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Sample records for church rock spill

  1. The Sequoyah Corporation Fuels Release and the Church Rock Spill: Unpublicized Nuclear Releases in American Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; deLemos, Jamie L.; Bui, Cat

    2007-01-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear release exemplifies why there is public and policy interest in the high-technology, highly visible end of the nuclear cycle. The environmental and health consequences of the early steps in the cycle—mining, milling, and processing of uranium ore—may be less appreciated. We examined 2 large unintended acute releases of uranium—at Kerr McGee’s Sequoyah Fuels Corporation in Oklahoma and United Nuclear Corporation’s Church Rock uranium mill in New Mexico, which were incidents with comparable magnitude to the Three Mile Island release. We urge exploration of whether there is limited national interest and concern for the primarily rural, low-income, and American Indian communities affected by these releases. More attention should be given to the early stages of the nuclear cycle and their impacts on health and the environment. PMID:17666688

  2. The Sequoyah corporation fuels release and the Church Rock spill: unpublicized nuclear releases in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; deLemos, Jamie L; Bui, Cat

    2007-09-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear release exemplifies why there is public and policy interest in the high-technology, highly visible end of the nuclear cycle. The environmental and health consequences of the early steps in the cycle--mining, milling, and processing of uranium ore--may be less appreciated. We examined 2 large unintended acute releases of uranium--at Kerr McGee's Sequoyah Fuels Corporation in Oklahoma and United Nuclear Corporation's Church Rock uranium mill in New Mexico, which were incidents with comparable magnitude to the Three Mile Island release. We urge exploration of whether there is limited national interest and concern for the primarily rural, low-income, and American Indian communities affected by these releases. More attention should be given to the early stages of the nuclear cycle and their impacts on health and the environment.

  3. The Sequoyah corporation fuels release and the Church Rock spill: unpublicized nuclear releases in American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; deLemos, Jamie L; Bui, Cat

    2007-09-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear release exemplifies why there is public and policy interest in the high-technology, highly visible end of the nuclear cycle. The environmental and health consequences of the early steps in the cycle--mining, milling, and processing of uranium ore--may be less appreciated. We examined 2 large unintended acute releases of uranium--at Kerr McGee's Sequoyah Fuels Corporation in Oklahoma and United Nuclear Corporation's Church Rock uranium mill in New Mexico, which were incidents with comparable magnitude to the Three Mile Island release. We urge exploration of whether there is limited national interest and concern for the primarily rural, low-income, and American Indian communities affected by these releases. More attention should be given to the early stages of the nuclear cycle and their impacts on health and the environment. PMID:17666688

  4. Perspective view of the Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, now Emmanuel Christian Community Church, on West Lanvale Street - Lafayette Square, Bounded by West Lafayette, North Arlington, West Lanvale & North Carrollton streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. Hydrocarbon source-rock evaluation - Solor Church Formation (middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup), southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, J.R.; Morey, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    In the type section (Lonsdale 65-1 core, Rice County, Minnesota) the Solor Church Formation (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup) consists primarily of reddish-brown mudstone and siltstone and pale reddish-brown sandstone. The sandstone and siltstone are texturally and mineralogically immature. Hydrocarbon source-rock evaluation of bluish-gray, greenish-gray and medium-dark-gray to grayish-black beds, which primarily occur in the lower 104 m (340 ft) of this core, shows: (1) the rocks have low organic carbon contents (<0.5 percent for 22 of 25 samples); (2) the organic matter is thermally very mature (Tmax = 494°C, sample 19) and is probably near the transition between the wet gas phase of catagenesis and metagenesis (dry gas zone); and (3) the rocks have minimal potential for producing additional hydrocarbons (genetic potential <0.30 mgHC/gm rock). Although no direct evidence exists from which to determine maximum depths of burial, the observed thermal maturity of the organic matter requires significantly greater depths of burial and(or) higher geothermal gradients. It is likely, at least on the St. Croix horst, that thermal alteration of the organic matter in the Solor Church took place relatively early, and that any hydrocarbons generated during this early thermal alteration were probably lost prior to deposition of the overlying Fond du Lac Formation (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup).

  6. Geochemical characteristics of the Church Rock 1 and 1 East uranium deposits, Grants uranium region, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Reynolds, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    In the Church Rock 1 and 1 East mines, Grants uranium region (GUR), New Mexico, uranium orebodies occur within three sandstone units in the upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member of the late Jurassic Morrison Formation. Geochemical analyses reveal that organic carbon contents in ore samples from all three sand units are uniformly low (most are less than 0.01 percent). Vanadium (ranging from 0.0002 to 0.19 percent) and sulfur (ranging from <0.01 to 0.74 percent) typically show positive correlations with uranium; however, vanadium contents rarely exceed those of uranium in ore samples. Although no systematic relationship of either selenium or molybdenum to uranium is evident, some ore samples contain anomalously high concentrations of either of these elements. Geochemically, the ore deposits of the Church Rock area contrast greatly with primary (tabular) uranium orebodies in the GUR which contain abundant organic carbon and greater amounts of vanadium and sulfur. These differences and radiometric age determinations strongly suggest that the Church Rock ores formed as a result of the redistribution of uranium from preexisting uranium deposits within the last 1 m.y. However, the Church Rock deposits differ geochemically from redistributed orebodies in the Westwater Canyon Member elsewhere in the GUR. Specifically, redistributed orebodies in the Ambrosia Lake district, which are comparable in contents of uranium and organic carbon with the Church Rock deposits, are characterized by vanadium contents typically higher than those of uranium. Similarly, sulfur contents in the redistributed deposits of the Ambrosia Lake district are greater than those found in the Church Rock ores. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of molybdenum have rarely been found in other redistributed orebodies of the GUR.

  7. 78 FR 12365 - License Amendment Request for United Nuclear Corporation, Church Rock Mill-License No. SUA-1475

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... flow model for the UNC Church Rock Mill site and adjacent downgradient areas . In a letter dated November 16, 2012, UNC requested that the NRC consider the merits of this groundwater flow model in support... of the groundwater flow model will be narrowly focused on supplemental information pertinent to...

  8. HYDROCARBON SOURCE ROCK EVALUATION OF MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC SOLOR CHURCH FORMATION, NORTH AMERICAN MID-CONTINENT RIFT SYSTEM, RICE COUNTY, MINNESOTA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, J.R.; Morey, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Middle Proterozoic Solor Church Formation (Keweenawan Supergroup) as sampled in the Lonsdale 65-1 well, Rice County, shows that: the rocks are organic matter lean; the organic matter is thermally post-mature, probably near the transition between the wet gas phase of catagenesis and metagenesis; and the rocks have minimal potential for producing additional hydrocarbons. The observed thermal maturity of the organic matter requires significantly greater burial depths, a higher geothermal gradient, or both. It is likely, that thermal maturation of the organic matter in the Solor Church took place relatively early, and that any hydrocarbons generated during this early phase were probably lost prior to deposition of the overlying formation.

  9. Statistical treatment and preliminary interpretation of chemical data from a uranium deposit in the northeast part of the Church Rock area, Gallup mining district, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.; Santos, E.S.; Fishman, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical treatment of analytical data from 106 samples of uranium-mineralized and unmineralized or weakly mineralized rocks of the Morrison Formation from the northeastern part of the Church Rock area of the Grants uranium region indicates that along with uranium, the deposits in the northeast Church Rock area are enriched in barium, sulfur, sodium, vanadium and equivalent uranium. Selenium and molybdenum are sporadically enriched in the deposits and calcium, manganese, strontium, and yttrium are depleted. Unlike the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin, the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area contain little organic carbon and several elements that are characteristically enriched in the primary deposits are not enriched or are enriched to a much lesser degree in the Church Rock deposits. The suite of elements associated with the deposits in the northeast part of the Church Rock area is also different from the suite of elements associated with the redistributed deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district. This suggests that the genesis of the Church Rock deposits is different, at least in part, from the genesis of the primary deposits of the San Juan Basin or the redistributed deposits at Ambrosia Lake.

  10. Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Los Ríos, Asunción; Cámara, Beatriz; García Del Cura, M A Angeles; Rico, Víctor J; Galván, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen

    2009-01-15

    In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martín, San Millán and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode, fungi (lichenized and non-lichenized) were observed as the most frequent microorganisms occurring at sites showing signs of biodeterioration. The colonization process was especially conditioned by the porosity characteristics of the stone used in these buildings. While in dolostones, microorganisms mainly occupied spaces comprising the rock's intercrystalline porosity, in bioclastic dolomitized limestones, fungal colonization seemed to be more associated with moldic porosity. Microbial biofilms make close contact with the substrate, and thus probably cause significant deterioration of the underlying materials. We describe the different processes of stone alteration induced by fungal colonization and discuss the implications of these processes for the design of treatments to prevent biodeterioration. PMID:18976800

  11. Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Los Ríos, Asunción; Cámara, Beatriz; García Del Cura, M A Angeles; Rico, Víctor J; Galván, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen

    2009-01-15

    In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martín, San Millán and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode, fungi (lichenized and non-lichenized) were observed as the most frequent microorganisms occurring at sites showing signs of biodeterioration. The colonization process was especially conditioned by the porosity characteristics of the stone used in these buildings. While in dolostones, microorganisms mainly occupied spaces comprising the rock's intercrystalline porosity, in bioclastic dolomitized limestones, fungal colonization seemed to be more associated with moldic porosity. Microbial biofilms make close contact with the substrate, and thus probably cause significant deterioration of the underlying materials. We describe the different processes of stone alteration induced by fungal colonization and discuss the implications of these processes for the design of treatments to prevent biodeterioration.

  12. A multianalytical approach to investigate stone biodeterioration at a UNESCO world heritage site: the volcanic rock-hewn churches of Lalibela, Northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, Nick; De Caro, Tilde; Kiros, Alemayehu; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Parisi, Isabella Erica; Riccucci, Cristina; Gigante, Giovanni Ettore

    2013-12-01

    A multianalytical approach combining Optical Microscopy (OM), Backscattered Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy + Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (VP-BSEM + EDS), Powder X-ray Diffractometry (PXRD), Raman Spectroscopy, and Microbiological techniques has been applied to characterize decay products and processes occurring at the surface of two rock-hewn churches ( Bete Gyorgis and Bete Amanuel) at the UNESCO's World Heritage site of Lalibela, Northern Ethiopia. The two churches were carved into volcanic scoria deposits of basaltic composition. In their geological history, the Lalibela volcanic rocks underwent late to post-magmatic hydrothermal alteration together with partial laterization and are therefore characterized by a decay-prone highly vesicular microtexture with late stage to post-magmatic precipitation of secondary mineral phases (calcite-zeolite-smectite). The main objective of the study was to gain a better insight into the weathering products and mechanisms affecting the surface of the stone monuments and to assess the relative contribution of natural "geological" weathering processes versus biological/salt attack in stone decay at this unique heritage site. Results indicate that while the main cause of bulk rock deterioration and structural failure could be related to the stone inherited "geological" features, biological attack by micro- (bacteria) and/or macro- (lichens) organisms is currently responsible for severe stone surface physical and chemical weathering leading to significant weakening of the stone texture and to material loss at the surface of the churches walls. A prompt and careful removal of the biological patinas with the correct biocidal treatment is therefore recommended.

  13. Geochemical, petrographic and physical characterizations and associated alterations of the volcanic rocks of the Romanesque San Nicola Church (Ottana, central Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    In this research, the volcanic rocks belonging to the Sardinia Oligo-Miocene volcanic cycle (32 - 11 Ma) and building up the structure of the San Nicola church, one of the most representative churches of the Romanesque architecture, were studied. These stones were widely used in medieval architecture for the excellent workability, but they present some disadvantages, since they are greatly affected by alteration phenomena. The main objectives of this research are i) to focus the mineral, chemical and petrographic compositions of the San Nicola stones, ii) the chemical and physical alteration processes affecting these materials, and iii) to establish the exactly provenance of the volcanic rocks. Furthermore, a comparative study between the rocks from the ancient quarries and those forming the structure of the church was performed. In the ancient quarries, where presumably a more advanced alteration occurs due to the vertical alteration gradient, different facies of the same volcanic lithology, characterized by macroscopical evidences of chemical-physical degradation degree, were sampled. Petrographic, geochemical (both major elements that the traces) and physical-mechanical features of the collected samples were determined to highlight the compositional differences (density, porosity, water-absorption kinetics, mechanical resistance) as a function of the different alteration degree. Moreover, chemical-mineralogical analysis of the sample surfaces from the church, was performed, to highlight possible presence and nature of secondary newly-formed phases (e.g., salt efflorescence). Several methodologies were applied to carry out physical-chemical and petrographic analysis: X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) for chemical and mineral composition; Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for textures, mineral assemblages and microstructures studies; He-picnometry, water-absorption and mechanical

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Draft of Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-28

    This plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329: Area 22, Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), 22-44-01, which encompasses an area contaminated by three recorded spills from a 25,000-gallon underground fuel storage tank. The tank was installed in 1980 and was imbedded in sand and gravel approximately 16 feet below the ground surface. Historically, the DRA consisted of a single runway, several portable buildings, two underground storage tanks containing aviation jet fuel, and plumbing to several refueling areas on the ramp. The constituents of potential concern from the spill were total petroleum hydrocarbons as gasoline or JP-4. This provides the methodology for sampling contaminated soil-vapor and soil to determine what activities, if any, are required for closure of this si te. In addition, there is sufficient process knowledge of the tank's historical use to recommend closure of CAU 329 using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objectives process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. The study concluded that the spill is localized; therefore, it is very unlikely that the underground water supply has been or will be affected by these spills. In addition, there were high levels of carbon dioxide detected above the release which indicate that the spill is currently in the process of undergoing biological degradation and is not migrating. This CAU has been approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to be moved into Appendix III of the FFACO. Closure is expected to be in-place with administrative controls and soil-vapor sampling. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval

  15. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-03-01

    The following is an addendum to the ''Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', DOE/NV-641. This new information is based on the results of post-closure monitoring data that was not available at the time DOE/NV--641 was issued. This addendum replaces: Section 4.0, ''Closure Verification Results,'' in its entirety; renumbers Section 5.0, ''References'' to Section 6.0, ''References''; and introduces a new Section 5.0, ''Conclusions and Recommendations.'' The list of acronyms and references only contains additions to the original document.

  16. Annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-09-01

    This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada, as shown in Figure 1-1. Field activities were conducted in accordance with the revised sampling approach outlined in the Addendum to the Closure Report (CR) for CAU 329 (NNSA/NSO, 2005) to support data collection requirements. The previous annual monitoring program for CAU 329 was initiated in August 2000 using soil-gas samples collected from three specific intervals at the DRA-0 and DRA-3 monitoring wells. Results of four sampling events from 2000 through 2003 indicated there is uncertainty in the approach to establish a rate of natural attenuation as specified in ''Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Work Plan for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 1999). As a result, the Addendum to the CR (NNSA/NSO, 2005) was completed to address this uncertainty by modifying the previous approach. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination.

  17. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  18. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to provide scientific support to the U.S. Coast Guard officers in charge of response operations. In addition ... NOAA Responds to Oil Spills While the U.S. Coast Guard oversees all responses to oil spills and chemical ...

  19. Spill Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article describes OSHA procedures for handling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories. The Laboratory Standard requires a Chemical Hygiene Plan to address all aspects of working with hazardous chemicals. This includes dealing with chemical spills. Chemical spill kits or "spill crash carts" need to be available in case…

  20. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  1. Church and State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Church and state is discussed in four articles: "Recent Threats to Religious Liberty" (Dean M. Kelley, pp.16-22); "Municipal Church-State Litigation and the Issue of Standing" (Kenneth S. Saladin, pp. 23-25); "Prayer in Public Schools: The Court's Decisions" (Leo Pfeffer, pp. 26-29); and "Religion and Public Education: The American Context" (Peggy…

  2. Oil Spills and Spills of Hazardous Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The stated purpose of this publication is to describe some of the more significant spill incidents and the mechanisms, both managerial and technological, to deal with them. This publication is targeted for school, general public, and other such audiences. Sections include effects of spills, prevention of spills, responding to spills, spill…

  3. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... or in the ocean). Other factors include what kind of exposure and how much exposure there was. People who clean up the spill are more at risk. Problems could include skin and eye irritation, neurologic and breathing problems, and stress. Not much is known about the long-term ...

  4. [Health care and the church].

    PubMed

    Pitha, P

    1990-08-31

    The article is devoted to some basic problems of the relationship of the health services and Church which may appear under the present new circumstances. After a long period of repression of the church to the periphery of society it is necessary to attempt to answer with new courage and mutual confidence what the health services may expect and demand from the church and what the church may expect and what the health services can offer the church. The author deals in more detail with several areas where collaboration between churches and health services seems promising: psychiatry and clinical psychology, nursing, thanatology, prevention. The author mentions the necessity of mutual meeting and enrichment in theoretical areas.

  5. Understanding oil spills and oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The volume contains individual sections that outline what oil spills are, their potential effects on the environment, how they are cleaned up, and how various agencies prepare for spills before they happen.

  6. Annual Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 329: Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip Fuel Spill, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, with Errata Sheet, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the data collected during field activities and quarterly soil-gas sampling activities conducted from May 9, 2005, through May 20, 2006, at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 329, Area 22 Desert Rock Airstrip (DRA) Fuel Spill; Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-44-01, Fuel Spill. The CAU is located at the DRA, which is located approximately two miles southwest of Mercury, Nevada. A risk evaluation was added to the scope of the project to determine if the residual concentration of the hazardous constituents of JP4 pose an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment and if a corrective action was required at the site, because the current quarterly monitoring program is not expected to yield a rate constant that could be used effectively to determine a biodegradation rate for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in less than the initial five years outlined in the CR. Additionally, remediation to the Tier 1 action level for TPH is not practical or technically feasible due to the depth of contamination. Field activities were conducted under the Addendum to the CR to collect sufficient data to determine the rate of biodegradation for TPH contamination at CAU 329 to support closure requirements. Reconstruction of the monitoring system at the site and quarterly soil-gas sampling were conducted to collect the required data. Because existing Wells DRA-0 and DRA-3 were determined to be insufficient to provide adequate data, soil-gas monitoring Wells DRA-10 and DRA-11 were installed. Two soil-gas sampling events were conducted to establish a baseline for the site, and subsequent quarterly sampling was conducted as part of the quarterly soil-gas sampling program. In addition, soil samples were collected during well drilling activities so comparisons might be made between the initial soil contamination levels in 2000 and the concentrations present at the time of the well installation.

  7. The Information Society and the Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukacs, Laszlo

    1997-01-01

    The information revolution is changing how people live, work, entertain, communicate, and perhaps even pray and celebrate. This article discusses the church (primarily the Catholic Church) in the information society, explores the nature of communication via the Internet, and suggests that the church must embrace communication media to leverage its…

  8. Church Related Higher Education. Perceptions and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsonage, Robert Rue, Ed.

    A two-year study and subsequent conference held in November 1977, sponsored by the National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., focused on the role of church-related colleges in higher education, and on their distinctive contribution to the churches, higher education, and the quality of life in America. In this report, a number of…

  9. YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS OTHER THAN CHURCHES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SORENSON, ROY

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE ORGANIZATIONS, OTHER THAN CHURCHES, WHICH SERVE RURAL YOUTH. IT DESCRIBES PROGRAMS OF SUCH ORGANIZATIONS AS--(1) THE 4-H CLUB WHICH IS THE LARGEST IN VOLUME AND SPREAD, THE FUTURE FARMERS AND YOUNG FARMERS OF AMERICA, THE GRANGE, THE AMERICAN FARM BUREAU FEDERATION, THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF COOPERATION, THE FUTURE AND NEW…

  10. Physical activity participation in African American churches.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; McClorin, Lottie

    2009-01-01

    The potential benefit of physical activity (PA) programs delivered through churches is largely unexamined. This study examined availability of PA programs, interpersonal support for PA, and PA participation in African-American churches. Individuals from a random sample of 20 churches in South Carolina participated in a telephone survey (N = 571). Forty two percent of respondents reported PA programs at their churches. Walking programs (20%), aerobics (22%) or a combination of both (20%) were most common. Respondents who reported having these programs were more likely to meet PA recommendations than those who did not (p = 0.05). Larger churches were more likely to offer PA programs (p = 0.02) than small or medium sized churches. Only 24% of respondents had spoken with the health director at their church about participating in a PA program, and only 25% and 33% had ever spoken with another church member about a PA program or were encouraged to join a PA program, respectively. Individuals with more interpersonal support from other church members for PA were significantly more likely to meet PA recommendations (p = 0.01). This study indicates that program and interpersonal supports within African American churches may offer a venue for increasing PA among members.

  11. Conducting health research in Korean American churches: perspectives from church leaders.

    PubMed

    Jo, Angela M; Maxwell, Annette E; Yang, Bryan; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-04-01

    Korean Americans experience many challenges to obtaining adequate health care coverage and access to needed services. Because a large proportion of Korean Americans attend churches on a regular basis, churches may be a promising venue where health programs can be delivered. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of Korean American churches with respect to conducting future health intervention research, we conducted exploratory interviews and focus groups with 58 leaders from 23 Korean American churches and three community organizations. From these interviews and focus groups, we found that Korean churches and church leaders seek to meet a variety of social and health needs of their congregation and their surrounding community. Several leaders have stated that assisting with social and medical needs of their members is an important component of their current ministry. They described profound health needs of their congregations and have suggested various ways in which the university can partner with the local churches to help address these needs through research. Additionally, they described various resources churches can provide to researchers such as: their personal assistance, church volunteer base, church facility, and church network and contacts. Our findings suggest that Korean churches have a high potential to serve an important role in the health of Korean Americans. On the basis of the promising results of the present study, we are planning to conduct a cross sectional survey of Korean church leaders and members in Los Angeles County to substantiate our findings in a larger representative sample.

  12. Orientation of churches by magnetic compasses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneitz, Patrick; Draxler, Andrea; Rauch, Roman; Leonhardt, Roman

    2014-07-01

    In Christian religion the sunrise is of great symbolic importance. Therefore, many churches constructed in the Middle Ages point towards geographic East. Although `easting' of churches actually refers to the alignment towards the azimuth of sunrise on the individual churches' patron's day, deviation of nave alignment from the geographic East direction is often assumed to be caused by the use of magnetic compasses. Therefore, the church alignment could provide information about historical magnetic declination. We investigate 124 churches in Lower Austria and 68 in northern Germany to clarify this question as well as the `easting' hypothesis. Church orientations are determined from georeferenced satellite images. Metadata such as the construction year, possible reconstructions and the church patron are gathered to determine the date when current church direction was appointed, and to perform sunrise calculations. However, due to uncertainties of construction years and the declining importance of orientation tradition after the 15th century several churches are excluded from the study. Thus, 32 churches with reliable metadata remain for evaluation in each region. The analysis reveals a preferred alignment of naves towards geographic East in Lower Austria and northern Germany. The construction and alignment of churches was often affected by the pre-existing buildings and streets or topography and natural surroundings. Therefore, deviations from geographic East are more likely caused by town or landscape. The mean deviations from magnetic East in both regions are large compared to the mean deviations from geographic East and sunrise azimuths. Hence, the use of compasses cannot be confirmed. Despite a few churches indicating orientation according to their patron's day, a general trend cannot be observed in the data reviewed.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1026 - Work for a church or qualified church-controlled organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work for a church or qualified church-controlled organization. 404.1026 Section 404.1026 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1026 Work for a church or qualified...

  14. Perceived Environmental Church Support and Physical Activity among Black Church Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hooker, Steven P.; Hussey, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Churches are an appealing setting for implementing health-related behavior change programs. Purpose: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived environmental church support for physical activity (PA) and PA behaviors. Method: Black church members from South Carolina ("n" = 309) wore an…

  15. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  16. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  17. 11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown 1886 'EPISCOPAL CHURCH, CORNER OF 1ST AND J ST. BENICIA' WEST AND SOUTH SIDES - St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 120 East J Street, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  18. Conscience and Dividends: Churches and the Multinationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oden, Thomas C.

    Over the past 20 years there has been agreement in religious circles that the church's economic power and ties with the corporate world entail a moral responsibility. Church leaders within the corporate-responsibility (CR) movement have taken one of two approaches to corporations and their activities. The reformist approach assumes the market and…

  19. Adult Education Programs with Church Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, W. H.; Tait, John L.

    This document is a historical resume of adult education programs with church leaders sponsored by the Cooperative Extension Service of Iowa State University since the early 20th century. Supported by research, resident teaching and administrative leaders in the institution, the Extension Division has cooperated educationally with church leaders,…

  20. Communication Challenges for the Church in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Angela Ann

    1999-01-01

    Recounts the discussions at the five-day Bishop's Institute for Social Communication in September 1999 held in Bangkok, Thailand to study and reflect on the impact of new communication technologies for "Being Church" in the 21st century. Describes the passion with which the local Church in Asia embraces of the countless possibilities that…

  1. Education: A Forgotten Dimension of Church Identity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Rune

    2010-01-01

    In general churches talk a lot about the importance of education. At the same time their educational praxis is often fragmentized. The most crucial factor for this is a weak connection between the Church's identity and its activity. When this link is diffuse, different activities have a tendency to live their own lives. This article examines some…

  2. Representations of St Apollonia in British churches.

    PubMed

    Beal, J F

    1996-05-01

    St Apollonia is the patron saint of sufferers from toothache. Many medieval churches contain pictures of saints. Fifty-five representations of St Apollonia in British churches are listed. A large number of these are in the West Country and East Anglia. The majority are on rood screens or stained glass windows.

  3. Curriculum Design and Children's Learning at Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Larry D.; Paroschi, Eliane E.; Habenicht, Donna J.; Hollingsead, Candice C.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between curriculum design and children's learning in church. Participants in this study included 12 six-year-old children attending two different Sabbath school classes in the same Midwestern Seventh-day Adventist church. A traditional curriculum guided instruction in Class 1. "GraceLink," a new curriculum,…

  4. A "One Kid at a Time" Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joyce MacKichan

    2009-01-01

    One might think a large church would organize Sabbath morning "classes" for children with special needs, staff them with volunteer professionals trained in working with the children, and sit back and enjoy being large enough to have the resources to do so. Not Nassau Presbyterian Church in Princeton, New Jersey. Neither the theology nor the…

  5. Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

  6. Marquee Ministry; The Movie Theater as Church and Community Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konzelman, Robert G.

    Secular (commercial) films should be used in the service of the church for two major reasons: 1) a responsible church cannot ignore the fact that in our culture films play a determinative role in belief and value formation, and 2) a creative church will not want to ignore their great potential as an educational tool. If the church urges its…

  7. Discussing adolescent sexual health in African-American churches.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Dodd, Darcy; Campbell, Bettina; Pichon, Latrice C; Griffith, Derek M

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the ways in which two African-American churches discuss adolescent sexual health topics. Six focus groups were conducted in two churches in Flint, Michigan, that reported no formal sexual health programming for their congregants. Three themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives about the role of churches in adolescent sexual decision-making and sexual health education: (1) churches as sources of sexual information, (2) churches as complex communities, and (3) recommendations for sexual education in churches. Participant responses suggest that churches can and should serve a resource for sexual health information. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  8. Church, freedom and bolshevisation of Moscow University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2008-05-01

    A short description of events, occured in Russia after 1917 with emphasysis on main phyilosophycal curents such as marxism and believing, first of atheistic content and second of christian moralty content is given. It is argued, that bolshevicks contributed to progress of Russia, but this was reached by mean of purges and terror, during which many peoples were killed, especially representatives of the Russian Ortodox church. A list of scientists, which contributed more than other to the bolshevisation of the Russia and Moscow University, particularly, is given. The controverse between Hegel and Einstein from one part and Marx and bolshevicks from other part is examined also. The bolshevicks destroyed the Russian ortodox church, instead of its modernisation, is argued. The Calendar in the Russian Ortodox church is discussed, which is Julian, and it is argued, that a peaceful dialogue between the representatives of the Church and scientists is needed in order to make a transition to the Gregorian one.

  9. Further solar alignments of Greek Byzantine churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liritzis, I.; Vasiliou, H.

    Following the recent work on the solar alignment of Greek byzantine churches (Liritzis and Vassiliou 2006 a,b,c) the solar orientations of twenty one more churches are presented. The question examined is if the day of solar rise across the eastern direction of the church is related with the feast day of Patron Saint. Measurements were carried out with magnetic compass, inclinometer, portable GPS and appropriate corrections for the solar declination. The alignments towards eastern sunrise were examined for various angular altitudes of the perceptible horizon. At least for all Rhodean churches the patron's day is met when sun oblique path crosses horizon a few degrees beyond the intersection of extrapolated eastern axis of the church with horizons skyline. Therefore, taken the orientation as the glitter of first sunrays -early dawn- correlation of thirteen present churches are aligned near the autumnal equinox, three have relation with the feast of patron saint, four are related to the other important feast of Christianity and one seem orientated randomly. However accounting for a due east sun position a few degrees above horizon in early liturgy hours (6:30 - 9:30 am) all the Rhodean alignments coincides with Saint's name day.

  10. How Are Oil Spills Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, William

    2005-01-01

    No two oil spills are the same. Logistically, oil spills are a nightmare because they are unanticipated and uncontrolled events. Oil spills present a threat to wildlife and coastal resources, concerning everyone from local residents to state environmental agencies and the federal government. Thousands of people may be involved in a significant…

  11. Examining church capacity to develop and disseminate a religiously appropriate HIV tool kit with African American churches.

    PubMed

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Martinez, David Alfonso; Hawes, Starlyn Montez; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Wainright, Cassandra

    2013-06-01

    Increasingly, African American churches have been called upon to assist in efforts to address HIV/AIDS in underserved communities. African Americans churches may be well-positioned to provide HIV education, screening, and support services, particularly if they are equipped with church-appropriate, easy-to-deliver HIV tools that can be implemented through the naturalistic church environment. To inform the development of a church-based HIV tool kit, we examined church capacity with African American church leaders (N = 124 participants; n = 58 churches represented by senior pastors). Nearly all participants (96%) wanted to learn more about HIV and how to discuss it with their parishioners. Regarding church capacity, most of their representative churches held three regular services each week, facilitated various inreach and community outreach ministries, and had paid staff and computers. Also, many of their churches facilitated HIV/AIDS education/prevention and adolescent sex education activities. Guided by church capacity findings, an ecological framework, and a CBPR approach, we describe the resulting church-based HIV Tool Kit that "fits" naturalistically within a multilevel church infrastructure, builds upon churches' HIV-related experience, and equips faith leaders to efficiently promote HIV services with the communities they serve.

  12. Psychological Care Provided by the Church: Perceptions of Christian Church Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornsheuer, Jennifer N.; Henriksen, Richard C.; Irby, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    Spirituality and religion are integral parts of a person's belief system and support network. Although there are many avenues a person can take when seeking mental health care, conservative Protestant clients have a tendency to seek assistance through their church. There is a paucity of literature about conservative Protestant church members'…

  13. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. 12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BIRD'S-EYE RENDERING; LOOKING SW. TNT BUILDING (SEE HAER NO. IL-20V) IS SHOWN AT THE UPPER LEFT, ATTACHED BY OVERHEAD PASSAGEWAYS TO THE BUILDING'S SOUTH ELEVATION. RENDERING PREPARED BY WESTINGHOUSE-CHURCH-KERR COMPANY OF NEW YORK. DATED APRIL 18, 1917. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 250, Gillespie Avenue between Ramsey Street & South Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  16. Homophobia, hypermasculinity and the US black church.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elijah G

    2005-01-01

    Black churches in the USA constitute a significant source of the homophobia that pervades black communities. This theologically-driven homophobia is reinforced by the anti-homosexual rhetoric of black nationalism. Drawing on a variety of sources, this paper discusses the sources of homophobia within black communities, and its impact upon self-esteem, social relationships and physical health. Religion-based homophobia and black nationalism point to wider structures which have influenced their emergence, including racism, patriarchy and capitalism. It is vital for US black churches and communities to understand and transcend their longstanding resistance to openly addressing complex, painful issues of sexuality and embrace healthier definitions of black manhood.

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey 'Plan of the first (church) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey 'Plan of the first (church) Family, Harvard' Delineated by George Kimball, July, 1836. 1963 photocopy of plot plan in Fruitlands Museum, Harvard - Shaker Family Church, General Views, Shaker Road, Harvard, Worcester County, MA

  18. 1. General view, small house. (The church at left is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, small house. (The church at left is Mariners's Bethel Church (Baptist), HABS No. PA-1596). Photocopied from December 1957 photograph on file at Philadelphia Historical Commission. - Benjamin Hellings House, 931 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 4. Photocopy of inkandwatercolor drawing (from St. Michael's Church) Rambusch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of ink-and-watercolor drawing (from St. Michael's Church) Rambusch, illustrator ca. 1932-37 INTERIOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST - St. Michael's Catholic Church, 519 East Third Street, Madison, Jefferson County, IN

  20. 10. CUT OF THE CHURCH BUILDING AS IT APPEARED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CUT OF THE CHURCH BUILDING AS IT APPEARED ON THE PRINTED PROGRAM OF THE JANUARY 1, 1893 DEDICATION SERVICE. - Second Presbyterian Church, Pontatoc Avenue & Hernando Street, Memphis, Shelby County, TN

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHURCH LOOKING SOUTH. BUILDING CONSTRUCTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHURCH LOOKING SOUTH. BUILDING CONSTRUCTED BY EAST EUROPEAN IMMIGRANTS OM 1915-16. - Saints Peter & Paul Orthodox Church, North Jefferson & Sherman Streets, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  2. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW ACROSS KELLYINGRAM PARK SHOWING CHURCH (RIGHT BACKGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW ACROSS KELLY-INGRAM PARK SHOWING CHURCH (RIGHT BACKGROUND) AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE (LEFT BACKGROUND), LOOKING WEST - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Experiencing Religious Information Literacy: Informed Learning in Church Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunton, Lyndelle; Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an exploration of religious information literacy in terms of how people use information to learn in the context of church communities. The research approach of phenomenography was used to explore Uniting Church in Australia members' experience of using information to learn as participants in their church communities. Five ways…

  4. Fast-Growing Churches: What Distinguishes Them from Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Deborah; Woolever, Cynthia; Wulff, Keith; Smith-Williams, Ida

    2006-01-01

    The 400 fastest-growing churches (based on the percentage change in average worship attendance in the previous five years) in the Presbyterian Church (USA), a mainline Protestant denomination, were invited to take part in the US Congregational Life Survey. Completed surveys were received from 19,033 worshipers in 93 fast-growing churches. These…

  5. Restoration and Rehabilitation of world heritage Site of Chupan Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish Rohani, S.

    2015-08-01

    Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of "Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran" dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of Armenian from all over the world visited the church as a part of a religious ceremony, also as the same church on opposite side of the Arax in Republic of Nakhchivan is completely destroyed between 1998-2002 and the church is the only existing evidence of these two couple church, the restoration and rehabilitation of chupan church is very important. Because of very bad statues of structure stability and long-term neglect of the conservation and preservation of the building, restoration and rehabilitation of the church in the earliest was necessary. Restoration of this church was my MA degree thesis and now as a Ph.D student in field of urban design and planning student, I am working on the next step which is to revitalization and rehabilitation of the church.

  6. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN (SOUTH) FACADE OF CHURCH, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF MAIN (SOUTH) FACADE OF CHURCH, LOOKING NORTH (For a brief history of Boswell and a description of Sts. Peter and Paul Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church see TOWN OF BOSWELL, HAER PA-367) - Saints Peter & Paul Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church, Quemahoning Street, Boswell, Somerset County, PA

  7. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  8. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  9. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  10. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo

    2011-06-01

    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions?

  11. The FCC and the Electric Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Michael F.

    This newsletter focuses on the relationship between the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and religious broadcasters. It traces the history of that relationship and discusses some of the pressures put on both. It includes a discussion of a recent avalanche of mail at the FCC supporting the church on the airways. It also summarizes some of…

  12. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo

    2011-06-01

    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions? PMID:21507723

  13. Environmental implications of oil spills from shipping accidents.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Since ancient times, ships have sunk during storms, either as a result of collisions with other vessels or running onto rocks. However, the ever-increasing importance of crude oil in the twentieth century and the corresponding growth in the world's tanker fleet have drawn attention to the negative implications of sea transport. Disasters involving tankers like the Torrey Canyon or the Amoco Cadiz have shown how dramatic the consequences of such an accident may be. The effects of oil spills at sea depend on numerous factors, such as the physicochemical parameters of the oil, the characteristics of the environment affected, and the physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring there, such as evaporation, dissolution, dispersion, emulsification, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and sedimentation. The combination of these processes reduces the concentrations of hydrocarbons in sediments and water and alters the chemical composition of spilled oils. In every case, oil spills pose a danger to fauna and flora and cause damage to sea and shores ecosystems. Many of the petroleum-related chemicals that are spilled are toxic, otherwise carcinogenic or can be bioaccumulated in the tissues of marine organisms. Such chemicals may then be biomagnified up the marine food chain from phytoplankton to fish, then to seals and other carnivorous sea mammals. Moreover, oil products can be accumulated and immobilized in bottom deposits for long periods of time. Oil spills are particularly dangerous when they occur in small inland seas that have intense sea traffic, e.g., the Baltic Sea.

  14. Sacred Space: A Beginning Framework for Off-Planet Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. K.

    As governments and corporations continue to engage space security, commerce, exploration and colonization, the Christian Church will not be far behind. Historically the Church has always been part of the first waves of explorers and colonizers, with its ideological interests being easily supported by generous resources and strong infrastructures. The exploring Church has not always been a friendly guest, however, and at times has initiated or condoned great harm. This paper offers a beginning framework as one way of insuring an appropriate presence in space for the Church. This framework is built with three common religious planks, namely, theology, ecclesiology and church worker vocation. Each of these is recast in terms of the off-planet scenario. This paper concludes that an appropriate off-planet Church will be founded on an "exomissiological" theology, will embrace an ecclesiology that emphasizes religious health, and will adequately select, train and monitor its off-planet church workers.

  15. Oil Spill Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. Oil spill clean up

    SciTech Connect

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material.

  17. Archaeoastronomy and the orientation of old churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangui, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cultural astronomy is an interdisciplinary area of research that studies how perceptions and concepts related to the sky are part of the worldview of a culture. One of its branches, archaeoastronomy, focuses on the material remains of past peoples and tries to investigate their practices and astronomical knowledge. In this context, the orientation of Christian churches is now considered a distinctive feature of their architecture that repeats patterns from early Christian times. There is a general tendency to align their altars in the solar range, with preference for orientations towards the east. Here we present recent data from our measurements of astronomical orientations of old churches located in two --geographically and culturally-- very distant regions, and we discuss the results in the light of the historical and cultural knowledge surrounding these temples.

  18. Computing Beyond the Church-Turing Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Dershowitz and Gurevich claim to have proven the Church-Turing theorem starting from a set of 4 reasonable postulates. (Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, vol. 14, num. 3, Sept. 2008, pg. 299) But their postulate II assumes fixed vocabulary. Humans, however, change their vocabulary words (and concepts) over time. My Asa H artificial intelligence also changes its vocabulary. (Trans. of the Kansas Acad. of Sci., vol. 109, no. 3/4, pg 159, 2006, www.bioone.org/archive/0022- 8443/109/3/pdf/i0022-8443-109-3-159.pdf) Their postulate I excludes nondeterministic transitions between states. I don't know how often humans flip a coin but my Asa H does employ random transitions under certain circumstances. Perhaps humans and Asa H go beyond the Church-Turing limit. (Trans. Kansas Acad. of Sci., 108, 3/4, pg. 169, 2005)

  19. Screening for Depression in African American Churches

    PubMed Central

    Hankerson, Sidney H.; Lee, Young A; Brawley, David K.; Braswell, Kenneth; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substantial racial/ethnic disparities exist in the identification and management of major depression.1 Faith-Based Health Promotion interventions reduce disparities in health screenings for numerous medical conditions.2 However, the feasibility of systematically screening for depression in faith-based settings has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated instrument to screen for depression in African American churches. Methods Participants were recruited between October and November 2012 at three predominantly African American churches in New York City. A participatory research approach was used to determine screening days. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was administered to 122 participants. Positive depression screen was defined as a PHQ-9 score ≥10. Descriptive statistics were used to report sample characteristics, prevalence of participants who screened positive, and history of help seeking. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association of positive depression screen and sociodemographic characteristics. Initial analyses were conducted in 2013, with additional analyses in 2014. Results The prevalence estimate for positive depression screen was 19.7%. More men (22.5%) screened positive than women (17.7%). Total household income was inversely related to positive depression screen. A similar percentage of respondents had previously sought help from primary care providers as from clergy. Conclusions It was feasible to screen for depression with the PHQ-9 in African American churches. The prevalence of positive depression screen was high, especially among black men. Churches may be an important setting in which to identify depressive symptoms in this underserved population. PMID:26232907

  20. Acoustic simulations of Mudejar-Gothic churches.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, an iterative process is used in order to estimate the values of absorption coefficients of those materials of which little is known in the literature, so that an acoustic simulation can be carried out in Mudejar-Gothic churches. The estimation of the scattering coefficients, which is even less developed, is based on the size of the irregularities. This methodology implemented is applied to six Mudejar-Gothic churches of Seville (southern Spain). The simulated monophonic acoustic parameters, both in the frequency domain and as a function of source-receiver distance (spatial distribution), are analyzed and compared with the in situ measures. Good agreement has been found between these sets of values, whereby each parameter is discussed in terms of the just noticeable difference. This procedure for existing buildings, especially for those which are rich in heritage, enables a reliable evaluation of the effect on the maintenance, restoration, and conditioning for new uses, as well as the recreation of the acoustic environment of ancient times. Along these lines, the acoustic influence of the timber roof and the presence of the public in these churches have also been studied.

  1. Acoustic simulations of Mudejar-Gothic churches.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, an iterative process is used in order to estimate the values of absorption coefficients of those materials of which little is known in the literature, so that an acoustic simulation can be carried out in Mudejar-Gothic churches. The estimation of the scattering coefficients, which is even less developed, is based on the size of the irregularities. This methodology implemented is applied to six Mudejar-Gothic churches of Seville (southern Spain). The simulated monophonic acoustic parameters, both in the frequency domain and as a function of source-receiver distance (spatial distribution), are analyzed and compared with the in situ measures. Good agreement has been found between these sets of values, whereby each parameter is discussed in terms of the just noticeable difference. This procedure for existing buildings, especially for those which are rich in heritage, enables a reliable evaluation of the effect on the maintenance, restoration, and conditioning for new uses, as well as the recreation of the acoustic environment of ancient times. Along these lines, the acoustic influence of the timber roof and the presence of the public in these churches have also been studied. PMID:19739734

  2. For oil spills, no slick solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Oil spills from tankers and offshore wells are getting bigger and more numerous. Oil spill cleanup technology is hard-pressed to keep up with the problem. The use of skimming devices, sorbents and chemical agents, and microorganisms to control oil spills is described. The environmental effects of oil spills are briefly discussed.

  3. Exclusion, toleration, acceptance, integration: the experience of Dutch Reformed churches with homosexuality and homosexuals in the church.

    PubMed

    Mader, D

    1993-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of Protestant Christians in The Netherlands are members of denominations in the Reformed tradition (i.e., protestant churches characterized by Calvinist theology and a "presbyterian" church government by elected assemblies of elders). Comparable North American denominations are the Reformed Church in America and the United Presbyterian Church, both of which are facing some degree of internal controversy over homosexuality. In The Netherlands, the four major strands of the Reformed church have taken various positions on homosexuality, ranging from absolute rejection of homosexuality in the church and society, through one denomination which found itself in the curious position of approving the ordination of homosexual clergy while barring homosexuals from the Lord's Table, to creating "life covenants" which re-evaluate heterosexual marriage while also blessing relationships between homosexuals. All call upon the same set of principles for their varied stands. The two major denominational branches, the Netherlands Reformed Church (Hervormde Kerk) and the Reformed Churches in The Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken) have taken different approaches to resolving the issue, the former through internal political conflict and the latter through a more authoritarian (though progressive) stand. The article traces the political, theological, and juridical history of the evolution of these positions, and suggests various potential models, and their possibilities and pitfalls, for North American Protestant churches dealing with issues surrounding homosexuality and the church. PMID:8106736

  4. 342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    342. BAPTIZED PENTECOSTAL CHURCH AT 1606 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, EAST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  5. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Dispersants and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Spills and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ...

  6. Tanker spills: Prevention by design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-12

    The study, prompted by the March 1989 grounding of the EXXON VALDEZ in Prince William Sound, Alaska, focused on how alternative tank vessel (tanker and barge) designs might influence the safety of personnel, property, and the environment, and at what cost. In selecting designs to be considered, the committee included certain operational options that might minimize the oil spilled in an accident. The study did not consider means of averting accidents, altering the form of cargo, or responding to oil spills.

  7. Women, sexuality, ecology, and the church.

    PubMed

    Ruether, R R

    1993-01-01

    This abridged article originally was given as a lecture at Seattle University. The view presented is that women's status within the Catholic Church is subordinate to men's status, and that the Church is misguided in its notion of protection of and support for life. Affirmation of life is not promoted by isolated acts of giving birth, but exists in a social and ecological system in a community over time. The fit between children being born and the network to sustain their lives is misaligned. The minority of the world's population has control over the majority of the world's resources, while the majority live in misery, poverty, and starvation. The affirmation of the value of human life must be both qualitative and quantitative. The woman must be empowered, and not continually defined and controlled by male decision makers. Being prolife means to change the conditions of women and the conditions that deny most humans adequate food, clear air and water, housing, and land to sustain life. The American Catholic Bishops confuse teachings on abortion and teachings on nuclear arms buildup. American Catholic Bishops have had great difficulty formulating a pastoral letter on women, which is unfair to the growing number of women who are alienated by the treatment of the church. The denigration of women is deeply imbedded within Catholicism and Christianity, in general, in spirituality and practice. The issue of abortion has more to do with paternalism and women's sexuality and reproduction than valuing or nonvaluing fetal life. Women are denied leadership within the church because of women's sinful nature and the need for paternalism as a punishment for self-determination. St. Augustine stated that two men were not created in God's image and lack personhood. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Aristotle that women are defective due to a gestational process which deprives women of full mental, moral, or physical humanity. Only a man can fulfill the role of priest. The taboo of woman

  8. Women, sexuality, ecology, and the church.

    PubMed

    Ruether, R R

    1993-01-01

    This abridged article originally was given as a lecture at Seattle University. The view presented is that women's status within the Catholic Church is subordinate to men's status, and that the Church is misguided in its notion of protection of and support for life. Affirmation of life is not promoted by isolated acts of giving birth, but exists in a social and ecological system in a community over time. The fit between children being born and the network to sustain their lives is misaligned. The minority of the world's population has control over the majority of the world's resources, while the majority live in misery, poverty, and starvation. The affirmation of the value of human life must be both qualitative and quantitative. The woman must be empowered, and not continually defined and controlled by male decision makers. Being prolife means to change the conditions of women and the conditions that deny most humans adequate food, clear air and water, housing, and land to sustain life. The American Catholic Bishops confuse teachings on abortion and teachings on nuclear arms buildup. American Catholic Bishops have had great difficulty formulating a pastoral letter on women, which is unfair to the growing number of women who are alienated by the treatment of the church. The denigration of women is deeply imbedded within Catholicism and Christianity, in general, in spirituality and practice. The issue of abortion has more to do with paternalism and women's sexuality and reproduction than valuing or nonvaluing fetal life. Women are denied leadership within the church because of women's sinful nature and the need for paternalism as a punishment for self-determination. St. Augustine stated that two men were not created in God's image and lack personhood. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Aristotle that women are defective due to a gestational process which deprives women of full mental, moral, or physical humanity. Only a man can fulfill the role of priest. The taboo of woman

  9. National Spill Test Technology Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sheesley, David [Western Research Institute

    Western Research Institute established, and ACRC continues to maintain, the National Spill Technology database to provide support to the Liquified Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (now called the National HAZMAT Spill Center) as directed by Congress in Section 118(n) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The Albany County Research Corporation (ACRC) was established to make publicly funded data developed from research projects available to benefit public safety. The founders since 1987 have been investigating the behavior of toxic chemicals that are deliberately or accidentally spilled, educating emergency response organizations, and maintaining funding to conduct the research at the DOEÆs HAZMAT Spill Center (HSC) located on the Nevada Test Site. ACRC also supports DOE in collaborative research and development efforts mandated by Congress in the Clean Air Act Amendments. The data files are results of spill tests conducted at various times by the Silicones Environmental Health and Safety Council (SEHSC) and DOE, ANSUL, Dow Chemical, the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) and DOE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), OSHA, and DOT; DuPont, and the Western Research Institute (WRI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and EPA. Each test data page contains one executable file for each test in the test series as well as a file named DOC.EXE that contains information documenting the test series. These executable files are actually self-extracting zip files that, when executed, create one or more comma separated value (CSV) text files containing the actual test data or other test information.

  10. Oil spill responses R D

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, F.R.; Nordvik, A.B.; Giammona, C.P.; Aurand, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC) was created as an industry response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The charter of MSRC includes as one of the primary functions the implementation of a spill response R D program to enhance future oil spill response decision-making. Funding for the program is provided largely by the Marine Preservation Association as part of an annual operating grant from that industry organization to MSRC. Research and development at MSRC is considered the key element in improving the future capability of MSRC and other oil spill responders. The major focus of the R D program is to advance knowledge and the technology needed to contain, clean up, and mitigate spills of persistent petroleum products in coastal and offshore waters while minimizing damage to marine and coastal resources and human health. The R D program is solidly in place today with more than 30 projects underway supporting more than $10 million targeted for research. By the end of 1994, more than 60 contracts will have been activated, and the results of many of these projects will be published.

  11. Looking Back, Moving Forward: How the Civil Rights Era Church Can Guide the Modern Black Church in Improving Black Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Robert W., II

    2010-01-01

    As the operational center of the Civil Rights Movement, the Black church fostered community, functioned as an educative space, and promoted collaborative efforts among churches. Similarly, the modern Black church has the opportunity to invest in educating, organizing, and mobilizing people within the church and the local community. By investing in…

  12. More sound of church bells: Authors' correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kasper, Lutz; Burde, Jan-Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In the recently published article "The Sound of Church Bells: Tracking Down the Secret of a Traditional Arts and Crafts Trade," the bell frequencies have been erroneously oversimplified. The problem affects Eqs. (2) and (3), which were derived from the elementary "coffee mug model" and in which we used the speed of sound in air. However, this does not make sense from a physical point of view, since air only acts as a sound carrier, not as a sound source in the case of bells. Due to the excellent fit of the theoretical model with the empirical data, we unfortunately failed to notice this error before publication. However, all other equations, e.g., the introduction of the correction factor in Eq. (4) and the estimation of the mass in Eqs. (5) and (6) are not affected by this error, since they represent empirical models. However, it is unfortunate to introduce the speed of sound in air as a constant in Eqs. (4) and (6). Instead, we suggest the following simple rule of thumb for relating the radius of a church bell R to its humming frequency fhum:

  13. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  14. Some Early and Current Studies of Rural Churches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreier, William H.

    The paper reviews about 25 major studies printed since 1920, and in turn, these refer to some 75 other studies about rural churches, their location, numbers, ministers, denominational arrangements, and supporting population per church on a county level. On the role of rural social science in Theological education, one study reports that the pastor…

  15. What Would They Do? Latino Church Leaders and Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…

  16. Church Musicians' Participation Perceptions: Applications to Community Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the participation perceptions of church choir musicians. Twenty-two choral musicians in 3 churches were interviewed. The results align with past research on community music ensembles in terms of musical and social perceptions of the participants, including concepts of recruitment, attendance, and diverse…

  17. 1. Photocopy of Plate #24, 'Church of St. Charles Borromeo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of Plate #24, 'Church of St. Charles Borromeo, Twentieth and Christian Streets, Phila.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. Charles Borromeo Roman Catholic Church, 900 South Twentieth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 2. Photocopy of Plate #25, 'Church of St. Charles Borromeo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Plate #25, 'Church of St. Charles Borromeo, Twentieth and Christian Streets, Phila.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. Charles Borromeo Roman Catholic Church, 900 South Twentieth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. GENERAL VIEW OF CHAPEL (smaller than church; to right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF CHAPEL (smaller than church; to right of church). NOTE SERRATED PARAPET AND THE FAMOUS "ROSE WINDOW" IN CENTER. ALSO NOTE BUTTRESSES. SOUTH SIDE. Duplicate color view of HABS TX-333-B-1 - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, Chapel, 6539 San Jose Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  20. The Challenge of the Community College to the Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallman, W. E., Ed.

    The ten essays presented in this collection address various aspects of the relationship of the church and the community college. In the first two essays, C. Freeman Sleeper examines the challenges posed by community colleges to the church's traditional support of higher education and, then, discusses approaches to addressing the moral issues…

  1. The Rights of Women in Church and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Helen M.

    The document examines the rights of women in the church and in society, with emphasis on attitudes of the American Catholic Church. Christian educators should acknowledge the issue as a reality in today's world, and examine it with the following question in mind; "What is God's call for women at this moment in the history of the American Church…

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHAPEL (smaller than church; to right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHAPEL (smaller than church; to right of church). NOTE SERRATED PARAPET AND THE FAMOUS 'ROSE WINDOW' IN CENTER. ALSO NOTE BUTTRESSES. SOUTH SIDE. - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, Chapel, 6539 San Jose Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  3. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in North Florida African-American Churches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article describes cardiovascular problems of minority populations, exploring ways that churches can help their communities and describing the outcomes of a model intervention on four African American churches in rural north Florida. Positive outcomes were observed, particularly regarding community members' participation in health promotion…

  4. 2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirtyeighth and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 3. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING INTERIOR OF CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING INTERIOR OF CHURCH OF ST. VINCENT de PAUL, from the collection of American Catholic Historical Society. Please use the following credit line: American Catholic Historical Society Ryan Memorial Library Historical Collections St. Charles Seminary Overbrook Philadelphia, Pa. 19151 - Church of St. Vincent de Paul (Roman Catholic), 101-107 East Price Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 1. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING EXTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING EXTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH, from the collection of American Catholic Historical Society. Please use the following credit line: American Catholic Historical Society Ryan Memorial Library Historical Collections St. Charles Seminary Overbrook, Philadelphia, Pa. 19151 - Church of the Immaculate Conception, 1020 North Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 3. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING EXTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy: CA. 1880 LITHOGRAPH SHOWING EXTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH, from the collection of American Catholic Historical Society. Please use the following credit line: American Catholic Historic Society Ryan Memorial Library Historical Collections St. Charles Seminary Overbrook Philadelphia, Pa. 19151 - Church of St. Philip de Neri (Roman Catholic), 220-228 Queen Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 21 CFR 1307.31 - Native American Church.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native...

  9. The Potential Role of Business Intelligence in Church Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Charmaine

    2012-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) involves transforming data into actionable information to make better business decisions that may help improve operations. Although businesses have experienced success with BI, how leaders of church organizations might be able to exploit the advantages of BI in church organizations remains largely unexplored. The purpose…

  10. Church Library Literature, 1950-1975: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Joyce L.

    Intended to show the general growth and development of the church library field, this bibliographical survey reviews periodical articles, published manuals, and unpublished library school papers related to libraries located in or attached to local church buildings. The following areas are explored: general studies; the role and function of church…

  11. Higher Education and the Catholic Church: Some Underlying Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellwig, Monika

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and discusses three areas in which Catholic higher education institutions and the Catholic Church may be proceeding on radically different assumptions: (1) ecclesiology, the understanding of the nature and function of the church; (2) institutional history, how institutions have developed from their foundations to the present; and (3)…

  12. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  13. Spills, drills, and accountability

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    NRDC seeks preventive approaches to oil pollution on U.S. coasts. The recent oil spills in Spain and Scotland have highlighted a fact too easy to forget in a society that uses petroleum every minute of every day: oil is profoundly toxic. One tiny drop on a bald eagle`s egg has been known to kill the embryo inside. Every activity involving oil-drilling for it, piping it, shipping it-poses risks that must be taken with utmost caution. Moreover, oil production is highly polluting. It emits substantial air pollution, such as nitrogen oxides that can form smog and acid rain. The wells bring up great quantities of toxic waste: solids, liquids and sludges often contaminated by oil, toxic metals, or even radioactivity. This article examines the following topics focusing on oil pollution control and prevention in coastal regions of the USA: alternate energy sources and accountability of pollutor; ban on offshore drilling as exemplified by the energy policy act; tanker free zones; accurate damage evaluations. Policy of the National Resource Defence Council is articulated.

  14. Determinants of Implementation Effectiveness in a Physical Activity Program for Church-Going Latinas.

    PubMed

    Beard, Megan; Chuang, Emmeline; Haughton, Jessica; Arredondo, Elva M

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based interventions show promise for reducing health disparities among ethnic minority populations. However, churches vary significantly in their readiness and willingness to support these programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with priests, other church leaders, and lay health advisors in churches implementing a physical activity intervention targeting Latinas. Implementation effectiveness was operationalized as average 6-month participation rates in physical activity classes at each church. Factors facilitating implementation include church leader support and strength of parishioners' connection to the church. Accounting for these church-level factors may be critical in determining church readiness to participate in health promotion activities. PMID:27536927

  15. Behavior and persistence of spilled oil on shoreline

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, J. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent oil spills have re-demonstrated the range of shoreline impacts that are possible from medium to large spills in the United States, i.e., the Exxon Valdez spill which significantly contaminated over 1000 km of shoreline in Alaska and the Mega Borg, which resulted in widely scattered tar balls over a small area. Immediate and total removal of stranded oil should not always be the primary objective. Instead, shoreline cleanup strategies developed for oil spills need to consider the persistence and short- to long-term persistence of stranded oil. There are several general guidelines on the persistence of stranded oil. High-energy shorelines are rapidly and effectively cleaned by natural processes, although there are micro-environments where oil tends to persist (wave shadows, supratidal zone, rock crevices, etc.). On sand and mixed sand and gravel beaches, oil tends to be buried below clean layers of sediment, but erosional/depositional cycles will result in oil removal, usually within one year. In sheltered environments (wetlands, tidal flats) oil will persist for long periods; therefore, oil removal is frequently required, though it is usually poorly implemented. Cobble/boulder beaches, while usually very complex, present a special problem. They can be found in a range of energy settings, with years between periods of storm activity. These beaches can hold large volumes of oil; they can be a source of long-term ({gt} one year) leaching and sheening; subsurface oil is very difficult to remove by surface treatment methods; and they have poorly understood sedimentation patterns, so it is difficult to predict rates of sediment reworking. Studies of recent oil spills have shown a need for shoreline-specific technologies for these types of beaches.

  16. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  17. Future Church-Culture Relations and Their Impact on Church-Related Higher Education--The Student Nexus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Martin E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The future of church-related colleges and the special role student "relators" can play in defining and representing college's relationship to the church is discussed with regard to Robert Rue Parsonage's book on the subject. Commentaries by Mary C. Kraetzer, Wesley A. Hotchkiss, and Edward B. Lindaman are included. (Author/LBH)

  18. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oil Spills URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Beliefs About Sex and Parent-Child-Church Sex Communication Among Church-Based African American Youth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole

    2015-10-01

    Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings.

  20. Bioremediation for marine oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The study examines the potential of bioremediation technologies to clean up marine oil spills and to minimize the damage they cause. Thus, the study evaluates a small, but highly visible, subset of the many possible applications of bioremediation technologies to environmental problems. Among the other applications for which bioremediation is being considered or is currently in use are: (1) treatment of nontoxic liquid and solid wastes; (2) treatment of toxic or hazardous wastes; (3) treatment of contaminated groundwater, and (4) grease decomposition. Although recent marine oil spills and bioremediation efforts have called attention to the potential of bioremediation as an oil spill response technology, some of the other applications, in particular the treatment of hazardous waste, appear to have greater potential. Officials at approximately 135 hazardous waste sites, for example, are now either considering, planning, or operating full-scale bioremediation systems.

  1. Church ladies, good girls, and locas

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Pamela Y; von Unger, Hella; Armbrister, Adria

    2008-01-01

    Inner city women with severe mental illness may carry multiple stigmatized statuses. In some contexts these include having a mental illness, being a member of an ethnic minority group, being an immigrant, being poor, and being a woman who does not live up to gendered expectations. These potentially stigmatizing identities influence both the way women’s sexuality is viewed and their risk for HIV infection. This qualitative study applies the concept of intersectionality to facilitate understanding of how these multiple identities intersect to influence women’s sexuality and HIV risk. We report the firsthand accounts of 24 Latina women living with severe mental illness in New York City. In examining the interlocking domains of these women’s sexual lives, we find that the women seek identities that define them in opposition to the stigmatizing label of “loca” (Spanish for crazy) and bestow respect and dignity. These identities have unfolded through the additional themes of “good girls” and “church ladies”. Therefore, inspite of their association with the “loca”, the women also identify with faith and religion (“church ladies”) and uphold more traditional gender norms (“good girls”) that are often undermined by the realities of life with a severe mental illness and the stigma attached to it. However, the participants fall short of their gender ideals and engage in sexual relationships that they experience as disempowering and unsatisfying. The effects of their multiple identities as poor Latina women living with severe mental illness in an urban ethnic minority community are not always additive, but the interlocking effects can facilitate increased HIV risks. Interventions should acknowledge women’s multiple layers of vulnerability, both individual and structural, and stress women’s empowerment in and beyond the sexual realm. PMID:18423828

  2. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  3. In-Situ Burning of Spilled Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alan A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews in-situ burning with particular emphasis on how it can be applied in water-related oil spill situations. Presents and discusses the use of nomograms and development of techniques cited for safe and effective ignition and controlled burning of spilled oil. Includes representative oil spill scenarios and possible responses. (15 references)…

  4. Oil spill fates and fishery impact estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.

    1981-01-01

    Three independent models (oil spill fates, hydrodynamic, and fishery impacts) have been formulated and developed as analytic tools for the assessment of oil spill impacts on commercially important fish species. This computer-based model system is the only quantitative oil spill-fishery impact assessment methodology currently available. Applications include several commercial fisheries on Georges Bank. 10 refs.

  5. Marine oil spill contingency planning.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bing; Chu, Jia-cheng; Zhao, Ping; Yu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation(PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  6. Women's health promotion in the rural church: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly D

    2013-09-01

    The rural church may be an effective health resource for rural Canadian women who have compromised access to health resources. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the Christian church and faith community nurses in promoting the health of rural Canadian women in the evolving rural context. The findings from an extensive literature search reveal that religion and spirituality often influence the health beliefs, behaviors, and decisions of rural Canadian women. The church and faith community nurses may therefore be a significant health resource for rural Canadian women, although this phenomenon has been significantly understudied.

  7. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  8. Oil spill protector

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, C.M.

    1993-06-08

    An apparatus for limiting and containing liquid spills from leaking vessels that navigate the water ways is described, comprising: (a) a protective sheeting that is thin, flexible and waterproof which covers the vessel from side to side and underneath the vessel, and spans from the bow to the stern of the vessel, for keeping the leaking contents of the vessel from leaking into the surrounding waters; (b) a means for storing the protective sheeting when the protective sheeting is no longer needed, whereby the means for storing is attached to one side of the vessel and spans the full width of the protective sheeting from the bow to the stern of the vessel, and the means for storing is powered; (c) cables attached to the edge of the protective sheeting, at different points, for the purpose of enabling the protective sheeting to be deployed, and to assist in the support of the protective sheeting when the protective sheeting is deployed; (d) a means for pulling the protective sheeting from storage, for deployment from one side of the vessel to the other side of the vessel; (e) a stem sealing unit for sealing the protective sheeting to the stern of the vessel completely around the hull of the vessel for the prevention of the leakage of unwanted liquid into surrounding waters, whereby the stern sealing unit is attached to the hull of the vessel, near the stern and just before the propulsion screw of the vessel, and spanning down the hull and underneath the hull and up the other side of the hull of the vessel, whereby upon deployment of the protective sheeting one of the cables is used to guide the end of the protective sheeting, to be sealed, into the stern sealing unit; and (f) a bow scaling unit for sealing the protective sheeting which covers the bow of the vessel, whereby the bow sealing unit fits over the front edge of the protective sheeting from the top to the bottom, thereby preventing the leakage of unwanted liquid into the surrounding waters.

  9. From Churches to Pavements: Urban Geology and Paleontology in Algarve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Urban environments were and are tremendous consumers of geologic resources, offering excellent places for Geosciences outreach activities. Since 2011, three distinct science outreach activities were planned, produced and performed in three Algarve cities - Faro (GeoStories of Faro's Downtown), Lagos (Geology at the Corner) and Tavira (From the Museum to the Convent). Urban structures - churches, monuments, buildings and urban equipments were the starting point of the geological and paleontological stories that constitute the core of these informal education visits which also combine Art History and Heritage aspects. The urban buildings were the narrative tool to these Geosciences stories being the characters the rocks and/or the fossils as well as the city itself. Beyond the natural science element, the analyzed objects have relevant esthetical, historical or symbolic dimensions, conferring this way two levels of interpretation to the stories: the geosciences level; the other, the Historical and Architectural Heritage. The nineteen visits had 350 participants - Tavira (6; 100), Faro (4; 70) e Lagos (9; 180). Promoting and contribute to the Geosciences (Geology and Paleontology) outreach was the main objective of these walks, as well as: - modify the way that the general population looks at urban buildings; - contribute to the informal education of a general public especially among the public which is interested in Architecture, History and Heritage; - integrate different areas of human knowledge - Geosciences and Architecture, History and Heritage. The visits were tested and implemented and presently constitute one of the science outreach activities of the Ciência Viva Centers in the Algarve. As a result of these visits three bilingual books (Portuguese and English) of the Geosciences walks were edited. The guides, with 120 pages each, focus on the geological and paleontological characteristics of the visited places as well as the art history framework of the

  10. Fuel injection pump with spill control mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, I.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a rotary fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine, having a housing, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a charge pump having radially extending plunger bores in the rotor and a plunger pump for each plunger bore having a pumping plunger reciprocable in the bore. The pumping plungers have outward fuel intake strokes and inward fuel delivery strokes for supplying high pressure charges of fuel for fuel injection. A cam ring surrounds the rotor and is engageable with the plunger pumps to reciprocate the plungers as the rotor rotates. Bumping plunger timing means relatively angularly adjusts the cam ring and rotor adjusting the pumping plunger timing. A spill control mechanism has spill valve means connected to the charge pump for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The improvement described here wherein the spill valve means comprises at least one rotary spill valve having a valve bore in the rotor connected to the charge pump and a rotary spill valve member rotatably mounted within the valve bore. The spill control mechanism comprises first means for rotating each rotary spill valve member in unison with the rotor and in synchronism with the reciprocable movement of the pumping plungers for spill control of the high pressure charges of fuel. The pumping plunger timing means and the first means provide for separate relative angular adjustment of the cam ring and rotor and relative angular adjustment of the rotary spill valve member of at least the one rotary spill valve and the rotor.

  11. Lecithins - promising oil spill cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    A new, non-polluting method of cleaning up oil spills at sea as well as on land has been developed by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Their technique is based on the use of lecithins, a byproduct of producing edible oils from plants. Lecithin molecules are hydrophyllic at one end and lipophilic at their tail ends. When they come into contact with water, they organize themselves into bilayers whose heads all face the water and whose tails are all directed towards each other. These bilayers form particles called liposomes that, when spread on water fouled by oil spills, change the properties of the oil thereby stopping the spreading and breaking it down into sticky droplets that continue to float on the surface and can be easily collected. The treatment is said to be effective in both fresh and salt water and is almost temperature and pH independent. Another beneficial effect is that the physical change generated by liposomes in the spilled oil improves the ability of oil-eating bacteria in the water to remove some of the spill by bioremediation.

  12. Study Urges Church to Stress Migrant Empowerment, Self Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the findings and recommendations of "Una Vida Dura" ("A Hard Life"), a 1988 study by Charles Kyle and others, that criticizes the services provided to migrant farm workers in Illinois by the Catholic Church. (FMW)

  13. 74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND THIRTEENTH STREETS, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION ON GREENE STREET 56/61 - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  14. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  15. 212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH STREET, SOUTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  16. Suffering Depression in the Christian Church--One Person's Experience.

    PubMed

    Welby-Roberts, Katharine

    2015-09-01

    The author has suffered for several years from Anxiety and depression. Here she describes her experiences, both of depression and of her experience as a person suffering from depression within the Christian Church. PMID:26417772

  17. Factors Influencing Black Churches' Readiness to Address HIV.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Latrice C; Powell, Terrinieka Williams; Ogg, Siri A; Williams, Andrea L; Becton-Odum, Nicole

    2016-06-01

    This study employed a community-based participatory research approach to understand factors that influence church readiness to engage in HIV prevention and treatment activities. A convenience sample of twenty-six Black faith leaders participated in four focus groups. Data analysis was done through qualitative content analysis. Three themes emerged. First, the pastor's blessing and authority as the church's decision-maker determines readiness to engage in HIV prevention. Second, the church's purview of sexual health as part of a holistic ministry facilitates faith leader's readiness. Lastly, securing financial and human resources makes it feasible for faith leaders to implement activities. Findings suggest HIV-related stigma alone does not explain readiness to address HIV. Participants also discussed activities their churches are equipped to handle, including HIV testing events and health fairs.

  18. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. 6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. September, 1968 LOOKING WEST ON ORANGE STREET, UNITARIAN CHURCH AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  20. Particle exposure in a baroque church during Sunday Masses.

    PubMed

    Polednik, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Particle concentrations were measured in a Baroque church during five Sunday Masses. The highest particle number and mass concentrations were observed when both candles and the incense were burned. They were respectively 16.8 and 14.3 times higher than outdoors for submicron particles. The exposure to particles experienced by the churchgoers, especially priests and church workers who participated in several Masses on that day, was considerably higher than the exposure experienced at the same time outdoors. PMID:23972742

  1. Particle exposure in a baroque church during Sunday Masses.

    PubMed

    Polednik, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Particle concentrations were measured in a Baroque church during five Sunday Masses. The highest particle number and mass concentrations were observed when both candles and the incense were burned. They were respectively 16.8 and 14.3 times higher than outdoors for submicron particles. The exposure to particles experienced by the churchgoers, especially priests and church workers who participated in several Masses on that day, was considerably higher than the exposure experienced at the same time outdoors.

  2. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  3. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  4. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  5. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  6. Oil spill behaviour and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Fieldhouse, B.

    1996-12-31

    The behavior of oil in the environment is reviewed. This is then applied to modeling of the behavior of oil in the environment once spilled. The most important behavior of oil in terms of modeling its fate when spilled is evaporation. Significant numbers of modeling equations are available. The second most important behavior aspect of oil is the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. Natural dispersion of oil is the next most important factor. Oils which contain large fractions of small saturates will disperse naturally given high sea energies. Modeling equations for this factor are primitive. A related factor, dissolution, is not as important in terms of mass balance but is important in terms of toxicity in the environment. Laboratory work shows that the dissolution of oils can be predicted and measured, but no models incorporate dissolution as a separate term from dispersion. There are several lesser chemical and behavior aspects to oil, these include photooxidation, sinking and biodegradation.

  7. Oil spills, 1976-85: statistical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, U.

    1986-01-01

    Oil spillage resulting from drilling and production activities on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) is a matter of wide public concern. This report provides a complete and accurate statistical account of all the oil spills reported relative to oil and gas operations on the OCS. The report is prepared especially with those in mind who are concerned with accident prevention utilizing the various kinds of analyses and preaccident investigation techniques. Data are presented in tables and figures showing relationships between number of spills, volume of spills, accident years, cause of spills, location of spills, type of operations, and amount of production. The statistics in the tables and graphs are derived primarily from the OCS Events File. They summarize the spills that MMS has recorded. The statistics are not an evaluation of the systems that allowed the accidents to occur.

  8. Oil Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zoric, J P

    1989-02-01

    Environmental Protection Agency regulations 40 CFR Part 112, Oil Pollution Prevention,'' include requirements for a written Oil Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan. This document provides such an SPCC Plan for facilities at 100-N Area managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co. Should an oil spill occur at 100-N Area, the following actions should be followed: stop the flow of oil, contain the oil spill in order to prevent it from reaching the river, and notify Environmental Protection. Environmental Protection will assess the oil spill and determine if remedial action is necessary. If needed, an oil spill response team will deploy oil spill control and clean-up equipment at the river shoreline to remove any oil that enters the river.

  9. Approaches to sheltered-water oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, M.A.; Waldron, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Technology has produced more effective and efficient oil removal equipment for on-water cleanup in the past five years. Much of the innovation has been to increase recovery capacity to meet the planning volumes required to government regulations. However, more than 95 percent of the spills are relatively small. Large equipment, often requiring large platforms, is not very useful and is difficult/expensive to operate on small spills. In addition, damage from spills results when oil impacts shorelines. The emphasis on spill response should address the ability of the equipment to remove oil in a nearshore environment. Clean Seas has been attempting to address this need since the Avila Pipeline spill in 1992, in which a 180 barrel spill resulted in about $18 million damage/cleanup cost.

  10. The politics of counter-rejection: gay christians and the church.

    PubMed

    Yip, A K

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the accounts constructed by 60 gay male Christians in managing the stigma imposed on them by the Church. These accounts signify that they, having developed a positive self-image, are involved in the politics of counter-rejection of the Church and its official positions on the issue of homosexuality. Their counter-rejection of the Church as a moral arbiter is predicated on four bases: (1) the Church's ignorance of sex and sexuality, (2) the Church's ignorance of all sexualities as God's creation, (3) the Church's misinterpretation of biblical passages on homosexuality, and (4) the Church's fallibility. Having counter-rejected the Church by challenging its credibility, the counter-rejection of the Church's official positions is a matter of course. Their experiences highlight the ability of stigmatized social actors to invent social biographies not only to defend their moral choices, but also to challenge the credibility of sources that question and stigmatize their choices. PMID:10207824

  11. Assessing the readiness of black churches to engage in health disparities research.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Molly; Weiner, Bryan; Meade, Shelly-Ann; Hadley, Monica; Boyd, Carlton; Goldmon, Moses; Green, Melissa; Manning, Michelle; Howard, Daniel L; Godley, Paul; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2011-01-01

    We assessed church readiness to engage in health disparities research using a newly developed instrument, examined the correlates of readiness, and described strategies that churches used to promote health. We pilot tested the instrument with churches in a church-academic partnership (n = 12). We determined level of readiness to engage in research and assessed correlates of readiness. We also conducted interviews with participating pastors to explore strategies they had in place to support research engagement. Churches scored fairly high in readiness (average of 4.04 out of 5). Churches with a pastor who promoted the importance of good nutrition in a sermon or had a budget for health-related activities had significantly higher readiness scores than churches without such practices. Having a tool to evaluate church readiness to engage in research will inform targeted technical assistance and research projects that will strengthen church-academic partnerships and improve capacity to address health disparities.

  12. Koch sued over oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    In one of the largest cases ever brought under the Clean Water Act, the federal government has charged a major oil distributor with nearly 400 separate oil spills in six states since 1990. Koch Industries, which disputes the allegations, faces fines of up to $55 million. The U.S.Dept. of Justice filed charges April 17 on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Coast Guard after attempts to negotiate a settlement broke down. A civil suit filed in U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas charges Wichita, Kan.-based Koch, its subsidiaries and three pipeline companies with illegally dumping millions of gallons of oil into the waters of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Missouri and Alabama. All the spills have been cleaned up and there is no problem with contamination at any of the spill sites, says Donald P. Smith, senior on-scene coordinator for EPa`s Dallas office.

  13. Trials of bioremediation on a beach affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, P; Vila, J; Garrido-Fernández, J M; Grifoll, M; Lema, J M

    2006-10-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of several bioremediation products in accelerating the in situ biodegradation of the heavy fuel oil spill of the Prestige. Trials of bioremediation were conducted in sand, rocks and granite tiles on the beach of Sorrizo (A Coruña, NW Spain) that was polluted by the spill. Neither the added microorganisms nor the nutrients significantly enhanced the degradation rate of the fuel oil in rocks, granite tiles or sand. PAH degradation up to 80% was determined in sand and tiles. In tiles the oxygen content of the residual oil increased from 1.6% up to 8% in 90 days, which could be explained by the accumulation of products coming from the partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons. Eighteen months after the spill, the rocks of the beach were still coated by a black layer of weathered fuel oil. For this reason an oleophilic product, sunflower biodiesel was tested on a rock. The application of biodiesel accelerated the gradually clean-up of the polluted surface and could also accelerate the degradation of the residual oil.

  14. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  15. Major tanker spill off Spain under control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports that a 23 sq mile oil slick along Spain's northwest coast, spreading form the wreckage of the Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, was for the most part under control as of Dec. 10, Spanish authorities reported. Various press reports put the total spill volume at 490,000 bbl, about double that leaked by the Exxon Valdez supertanker off Alaska in 1989. If initial reports of the spill volume are borne out, the Aegean Sea spill would rank at least as one of the 10 biggest tanker spills.

  16. Spill response system configuration study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, R.V.; Agosta, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the development of a prototype decision support system for oil spill response configuration planning that will help U.S. Coast Guard planners to determine the appropriate response equipment and personnel for major spills. The report discusses the application of advanced artificial intelligence planning techniques, as well as other software tools for spill trajectory modeling, plan evaluation and map display. The implementation of the prototype system is discussed in the context of two specific major spill scenarios in the San Francisco Bay.

  17. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements.

  18. Acoustic energy relations in Mudejar-Gothic churches.

    PubMed

    Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara; Galindo, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Extensive objective energy-based parameters have been measured in 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the south of Spain. Measurements took place in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. Monoaural objective measures in the 125-4000 Hz frequency range and in their spatial distributions were obtained. Acoustic parameters: clarity C80, definition D50, sound strength G and center time Ts have been deduced using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. These parameters spectrally averaged according to the most extended criteria in auditoria in order to consider acoustic quality were studied as a function of source-receiver distance. The experimental results were compared with predictions given by classical and other existing theoretical models proposed for concert halls and churches. An analytical semi-empirical model based on the measured values of the C80 parameter is proposed in this work for these spaces. The good agreement between predicted values and experimental data for definition, sound strength, and center time in the churches analyzed shows that the model can be used for design predictions and other purposes with reasonable accuracy. PMID:17297779

  19. Review of HIV Testing Efforts in Historically Black Churches

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Latrice Crystal; Powell, Terrinieka Williams

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to critically assess the state of HIV testing in African American churches. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed publications on HIV testing in church-based settings was conducted by two independent coders. Twenty-six papers published between 1991 and 2015, representing 24 unique projects, were identified addressing at least one dimension of HIV testing. Thirteen faith-based projects have implemented HIV testing events or had clergy promote the importance of testing and knowing one’s HIV status, but empirical data and rigorous study designs were limited. Only eight papers reported onsite HIV testing in churches. Less than 5% of the studies reported the percentage of congregants who returned for their test results. Finally, no study has examined at baseline or post-intervention behavioral intentions to be screened for HIV. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV testing in churches and to explore the possibilities of the role of the church and leadership structure in the promotion of HIV treatment and care. PMID:26030470

  20. Acoustic energy relations in Mudejar-Gothic churches.

    PubMed

    Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara; Galindo, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Extensive objective energy-based parameters have been measured in 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the south of Spain. Measurements took place in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. Monoaural objective measures in the 125-4000 Hz frequency range and in their spatial distributions were obtained. Acoustic parameters: clarity C80, definition D50, sound strength G and center time Ts have been deduced using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. These parameters spectrally averaged according to the most extended criteria in auditoria in order to consider acoustic quality were studied as a function of source-receiver distance. The experimental results were compared with predictions given by classical and other existing theoretical models proposed for concert halls and churches. An analytical semi-empirical model based on the measured values of the C80 parameter is proposed in this work for these spaces. The good agreement between predicted values and experimental data for definition, sound strength, and center time in the churches analyzed shows that the model can be used for design predictions and other purposes with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    PubMed

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements. PMID:27024938

  2. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a…

  3. Ali, Cunich: Halley's Churches: Halley and the London Queen Anne Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Cunich, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Edmond Halley's enormous contribution to science has received much attention. New research adds an intriguing chapter to his story and concerns his hitherto unexplored association with the baroque architectural visionary Nicholas Hawksmoor, and some important Temple-inspired churches that were built in London in the early 1700s. We argue that Christchurch Spitalfields and St Anne's Limehouse, which were both started in the summer of 1714, were aligned exactly eastwards using ``corrected'' magnetic-compass bearings and that Halley influenced or aided Hawksmoor. By this time the men had probably known each other for 30 years and had recently worked together on the Clarendon Building in Oxford. Despite there being more than 1500 years of Chinese and about 500 years of Western compass technology at the time, these probably represent the first constructions planned using a modern-day ``scientific'' technique. The research also throws light on Halley's contended religious position.

  4. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  5. Volunteer work in the church among older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith.

  6. Volunteer Work in the Church Among Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R. David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith. PMID:22686148

  7. The economy of oil spills: direct and indirect costs as a function of spill size.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2009-11-15

    As a rational basis for addressing both ecological and economic consequences of oil spills, a combination of simulating and estimating methods is proposed in this paper. An integration of the state-of-the-art oil spill contingency simulation system OSCAR with economic assessment method leads to realistic oil spill scenarios including their biological and economic impacts and the effort taken for combat as well as to an estimate for the total oil spill costs. In order to derive a simple function of total costs depending on few spill characteristics such as size, a number of hypothetical scenarios are simulated and evaluated for the German North Sea area. Results reveal that response costs of per unit oil spilled as well as integrated costs of oil released are simply characterized as two particular power-law functions of spill size. Such relationships can be straightforward transferred into decision making for efficient prevention and combat strategy in the study area.

  8. Oil spill response scenarios for remote arctic environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, R.H.; Grosskopf, W.G.; Cox, J.C.; Schultz, L.A.

    1982-03-01

    Special problems occur during oil spill cleanup in remote inland areas in cold climates. In Alaska these problems result from the harsh climate, the unusual terrain features, and the special problems of spills along swift rivers. The analysis begins with a description of the environmental conditions that occur in Alaska that affect oil spill behavior and oil spill cleanup. The study then describes four spill scenarios in remote areas giving engineering details of the mechanics of the spill movement and the cleanup effort. One scenario covers a winter blowout of a well on the north slope tundra. The next involves a Trans-Alaska Pipeline spill. The fourth scenario involves a fuel tank truck spill into a sensitive sport fishing stream. The study describes the impact of these spills on the environment. Further, it provides a numerical evaluation of the effectiveness of the spill response effort and the cost effectiveness of three incremental levels of spill response for the cleanup effort.

  9. The Catholic Church, the American military, and homosexual reorientation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lutz, David

    2004-01-01

    Homosexual activist groups have targeted the Catholic Church and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. Such therapy is consistent with the Christian virtue of charity. PMID:15764096

  10. Spill-Detector-and-Shutoff Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, M. R.; Fulton, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Overflow in liquid chromatography systems rapidly detected and stopped. Spill-detector-and-shutoff device incorporated into liquid-chromatography system. When liquid from output nozzle spills on liquid sensor, device automatically shuts off pump and releases solenoid to pinch off flow in tube. Device uses common type of alarm circuit reset manually before normal operation resumes.

  11. PUBLISHING SPILL IMPACT MAPS OVER THE WEB

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the implementaiton of a web-based map publishing technology within a USEPA GIS laboratory. A sophisticated spill travel prediction model for the Ohio River has been installed within the GIS laboratory, and is used by personnel from the NRMRL. The spill simul...

  12. Remote oil spill sensing system (ROSSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaca, S.; Agravante, H.H.; Eberhard, C.; Hauss, B.I.

    1996-10-01

    To provide tactical information during an oil spill, TRW developed Remote Oil Spill Sensing System (ROSSS). It is an integrated system of airborne sensors for rapid in-situ surveillance and a ground system that provides data analysis and display support at the spill cleanup command center. It provides knowledge of precise location of oil spill and produces timely updates, which are critical for effective spill containment and cleanup operations. It is capable of distinguishing where the bulk of spill exists, which is key to directing cleanup efforts for maximum efficiency. Using a passive microwave radiometric imager as the primary sensor, it provides data acquisition capabilities in both day and night and through haze, fog, and light ram. The high-speed air-to-ground telemetry link permits timely delivery of surveyed data from the spill site to the ground system to aid in the planning and assessment of cleanup strategies. ROSSS has been in service since November, 1992, ready to respond in any oil spill emergencies along the U.S. West Coast. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Physical oceanography of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of petroleum products and crude oil from ship accidents and damaged platforms into the ocean remains a significant problem. Weather systems of nearly all sizes and time scales may have strong effects on oil slick movement and dispersal. Thunderstorms, local weather systems, mid-latitude high- and low-pressure systems, tropical cyclones, and the trade winds and prevailing westerlies of the planetary wind system are all potentially important agents in the movement and dispersal of oil slicks. Currents driven by these wind systems are influenced by the rotation of the earth, which causes them to veer to the right of the wind in the northern hemisphere. Wind shifts or sudden decreases in wind stress induce circular or inertial oscillations whose period varies with latitude. Near the shore these effects are severely damped by the blocking action of the coast, causing the flow to run more or less parallel to the coastal boundary. All these effects will in turn exert significant control over the movement of entrained oil slicks. In the near-field region of an oil spill tidal currents can also be of considerable importance. Rotary currents, characteristic of open-shelf waters and effective dispersal agents of oil, arise from the influence of the rotation of the earth on the tidal current. Another such interaction between rotation of the earth and the tide produces Kelvin waves, which result in unusually high tidal ranges along the coast to the right of the tidal wave propagation. Both effects have been important in recent oil spills. All these oceanographic processes, reviewed in this talk, have played key roles in major spills over the last 15 years from the Torrey Canyon to the Mega-Borg.

  14. The Historical and Changing Role of the Black Church: The Social and Political Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Harold L.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the historical role and influence of the Black church in the American Black community. Questions the viability of both Black churches and Christianity in the contemporary Black community. (FMW)

  15. 'Tetl' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's trek through the 'Columbia Hills' at 'Gusev Crater,' shows the horizontally layered rock dubbed 'Tetl.' Scientists hope to investigate this rock in more detail, aiming to determine whether the rock's layering is volcanic or sedimentary in origin. If for some reason this particular rock is not favorably positioned for grinding and examination by the toolbox of instruments on the rover's robotic arm, Spirit will be within short reach of another similar rock, dubbed 'Coba.' Spirit took this image on its 264th martian day, or sol (Sept. 29, 2004). This is a false-color composite image generated from the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters.

  16. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women.

  17. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  18. Shoreline impacts in the Gulf of Alaska region following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Suchanek, T.H.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.; Sloan, N.A.

    1995-12-31

    Forty-eight sites in the Gulf of Alaska region (GOA-Kodiak Island, Kenai Peninsula, and Alaska Peninsula) were sampled in July/August 1989 to assess the impact of the March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill on shoreline chemistry and biological communities hundreds of miles from the spill origin. In a 1990 companion study, 5 of the Kensai sites and 13 of the Kodiak and Alaska Peninsula sites were sampled 16 months after the spill. Oiling levels at each site were estimated visually and/or quantified by chemical analysis. The chemical analyses were performed on sediment and/or rock wipe samples collected with the biological samples. Additional sediment samples were collected for laboratory amphipod toxicity tests. Mussels were also collected and analyzed for hydrocarbon content to assess hydrocarbon bioavailability. Biological investigations at these GOA sites focused on intertidal infauna, epifauna, and macroalgae by means of a variety of common ecological techniques. For rock sites the percentage of hard substratum covered by biota was quantified. At each site, up to 5 biological samples (scrapes of rock surfaces or sediment cores) were collected intertidally along each of 3 transects, spanning tide levels from the high intertidal to mean-lowest-low-water (zero tidal datum). Organisms (down to 1.0 mm in size) from these samples were sorted and identified. Community parameters including organism abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity were calculated for each sample. 43 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The Negotiation and Articulation of Identity, Position and Ethos in Joint Church Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarises the key findings of a research project into the identity, position and ethos of jointly sponsored church academies. The research sought to investigate how joint church academies are situated within the field, how they relate to existing academies and the maintained church school sector and how they articulate their vision and…

  20. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  1. Revitalizing Young Adults through Leadership Training at Victory Presbyterian Church, Ilsan, Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Kyeong Cheon

    2009-01-01

    This study has the aim of examining the effects obtained mainly through the leadership development process through small group dynamics for the purpose of making the youth group church, vitalized. The church reached the conclusion that the important problem for continuous church development was how to find a trained leader and to help the…

  2. State and Church in British Honduran Education, 1931-39: A British Colonial Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Offers an analysis of church and state influences on the development of education in British Honduras (now Belize). Focuses on the British neglect of education in the colony; the emergence of tensions between the church and state, exploring issues related to Roman Catholic and Protestant rivalry; and church-state issues. (CMK)

  3. The Church, the Family, and the School in the African American Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Andrew; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    1991-01-01

    Examines the interaction of church, school, and family in the African-American community. Using a holistic perspective and data from an ongoing, nationwide, multiyear study of church-sponsored family-oriented community outreach programs, the results indicate that the church is a powerful ally for the Black family. (JB)

  4. The Anglican Church and the World of Western Canada, 1820-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Barry, Ed.

    This book consists of 17 essays concerning the history of the Anglican church and its missions in western Canada. Essays examine the social and political role of the Anglican church, its influence among Native and non-Native populations, its effects on educational development, and the status of women in the church. Chapters 6, 8, 9, and 14 are…

  5. Called to Act: Stories of Child Care Advocacy in Our Churches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Margery, Ed.

    Experiences of church-based child care advocates are narrated in this booklet. Introductory remarks argue that the National Council of Churches (NCC) must advocate high quality, affordable child care for all children and persuade church members to provide it. Part I tells stories about members' efforts to provide child care services to families:…

  6. Pulpits and Platforms: The Role of the Church in Determining Protest among Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Scott T.

    2005-01-01

    This article further specifies the relationship between church-based resources, group identification and political activism among black Americans. Previous research indicates that political communication within churches and activism within the church serve to motivate political participation. Our research suggests that, net of relevant controls,…

  7. The Training of Semiliterate Rural Pastors in the Northwest Region Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellows, Timothy Steven

    2014-01-01

    A common plea in missions is the need to train pastors and church leaders for the rapidly multiplying churches in the Majority World, resulting in numerous formal and nonformal theological education training programs. In spite of these efforts, many rural churches remain without pastors. Using appreciative inquiry and participatory…

  8. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  9. Oil spill fishery impact assessment model: Sensitivity to spill location and timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaulding, Malcolm L.; Reed, Mark; Anderson, Eric; Isaji, Tatsusaburo; Swanson, J. Craig; Saila, Saul B.; Lorda, Ernesto; Walker, Henry

    1985-01-01

    An oil spill fishery impact assessment model system has been applied to the Georges Bank-Gulf of Maine region to assess the sensitivity of probable impact on several key fisheries to spill location and timing. Simulations of the impact on the fishery of tanker spills (20 million gallons released over 5 days), at two separate locations for each season of the year, and blowout spills (68 million gallons released over 30 days) at one location, with monthly releases and at six other locations with seasonal spills have been studied. Atlantic cod has been employed as the principal fish species throughout the simulations. Impacts on Atlantic herring and haddock have also been investigated for selected cases. All spill sites are located on Georges Bank with the majority in the general region of OCS leasing activity. The results of these simulations suggest a complex interaction among spill location and timing, the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning, the population dynamics of the species under study, and the hydrodynamics of the area. For the species studied, spills occurring during the winter and spring have the largest impact with cod being the most heavily impacted followed by haddock and herring. In all cases, the maximum cumulative loss to the fishery of a one time spill event never exceeded 25% of the annual catch with the exact value depending on the number of ichthyoplankton impacted by the spill and the compensatory dynamics of the population.

  10. Source apportionment in oil spill remediation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jorge; Mudge, Stephen M; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Bravo-Linares, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    A pipe rupture during unloading led to a spillage of 350-700 tonnes of Caño Limon, a light sweet crude oil, into San Vicente Bay in 2007. Initial clean-up methods removed the majority of the oil from the sandy beaches although some oil remained on the rocky shores. It was necessary for the responsible party to clean the spilled oil even though at this location there were already crude oil hydrocarbons from previous industrial activity. A biosolvent based on vegetable oil derivatives was used to solubilise the remaining oil and a statistical approach to source apportionment was used to determine the efficacy of the cleaning. Sediment and contaminated rock samples were taken prior to cleaning and again at the same locations two days after application of the biosolvent. The oil was extracted using a modified USEPA Method 3550B. The alkanes were quantified together with oil biomarkers on a GC-MS. The contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil hydrocarbons was calculated from a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis using Caño Limon crude oil as the source. By the time the biosolvent was applied, there had already been some attenuation of the oil with all alkanes

  11. The Role of the Church in the Aging Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellor, James W.; And Others

    For more than a quarter of a century, both human service agencies and religious organizations have provided for the needs of the elderly. In order to study the relationship between these groups, clergy from mainline Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish churches and synagogues (N=34) and social service agency administrators in a midwestern suburb were…

  12. "Sex and the Church": Sexuality, Misconduct, and Education in Methodism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Darryl W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes Methodism's efforts to address misconduct within ministerial relationships as an important dimension of sexuality education within a religious context. The United Methodist Church (UMC) makes a concerted effort to promote awareness, justice, and healing in cases of sexual abuse within ministerial relationships. The most…

  13. The African American Church, Education and Self Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roland W.

    2010-01-01

    This special issue on "The Role of Spirituality, Religion and the African American Church on Educational Outcomes" is extremely timely. Moreover, the fact that this conversation is taking place in "The Journal of Negro Education" ("JNE") demonstrates once again that the "JNE" has its finger firmly on the pulse of significant educational and…

  14. Latinos, Education, and the Church: Toward a Culturally Democratic Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darder, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    The article provides a comprehensive critical analysis of key issues that are deeply salient to an examination of the relationship of Latinos, education, and the Church. The status of Latinos and their educational participation in the US is systematically presented through a critical theoretical lens that brings questions of historical, political,…

  15. Teleclasses: improve belonging, vitality, and health in church homebound.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Telemedicine or telehealth is a growing area of healthcare, using modern technology and communication resources. This nurse started a teleclass in her church to reach out to and connect homebound members using the telephone and conference calling. The results and health outcomes are astonishing. PMID:23082620

  16. Undoing Racism in America: Help from the Black Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…

  17. The Challenge of Modern Church-Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagen, Michael V., Ed.; Chertow, Doris S., Ed.

    Papers presented at the Institute on Modern Religious Communication Dilemmas, held at Syracuse University's Continuing Education Center for the Public Service in November 1971, are provided. The focus of the institute was the dilemmas facing modern church-public relations practitioners. The papers reproduced in this book provide a descriptive…

  18. Church-Owned Higher Education and the Democratization of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szolar, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is manifold. The first aim is to create a framework for analysis or to map the landscape of the Romanian church-related higher education institutions. The second is to answer the question that the existing educational policies, societal and cultural trends how will determine the identity, mission and functioning of these…

  19. The Separation of Church and State. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Darien A.

    This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public schools,…

  20. Mauritian Creole Identity Development and Influences of the Catholic Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungers, Christin M.; Gregoire, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    Investigating the influence of the Roman Catholic Church on the racial/ethnic identity development of Mauritian Creole peoples was the broad goal of the present study, which was framed by multidimensional approaches to human development, identity development models, and principles of Catholic Social Teaching (CST). Data were collected from 25…

  1. Honour and Shame in a Church of England Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    While students of Islamic societies and cultures are aware of the influence of dynamics of honour and shame on behaviour, these factors are not always recognized by those who engage with Muslims in the UK. This paper will discuss the impact of concerns related to honour and shame on the behaviour of Muslim pupils in a Church of England primary…

  2. Subjective study of preferred listening conditions in Italian Catholic churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    The paper describes the results of research aimed at investigating the preferred subjective listening conditions inside churches. The effect of different musical motifs (spanning Gregorian chants to symphonic music) was investigated and regression analysis was performed in order to point out the relationship between subjective ratings and acoustical parameters. In order to present realistic listening conditions to the subjects a small subset of nine churches was selected among a larger set of acoustic data collected in several Italian churches during a widespread on-site survey. The subset represented different architectural styles and shapes, and was characterized by average listening conditions. For each church a single source-receiver combination with fixed relative positions was chosen. Measured binaural impulse responses were cross-talk cancelled and then convolved with five anechoic motifs. Paired comparisons were finally performed, asking a trained panel of subjects their preference. Factor analysis pointed out a substantially common underlying pattern characterizing subjective responses. The results show that preferred listening conditions vary as a function of the musical motif, depending on early decay time for choral music and on a combination of initial time delay and lateral energy for instrumental music.

  3. View of main entrance of the Church of God. This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main entrance of the Church of God. This structure was originally a lodge hall for the Woodmen of the World from the adjacent mill neighborhoods such as Lincoln and Dallas Mill - 601 Humes Avenue (House), 601 Humes Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. The Reading Habits of Church Active Mormon Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Marianne; Cranney, A. Garr

    Data from 149 female members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) were used to construct a composite of the reading habits and their relation to other characterisitics of this group. The typical respondent was a married woman between 26 and 40 years old who had attended college but remained at home to care for children under…

  5. Separation of Church and State: The Endless Struggle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph P.

    1983-01-01

    The author advocates his belief in the separation of church and state, considers the implications of complete separation, and discusses the "resurgence of religion in our public school system," as well as the "intrusion of religious authority into the privacy of personal bio-ethics issues." (JM)

  6. Educating American Baptist Pastors: A National Survey of Church Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohall, Kirkpatrick G.; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the typical Baptist pastor has evolved well beyond providing spiritual direction. Congregations expect them to fulfill complex leadership roles, similar to those in secular institutions, such as church administrators, political strategists, and social activists. Leadership preparation in seminaries for clergy has not kept up with the…

  7. Free health clinic links college, church, and community.

    PubMed

    Carey, Rebekah Albrecht; Fricke, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Granville Neighborhood Health Center (GNHC) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conceived out of community need and the vision of Risen Savior Lutheran Church, Wisconsin Lutheran College (WLC), and community leaders. GNHC offers free healthcare services monthly to the uninsured and a service-learning and clinical site for nursing and other students at the college.

  8. Tradition and Innovation in Russian Church Slavonic Hymnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Elena Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is the highly specialized and stylized liturgical language of Russian Church Slavonic (RCS). Historically, RCS has been strictly controlled by authorities and has conformed to established norms, but innovations have nevertheless arisen in response to various conditions. One major wave of innovations was a long,…

  9. Church-State Separation: Recent Trends and Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinensky, Jeffery P.; Kahn, Jill L.

    1984-01-01

    This report analyzes recent cases and legislation in the area of church-state separation. A brief introduction asserts that the Supreme Court's method of evaluating establishment clause controversies is undergoing pervasive changes that have permitted incursions on establishment principles. The rest of the paper, providing support for this…

  10. Science, Birth Control, and the Roman Catholic Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jeffrey J.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses human difficulty in grasping large numbers and long range truths. Gives history of the Roman Catholic Birth Control Commission and the Pope's issuing of the Humanae Vitae alongside data on population growth and related problems. Contrasts the birth control issue with other conflicts between science and the Catholic Church, pointing out…

  11. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. PMID:15957758

  12. Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

  13. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  14. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  15. Is Your Church Accessible? Houses of Worship: Physical Accessibility Checklist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensign, Arselia, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This checklist is intended to help churches evaluate the accessibility of their facilities to those with physical disabilities. Categories covered are: basic accessibility, parking lots, walks, ramps, entrances/exits, doors and doorways, stairs and steps, floors, worship space, rest rooms, controls, water fountains, identification, warning…

  16. Response of Church Related Adults to the Film, "Parable."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Richard Ed

    The purpose of this study was to investigate response to the film, "Parable," a 20-minute color film which depicts a clown in a circus setting and which has no dialog but evokes strong emotional/affective reactions. Postviewing reactions to the film by 141 adults from age 20 to 70 of United Methodist churches in southern Indiana were researched.…

  17. 3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET WITH LEVI STARBUCK HOUSE (#14) AT LEFT AND THE BLOCK (#15-23) AT RIGHT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  18. 4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. August, 1970 VIEW FROM TOP OF UNITARIAN CHURCH OF ORANGE STREET PARTICULARLY NOS. 12, 14 AND 14 1/3, AND THE HARBOR - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. Ecological Impacts during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest spill and response effort in United States history. Nearly 800 million L of oil was spilled in the Gulf of Mexico, and nearly 7 million L of chemical dispersants were applied in at the ocean surface and subsea1. The DWH spill ...

  20. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Terby Crater. Terby is located along the north edge of Hellas Planitia. The sedimentary rocks might have been deposited in a greater, Hellas-filling sea -- or not. Today, the rocks are partly covered by dark-toned sediment and debris.

    Location near: 27.2oS, 285.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  1. Lessons Learned Entry: Hypergolic Propellant Related Spills and Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The attached report is a compilation of all credible, unintentional hypergolic fluid related spills, fires, and explosions from the Apollo Program, the Space Shuttle Program, Titan Program, and a few other programs. Spill sites include the following government facilities: KSC, JSC, WSTF, VAFB, CCAFS, EAFB, Little Rock AFB, and McConnell AFB. The root causes and consequences of the incidents contained in this document vary drastically; however, certain "themes" can be deduced and utilized for future hypergolic propellant handling. Some of those common "themes" are summarized below: (1) Improper configuration control and complacency can lead to being falsely comfortable with a system (2) Communication breakdown can escalate an incident to a level where injuries occur and/or hardware is damaged (3) Improper propulsion system and ground support system designs can destine a system for failure (4) Improper training of technicians, engineers, and safety personnel can put lives in danger (5) Improper PPE, spill protection, and staging of fire extinguishing equipment can result in unnecessary injuries or hardware damage if an incident occurs (6) Improper procedural oversight, development, and adherence to the procedure can be detrimental and quickly lead to an undesirable incident (7) Improper local cleanliness or compatibility can result in fires or explosions The items listed above are only a short list of the issues that should be recognized prior to handling of hypergolic fluids or processing of vehicles containing hypergolic propellants. The summary of incidents in this report is intended to cover many more issues than those listed above that have been found during nearly the entire spectrum. of hypergolic propellant and/or vehicle processing.

  2. Life inhabits rocks: clues to rock erosion from electron microscopy of pisolite at a UNESCO heritage site in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Asada, Ryuji; Lindenmayer, Zara Gerhardt; Shirotori, Tatsuya; Vargas, Juliana Missiaggia; Nowatzki, Carlos Henrique; Coelho, Osmar Wöhl

    2009-02-01

    Rock erosion is attracting increasing attention from scientists worldwide. The area encompassing the Saint John Baptist Church, Saint John Village, XVII century ruins in Rio Grande do Sul at the UNESCO World Heritage Site is considered a Brazilian treasure. However, the risk of damage to this site from rock erosion has recently increased tremendously. Generally, the rocky construction such as fence, wall and tomb stone, seems strong but is actually extremely sensitive to erosion caused by lichens, fungi, molds and bacteria. Because of biological erosion and massive exposure, the fresh rock is dominated by clays and microorganisms. Water-adsorbing clays and microorganisms influence the mechanisms of the rock erosion. In this study, the formation of bio-clay-minerals in porous structure of pisolite was demonstrated using electron microscopy. Bacterial clay mineralization can deform the rock structure and even produce organic materials. Biological activity could easily corrode rocky constructions around the Saint John Baptist Church site. The rocks are pisolitic laterites possibly formed in Tertiary over the Kretaceous Parana flood Basalts. Samples inhabited by lichens and fungi were collected from a collapsed wall in the ancient church. The zonal reddish-brown pisolites are 4 mm in diameter in a matrix of clays associated with porous and empty spaces. Elemental distribution maps from X-ray fluorescence microscopy show iron-rich spherules of pisolite, whereas the matrix is composed of Al, Si, Mn, and Sr; thus producing goethite and kaolinite. Transmission electron microscopic observation showed that various types of bacteria inhabit the spherule and are associated with clay minerals and graphite. STEM elemental analysis confirmed the bio-clay-mineralization with Al, Si, S, and Fe, around bacterial cells. The results presented here will improve our understanding of nm-scale bio-mineralization and bio-erosion in lateritic rocks.

  3. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures.

  4. Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks 'Shark' and 'Half Dome' at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  5. 'Lutefisk' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take this image of a rock called 'Lutefisk' on the rover's 286th martian day (Oct. 22, 2004). The surface of the rock is studded with rounded granules of apparently more-resistant material up to several millimeters (0.1 inch) or more across. The visible portion of Lutefisk is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) across.

  6. Oil recovery; Technology that tames large spills

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the threat of oil spills is growing with the increasing use of larger tankers, the expansion of offshore oil exploration, and-as was demonstrated recently in the Persian Gulf-the dangers of war and terrorism. Aware of the environmental havoc that massive spills can cause, engineers are working hard to devise effective methods of scooping oil from the water's surface and cleaning contaminated shorelines. Techniques are being developed, which combine mechanical, chemical, and biological processes to contain spills.

  7. A sustainable approach to controlling oil spills.

    PubMed

    Al-Majed, Abdul Aziz; Adebayo, Abdulrauf Rasheed; Hossain, M Enamul

    2012-12-30

    As a result of the huge economic and environmental destruction from oil spills, studies have been directed at improving and deploying natural sorbents which are not only the least expensive but also the safest means of spill control. This research reviews the limitations and environmental impact of existing cleanup methods. It also justifies the need for concerted research effort on oil spill control using natural and sustainable technology concepts. The article proposes future guidelines for the development of a sustainable cleanup technology. Finally, guidelines for the development of a new technology for the Middle East are proposed, which is the use of an abundant resource--date palm fibers--for such techniques.

  8. Oil spill cleanup using graphene.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Z; Abdala, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we study the use of thermally reduced graphene (TRG) for oil spill cleanup. TRG was synthesized by thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide and characterized by X-ray diffusion, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, elemental analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. Various aspects of the sorption process have been studied including the sorption capacity, the recovery of the adsorbed oil, and the recyclability of TRG. Our results shows that TRG has a higher sorption capacity than any other carbon-based sorbents, with sorption capacity as high as 131 g of oil per gram TRG. With recovery of the sorbed oil via filtration and reuse of TRG for up to six cycles, 1 g of TRG collectively removes approximately 300 g of crude oil. Moreover, the effects of TRG bulk density, pore volume, and carbon/oxygen ratio and the oil viscosity on the sorption process are also discussed.

  9. "DEAR ROCK, WHAT'S YOUR DESTINY? Ancient and modern uses of rocks in industry, building and art."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennesi, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The project is for students of first grade of secondary school. The activity is a game, virtual or real of associations between rock and soil samples with their uses in industry, building and art. The students, alone or in a team, have to form pairs having available various samples of rocks, soils and building materials as bags of cement, tiles.. They have images of colonnades, staircases of famous churches, cave paintings and colors. The project is multidisciplinary. During the activity, the teachers of art and technical education are involved with and the teacher of sciences. The game can be used as an introduction for the rocks' classification. The inquiry in team, is a good way to learn the several uses of mineral resources.

  10. 26 CFR 11.410-1 - Election by church to have participation, vesting, funding, etc., provisions apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... association of churches which maintains any church plan, as defined in section 414(e), makes an election under... of 1974 (the “Act”) shall apply to such church plan as if such plan were not a church plan. The... (relating to prohibited transactions), and paragraphs (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), and (19) of section...

  11. The Great Oil Spill Cleanup Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Presents an exciting way to acquaint students with current methods to clean up oil spills. Students also have the freedom to create new clean-up methods as they think through the problem and experiment to find effective solutions. (PR)

  12. Spill prevention control and countermeasure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This report includes facility descriptions for both oil and hazardous chemicals storage. It gives oil spill history; regulatory guideline conformance; local emergency arrangements; evacuation procedures and the contingency plan for oil and hazardous substances. (PSB)

  13. Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update)

    NASA Video Gallery

    On April 30, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, triggering the largest oil spill in U.S. history. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, c...

  14. NASA Satellites View Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010, with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This series of images shows a space...

  15. Earth Observation Services (Oil Spill Mapping)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    An EOCAP project led Research Planning, Inc. to the development of advanced techniques for "environmental sensitivity" oil spill mapping. The new method incorporates satellite remote sensing and GIS technologies and was utilized to assess the damage potential of the Gulf war oil spill. EOCAP provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the, use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  16. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    In 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil spill contaminated about 1,500 miles of Alaska`s coastline. It killed birds, mammals, and fish, and disrupted the ecosystem in the path of the oil. The Exxon Valdez Restoration Plan provides long-term guidance for restoring the resources and services injured by the oil spill. It contains policies for making restoration decisions and describes how restoration activities will be implemented.

  17. Argon spill test for E706

    SciTech Connect

    Kilmer, J.

    1988-03-17

    There were three different tests involved in this series. It should be stated that the purpose of the test was to determine if there should be extra precautions taken with the calorimeter vent stack. No attempt was made to do quantitative measurements. The three types of tests were diffusion tests, spills at a remote site, and a spill at the MW building. Oxygen monitors used were the standard Energy Saver type throughout. 6 figs.

  18. Child sexual abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers.

  19. Democracy, embryonic stem cell research, and the Roman Catholic church.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Justin

    2002-08-01

    The Roman Catholic Church in Australia has lobbied politicians to prohibit embryonic stem cell research, on the grounds that such research violates the sanctity and inherent dignity of human life. I suggest, however, that reasoned reflection does not uniquely support such conclusions about the morality of stem cell research. A recent parliamentary standing committee report recommended that embryonic stem cell research be allowed to proceed in certain circumstances, and there appears to be widespread support in the Australian community for this position. I argue that the moral value of democracy requires parliamentarians to acknowledge the informed views of the wider community here, and to resist lobbying by church leaders on this issue. PMID:12161572

  20. Explanations of changes in church attendance between 1970 and 2009.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, Erik; Moor, Nienke

    2015-07-01

    We deduce hypotheses from theories on religious change to explain changes in church attendance rates. Using a new dataset with 51 countries across a long period we apply panel regression models, which enable us to test well-known theories in a more strict and dynamic fashion than do cross-sectional studies. Our results provide new evidence for a few old ideas, but also show striking lack of evidence for ideas that appear well-accepted. Tertiary education proved to be a strong predictor of changes in church attendance. Theories about individualization were also supported. The evidence of existential insecurity as a cause of change was ambiguous: economic development and life expectancy showed significant effects but income inequality did not. We found no support for theories on social globalization and social benefit policy. Finally, we found that income inequality and urbanization were driving forces of change during the 70s and 80s, but not since 1990.

  1. Child sexual abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers. PMID:22994693

  2. Rapid Dissolution of Soluble Uranyl Phases in Arid, Mine-Impacted Catchments near Church Rock, NM

    PubMed Central

    DELEMOS, JAMIE L.; BOSTICK, BENJAMIN C.; QUICKSALL, ANDREW N.; LANDIS, JOSHUA D.; GEORGE, CHRISTINE C.; SLAGOWSKI, NAOMI L.; ROCK, TOMMY; BRUGGE, DOUG; LEWIS, JOHNNYE; DURANT, JOHN L.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that runoff of uranium-bearing particles from mining waste disposal areas was a significant mechanism for redistribution of uranium in the northeastern part of the Upper Puerco River watershed (New Mexico). However, our results were not consistent with this hypothesis. Analysis of >100 sediment and suspended sediment samples collected adjacent to and downstream from uranium source areas indicated that uranium levels in the majority of the samples were not elevated above background. Samples collected within 50 m of a known waste disposal site were subjected to detailed geochemical characterization. Uranium in these samples was found to be highly soluble; treatment with synthetic pore water for 24 h caused dissolution of 10–50% of total uranium in the samples. Equilibrium uranium concentrations in pore water were >4.0 mg/L and were sustained in repeated wetting events, effectively depleting soluble uranium from the solid phase. The dissolution rate of uranium appeared to be controlled by solid-phase diffusion of uranium from within uranium-bearing mineral particles. X-ray adsorption spectroscopy indicated the presence of a soluble uranyl silicate, and possibly a uranyl phosphate. These phases were exhausted in transported sediment suggesting that uranium was readily mobilized from sediments in the Upper Puerco watershed and transported in the dissolved load. These results could have significance for uranium risk assessment as well as mining waste management and cleanup efforts. PMID:18589950

  3. Rapid dissolution of soluble uranyl phases in arid, mine-impacted catchments near Church Rock, NM.

    PubMed

    deLemos, Jamie L; Bostick, Benjamin C; Quicksall, Andrew N; Landis, Joshua D; George, Christine C; Slagowski, Naomi L; Rock, Tommy; Brugge, Doug; Lewis, Johnnye; Durant, John L

    2008-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that runoff of uranium-bearing particles from mining waste disposal areas was a significant mechanism for redistribution of uranium in the northeastern part of the Upper Puerco River watershed (New Mexico). However, our results were not consistent with this hypothesis. Analysis of > 100 sediment and suspended sediment samples collected adjacent to and downstream from uranium source areas indicated that uranium levels in the majority of the samples were not elevated above background. Samples collected within 50 m of a known waste disposal site were subjected to detailed geochemical characterization. Uranium in these samples was found to be highly soluble; treatment with synthetic pore water for 24 h caused dissolution of 10--50% of total uranium in the samples. Equilibrium uranium concentrations in pore water were > 4.0 mg/L and were sustained in repeated wetting events, effectively depleting soluble uranium from the solid phase. The dissolution rate of uranium appeared to be controlled by solid-phase diffusion of uranium from within uranium-bearing mineral particles. X-ray adsorption spectroscopy indicated the presence of a soluble uranyl silicate, and possibly a uranyl phosphate. These phases were exhausted in transported sediment suggesting that uranium was readily mobilized from sediments in the Upper Puerco watershed and transported in the dissolved load. These results could have significance for uranium risk assessment as well as mining waste management and cleanup efforts.

  4. Ideal Teaching: Exploring the Attributes of an "Ideal Teacher" in the Church Educational System for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Matthew W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the profile of an ideal teacher for the Church Educational System (CES) for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This study surveyed 159 students, teachers, and administrators in order to find the characteristics perceived to be ideal in a CES teacher. The survey included 16 characteristics of…

  5. Heating facilities: Klamath Lutheran Church, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Klamath Lutheran Church is a masonry structure with cathedral ceiling containing approximately 5800 sq ft of floor area. This building is currently heated by two duct furnaces and a unit heater all of which are gas fired. An Educational Wing of approximately 6300 sq ft was added in 1958. This building, containing 2 assembly rooms and a number of classrooms is of uninsulated frame construction, with extensive glass area. A gas-fired boiler supplying finned tube radiators currently heats this wing. Four specific options for displacing all or part of the heating duty with geothermal were examined. These options are: case 1 - drilling a production and injection well on the property and using the resultant hot water (180/sup 0/F) to heat the entire facility; case 3 - using effluent from the Klamath Union High School to heat the entire facility; no well drilling required; case 2 - using effluent from the Klamath Union High School to heat only the church building; the present gas boiler would heat the Educational Wing; and case 4 - drilling a production and injection well on the property and using the resulting water (70/sup 0/F) to supply a water-to-water heat pump. Of the four cases examined, case 3 (heating of both the church building and educational wing with effluent from the Klamath Union High School) seems to offer the greatest potential and earliest simple payback period. (MHR)

  6. Minimizing risks from spilled oil to ecosystem services using influence diagrams: the Deepwater Horizon spill response.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Barron, Mace G

    2011-09-15

    Decision science tools can be used in evaluating response options and making inferences on risks to ecosystem services (ES) from ecological disasters. Influence diagrams (IDs) are probabilistic networks that explicitly represent the decisions related to a problem and their influence on desired or undesired outcomes. To examine how IDs might be useful in probabilistic risk management for spill response efforts, an ID was constructed to display the potential interactions between exposure events and the trade-offs between costs and ES impacts from spilled oil and response decisions in the DWH spill event. Quantitative knowledge was not formally incorporated but an ID platform for doing this was examined. Probabilities were assigned for conditional relationships in the ID and scenarios examining the impact of different response actions on components of spilled oil were investigated in hypothetical scenarios. Given the structure of the ID, potential knowledge gaps included understanding of the movement of oil, the ecological risk of different spill-related stressors to key receptors (e.g., endangered species, fisheries), and the need for stakeholder valuation of the ES benefits that could be impacted by a spill. Framing the Deepwater Horizon problem domain in an ID conceptualized important variables and relationships that could be optimally accounted for in preparing and managing responses in future spills. These features of the developed IDs may assist in better investigating the uncertainty, costs, and the trade-offs if large-scale, deep ocean spills were to occur again.

  7. The characteristics of northern black churches with community health outreach programs.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S B; Quinn, S C; Billingsley, A; Caldwell, C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The Black church has a long history of addressing unmet health and human service needs, yet few studies have examined characteristics of churches involved in health promotion. METHODS. Data obtained from a survey of 635 Black churches in the northern United States were examined. Univariate and multivariate statistical procedures identified eight characteristics associated with community health outreach programs: congregation size, denomination, church age, economic class of membership, ownership of church, number of paid clergy, presence of other paid staff, and education level of the minister. RESULTS. A logistic regression model identified church size and educational level of the minister as the strongest predictors of church-sponsored community health outreach. The model correctly classified 88% of churches that conduct outreach programs. Overall, the model correctly classified 76% of churches in the sample. CONCLUSIONS. Results may be used by public health professionals and policy makers to enlist Black churches as an integral component for delivery of health promotion and disease prevention services needed to achieve the Year 2000 health objectives for all Americans. PMID:8154559

  8. The church and paediatric HIV care in rural South Africa: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Norder, Wilma A J; Peters, Remco P H; Kok, Maarten O; van Elsland, Sabine L; Struthers, Helen E; Tutu, Mpho A; van Furth, A Marceline

    2015-01-01

    Religion has substantial - positive and negative - influence on South Africa's HIV context. This qualitative study explored possibilities for positive church engagement in paediatric HIV care in a rural district in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Opinions, attitudes and experiences of various stakeholders including religious leaders, healthcare workers and people infected/affected with/by HIV were investigated through participant observation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. During the research the original focus on paediatric HIV care shifted to HIV care in general in reaction to participant responses. Participants identified three main barriers to positive church engagement in HIV care: (a) stigma and disclosure; (b) sexual associations with HIV and (c) religious beliefs and practices. All participant groups appreciated the opportunity and relevance of strengthening church involvement in HIV care. Opportunities for positive church engagement in HIV care that participants identified included: (a) comprehensive and holistic HIV care when churches and clinics collaborate; (b) the wide social reach of churches and (c) the safety and acceptance in churches. Findings indicate that despite barriers great potential exists for increased positive church engagement in HIV care in rural South Africa. Recommendations include increased medical knowledge and dialogue on HIV/AIDS within church settings, and increased collaboration between churches and the medical sector. PMID:26679269

  9. Advances in Remote Sensing for Oil Spill Disaster Management: State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology for Oil Spill Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Maya Nand; Levy, Jason; Gao, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Reducing the risk of oil spill disasters is essential for protecting the environment and reducing economic losses. Oil spill surveillance constitutes an important component of oil spill disaster management. Advances in remote sensing technologies can help to identify parties potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. Due to the large number of sensors currently available for oil spill surveillance, there is a need for a comprehensive overview and comparison of existing sensors. Specifically, this paper examines the characteristics and applications of different sensors. A better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of oil spill surveillance sensors will improve the operational use of these sensors for oil spill response and contingency planning. Laser fluorosensors were found to be the best available sensor for oil spill detection since they not only detect and classify oil on all surfaces but also operate in either the day or night. For example, the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF) sensor was identified to be a valuable tool for oil spill surveillance. However, no single sensor was able to provide all information required for oil spill contingency planning. Hence, combinations of sensors are currently used for oil spill surveillance. Specifically, satellite sensors are used for preliminary oil spill assessment while airborne sensors are used for detailed oil spill analysis. While satellite remote sensing is not suitable for tactical oil spill planning it can provide a synoptic coverage of the affected area.

  10. Rock Paintings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  11. Preparing for emergency spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Indelicato, G.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    An inherent problem facing many industries is emergency response to releases and spills of regulated materials. The complexity and severity of an emergency response action varies tremendously, but all represent a potential cost and liability to the responsible party. Liability is measured not only in current dollars associated with the cleanup and subsequent financial exposure, but also from a public relations and regulatory awareness standpoint. As in most processes, the emergency response process can be reduced to very simple and well-defined tasks that will commonly occur no matter the complexity, location or nature of the emergency response. The consistent nature of the basic stages of an emergency response provide a framework from which a response can be managed properly. Individual operations and site specific conditions must be considered at all stages throughout the process. The stages outlined here assume outside contractors and consultants are utilized for the management of the emergency response activities. It should be noted that while the stages are separate and divided by definition, the timing of all of these stages should be run as simultaneously as possible and in the most efficient manner possible. This may require that during an emergency response operation more than one individual is responsible for the various stages to ensure a timely response.

  12. A Summary of NASA and USAF Hypergolic Propellant Related Spills and Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Several unintentional hypergolic fluid related spills, fires, and explosions from the Apollo Program, the Space Shuttle Program, the Titan Program, and a few others have occurred over the past several decades. Spill sites include the following government facilities: Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Johnson Space Center (JSC), White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), Little Rock AFB, and McConnell AFB. Until now, the only method of capturing the lessons learned from these incidents has been "word of mouth" or by studying each individual incident report. Through studying several dozen of these incidents, certain root cause themes are apparent. Scrutinizing these themes could prove to be highly beneficial to future hypergolic system test, checkout, and operational use.

  13. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  14. Keys to modeling LNG spills on water.

    PubMed

    Hissong, D W

    2007-02-20

    Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they are unconfined. Modeling of LNG spills onto water is much more difficult than for land spills because the phenomena are more complex and the experimental basis is more limited. The most prevalent practice in predicting pool sizes is to treat the release as instantaneous or constant-rate, and to calculate the pool size using an empirical evaporation or burn rate. The evaporation or burn rate is particularly difficult to estimate for LNG spills on water, because the available data are so limited, scattered, and difficult to extrapolate to the large releases of interest. A more effective modeling of possible spills of LNG onto water calculates, rather than estimating, the evaporation or burn rate. The keys to this approach are to: * Use rigorous multicomponent physical properties. * Use a time-varying analysis of spill and evaporation. * Use a material and energy balance approach. * Estimate the heat transfer from water to LNG in a way that reflects the turbulence. These keys are explained and demonstrated by predictions of a model that incorporates these features. The major challenges are describing the effects of the LNG-water turbulence and the heat transfer from the pool fire to the underlying LNG pool. The model includes a fundamentally based framework for these terms, and the current formulation is based on some of the largest tests to-date. The heat transfer coefficient between the water and LNG is obtained by applying a "turbulence factor" to the value from correlations for quiescent film and transition boiling. The turbulence factor is based on two of the largest unignited tests on water to-date. The heat transfer from

  15. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  16. Meridiani Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

    Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  17. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in the crater, Terby. The crater is located on the north rim of Hellas Basin. If one could visit the rocks in Terby, one might learn from them whether they formed in a body of water. It is possible, for example, that Terby was a bay in a larger, Hellas-wide sea.

    Location near: 27.9oS, 285.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  18. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage.

  19. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage. PMID:27393213

  20. Pilgrimage to wellness: an exploratory report of rural African American clergy perceptions of church health promotion capacity.

    PubMed

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl Lemay; Ellison, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    Churches serve vital roles in African American communities, where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited. Although church leadership often must approve programs and activities conducted within churches, little is known about their perception of churches as health promotion organizations, or the impact of church-based health promotion on their own health. This exploratory study assessed perceptions of church capacity to promote health among 27 rural, African American clergy leaders and report the relationship between their own health and that of their congregation. Results indicate a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Most common were conducting health programs, displaying health information, kitchen committee working with the health ministry, partnerships outside of the church, and funding. Findings lay the foundation for the development of future studies of key factors associated with organizational change and health promotion in these rural church settings. PMID:22694157

  1. Pilgrimage to wellness: an exploratory report of rural African American clergy perceptions of church health promotion capacity.

    PubMed

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Hooten, Elizabeth Gerken; Bruce, Marino A; Toms, Forrest; Lloyd, Cheryl Lemay; Ellison, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    Churches serve vital roles in African American communities, where disease burden is disproportionately greater and healthcare access is more limited. Although church leadership often must approve programs and activities conducted within churches, little is known about their perception of churches as health promotion organizations, or the impact of church-based health promotion on their own health. This exploratory study assessed perceptions of church capacity to promote health among 27 rural, African American clergy leaders and report the relationship between their own health and that of their congregation. Results indicate a perceived need to increase the capacity of their churches to promote health. Most common were conducting health programs, displaying health information, kitchen committee working with the health ministry, partnerships outside of the church, and funding. Findings lay the foundation for the development of future studies of key factors associated with organizational change and health promotion in these rural church settings.

  2. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work.

  3. A just alternative. Church tribunals may be the best forum for settling wrongful discharge disputes.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J M; Fitzgerald, L M

    1991-09-01

    The threat of a wrongful discharge lawsuit should be a concern for every employer. However, Church employers can minimize their risk if they follow Church teaching in their employment practices and policies and if they use the Church tribunal system to settle employer-employee disputes. As it originally developed in common law, the "employment-at-will" concept stipulated that an employer could discharge an employee at any time, for any reason, or for no reason at all. Most states have adopted this common law concept, although courts and legislatures have created a number of exceptions to it. Despite these exceptions, employment-at-will has proven to be a powerful tool in the hands of employers. However, employees of Church institutions who feel they have been discharged wrongfully can turn to Church tribunals, which are governed by canon law. A Church tribunal can do virtually anything a civil court can do, with the exception of ordering someone to jail. Moreover, because the standards of justice and equity applied by Church tribunals are stricter than those applied by American courts, employees of Catholic institutions in the United States may make increasing use of them in the future. Disputes that come before a Church tribunal will be settled by either arbitration or mediation. Arbitration is a kind of informal litigation. Mediation, however, is preferable because it forces the parties involved to examine themselves, their motives, and their effects on each other and the Church as a whole.

  4. The Influence of Pastors' Ideologies of Homosexuality on HIV Prevention in the Black Church.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-10-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches.

  5. The Church as a Bridge to Deliver Health Resources Via Telehealth

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-11

    Obesity; Diet, Food, and Nutrition; Church; Healthcare Disparities; Minority Health; Mobile Health; Telehealth; Community-based Participatory Research; Primary Health Care; Weight Loss Programs; Health Behavior

  6. Oil spill impact modeling: development and validation.

    PubMed

    French-McCay, Deborah P

    2004-10-01

    A coupled oil fate and effects model has been developed for the estimation of impacts to habitats, wildlife, and aquatic organisms resulting from acute exposure to spilled oil. The physical fates model estimates the distribution of oil (as mass and concentrations) on the water surface, on shorelines, in the water column, and in the sediments, accounting for spreading, evaporation, transport, dispersion, emulsification, entrainment, dissolution, volatilization, partitioning, sedimentation, and degradation. The biological effects model estimates exposure of biota of various behavior types to floating oil and subsurface contamination, resulting percent mortality, and sublethal effects on production (somatic growth). Impacts are summarized as areas or volumes affected, percent of populations lost, and production foregone because of a spill's effects. This paper summarizes existing information and data used to develop the model, model algorithms and assumptions, validation studies, and research needs. Simulation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill is presented as a case study and validation of the model. PMID:15511105

  7. Walking with coffee: why does it spill?

    PubMed

    Mayer, H C; Krechetnikov, R

    2012-04-01

    In our busy lives, almost all of us have to walk with a cup of coffee. While often we spill the drink, this familiar phenomenon has never been explored systematically. Here we report on the results of an experimental study of the conditions under which coffee spills for various walking speeds and initial liquid levels in the cup. These observations are analyzed from the dynamical systems and fluid mechanics viewpoints as well as with the help of a model developed here. Particularities of the common cup sizes, the coffee properties, and the biomechanics of walking proved to be responsible for the spilling phenomenon. The studied problem represents an example of the interplay between the complex motion of a cup, due to the biomechanics of a walking individual, and the low-viscosity-liquid dynamics in it. PMID:22680548

  8. Oil spill impact modeling: development and validation.

    PubMed

    French-McCay, Deborah P

    2004-10-01

    A coupled oil fate and effects model has been developed for the estimation of impacts to habitats, wildlife, and aquatic organisms resulting from acute exposure to spilled oil. The physical fates model estimates the distribution of oil (as mass and concentrations) on the water surface, on shorelines, in the water column, and in the sediments, accounting for spreading, evaporation, transport, dispersion, emulsification, entrainment, dissolution, volatilization, partitioning, sedimentation, and degradation. The biological effects model estimates exposure of biota of various behavior types to floating oil and subsurface contamination, resulting percent mortality, and sublethal effects on production (somatic growth). Impacts are summarized as areas or volumes affected, percent of populations lost, and production foregone because of a spill's effects. This paper summarizes existing information and data used to develop the model, model algorithms and assumptions, validation studies, and research needs. Simulation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill is presented as a case study and validation of the model.

  9. 40 CFR 280.30 - Spill and overfill control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... spill and overfill prevention appears in American Petroleum Institute Publication 1621, “Recommended... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spill and overfill control. 280.30... STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.30 Spill and overfill control. (a) Owners...

  10. 40 CFR 280.30 - Spill and overfill control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spill and overfill prevention appears in American Petroleum Institute Publication 1621, “Recommended... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spill and overfill control. 280.30... STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.30 Spill and overfill control. (a) Owners...

  11. 40 CFR 280.30 - Spill and overfill control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... spill and overfill prevention appears in American Petroleum Institute Publication 1621, “Recommended... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spill and overfill control. 280.30... STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.30 Spill and overfill control. (a) Owners...

  12. 40 CFR 280.30 - Spill and overfill control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... spill and overfill prevention appears in American Petroleum Institute Publication 1621, “Recommended... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spill and overfill control. 280.30... STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.30 Spill and overfill control. (a) Owners...

  13. 40 CFR 280.30 - Spill and overfill control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... spill and overfill prevention appears in American Petroleum Institute Publication 1621, “Recommended... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spill and overfill control. 280.30... STORAGE TANKS (UST) General Operating Requirements § 280.30 Spill and overfill control. (a) Owners...

  14. View of Sandbox and Spill Gate above Irving Powerhouse. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sandbox and Spill Gate above Irving Powerhouse. The Sandbox and Spill Gate are covered by the shed. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Sandbox & Spill Gate, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. Oil Spill! Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Ihle, Stephanie

    Presented in this unit are three activities concerning the causes and effects of oil spills and methods used to clean up these spills in the oceans and Great Lakes. Students construct and interpret a graph showing oil pollution sources. The students create and try to clean up a small-scale oil spill in a pan, and they compare the water quality of…

  16. 77 FR 60454 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... renewal of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory committee. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires a public advisory...

  17. 78 FR 54669 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Office of the Secretary Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... announcing a public meeting of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee. DATES: October 3, 2013...-5011. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee was created...

  18. Sociological aspects of sexual medicine: contraception, culture and the church.

    PubMed

    Potts, M

    1977-02-01

    Throughout the world, women who do not wish to be pregnant try to take action, at whatever cost, to prevent pregnancy from occurring. In Manila, the busiest and most loved church (Quiapo Church) is the scene where every Sunday morning, several hundred women buy local abortifacients from vendors stationed around the church. This scene in Manila 1976, however, could just as well be Bogota; Calcutta; Addis Ababa; or Bangkok. It could also have been Birmingham in the 1960's; Boston, Massachusettes, or; Wigan, Lancashire, in 1900. In 1937, the Birkett Committee which was then looking into the problem of abortion in England commented on the wide availability and use of traditional abortifacients. Prior to the 1967 Abortion Act, volunteers from the Abortion Law Reform Association visiting a number of shops and pharmacies in the Midlands on the pretext that their, or their girl friend's, periods were late were immediately offered a variety of drugs at inflated prices. They were also assured that the remedies were effective, working in 80% of the cases ("they should do, we sell a lot of them"). Pharmacological analysis revealed both harmless (eg, ferrous carbonate) and potentially dangerous compounds (eg, quinine sulphate). From 1870 to 1976, from the Philippines to Birmingham to New York State, desperate women have resorted to dangerous or ineffective remedies to bring on late periods; if these fail, surgical remedies (eg, injection of H20 into the cavity of the womb) were resorted to. Early abortion, or menstrual regulation can be justified on clinical; emotional and ethical grounds. A 1974 trial at 3 London teaching hospitals showed that such method was popular among women and usually took 3 to 5 minutes. The only problem is whether to offer the operation to women who suspect but cannot be proved to be pregnant. With the rapid development of various pregnancy tests however, such problem can be solved.

  19. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  20. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    PubMed

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms. PMID:25561004

  1. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    PubMed

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms.

  2. Pastoral counseling among Chinese churches: a Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Poon, Vincent; Cheng, Mona; Chan, Vivian C

    2003-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of Canadian Chinese pastors (N 20) regarding their experiences and attitudes related to pastoral counseling. It identifies common concerns encountered during pastoral counseling, as well as key areas of church concerns. Results of the survey indicate that pastoral counseling may be more important than is currently recognized by Chinese pastors, particularly in key areas of marriage, family life, and general relationship issues. The authors discuss possible implications of the survey relative to training and equipping Chinese pastors to engage more in pastoral counseling as an integral part of their parish ministry.

  3. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  4. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. A spill control plan for small and medium lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Venuso, N.

    1993-05-01

    This article reports on a spill control plan for the community in which the author now resides. The lake covers 320 acres, with eight miles of shoreline. It is located 55 miles southwest of Chicago. The plan is supplemented by a procedural manual that incorporates several forms to be completed by the lake managerial staff. The information required is essential for assisting regulatory agencies and to acquire reimbursement for materials used in the containment and cleanup. Briefly required information is: name of person reporting the spill, location of spill, materials spilled, volume spilled, regulatory agencies notified, etc. A copy of the plan is on file at the Illinois EPA Rockford office.

  6. Rock Driller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

  7. Lumber spill in central California waters: implications for oil spills and sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    VanBlaricom, G.R.; Jameson, R.J.

    1982-03-19

    A large quantity of lumber was spilled in the ocean off central California during the winter of 1978, and it spread through most of the range of the threatened California sea otter population within 4 weeks. The movement rates of lumber were similar to those of oil slicks observed elsewhere. These observations indicate that a major oil spill could expose significant numbers of California sea otters to oil contamination.

  8. The chemistry of gaseous acids in medieval churches in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupa, G.; Charpantidou, E.; Karageorgos, E.; Rapsomanikis, S.

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of HCl, HNO 3, HCOOH and CH 3COOH were determined in two medieval churches in Cyprus, during July 2003 and March 2004. The high air exchange rate through the open windows and doors led to lower indoor, compared to outdoor, acid concentrations in July 2003. Indoor pollutant emissions and a low air exchange rate resulted in higher indoor compared to outdoors acid concentrations in both churches during March 2004. Indoor to outdoor inorganic acid ratios were higher than the corresponding indoor to outdoor organic acid ratios during July 2003, whilst the opposite trend was observed during March 2004. Direct acid emission from candle burning appears to play a major role in the observed indoor acid concentrations. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from other sources, like humans, cleaning products and incense, led also to formation or depletion of the gaseous acids via homogeneous photochemical, heterogeneous and dark reaction sequences. Chemical reaction pathways were extensively investigated and appear to explain the observed results. The apparent indoor acid deposition velocities ranged between 0.05 and 0.15 cm s -1.

  9. [Study of automatic marine oil spills detection using imaging spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, De-Lian; Han, Liang; Zhang, Jian-Qi

    2013-11-01

    To reduce artificial auxiliary works in oil spills detection process, an automatic oil spill detection method based on adaptive matched filter is presented. Firstly, the characteristics of reflectance spectral signature of C-H bond in oil spill are analyzed. And an oil spill spectral signature extraction model is designed by using the spectral feature of C-H bond. It is then used to obtain the reference spectral signature for the following oil spill detection step. Secondly, the characteristics of reflectance spectral signature of sea water, clouds, and oil spill are compared. The bands which have large difference in reflectance spectral signatures of the sea water, clouds, and oil spill are selected. By using these bands, the sea water pixels are segmented. And the background parameters are then calculated. Finally, the classical adaptive matched filter from target detection algorithms is improved and introduced for oil spill detection. The proposed method is applied to the real airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral image captured during the deepwater horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico for oil spill detection. The results show that the proposed method has, high efficiency, does not need artificial auxiliary work, and can be used for automatic detection of marine oil spill.

  10. Allee effect from parasite spill-back.

    PubMed

    Krkošek, Martin; Ashander, Jaime; Frazer, L Neil; Lewis, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    The exchange of native pathogens between wild and domesticated animals can lead to novel disease threats to wildlife. However, the dynamics of wild host-parasite systems exposed to a reservoir of domesticated hosts are not well understood. A simple mathematical model reveals that the spill-back of native parasites from domestic to wild hosts may cause a demographic Allee effect in the wild host population. A second model is tailored to the particulars of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), for which parasite spill-back is a conservation and fishery concern. In both models, parasite spill-back weakens the coupling of parasite and wild host abundance-particularly at low host abundance-causing parasites per host to increase as a wild host population declines. These findings show that parasites shared across host populations have effects analogous to those of generalist predators and can similarly cause an unstable equilibrium in a focal host population that separates persistence and extirpation. Allee effects in wildlife arising from parasite spill-back are likely to be most pronounced in systems where the magnitude of transmission from domestic to wild host populations is high because of high parasite abundance in domestic hosts, prolonged sympatry of domestic and wild hosts, a high transmission coefficient for parasites, long-lived parasite larvae, and proximity of domesticated populations to wildlife migration corridors.

  11. Sea otter oil spill avoidance study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Williams, T.M.; Awbrey, F.

    1988-04-01

    To determine whether acoustic, visual, or olfactory stimuli could be used to move sea otters out of an area in the event of an oil spill, the authors recorded the responses of sea otters to a variety of stimuli during captive studies in Alaska. These findings are similar to those of previous attempts to control the movements of sea otters and other marine mammals and birds. An alternative to herding is to capture otters in the vicinity of the spill and temporarily hold them in captivity. This approach is only practical if the number of otters in jeopardy is small (less than 60) and there is enough time to capture them. Based on the results of the study and previous attempts by the California Department of Fish and Game to herd sea otters, the authors do not think acoustic, visual, and olfactory stimuli are effective deterrents. In the absence of effective methods to keep sea otters out of an oil spill, the emphasis must remain on spill prevention, containment, and cleanup.

  12. Aquatic oil spill cleanup using natural sorbents.

    PubMed

    Paulauskienė, Tatjana; Jucikė, Indrė

    2015-10-01

    One of the most popular transportation methods of crude oil is water transport, leading to potential spills of these pollutants in the seas and oceans and water areas of ports, during their extraction, transportation, transhipment and use. The growth of the Lithuanian economy and the expansion of competitiveness were hardly imagined without the development of the Klaipeda seaport. However, the intensity of shipping and the increase in cargo loading volumes at specialised terminals are associated with a higher risk of environmental pollution. To achieve a sustainable development of the seaport, it is necessary not only to ensure the prevention of potential water pollution but also, if necessary, to use environmentally friendly technology for pollution management. The work analyses the possibilities related to the collection of oil products from the water surface using natural sorbents (peat, wool, moss and straw) and their composites.The research of absorbed amount of crude oil and diesel fuel spilled on the water surface, while using sorbents and their composites, determined that sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 25-75 %) absorbs the major amount of both crude oil (60 % of the spilled volume) and diesel fuel (69 % of the spilled volume) comparing to single sorbents and sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 50-50 %).

  13. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - EMPIRICAL CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  14. MODELING DISPERSANT INTERACTIONS WITH OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing a model called the EPA Research Object-Oriented Oil Spill Model (ERO3S) and associated databases to simulate the impacts of dispersants on oil slicks. Because there are features of oil slicks that align naturally with major concepts of object-oriented programmi...

  15. Coast Guard's Response to Spilled Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, R. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Coast Guard utilizes a number of monitoring detectors, sensors, and techniques to find, recover and identify oil spills. Discussed in this article are in-situ and airborne sensors, systems developed to provide clean-up capability such as air deployable anti-pollution transfer system (ADAPTS), and techniques which will determine the source of a…

  16. Aquatic oil spill cleanup using natural sorbents.

    PubMed

    Paulauskienė, Tatjana; Jucikė, Indrė

    2015-10-01

    One of the most popular transportation methods of crude oil is water transport, leading to potential spills of these pollutants in the seas and oceans and water areas of ports, during their extraction, transportation, transhipment and use. The growth of the Lithuanian economy and the expansion of competitiveness were hardly imagined without the development of the Klaipeda seaport. However, the intensity of shipping and the increase in cargo loading volumes at specialised terminals are associated with a higher risk of environmental pollution. To achieve a sustainable development of the seaport, it is necessary not only to ensure the prevention of potential water pollution but also, if necessary, to use environmentally friendly technology for pollution management. The work analyses the possibilities related to the collection of oil products from the water surface using natural sorbents (peat, wool, moss and straw) and their composites.The research of absorbed amount of crude oil and diesel fuel spilled on the water surface, while using sorbents and their composites, determined that sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 25-75 %) absorbs the major amount of both crude oil (60 % of the spilled volume) and diesel fuel (69 % of the spilled volume) comparing to single sorbents and sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 50-50 %). PMID:25994272

  17. Planning for the Human Dimensions of Oil Spills and Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webler, Thomas; Lord, Fabienne

    2010-04-01

    Oil spill contingency planners need an improved approach to understanding and planning for the human dimensions of oil spills. Drawing on existing literature in social impact assessment, natural hazards, human ecology, adaptive management, global change and sustainability, we develop an integrative approach to understanding and portraying the human dimensions impacts of stressors associated with oil spill events. Our approach is based on three fundamental conclusions that are drawn from this literature review. First, it is productive to acknowledge that, while stressors can produce human impacts directly, they mainly affect intermediary processes and changes to these processes produce human impacts. Second, causal chain modeling taken from hazard management literature provides a means to document how oil spill stressors change processes and produce human impacts. Third, concepts from the global change literature on vulnerability enrich causal models in ways that make more obvious how management interventions lessen hazards and mitigate associated harm. Using examples from recent spill events, we illustrate how these conclusions can be used to diagrammatically portray the human dimensions of oil spills.

  18. Planning for the human dimensions of oil spills and spill response.

    PubMed

    Webler, Thomas; Lord, Fabienne

    2010-04-01

    Oil spill contingency planners need an improved approach to understanding and planning for the human dimensions of oil spills. Drawing on existing literature in social impact assessment, natural hazards, human ecology, adaptive management, global change and sustainability, we develop an integrative approach to understanding and portraying the human dimensions impacts of stressors associated with oil spill events. Our approach is based on three fundamental conclusions that are drawn from this literature review. First, it is productive to acknowledge that, while stressors can produce human impacts directly, they mainly affect intermediary processes and changes to these processes produce human impacts. Second, causal chain modeling taken from hazard management literature provides a means to document how oil spill stressors change processes and produce human impacts. Third, concepts from the global change literature on vulnerability enrich causal models in ways that make more obvious how management interventions lessen hazards and mitigate associated harm. Using examples from recent spill events, we illustrate how these conclusions can be used to diagrammatically portray the human dimensions of oil spills.

  19. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, D.E.; Steen, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes.

  20. Development of an oil spill forecast system for offshore China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zexun; An, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An oil spill forecast system for offshore China was developed based on Visual C++. The oil spill forecast system includes an ocean environmental forecast model and an oil spill model. The ocean environmental forecast model was designed to include timesaving methods, and comprised a parametrical wind wave forecast model and a sea surface current forecast model. The oil spill model was based on the "particle method" and fulfills the prediction of oil particle behavior by considering the drifting, evaporation and emulsification processes. A specific database was embedded into the oil spill forecast system, which contained fundamental information, such as the properties of oil, reserve of emergency equipment and distribution of marine petroleum platform. The oil spill forecast system was successfully applied as part of an oil spill emergency exercise, and provides an operational service in the Research and Development Center for Offshore Oil Safety and Environmental Technology.

  1. Closing the Church University in 1894: Embracing or Accommodating Secularized Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Brian W.

    2013-01-01

    The late 1800s have been noted as a major transitional period for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. When the beleaguered pioneers first arrived in Utah they were isolated from the influence and expectations of the United States. During that time, leaders of the Church became influential in every aspect of life in Utah. By the end of…

  2. A Study of the Objectives for the Theological Preparation of Lutheran Church Missouri Synod Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockrohr, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined current practice in the area of theological preparation for Lutheran elementary teachers of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS). As a church body with a well-defined doctrine, the LCMS requires a particular preparation for all ordained and commissioned workers placed on its official roster. A historical review of archival…

  3. A multi-level approach for promoting HIV testing within African American church settings.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    The African American church is a community-based organization that is integral to the lives, beliefs, and behaviors of the African American community. Engaging this vital institution as a primary setting for HIV testing and referral would significantly impact the epidemic. The disproportionately high HIV incidence rate among African Americans dictates the national priority for promotion of early and routine HIV testing, and suggests engaging community-based organizations in this endeavor. However, few multilevel HIV testing frameworks have been developed, tested, and evaluated within the African American church. This article proposes one such framework for promoting HIV testing and referral within African American churches. A qualitative study was employed to examine the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors related to understanding involvement in church-based HIV testing. A total of four focus groups with church leaders and four in-depth interviews with pastors, were conducted between November 2012 and June 2013 to identify the constructs most important to supporting Philadelphia churches' involvement in HIV testing, referral, and linkage to care. The data generated from this study were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and used to develop and refine a multilevel framework for identifying factors impacting church-based HIV testing and referral and to ultimately support capacity building among African American churches to promote HIV testing and linkage to care.

  4. Creating Collaborative Partnership With Local Churches to Improve Academic Performance of K-12 Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Powell, Patricia A.; Hilton, Adriel A.; Joseph, Crystal L.

    2011-01-01

    Since their founding, the Black churches have strived to implement and fulfill their missions. These institutions acknowledge the importance to become actively involved in the community as well as engaged in the lives of young people. Black churches are faced with unique challenges every day, however, they provide significant number of resources…

  5. Providing Culturally Relevant Mental Health Services: Collaboration between Psychology and the African American Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queener, John E.; Martin, Juanita K.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model of collaboration between psychologists and the African American church, discussing the connection between African psychology and religion, examining barriers to and strategies for collaboration between psychologists and the African American church, and describing the collaborative model called the African American Counseling Team.…

  6. Expanding Cooperative Extension's Audience: Establishing a Relationship with Cowboy Church Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Katy; Strong, Robert; Lockett, Landry

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here provided a descriptive report on cowboy churches, while identifying the potential for Extension-cowboy church collaborations and examining the direct implications to Extension. The diffusion of innovations conceptualized the qualitative study. Semi-structured, face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted with 10 adults…

  7. "Give Us the Words": Protestant Faith Leaders and Sexuality Education in Their Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hach, Alexa; Roberts-Dobie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A small sample of faith leaders from the USA's three largest Mainline Protestant denominations (American Baptist, Evangelical Lutheran Church of America and Methodist) were interviewed as part of a case study regarding sexuality education in their churches. The interview schedule, based on a previous Alan Guttmacher Institute designed…

  8. Exploring Asian Female Pastors' Leadership Roles in the Church: Using Deborah's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Fen; Li, Chi-Sing; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Women in many Christian cultures are told that men are strong and should lead the church. Consequently, some women rationalize that they should not assume top leadership roles in the church. When they do assume such roles, many female pastors experience challenges. The purpose of our qualitative case study was to give voice to Asian female…

  9. Implementation of Evidence-Based HIV Interventions for Young Adult African American Women in Church Settings

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Design Mixed methods cross-sectional design. Setting African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. Participants 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Methods Mixed methods convergent parallel design. Results The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Conclusion Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. PMID:25139612

  10. Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, STA. 50+00+RB, Orner Building, First U.M. Church Rectory, & First U.M. Church-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  11. An Expression of Black Identity: The Use of Gospel Music in a Los Angeles Catholic Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djedje, Jacqueline

    1983-01-01

    Gives a brief history of Black Catholics in the United States. Presents the history of one Catholic church in Los Angeles that began to use gospel music at Mass, and shows how this church met the needs of the Black community by enhancing the liturgy with traditional Black culture and values. (ML)

  12. Campaign 1984: Geraldine Ferraro vs. the Catholic Church and One Master Motive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Patricia A.

    The discord between the Catholic Church and its followers in the United States crystallized with the candidacy of Geraldine Ferraro for vice president in 1984, when she became the target of attacks by members of the church hierarchy. Ferraro questioned why she was singled out on the abortion issue, and indeed, at times she seemed to be running…

  13. Preparing Women for Baptist Church Leadership: Mentoring Impact on Beliefs and Practices of Female Ministers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Desiree; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    Effective leadership is important in all organizations, and the Baptist church is no exception. Strong spiritual leaders can make a difference in the life of the institution and its members. Today, a growing number of African American women are answering the call to the Baptist church ministry; but the preparation, training, and mentoring are…

  14. Dealing with Social Change: The Mormon Church's Response to Change in Women's Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannaccone, Laurence R.; Miles, Carrie A.

    1990-01-01

    After two decades of resistance, the Mormon church has begun accommodating change in women's roles. Accommodation increases participation among younger and less experienced members but decreases participation among older and more experienced members, suggesting that successful churches must balance accommodation and resistance to social change.…

  15. Attracting and Integrating Newcomers into Church Life: Research in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterland, Sam; Bellamy, John; Escott, Phillip; Castle, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of considering the flow of newcomers into church life and the inadequacy of relying solely upon changes in numbers of attenders in assessing the effectiveness of churches. Drawing upon data collected in four countries, Australia, England, New Zealand and the United States of America, this article looks at the…

  16. Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) Spill Center strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This strategic Plan was developed in keeping with the Department of Energy`s mission for partnership with its customers to contribute to our Nation`s welfare by providing the technical information and the scientific and educational foundation for the technology, policy and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense. The Plan provides the concepts for realigning the Departments`s Hazardous Materials Spill Center (HSC) in achieving its vision of becoming the global leader in meeting the diverse HAZMAT needs in the areas of testing, training, and technology. Each of these areas encompass many facets and a multitude of functional and operational requirements at the Federal, state, tribal, and local government levels, as well as those of foreign governments and the private sector. The evolution of the limited dimensional Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility into a multifaceted HAZMAT Spill Center will require us to totally redefine our way of thinking as related to our business approach, both within and outside of the Department. We need to establish and maintain a viable and vibrant outreach program through all aspects of the public (via government agencies) and private sectors, to include foreign partnerships. The HAZMAT Spill Center goals and objectives provide the direction for meeting our vision. This direction takes into consideration the trends and happenings identified in the {open_quotes}Strategic Outlook{close_quotes}, which includes valuable input from our stakeholders and our present and future customers. It is our worldwide customers that provide the essence of the strategic outlook for the HAZMAT Spill Center.

  17. To welcome or affirm: Black clergy views about homosexuality, inclusivity, and church leadership.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    When the subject of the Black Church and homosexuality is broached, research often focuses on homophobia and correlates with HIV/AIDS. Fewer studies examine other problematic issues germane to gay and lesbian involvement in Black congregations. In this analysis, Black clergy dialogue during focus groups about inclusivity and church leadership by gays and lesbians. Informed by Cultural Theory, of equal interest is whether discourses are influenced by Black Church cultural tools, as well as cultural dynamics, from the broader Black community. As anticipated, findings suggest the tendency for clergy to promote welcoming church spaces, but to be reticent about affirming homosexuality as an acceptable lifestyle. Furthermore, although clergy are generally supportive of involvement by closeted gays and lesbians as lay leaders, most do not support their involvement in the clergy, particularly as pastors. However, views vary based on denomination and gender, and are informed by Black Church cultural components such as scripture and the call-and-response tradition.

  18. Public health and church-based constructions of HIV prevention: black Baptist perspective.

    PubMed

    Roman Isler, Malika; Eng, Eugenia; Maman, Susanne; Adimora, Adaora; Weiner, Bryan

    2014-06-01

    The black church is influential in shaping health behaviors within African-American communities, yet few use evidence-based strategies for HIV prevention (abstinence, monogamy, condoms, voluntary counseling and testing, and prevention with positives). Using principles of grounded theory and interpretive description, we explored the social construction of HIV prevention within black Baptist churches in North Carolina. Data collection included interviews with church leaders (n = 12) and focus groups with congregants (n = 7; 36 participants). Analytic tools included open coding and case-level comparisons. Social constructions of HIV/AIDS prevention were influenced by two worldviews: public health and church-based. Areas of compatibility and incompatibility exist between the two worldviews that inform acceptability and adaptability of current evidence-based strategies. These findings offer insight into ways to increase the compatibility of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies within the black Baptist church context.

  19. Public health and church-based constructions of HIV prevention: black Baptist perspective

    PubMed Central

    Roman Isler, Malika; Eng, Eugenia; Maman, Susanne; Adimora, Adaora; Weiner, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The black church is influential in shaping health behaviors within African-American communities, yet few use evidence-based strategies for HIV prevention (abstinence, monogamy, condoms, voluntary counseling and testing, and prevention with positives). Using principles of grounded theory and interpretive description, we explored the social construction of HIV prevention within black Baptist churches in North Carolina. Data collection included interviews with church leaders (n = 12) and focus groups with congregants (n = 7; 36 participants). Analytic tools included open coding and case-level comparisons. Social constructions of HIV/AIDS prevention were influenced by two worldviews: public health and church-based. Areas of compatibility and incompatibility exist between the two worldviews that inform acceptability and adaptability of current evidence-based strategies. These findings offer insight into ways to increase the compatibility of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies within the black Baptist church context. PMID:24643141

  20. Historical overview of church involvement in health and wellbeing in Australia: implications for health promotion partnerships.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Darshini; Carey, Gemma; Keleher, Helen; Smith, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion practice requires partnerships with different sectors of society and at all levels of government to achieve health equity as the prerequisites for health include domains that exist outside of the health sphere. Therefore existing partnerships for health need to be strengthened and the potential for new partnerships must be considered in order to address health holistically. The literature base exploring the church as a partner and setting for health promotion is predominantly from the US and therefore there is a need for research exploring the opportunities and challenges of partnering with churches in the Australian context. This paper presents an historical overview of the involvement of churches and church affiliated organisations in health and welfare in Australia recognising that while some of the values, practices and beliefs of churches may have considerable synergies with health promotion, others may be sources of contention or difference.

  1. Concept And Its Implementation During The Reconstruction Of The Church Of Blessed Virgin Mary In Chojna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płotkowiak, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    St. Mary's parish church in Chojna was erected at the turn of XIV and XVc. in a shape of three aisles, hall church without transept, completed from the west with a single tower and from the east with polygonal presbytery with an ambulatory attached. The convergence of characteristic structural and decorative features with employed ones in medieval churches being attributed to Hinrich Brunsberg's fabric resulted in such a way, that also authorship of St. Mary in Chojna was assigned to this legendary architect and master builder of late Middle Ages period. The church was destroyed by fire during WWII in February 1945 and since then had remained as an open ruin. In 1997 reconstruction procedure of the church was begun under the leadership of the author and it still continues. This text consists of the sum of experiences connected with confronting design ideas and solutions with their executions on the site during construction works.

  2. Church-Based Social Relationships and Change in Self-Esteem Over Time

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study had two goals. The first goal was to see if church-based social relationships are associated with change in self-esteem. Emotional support from fellow church members and having a close personal relationship with God served as measures of church-based social ties. The second goal was to see whether emotional support from fellow church members is more strongly associated with self-esteem than emotional support from secular social network members. The data came from an ongoing nationwide survey of older adults. The findings revealed that having a close personal relationship with God is associated with a stronger sense of self-esteem at the baseline and follow-up interviews. In contrast, emotional support from fellow church members was not associated with self-esteem at either point in time. However, emotional support from secular social network members was related to self-esteem at the baseline but not the follow-up interview. PMID:20300481

  3. Integrating Diabetes Self-Management Interventions for Mexican-Americans into the Catholic Church Setting

    PubMed Central

    Locklin, Cara A.; Wilkes, Abigail E.; Oborski, Donna Dempsey; Acevedo, John C.; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Quinn, Michael T.; Burnet, Deborah L.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2012-01-01

    Churches provide an innovative and underutilized setting for diabetes self-management programs for Latinos. This study sought to formulate a conceptual framework for designing church-based programs that are tailored to the needs of the Latino community and that utilize church strengths and resources. To inform this model, we conducted six focus groups with mostly Mexican-American Catholic adults with diabetes and their family members (N = 37) and found that participants were interested in church-based diabetes programs that emphasized information sharing, skills building, and social networking. Our model demonstrates that many of these requested components can be integrated into the current structure and function of the church. However, additional mechanisms to facilitate access to medical care may be necessary to support community members’ diabetes care. PMID:22528288

  4. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts.

  5. A tale of two recent spills--comparison of 2014 Galveston Bay and 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fang; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Managing oil spill residues washing onto sandy beaches is a common worldwide environmental problem. In this study, we have analyzed the first-arrival oil spill residues collected from two Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beach systems following two recent oil spills: the 2014 Galveston Bay (GB) oil spill, and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. This is the first study to provide field observations and chemical characterization data for the 2014 GB oil spill. Here we compare the physical and chemical characteristics of GB oil spill samples with DWH oil spill samples and present their similarities and differences. Our field observations indicate that both oil spills had similar shoreline deposition patterns; however, their physical and chemical characteristics differed considerably. We highlight these differences, discuss their implications, and interpret GB data in light of lessons learned from previously published DWH oil spill studies. These analyses are further used to assess the long-term fate of GB oil spill residues and their potential environmental impacts. PMID:25714100

  6. UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATION SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB, COMMUNICATIONS VARIABLES IN THE CHURCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. THE AIM WAS TO COMPARE VARIOUS POPULATIONS (CLERGY, COMMUNICANTS, CHURCH SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND YOUTH), CONCERNING THE EXTENT OF THEIR ORTHODOXY. VOLUMES IIA AND IIB OF THE REPORT RELATE TO THE…

  7. A Qualitative Phenomenological Analysis Exploring Digital Immigrants' Use of Church-Based Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman-Kealey, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Individuals and societies have traditionally sought answers to important questions in life through religion. In the 21st century, physical churches with clergy are no longer the sole source of spiritual answers or knowledge. Since the late 1960s, church attendance has been declining. Church leaders have begun to implement new methods such as using…

  8. Church Attendance in Men Who Have Sex With Men Diagnosed With HIV Is Associated With Later Presentation for HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Van Wagoner, Nicholas; Mugavero, Michael; Westfall, Andrew; Hollimon, John; Slater, Larry Z.; Burkholder, Greer; Raper, James L.; Hook, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an interdependent relationship between sexual behavior and church attendance on timing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and presentation for care. Men who have sex with men (MSM) and who attend church are more likely to present with lower CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts than MSM who do not attend church. PMID:24198225

  9. i4OilSpill, an operational marine oil spill forecasting model for Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangjie; Yao, Fuxin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Guansuo; Chen, Ge

    2016-10-01

    Oil spill models can effectively simulate the trajectories and fate of oil slicks, which is an essential element in contingency planning and effective response strategies prepared for oil spill accidents. However, when applied to offshore areas such as the Bohai Sea, the trajectories and fate of oil slicks would be affected by time-varying factors in a regional scale, which are assumed to be constant in most of the present models. In fact, these factors in offshore regions show much more variation over time than in the deep sea, due to offshore bathymetric and climatic characteristics. In this paper, the challenge of parameterizing these offshore factors is tackled. The remote sensing data of the region are used to analyze the modification of wind-induced drift factors, and a well-suited solution is established in parameter correction mechanism for oil spill models. The novelty of the algorithm is the self-adaptive modification mechanism of the drift factors derived from the remote sensing data for the targeted sea region, in respect to empirical constants in the present models. Considering this situation, a new regional oil spill model (i4OilSpill) for the Bohai Sea is developed, which can simulate oil transformation and fate processes by Eulerian-Lagrangian methodology. The forecasting accuracy of the proposed model is proven by the validation results in the comparison between model simulation and subsequent satellite observations on the Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The performance of the model parameter correction mechanism is evaluated by comparing with the real spilled oil position extracted from ASAR images.

  10. Artic oil-spill response guide for the alaskan beaufort sea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Contents include--Federal Response Organization; Initial Response; Elements of Response; Detection and Surveillance, Oil-Spill Trajectory Models, Oil-Spill Containment, Oil-Spill Recovery, Transfer Equipment, Recovered Oil Storage Equipment, Oil-Spill Disposal, Personnel, Logistics, Well Control, Dispersants, Mechanics of Response, Oil Spill Response Scenarios; Appendices.

  11. The Russian Orthodox Church as moral norm entrepreneur

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of ‘traditional values’ both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox ‘norm protagonism’ in the international arena. PMID:27660397

  12. The Russian Orthodox Church as moral norm entrepreneur

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of ‘traditional values’ both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox ‘norm protagonism’ in the international arena.

  13. African independent churches in Mozambique: healing the afflictions of inequality.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, James

    2002-06-01

    The recent explosive proliferation of African Independent Churches (AICs) in central Mozambique coincided with rapid growth of economic disparity in the 1990s produced by privatization, cuts in government services, and arrival of foreign aid promoted by Mozambique's World Bank/International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Program. Drawing on ethnographic research in the city of Chimoio, this article argues that growing inequality has led to declining social cohesion, heightened individual competition, fear of interpersonal violence, and intensified conflict between spouses in poor families. This perilous social environment finds expression in heightened fears of witchcraft, sorcery, and avenging spirits, which are often blamed in Shona ideology for reproductive health problems. Many women with sick children or suffering from infertility turn to AICs for treatment because traditional healers are increasingly viewed as dangerous and too expensive. The AICs invoke the "Holy Spirit" to exercise malevolent agents and then provide a community of mutual aid and ongoing protection against spirit threats.

  14. The Church Mountain Sturzstrom (Mega-Landslide), Glacier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.R.; Easterbrook, D.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed investigation of an ancient sturzstrom or mega-landslide near Glacier, Washington has revealed it areal extent, approximate volume, age, geomorphology, source area, and possible causes. Stratigraphic and lithologic investigations indicate Church Mountain as the source area; therefore, this mega-landslide has been named the Church Mountain Sturzstrom (CMS). The CMS deposit is approximately 9 km in length, averages about 1 km in width, and has an estimated volume of 3 [times] 10[sup 8] m[sup 3]. Characteristics of the morphology and stratigraphy of the CMS deposit are suggestive of a sturzstrom origin, and may be indicative of sturzstrom elsewhere in the world. The overall stratigraphy of the deposit mimics the stratigraphy of the source area. The deposit is very compact, poorly sorted, matrix supported, and composed of highly angular clasts. Over steepening of the mountain due to glacial erosion may have contributed to the cause of failure, although the age of the CMS is at least 7,000 years younger than deglaciation. Four trees were C[sup 14] dated, yielding ages of about 2,700 B.P. for the CMS. Several other mega-landslides have been identified within 5--30 km of the CMS. The close proximity of these mega-landslides to the CMS suggests the possibility that they may have been triggered by an earthquake, although the ages of the other slides are currently unknown. The age of the CMS correlates approximately with age ranges of co-seismic events occurring along the west coast of Washington, further suggesting the possibility of an earthquake triggering mechanism.

  15. A Rock Encyclopedia That Includes Rock Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laznicka, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Described is a rock encyclopedia combining rock sample sets and encyclopedic word and picture entries which can be used as a realistic information resource for independent study or as a part of a course. (JT)

  16. GPR Prospecting and Endoscopic Investigation in a Renaissance Church

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Bianco, Nadia; Masini, Nicola; Leopizzi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    GPR prospecting in areas of cultural interest can reveal interesting secrets of the past history of the probed monument. In particular, tombs and crypts under the floor of the churches can be revealed [1-2], but also tracks of past restorations and architectural changes occurred in the centuries, or features internal to the walls and the columns as cracks, metallic hinges, walled ciboria and hidden gaps [1, 3-5]. In this contribution, the case history of the church of the Humility in Parabita (Lecce, Italy) is proposed. The church of the Humility is a small and indeed not much well preserved church, deconsecrated many years ago and reused in other ways that have changed its original structure. Nowadays, it is undergoing a further transformation. However, before starting the works, a GPR prospecting has been committed to the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage IBAM-CNR. The prospecting has been performed with a pulsed Ris Hi-mode system equipped with a double antenna with central frequencies at 200 and 600 MHz, respectively. A first set of measures has been taken along two sets of B-scan, directed after the axis of the (unique) nave and along the orthogonal direction to this. The distance between the lines has been of the order of 40 cm, but some unmovable obstacles have not allowed a constant transect between any two adjacent lines. A second set of measures has been gathered in the area of the altar (not any longer present), here, due to the shape of the area to be prospected, the data have been gathered along a unique direction, but the interline spacing has been chosen equal to 30 cm. Please note that there is a step between the area of the altar and that of the nave, as usual in ancient churches, and this prevented from executing a unique C-scan including the entire floor of the church. The data have been processed according to a standard procedure based on zero timing, background removal, gain variable vs. the depth, one dimensional filtering

  17. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    PubMed

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time. PMID:25961118

  18. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    PubMed

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time.

  19. Costs and cost-effectiveness of a church-based intervention to promote mammography screening.

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, S E; Keeler, E; Duan, N; Derose, K P; Fox, S A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the costs of implementing a church-based, telephone-counseling program for increasing mammography use, and to identify the components of costs and the likely cost-effectiveness in hypothetical communities with varying characteristics. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 1,443 women recruited from 45 churches participating in the Los Angeles Mammography Promotion (LAMP) program were followed from 1995 to 1997. STUDY DESIGN: Churches were stratified into blocks and randomized into three intervention arms-telephone counseling, mail counseling, and control. We surveyed participants before and after the intervention to collect data on mammography use and demographic characteristics. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We used call records, activity reports, and interviews to collect data on the time and materials needed to organize and carry out the intervention. We constructed a standard model of costs and cost-effectiveness based on these data and the Year One results of the LAMP program. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cost in materials and overhead to the church site was $10.89 per participant and $188 per additional screening. However, when the estimated cost for church volunteers' time was included, the cost of the intervention increased substantially. CONCLUSIONS: A church-based program to promote the use of mammography would be feasible for many churches with the use of volunteer labor and resources. PMID:11130802

  20. An HIV Testing Intervention in African American Churches: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Moore, Erin; Hawes, Starlyn; Simon, Stephen; Goggin, Kathy; Martinez, David; Berman, Marcie; Booker, Alexandria

    2016-01-01

    Background African Americans are disproportionately burdened by HIV. The African American church is an influential institution with potential to increase reach of HIV prevention interventions in Black communities. Purpose This study examined HIV testing rates in African American churches in the Taking It to the Pews pilot project. Using a community-engaged approach, church leaders delivered religiously-tailored HIV education and testing materials/activities (e.g., sermons, brochures/bulletins, testimonials) to church and community members. Methods Four African American churches (N=543 participants) located in the Kansas City metropolitan area were randomized to intervention and comparison groups. Receipt of an HIV test was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Findings indicated intervention participants were 2.2 times more likely to receive an HIV test than comparisons at 6 months. Church leaders delivered about 2 tools per month. Conclusions Church-based HIV testing interventions are feasible and have potential to increase HIV testing rates in African American communities. PMID:26821712

  1. Sexism and sexual harassment. Concerns of African American women of the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.

    PubMed

    Whitson, M H

    1997-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project that examined social issues identified by a select group of religiously active African American women. The research examines sexism and sexual harassment and its prevalence within the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (CMEC). A total of 100 African American women from the CMEC participated in the focus group interviews. Findings suggest that the participants want the Church to acknowledge the existence of sexism and sexual harassment within is confines. Women participants perceived that their concern regarding the prevalence of sexism and sexual harassment within the Church had been subjugated in favor of those concerns more identifiable with males. Participants voiced the opinion that if the Church was indeed an agent concerned about societal issues that affect all its members, such issues should not be directed solely to the Women's Missionary Society but should be addressed at all levels of the Church. Furthermore, results from the focus group interviews suggest that women desire policy change in the Church before directing attention to policy change in the general community. Women professed the belief that because the CMEC has a hierarchical structure similar to the community and the criminal justice system, changes implemented within the Church are likely to be reflected in the behavior, attitudes, and policies of the community and the criminal justice system.

  2. IT - OSRA: applying ensemble simulations to estimate the oil spill hazard associated to operational and accidental oil spills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepp Neves, Antonio Augusto; Pinardi, Nadia; martins, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    Every year, 270,000 tonnes of oil are estimated to be spilled in the ocean by vessel operations (e.g. tank washing, leakage of lubricants) and the so called operational spills are typically associated with small volumes and high occurrence rate. Vessel-related accidental spills (e.g. collisions, explosions) seldom occur and usually involve high volumes of oil, accounting for about 100,000 tonnes/year. The occurrence of accidental spills and their impacts have been well documented in the available literature. On the other hand, occurrence rates of operational spills and the effects they have on the marine and coastal environments remain very uncertain due to insufficient sampling effort and methodological limitations. Trying to foresee when and where an oil spill will occur in a certain area, its characteristics and impacts is, at present, impossible. Oil spill risk assessments (OSRAs) have been employed in several parts of the globe in order to deal with such uncertainties and protect the marine environment. In the present work, we computed the oil spill risk applying ensemble oil spill simulations following an ISO-31000 compliant OSRA methodology (Sepp Neves et al. , 2015). The ensemble experiment was carried out for the Algarve coast (southern Portugal) generating a unique data set of 51,200 numerical oil spill simulations covering the main sources of uncertainties (i.e. where and when the spill will happen and oil spill model configuration). From the generated data set, the risk due to accidental and operational spills was mapped for the Algarve municipalities based on the frequency and magnitude (i.e. concentrations) of beaching events and the main sources of risk were identified. The socioeconomic and environmental dimensions of the risk were treated separately. Seasonal changes in the risk index proposed due to the variability of meteo-oceanographic variables (i.e. currents and waves) were also quantified.

  3. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-10

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

  4. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

  5. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Evans, D D; Mulholland, G W; Baum, H R; Walton, W D; McGrattan, K B

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning.

  6. Western European oil pipeline spills on land decline in 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    European crude oil and petroleum products pipelines in 1992 had fewer incidents of oil spills than in 1991, spilled less in total volume, and recovered a larger portion of what was spilled than in any single year in the 5-year period beginning in 1988. Only seven incidents of oil spills from pipelines or related facilities occurred in 1992, compared with 14 in 1991 and an average of 12.9/year since 1971. Five spills were from pipelines; two from pump stations. Net loss of oil into the environment was 430 cu m (2,709 bbl) or barely 0.7 ppm of the total volume transported. Gross amount of spills totaled 804 cu m (5,065 bbl), least in the period 1988--92.

  7. Oil spill response group aiming for full operation

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, P.

    1991-12-02

    In 15 months the first national oil spill cleanup organization plans to be in operation at sites around the U.S. coast. This paper reports that the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC), financed by major oil companies, plans to begin full operation Feb. 18, 1993. It is considering starting limited operations in selected regions before then. Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, an American Petroleum Institute task force proposed creation of a private offshore oil spill response agency. Individual oil companies then began a nonprofit firm that has evolved into MSRC. MSRC has a clearly defined role: It exists to sponsor oil spill research and to respond to catastrophic spills from offshore pipelines, platforms, rigs and tankers, carrying the oil of its sponsoring companies.

  8. PCB spill response and notification requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  9. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  10. Oil spill dispersants: boon or bane?

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C

    2015-06-01

    Dispersants provide a reliable large-scale response to catastrophic oil spills that can be used when the preferable option of recapturing the oil cannot be achieved. By allowing even mild wave action to disperse floating oil into tiny droplets (<70 μm) in the water column, seabirds, reptiles, and mammals are protected from lethal oiling at the surface, and microbial biodegradation is dramatically increased. Recent work has clarified how dramatic this increase is likely to be: beached oil has an environmental residence of years, whereas dispersed oil has a half-life of weeks. Oil spill response operations endorse the concept of net environmental benefit, that any environmental costs imposed by a response technique must be outweighed by the likely benefits. This critical review discusses the potential environmental debits and credits from dispersant use and concludes that, in most cases, the potential environmental costs of adding these chemicals to a polluted area are likely outweighed by the much shorter residence time, and hence integrated environmental impact, of the spilled oil in the environment.

  11. Helping nature clean up oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, A.

    1996-11-01

    Oil spills are nothing new. In fact, for millions of years crude oil has been seeping up to the Earth`s surface, and for all that time Mother Nature has been on the job with microbes, or bacteria, to harmlessly convert the oil to water and carbon dioxide gas. Not all bacteria are bad. True, some can make us sick, however, the good ones help us bake bread, brew beer, and even clean up oil spills by a process known as biodegradation. Oil and bacteria don`t easily get together because oil and water don`t mix and bacteria prefer to stay in water. After some oil tankers spills in the English Channel 25 years ago, major oil companies (Arco, BP, Exxon, and others) developed oil dispersant products-specialized chemicals that make oils and sea water mix. The simplest examples of similar wetting agents are soaps and detergents. Now, thanks to dispersants, the natural bacteria at sea can easily get to the oil and the normally slow biodegradation process goes rather quickly.

  12. Oil spill dispersants: boon or bane?

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C

    2015-06-01

    Dispersants provide a reliable large-scale response to catastrophic oil spills that can be used when the preferable option of recapturing the oil cannot be achieved. By allowing even mild wave action to disperse floating oil into tiny droplets (<70 μm) in the water column, seabirds, reptiles, and mammals are protected from lethal oiling at the surface, and microbial biodegradation is dramatically increased. Recent work has clarified how dramatic this increase is likely to be: beached oil has an environmental residence of years, whereas dispersed oil has a half-life of weeks. Oil spill response operations endorse the concept of net environmental benefit, that any environmental costs imposed by a response technique must be outweighed by the likely benefits. This critical review discusses the potential environmental debits and credits from dispersant use and concludes that, in most cases, the potential environmental costs of adding these chemicals to a polluted area are likely outweighed by the much shorter residence time, and hence integrated environmental impact, of the spilled oil in the environment. PMID:25938731

  13. The underserved aged and the role of the African American church.

    PubMed

    Samuels, A Dexter

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the church has been a central institution in the life of the African American community, and caring for bodies, as well as souls, has been a critical aspect of its ministry. The significance of this role will increase in importance in the foreseeable future given the escalating costs of health care services. There is an increasing realization that churches must be involved in the provision of health services if society is to improve the health status of this population. This paper examines the role of the African American church in providing formal and informal health care services to the underserved aged. PMID:22288210

  14. Physical Health Screenings Among African-American Church and Community Members.

    PubMed

    Moore, Erin W; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Berman, Marcie; Burleson, Christine; Judah, Abigail

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to identify characteristics, including religiosity, related to having received health screenings among persons who attend African-American churches or receive church-based community outreach services. A sample of 602 was recruited during two phases as part of a larger project. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose screenings were the most frequently reported screenings ever and in the last 12 months. Although religiosity was significantly related to several of the health screenings in bivariate analysis, it is not a predictor of health screenings in multivariate analyses. Innovative strategies are needed to promote screenings such as church-based health fairs.

  15. Proceedings of the Workshop on Government Oil Spill Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. M. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Oil spill model users and modelers were brought together for the purpose of fostering joint communication and increasing understanding of mutual problems. The workshop concentrated on defining user needs, presentations on ongoing modeling programs, and discussions of supporting research for these modeling efforts. Specific user recommendations include the development of an oil spill model user library which identifies and describes available models. The development of models for the long-term fate and effect of spilled oil was examined.

  16. Spill retrieval mechanism for removing a spilled substance from a liquid surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.H.

    1982-11-23

    A spill retrieval mechanism is claimed for removing a spilled substance from a liquid surface and placing the substance in a reservoir. The mechanism includes: a trough having a conveyor operatively disposed thereon; a motor system for driving the conveyor; a scoop associated with the trough for directing the liquid and substance to the conveyor; a surface on the conveyor for retaining the spilled substance thereon; and a removal device extending between the conveyor and an associated reservoir to remove the substance from the conveyor and place it into the reservoir. The device also includes a structure to alter the angulation of the trough and conveyor to different angles of attack based on the requirements and particular job application.

  17. Inland oil spills: Options for minimizing environmental impacts of freshwater spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Selecting appropriate protection, response, and cleanup techniques, both before and following an oil spill, affects the ultimate environmental impact and cost resulting from a spill. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) jointly developed this guide as a tool for contingency planners and field responders to identify response techniques that have minimal ecological impacts and also minimize the impact of the oil. The guide provides information on 29 response methods and classifies their relative environmental impact for combinations of four oil types and twelve freshwater environments and habitats. Spill topics of special concern in freshwater settings are also discussed, including public health, conditions under which oil might sink in freshwater, oil behavior in ice conditions, permafrost, and use of firefighting foams.

  18. Extent and frequency of vessel oil spills in US marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Tracey; Jin, Di

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about how marine protected areas (MPAs) may be vulnerable to vessel oil spills in the United States. This study investigated individual size, frequency, and total amount of vessel oil spilled in US MPAs, and how characteristics of MPAs and individual spill events influenced spills. Vessel oil spills in US waters (2002-06) and MPA boundaries were mapped. Total number and volume of oil spills inside and outside MPAs were computed. Results show that the presence of a MPA does not seem to prevent vessel oil spills or reduce the amount of oil spilled, and that a variety of MPA attributes (e.g., scale of protection, fishing restrictions, and others) and spill event characteristics (e.g., vessel type, year of spill, and others) affect oil spills inside and outside MPAs. These results can be used to develop MPA rules and marine transportation policies that reduce the vulnerability of sensitive resources to oil spills.

  19. 75 FR 21648 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0106, Oil Spill Financial... Part 253, Oil Spill Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities.'' DATES: Submit written comments... collection of information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR Part 253, Oil Spill...

  20. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  1. Liquid Spills on Permeable Soil Surfaces: Experimental Confirmations

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.

    2005-09-29

    Predictive tools for assessing the quantity of a spill on a soil from the observed spreading area could contribute to improving remediation when it is necessary. On a permeable soil, the visible spill area only hints about the amount of liquid that might reside below the surface. An understanding of the physical phenomena involved with spill propagation on a soil surface is key to assessing the liquid amount possibly present beneath the surface. The objective of this study is an improved prediction capability for spill behavior.

  2. Oil spills: Legal aspects. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the legal aspects of oil spills. Topics include general perspectives on oil spills, EPA's response to oil spills, legal and corporate response to oil spills, public interest groups' attitudes on oil spills, and economic and political approaches to the problems caused by oil spills. Federal, state and local legislation dealing with these problems is emphasized. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  4. An Architecture for the Electronic Church: Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Grubiak, Margaret M

    2016-04-01

    More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts's electronic church. The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the 1960s and 1970s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts's health and wealth gospel. Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church.

  5. Factors Contributing to the Development of an HIV Ministry within an African American Church

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    Having an HIV ministry within a church depends on the religious culture of that church. However, little is known about how a church’s religious culture influences an HIV ministry. This study’s purpose was to examine how an African American church’s religious culture supported the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV ministry within the church. An ethnographic case study research design was used. Data were collected through interviews, non-participant and participant observations, review of pertinent documents, and survey of congregants. Results revealed the following as important for an HIV ministry: (a) a belief in helping others and treating everyone with respect and dignity, (b) feelings of compassion toward individuals infected with HIV, and (c) HIV education. This information can assist in developing interventions to enhance the African American church movement toward HIV ministries. PMID:22212914

  6. Independence of the uniformity principle from Church's thesis in intuitionistic set theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhanyan, V. Kh

    2013-12-01

    We prove the independence of the strong uniformity principle from Church's thesis with choice in intuitionistic set theory with the axiom of extensionality extended by Markov's principle and the double complement for sets.

  7. The Influence of Pastors' Ideologies of Homosexuality on HIV Prevention in the Black Church.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-10-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches. PMID:27099095

  8. The Roman Catholic Church, the Holocaust, and the demonization of the Jews

    PubMed Central

    Kertzer, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Following eleven years’ work, in 1998 a high-level Vatican commission instituted by Pope John Paul II offered what has become the official position of the Roman Catholic Church denying any responsibility for fomenting the kind of demonization of the Jews that made the Holocaust possible. In a 2001 book, The popes against the Jews, I demonstrated that in fact the church played a major role in leading Catholics throughout Europe to view Jews as an existential threat. Yet defenders of the church position continue to deny the historical evidence and to launch ferocious ad hominem attacks against scholars who have researched the subject. The anti-Semitism promulgated by the church can be seen as part of the long battle it waged against modernity, with which the Jews were identified. PMID:27011787

  9. Apostolic faith church organization contexts for health and wellbeing in women and children

    PubMed Central

    Mpofu, Elias; Dune, Tinashe Moira; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Mapfumo, John; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; January, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study explored contexts for health and wellbeing for women and children influenced by the structural behavior of an Apostolic faith church organization in Zimbabwe. Methods Twenty-three purposively selected members of an African indigenous Apostolic church (males =12; females =11; age range 22 to 95 years) were informants to a focus group discussion session. They provided data on the institutional behaviors that were culturally-historically embedded in the organization’s activities. Data were analyzed thematically and using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to foreground essential themes. Results The church organization provided social capital to support health and wellbeing in members. However, the culturally embedded practices to minimize decision making by women and child members potentially compromised their health and wellbeing. Conclusion The findings suggest that the structural activities of the church for health and wellbeing could also have the paradoxical effect of exposing women and children to health risks from obligatory roles. PMID:21671203

  10. An Architecture for the Electronic Church: Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Grubiak, Margaret M

    2016-04-01

    More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts's electronic church. The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the 1960s and 1970s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts's health and wealth gospel. Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church. PMID:27237069

  11. Introduction: From the Heart of the Church, the Colleges, or the Commentators? Counterpoint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the following Counterpoint article on "Ex Corde Ecclesiae" ("From the Heart of the Church"), a document issued by Pope Paul VI in 1990 that provided guidelines for the operation of Roman Catholic colleges and universities. (PKP)

  12. A GIS planning model for urban oil spill management.

    PubMed

    Li, J

    2001-01-01

    Oil spills in industrialized cities pose a significant threat to their urban water environment. The largest city in Canada, the city of Toronto, has an average 300-500 oil spills per year with an average total volume of about 160,000 L/year. About 45% of the spills was eventually cleaned up. Given the enormous amount of remaining oil entering into the fragile urban ecosystem, it is important to develop an effective pollution prevention and control plan for the city. A Geographic Information System (GIS) planning model has been developed to characterize oil spills and determine preventive and control measures available in the city. A database of oil spill records from 1988 to 1997 was compiled and geo-referenced. Attributes to each record such as spill volume, oil type, location, road type, sector, source, cleanup percentage, and environmental impacts were created. GIS layers of woodlots, wetlands, watercourses, Environmental Sensitive Areas, and Areas of Natural and Scientific Interest were obtained from the local Conservation Authority. By overlaying the spill characteristics with the GIS layers, evaluation of preventive and control solutions close to these environmental features was conducted. It was found that employee training and preventive maintenance should be improved as the principal cause of spills was attributed to human errors and equipment failure. Additionally, the cost of using oil separators at strategic spill locations was found to be $1.4 million. The GIS model provides an efficient planning tool for urban oil spill management. Additionally, the graphical capability of GIS allows users to integrate environmental features and spill characteristics in the management analysis. PMID:11379137

  13. Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2005-04-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

  14. Church attendee help seeking priorities after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi and Louisiana: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Aten, Jamie D; Gonzalez, Rose A; Boan, David M; Topping, Sharon; Livingston, William V; Hosey, John M

    2012-01-01

    After a disaster, survivors find themselves seeking many types of help from others in their communities. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assist in mental health service planning by determining the type and priority of support services sought by church attendees after Hurricane Katrina. Surveys were given to church attendees from two Mississippi coast and four New Orleans area churches that were directly affected by Hurricane Katrina participants were asked to review a list of 12 potential sources of help and were asked to rank the items chronologically from whom they had sought help first after Hurricane Katrina. Overall, participants sought out assistance from informal social networks such as family and friends first, followed by governmental and clergy support. This study also showed there may be differences in help-seeking behaviors between church attendees in more urban areas versus church attendees in more rural areas. Moreover, findings highlighted that very few church attendees seek out mental health services during the initial impact phase of a disaster. Since timely engagement with mental health services is important for resolving trauma, strategies that link professional mental health services with clergy and government resources following a disaster could improve the engagement with mental health professionals and improve mental health outcomes. Disaster mental health clinical implications and recommendations are offered for psychologists based on these findings.

  15. Probabilistic Feasibility of the Reconstruction Process of Russian-Orthodox Churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhova, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    The cultural human heritage is important for the identity of following generations and has to be preserved in a suitable manner. In the course of time a lot of information about former cultural constructions has been lost because some objects were strongly damaged by natural erosion or on account of human work or were even destroyed. It is important to capture still available building parts of former buildings, mostly ruins. This data could be the basis for a virtual reconstruction. Laserscanning offers in principle the possibility to take up extensively surfaces of buildings in its actual status. In this paper we assume a priori given 3d-laserscanner data, 3d point cloud for the partly destroyed church. There are many well known algorithms, that describe different methods of extraction and detection of geometric primitives, which are recognized separately in 3d points clouds. In our work we put them in a common probabilistic framework, which guides the complete reconstruction process of complex buildings, in our case russian-orthodox churches. Churches are modeled with their functional volumetric components, enriched with a priori known probabilities, which are deduced from a database of russian-orthodox churches. Each set of components represents a complete church. The power of the new method is shown for a simulated dataset of 100 russian-orthodox churches.

  16. Church attendee help seeking priorities after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi and Louisiana: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Aten, Jamie D; Gonzalez, Rose A; Boan, David M; Topping, Sharon; Livingston, William V; Hosey, John M

    2012-01-01

    After a disaster, survivors find themselves seeking many types of help from others in their communities. The purpose of this exploratory study was to assist in mental health service planning by determining the type and priority of support services sought by church attendees after Hurricane Katrina. Surveys were given to church attendees from two Mississippi coast and four New Orleans area churches that were directly affected by Hurricane Katrina participants were asked to review a list of 12 potential sources of help and were asked to rank the items chronologically from whom they had sought help first after Hurricane Katrina. Overall, participants sought out assistance from informal social networks such as family and friends first, followed by governmental and clergy support. This study also showed there may be differences in help-seeking behaviors between church attendees in more urban areas versus church attendees in more rural areas. Moreover, findings highlighted that very few church attendees seek out mental health services during the initial impact phase of a disaster. Since timely engagement with mental health services is important for resolving trauma, strategies that link professional mental health services with clergy and government resources following a disaster could improve the engagement with mental health professionals and improve mental health outcomes. Disaster mental health clinical implications and recommendations are offered for psychologists based on these findings. PMID:23156958

  17. Ministers' perceptions of church-based programs to provide depression care for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Hankerson, Sidney H; Watson, Kalycia Trishana; Lukachko, Alicia; Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Weissman, Myrna

    2013-08-01

    African Americans, compared with white Americans, underutilize mental health services for major depressive disorder. Church-based programs are effective in reducing racial disparities in health; however, the literature on church-based programs for depression is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore ministers' perceptions about depression and the feasibility of utilizing the church to implement evidence-based assessments and psychotherapy for depression. From August 2011 to March 2012, data were collected from three focus groups conducted with adult ministers (n = 21) from a black mega-church in New York City. Using consensual qualitative research to analyze data, eight main domains emerged: definition of depression, identification of depression, causal factors, perceived responsibilities, limitations, assessment, group interpersonal psychotherapy, and stigma. A major finding was that ministers described depression within a context of vast suffering due to socioeconomic inequalities (e.g., financial strain and unstable housing) in many African American communities. Implementing evidence-based assessments and psychotherapy in a church was deemed feasible if principles of community-based participatory research were utilized and safeguards to protect participants' confidentiality were employed. In conclusion, ministers were enthusiastic about the possibility of implementing church-based programs for depression care and emphasized partnering with academic researchers throughout the implementation process. More research is needed to identify effective, multidisciplinary interventions that address social inequalities which contribute to racial disparities in depression treatment.

  18. The role of the Black Church in the lives of young Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity.

  19. The role of the Black Church in the lives of young Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, the Black Church is among the most important institutions in the Black community, offering numerous spiritual, social and health benefits. Yet, the presence of homonegativity in many Black Churches may mitigate those effects for gay Black youth. This research examines the role of the Church in the lives of gay and bisexual Black youth to understand how they reconcile any tension between their religious and sexual identities. Through interviews with pastors of Black churches (n = 21) and young Black men who have sex with men (n = 30), we explored homonegativity and young men's experiences within the Black Church. Findings reveal that despite the prevalence of homonegativity within Black churches, religious involvement remains important for young men and many remain involved in non-affirming churches. The importance of the Church for young men stems from their significant involvement as youth and the integration of religion, family and community. Young men may not be able to leave their religious homes as readily as other gay youth given the cultural relevance of the Church. As a result, young men made attempts to conceal their sexuality in church to avoid shame and gossip and find opportunities to balance their sexuality and religiosity. PMID:26489851

  20. English Medieval Churches, 'Festival Orientation' and William Wordsworth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Peter G.; Ketel, Hans

    2015-05-01

    A church that is shown to be aligned with sunrise or sunset on the feast day of the saint to whom the building was dedicated is said to display 'festival orientation'. The earliest work to touch upon this practice in English dates from c. 1678. William Wordsworth gave impetus to the subject in two poems published in 1827; he also played a part in the design of St Mary's chapel (1823-4), Rydal, Cumbria in the English Lake District. The 14th-century St Catherine's chapel at Houghton St Giles, Norfolk, was constructed for the use of pilgrims on their way to nearby Walsingham. Careful measurement of the orientation and eastern horizon of these two buildings has shown that St Mary's is aligned with sunrise on the Marian festival of The Visitation (2 July), and St Catherine's is directed towards the rising Sun on the feast of St Catherine of Alexandria (25 November). It is only by taking into account the character of the horizon that meaningful tests for festival orientation may be carried out.

  1. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  2. Ecological Impacts During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in U.S. history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep-ocean communities and over 1,600 kilo...

  3. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in United States history, with nearly 800 million liters of crude oil spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities and over 1...

  4. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. PMID:27397593

  5. Statistics of extremes in oil spill risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Johnson, Walter R; Wikel, Geoffrey L

    2014-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. After DWH, key questions were asked: What is the likelihood that a similar catastrophic oil spill (with a volume over 1 million barrels) will happen again? Is DWH an extreme event or will it happen frequently in the future? The extreme value theory (EVT) has been widely used in studying rare events, including damage from hurricanes, stock market crashes, insurance claims, flooding, and earthquakes. In this paper, the EVT is applied to analyze oil spills in the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). Incorporating the 49 years (1964-2012) of OCS oil spill data, the EVT is capable of describing the oil spills reasonably well. The return period of a catastrophic oil spill in OCS areas is estimated to be 165 years, with a 95% confidence interval between 41 years and more than 500 years. Sensitivity tests indicate that the EVT results are relatively stable. The results of this study are very useful for oil spill risk assessment, contingency planning, and environmental impact statements on oil exploration, development, and production. PMID:25109900

  6. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  7. Movement of fuel spills in the Ross Ice Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Tumeo, M.A.; Larson, M.K.

    1994-12-31

    Williams Field provides logistical support to McMurdo Station in Antarctica and managers large amounts of fuel for their cargo planes. Numerous spills have occurred at this site with little recovery or remediation of the spilled fuel. From 1980 to 1989, approximately 380,000 liters (L) leaked during documented fuel spills-197,600 L of that total came from one spill alone, in October of 1989, when fuel leaked onto the ice at Williams Field. An additional 20 spills of unknown quantities have also occurred at McMurdo Station and Williams Field. Although recent improvements in equipment and procedures in Antarctica have significantly reduced the accidental release of fuel and all but eliminated the risk of a large fuel spill, the potential for small releases still exists. To track the movement of fuel spills on the ice shelf more accurately and to established the basis for remediation methods NSF funded a 3-year study. This article discusses information obtained about the movement of fuel from a small oil spill from a flexible pipeline between McMurdo Station and Williams Field on the Ross Ice Shelf. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Statistics of extremes in oil spill risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhen-Gang; Johnson, Walter R; Wikel, Geoffrey L

    2014-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. After DWH, key questions were asked: What is the likelihood that a similar catastrophic oil spill (with a volume over 1 million barrels) will happen again? Is DWH an extreme event or will it happen frequently in the future? The extreme value theory (EVT) has been widely used in studying rare events, including damage from hurricanes, stock market crashes, insurance claims, flooding, and earthquakes. In this paper, the EVT is applied to analyze oil spills in the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). Incorporating the 49 years (1964-2012) of OCS oil spill data, the EVT is capable of describing the oil spills reasonably well. The return period of a catastrophic oil spill in OCS areas is estimated to be 165 years, with a 95% confidence interval between 41 years and more than 500 years. Sensitivity tests indicate that the EVT results are relatively stable. The results of this study are very useful for oil spill risk assessment, contingency planning, and environmental impact statements on oil exploration, development, and production.

  9. Ecological Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (Bogota, Columbia)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH) was the largest environmental disaster and response effort in US History, with nearly 800 million liters spilled. Vast areas of the Gulf of Mexico were contaminated with oil, including deep ocean communities, protected species, over 1600 km o...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 300 - Oil Spill Response

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil Spill Response E Appendix E to... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Pt. 300, App. E Appendix E to Part 300—Oil Spill Response Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction....

  11. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  12. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-07-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors.

  13. Bacterial communities from shoreline environments (costa da morte, northwestern Spain) affected by the prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Figueras, Antonio; Albaigés, Joan; Jiménez, Núria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna M; Novoa, Beatriz

    2009-06-01

    The bacterial communities in two different shoreline matrices, rocks and sand, from the Costa da Morte, northwestern Spain, were investigated 12 months after being affected by the Prestige oil spill. Culture-based and culture-independent approaches were used to compare the bacterial diversity present in these environments with that at a nonoiled site. A long-term effect of fuel on the microbial communities in the oiled sand and rock was suggested by the higher proportion of alkane and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders and the differences in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns compared with those of the reference site. Members of the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the prevailing groups of bacteria detected in both matrices, although the sand bacterial community exhibited higher species richness than the rock bacterial community did. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches suggested that the genus Rhodococcus could play a key role in the in situ degradation of the alkane fraction of the Prestige fuel together with other members of the suborder Corynebacterineae. Moreover, other members of this suborder, such as Mycobacterium spp., together with Sphingomonadaceae bacteria (mainly Lutibacterium anuloederans), were related as well to the degradation of the aromatic fraction of the Prestige fuel. The multiapproach methodology applied in the present study allowed us to assess the complexity of autochthonous microbial communities related to the degradation of heavy fuel from the Prestige and to isolate some of their components for a further physiological study. Since several Corynebacterineae members related to the degradation of alkanes and PAHs were frequently detected in this and other supralittoral environments affected by the Prestige oil spill along the northwestern Spanish coast, the addition of mycolic acids to bioremediation amendments is proposed to favor the presence of these degraders in long-term fuel pollution

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SA4FER) Plan for CAU 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 2001). CAU 398 consists of the following thirteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs) all located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): CAS 25-25-02, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-03, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-04, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-05, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-06, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-07, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-08, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-16, Diesel Spill (from CAS 25-01-02), CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill, CAS 25-44-0 1, Fuel Spill, CAS 25-44-04, Acid Spill (from CAS 25-01-01), CAS 25-44-02, Spill, and CAS 25-44-03, Spill. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix B. Copies of the CAU Use Restriction Information forms are included in Appendix C.

  15. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  16. Estimating Potential Effects of Hypothetical Oil Spills on Polar Bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.; McDonald, T.L.; Johnson, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Much is known about the transport and fate of oil spilled into the sea and its toxicity to exposed wildlife. Previously, however, there has been no way to quantify the probability that wildlife dispersed over the seascape would be exposed to spilled oil. Polar bears, the apical predator of the arctic, are widely dispersed near the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean, an area also undergoing considerable hydrocarbon exploration and development. We used 15,308 satellite locations from 194 radiocollared polar bears to estimate the probability that polar bears could be exposed to hypothetical oil spills. We used a true 2 dimensional Gausian kernel density estimator, to estimate the number of bears likely to occur in each 1.00 km2 cell of a grid superimposed over near shore areas surrounding 2 oil production facilities: the existing Northstar oil production facility, and the proposed offshore site for the Liberty production facility. We estimated the standard errors of bear numbers per cell with bootstrapping. Simulated oil spill footprints for September and October, the times during which we hypothesized effects of an oil-spill would be worst, were estimated using real wind and current data collected between 1980 and 1996. We used ARC/Info software to calculate overlap (numbers of bears oiled) between simulated oil-spill footprints and polar bear grid-cell values. Numbers of bears potentially oiled by a hypothetical 5912 barrel spill (the largest spill thought probable from a pipeline breach) ranged from 0 to 27 polar bears for September open water conditions, and from 0 to 74 polar bears in October mixed ice conditions. Median numbers oiled by the 5912 barrel hypothetical spill from the Liberty simulation in September and October were 1 and 3 bears, equivalent values for the Northstar simulation were 3 and 11 bears. In October, 75% of trajectories from the 5912 barrel simulated spill at Liberty oiled 9 or fewer bears while 75% of the trajectories affected 20 or

  17. Computational Simulation of Submarine Oil Spill with Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Pang, Yongjie; Li, Hongwei

    Nowadays, the oil spill models are usually based on the sea surface and few of them are for submarine oil spill. Therefore, the simulation for submarine pipeline oil spill is discussed by FLUENT in this paper to forecast the trajectory of oil. The coupling of pressure and velocity under unsteady-state condition is solved by pressure implicit with splitting of operators algorithm, and the boundary condition of nonlinear free surface is solved by volume of fluid. The simulation of oil particles motion is carried out. Furthermore, the quantity and trajectory of spilled oil under different operating pressure and current velocity are compared and analyzed. The results show that the submarine diffusion scope of spilled oil is smaller with larger operating pressure or lower current velocity.

  18. In-depth analysis of accidental oil spills from tankers in the context of global spill trends from all sources.

    PubMed

    Burgherr, Peter

    2007-02-01

    This study gives a global overview of accidental oil spills from all sources (> or =700t) for the period 1970-2004, followed by a detailed examination of trends in accidental tanker spills. The present analysis of the number and volume of tanker spills includes temporal and spatial spill trends, aspects of spill size distribution as well as trends of key factors (i.e., flag state, hull type, tanker age, accident cause and sensitivity of location). Results show that the total number and volume of tanker spills have significantly decreased since the 1970s, which is in contrast to increases in maritime transport of oil and to popular perceptions following recent catastrophic events. However, many spills still occur in ecologically sensitive locations because the major maritime transport routes often cross the boundaries of the Large Marine Ecosystems, but the substantially lower total spill volume is an important contribution to potentially reduce overall ecosystem impacts. In summary, the improvements achieved in the past decades have been the result of a set of initiatives and regulations implemented by governments, international organizations and the shipping industry.

  19. Impacts of a Swine Manure Spill on Fluvial Sediments: Evaluation of an alternative Manure Spill Remediation Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the last decade the frequency of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) manure spills and violations have increased, in conjunction with the increase in the number of animal on each farm and production efficiency. Currently, the conventional remediation method for manure spills focus exc...

  20. Restoring San Xavier del Bac, "Our Church": Tohono O'odham Work to Restore the 200-Year-Old Church Built by Their Ancestors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Bernard L.

    1995-01-01

    The Tohono O'odham built Mission San Xavier del Bac for Franciscan missionaries in the late 1700s and have protected and cared for it through changing circumstances ever since. As part of a massive restoration project, outstanding experts have been restoring the church's painted and sculpted interior and training local Tohono O'odham to be…

  1. Child sexual abuse in the Roman Catholic Church in Germany: comparison of victim-impact data collected through church-sponsored and government-sponsored programs.

    PubMed

    Rassenhofer, Miriam; Zimmer, Andreas; Spröber, Nina; Fegert, Jörg M

    2015-02-01

    At around the same time in 2010, the German government and the Roman Catholic Church in Germany each set up a critical incident reporting system (CIRS) to gather information on child sexual abuse that had taken place within the Church. The objective in both cases was to solicit stories from victims and former victims and allow them to have input into a review process. The existence of these two similar systems, one initiated by the institution involved in the abuse and the other by an independent entity, provided an opportunity to compare the background and motivation of victims who chose to communicate through one channel or the other. Data were obtained on a total of 927 individuals, 571 through the church CIRS and 356 through the government CIRS, who had reported that they had experienced childhood sexual abuse within the Roman Catholic Church. Some differences were found between the two groups in terms of gender, the reported frequency of abuse, and the desire for compensation. These differences highlight the need for an effective complaint management system to offer not just one but complementary channels of communication. In addition, the findings confirm the feasibility and value of a CIRS approach and the use of so-called 'citizen science' in politically driven review processes.

  2. Child sexual abuse in the Roman Catholic Church in Germany: comparison of victim-impact data collected through church-sponsored and government-sponsored programs.

    PubMed

    Rassenhofer, Miriam; Zimmer, Andreas; Spröber, Nina; Fegert, Jörg M

    2015-02-01

    At around the same time in 2010, the German government and the Roman Catholic Church in Germany each set up a critical incident reporting system (CIRS) to gather information on child sexual abuse that had taken place within the Church. The objective in both cases was to solicit stories from victims and former victims and allow them to have input into a review process. The existence of these two similar systems, one initiated by the institution involved in the abuse and the other by an independent entity, provided an opportunity to compare the background and motivation of victims who chose to communicate through one channel or the other. Data were obtained on a total of 927 individuals, 571 through the church CIRS and 356 through the government CIRS, who had reported that they had experienced childhood sexual abuse within the Roman Catholic Church. Some differences were found between the two groups in terms of gender, the reported frequency of abuse, and the desire for compensation. These differences highlight the need for an effective complaint management system to offer not just one but complementary channels of communication. In addition, the findings confirm the feasibility and value of a CIRS approach and the use of so-called 'citizen science' in politically driven review processes. PMID:25528952

  3. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  4. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David D.; Mulholland, George W.; Baum, Howard R.; Walton, William D.; McGrattan, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  5. In Situ Burning of Oil Spills.

    PubMed

    Evans, D D; Mulholland, G W; Baum, H R; Walton, W D; McGrattan, K B

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade NIST conducted research to understand, measure and predict the important features of burning oil on water. Results of that research have been included in nationally recognized guidelines for approval of intentional burning. NIST measurements and predictions have played a major role in establishing in situ burning as a primary oil spill response method. Data are given for pool fire burning rates, smoke yield, smoke particulate size distribution, smoke aging, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of the smoke for crude and fuel oil fires with effective diameters up to 17.2 m. New user-friendly software, ALOFT, was developed to quantify the large-scale features and trajectory of wind blown smoke plumes in the atmosphere and estimate the ground level smoke particulate concentrations. Predictions using the model were tested successfully against data from large-scale tests. ALOFT software is being used by oil spill response teams to help assess the potential impact of intentional burning. PMID:27500022

  6. 50 CFR 622.14 - Area closures related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Horizon oil spill. 622.14 Section 622.14 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... spill. (a) Caribbean EEZ area closure related to Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Effective May 11, 2010... Web site: http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/deepwater_horizon_oil_spill.htm. (b) Gulf EEZ area closure...

  7. Fuel conservation by the application of spill prevention and fail-safe engineering (a guideline manual)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodier, J. L.; Siclari, R. J.; Garrity, P. A.

    1981-06-01

    Spill prevention procedures are provided for maintaining a spill free plant during the transportation, transfer, storage and processing of petroleum products. The manual can be used to prevent spills of materials other than fuel oil. Special emphasis is given to failsafe engineering as an approach to preventing spills from the predominant cause-human failure.

  8. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  9. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  10. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  11. Rocks in Our Pockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

  12. A Summary of NASA and USAF Hypergolic Propellant Related Spills and Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Several unintentional hypergolic fluid related spills, fires, and explosions from the Apollo Program, the Space Shuttle Program, the Titan Program, and a few others have occurred over the past several decades. Spill sites include the following government facilities: Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Johnson Space Center (JSC), White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), Little Rock AFB, and McConnell AFB. Until now, the only method of capturing the lessons learned from these incidents has been "word of mouth" or by studying each individual incident report. The root causes and consequences of the incidents vary drastically; however, certain "themes" can be deduced and utilized for future hypergolic propellant handling. Some of those common "themes" are summarized below: (1) Improper configuration control and internal or external human performance shaping factors can lead to being falsely comfortable with a system (2) Communication breakdown can escalate an incident to a level where injuries occur and/or hardware is damaged (3) Improper propulsion system and ground support system designs can destine a system for failure (4) Improper training of technicians, engineers, and safety personnel can put lives in danger (5) Improper PPE, spill protection, and staging of fire extinguishing equipment can result in unnecessary injuries or hardware damage if an incident occurs (6) Improper procedural oversight, development, and adherence to the procedure can be detrimental and quickly lead to an undesirable incident (7) Improper materials cleanliness or compatibility and chemical reactivity can result in fires or explosions (8) Improper established "back-out" and/or emergency safing procedures can escalate an event The items listed above are only a short list of the issues that should be recognized prior to handling hypergolic fluids or processing vehicles containing hypergolic propellants

  13. Recruiting African American Churches to Participate in Research: The Learning and Developing Individual Exercise Skills for a Better Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Borden, Shanice L.; Alexander, Dayna S.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Goldmon, Moses V.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity among African Americans (AA) is low; effective intervention strategies are needed. Community-based settings are useful for delivering health-related interventions in racial/ethnic minority communities. This article describes strategies used to recruit churches for participation in a 22-month intervention designed to increase physical activity levels in AA women. Initial recruitment efforts, led by AA study staff, included direct mailers, phone calls, and in-person meetings with church representatives. After 10 months, only five churches were enrolled. Seven community members with existing partnerships/contacts in the faith community were subsequently hired and an additional 26 churches were enrolled within 6 months. Overall response rate was 45%, and churches required 3.5 ± 3.0 months of multiple contacts prior to enrollment. The main primary contacts within churches were individuals with personal interest in the program and pastors. Prior relationship between the research team and churches did not appear to influence church enrollment as much as community member recruiters. The current study identifies several potential strategies that may be useful for increasing success in efforts to recruit AA churches into studies. Additional research is warranted that tests and compares a variety of recruitment strategies to determine the most successful strategies for recruitment in different populations. PMID:26724311

  14. Recruiting African American Churches to Participate in Research: The Learning and Developing Individual Exercise Skills for a Better Life Study.

    PubMed

    Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Borden, Shanice L; Alexander, Dayna S; Kennedy, Betty M; Goldmon, Moses V

    2016-03-01

    Physical activity among African Americans (AA) is low; effective intervention strategies are needed. Community-based settings are useful for delivering health-related interventions in racial/ethnic minority communities. This article describes strategies used to recruit churches for participation in a 22-month intervention designed to increase physical activity levels in AA women. Initial recruitment efforts, led by AA study staff, included direct mailers, phone calls, and in-person meetings with church representatives. After 10 months, only five churches were enrolled. Seven community members with existing partnerships/contacts in the faith community were subsequently hired and an additional 26 churches were enrolled within 6 months. Overall response rate was 45%, and churches required 3.5 ± 3.0 months of multiple contacts prior to enrollment. The main primary contacts within churches were individuals with personal interest in the program and pastors. Prior relationship between the research team and churches did not appear to influence church enrollment as much as community member recruiters. The current study identifies several potential strategies that may be useful for increasing success in efforts to recruit AA churches into studies. Additional research is warranted that tests and compares a variety of recruitment strategies to determine the most successful strategies for recruitment in different populations. PMID:26724311

  15. Exploring the Influence of Social Determinants, Social Capital, and Health Expertise on Health and the Rural Church.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Robyn; Leipert, Beverly; Olson, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    In rural communities, religious places can significantly shape health for individuals, families, and communities. Rural churches are prominent community centers in rural communities and are deeply woven into rural culture. Thus, health influences arising from the rural church likely have health implications for the greater community. This article explores health influences emerging from rural churches using social determinants of health, social capital, and health expertise. Although nurses are important health resources for all populations, their value in rural areas may be exceedingly significant. The contribution of nurses to church-based health capital in rural communities may be quite significant and underestimated, although it remains poorly understood. PMID:26385751

  16. Empowering Latino church leaders to deal with the HIV-AIDS crisis: a strengths-oriented service model.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny; Díaz, Héctor Luis; Feldman, Janis B; Ramírez-Jorge, Johnny

    2013-06-01

    Ideology and attitudes of Latino church leaders in the United States toward HIV/AIDS are explored. A qualitative approach utilized with emergent categories including: a desire within the Latino church for greater acceptance of HIV/AIDS sufferers, the supposed contaminating influence of HIV/AIDS individuals over other church members, and the feelings of helplessness many church members experience in relation to the HIV/AIDS crisis. Understanding ideological resistance that prevents engagement is here identified and a strategy of empowerment of church leaders is recommended to overcome it including: adopting a strengths-oriented service model that focuses on resources religious denominations already have, as opposed to a financially driven, medically oriented service model that highlights what churches often do not have; church leaders educating health care agencies on how to use religious beliefs to motivate church members to work on behalf of HIV/AIDS patients; the power of doctrinal ideology in affecting church and civil society's response to HIV/AIDS.

  17. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  18. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events.

  19. Automatic oil spill detection on quad polarimetric UAVSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Dhakal, Shanti

    2016-05-01

    Oil spill on the water bodies has adverse effects on coastal and marine ecology. Oil spill contingency planning is of utmost importance in order to plan for mitigation and remediation of the oceanic oil spill. Remote sensing technologies are used for monitoring the oil spills on the ocean and coastal region. Airborne and satellite sensors such as optical, infrared, ultraviolet, radar and microwave sensors are available for remote surveillance of the ocean. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is used most extensively for oil-spill monitoring because of its capability to operate during day/night and cloud-cover condition. This study detects the possible oil spill regions on fully polarimetric Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle - Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) images. The UAVSAR image is decomposed using Cloude-Pottier polarimetric decomposition technique to obtain entropy and alpha parameters. In addition, other polarimetric features such as co-polar correlation and degree of polarization are obtained for the UAVSAR images. These features are used to with fuzzy logic based classification to detect oil spill on the SAR images. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. MODIS detects oil spills in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Müller-Karger, Frank E.; Taylor, Charles (Judd); Myhre, Douglas; Murch, Brock; Odriozola, Ana L.; Godoy, Gonzalo

    Starting December 2002, the oil industry operating in and around Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela suffered a series of accidents (Figure 1). Fires, the sinking of two barges, rupture of oil pipelines, spills from floating oil storage and transfer stations, and malfunctioning of oil extraction platforms led to extensive oil spills. Local and federal Venezuelan government oil industry experts directly observed the series of spills from aircraft, helicopter, and various surface vessels. The spills were recorded in December by official photography and video of leaking infrastructure, and unofficial recordings continued in January and February 2003 (http://wwwcomlago.com.ve/fotosvideos. html).These surveys did not provide sufficient spatial or temporal coverage to assess the magnitude, area covered, or duration of the spills. Clear images of the spill were captured with NASAs Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), however. MODIS is effectively a sophisticated digital camera launched aboard the Terra satellite in December 1999, and aboard the Aqua satellite in April 2002 [Esaias et al., 1998; http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov]. Its medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m resolution) are available to the public, and have great potential in coastal monitoring. This article demonstrates how MODIS can provide basic and critical assessments of oil spills.

  1. Injection pump with radially mounted spill control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Djordjevic, I.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a rotary fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine,. The method comprises: a housing, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a charge pump having radially extending plunger bores in the rotor and a plunger pump for each plunger bore having a pumping plunger reciprocable in the bore. The pumping plunger has outward fuel tank strokes and inward fuel delivery strokes for supplying high pressure charges of fuel for fuel injection. A cam ring surrounds the rotor and is engageable with the plunger pumps to reciprocate the plungers as the rotor rotates. A spill control mechanism has spill valve means connected to the charge pump for spill control of the high pressure charge of fuel. The improvement consists of the spill valve means which comprises at least one rotary spill valve having a valve bore in the rotor oriented transversely to the axis of the rotor and connected to the charge pump through pump passage means and a rotary spill valve member rotatably mounted within the valve bore; and the spill control mechanism.

  2. U. S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.B.

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott.

  3. Decision support system for managing oil spill events.

    PubMed

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Cartalis, Constantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2003-08-01

    The Mediterranean environment is exposed to various hazards, including oil spills, forest fires, and floods, making the development of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management an objective of utmost importance. The present work presents a complete DSS for managing marine pollution events caused by oil spills. The system provides all the necessary tools for early detection of oil-spills from satellite images, monitoring of their evolution, estimation of the accident consequences and provision of support to responsible Public Authorities during clean-up operations. The heart of the system is an image processing-geographic information system and other assistant individual software tools that perform oil spill evolution simulation and all other necessary numerical calculations as well as cartographic and reporting tasks related to a specific management of the oil spill event. The cartographic information is derived from the extant general maps representing detailed information concerning several regional environmental and land-cover characteristics as well as financial activities of the application area. Early notification of the authorities with up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the oil spill, combined with the detailed coastal maps, is of paramount importance for emergency assessment and effective clean-up operations that would prevent environmental hazard. An application was developed for the Region of Crete, an area particularly vulnerable to oil spills due to its location, ecological characteristics, and local economic activities.

  4. Brine Spills Associated with Unconventional Oil Development in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Harkness, Jennifer S; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-05-17

    The rapid rise of unconventional oil production during the past decade in the Bakken region of North Dakota raises concerns related to water contamination associated with the accidental release of oil and gas wastewater to the environment. Here, we characterize the major and trace element chemistry and isotopic ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ(18)O, δ(2)H) of surface waters (n = 29) in areas impacted by oil and gas wastewater spills in the Bakken region of North Dakota. We establish geochemical and isotopic tracers that can identify Bakken brine spills in the environment. In addition to elevated concentrations of dissolved salts (Na, Cl, Br), spill waters also consisted of elevated concentrations of other contaminants (Se, V, Pb, NH4) compared to background waters, and soil and sediment in spill sites had elevated total radium activities ((228)Ra + (226)Ra) relative to background, indicating accumulation of Ra in impacted soil and sediment. We observed that inorganic contamination associated with brine spills in North Dakota is remarkably persistent, with elevated levels of contaminants observed in spills sites up to 4 years following the spill events. PMID:27119384

  5. Advancing Partnerships Towards an Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Gallegos, S. C.; Leifer, I.; Murray, J. J.; Streett, D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, and remote sensing is playing a growing critical role in the detection and monitoring of oil spills, as well as facilitating validation of remote sensing oil spill products. The FOSTERRS (Federal Oil Science Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing) interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft/instruments) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively, appropriately, and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. Yet significant challenges remain for addressing oils spanning a vast range of chemical properties that may be spilled from the Tropics to the Arctic, with algorithms and scientific understanding needing advances to keep up with technology. Thus, FOSTERRS promotes enabling scientific discovery to ensure robust utilization of available technology as well as identifying technologies moving up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level). A recent FOSTERRS facilitated support activity involved deployment of the AVIRIS NG (Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer- Next Generation) during the Santa Barbara Oil Spill to validate the potential of airborne hyperspectral imaging to real-time map beach tar coverage including surface validation data. Many developing airborne technologies have potential to transition to space-based platforms providing global readiness.

  6. Detection and monitoring of oil spills using hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Glenda; Roper, William E.; Gomez, Richard B.

    2003-08-01

    Oil pollution is a very important aspect in the environmental field. Oil pollution is an important subject due to its capacity to adversely affect animals, aquatic life, vegetation and drinking water. The movement of open water oil spills can be affected by mind, waves and tides. Land based oil spills are often affected by rain and temperature. It is important to have an accurate management of the cleanup. Remote sensing and in particular hyper-spectral capabilities, are being use to identify oil spills and prevent worse problems. In addition to this capability, this technology can be used for federal and state compliance of petroleum related companies. There are several hyper-spectral sensors used in the identification of oil spills. One commonly use sensor is the Airborne Imaging Spectroradiometer for Applications (AISA). The main concern associated with the use of these sensors is the potential for false identification of oil spills. The use of AISA to identify an oil spill over the Patuxent River is an example of how this tool can assist with investigating an oil pipeline accident, and its potential to affect the surrounding environment. A scenario like this also serves as a good test of the accuracy with which spills may be identified using new airborne sensors.

  7. Rock and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Simon; McRobbie, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Discusses rock as a form of both sexual expression and control. Describes rock's representations of masculinity and femininity and considers the contradictions involved in the representations. Relates the effects of rock to its form--as music, as commodity, as culture, and as entertainment. (JMF)

  8. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  9. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick.

  11. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M Y; Hodgson, W H

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 ..mu..m, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0.

  12. Recruitment and Participation of African American Men in Church-Based Health Promotion Workshops.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Darlene R; Holt, Cheryl L; Le, Daisy; Slade, Jimmie L; Muwwakkil, Bettye; Savoy, Alma; Williams, Ralph; Whitehead, Tony L; Wang, Min Qi; Naslund, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Health promotion interventions in African American communities are frequently delivered in church settings. The Men's Prostate Awareness Church Training (M-PACT) intervention aimed to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among African American men through their churches. Given the significant proportion and role of women in African American churches, the M-PACT study examined whether including women in the intervention approach would have an effect on study outcomes compared with a men-only approach. The current analysis discusses the men's participation rates in the M-PACT intervention, which consisted of a series of 4 bimonthly men's health workshops in 18 African American churches. Data suggest that once enrolled, retention rates for men ranged from 62 to 69 % over the workshop series. Among the men who were encouraged to invite women in their lives (e.g., wife/partner, sister, daughter, friend) to the workshops with them, less than half did so (46 %), suggesting under-implementation of this "health partner" approach. Finally, men's participation in the mixed-sex workshops were half the rate as compared to the men-only workshops. We describe recruitment techniques, lessons learned, and possible reasons for the observed study group differences in participation, in order to inform future interventions to reach men of color with health information. PMID:26089253

  13. OCTOPUS--a church-based sex education program for teens and parents.

    PubMed

    Jacknik, M; Isberner, F; Gumerman, S; Hayworth, R; Braunling-McMorrow, D

    1984-01-01

    OCTOPUS is the acronym for a rural, church-based sex education program for teens and parents. The tentacles symbolize the agencies and individuals involved in this multi-faceted community outreach program designed to promote "Open Communication Regarding Teenagers Or Parents Understanding of Sexuality." Its purpose was to establish a forum for family discussion within a church setting to enhance communication skills, convey factual information, and cultivate the development of a decision-making process to help parents help their teenagers acquire appropriate morals and values. The OCTOPUS program was a team effort comprised of nurses, health educators, and counselors with experience serving adolescents, ministers who sought to integrate religious views with sex education, and church and community members interested in improving dialogue between parents and teenagers about sexuality. The team developed a comprehensive yet flexible program that could be modified to meet each church's preferences. Generally, the topics were arranged into four two-hour sessions. Presentation methods included a combination of lectures, films, and pamphlets. Large and small group discussions were used for clarification and communication skills development. While the results of this program were not quantifiable, feedback from four churches and one-hundred participants has been highly favorable.

  14. Scientific evaluation of wall paintings from Bunesti Evangelical Church, Brasov county

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, Annamaria; MǎruÅ£oiu, Constantin; Bibire, Cristina; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Dreve, Simina

    2013-11-01

    Evangelical Church in the village Bunesti, Brasov county, is part of the fortified churches built since the XIV century at the south-eastern territory of Transylvania. Developed by addition in several stages during centuries, the church begun as Catholic chapel, then that was amplified in the sixteenth century, when Reform was adopted by the Saxon communities. In that period the building was extended in length and height and the catholic specific iconographic decorations were cancelled by covering with different layers of plaster and paint. The campaign of introducing in touristic circuit of old Saxon fortified churches generated, in terms of maintenance and renovations undertaken, the discovery of significant wall paintings, as treasures to be rescued and put into value. Our present efforts are focused on scientific evaluation of mural paintings found in Evangelical Church from Bunesti, by XRF and specific analysis performed on 10 different samples of mural paintings, completing visual and artistic analysis in order to establish the strategies for their recovering and preservation.

  15. Communicating HIV/AIDS through African American churches in North Carolina: implications and recommendations for HIV/AIDS faith-based programs.

    PubMed

    Moore, DaKysha; Onsomu, Elijah O; Timmons, Shirley M; Abuya, Benta A; Moore, Christina

    2012-09-01

    This study explores HIV/AIDS communication strategies among church leaders at predominately African American churches in a metropolitan city and surrounding areas in North Carolina. The church leaders contacted for the study are members of an interfaith-based HIV/AIDS program. The researchers used semi-standardized interviews to explore how church leaders address HIV/AIDS in the church. The findings indicate that the seven church leaders who participated in the study use a variety of communication channels to disseminate HIV/AIDS information for congregants and their surrounding communities, which include both interpersonal and mass media. PMID:20859766

  16. Communicating HIV/AIDS through African American churches in North Carolina: implications and recommendations for HIV/AIDS faith-based programs.

    PubMed

    Moore, DaKysha; Onsomu, Elijah O; Timmons, Shirley M; Abuya, Benta A; Moore, Christina

    2012-09-01

    This study explores HIV/AIDS communication strategies among church leaders at predominately African American churches in a metropolitan city and surrounding areas in North Carolina. The church leaders contacted for the study are members of an interfaith-based HIV/AIDS program. The researchers used semi-standardized interviews to explore how church leaders address HIV/AIDS in the church. The findings indicate that the seven church leaders who participated in the study use a variety of communication channels to disseminate HIV/AIDS information for congregants and their surrounding communities, which include both interpersonal and mass media.

  17. Locating spilled oil with airborne laser fluorosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Nelson, Robert D.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1999-02-01

    Locating oil in marine and terrestrial environments is a daunting task. There are commercially available off the shelf (COTS) sensors with a wide field-of-view (FOV) which can be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These generic sensors, however, lack the specificity required to positively identify oil and related products. The problem is exacerbated along beach and shoreline environments where a variety of organic and inorganic substrates are present. One sensor that can detect and classify oil in these environments is the laser fluorosensor. Laser fluorosensors have been under development by several agencies around the world for the past two decades. Environment Canada has been involved with laser fluorosensor development since the early 1990s. The prototype system was known as the Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF). The LEAF has recently been modified to provide real-time oil spill detection and classification. Fluorescence spectra are collected and analyzed at the rate of 100 Hz. Geo-referenced maps showing the locations of oil contamination are produced in real-time onboard the aircraft. While the LEAF has proven to be an excellent prototype sensor and a good operational tool, it has some deficiencies when it comes to oil spill response operations. A consortium including Environment Canada and the Minerals Management Service has recently funded the development of a new fluorosensor, called the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF). The SLEAF was designed to detect and map oil in shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. Oil tends to pile up in narrow bands along the high tide line on beaches. A nadir-looking, small footprint sensor such as the LEAF would have difficulty locating oil in this situation. The SLEAF employs a pair of conical scanning mirrors to direct the laser beam in a circular pattern below the aircraft. With a sampling rate of 400 Hz and real-time spectral analysis

  18. Fuel conservation by the application of spill prevention and failsafe engineering: a guideline manual

    SciTech Connect

    Goodier, J.L.; Siclari, R.J.; Garrity, P.A.

    1981-06-01

    This manual was developed to provide guideline information on spill prevention procedures for individuals who have the responsibility of maintaining a spill-free plant during the transportation, transfer, storage and processing of petroleum products. The manual can, however, be used to prevent spills of materials other than fuel oil. An attempt was made to cover every facet of spill prevention. Special emphasis is given to failsafe engineering as an approach to preventing spills from the predominant cause - human failure.

  19. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies.

  20. Intravascular spill of hyperosmolar urea during induced midtrimester abortion.

    PubMed

    Kovasznay, B M; Burkman, R T; Atienza, M F; King, T M

    1979-01-01

    Intravascular spill of hypertonic sodium chloride and the resultant serious and occasionally fatal consquences have been reported in association with induced midtrimester abortion. This report details 3 cases of intravascular spill of hyperosmolar urea. Although urea may pose less concern, because of its ability to readily cross cell membranes and its action as an osmotic diuretic, inadvertent intravascular spill can produce symptoms that include nausea, headache, sensations of warmth, and intense uterine cramping. In addition, abnormal blood pigments may occasionally be noted in the urine. Treatment includes intravenous hydration, careful monitoring of fluid/electrolyte balance and renal function, and avoiding the use of oxytocic agents.

  1. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Chemistry and toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, P.D.; Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Stubblefield, W.A.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes chemical and toxicological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program that was designed to assess recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989. The program is an application of the sediment quality triad approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in the sound and projected forward in time. It combined one-time sampling of 64 randomly chosen study sites representing four major habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites), with periodic sampling at 12 subjectively chosen fixed sites. Sediment samples--or when conditions required, filter-wipes from rock surfaces--were collected in each of three intertidal zones and from subtidal stations up to 30-m deep. Oil removal was generally quite rapid: by 1991 the concentration of oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez had been dramatically reduced on the majority of shorelines by both natural processes and cleanup efforts. Acute sediment toxicity from oil (as measured by standard toxicity tests) was virtually absent by 1990--91, except at a small number of isolated locations. The petroleum residues had degraded below the threshold of acute toxic effects. Measurable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels are, in general, well below those conservatively associated with adverse effects, and biological recovery has been considerably more rapid than the removal of the last chemical remnants. 55 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Harner, E.J.; Boehm, P.D.

    1995-12-31

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ``Sediment Quality Triad`` approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Spill prevention control and countermeasures plan

    SciTech Connect

    Biedermann, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    This SPCC Plan provides guidance for the prevention of accidental discharges and emergency response and cleanup measures in the event of a release of oil and petroleum products from DOE leased areas at the Pinellas Plant. It is the intent of the SPCC Plan to provide an outline of the procedures required in the event of spills, leaks, or other releases of oil or petroleum products of a magnitude that would impact or create hazards to off-site personnel or the environment. This plan provides details and descriptions of oil and petroleum product storage systems and their functions. In addition, procedures for specific situations, preventative maintenance and measures, containment systems, and incident reporting format are discussed.

  4. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. PMID:26105077

  5. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing.

  6. Sea otter oil-spill mitigation study

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.; Thomas, J.; Williams, T.M.; Kastelein, R.; Cornell, L.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of existing capture, transport, cleaning, and rehabilitation methods and develop new methods to reduce the impact of an accidental oil spill to California sea otters, resulting from the present conditions or from future Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas development in State or Federal waters. In addition, the study investigated whether or not a systematic difference in thermal conductivity existed between the pelts of Alaska and California Sea otters. This was done to assure that conclusions drawn from the oiling experiments carried out at Hubbs Marine Research Institute, Tetra Tech, Inc. contributed to the overall study by preparing a literature review and report on the fate and effects of oil dispersants and chemically dispersed oil.

  7. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  8. Panel recommendations on Oil Spill Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, George L.

    A technical panel was convened by the Minerals Management Services (MMS) of the Department of Interior to identify deficiencies and recommend improvements in their Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model. Members of the panel were J. M. Bane, Jr. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), G. S. Janowitz (North Carolina State University, Raleigh), T. H. Lee (University of Miami, Miami, Fla.), G. L. Mellor (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.), M. L. Spaulding (University of Rhode Island, Kingston), and F. M. Vukovich (Research Triangle Institute, Raleigh-Durham, N.C.).The present OSRA model uses climatologically derived near-surface velocity fields on which are superposed oil trajectory velocities derived from the so-called “3.5% rule”: this uses a wind series derived from a “transition probability matrix” statistical approach.

  9. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  10. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  11. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  12. The Nestucca oil spill; A Christmas story

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroch, G.N.

    1991-12-01

    It was winter cold on the Pacific Ocean on December 22, 1988, when plowing through the seas came the tug Ocean Service towing the good barge Nestucca. All was well - for a time. Then, as the two came into Grays Harbor, Washington, the monotonous yet peaceful chuga-chuga-chuga of the tug was disturbed by the sudden parting of the heavy towline and the casting adrift of the good barge Nestucca. Then, the Ocean Service was set into the Nestucca's sideshell, putting a hole in the barge's number one starboard cargo tank. And lo, there was a great darkness that appeared over the deep. A major oil spill was in the process of occurring. It was once again time to ante up and make right the offering to the Keepers of the Sorbent.

  13. Spreading of oil spilled under ice

    SciTech Connect

    Yapa, P.D.; Chowdhury, T. )

    1990-12-01

    A new set of equations is presented to describe the process of oil spreading under ice in clam waters. These equations consider the gravity (buoyancy)-inertia phase, the gravity (buoyancy)-viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy-surface-tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to the termination of spreading is presented. Laboratory experiments were conducted using both real ice covers in a cold room and artificial ice covers. The experiments included different ice-cover roughnesses from smooth to rough, oils of different viscosities, and a variety of discharge conditions. The experimental data show close agreement with the theory. These equations can be used during cleanup or environmental impact assessment to estimate the area of an oil slick with respect to time.

  14. Field evaluations of marine oil spill bioremediation.

    PubMed Central

    Swannell, R P; Lee, K; McDonagh, M

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation is defined as the act of adding or improving the availability of materials (e.g., nutrients, microorganisms, or oxygen) to contaminated environments to cause an acceleration of natural biodegradative processes. The results of field experiments and trials following actual spill incidents have been reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach as a treatment for oil contamination in the marine environment. The ubiquity of oil-degrading microorganisms in the marine environment is well established, and research has demonstrated the capability of the indigenous microflora to degrade many components of petroleum shortly after exposure. Studies have identified numerous factors which affect the natural biodegradation rates of oil, such as the origin and concentration of oil, the availability of oil-degrading microorganisms, nutrient concentrations, oxygen levels, climatic conditions, and sediment characteristics. Bioremediation strategies based on the application of fertilizers have been shown to stimulate the biodegradation rates of oil in aerobic intertidal sediments such as sand and cobble. The ratio of oil loading to nitrogen concentration within the interstitial water has been identified to be the principal controlling factor influencing the success of this bioremediation strategy. However, the need for the seeding of natural environments with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria has not been clearly demonstrated under natural environmental conditions. It is suggested that bioremediation should now take its place among the many techniques available for the treatment of oil spills, although there is still a clear need to set operational limits for its use. On the basis of the available evidence, we have proposed preliminary operational guidelines for bioremediation on shoreline environments. PMID:8801437

  15. The Problems of Eastern Orthodox Church Buildings of Historical Value - Changing Uses over the Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarocka-Mikrut, Aleksandra; Gleń, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    There are many Eastern Orthodox church buildings throughout the Lublin Province. Over the years, these architectural objects have undergone multiple transformations, both in terms of changing religious denominations and rituals and also adaptation to new functions, such as warehousing. This article classifies and presents the transformations carried out in selected Eastern Orthodox churches in the Lublin province. By using comparative analysis of the buildings' primary condition and their current state, it was possible to identify the risks and opportunities arising from the process of adapting these buildings and their rich historical background. Additionally, the article includes a subjective assessment of the adaptation works and their influence on the physical form of the Eastern Orthodox churches examined. To present the adaptation methods currently applied to religious buildings located in Poland, this article focuses on examples of already-transformed properties that used to have a religious function in the past, but that have now been turned into commercial properties.

  16. The roles of parenting, church attendance, and depression in adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla; Choi, Won S; Kaur, Harsohena; Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify contextual factors related to smoking among urban African-American and White adolescents. We administered a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial variables to 299 adolescents in an urban pediatric clinic in the Midwest. Results indicated that being female, older age, lower academic performance, depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, parental smoking, and parental attitudes toward smoking were related to adolescent smoking. After controlling for demographics, the multivariate model predicting adolescent smoking included depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, and parental disapproval of smoking. Given these findings, efforts to decrease adolescent smoking may be enhanced by attending to depressive symptoms demonstrated by adolescents as well as contextual factors including parental attitudes and church attendance.

  17. Receiving Social Support at Church When Stressful Life Events Arise: Do Catholics and Protestants Differ?

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older Protestants and older Catholics differ in the amount of social support they receive from fellow church members and members of the clergy when stressful life events arise. The data come from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults. The findings reveal that at relatively low levels of exposure to stress, older Catholics are less likely than older Protestants to get emotional support from either rank-and-file church members or members of the clergy. However, as the level of exposure to stress increases, this difference disappears, and older Catholics appear to be just as likely as older Protestants to receive emotional support from fellow church members and members of the clergy. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21572579

  18. Exceptions to the rules of oil-spill behavior: Case studies of major oil spills of the past twenty years

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.O.

    1994-11-01

    Studies of major oil spills over the past 20 yr have allowed an evolution of our understanding of how to respond to and remediate the environmental impacts from such spills. There have been a number of spills for which follow-up research has provided major turning points that allowed the development of certain rules of oil-spill behavior. For example, the spill of over 100,000 tons of crude oil by the tanker Urquiola on the coast of Spain in May 1976 demonstrated the importance of hydrodynamic energy level in natural cleanup processes. Research on the spill of over 200,000 tons of crude oil along the coast of France by the tanker Amoco Cadiz in March 1978 allowed a better understanding of the long-term effects of spilled oil on exposed tidal flats and salt marshes. The oil spilled by the tanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March 1989 impacted many miles of gravel beaches, which were treated by a number of methods, including some innovative berm-relocation techniques. A thorough understanding of the coastal geomorphology and processes of the spill site was essential for the development of meaningful contingency and response plans. Research on the impacts of intertidal habitats of the coast of Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War spill of 1991 indicates that some previously held concepts on oil behavior and fate on shorelines must be revised. One of the best established rules of oil-spill behavior was that the depth of oil penetration on sand beaches and tidal flats increases with increasing sediment grain size. However, no such correlation was found on the Saudi Arabian coast, primarily due to the presence of secondary porosity (e.g., bubble sand, extensive burrows, and gypsum crystals). The oil penetrated to depths of tens of centimeters, even in fine sand, which has significantly slowed natural removal processes and weathering rates. These sediments remained heavily oiled with incipient asphalt pavements forming two years after the spill.

  19. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests: Threats, opportunities and implications for their management.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R

    2016-05-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate

  20. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests: Threats, opportunities and implications for their management.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R

    2016-05-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate

  1. Satellite Observations: Oil Spills Impact on Phytoplankton in Bohai Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Li; Tang, Danling; Wang, Sufen; Pan, Gang

    2014-11-01

    This study discussed ecological responses to the Penglai oil spills in the Bohai Sea, occurring on June 4, 2011, using MODIS Chlorophyll-a data. After time intervals of 20 days, 12 months and 14 months, phytoplankton blooms appeared at three locations in the surrounding and distant regions of the oil spills in the Bohai Sea. A bloom with high Chlorophyll-a (13.66 mg m-3) spread over an area of 800 km2 on June 18-25, 2011, about 56 km northeast from the location of the oil spills. A pronounced increase in the monthly Chlorophyll-a concentration (6.40 mg m-3) indicating phytoplankton bloom was observed in the Bohai Sea in June 2012. Phytoplankton blooms depend on the amount and composition of oil, toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons, micro-organisms, and sea ice. The oil spills impact phytoplankton for a long duration, which impacts the marine ecosystem.

  2. 70. VIEW OF PARTIALLY COMPLETED FLUME BELOW THE AUTOMATIC SPILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. VIEW OF PARTIALLY COMPLETED FLUME BELOW THE AUTOMATIC SPILL AT THE RESERVOIR, SHOWING MOUNT RAINIER IN THE DISTANCE, Print No. 192, December 1903 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  3. European pipeline spills in 1990 fewest on record

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports that fewer spills from petroleum pipelines occurred in Western Europe in 1990 than in any of the previous 20 years for which such statistics have been compiled. Only three reportable spills occurred in 1990, the most recent year for which data have been compiled. Total amount of spilled crude oil and petroleum product amounted to 582 cu m (3,667 bbl), of which 520 cu m (3,276 bbl) were lost in the environment. The gross quantity spilled has only been lower once, in 1975. The results were reported by Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (Concawe), Brussels, in its annual report Performance of Oil Industry Cross-Country Pipelines in Western Europe. Sixty-three companies operating oil pipelines in Western Europe participated in the report.

  4. Assessment of photochemical processes in marine oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Radović, Jagoš R; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Jimenez, Núria; Reddy, Christopher M; Bayona, Josep M; Albaigés, Joan

    2014-02-15

    Understanding weathering processes plays a critical role in oil spill forensics, which is based on the comparison of the distributions of selected compounds assumed to be recalcitrant and/or have consistent weathering transformations. Yet, these assumptions are based on limited laboratory and oil-spill studies. With access to additional sites that have been oiled by different types of oils and exposures, there is a great opportunity to expand on our knowledge about these transformations. Here, we demonstrate the effects of photooxidation on the overall composition of spilled oils caused by natural and simulated sunlight, and particularly on the often used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the biomarker triaromatic steranes (TAS). Both laboratory and field data from oil released from the Macondo well oil following the Deepwater Horizon disaster (2010), and heavy fuel-oil from the Prestige tanker spill (2002) have been obtained to improve the data interpretation of the typical fingerprinting methodology.

  5. Radiation Spill at Hanford: The Anatomy of an Accident

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Describes the circumstances leading to a recent spill of radioactive wastes at the Atomic Energy Commission's Hanford Reservation in Washington. Also briefly discusses previous accidental leaks and plans for safer storage of radioactive waste materials in the future. (JR)

  6. USE OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS FOR MARINE OIL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical dispersants are one of the tools available to oil spill response personnel to control the spread of an oil slick. The manual presents information from the literature relative to dispersant effectiveness, toxicity and other environmental factors, regulatory and administra...

  7. Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  8. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.

    PubMed

    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human

  9. Archaeomagnetic intensity of ceramic sherds from two Rhodian Byzantine churches: A preliminary initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, W. S.; Liritzis, I.

    Archaeointensity results were obtained from ceramic sherds incorporated in the 'mortar' of two Rhodian Byzantine churches. Samples were analysed using a modified Thellier method with samples orientated so that the Natural Remanent Magnetization is at right angles to the applied laboratory field. Only a few samples showed high magnetic stability and an archaeointensity result was obtained from ceramic sherds (tilebrick) from the lower interior walls of the church (Afandou Katholiki). Comparison with the Geomagnetic Field Variation plot indicated the probability density of possible dates between ~1000 to ~1500 AD. a date, broadly consistent with historical records.

  10. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.

    PubMed

    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human

  11. Legacy denied: African American gay men, AIDS, and the black church.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the religious development and spiritual formation of African American gay men living with AIDS. In response to an in-depth interviewing approach, 10 men described their experiences of church participation. The participants' data reveal their religious initiation and participation as well as their need to extinguish their affiliation with the black church as a result of religiously sanctioned homophobia, heterosexism, and AIDS phobia. The article also explores the conundrum of an African American religious organization engaging in oppression despite its historic role of supporting liberation and opposing discrimination.

  12. Teacher Reflection among Professional Seminary Faculty in the Seminaries and Institutes Department of the Church Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Ryan S.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed at exploring and explaining the practices and processes of teacher reflection among a group of professional secondary-level religious educators in the Church Educational System of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as seeking to understand the perceived impact of those reflective practices on the…

  13. Language and Literacy in the Pentecostal Church and the Public High School: A Case Study of a Mexican ESL Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from a multi-year ethnography of a Latino/a immigrant Pentecostal church and from high school observations and interviews of three focal students, this article compares the language and literacy experiences of an immigrant Mexican Pentecostal adolescent in church and school contexts. I document how the youth's Sunday school class fostered…

  14. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  15. Contemporary Practices in Southern Baptist Church Music: A Collective Case Study of Worship, Ministry Design and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Leslie Myers

    2013-01-01

    The widespread popular music-based modern worship movement begun in the 1960's brought the styles and sounds of popular music into worship as churches sought to increase cultural connection in their worship. The worship transformation brought significant challenges. Church musicians trained in traditional skills had to adapt and incorporate skills…

  16. Shaping Attitude toward Christianity among Year Seven Pupils: The Influence of Sex, Church, Home and Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindells, Tracy; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the differences in attitude toward Christianity among year seven secondary school pupils who had undertaken their primary education either in a Church of England voluntary aided school or a non-denominational state-maintained school. Data were provided by 492 year-seven pupils attending three Church of England…

  17. A pilot urban church-based programme to reduce risk factors for diabetes among Western Samoans in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D; Fleming, C; Voyle, J; Fou, F; Feo, S; Gatland, B

    1998-02-01

    We have assessed the impact of a 2-year pilot church-base diabetes risk reduction programme on major lifestyle predictors of future Type 2 diabetes mellitus: exercise and weight control in a prospective non-randomized controlled study of a modular lifestyle and diabetes awareness intervention programme using a community development model. The study involved two complete church congregations from an ethnic group at high risk of diabetes (Western Samoans) (intervention church n = 78; control church n = 144). Weight remained stable (0+/-4.8 kg) in the intervention church but increased by 3.1+/-9.8 kg in the control church (p = 0.05). In the intervention church, there was an associated reduction in waist circumference (-4+/-10 cm vs +2+/-7 cm in control, p < 0.001), an increase in diabetes knowledge (46+/-26% vs 4+/-17% in control, p < 0.001) and an increase in the proportion exercising regularly (+22% vs -8% in control, p < 0.05). Consumption of key fatty foods was also reduced in the intervention church. We conclude that diabetes risk reduction programmes based upon lifestyle change, diabetes awareness, and empowerment of high risk communities can significantly reduce risk factors for future Type 2 diabetes.

  18. 26 CFR 1.410(d)-1 - Election by church to have participation, vesting, funding, etc. provisions apply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election by church to have participation...-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(d)-1 Election by church to have participation, vesting, funding... are section 410 (relating to minimum participation standards), section 411 (relating to...

  19. Taking It to the Pews: A CBPR-Guided HIV Awareness and Screening Project with Black Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bowe-Thompson, Carole; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Hawes, Starlyn; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Martinez, David; Goggin, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach is a potentially effective strategy for exploring the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV interventions in African American churches. This CBPR-guided study describes a church-based HIV awareness and screening intervention (Taking It to the Pews [TIPS]) that fully…

  20. Good News for the Poor?--A Case Study of Church and School Collaboration in Inner-City Belfast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Meneely, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This critical reflection addresses the role of the Christian Church in tackling educational underachievement and poverty in the inner city. The Church has traditionally expressed a commitment to meeting the needs of the poor, and has exerted a significant influence on education over many years. However, there is a notable lack of guidance and…

  1. The Role of the Church in Career Guidance and Development: A Review of the Literature 1960-Early 2000s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Lori A.

    2003-01-01

    A literature review focused on vocational themes in relation to the Christian church's role in career guidance and development: vocational guidance as a church responsibility; the dignity of occupations; leisure as an aspect of work; women's career development; and occupation for older adults. The review concluded that literature on the topic has…

  2. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  3. Unmanned vehicles for maritime spill response case study: Exercise Cathach.

    PubMed

    Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan

    2016-09-15

    This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances.

  4. Sensor for detection of liquid spills on surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Brent C.; Gayle, Tom M.

    1989-07-04

    A surface liquid detector is disclosed for detecting liquids spilled on surfaces such as floors. A temperature-sensitive thermistor probe is used in a bridge circuit to detect the change in resistance in the thermistor due to the change in thermal conductivity that occurs when a liquid contacts the probe. The device is characterized by the ability to detect either conductive or nonconductive liquids, such as water or oil spills.

  5. Laser-based sensors for oil spill remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Carl E.; Fingas, Mervin F.; Mullin, Joseph V.

    1997-07-01

    Remote sensing is becoming an increasingly important tool for the effective direction of oil spill countermeasures. Cleanup personnel have recognized that remote sensing can increase spill cleanup efficiency. It has long been recognized that there is no one sensor which is capable of detecting oil and related petroleum products in all environments and spill scenarios. There are sensors which possess a wide field-of- view and can therefore be used to map the overall extent of the spill. These sensors, however lack the capability to positively identify oil and related products, especially along complicated beach and shoreline environments where several substrates are present. The laser-based sensors under development by the Emergencies Science Division of Environment Canada are designed to fill specific roles in oil spill response. The scanning laser environmental airborne fluorosensor (SLEAF) is being developed to detect and map oil and related petroleum products in complex marine and shoreline environments where other non-specific sensors experience difficulty. The role of the SLEAF would be to confirm or reject suspected oil contamination sites that have been targeted by the non-specific sensors. This confirmation will release response crews from the time-consuming task of physically inspecting each site, and direct crews to sites that require remediation. The laser ultrasonic remote sensing of oil thickness (LURSOT) sensor will provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness from an airborne platform. There are presently no sensors available, either airborne or in the laboratory which can provide an absolute measurement of oil thickness. This information is necessary for the effective direction of spill countermeasures such as dispersant application and in-situ burning. This paper describes the development of laser-based airborne oil spill remote sensing instrumentation at Environment Canada and identifies the anticipated benefits of the use of this technology

  6. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota.

  7. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, James R.; Prince, Roger C.; Harner, E. James; Atlas, Ronald M.

    1994-03-01

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for oil spills has been difficult to establish on dynamic, heterogeneous marine shorelines. A new interpretative technique used following the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska shows that fertilizer applications significantly increased rates of oil biodegradation. Biodegradation rates depended mainly on the concentration of nitrogen within the shoreline, the oil loading, and the extent to which natural biodegradation had already taken place. The results suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of bioremediation measures in the future.

  8. Unmanned vehicles for maritime spill response case study: Exercise Cathach.

    PubMed

    Dooly, Gerard; Omerdic, Edin; Coleman, Joseph; Miller, Liam; Kaknjo, Admir; Hayes, James; Braga, Jóse; Ferreira, Filipe; Conlon, Hugh; Barry, Hugh; Marcos-Olaya, Jesús; Tuohy, Thomas; Sousa, João; Toal, Dan

    2016-09-15

    This paper deals with two aspects, namely a historical analysis of the use of unmanned vehicles (UAVs ROVs, AUVs) in maritime spill incidents and a detailed description of a multi-agency oil and HNS incident response exercise involving the integration and analysis of unmanned vehicles environmental sensing equipment. The exercise was a first in terms of the level of robotic systems deployed to assist in survey, surveillance and inspection roles for oil spills and harmful and noxious substances. PMID:27339741

  9. Sensor for detection of liquid spills on surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Brent C.; Gayle, Tom M.

    1989-01-01

    A surface liquid detector is disclosed for detecting liquids spilled on surfaces such as floors. A temperature-sensitive thermistor probe is used in a bridge circuit to detect the change in resistance in the thermistor due to the change in thermal conductivity that occurs when a liquid contacts the probe. The device is characterized by the ability to detect either conductive or nonconductive liquids, such as water or oil spills.

  10. Fate and toxicity of spilled oil from the Exxon Valdez. Subtidal study number 4. Exxon Valdez oil spill, state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Three separate papers are represented in this final report; Toxicity of intertidal and subtidal sediments contaminated by the Exxon Valdez oil spill; Comparative toxicities of polar and non-polar organic fractions from sediments affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska; and Fate of the oil spilled from the T/V Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  11. Endmember detection in marine environment with oil spill event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, Charoula; Karathanassi, Vassilia

    2011-11-01

    Oil spill events are a crucial environmental issue. Detection of oil spills is important for both oil exploration and environmental protection. In this paper, investigation of hyperspectral remote sensing is performed for the detection of oil spills and the discrimination of different oil types. Spectral signatures of different oil types are very useful, since they may serve as endmembers in unmixing and classification models. Towards this direction, an oil spectral library, resulting from spectral measurements of artificial oil spills as well as of look-alikes in marine environment was compiled. Samples of four different oil types were used; two crude oils, one marine residual fuel oil, and one light petroleum product. Lookalikes comprise sea water, river discharges, shallow water and water with algae. Spectral measurements were acquired with spectro-radiometer GER1500. Moreover, oil and look-alikes spectral signatures have been examined whether they can be served as endmembers. This was accomplished by testifying their linear independence. After that, synthetic hyperspectral images based on the relevant oil spectral library were created. Several simplex-based endmember algorithms such as sequential maximum angle convex cone (SMACC), vertex component analysis (VCA), n-finder algorithm (N-FINDR), and automatic target generation process (ATGP) were applied on the synthetic images in order to evaluate their effectiveness for detecting oil spill events occurred from different oil types. Results showed that different types of oil spills with various thicknesses can be extracted as endmembers.

  12. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  13. Almost remediation of saltwater spills at E and P sites

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    At exploration and production (E and P) sites crude spills restricted to topsoil are often self-remediating, but salt spills rarely are. Most soils naturally biodegrade crude. Without appropriate human intervention, brine spills can result in decades of barren land and seriously degrade surface water and aquifers. Servicing the E and P industry are remediation practitioners with a limited array of often expensive remediation concepts and materials which they hope will work, and sometimes do. Unfortunately, many remediation practitioners are unfamiliar with, or disregard, the natural physical, chemical, and biotic complexity of the soil and aquatic media. All too often this results in exacerbating injury to an already damaged ecosystem. Likewise, important cultural factors such as public relations, environmental regulations, property rights, and water rights are also overlooked until after implementation of an ill-advised or illegal remediation design has been initiated. A major issue is determining what constitutes ``successful`` remediation of a brine spill. Environmental managers have long sought one or two universally applicable fast and cheap amendment/treatment protocols for all their diverse multi-state salt affected spill scenarios. This presentation describes aspects of common spill-affected ecosystems which must be considered to achieve ``successful`` remediation.

  14. Aoutomatic Oil Spill Detection Using TerraSAR-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulipiye, Kaiyoumu; Balik Sanli, Fusun

    2016-07-01

    Oil release into the ocean may affect marine ecosystems and cause environmental pollution. Thus, oil spill detection and identification becomes critical important. Characterized by synoptic view over large regions, remote sensing has been proved to be a reliable tool for oil spill detection. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows returned signal that clearly distinguish oil from oil-free surface under optimal wind conditions, which makes it the most frequent used remote sensing technique in oil spill detection. Algorithms of automatic oil spill detection has already been developed for different SAR sensors, including RADARSAT and ENVISAT. In this study, we want to apply automatic oil spill detection algorithms on TerraSAR-X data which is previously developed for ASAR data. The applied methodology includes two steps as segmentation and classification. First segmentation algorithms compiled by C# have been applied under a Bayesian framework adopting a multi-level logistic. After segmentation different classification methods such as feature selection, filter, and embedded selection have been applied. As a result the used classifiers for oil spill detection will be compared, and the complete processing chain will be evaluated.

  15. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide.

    PubMed

    Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tones of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems. PMID:15490095

  16. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: field observations and simulations.

    PubMed

    Vethamony, P; Sudheesh, K; Babu, M T; Jayakumar, S; Manimurali, R; Saran, A K; Sharma, L H; Rajan, B; Srivastava, M

    2007-07-01

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur.

  17. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas.

  18. The value of offshore field experiments in oil spill technology development for Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Brandvik, Per Johan; Daling, Per S; Singsaas, Ivar; Sørstrøm, Stein Erik

    2016-10-15

    The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open and ice covered waters in Norway. The importance of these experimental oil spills for understanding oil spill behavior, development of oil spill and response models, and response technologies are discussed here. The large progress within oil spill R&D in Norway since the Ekofisk blowout has been possible through a combination of laboratory testing, basin studies, and experimental oil spills. However, it is the authors' recommendation that experimental oil spills still play an important role as a final validation for the extensive R&D presently going on in Norway, e.g. deep-water releases of oil and gas. PMID:27531144

  19. A Developing Framework for the Development, Implementation and Maintenance of HIV Interventions in the African American Church

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The African American church has promoted the health of African Americans through supporting interventions that target a wide variety of diseases, and it is a crucial community partner in the development of HIV prevention interventions. Although research has described the development of church-based HIV interventions, there is a significant lack of frameworks and approaches available to guide the implementation and maintenance of HIV interventions within church-based settings. A developing framework of a comprehensive church-based intervention, derived from an ethnographic study about the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV/AIDS Ministry within an African American church is presented. This approach can provide guidance to support the development, implementation, and maintenance of HIV interventions in faith settings. PMID:25702738

  20. "Let Me Help You Help Me": Church-Based HIV Prevention for Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Powell, Terrinieka W; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189