was evidence of some downstream displacement of plains killifish, fathead minnows and rainbow trout. Catch rates of all species showed seasonal variation following the flood, with summer recruitment of young-of-the-year, particularly fathead minnows and plains killifish. Although short-term reductions in catch rates of fathead minnows and plains killifish occurred, these populations returned to pre-flood densities by 6 months after the flood. Catch rates of all species before and after the flood were similar to those recorded in previous years. We determined that the controlled flood did not significantly alter native fish distributions or abundances through Grand Canyon.

  20. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish Squalius lucumonis and three other Italian leuciscines using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA probes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Milana, Valentina; Hett, Anne Kathrin; Tancioni, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics of the Appenine endemic cyprinid fish, Toscana stream chub Squalius lucumonis, were analysed using conventional banding and FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 50) and karyotype characteristics including pericentromeric heterochromatic blocks and GC-rich CMA(3)-positive sites corresponding to both positive Ag-NORs and 45S rDNA loci on the short arms of a single medium-sized submetacentric chromosome pair were consistent with those found in most European leuciscine cyprinids. On other hand, 5S rDNA FISH in the Toscana stream chub and three other Italian leuciscines, S. squalus, Rutilus rubilio and Telestes muticellus, revealed a species-specific hybridization pattern, i.e. signals on four (S. lucumonis), three (S. squalus and R. rubilio) and two (T. muticellus) chromosome pairs. Whereas all the species shared the 5S rDNA loci on the largest subtelocentric chromosome pair, a "leuciscine" cytotaxonomic marker, S. lucumonis showed both classes of rDNA loci tandem aligned on the short arms of chromosome pair No. 12. The present findings suggest that the observed high variability of 5S rDNA loci provides a powerful tool for investigation of karyotype differentiation in karyologically conservative leuciscine fishes. PMID:23238894

  1. Occurrence of immune cells in the intestinal wall of Squalius cephalus infected with Pomphorhynchus laevis.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, Bahram S; Manera, Maurizio; Giari, Luisa; DePasquale, Joseph A; Bosi, Giampaolo

    2015-11-01

    A sub-population of 34 specimens of chub, Squalius cephalus, was sampled from the River Brenta (Northern Italy) and examined for ecto- and endo-parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala) was the only enteric helminth encountered. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of chub. Near the site of parasite's attachment, mucous cells, mast cells (MCs), neutrophils and rodlet cells (RCs) were found to co-occur within the intestinal epithelium. The numbers of mucous cells, MCs and neutrophils were significantly higher in infected fish (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Dual immunofluorescence staining with the lectin Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin (DBA) and the macrophage-specific MAC387 monoclonal antibody, with parallel transmission electron microscopy, revealed that epithelial MCs often made intimate contact with the mucous cells. Degranulation of a large number of MCs around the site of the acanthocephalan's attachment and in proximity to mucous cells was also documented. MCs and neutrophils were abundant in the submucosa. Immune cells of the intestinal epithelium have been described at the ultrastructural level and their possible functions and interactions are discussed. PMID:26434712

  2. Data Collection and Simulation of Ecological Habitat and Recreational Habitat in the Shenandoah River, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Time-series analyses were used to investigate changes in habitat availability with increased water withdrawals of 10, 20, and almost 50 percent (48.6 percent) up to the 2040 amounts projected by local water supply plans. Adult and sub-adult smallmouth bass frequently had habitat availability outside the normal range for habitat conditions during drought years, yet 10- or 20-percent increases in withdrawals did not contribute to a large reduction in habitat. When withdrawals were increased by 50 percent, there was an additional decrease in habitat. During 2002 drought scenarios, reduced habitat availability for sub-adult redbreast sunfish or river chub was only slightly evident with 50-percent increased withdrawal scenarios. Recreational habitat represented by canoeing decreased lower than normal during the 2002 drought. For a recent normal year, like 2012, increased water-withdrawal scenarios did not affect habitat availability for fish such as adult and sub-adult smallmouth bass, sub-adult redbreast sunfish, or river chub. Canoeing habitat availability was within the normal range most of 2012, and increased water-withdrawal scenarios showed almost no affect. For both ecolo

  3. Burst Speed of Wild Fishes under High-Velocity Flow Conditions Using Stamina Tunnel with Natural Guidance System in River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Mattashi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Yataya, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kohhei

    Swimming experiments were conducted on wild fishes in a natural guidance system stamina tunnel (cylindrical pipe) installed in a fishway of a local river under high-velocity flow conditions (tunnel flow velocity : 211 to 279 cm·s-1). In this study, the swimming characteristics of fishes were observed. The results show that (1) the swimming speeds of Tribolodon hakonensis (Japanese dace), Phoxinus lagowshi steindachneri (Japanese fat-minnow), Plecoglossus altivelis (Ayu), and Zacco platypus (Pale chub) were in proportion to their body length under identical water flow velocity conditions; (2) the maximum burst speed of Japanese dace and Japanese fat-minnow (measuring 4 to 6 cm in length) was 262 to 319 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (225 to 230 cm·s-1), while the maximum burst speed of Ayu and Pale chub (measuring 5 cm to 12 cm in length) was 308 to 355 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (264 to 273 cm·s-1) ; (3) the 50cm-maximum swimming speed of swimming fishes was 1.07 times faster than the pipe-swimming speed; (4) the faster the flow velocity, the shorter the swimming distance became.

  4. Stressor identification and health assessment of fish exposed to wastewater effluents in Miho Stream, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Dong-Hyuk; Lee, Soon-Ae; Kang, Gi Soo; Seo, Jinwon; Lee, Sung-Kyu

    2007-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWTP) and a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluents on a variety of bioindicators ranging from biochemical, organism, and population-level responses in pale chub (Zacco platypus) and fish community structure. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) indicated that the site upstream of these wastewater treatment plant discharges is in fair-good condition and downstream of the plant is in poor condition. The EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) activity, condition factor, and liver somatic index were significantly increased at the downstream site compared to those of the upstream site. The most significant change observed in pale chub population in the downstream site of the Miho Stream, relative to the upstream population, was the total absence of an younger age group. Stressors impacting the downstream site were identified as mostly organic or nutrient enrichment and habitat degradation associated with wastewater treatment plants. The results of causal analysis suggest that the primary causes affecting fish population in the downstream site are through both size-selective mortality caused by ammonia toxicity and recruitment failure caused by habitat degradation and reproduction problem due to an IWTP and MWTP effluents. PMID:17258278

  5. Fish assemblage structure following Impoundment of a Great Plains river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quist, M.C.; Hubert, W.A.; Rahel, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the upstream and downstream effect of impoundments on stream fish assemblages is important in managing fish populations and predicting the effects of future human activities on stream ecosystems. We used information collected over a 41-year period (1960-2001) to assess changes in fish assemblage structure resulting from impoundment of the Laramie River by Grayrocks Reservoir. Prior to impoundment (i.e., 1960-1979), fish assemblages were dominated by native catostomids and cyprinids. After impoundment several exotic species (e.g., smallmouth bass [Micropterus dolomieu], walleye [Sander vitreus; formerly Stizostedion vitreum], yellow perch [Perca flavescens], brown trout [Salmo trutta]) were sampled from reaches upstream and downstream of the reservoir. Suckermouth minnows (Phenacobius mirabilis) were apparently extirpated, and hornyhead chubs (Nocomis biguttatus) and common shiners (Luxilus cornutus) became rare upstream of Grayrocks Reservoir. The lower Laramie River downstream from Grayrocks Reservoir near its mouth retains habitat characteristics similar to those prior to impoundment (e.g., shallow, braided channel morphology) and is the only downstream area where several sensitive species persist, including sucker-mouth minnows, hornyhead chubs, and bigmouth shiners (Notropis dorsalis). Grayrocks Reservoir serves as a source of exotic piscivores to both upstream and downstream reaches and has altered downstream habitat characteristics. These impacts have had a substantial influence on native fish assemblages. Our results suggest that upstream and downstream effects of impoundment on fish assemblage structure are similar and that downstream reaches which retain habitat characteristics similar to pre-impoundment conditions may serve as areas of refuge for native species.

  6. Recent changes in Lake Michigan's fish community and their probable causes, with emphasis on the role of the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eck, Gary W.; Wells, LaRue

    1987-01-01

    Deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) or "chubs" of Lake Michigan far surpassed those of Lake Huron in yield, population density, and resilience following severe depletion in the 1960s and 1970s, when the bloater (C. hoyi) composed more than 90% of the stocks. The population decline of bloaters in recent decades was mainly attributed to exploitation, to the depression of chub recruitment (e.g. from inferred predation on early life stages) by nonendemic alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and to complications arising from extreme female predominance that was best documented for Lake Michigan. The various interactions between bloaters and the nonendemic species, which were intensified after the loss of large predators to sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), would help to explain why a stock–recruitment relation was not shown for the Lake Michigan bloater. We hypothesize that reproductive inefficiency caused by a shift to strong female predominance in the bloater depresses recruitment and thus helps to regulate abundance. However, the low resilience that sex imbalance seems to impart makes the stock unstable when exploited. It should therefore be exploited conservatively during such periods. Also, the sex ratio and its direction of change appear to be important qualifiers when surplus production is estimated from stock size.

  7. Effects of exposure to seismic airgun use on hearing of three fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Smith, Michael E.; Cott, Peter A.; Hanna, Bruce W.; MacGillivray, Alexander O.; Austin, Melanie E.; Mann, David A.

    2005-06-01

    Seismic airguns produce considerable amounts of acoustic energy that have the potential to affect marine life. This study investigates the effects of exposure to a 730 in.3 airgun array on hearing of three fish species in the Mackenzie River Delta, the northern pike (Esox lucius), broad whitefish (Coregonus nasus), and lake chub (Couesius plumbeus). Fish were placed in cages in the 1.9 m of water and exposed to five or 20 airgun shots, while controls were placed in the same cage but without airgun exposure. Hearing in both exposed and control fish were then tested using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). Threshold shifts were found for exposed fish as compared to controls in the northern pike and lake chub, with recovery within 24 hours of exposure, while there was no threshold shift in the broad whitefish. It is concluded that these three species are not likely to be substantially impacted by exposure to an airgun array used in a river seismic survey. Care must be taken, however, in extrapolation to other species and to fishes exposed to airguns in deeper water or where the animals are exposed to a larger number of airgun shots over a longer period of time. .

  8. A decade of predatory control of zooplankton species composition of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Makarewicz, Joseph C.; Bertram, Paul; Lewis, Theodore; Brown, Edward H.

    1995-01-01

    From 1983 to 1992, 71 species representing 38 genera from the Calanoida, Cladocera, Cyclopoida, Mysidacea, Rotifera, Mollusca and Harpacticoida comprised the offshore zooplankton community of Lake Michigan. Our data demonstrate that the composition and abundance of the calanoid community after 1983 is not unlike that of 1960s and that species diversity of the calanoid community is more diverse than the cladoceran community in the 1990s as compared to the early 1980s. Even though the relative biomass of the cladocerans has remained similar over the 1983-1993 period, the species diversity and evenness of the Cladocera community in the early 1990s is unlike anything that has been previously reported for Lake Michigan. Cladocera dominance is centered in one species, Daphnia galeata mendotae, and only three species of Cladocera were observed in the pelagic region of the lake in 1991 and 1992. Nutrient levels, phytoplankton biomass, and the abundance of planktivorous alewife and bloater chub and Bythotrephes are examined as possible causes of these changes in zooplankton species composition. The increase in Rotifera biomass, but not Crustacea, was correlated with an increase in relative biomass of unicellular algae. Food web models suggest Bythotrephes will cause Lake Michigan's plankton to return to a community similar to that of the 1970s; that is Diaptomus dominated. Such a change has occurred. However, correlational analysis suggest that alewife and bloater chubs (especially juveniles) are affecting size and biomass of larger species of zooplankton as well as Bythotrephes.

  9. Effects of succinate on ground beef color and premature browning.

    PubMed

    Mancini, R A; Ramanathan, R; Suman, S P; Dady, G; Joseph, P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of succinate on raw and cooked ground beef color. Chubs (n=10) were divided in half and assigned to either succinate (final w/w concentration of 2.5%) or distilled water. Patties (n=14 per chub half) were assigned to initial day 0 color and each of 6 treatment combinations, created by crossing 3 packaging types (vacuum, high-oxygen/80% O(2), and PVC) with 2 storage times (days 1 and 3). After storage, patties were cooked to either 66 °C or 71 °C. Succinate increased (P<0.05) ground beef pH and metmyoglobin reducing activity but had no effect (P>0.05) on raw a* and chroma values. Moreover, succinate decreased (P<0.05) raw L* values, lipid oxidation, and premature browning for patties packaged in PVC and high-oxygen. Succinate may increase cooked patty redness via its influence on meat pH.

  10. Effect of freezing/thawing process in different sizes of blue fish in the Mediterranean through lysosomal enzymatic tests.

    PubMed

    Alberio, Giuseppina R A; Barbagallo, Riccardo N; Todaro, Aldo; Bono, Gioacchino; Spagna, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of freshness of different sizes of blue fish (Engraulis encrasicolus 12 cm, Sardina pilchardus 15 cm, Trachurus trachurus 40 cm, Scomber japonicus colias 60 cm) was carried out using non-conventional enzymatic methods. The activities of the three lysosomal enzymes (α-glucosidase (AG), β-galactosidase (B-GAL) and β-N-acetylglucosamidase (B-NA)) in extracts of blue fish muscle were measured over a period of 21 days of storage. A significant increase (p<0.05) of AG activity was observed in all species, with a large increase seen after only one day of storage. B-NA activity increased slightly in sardines, horse mackerels and chub mackerel during frozen/thawed storage. Finally, the increase of B-GAL activity was significant (p<0.05) only in the samples of larger blue fish as horse mackerel and chub mackerel. All of these enzyme activities may be helpful predictive markers to limit fraud in these species.

  11. Spatially implemented Bayesian network model to assess environmental impacts of water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Ryan R.; Stone, Mark C.

    2014-10-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) have become a popular method of assessing environmental impacts of water management. However, spatial attributes that influence ecological processes are rarely included in BN models. We demonstrate the benefits of combining two-dimensional hydrodynamic and BN modeling frameworks to explicitly incorporate the spatial variability within a system. The impacts of two diversion scenarios on riparian vegetation recruitment at the Gila River, New Mexico, USA, were evaluated using a coupled modeling framework. We focused on five individual sites in the Upper Gila basin. Our BN model incorporated key ecological drivers based on the "recruitment box" conceptual model, including the timing of seed availability, floodplain inundation, river recession rate, and groundwater depths. Results indicated that recruitment potential decreased by >20% at some locations within each study site, relative to existing conditions. The largest impacts occurring along dynamic fluvial landforms, such as side channels and sand bars. Reductions in recruitment potential varied depending on the diversion scenario. Our unique approach allowed us to evaluate recruitment consequences of water management scenarios at a fine spatial scale, which not only helped differentiate impacts at distinct channel locations but also was useful for informing stakeholders of possible ecological impacts. Our findings also demonstrate that minor changes to river flow may have large ecological implications.

  12. Flow characteristics of streams that drain the Fort Apache and San Carlos Indian reservations, east-central Arizona, 1930-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldys, Stanley; Bayles, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Streamflow characteristics of the Salt River and Gila River basins in the Fort Apache and San Carlos Indian Reservations, were studied in response to pending adjudication of water resources in those basins. Statistical summaries were compiled for 28 streamflow-gaging stations in and near the reservation. Mean annual streamflow for 1930-86 was computed for stations with complete records for the period; for those stations with records that did not completely cover the 1930-86 period, record extension techniques were used. Mean annual streamflow for ungaged sites on streams with gaging stations was estimated by interpolation between data points using drainage-area ratios. Two regional-regression equations were derived to estimate mean annual streamflow at sites on ungaged natural streams. The standard error of the regression for estimation of mean annual flow for sites in the Salt River basin is -37 to +59%. The standard error of the regression for estimation of mean annual flow for sites in the Gila River basins is -18 to +21%. (USGS)

  13. Identifying wells downstream from Laguna Dam that yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River, Arizona and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes a comprehensive study and development of the method documented in Owen-Joyce and others (2000). That report and one for the area upstream from Laguna Dam (Wilson and Owen-Joyce, 1994) document the accounting-surface method to identify wells that yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Downstream from Laguna Dam, the Colorado River is the source for nearly all recharge to the river aquifer. The complex surface-water and ground-water system that exists in the area is, in part, the result of more than 100 years of water-resources development. Agriculture is the principal economy and is possible only with irrigation. The construction and operation of canals provides the means to divert and distribute Colorado River water to irrigate agricultural lands on the flood plains and mesas along the Colorado and Gila Rivers, in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, and in the area upstream from Dome along the Gila River. Water is withdrawn from wells for irrigation, dewatering, and domestic use. The area downstream from Laguna Dam borders additional areas of agricultural development in Mexico where Colorado River water also is diverted for irrigation.

  14. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  15. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1979 to spring 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Withdrawal of ground water, about 4.0 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1979, is about 200,000 acre-feet less than the amount withdrawn in 1978. The withdrawals in 1978 and 1979 are the smallest since the mid-1950 's except in 1966. Nearly all the decrease was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. The large amount of water in storage in the surface-water reservoirs, release of water from the reservoirs, floods, and conservation practices contributed to the decrease in ground-water use and caused water-level rises in the Salt River Valley, Gila Bend basin, and Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill. Two small-scale maps show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1980, and change in water level in selected wells from 1975 to 1980. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  16. Flood disturbance effects on benthic diatom assemblage structure in a semiarid river network.

    PubMed

    Tornés, Elisabet; Acuña, Vicenç; Dahm, Clifford N; Sabater, Sergi

    2015-02-01

    Disturbances such as floods and droughts play a central role in determining the structure of riverine benthic biological assemblages. Extreme disturbances from flash floods are often restricted to part of the river network and the magnitude of the flood disturbance may lessen as floods propagate downstream. The present study aimed to characterize the impact of summer monsoonal floods on the resistance and resilience of the benthic diatom assemblage structure in nine river reaches of increasing drainage size within the Gila River in the southwestern United States. Monsoonal floods had a profound effect on the diatom assemblage in the Gila River, but the effects were not related to drainage size except for the response of algal biomass. During monsoons, algal biomass was effectively reduced in smaller and larger systems, but minor changes were observed in medium systems. Resistance and resilience of the diatom assemblage to floods were related to specific species traits, mainly to growth forms. Tightly adhered, adnate and prostrate species (Achnanthidium spp., Cocconeis spp.) exhibited high resistance to repeated scour disturbance. Loosely attached diatoms, such as Nitzschia spp. and Navicula spp., were most susceptible to drift and scour. However, recovery of the diatom assemblage was very quick indicating a high resilience, especially in terms of biomass and diversity. Regional hydroclimatic models predict greater precipitation variability, which will select for diatoms resilient to bed-mobilizing disturbances. The results of this study may help anticipate future benthic diatom assemblage patterns in the southwestern United States resulting from a more variable climate. PMID:26986264

  17. The GLOBE Soil Moisture Campaign's Light Bulb Oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. P.; Tietema, D.; Ferre, T. P.; Nijssen, B.; Washburne, J.

    2003-12-01

    The GLOBE Soil Moisture Campaign (SMC) (www.hwr.arizona.edu/globe/sci/SM/SMC) has developed a light bulb oven to provide a low budget, low-technology method for drying soil samples. Three different soils were used to compare the ability of the light bulb oven to dry soils against a standard laboratory convection oven. The soils were: 1) a very fine sandy loam (the "Gila" soil); 2) a silty clay (the "Pima" soil); and 3) a sandy soil (the "Sonoran" soil). A large batch of each soil was wetted uniformly in the laboratory. Twelve samples of each soil were placed in the light bulb oven and twelve samples were placed in the standard oven. The average gravimetric soil moisture of the Gila soil was 0.214 g/cm3 for both ovens; the average Pima soil moisture was 0.332 g/cm3 and 0.331 g/cm3 for the traditional and light bulb ovens, respectively; and the Sonoran soil moisture was 0.077 g/cm3 for both ovens. These results demonstrate that the low technology light-bulb oven was able to dry the soil samples as well as a standard laboratory oven, offering the ability to make gravimetric water content measurements when a relatively expensive drying oven is not available.

  18. Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, Tim

    2013-10-30

    The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to assess the feasibility of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. A solar energy project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of potential future energy savings, increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a solar project’s overall feasibility, including: Technical appropriateness; Solar resource characteristics and expected system performance; Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) economic assessment. The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to prepare a biomass resource assessment study and evaluate the feasibility of a bioenergy project on Community land. A biomass project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a biomass project’s overall feasibility, including: Resource analysis and costs; Identification of potential bioenergy projects; Technical and economic (levelized cost of energy) modeling for selected project configuration.

  19. Areas of localized organochlorine contamination in Arizona and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Cain, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Wings from mallard ducks harvested in 1980 in Arizona, Arkansas, Louisiana, and New Mexico were pooled into county aggregates and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCB's. Organochlorine concentrations in duck wings were compared among counties comprising major river drainages within each state. DDE concentrations in the wings of mallards collected from the Verde River and the lower portion of the Gila River drainages in Arizona ranged up to 6 ppm (wet weight basis), which was 17 times higher than the 1979 Pacific Flyway average. DDE at these high levels may be hazardous to wildlife. In combination with other published data, our findings indicate a serious DDT problem in portions of the Verde River and Gila River drainages. High levels of heptachlor (up to 1.7 ppm) and PCB's (3.7 ppm, 61 times the 1979 Central Flyway average) were found in mallard wings from the upper Rio Grande and Pecos River drainages, respectively. We did not detect areas of heavy local organochlorine pesticide or PCB contamination in Arkansas and Louisiana.

  20. A satellite model of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) breeding habitat and a simulation of potential effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.), southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.

    2016-08-08

    The study described in this report represents the first time that a satellite model has been used to identify potential Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) (hereinafter referred to as “flycatcher”) breeding habitat rangewide for 2013–15. Fifty-seven Landsat scenes were required to map the entire range of the flycatcher, encompassing parts of six States and more than 1 billion 30-meter pixels. Predicted flycatcher habitat was summarized in a hierarchical fashion from largest to smallest: regionwide, State, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) management unit, 7.5-minute quadrangle, and critical-habitat reach. The term “predicted habitat” is used throughout this report to distinguish areas the satellite model predicts as suitable flycatcher habitat from what may actually exist on the ground. A rangewide accuracy assessment was done with 758 territories collected in 2014, and change detection was done with yearly habitat maps to identify how and where habitat changed over time. Additionally, effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.) on flycatcher habitat were summarized for the lower Virgin River from 2010 to 2015, and simulations of how tamarisk leaf beetles may affect flycatcher habitat in the lower Colorado and upper Gila Rivers were done for 2015. Model results indicated that the largest areas of predicted flycatcher habitat at elevations below 1,524 meters were in New Mexico and Arizona, areas followed in descending order by California, Texas, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. By FWS management unit, the largest area of flycatcher habitat during all 3 years were the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico), followed by the Upper Gila (Arizona and New Mexico) and Middle Gila/San Pedro (Arizona) management units. The area of predicted flycatcher habitat varied considerably in 7.5-minute quadrangles, ranging from 0 to1,398 hectares (ha). Averaged across 3 years, the top three producing quadrangles were Paraje Well (New Mexico), San Marcial

  1. A satellite model of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) breeding habitat and a simulation of potential effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.), southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this report represents the first time that a satellite model has been used to identify potential Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) (hereinafter referred to as “flycatcher”) breeding habitat rangewide for 2013–15. Fifty-seven Landsat scenes were required to map the entire range of the flycatcher, encompassing parts of six States and more than 1 billion 30-meter pixels. Predicted flycatcher habitat was summarized in a hierarchical fashion from largest to smallest: regionwide, State, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) management unit, 7.5-minute quadrangle, and critical-habitat reach. The term “predicted habitat” is used throughout this report to distinguish areas the satellite model predicts as suitable flycatcher habitat from what may actually exist on the ground. A rangewide accuracy assessment was done with 758 territories collected in 2014, and change detection was done with yearly habitat maps to identify how and where habitat changed over time. Additionally, effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.) on flycatcher habitat were summarized for the lower Virgin River from 2010 to 2015, and simulations of how tamarisk leaf beetles may affect flycatcher habitat in the lower Colorado and upper Gila Rivers were done for 2015. Model results indicated that the largest areas of predicted flycatcher habitat at elevations below 1,524 meters were in New Mexico and Arizona, areas followed in descending order by California, Texas, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. By FWS management unit, the largest area of flycatcher habitat during all 3 years were the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico), followed by the Upper Gila (Arizona and New Mexico) and Middle Gila/San Pedro (Arizona) management units. The area of predicted flycatcher habitat varied considerably in 7.5-minute quadrangles, ranging from 0 to1,398 hectares (ha). Averaged across 3 years, the top three producing quadrangles were Paraje Well (New Mexico), San Marcial

  2. Deciphering Paria and Little Colorado River flood regimes and their significance in multi-objective adaptive management strategies for Colorado River resources in Grand Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Topping, D. J.; Melis, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, sandbars, recreational trout angling, endangered native fish, whitewater rafting, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on warm-season Paria River floods (JUL-OCT, at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars below Glen Canyon Dam; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of warm season tributary sand input from the Paria River into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The Little Colorado River is an important secondary source of sand inputs to Grand Canyon, but its lower segment is also critical spawning habitat for the endangered humpback chub. Fish biologists have reported increased abundance of chub juveniles in this key tributary in summers following cool-season flooding (DEC-FEB), but little is known about chub spawning substrates and behavior or the role that flood frequency in this tributary may play in native fish population dynamics in Grand Canyon. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm- and cool-season floods from these two important tributaries of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. Coupled variations of floods (magnitude and timing) from these rivers are also

  3. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams document the progression of Se trophic transfer across suspended particulate material, invertebrates, and fish for each site to serve as the basis for developing an ecosystem-scale model to predict Se exposure within the hydrologic conditions and food webs of southern West Virginia. This approach integrates a site-specific predator’s dietary exposure pathway into modeling to ensure an adequate link to Se toxicity and, thus, to species vulnerability. Site-specific fish abundance and richness data in streams documented various species of chub, shiner, dace, darters, bass, minnow, sunfish, sucker, catfish, and central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). However, Se assessment species for streams, and hence, model species for streams, were limited to creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and central stoneroller. Both of these species of fish are generally considered to have a high tolerance for environmental stress based on traditional comparative fish community assessment, with creek chub being present at all sites. Aquatic insects (mayfly, caddisfly, stonefly, dobsonfly, chironomid) were the main invertebrates sampled in streams. Collection of suspended particulate material

  4. 2008 High-Flow Experiment at Glen Canyon Dam Benefits Colorado River Resources in Grand Canyon National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Topping, David J.; Grams, Paul E.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.; Draut, Amy E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma; Korman, Josh; Hilwig, Kara D.; Schmit, Lara M.

    2010-01-01

    On March 5, 2008, the Department of the Interior began a 60-hour high-flow experiment at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, to determine if water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding could be used to improve downstream resources in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and their cooperators undertook a wide range of physical and biological resource monitoring and research activities before, during, and after the release. Scientists sought to determine whether or not high flows could be used to rebuild Grand Canyon sandbars, create nearshore habitat for the endangered humpback chub, and benefit other resources such as archaeological sites, rainbow trout, aquatic food availability, and riverside vegetation. This fact sheet summarizes research completed by January 2010.

  5. [Detection of fish DNA in ruminant feed by PCR amplification].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Kusama, Toyoko; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi

    2006-10-01

    The Japanese Government has prohibited the use of seafood protein, as well as mammalian protein, in ruminant feed. There is an official method to detect meat and bone meal, but no method is yet available to detect fishmeal in ruminant feed. We tried to develop a suitable method to detect fishmeal in ruminant feed, similar to the official method "PCR detection of animal-derived DNA in feed". Our previously reported primers (fishcon5 and fishcon3-1) showed low sensitivity, so we designed new primers based on a DNA sequence from yellowfin tuna mitchondrial DNA. Among the primers, FM5 and FM3 specifically detected fish DNA (sardine, yellowfin tuna, skipjack tuna, chub mackerel, Pacific saury, salmon, rainbow trout, Japanese anchovy, codfish and Japanese horse mackerel) from fish meat, and did not amplify DNA from animals and plants. The sensitivity for detection of the presence of fishmeal in ruminant feed was 0.01-0.001%. PMID:17128872

  6. Fishery survey of U. S. waters of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1969-01-01

    Gill nets and trawls were fished by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries R/V Cisco during September 19-23, 1964, at several locations and depths in the offshore United States waters of Lake Ontario. Water temperatures were low (3.7-8.3 A?C) at all fishing stations except one (16.4 A?C). Supplementary data were provided by the Bureau's R/V Kaho in 1966. Alewives and smelt were common. Ciscoes were extremely scarce, but large; most of those caught were bloaters. Slimy sculpins were abundant, but no deepwater sculpins were caught. Yellow perch were scarce. Although the warm water species were inadequately sampled, trout-perch seemed to be abundant. Other species, all caught in small numbers, were lake trout, spottail shiners, burbot, threespine sticklebacks, and johnny darters from cold water and northern pike, lake chubs, white suckers, white bass, white perch, and rock bass from warm water.

  7. Assessment of contamination of the Svitava and Svratka rivers in the Czech Republic using selected biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Blahová, Jana; Havelková, Marcela; Kruzíková, Kamila; Hilscherová, Klára; Halouzka, Roman; Modrá, Helena; Grabic, Roman; Halírová, Jarmila; Jurcíková, Jana; Ocelka, Tomás; Harustiaková, Danka; Svobodová, Zdenka

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess aquatic ecosystem contamination using selected biochemical markers: cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), tripeptide glutathione, vitellogenin, and 11-ketotestosterone in chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.). Seven locations on the Svitava and Svratka rivers (in the Brno conurbation, Czech Republic) were assessed. The results were compared with the levels of the most important inductors of these biomarkers: organic pollutants hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), DDT and its metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediment, fish muscle, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and metals in sediment. The highest levels of pollutants were observed at sites situated downstream from Brno, especially at Modrice and Rajhradice. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were found between EROD activity and HCH concentration in SPMDs, and also between GST and EROD activity with HCB concentration in muscle, after adjusting for age.

  8. Integrated assessment of PAH contamination in the Czech Rivers using a combination of chemical and biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Blahova, Jana; Divisova, Lenka; Kodes, Vit; Leontovycova, Drahomira; Mach, Samuel; Ocelka, Tomas; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution of selected rivers in the Czech Republic. Integrated evaluation was carried out using combination of chemical and biological monitoring, in which we measured content of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in chub bile and priority PAH in water samples obtained by exposing the semipermeable membrane devices at each location. The concentrations of 1-OHP in bile samples and sum of priority PAH in water sampler ranged from 6.8 ng mg protein(-1) to 106.6 ng mg protein(-1) and from 5.2 ng L(-1) to 173.9 ng L(-1), respectively. The highest levels of biliary metabolite and PAH in water were measured at the Odra River (the Bohumín site), which is located in relatively heavily industrialized and polluted region. Statistically significant positive correlation between biliary 1-OHP and sum of PAH in water was also obtained (P < 0.01, r s = 0.806).

  9. Fish assemblages of the upper Little Sioux River basin, Iowa, USA: Relationships with stream size and comparison with historical assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palic, D.; Helland, L.; Pedersen, B.R.; Pribil, J.R.; Grajeda, R.M.; Loan-Wilsey, Anna; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    We characterized the fish assemblages in second to fifth order streams of the upper Little Sioux River basin in northwest Iowa, USA and compared our results with historical surveys. The fish assemblage consisted of over twenty species, was dominated numerically by creek chub, sand shiner, central stoneroller and other cyprinids, and was dominated in biomass by common carp. Most of the species and the great majority of all individuals present were at least moderately tolerant to environmental degradation, and biotic integrity at most sites was characterized as fair. Biotic integrity declined with increasing stream size, and degraded habitat in larger streams is a possible cause. No significant changes in species richness or the relative distribution of species' tolerance appear to have occurred since the 1930s.

  10. The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

  11. 40Ar/39Ar Ages for the Sentinel-Arlington Volcanic Field, Southwestern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cave, S. R.; Greeley, R.; Champion, D. E.; Turrin, B. D.

    2007-12-01

    The Sentinel Plains lava field and proximate small (<10 km diameter) shield volcanoes, collectively referred to as the Sentinel-Arlington Volcanic Field (SAVF) are composed of mostly basaltic lava flows with a small percentage of magmatic and phreatomagmatic tephra deposits. SAVF is located ~75 km southwest of Phoenix, Arizona, and covers ~600 km2. SAVF lies on the eastern terminus of the Gila River graben within the Basin and Range physiographic province. A series of northwest-trending normal faults cut across the surrounding terrain, indicating that the loci of the SAVF eruptive centers could be controlled by structural trends. The volcanic centers of SAVF erupted near the Gila River channel, damming and diverting the river at least twice, forming small ephemeral lakes. The relative timing of the SAVF eruptions was determined in order to unravel the SAVF eruptive history as well as the timing of the ancient Gila River interactions that led to the development of the Painted Rock transverse drainage. The absolute timing was determined in order datermine causal relationships with local tectonism. The SAVF basal contact is ~30 m above the Holocene surface where exposed along the current river channel; and the lavas show similar amounts mantling by aeolian dust, development of pedogenic calcium carbonate, and subsequent incision by radial ephemeral drainages. Relative timing of eruptive events was determined by stratigraphic and embayment relationships. Continuity of distal flows exposed in cross-sections to their source vents could be established using field work, and confirmed using geomagnetic secular variation and geochemical analyses. Edifices generally corresponded to discreet geomagnetic inclination, declination, and paleointensity values. Older eruptive events exhibited normal polarity, while stratigraphically younger events exhibited reversed polarity. Most lavas were alkali olivine basalt with a range of unnormalized SiO2 weight percentages ranging from 47

  12. Tracking cross-contamination transfer dynamics at a mock retail deli market using GloGerm.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Jessica; Boyer, Renee; Gallagher, Dan; Duncan, Susan; Bauer, Nate; Kause, Janell; Eifert, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meats are considered a food at high risk for causing foodborne illness. Deli meats are listed as the highest risk RTE food vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. Cross-contamination in the retail deli market may contribute to spread of pathogens to deli meats. Understanding potential cross-contamination pathways is essential for reducing the risk of contaminating various products. The objective of this study was to track cross-contamination pathways through a mock retail deli market using an abiotic surrogate, GloGerm, to visually represent how pathogens may spread through the deli environment via direct contact with food surfaces. Six contamination origination sites (slicer blade, meat chub, floor drain, preparation table, employee's glove, and employee's hands) were evaluated separately. Each site was inoculated with 20 ml of GloGerm, and a series of standard deli operations were completed (approximately 10 min of work). Photographs were then taken under UV illumination to visualize spread of GloGerm throughout the deli. A sensory panel evaluated the levels of contamination on the resulting contaminated surfaces. Five of the six contamination origination sites were associated with transfer of GloGerm to the deli case door handle, slicer blade, meat chub, preparation table, and the employee's gloves. Additional locations became contaminated (i.e., deli case shelf, prep table sink, and glove box), but this contamination was not consistent across all trials. Contamination did not spread from the floor drain to any food contact surfaces. The findings of this study reinforce the need for consistent equipment cleaning and food safety practices among deli workers to minimize cross-contamination.

  13. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  14. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  15. Reef-sourced slope deposits, Holocene, Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, R.N.; Eberli, G.P.; Harris, P.M.; Slater, R.; Swart, P.K.

    1987-05-01

    Observations and sampling to 350 m from a two-person submersible off Chub Cay, Berry Island, Bahamas, support the idea that the Holocene deep reef is a principal source of talus, now cemented, that foots the windward margins of Great Bahama Bank. At the Chub Cay dive site, a wall extends from 30 to 170 m subsea; below is a low-relief fore reef slope, ca. 50/sup 0/, of limestone veneered with sediment. The upper wall from 30 to 80 m, the deep reef, has a luxuriant growth of corals and a profusion of the calcareous alga halimeda spp. Below 50 m, living coral decreases, and from 80 to 170 m the wall is highly irregular with discontinuous ledges and blind-end caves. At depths from 150 to 170 m, the wall gives way to the fore reef slope whose relative smooth surface dips at 50/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ and extends to 350 m. The fore reef is limestone, but its topography resembles that of alluvial fans; rounded ridges rise a few meters above the intervening valleys that are tens of meters wide. The limestone surface has a discontinuous veneer of fine sediment and algal plates, and locally loose cobble and boulder-sized blocks of limestone. A sample of the limestone slope is of well-cemented coral clasts and skeletal sediment. They infer that the deep reef grows outward so rapidly that it caves periodically. The resulting debris bypasses the wall, but some is perched on the steep fore reef slope below where it is soon incorporated into the slope by submarine cementation.

  16. Microbiological and sensorial quality assessment of ready-to-cook seafood products packaged under modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Speranza, B; Corbo, M R; Conte, A; Sinigaglia, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2009-01-01

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (30:40:30 O(2):CO(2):N(2) and 5:95 O(2):CO(2)) on the quality of 4 ready-to-cook seafood products were studied. In particular, the investigation was carried out on hake fillets, yellow gurnard fillets, chub mackerel fillets, and entire eviscerated cuttlefish. Quality assessment was based on microbiological and sensorial indices determination. Both packaging gas mixtures contributed to a considerable slowing down of the microbial and sensorial quality loss of the investigated seafood products. Results showed that sensorial quality was the subindex that limited their shelf life. In fact, based primarily on microbiological results, samples under MAP remained acceptable up to the end of storage (that is, 14 d), regardless of fish specie. On the other hand, results from sensory analyses showed that chub mackerel fillets in MAP were acceptable up to the 6th storage d, whilst hake fillets, yellow gurnard fillets, and entire cuttlefish became unacceptable after 10 to 11 d. However, compared to control samples, an increase in the sensorial shelf life of MAP samples (ranging from about 95% to 250%) was always recorded. Practical Application: Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is an inexpensive and uncomplicated method of extending shelf life of packed seafood. It could gain great attention from the fish industrial sector due to the fact that MAP is a practical and economic technique, realizable by small technical expedients. Moreover, there is great attention from the food industry and retailers to react to the growing demand for convenience food, thus promoting an increase in the assortments of ready-to-cook seafood products. PMID:20492117

  17. Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

  18. Population trends, bend use relative to available habitat and within-river-bend habitat use of eight indicator species of Missouri and Lower Kansas River benthic fishes: 15 years after baseline assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Yang, Wen-Hsi; Arab, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A baseline assessment of the Missouri River fish community and species-specific habitat use patterns conducted from 1996 to 1998 provided the first comprehensive analysis of Missouri River benthic fish population trends and habitat use in the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone rivers, exclusive of reservoirs, and provided the foundation for the present Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP). Data used in such studies are frequently zero inflated. To address this issue, the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model was applied. This follow-up study is based on PSPAP data collected up to 15 years later along with new understanding of how habitat characteristics among and within bends affect habitat use of fish species targeted by PSPAP, including pallid sturgeon. This work demonstrated that a large-scale, large-river, PSPAP-type monitoring program can be an effective tool for assessing population trends and habitat usage of large-river fish species. Using multiple gears, PSPAP was effective in monitoring shovelnose and pallid sturgeons, sicklefin, shoal and sturgeon chubs, sand shiner, blue sucker and sauger. For all species, the relationship between environmental variables and relative abundance differed, somewhat, among river segments suggesting the importance of the overall conditions of Upper and Middle Missouri River and Lower Missouri and Kansas rivers on the habitat usage patterns exhibited. Shoal and sicklefin chubs exhibited many similar habitat usage patterns; blue sucker and shovelnose sturgeon also shared similar responses. For pallid sturgeon, the primary focus of PSPAP, relative abundance tended to increase in Upper and Middle Missouri River paralleling stocking efforts, whereas no evidence of an increasing relative abundance was found in the Lower Missouri River despite stocking.

  19. Life history attributes of fishes along the latitudinal gradient of the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of two short-lived species (emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki) and three long-lived species (freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, and sauger Stizostedion canadense) were studied in the Missouri River to examine spatial variations in life history characteristics across a latitudinal and thermal gradient (38??47???N to 48??03???N). The life history characteristics included longevity (maximum age), the rate at which asymptotic length was approached (K from the von Bertalanffy growth equation), the mean back-calculated length at age, and growth rates during the first year of life (mm/degree-day and mm/d). The mean water temperature and number of days in the growing season averaged 1.3 times greater in the southern than in the northern latitudes, while degree-days averaged twice as great. The longevity of all species except freshwater drum increased significantly from south to north, but the relationships between maximum age and latitude were curvilinear for short-lived species and linear for long-lived species. The von Bertalanffy growth coefficient for river carpsuckers and saugers increased from north to south, as indicated by significant negative relationships between K and latitude. Mean back-calculated length at age was negatively related to latitude for freshwater drums (???age 4) and saugers (ages 1-5) but positively related to latitude for river carpsuckers (???age 6). One of the growth rates examined (mm/degree-day) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners, sicklefin chubs, freshwater drums, and river carpsuckers during the first growing season. The other growth rate (mm/d) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners but was inversely related to latitude for saugers. These results suggest that the thermal regime related to latitude influences the life history characteristics of fishes in the Missouri River.

  20. Organochlorine and mercury contamination in fish tissues from the River Nestos, Greece.

    PubMed

    Christoforidis, Achilleas; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Schmieder, Klaus; Tsachalidis, Efstathios

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, other organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs, including trans-chlordane and cis- and trans-nonachlor) and the heavy metal mercury were quantified in muscle and liver of the European chub (Leuciscus cephalus, Linnaeus, 1758) and in the muscle of the barbel (Barbus cyclolepis, Heckel, 1837) at two sampling sites of the River Nestos, Greece. PCBs in muscle and DDTs in the liver tissues were the predominant organochlorinated contaminants. Among the PCBs, congeners 47 (up to 9.60 ng g(-1) wet wt.), 180 (up to 1.15 ng g(-1) wet wt.) and 190 (up to 1.50 ng g(-1) wet wt.) were the most frequent and abundant. The contamination degree by the sum of PCBs on the fish tissue samples from the River Nestos is lower or similar to PCB levels found in other ecosystems. Among the organochlorine pesticides, essentially only p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE and alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH were found, with the former appearing at mean levels up to 30.71 ng g(-1) wet wt. From a public health standpoint, residue organochlorine pesticide levels from our work are considerably lower than the recommended tolerance limits. Finally, mean values of Hg in chub were significant lower (up to 31.04 ng g(-1) wet wt.) compared to those detected on barbel (up to 169.27 ng g(-1) wet wt.). The concentrations of Hg in fresh water fish from the River Nestos did not exceed WHO and US EPA health guidelines, and were suitable for human consumption.

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  2. Nest guarding by female Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind-energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Wilcox, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    We observed behavior consistent with nest-guarding in Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at two nests in a large wind-energy-generation facility near Palm Springs, California, locally known as the Mesa Wind Farm. As researchers approached the nests, female desert tortoises moved to the entrance of their burrows and positioned themselves sideways, directly over their nests. One female stretched her limbs outward and wedged herself into the burrow (her plastron directly above the nest). Guarding of nests is rarely observed in Agassiz's desert tortoise but can occur as a result of attempted predation on eggs by Gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum) or in direct response to the perceived threat posed by researchers. This is the first report of nest-guarding for G. agassizii in the Sonoran Desert ecosystem of California.

  3. Southern Arizona riparian habitat: Spatial distribution and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, J. R.; Ogden, P. R.; Foster, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives of this study were centered around the demonstration of remote sensing as an inventory tool and researching the multiple uses of riparian vegetation. Specific study objectives were to: (1) map riparian vegetation along the Gila River, San Simon Creek, San Pedro River, Pantano Wash, (2) determine the feasibility of automated mapping using LANDSAT-1 computer compatible tapes, (3) locate and summarize existing mpas delineating riparian vegetation, (4) summarize data relevant to Southern Arizona's riparian products and uses, (5) document recent riparian vegetation changes along a selected portion of the San Pedro River, (6) summarize historical changes in composition and distribution of riparian vegetation, and (7) summarize sources of available photography pertinent to Southern Arizona.

  4. Ground-water conditions in McMullen valley, Maricopa, Yuma and Yavapai Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    McMullen Valley is in western Arizona about 80 miles northwest of Phoenix (fig. 1). The valley, which is about 48 miles long and 15 miles wide, is bordered on the south by the Harquahala and Little Harquahala Mountains, on the north by the Harcuvar Mountains, and on the west by the Granite Wash Mountains. The major stream in the area is Centennial Wash, an ephemeral tributary of the Gila River; the wash leaves McMullen Valley through Harrisburg Valley at the southwest edge of the area. The groundwater reservoir is the only dependable source of water in McMullen Valley (fig. 1). and it is important that this supply be managed properly in order to obtain the maximum benefit. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of all the factors that affect the ground-water reservoir is necessary.

  5. Diabetic Nephropathy in American Indians, with a Special Emphasis on the Pima Indians

    PubMed Central

    Pavkov, Meda E.; Knowler, William C.; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes affects American Indians disproportionately compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States and is almost exclusively type 2 diabetes. Much of our knowledge about diabetes in American Indians comes from studies in a few tribes. The most extensively studied American Indians are the Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, who participated in a longitudinal study of diabetes and its complications between 1965 and 2007. They have one of the highest reported incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the world, and kidney disease attributable to diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we examine the course, determinants, and trends of diabetic kidney disease in American Indians, with special emphasis on studies conducted in the Pima Indians. We also review therapeutic strategies for managing diabetic kidney disease. PMID:18990306

  6. Natural flow regimes, nonnative fishes, and native fish persistence in arid-land river systems.

    PubMed

    Propst, David L; Gido, Keith B; Stefferud, Jerome A

    2008-07-01

    Escalating demands for water have led to substantial modifications of river systems in arid regions, which coupled with the widespread invasion of nonnative organisms, have increased the vulnerability of native aquatic species to extirpation. Whereas a number of studies have evaluated the role of modified flow regimes and nonnative species on native aquatic assemblages, few have been conducted where the compounding effects of modified flow regimes and established nonnatives do not confound interpretations, particularly at spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to conservation of species at a range-wide level. By evaluating a 19-year data set across six sites in the relatively unaltered upper Gila River basin, New Mexico, USA, we tested how natural flow regimes and presence of nonnative species affected long-term stability of native fish assemblages. Overall, we found that native fish density was greatest during a wet period at the beginning of our study and declined during a dry period near the end of the study. Nonnative fishes, particularly predators, generally responded in opposite directions to these climatic cycles. Our data suggested that chronic presence of nonnative fishes, coupled with naturally low flows reduced abundance of individual species and compromised persistence of native fish assemblages. We also found that a natural flow regime alone was unlikely to ensure persistence of native fish assemblages. Rather, active management that maintains natural flow regimes while concurrently suppressing or excluding nonnative fishes from remaining native fish strongholds is critical to conservation of native fish assemblages in a system, such as the upper Gila River drainage, with comparatively little anthropogenic modification.

  7. Non-native fish control below Glen Canyon Dam - Report from a structured decision-making project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Bean, Ellen; Smith, David; Kokos, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    of objectives, with the values of individual agencies and tribes deliberately preserved. Trout removal strategies aimed at the Paria to Badger Rapid reach (PBR), with a variety of permutations in deference to cultural values, and with backup removal at the Little Colorado River reach (LCR) if necessary, were identified as top-ranking portfolios for all agencies and Tribes. These PBR/LCR removal portfolios outperformed LCR-only removal portfolios, for cultural reasons and for effectiveness - the probability of keeping the humpback chub population above a desired threshold was estimated to be higher under the PBR/LCR portfolios than the LCR-only portfolios. The PBR/LCR removal portfolios also outperformed portfolios based on flow manipulations, primarily because of the effect of sport fishery and wilderness recreation objectives, as well as cultural objectives. The preference for the PBR/LCR removal portfolios was quite robust to variation in the objective weights and to uncertainty about the underlying dynamics, at least over the ranges of uncertainty investigated. Examination of the effect of uncertainty on the recommended outcomes allowed us to complete a 'value of information' analysis. The results of this analysis led to an adaptive strategy that includes three possible long-term management actions (no action; LCR removal; or PBR removal) and seeks to reduce uncertainty about the following two issues: the degree to which rainbow trout limit chub populations, and the effectiveness of PBR removal to reduce trout emigration downstream into Marble and eastern Grand Canyons, where the largest population of humpback chub exist. In the face of uncertainty about the effectiveness of PBR removal, a case might be made for including flow manipulations in an adaptive strategy, but formal analysis of this case was not conducted. The full set of conclusions described above is not definitive, however. This analysis described in this report is a simplified depiction of the t

  8. South Fork Shenandoah River habitat-flow modeling to determine ecological and recreational characteristics during low-flow periods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Ramey, R. Clay

    2012-01-01

    The ecological habitat requirements of aquatic organisms and recreational streamflow requirements of the South Fork Shenandoah River were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central Shenandoah Valley Planning District Commission, the Northern Shenandoah Valley Regional Commission, and Virginia Commonwealth University. Physical habitat simulation modeling was conducted to examine flow as a major determinant of physical habitat availability and recreation suitability using field-collected hydraulic habitat variables such as water depth, water velocity, and substrate characteristics. Fish habitat-suitability criteria specific to the South Fork Shenandoah River were developed for sub-adult and adult smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), juvenile and sub-adult redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), spotfin or satinfin shiner (Cyprinella spp), margined madtom (Noturus insignis),and river chub (Nocomis micropogon). Historic streamflow statistics for the summer low-flow period during July, August, and September were used as benchmark low-flow conditions and compared to habitat simulation results and water-withdrawal scenarios based on 2005 withdrawal data. To examine habitat and recreation characteristics during droughts, daily fish habitat or recreation suitability values were simulated for 2002 and other selected drought years. Recreation suitability during droughts was extremely low, because the modeling demonstrated that suitable conditions occur when the streamflows are greater than the 50th percentile flow for July, August, and September. Habitat availability for fish is generally at a maximum when streamflows are between the 75th and 25th percentile flows for July, August, and September. Time-series results for drought years, such as 2002, showed that extreme low-flow conditions less than the 5th percentile of flow for July, August, and September corresponded to below-normal habitat availability for both game and nongame fish in the

  9. Biological plausibility as a tool to associate analytical data for micropollutants and effect potentials in wastewater, surface water, and sediments with effects in fishes.

    PubMed

    Maier, Diana; Blaha, Ludek; Giesy, John P; Henneberg, Anja; Köhler, Heinz-R; Kuch, Bertram; Osterauer, Raphaela; Peschke, Katharina; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-04-01

    Discharge of substances like pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, and chelating agents in surface waters has increased over the last decades due to the rising numbers of chemicals used by humans and because many WWTPs do not eliminate these substances entirely. The study, results of which are presented here, focused on associations of (1) concentrations of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, surface waters, sediments, and tissues of fishes; (2) results of laboratory biotests indicating potentials for effects in these samples and (3) effects either in feral chub (Leuciscus cephalus) from two German rivers (Schussen, Argen) or in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in bypass systems to streamwater of these rivers or in cages directly in the rivers. The Schussen and Argen Rivers flow into Lake Constance. The Schussen River is polluted by a great number of chemicals, while the Argen River is less influenced by micropollutants. Pesticides, chelating agents, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in effluents of a WWTP discharging to the Schussen as well as in surface water, and/or fishes from downstream of the WWTP. Results obtained by biotests conducted in the laboratory (genotoxicity, dioxin-like toxicity, and embryotoxicity) were linked to effects in feral fish collected in the vicinity of the WWTP or in fishes exposed in cages or at the bypass systems downstream of the WWTP. Dioxin-like effect potentials detected by reporter gene assays were associated with activation of CYP1A1 enzymes in fishes which are inducible by dioxin-like chemicals. Abundances of several PCBs in tissues of fishes from cages and bypass systems were not associated with these effects but other factors can influence EROD activity. Genotoxic potentials obtained by in vitro tests were associated with the presence

  10. Biological plausibility as a tool to associate analytical data for micropollutants and effect potentials in wastewater, surface water, and sediments with effects in fishes.

    PubMed

    Maier, Diana; Blaha, Ludek; Giesy, John P; Henneberg, Anja; Köhler, Heinz-R; Kuch, Bertram; Osterauer, Raphaela; Peschke, Katharina; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-04-01

    Discharge of substances like pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, and chelating agents in surface waters has increased over the last decades due to the rising numbers of chemicals used by humans and because many WWTPs do not eliminate these substances entirely. The study, results of which are presented here, focused on associations of (1) concentrations of micropollutants in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, surface waters, sediments, and tissues of fishes; (2) results of laboratory biotests indicating potentials for effects in these samples and (3) effects either in feral chub (Leuciscus cephalus) from two German rivers (Schussen, Argen) or in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in bypass systems to streamwater of these rivers or in cages directly in the rivers. The Schussen and Argen Rivers flow into Lake Constance. The Schussen River is polluted by a great number of chemicals, while the Argen River is less influenced by micropollutants. Pesticides, chelating agents, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected in effluents of a WWTP discharging to the Schussen as well as in surface water, and/or fishes from downstream of the WWTP. Results obtained by biotests conducted in the laboratory (genotoxicity, dioxin-like toxicity, and embryotoxicity) were linked to effects in feral fish collected in the vicinity of the WWTP or in fishes exposed in cages or at the bypass systems downstream of the WWTP. Dioxin-like effect potentials detected by reporter gene assays were associated with activation of CYP1A1 enzymes in fishes which are inducible by dioxin-like chemicals. Abundances of several PCBs in tissues of fishes from cages and bypass systems were not associated with these effects but other factors can influence EROD activity. Genotoxic potentials obtained by in vitro tests were associated with the presence

  11. Chemical contaminants in fish species from rivers in the North of Luxembourg: Potential impact on the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).

    PubMed

    Boscher, Aurore; Gobert, Sylvie; Guignard, Cédric; Ziebel, Johanna; L'Hoste, Lionel; Gutleb, Arno C; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Hoffmann, Lucien; Schmidt, Gérard

    2010-02-01

    Contamination levels of PCBs, and of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) were analyzed in four fish species from seven rivers in the North of Luxembourg. During August and September 2007, 85 samples of fish were collected belonging to four species: the stone loach (Barbatula barbatula, n=12 pools), the chub (Squalius cephalus, n=36), the barbel (Barbus barbus, n=23) and eel (Anguilla anguilla, n=14). The concentration of seven indicator PCBs ( summation operator(7)PCBs) reached a mean of 39ngg(-1) and varied between 4.0 and 346.2ngg(-1) (wet wt) depending on the site and species. Fish collected at Wallendorf on the Our River and sites on the Wiltz and the Clerve rivers showed the highest concentrations for PCBs. In comparison with 1994, PCB levels in fish decreased strongly during the last decade in these rivers. Lead was detected at low levels (0-181.4ngg(-1) wet wt). Mercury concentrations ranged between 10.3 and 534.5ngg(-1) (wet wt) exceeding maximum tolerable levels for human consumption of 500ngg(-1) in two fish out of 85. Chubs and eels from the Sûre River were the most contaminated by mercury. Cadmium levels varied between 4.0 and 103.9ngg(-1) (wet wt). In addition to mercury in fish, cadmium was the most problematic pollutant on the Our, the Wiltz, the Clerve and the Troine Rivers, because values found in 20% of fish exceeded the threshold of about 10-50ngg(-1) (wet wt) recommended for human health. The total PCB level predicted to accumulate in livers from otter potentially feeding on these fish based on a previously published mathematical model is 37.7microgg(-1) (lipid wt), which is between a proposed "safe level" and a "critical level" for otters. Rivers in the North of Luxembourg are thus to some extent polluted, and the establishment of otter populations could be affected by current levels of contamination.

  12. Water Quality and Algal Data for the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2006-01-01

    The upper North Umpqua River Basin has experienced a variety of water-quality problems since at least the early 1990's. Several reaches of the North Umpqua River are listed as water-quality limited under section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act. Diamond Lake, a eutrophic lake that is an important source of water and nutrients to the upper North Umpqua River, is also listed as a water-quality limited waterbody (pH, nuisance algae). A draft Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) was proposed for various parameters and is expected to be adopted in full in 2006. Diamond Lake has supported potentially toxic blue-green algae blooms since 2001 that have resulted in closures to recreational water contact and impacts to the local economy. Increased populations of the invasive tui chub fish are reportedly responsible, because they feed on zooplankton that would otherwise control the algal blooms. The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Diamond Lake Restoration Project advocates reduced fish biomass in Diamond Lake in 2006 as the preferred alternative. A restoration project scheduled to reduce fish biomass for the lake includes a significant water-level drawdown that began in January 2006. After the drawdown of Diamond Lake, the fish toxicant rotenone was applied to eradicate the tui chub. The lake will be refilled and restocked with game fish in 2007. Winter exports of nutrients from Diamond Lake during the restoration project could affect the summer trophic status of the North Umpqua River if retention and recycling in Lemolo Lake are significant. The FEIS includes comprehensive monitoring to assess the water quality of the restored Diamond Lake and the effects of that restoration downstream. One component of the monitoring is the collection of baseline data, in order to observe changes in the river's water quality and algal conditions resulting from the restoration of Diamond Lake. During July 2005, the USGS, in cooperation with Douglas County, performed a synoptic

  13. Floods of October 1977 in southern Arizona and March 1978 in central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, Byron Neil; Eychaner, James H.

    1984-01-01

    Major floods occurred in October 1977 and March 1978 in Arizona. As much as 14 inches of rain fell during October 6-9, 1977, over the mountains of southern Arizona and northern Mexico resulting in the highest discharge since at least 1892 on the Santa Cruz River upstream from Tucson. The flood inundated areas as much as 4 miles wide, covered at least 16,000 acres of farmland, and caused $15.2 million in damage. Residential losses occurred at Nogales, Amado, Green Valley, and Sahuarita. Severe erosional damage occurred along the Santa Cruz River, Agua Fria Canyon, Potrero Creek, and many small drainages in the Sonoita Creek basin. The peak discharge in Agua Fria Canyon was the highest since before 1900. Less severe flooding occurred along the San Pedro River and the Gila River downstream from the San Pedro. Widespread rainfall of 3 to 6 inches and 9 to 14 inches in some areas in the central mountains during February 27 to March 3, 1978, caused the highest discharge since 1920 on the Salt River in Phoenix and resulted in three deaths. Flooding along the Salt and Gila Rivers and several lesser streams caused statewide damage totaling $65.9 million, of which about $37 million occurred in Maricopa County. Nine counties were declared disaster areas. During the flood of March 1978, moderate peak discharges and unusually high volumes of runoff occurred on tributaries to the Salt and Verde Rivers upstream from a system of reservoirs. Flood magnitudes were greater at the main-stem gaging stations than on the tributaries. The peak discharge into Theodore Roosevelt Lake, which was 21 percent full at the start of the flood, was about 155,000 cubic feet per second, the largest known from 1890 to 1978. The reservoirs stored large quantities of water and greatly reduced the magnitude of the flood. The peak discharge of the Salt River was 125,000 cubic feet per second below Granite Reef Dam and 122,000 cubic feet per second at Phoenix. Discharges in excess of 100,000 cubic feet per

  14. Estimated probability of postwildfire debris flows in the 2012 Whitewater-Baldy Fire burn area, southwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2012-01-01

    In May and June 2012, the Whitewater-Baldy Fire burned approximately 1,200 square kilometers (300,000 acres) of the Gila National Forest, in southwestern New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 128 basins burned by the Whitewater-Baldy Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burned area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of areal burned extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to the 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, modeling indicated that four basins have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence (greater than or equal to 80 percent). For the 10-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional 14 basins are included, and for the 25-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall, an additional eight basins, 20 percent of the total, have high probabilities of debris-flow occurrence. In addition, probability analysis along the stream segments can identify specific reaches of greatest concern for debris flows within a basin. Basins with a high probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in the west and central parts of the burned area, including tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Mineral Creek, and Willow Creek. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from about 3,000-4,000 cubic meters (m3) to greater than 500,000 m3 for all design storms modeled. Drainage basins with estimated volumes greater than 500,000 m3 included tributaries to Whitewater Creek, Willow

  15. Statistical analysis of nitrate in ground water, West Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andy E.; Brown, James G.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the nitrate concentrations in ground water in west Salt River Valley are needed to better manage ground water affected by nitrate. Statistical analyses were done to establish the best statistical method to produce these estimates. Three sets of ground-water data for different time periods --1975-77, 1980-85, and 1986-90--were used to analyze spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of nitrate in ground water. The use of inverse-distance squared weighting, radial-basis function, kriging, and cokriging were evaluated for estimating nitrate concentrations in ground water. From an analysis of the cross-validation results, cokriging maps resulted in the best estimates, and they were accepted as being the most reliable. Cross-validation results also indicated that nitrate cokriged best with magnesium for 1975-77 and 1986-90 and with calcium for 1980-85. Kriging results consistently were almost as reliable as any of the cokriging results. Because of the difficulties inherent in the cokriging process, kriging, although not optimal, was the fastest way to obtain reasonably good results. In 1980-85, cokriged nitrate concentrations exceeded 20 milligrams per liter in a 12-square-kilometer area in Phoenix and Glendale and exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in a 280-square-kilometer area that extended to the Salt River. In 1986-90, nitrate concentrations along the entire reach of the Salt River in west Salt River Valley were less than 10 milligrams per liter and were smaller probably as a result of recharge from the Salt and Gila Rivers in 1982. Farther north in Phoenix and Glendale, the area in which nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter expanded to 490 square kilometers for 1986-90. In Buckeye Valley, nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in an area of 300 square milometers for 1980-85 from the Gila River in the early 1980's but possibly could be an artifact of the different data distributions associated with

  16. Economic performance of irrigation capacity development to adapt to climate in the American Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.; Crawford, Terry L.

    2016-09-01

    Growing demands for food security to feed increasing populations worldwide have intensified the search for improved performance of irrigation, the world's largest water user. These challenges are raised in the face of climate variability and from growing environmental demands. Adaptation measures in irrigated agriculture include fallowing land, shifting cropping patterns, increased groundwater pumping, reservoir storage capacity expansion, and increased production of risk-averse crops. Water users in the Gila Basin headwaters of the U.S. Lower Colorado Basin have faced a long history of high water supply fluctuations producing low-valued defensive cropping patterns. To date, little research grade analysis has investigated economically viable measures for irrigation development to adjust to variable climate. This gap has made it hard to inform water resource policy decisions on workable measures to adapt to climate in the world's dry rural areas. This paper's contribution is to illustrate, formulate, develop, and apply a new methodology to examine the economic performance from irrigation capacity improvements in the Gila Basin of the American Southwest. An integrated empirical optimization model using mathematical programming is developed to forecast cropping patterns and farm income under two scenarios (1) status quo without added storage capacity and (2) with added storage capacity in which existing barriers to development of higher valued crops are dissolved. We find that storage capacity development can lead to a higher valued portfolio of irrigation production systems as well as more sustained and higher valued farm livelihoods. Results show that compared to scenario (1), scenario (2) increases regional farm income by 30%, in which some sub regions secure income gains exceeding 900% compared to base levels. Additional storage is most economically productive when institutional and technical constraints facing irrigated agriculture are dissolved. Along with

  17. Seed dispersal by specialist versus generalist foragers: the plant's perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    I examined the seed dispersal ecology of the stem parasitic plant, desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum, Viscaceae), with the objectives of (1) determining the relative effectiveness of specialist and generalist foragers for seed dispersal, (2) determining the extent to which desert mistletoe fruiting characteristics correspond to those predicted for plants attracting specialist versus generalist foragers, and (3) examining the potential consequences of the observed dispersal strategy for mistletoe reproduction. Three species of birds, phainopepla, Gila woodpecker, and northern mockingbird, fed on desert mistletoe at my study site. The specialist, phainopepla, was the most abundant and the most likely to perch in host species, where defecated seeds had a greater probability of lodging in a site suitable for establishment. Gila woodpeckers, although abundant, spent little time in host plants, thus dooming most of the seeds they consumed. Mockingbirds may disperse a small number of seeds, but were abundant enough to consume only a small portion of the available fruits. As expected for plants attracting specialist frugivores, mistletoes produced fruits throughout the 6-month season in which phainopeplas reside in the Sonoran desert. Contrary to expectation, numbers of fruits produced far exceeded the amount that could be consumed by the frugivores at my study site. Fruit crop size was positively related to absolute fruit removal, but not to proportional removal at the scale of the entire study site. However, crop size was positively related to proportional removal within the neighborhood of mistletoes occupying an individual host tree. Frugivores were attracted to infected hosts, host attractiveness increased, although proportional removal of fruit declined, with number of female mistletoes. The observed dispersal ecology of desert mistletoe suggests the likelihood of increasingly clumped distributions of mistletoe plants, as more and more seeds are deposited

  18. Geomorphic change and sediment transport during a small artificial flood in a transformed post-dam delta: The Colorado River delta, United States and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Erich R.; Schmidt, John C.; Topping, David J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Rodríguez-Burgueño, Jesús Eliana; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Grams, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado River delta is a dramatically transformed landscape. Major changes to river hydrology and morpho-dynamics began following completion of Hoover Dam in 1936. Today, the Colorado River has an intermittent and/or ephemeral channel in much of its former delta. Initial incision of the river channel in the upstream ∼50 km of the delta occurred in the early 1940s in response to spillway releases from Hoover Dam under conditions of drastically reduced sediment supply. A period of relative quiescence followed, until the filling of upstream reservoirs precipitated a resurgence of flows to the delta in the 1980s and 1990s. Flow releases during extreme upper basin snowmelt in the 1980s, flood flows from the Gila River basin in 1993, and a series of ever-decreasing peak flows in the late 1990s and early 2000s further incised the upstream channel and caused considerable channel migration throughout the river corridor. These variable magnitude post-dam floods shaped the modern river geomorphology. In 2014, an experimental pulse-flow release aimed at rejuvenating the riparian ecosystem and understanding hydrologic dynamics flowed more than 100 km through the length of the delta’s river corridor. This small artificial flood caused localized meter-scale scour and fill of the streambed, but did not cause further incision or significant bank erosion because of its small magnitude. Suspended-sand-transport rates were initially relatively high immediately downstream from the Morelos Dam release point, but decreasing discharge from infiltration losses combined with channel widening downstream caused a rapid downstream reduction in suspended-sand-transport rates. A zone of enhanced transport occurred downstream from the southern U.S.-Mexico border where gradient increased, but effectively no geomorphic change occurred beyond a point 65 km downstream from Morelos Dam. Thus, while the pulse flow connected with the modern estuary, deltaic sedimentary processes were not

  19. The Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) dead end gene is suitable as a specific molecular marker of type A spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Ryosuke; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Morita, Tetsuro; Ishida, Masashi; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2013-10-01

    We developed a spermatogonial transplantation technique to produce donor-derived gametes in surrogate fish. Our ultimate aim is to establish surrogate broodstock that can produce bluefin tuna. We previously determined that only type A spermatogonia (ASG) could colonize recipient gonads in salmonids. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a precise molecular marker that can distinguish ASG in order to develop efficient spermatogonial transplantation methods. In this study, the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) dead end (BFTdnd) gene was identified as a specific marker for ASG. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR analysis with various types of spermatogenic cell populations captured by laser microdissection revealed that localization of BFTdnd mRNA was restricted to ASG, and not detected in other differentiated spermatogenic cells. In order to determine if BFTdnd can be used as a molecular marker to identify germ cells with high transplantability, transplantation of dissociated testicular cells isolated from juvenile, immature, and mature Pacific bluefin tuna, which have different proportions of dnd-positive ASG, were performed using chub mackerel as the surrogate recipient species. Colonization of transplanted donor germ cells was only successful with testicular cells from immature Pacific Bluefin tuna, which contained higher proportions of dnd-positive ASG than juvenile and mature fish. Thus, BFTdnd is a useful tool for identifying highly transplantable ASG for spermatogonial transplantation.

  20. Late Quaternary environmental change in the Bonneville basin, western USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, D.B.; Rhode, D.; Grayson, D.K.; Broughton, J.M.; Livingston, S.D.; Hunt, J.; Quade, Jay; Schmitt, D.N.; Shaver, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    Excavation and analyses of small animal remains from stratified raptor deposits spanning the last 11.5 ka, together with collection and analysis of over 60 dated fossil woodrat midden samples spanning the last 50 ka, provide a detailed record of changing climate in the eastern Great Basin during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Sagebrush steppe dominated the northern Bonneville basin during the Full Glacial, suggesting that conditions were cold and relatively dry, in contrast to the southern basin, which was also cold but moister. Limber pine woodlands dominated ???13-11.5 ka, indicating increased dryness and summer temperatures ???6-7??C cooler than present. This drying trend accelerated after ???11.5 ka causing Lake Bonneville to drop rapidly, eliminating 11 species of fish from the lake. From ???11.5-8.2 ka xerophytic sagebrush and shadscale scrub replaced more mesophilic shrubs in a step-wise fashion. A variety of small mammals and plants indicate the early Holocene was ???3??C cooler and moister than at present, not warmer as suggested by a number of climatic models. The diversity of plants and animals changed dramatically after 8.2 ka as many species disappeared from the record. Some of the upland species returned after ???4 ka and Great Salt Lake became fresh enough at ???3.4 and ???1.2 ka to support populations of Utah chub. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.