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Sample records for cia2 coordinately up-regulates

  1. Deficits in coordinated motor behavior and in nigrostriatal dopaminergic system ameliorated and VMAT2 expression up-regulated in aged male rats by administration of testosterone propionate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Kang, Yunxiao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yingbo; Cui, Rui; Yan, Wensheng; Tan, Huibing; Li, Shuangcheng; Wu, Baiyila; Cui, Huixian; Shi, Geming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of testosterone propionate (TP) supplements on the coordinated motor behavior and nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system were analyzed in aged male rats. The present study showed the coordinated motor behavioral deficits, the reduced activity of NSDA system and the decreased expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in 24 month-old male rats. Long term TP treatment improved the motor coordination dysfunction with aging. Increased tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter, as well as dopamine and its metabolites were found in the NSDA system of TP-treated 24 month-old male rats, indicative of the amelioratory effects of TP supplements on NSDA system of aged male rats. The enhancement of dopaminergic (DAergic) activity of NSDA system by TP supplements might underlie the amelioration of the coordinated motor dysfunction in aged male rats. TP supplements up-regulated VMAT2 expression in NSDA system of aged male rats. Up-regulation of VMAT2 expression in aged male rats following chronic TP treatment might be involved in the maintenance of DAergic function of NSDA system in aged male rats.

  2. Coordinate up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and cyclo-oxygenase-2 gene expression in human colorectal cells and in colorectal adenocarcinoma biopsies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, D. F.; McQuaid, K. R.; Gilbertson, V. L.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1999-01-01

    Many colorectal cancers have high levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), an enzyme that metabolizes the essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Since the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) is involved in the uptake of essential fatty acids, we studied the effect of LDL on growth and gene regulation in colorectal cancer cells. DiFi cells grown in lipoprotein-deficient sera (LPDS) grew more slowly than cells with LDL. LDLr antibody caused significant inhibition of tumor cell growth but did not affect controls. In addition, LDL uptake did not change in the presence of excess LDL, suggesting that ldlr mRNA lacks normal feedback regulation in some colorectal cancers. Analysis of the ldlr mRNA showed that excess LDL in the medium did not cause down-regulation of the message even after 24 hr. The second portion of the study examined the mRNA expression of ldlr and its co-regulation with cox-2 in normal and tumor specimens from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. The ratio of tumor:paired normal mucosa of mRNA expression of ldlr and of cox-2 was measured in specimens taken during colonoscopy. ldlr and cox-2 transcripts were apparent in 11 of 11 carcinomas. There was significant coordinate up-regulation both of ldlr and of cox-2 in 6 of 11 (55%) tumors compared with normal colonic mucosa. There was no up-regulation of cox-2 without concomitant up-regulation of ldlr. These data suggest that the LDLr is abnormally regulated in some colorectal tumors and may play a role in the up-regulation of cox-2. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Mitotic aberrations induced by carbaryl reflect tyrosine kinase inhibition with coincident up-regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity: implications for coordination of karyokinesis and cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Renglin, A; Härmälä-Brasken, A S; Eriksson, J E; Onfelt, A

    1999-05-01

    The insecticide carbaryl and its metabolite 1-naphthol cause partial uncoupling of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts; karyokinesis is blocked in metaphase, the microtubules of the spindle depolymerize and the chromosomes and spindle remnants become displaced to the periphery of the cell. A high frequency of these disturbed cells elongate and a smaller fraction initiate a cleavage furrow. Here, we attempt to determine the potential targets for carbaryl and 1-naphthol in cytokinesis-specific signalling, led by the fact that the potential protein phosphatase inhibitor 1-naphthyl phosphate was previously identified in treated cells. We found that the typical cytological pattern induced by carbaryl and 1-naphthol could be obtained with tyrphostins, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, indicating that the carbaryl-induced effects could be due to tyrosine kinase inhibition. This was confirmed by tyrosine kinase assays showing that carbaryl, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol were equally efficient at inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity as tyrphostin B44(-). As tyrosine kinases can act as regulatory factors in determining dephosphorylation rates, the activities of type-1 (PP1) and type-2A (PP2A) serine/threonine protein phosphatases were also determined. There was a clear up-regulation of the overall PP1/PP2A activities in cells treated with carbaryl, 1-naphthol or tyrphostin B44(-). This stimulation was shown to be indirect because these compounds had no effect on the activity of purified human PP1 in the test tube. 2-Naphthol, which has been found to be less efficient with regard to displacement of chromatin, did not cause up-regulation, but a significant decrease in PP1/PP2A activity. We suggest that a net decrease in tyrosine kinase activity in combination with a net increase in PP1/PP2A activity is a precondition for cell elongation and cytokinesis in mammalian cells and that the corresponding enzymes are targets in the network of activities

  4. Yeast adaptation to mancozeb involves the up-regulation of FLR1 under the coordinate control of Yap1, Rpn4, Pdr3, and Yrr1.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Miguel Cacho; Dias, Paulo Jorge; Simões, Tânia; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2008-03-07

    FLR1 gene, encoding a multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) was found to confer resistance to the fungicide mancozeb in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This agrochemical has been linked to the development of Parkinson disease and cancer. Yeast response to mancozeb was proved to involve the strong activation of FLR1 transcription (20-fold) during the fungicide-induced growth latency. This activation of FLR1 transcription is fully dependent on Yap1p and is reduced (by 50%) in the absence of Rpn4p, Yrr1p or Pdr3p. A model for the coordinate action over FLR1 transcription activation, in response to mancozeb, of these transcription factors that mediate oxidative stress response (Yap1p), proteasome gene expression (Rpn4p), and pleiotropic drug resistance (Pdr3p and Yrr1p), is proposed.

  5. Human CIA2A (FAM96A) and CIA2B (FAM96B) integrate maturation of different subsets of cytosolic-nuclear iron-sulfur proteins and iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Stehling, Oliver; Mascarenhas, Judita; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Sheftel, Alex D.; Niggemeyer, Brigitte; Rösser, Ralf; Pierik, Antonio J.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Lill, Roland

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Numerous cytosolic and nuclear proteins involved in metabolism, DNA maintenance, protein translation, or iron homeostasis depend on iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cofactors, yet their assembly is poorly defined. Here, we identify and characterize human CIA2A (FAM96A), CIA2B (FAM96B), and CIA1 (CIAO1) as components of the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. CIA1 associates with either CIA2A or CIA2B and the CIA targeting factor MMS19. The CIA2B-CIA1-MMS19 complex binds to and facilitates assembly of most cytosolic-nuclear Fe/S proteins. In contrast, CIA2A specifically matures iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1 which is critical for cellular iron homeostasis. Surprisingly, a second layer of iron regulation involves the stabilization of IRP2 by CIA2A binding or upon depletion of CIA2B or MMS19, even though IRP2 lacks a Fe/S cluster. In summary, CIA2B-CIA1-MMS19 and CIA2A-CIA1 assist different branches of Fe/S protein assembly, and intimately link this process to cellular iron regulation via IRP1 Fe/S cluster maturation and IRP2 stabilization. PMID:23891004

  6. CIA2 deficiency results in impaired oxidative stress response and enhanced intracellular basal UPR activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Hua-Zhen; Niu, Yu-Jie; Yuan, Yuan; Fang, Bing-Xiong; Liu, Yi-Na; Cai, Lu-Hui; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-01

    Yeast Cia2p is a component of the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. Initial studies of the CIA machinery were performed in yeast, but the precise role of Cia2p in this eukaryote is still unknown. We report that CIA2 deficiency results in impaired oxidative stress response, as evidenced by increased sensitivity to the oxidant cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), impaired activities of superoxide dismutases and aconitase and decreased replicative lifespan in the mutants. Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were significantly increased in CIA2-deficient cells after treatment with CHP. We also show that CIA2-deficient cells display an increased resistance to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as evidenced by the upregulated splicing of the mRNA of HAC1, which encodes a functional transcription factor that regulates the transcription of unfolded protein response (UPR) target genes, suggesting enhanced intracellular UPR activity. Furthermore, the transcription of several canonical UPR target genes is strongly induced in CIA2-deficient cells as compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results suggest the involvement of Cia2p in oxidative and ER stress responses in yeast. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Sucrose prevents up-regulation of senescence-associated genes in carnation petals.

    PubMed

    Hoeberichts, Frank A; van Doorn, Wouter G; Vorst, Oscar; Hall, Robert D; van Wordragen, Monique F

    2007-01-01

    cDNA microarrays were used to characterize senescence-associated gene expression in petals of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers, sampled from anthesis to the first senescence symptoms. The population of PCR fragments spotted on these microarrays was enriched for flower-specific and senescence-specific genes, using subtractive hybridization. About 90% of the transcripts showed a large increase in quantity, approximately 25% transiently, and about 65% throughout the 7 d experiment. Treatment with silver thiosulphate (STS), which blocks the ethylene receptor and prevented the normal senescence symptoms, prevented the up-regulation of almost all of these genes. Sucrose treatment also considerably delayed visible senescence. Its effect on gene expression was very similar to that of STS, suggesting that soluble sugars act as a repressor of ethylene signal transduction. Two fragments that encoded a carnation EIN3-like (EIL) protein were isolated, some of which are key transcription factors that control ethylene response genes. One of these (Dc-EIL3) was up-regulated during senescence. Its up-regulation was delayed by STS and prevented by sucrose. Sucrose, therefore, seems to repress ethylene signalling, in part, by preventing up-regulation of Dc-EIL3. Some other transcription factors displayed an early increase in transcript abundance: a MYB-like DNA binding protein, a MYC protein, a MADS-box factor, and a zinc finger protein. Genes suggesting a role in senescence of hormones other than ethylene encoded an Aux/IAA protein, which regulate transcription of auxin-induced genes, and a cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase, which degrades cytokinin. Taken together, the results suggest a master switch during senescence, controlling the co-ordinated up-regulation of numerous ethylene response genes. Dc-EIL3 might be (part of) this master switch.

  8. Nutraceutical up-regulation of serotonin paradoxically induces compulsive behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The role of diet in either the etiology or treatment of complex mental disorder is highly controversial in psychiatry. However, physiological mechanisms by which diet can influence brain chemistry – particularly that of serotonin – are well established. Here we show that dietary up-regulation of br...

  9. NGF up-regulates TRPA1: implications for orofacial pain.

    PubMed

    Diogenes, A; Akopian, A N; Hargreaves, K M

    2007-06-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin repeat 1 (TRPA1) channel is believed to be involved in many forms of acute and chronic hyperalgesia. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) regulates chronic inflammatory hyperalgesia by controlling gene expression in sensory neurons, including genes involved in inflammatory hyperalgesia in the dental pulp. We hypothesized that NGF increases functional activities of the TRPA1 channel in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Here, we show that NGF induced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of TRPA1 mRNA in trigeminal ganglia neurons, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. In addition, NGF evoked a time-dependent increase of mustard oil (MO)-evoked TRPA1 activation in trigeminal ganglia neurons. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NGF participates in the functional up-regulation of TRPA1 in trigeminal ganglia neurons. These enhanced activities of TRPA1 could play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia following nerve injury and inflammation in the orofacial region.

  10. Nephronectin Expression Is Up-Regulated by BMP-2.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Tamaki; Yamada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Dai; Morimura, Naoko; Sasagane, Yoshiyuki; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Nephronectin (Npnt), known to be a ligand of integrin α8β1, plays important roles in the development and function of various tissues, including those of the kidneys, liver, bones, and muscles. In previous studies, we showed that the expression of Npnt mRNA was regulated by various cytokines, including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and oncostatin M (OSM), and that over-expression of Npnt enhanced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we found that bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), known as an osteogenesis inducing cytokine, strongly up-regulated the expression of Npnt mRNA in a murine skeletal muscle cell line (C2C12) via the BMP-SMAD signaling pathway.

  11. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T.; Minas, Tsion Z.; Conn, Erin J.; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T.; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Üren, Aykut

    2016-01-01

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes. PMID:27137931

  12. Ezrin Inhibition Up-regulates Stress Response Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Haydar; Bulut, Gülay; Han, Jenny; Graham, Garrett T; Minas, Tsion Z; Conn, Erin J; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Pauly, Gary T; Hayran, Mutlu; Li, Xin; Özdemirli, Metin; Ayhan, Ayşe; Rudek, Michelle A; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Üren, Aykut

    2016-06-17

    Ezrin is a member of the ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) family of proteins that links cortical cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. High expression of ezrin correlates with poor prognosis and metastasis in osteosarcoma. In this study, to uncover specific cellular responses evoked by ezrin inhibition that can be used as a specific pharmacodynamic marker(s), we profiled global gene expression in osteosarcoma cells after treatment with small molecule ezrin inhibitors, NSC305787 and NSC668394. We identified and validated several up-regulated integrated stress response genes including PTGS2, ATF3, DDIT3, DDIT4, TRIB3, and ATF4 as novel ezrin-regulated transcripts. Analysis of transcriptional response in skin and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from NSC305787-treated mice compared with a control group revealed that, among those genes, the stress gene DDIT4/REDD1 may be used as a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of ezrin inhibitor compound activity. In addition, we validated the anti-metastatic effects of NSC305787 in reducing the incidence of lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcoma and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of NSC305787 and NSC668394 in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that cytoplasmic ezrin, previously considered a dormant and inactive protein, has important functions in regulating gene expression that may result in down-regulation of stress response genes.

  13. Interleukin-18 is up-regulated in infectious pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Dima, Efrossini; Psallidas, Ioannis; Moschos, Charalampos; Kollintza, Androniki; Kalomenidis, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pleural and systemic expression of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in patients with pleural effusions (PEs), and the effects of the cytokine in mouse pleural space. One hundred and sixty patients, 23 with pleural effusions (PEs) due to heart failure, 60 malignant, 25 parapneumonic/empyemas, 15 tuberculous and 37 with exudates of miscellaneous etiologies were included in the study. Pleural fluid (PF) and serum IL-18 content was determined using ELISA. IL-18 was injected intrapleurally in mice and pleural inflammation was assessed using pleural lavage. The highest PF IL-18 levels were observed in parapneumonic PEs and the lowest PF IL-18 levels in patients with exudates of miscellaneous aetiologies and transudates. PF IL-18 levels were significantly higher in patients with empyemas compared to those with uncomplicated (p=0.009) or complicated (p=0.028) parapneumonic effusions, while serum levels did not differ significantly among the three groups. Pleural IL-18 content was higher than that of blood only in patients with empyemas. In patients with pleural exudates of all etiologies and in those with parapneumonic PEs/empyema, PF IL-18 levels were correlated with markers of acute pleural inflammation such as the percentage of PF neutrophils, PF LDH and PF/serum LDH ratio, low PF glucose and PF/serum glucose ratio and low PF pH. In mice, intrapleural IL-18 caused neutrophil-predominant pleural inflammation. In conclusion, IL-18 is linked to the intensity of neutrophilic pleural inflammation in patients with PEs, it is up-regulated in the pleural space of patients with empyema and it stimulates the accumulation of neutrophils in mouse pleura. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. A Plant Gene Up-Regulated at Rust Infection Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ayliffe, Michael A.; Roberts, James K.; Mitchell, Heidi J.; Zhang, Ren; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Pryor, Tony J.

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the fis1 gene from flax (Linum usitatissimum) is induced by a compatible rust (Melampsora lini) infection. Infection of transgenic plants containing a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene under the control of the fis1 promoter showed that induction is highly localized to those leaf mesophyll cells within and immediately surrounding rust infection sites. The level of induction reflects the extent of fungal growth. In a strong resistance reaction, such as the hypersensitive fleck mediated by the L6 resistance gene, there is very little fungal growth and a microscopic level of GUS expression. Partially resistant flax leaves show levels of GUS expression that were intermediate to the level observed in the fully susceptible infection. Sequence and deletion analysis using both transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens expression and stable transformation assays have shown that the rust-inducible fis1 promoter is contained within a 580-bp fragment. Homologs of fis1 were identified in expressed sequence tag databases of a range of plant species including dicots, monocots, and a gymnosperm. Homologous genes isolated from maize (Zea mays; mis1), barley (Hordeum vulgare; bis1), wheat (Triticum aestivum; wis1), and Arabidopsis encode proteins that are highly similar (76%–82%) to the FIS1 protein. The Arabidopsis homologue has been reported to encode a Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase that is involved in the catabolism of proline to glutamate. RNA-blot analysis showed that mis1 in maize and the bis1 homolog in barley are both up-regulated by a compatible infection with the corresponding species-specific rust. The rust-induced genes homologous to fis1 are present in many plants. The promoters of these genes have potential roles for the engineering of synthetic rust resistance genes by targeting transgene expression to the sites of rust infection. PMID:12011348

  15. Inflammation-related genes up-regulated in schizophrenia brains.

    PubMed

    Saetre, Peter; Emilsson, Lina; Axelsson, Elin; Kreuger, Johan; Lindholm, Eva; Jazin, Elena

    2007-09-06

    Multiple studies have shown that brain gene expression is disturbed in subjects suffering from schizophrenia. However, disentangling disease effects from alterations caused by medication is a challenging task. The main goal of this study is to find transcriptional alterations in schizophrenia that are independent of neuroleptic treatment. We compared the transcriptional profiles in brain autopsy samples from 55 control individuals with that from 55 schizophrenic subjects, subdivided according to the type of antipsychotic medication received. Using global and high-resolution mRNA quantification techniques, we show that genes involved in immune response (GO:0006955) are up regulated in all groups of patients, including those not treated at the time of death. In particular, IFITM2, IFITM3, SERPINA3, and GBP1 showed increased mRNA levels in schizophrenia (p-values from qPCR < or = 0.01). These four genes were co-expressed in both schizophrenic subjects and controls. In-vitro experiments suggest that these genes are expressed in both oligodendrocyte and endothelial cells, where transcription is inducible by the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. Although the modified genes are not classical indicators of chronic or acute inflammation, our results indicate alterations of inflammation-related pathways in schizophrenia. In addition, the observation in oligodendrocyte cells suggests that alterations in inflammatory-related genes may have consequences for myelination. Our findings encourage future research to explore whether anti-inflammatory agents can be used in combination with traditional antipsychotics for a more efficient treatment of schizophrenia.

  16. Dysfunctional chloroplasts up-regulate the expression of mitochondrial genes in Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jo-Chien; Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Tseng, Ching-Chih; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2016-02-01

    Chloroplasts and mitochondria play important roles in maintaining metabolic and energy homeostasis in the plant cell. The interactions between these two organelles, especially photosynthesis and respiration, have been intensively studied. Still, little is known about the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by chloroplasts and vice versa. The gene expression machineries in chloroplasts and mitochondria rely heavily on the nuclear genome. Thus, the interactions between nucleus and these organelles, including anterograde and retrograde regulation, have been actively investigated in the last two decades. Norflurazon (NF) and lincomycin (Lin) are two commonly used inhibitors to study chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling in plants. We used NF and Lin to block the development and functions of chloroplasts and examined their effects on mitochondrial gene expression, RNA editing and splicing. The editing of most mitochondrial transcripts was not affected, but the editing extents of nad4-107, nad6-103, and ccmFc-1172 decreased slightly in NF- and Lin-treated seedlings. While the splicing of mitochondrial transcripts was not significantly affected, steady-state mRNA levels of several mitochondrial genes increased significantly in NF- and Lin-treated seedlings. Moreover, Lin seemed to have more profound effects than NF on the expression of mitochondrial genes, indicating that signals derived from these two inhibitors might be distinct. NF and Lin also significantly induced the expression of nuclear genes encoding subunits of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. Thus, dysfunctional chloroplasts may coordinately up-regulate the expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of respiratory complexes.

  17. Up-regulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) represses the replication of SVCV.

    PubMed

    Shao, Junhui; Huang, Jiang; Guo, Yana; Li, Lijuan; Liu, Xueqin; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Yuan, Junfa

    2016-11-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and failure to maintain an appropriate redox balance contribute to viral pathogenesis. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular homoeostasis and coping with invasive pathogens by coordinately activating a series of cytoprotective genes. Previous studies indicated that the transcription and expression levels of Nrf2 were up-regulated in SVCV-infected EPC cells with the unknown mechanism(s). In this study, the interactions between the Nrf2-ARE signalling pathway and SVCV replication were investigated, which demonstrated that SVCV infection induced accumulation of ROS as well as protein carbonyl groups and 8-OHdG, accompanied by the up-regulation of Nrf2 and its downstream genes. At the same time, the activation of Nrf2 with D, l-sulforaphane (SFN) and CDDO-Me could repress the replication of SVCV, and knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA could promote the replication of SVCV. Taken together, these observations indicate that the Nrf2-ARE signal pathway activates a passive defensive response upon SVCV infection. The conclusions presented here suggest that targeting the Nrf2 pathway has potential for combating SVCV infection.

  18. Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Proteins in the Plasma Proteome during Saturation Diving: Unique Coincidence under Hypobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Domoto, Hideharu; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ikomi, Fumitaka; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tadano, Yutaka; Fujii, Shigenori; Tachi, Kazuyoshi; Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Michiya; Inoue, Kimitoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving (SD) is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4.0, were elevated during SD to 60, 100, and 200 meters sea water (msw). The expression of these proteins returned to pre-diving level when the SD training was completed. The two proteins were identified using in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis; the 32.4 kDa protein was transthyretin and the 44.8 kDa protein was alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1. Oxidation was detected at methionine 13 of transthyretin and at methionine 129 of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, haptoglobin was up-regulated during the decompression phase of 200 msw. These plasma proteins up-regulated during SD have a common function as anti-oxidants. This suggests that by coordinating their biological effects, these proteins activate a defense mechanism to counteract the effects of hyperbaric-hyperoxic conditions during SD. PMID:27741252

  19. FOXO1 promotes wound healing through the up-regulation of TGF-β1 and prevention of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Xu, Fanxing; Zhang, Chenying; Tian, Chen; Pacios, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Keratinocyte mobilization is a critical aspect of wound re-epithelialization, but the mechanisms that control its precise regulation remain poorly understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) has a negative effect on healing because of its capacity to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis. Contrary to expectations, FOXO1 is required for keratinocyte transition to a wound-healing phenotype that involves increased migration and up-regulation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream targets, integrin-α3 and -β6 and MMP-3 and -9. Furthermore, we show that FOXO1 functions in keratinocytes to reduce oxidative stress, which is necessary to maintain cell migration and prevent cell death in a TGF-β1–independent manner. Thus, our studies identify a novel function for FOXO1 in coordinating the response of keratinocytes to wounding through up-regulation of TGF-β1 and other factors needed for keratinocyte migration and protection against oxidative stress, which together promote migration and decrease apoptosis. PMID:24145170

  20. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins is essential for cold survival during insect diapause

    PubMed Central

    Rinehart, Joseph P.; Li, Aiqing; Yocum, George D.; Robich, Rebecca M.; Hayward, Scott A. L.; Denlinger, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Diapause, the dormancy common to overwintering insects, evokes a unique pattern of gene expression. In the flesh fly, most, but not all, of the fly's heat shock proteins (Hsps) are up-regulated. The diapause up-regulated Hsps include two members of the Hsp70 family, one member of the Hsp60 family (TCP-1), at least four members of the small Hsp family, and a small Hsp pseudogene. Expression of an Hsp70 cognate, Hsc70, is uninfluenced by diapause, and Hsp90 is actually down-regulated during diapause, thus diapause differs from common stress responses that elicit synchronous up-regulation of all Hsps. Up-regulation of the Hsps begins at the onset of diapause, persists throughout the overwintering period, and ceases within hours after the fly receives the signal to reinitiate development. The up-regulation of Hsps appears to be common to diapause in species representing diverse insect orders including Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera as well as in diapauses that occur in different developmental stages (embryo, larva, pupa, adult). Suppressing expression of Hsp23 and Hsp70 in flies by using RNAi did not alter the decision to enter diapause or the duration of diapause, but it had a profound effect on the pupa's ability to survive low temperatures. We thus propose that up-regulation of Hsps during diapause is a major factor contributing to cold-hardiness of overwintering insects. PMID:17522254

  1. Mechanisms of Hypoxic Up-Regulation of Versican Gene Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sotoodehnejadnematalahi, Fattah; Staples, Karl J.; Chrysanthou, Elvina; Pearson, Helen; Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Burke, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is a hallmark of many pathological tissues. Macrophages accumulate in hypoxic sites and up-regulate a range of hypoxia-inducible genes. The matrix proteoglycan versican has been identified as one such gene, but the mechanisms responsible for hypoxic induction are not fully characterised. Here we investigate the up-regulation of versican by hypoxia in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM), and, intriguingly, show that versican mRNA is up-regulated much more highly (>600 fold) by long term hypoxia (5 days) than by 1 day of hypoxia (48 fold). We report that versican mRNA decay rates are not affected by hypoxia, demonstrating that hypoxic induction of versican mRNA is mediated by increased transcription. Deletion analysis of the promoter identified two regions required for high level promoter activity of luciferase reporter constructs in human macrophages. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1 has previously been implicated as a key potential regulator of versican expression in hypoxia, however our data suggest that HIF-1 up-regulation is unlikely to be principally responsible for the high levels of induction observed in HMDM. Treatment of HMDM with two distinct specific inhibitors of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), LY290042 and wortmannin, significantly reduced induction of versican mRNA by hypoxia and provides evidence of a role for PI3K in hypoxic up-regulation of versican expression. PMID:26057378

  2. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 up-regulates AKT activity through the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Menges, Craig W; Baglia, Laurel A; Lapoint, Randi; McCance, Dennis J

    2006-06-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small DNA tumor viruses causally associated with cervical cancer. The early gene product E7 from high-risk HPV is considered the major transforming protein expressed by the virus. Although many functions have been described for E7 in disrupting normal cellular processes, we describe in this study a new cellular target in primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK), the serine/threonine kinase AKT. Expression of HPV type 16 E7 in HFK caused inhibition of differentiation, hyperproliferation, and up-regulation of AKT activity in organotypic raft cultures. The ability of E7 to up-regulate AKT activity is dependent on its ability to bind to and inactivate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene product family of proteins. Furthermore, we show that knocking down Rb alone, with short hairpin RNAs, was sufficient to up-regulate AKT activity in differentiated keratinocytes. Up-regulation of AKT activity and loss of Rb was also observed in HPV-positive cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with normal cervical tissue. Together, these data provide evidence linking inactivation of Rb by E7 in the up-regulation of AKT activity during cervical cancer progression.

  3. Retinoic acids up-regulate functional eosinophil-driving receptor CCR3.

    PubMed

    Ueki, S; Nishikawa, J; Yamauchi, Y; Konno, Y; Tamaki, M; Itoga, M; Kobayashi, Y; Takeda, M; Moritoki, Y; Ito, W; Chihara, J

    2013-07-01

    Eotaxins and their receptor CCR3 have a definitive role for tissue accumulation of eosinophils both under homeostatic and pathologic conditions. However, physiological stimuli that can up-regulate CCR3 in blood-derived human eosinophils have not been recognized. As a prior gene microarray study revealed up-regulation of CCR3 in eosinophils stimulated with retinoic acids (RAs), the expression of functional CCR3 was examined. We found that 9-cis RA and all-trans RA (ATRA) significantly induced surface CCR3 expression regardless of the presence of IL-3 or IL-5. Pharmacological manipulations with receptor-specific agonists and antagonists indicated that retinoic acid receptor-α activation is critical for CCR3 up-regulation. RA-induced CCR3 was associated with its functional capacity, in terms of the calcium mobilization and chemotactic response to eotaxin-1 (CCL11). Our study suggests an important role of vitamin A derivatives in the tissue accumulation of eosinophils.

  4. Cigarette Smoke–Induced CXCR3 Receptor Up-Regulation Mediates Endothelial Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Green, Linden A.; Petrusca, Daniela; Rajashekhar, Gangaraju; Gianaris, Tom; Schweitzer, Kelly S.; Wang, Liang; Justice, Matthew J.; Petrache, Irina

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial monocyte–activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) and interferon-inducible protein (IP)–10 are proinflammatory mediators, which in addition to their chemokine activities, selectively induce apoptosis in endothelial cells and are up-regulated in the lungs of cigarette smoke–exposed humans. Previously, we showed that EMAP II is an essential mediator of cigarette smoke–induced lung emphysema in mice linking endothelial cell apoptosis with inflammation. Here we addressed the role of the CXCR3 receptor in EMAP II–induced and IP-10–induced apoptosis in endothelial cells and its regulation by cigarette smoke. We found that both neutralizing antibodies and small inhibitory RNA to CXCR3 abrogated EMAP II–induced and IP-10–induced endothelial caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. CXCR3 receptor surface expression in human lung microvascular endothelial cells and in lung tissue endothelium was up-regulated by exposure to cigarette smoke. In tissue culture conditions, EMAP II–induced and IP-10–induced apoptosis was enhanced by preincubation with cigarette smoke extract. Interestingly, serum starvation also induced CXCR3 up-regulation and enhanced EMAP II–induced endothelial apoptosis. Signal transduction via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation was essential for CXCR3-induced cell death, but not for CXCR3 receptor up-regulation by cigarette smoke. In turn, protein nitration was required for CXCR3 receptor up-regulation by cigarette smoke and consequently for subsequent CXCR3-induced cell death. In conclusion, the concerted up-regulation of proinflammatory EMAP II, IP-10, and CXCR3 by cigarette smoke could sustain a cascade of cell death that may promote the alveolar tissue loss noted in human emphysema. PMID:22936405

  5. Hepatotoxicity of piperazine designer drugs: up-regulation of key enzymes of cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Melega, Simone; Stöber, Regina; Schug, Markus; Rempel, Eugen; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Godoy, Patricio; Reif, Raymond; Cadenas, Cristina; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carmo, Helena; Hengstler, Jan G

    2016-12-01

    The piperazine derivatives most frequently consumed for recreational purposes are 1-benzylpiperazine, 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine, 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine. Generally, they are consumed as capsules, tablets or pills but also in powder or liquid forms. Currently, the precise mechanism by which piperazine designer drugs induce hepatotoxicity and whether they act by a common pathway is unclear. To answer this question, we performed a gene array study with rat hepatocytes incubated with the four designer drugs. Non-cytotoxic concentrations were chosen that neither induce a decrease in reduced glutathione or ATP depletion. Analysis of the gene array data showed a large overlap of gene expression alterations induced by the four drugs. This 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' included 101 up-regulated and 309 down-regulated probe sets (p < 0.05; FDR adjusted). In the up-regulated genes, GO groups of cholesterol biosynthesis represented a dominant overrepresented motif. Key enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis up-regulated by all four piperazine drugs include sterol C4-methyloxidase, isopentyl-diphosphate-Δ-isomerase, Cyp51A1, squalene epoxidase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Additionally, glycoprotein transmembrane nmb, which participates in cell adhesion processes, and fatty acid desaturase 1, an enzyme that regulates unsaturation of fatty acids, were also up-regulated by the four piperazine designer drugs. Regarding the down-regulated probe sets, only one gene was common to all four piperazine derivatives, the betaine-homocysteine-S-methyltransferase 2. Analysis of transcription factor binding sites of the 'piperazine designer drug consensus signature' identified the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1) as strongly overrepresented in the up-regulated genes. SREBP transcription factors are known to regulate multiple genes of cholesterol metabolism. In conclusion, the present

  6. Mu opioid receptor up-regulation and participation in excitability of hippocampal pyramidal cell electrophysiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moudy, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic administration of opiate antagonists to rats results in up-regulation of their brain opioid receptors. Using subcellular fractionation techniques, brain opioid receptors were resolved into two membrane populations, one associated with synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) and the other enriched in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi (microsomes). This study addressed in part the question of whether an antagonist induces up-regulation uniformly in these two populations. Rats were administered naltrexone by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Forebrain mu receptor levels were determined by homologous displacement of ({sup 3}H)D-ala{sup 2}-mePhe{sup 4}-gly-ol{sup 5}-enkephalin (DAGO) followed by computer estimation of binding parameters. Receptor levels in crude membranes rose 77% after treatment. Microsomes displayed a 92% increase, a two-fold greater change than in SPMs (51%). These results establish that naltrexone induces up-regulation of both membrane populations; and that microsomal and SPM receptors represent discrete populations of intracellular and cell surface sites, respectively. Binding experiments on isolated hippocampi also demonstrated up-regulation (71%) of mu receptors. To demonstrate up-regulation of opioid receptors electrophysiologically, hippocampal slices were prepared from rats which had been chronically treated with naltrexone. After superfusion with DAGO, these slices showed a 42% greater population spike output than controls in response to the same EPSP input. Hippocampi from animals treated for two weeks showed an additional increase in sensitivity. The results support a disinhibitory role for opioids in pyramidal cell hyper-excitability. More importantly, they demonstrate a significant physiological correlate to opioid receptor up-regulation.

  7. Optimization of Rutaecarpine as ABCA1 Up-Regulator for Treating Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key transporter and receptor in promoting cholesterol efflux, and increasing the expression level of ABCA1 is antiatherogenic. In our previous study, rutaecarpine (RUT) was found to protect ApoE–/– mice from developing atherosclerosis through preferentially up-regulating ABCA1 expression. In the present work, a series of RUT derivatives were synthesized and examined as ABCA1 expression up-regulators. Compounds CD1, CD6, and BCD1–2 were found to possess the most potential activity as antiatherosclerotic agents among all compounds tested. PMID:25147608

  8. Amplified Rate Acceleration by Simultaneous Up-Regulation of Multiple Active Sites in an Endo-Functionalized Porous Capsule.

    PubMed

    Kopilevich, Sivil; Müller, Achim; Weinstock, Ira A

    2015-10-14

    Using the hydrolysis of epoxides in water as a model reaction, the effect of multiple active sites on Michaelis-Menten compliant rate accelerations in a porous capsule is demonstrated. The capsule is a water-soluble Ih-symmetry Keplerate-type complex of the form, [{Mo(VI)6O21(H2O)6}12{Mo(V)2O4(L)}30](42-), in which 12 pentagonal "ligands," {(Mo(VI))Mo(VI)5O21(H2O)6}(6-), are coordinated to 30 dimolybdenum sites, {Mo(V)2O4L}(1+) (L = an endohedrally coordinated η(2)-bound carboxylate anion), resulting in 20 Mo9O9 pores. When "up-regulated" by removal of ca. one-third of the blocking ligands, L, an equal number of dimolybdenum sites are activated, and the newly freed-up space allows for encapsulation of nearly twice as many substrate guests, leading to a larger effective molarity (amplification), and an increase in the rate acceleration (k(cat)/k(uncat)) from 16,000 to an enzyme-like value of 182,800.

  9. Up-regulation of liver Pcsk9 gene expression as a possible cause of hypercholesterolemia in experimental chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sucajtys-Szulc, Elzbieta; Szolkiewicz, Marek; Swierczynski, Julian; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia commonly present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recently linked to increased proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) serum concentration. We tested a hypothesis that increased liver PCSK9 biosynthesis could be partially responsible for the elevated circulating PCSK9 level, and subsequently contribute to hypercholesterolemia observed in subjects with CKD. Rat model of chronic renal failure (CRF) was used in the study. Animals underwent a 5/6 nephrectomy or a sham operation. Liver expression of Pcsk9, sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 (Srebf-2), and β-actin were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Liver protein levels of PCSK9, LDL-receptor (LDL-R), and SREBF-2 were analyzed using Western blotting. Serum PCSK9 concentration was estimated by immunoassay. Rats with an experimental CRF as compared to pair-fed and control ones were characterized by: (a) an up-regulation of liver Pcsk9 and Srebf-2 genes expression with parallel increase of serum PCSK9 concentration; (b) a decrease in liver LDL-R protein level, and (c) an increase of serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations. We also found significant correlations between serum creatinine and liver PCSK9 mRNA levels (r = 0.88, p < 0.001) and between serum creatinine and circulating PCSK9 levels (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). The results suggest that a rat model of CRF is associated with an increased liver Pcsk9 gene expression. The coordinated up-regulation of Pcsk9 and Srebf-2 genes expression suggests that SREBF-2 may play a key role in regulation of Pcsk9 gene expression, circulating PCSK9 level, and hypercholesterolemia in experimental CRF.

  10. MDP up-regulates the gene expression of type I interferons in human aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qingshan; Yang, Mei; Liu, Xueting; Zhou, Lina; Xiao, Zhilin; Chen, Xiaobin; Chen, Meifang; Xie, Xiumei; Hu, Jinyue

    2012-03-23

    Muramyldipeptide (MDP), the minimum essential structure responsible for the immuno-adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan, is recognized by intracellular nuclear-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2). Here, we obtained evidence that the treatment of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) with MDP up-regulated the gene expression of type I interferons in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MDP also up-regulated the expression of the receptor NOD2, suggesting that MDP may induce a positive feedback response. The up-regulation of interferons was not dependent on the TNFa signaling, as HAECs did not express TNFa with the stimulation of MDP, and TNFa neutralizing antibody did not decrease the induction of IFNs induced by MDP. RT-PCR results showed that HAECs expressed the gene transcripts of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 1, 2, 3, 9. The western blot results showed that MDP induced the phosphorylation of IRF3. These results suggested that MDP induced the up-regulation of gene transcript of interferons through the activation of IRF3 signaling pathway. Meanwhile, MDP induced the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-8, and MCP-1. Taken together, these results suggested that HAECs may play roles in the anti-infection immune response and in the induction of innate immunity.

  11. Up-regulated miR-145 Expression Inhibits Porcine Preadipocytes Differentiation by Targeting IRS1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yunxue; Chen, Yaosheng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Luxi; Mo, Delin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, most miRNAs that were up-regulated during differentiation promoted adipogenesis, but our research indicated that up-regulation of miR-145 in porcine preadipocytes did not promote but inhibit adipogenesis. In this study, miR-145 was significantly up-regulated during porcine dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells differentiation. In miR-145 overexpressed DFAT cells, adipogenesis was inhibited and triglycerides accumulation was decreased after hormone stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-145 expression repressed induction of mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). These effects caused by miR-145 overexpression were mediated by Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) as a mechanism. These data suggested that induced miR-145 expression during differentiation could inhibit adipogenesis by targeting IRS1, and miR-145 may be novel agent for adipose tissue engineering. PMID:23197937

  12. Up-regulated miR-145 expression inhibits porcine preadipocytes differentiation by targeting IRS1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunxue; Chen, Yaosheng; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Luxi; Mo, Delin

    2012-01-01

    Generally, most miRNAs that were up-regulated during differentiation promoted adipogenesis, but our research indicated that up-regulation of miR-145 in porcine preadipocytes did not promote but inhibit adipogenesis. In this study, miR-145 was significantly up-regulated during porcine dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells differentiation. In miR-145 overexpressed DFAT cells, adipogenesis was inhibited and triglycerides accumulation was decreased after hormone stimulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, up-regulation of miR-145 expression repressed induction of mRNA levels of adipogenic markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). These effects caused by miR-145 overexpression were mediated by Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) as a mechanism. These data suggested that induced miR-145 expression during differentiation could inhibit adipogenesis by targeting IRS1, and miR-145 may be novel agent for adipose tissue engineering.

  13. Microarray and KOG analysis of Acanthamoeba healyi genes up-regulated by mouse-brain passage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyung; Xuan, Ying-Hua; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2014-08-01

    Long-term cultivation in a laboratory could reduce the virulence of Acanthamoeba. To identify virulence factors of Acanthamoeba, the authors compared the transcription profiles of long-term cultivated Acanthamoeba healyi (OLD) and three times mouse-brain passaged A. healyi (MBP) using microarray analysis and eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments. Microarray analysis revealed that 601 genes were up-regulated by mouse-brain passage. The results of real-time PCR of 8 randomly selected genes up-regulated in the MBP strain confirmed microarray analysis findings. KOG assignments showed relatively higher percentages of the MBP strain up-regulated genes in T article (signal transduction mechanism), O article (posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones), C article (energy production and conversion), and J article (translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis). In particular, the MBP strain showed higher expressions of cysteine protease and metalloprotease. A comparison of KOG assignments by microarray analysis and previous EST (expressed sequence tags) analysis showed similar populations of up-regulated genes. These results provide important information regarding the identification of virulence factors of pathogenic Acanthamoeba.

  14. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R.; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Bielenberg, Diane R.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells. PMID:26877262

  15. Cotton Benzoquinone Reductase: Up-regulation During Early Cotton Fiber Developement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR; EC 1.6.5.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE comparisons, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage but ...

  16. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2016-04-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells.

  17. Executive functions and the down-regulation and up-regulation of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in executive functions (EF; assessed by measures of working memory, Stroop, trail making, and verbal fluency) and ability to down-regulate and up-regulate responses to emotionally evocative film clips. To ensure a wide range of EF, 48 participants with diverse neurodegenerative disorders and 21 older neurologically normal aging participants were included. Participants were exposed to three different movie clips that were designed to elicit a mix of disgust and amusement. While watching the films they were either instructed to watch, down-regulate, and up-regulate their visible emotional responses. Heart-rate and facial behaviors were monitored throughout. Emotion regulatory ability was operationalized as changes in heart-rate and facial behavior in the down- and up-regulation conditions, controlling for responses in the watch condition. Results indicated that higher verbal fluency scores were related to greater ability to regulate emotion in both the down-regulation and up-regulation conditions. This finding remained significant even after controlling for age and general cognitive functioning. No relationships were found between emotion regulation and the other EF measures. We believe these results derive from differences among EF measures, with verbal fluency performance best capturing the complex sequence of controlled planning, activation, and monitoring required for successful emotion regulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of emotion-cognition interaction, suggesting a link between emotion-regulatory abilities and individual differences in complex executive functions. PMID:21432634

  18. The emerging role of m-TOR up-regulation in brain Astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Ryskalin, Larisa; Limanaqi, Fiona; Biagioni, Francesca; Frati, Alessandro; Esposito, Vincenzo; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Lenzi, Paola; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    The present manuscript is an overview of various effects of mTOR up-regulation in astrocytoma with an emphasis on its deleterious effects on the proliferation of Glioblastoma Multiforme. The manuscript reports consistent evidence indicating the occurrence of mTOR up-regulation both in experimental and human astrocytoma. The grading of human astrocytoma is discussed in relationship with mTOR up-regulation. In the second part of the manuscript, the biochemical pathways under the influence of mTOR are translated to cell phenotypes which are generated by mTOR up-regulation and reverted by its inhibition. A special section is dedicated to the prominent role of autophagy in mediating the effects of mTOR in glioblastoma. In detail, autophagy inhibition produced by mTOR up-regulation determines the fate of cancer stem cells. On the other hand, biochemical findings disclose the remarkable effects of autophagy activators as powerful inducers of cell differentiation with a strong prevalence towards neuronal phenotypes. Thus, mTOR modulation acts on the neurobiology of glioblastoma just like it operates in vivo at the level of brain stem cell niches by altering autophagy-dependent cell differentiation. In the light of such a critical role of autophagy we analyzed the ubiquitin proteasome system. The merging between autophagy and proteasome generates a novel organelle, named autophagoproteasome which is strongly induced by mTOR inhibitors in glioblastoma cells. Remarkably, when mTOR is maximally inhibited the proteasome component selectively moves within autophagy vacuoles, thus making the proteasome activity dependent on the entry within autophagy compartment.

  19. Up-regulation of Fas (CD95) expression in tumour cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Peshes-Yaloz, Naama; Rosen, Dalia; Sondel, Paul M; Krammer, Peter H; Berke, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    Both the function and regulation of Fas expression in tumours is poorly understood. Our laboratory has reported that cultured, low Fas-expressing tumours undergo massive, yet reversible, up-regulation of cell surface Fas expression when injected into mice. The present study was aimed at determining what causes this enhanced Fas expression and whether the newly expressed Fas functions as a death receptor. Newly expressed Fas is indeed capable of inducing apoptosis. Based on our observation that Fas induction is reduced when tumour cells are injected into immune-deficient mice, we propose that Fas up-regulation in vivo involves the host's immune system. Accordingly, Fas up-regulation occurs in vitro when low Fas-expressing tumour cells are cocultured with lymphoid cells. Furthermore ascitic fluid extracted from tumour-bearing mice trigger Fas up-regulation in low Fas expressing tumours. This last finding suggests that a soluble factor(s) mediates induction of Fas expression. The best candidate for this soluble factor is nitric oxide (NO) based on the following observations: the factor in the ascites is unstable; Fas expression is induced to a lesser degree after injection into inducible NO synthase (NOS)-deficient (iNOS–/–) mice when compared to control mice; similarly, coculture with iNOS–/– splenocytes induces Fas less effectively than coculture with control splenocytes; and finally, the NO donor SNAP induces considerable Fas up-regulation in tumours in vitro. Our model is that host lymphoid cells in response to a tumour increase NO synthesis, which in turn causes enhanced Fas expression in the tumour. PMID:17343612

  20. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by product-prostaglandin E2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tjandrawinata, R. R.; Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of prostate cancer has been linked to high level of dietary fat intake. Our laboratory investigates the connection between cancer cell growth and fatty acid products. Studying human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells, we found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased cell growth and up-regulated the gene expression of its own synthesizing enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). PGE2 increased COX-2 mRNA expression dose-dependently with the highest levels of stimulation seen at the 3-hour period following PGE2 addition. The NSAID flurbiprofen (5 microM), in the presence of exogenous PGE2, inhibited the up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA and cell growth. These data suggest that the levels of local intracellular PGE2 play a major role in the growth of prostate cancer cells through an activation of COX-2 gene expression.

  1. Up-regulation of calcyon results in locomotor hyperactivity and reduced anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Dai, Rujuan; Terry, Alvin; Bergson, Clare

    2008-06-03

    Gene linkage and association studies have implicated the region of chromosome 10q containing the calcyon locus with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia susceptibility. In addition, levels of calcyon protein and transcripts are also significantly increased in postmortem tissue from schizophrenic brains. But whether altered calcyon expression might be part of the disease etiology or merely a patho-physiological side effect is not known. To begin to address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse line (Cal(OE)) using the human calcyon cDNA in which calcyon expression is up-regulated in a number of forebrain structures including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, and amygdala. Compared to control littermates, the Cal(OE) mice display a range of abnormal behaviors including spontaneous hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and/or impaired restraint (harm avoidance) that would indicate that calcyon up-regulation leads to deficits in control over behavioral output.

  2. Rapid systemic up-regulation of genes after heat-wounding and electrical stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, E.; Vian, A.; Vian, C.; Stankovic, B.

    1997-01-01

    When one leaf of a tomato plant is electrically-stimulated or heat-wounded, proteinase inhibitor genes are rapidly up-regulated in distant leaves. The identity of the systemic wound signal(s) is not yet known, but major candidates include hormones transmitted via the phloem or the xylem, the electrically-stimulated self-propagating electrical signal in the phloem (the action potential, AP), or the heat-wound-induced surge in hydraulic pressure in the xylem evoking a local change in membrane potential in adjacent living cells (the variation potential, VP). In order to discriminate between these signals we have adopted two approaches. The first approach involves applying stimuli that evoke known signals and determining whether these signals have similar effects on the "model" transcripts for proteinase inhibitors (pin) and calmodulin (cal). Here we show that a heat wound almost invariably evokes a VP, while an electrical stimulation occasionally evokes an AP, and both of these signals induce accumulation of transcripts encoding proteinase inhibitors. The second approach involves identifying the array of genes turned on by heat-wounding. To this end, we have constructed a subtractive library for heat-wounded tissue, isolated over 800 putatively up-regulated clones, and shown that all but two of the fifty that we have analyzed by Northern hybridization are, indeed, up-regulated. Here we show the early kinetics of up-regulation of three of these transcripts in the terminal (4th) leaf in response to heat-wounding the 3rd leaf, about 5 cm away. Even though these transcripts show somewhat different time courses of induction, with one peaking at 30 min, another at 15 min, and another at 5 min after flaming of a distant leaf, they all exhibit a similar pattern, i.e., a transient period of transcript accumulation preceding a period of transcript decrease, followed by a second period of transcript accumulation.

  3. Eurycomanone induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via up-regulation of p53

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Yusmazura; Rahmat, Asmah; Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah Lope; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Houghton, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Background Eurycomanone is a cytotoxic compound found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previous studies had noted the cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity against human hepato carcinoma cell in vitro and the mode of action. The cytotoxicity of eurycomanone was evaluated using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was detected by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. The protein expression Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and cytochrome C were studied by flow cytometry using a spesific antibody conjugated fluorescent dye to confirm the up-regulation of p53 and Bax in cancer cells. Results The findings suggested that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on cancerous liver cell, HepG2 and less toxic on normal cells Chang's liver and WLR-68. Furthermore, various methods proved that apoptosis was the mode of death in eurycomanone-treated HepG2 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were found following eurycomanone treatment. This study also found that apoptotic process triggered by eurycomanone involved the up-regulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. The up-regulation of p53 was followed by the increasing of pro-apoptotic Bax and decreasing of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. The increased of cytochrome C levels in cytosol also results in induction of apoptosis. Conclusion The data suggest that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. PMID:19508737

  4. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    PubMed

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID:21129156

  6. High Glucose Up-regulates ADAM17 through HIF-1α in Mesangial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Renzhong; Uttarwar, Lalita; Gao, Bo; Charbonneau, Martine; Shi, Yixuan; Chan, John S. D.; Dubois, Claire M.; Krepinsky, Joan C.

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that ADAM17 mediates high glucose-induced matrix production by kidney mesangial cells. ADAM17 expression is increased in diabetic kidneys, suggesting that its up-regulation may augment high glucose profibrotic responses. We thus studied the effects of high glucose on ADAM17 gene regulation. Primary rat mesangial cells were treated with high glucose (30 mm) or mannitol as osmotic control. High glucose dose-dependently increased ADAM17 promoter activity, transcript, and protein levels. This correlated with augmented ADAM17 activity after 24 h versus 1 h of high glucose. We tested involvement of transcription factors shown in other settings to regulate ADAM17 transcription. Promoter activation was not affected by NF-κB or Sp1 inhibitors, but was blocked by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) inhibition or down-regulation. This also prevented ADAM17 transcript and protein increases. HIF-1α activation by high glucose was shown by its increased nuclear translocation and activation of the HIF-responsive hypoxia-response element (HRE)-luciferase reporter construct. Assessment of ADAM17 promoter deletion constructs coupled with mutation analysis and ChIP studies identified HIF-1α binding to its consensus element at −607 as critical for the high glucose response. Finally, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and downstream PI3K/Akt, or ADAM17 itself, prevented high glucose-induced HIF-1α activation and ADAM17 up-regulation. Thus, high glucose induces ADAM17 transcriptional up-regulation in mesangial cells, which is associated with augmentation of its activity. This is mediated by HIF-1α and requires EGFR/ADAM17 signaling, demonstrating the potentiation by ADAM17 of its own up-regulation. ADAM17 inhibition thus provides a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26175156

  7. Up-regulation and clinical significance of serine protease kallikrein 6 in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Tae; Song, Eun Young; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kang, Min Ah; Kim, Jae Wha; Kim, Sang Jick; Yeom, Young Il; Kim, Joo Heon; Kim, Kyo Hyun; Lee, Hee Gu

    2011-06-15

    Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) encodes a trypsin-like serine protease that is up-regulated in several cancers, although the putative functions of KLK6 in cancer have not been elucidated. In the current study, overexpression of KLK6 was identified in colon cancer, and the possibility that KLK6 may be a suitable candidate as a tumor marker was examined. Messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels and protein up-regulation of KLK6 in colon cancer tissues was examined using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and clinicopathologic analyses. Cell proliferation, invasiveness, and antiapoptotic activity were determined in colon cancer cells that were transfected with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of KLK6. KLK6 mRNA was up-regulated significantly in tumor tissues compared with nontumor regions. KLK6 protein was strongly expressed in adenocarcinomas but was not expressed in normal mucosa or in premalignant dysplastic lesions. Sera from patients with colon cancer revealed an increase in KLK6 secretion (0.25 μg/mL; P = .031) compared with noncancer cells (0.19 μg/mL). Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical studies of 143 patients with colon cancer revealed a significant correlation between KLK6 expression and Dukes disease stage (P = .005). High KLK6 expression was associated significantly with shorter overall (P = .001) and recurrence-free survival (P = .001). The rates of proliferation and invasiveness were decreased by 50% in cells that were transfected with KLK6 siRNA. The overexpression of KLK6 led to decreased activity of the E-cadherin promoter. KLK6 was up-regulated significantly in tissues and sera from patients with colon cancer and was associated closely with a poor prognosis, suggesting that KLK6 may be used as a potential biomarker and a therapeutic target for colon cancer. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  8. Gene up-regulation in response to predator kairomones in the water flea, Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Imai, Maki; Sugimoto, Naoki; Ishikawa, Yuki; Ishikawa, Asano; Ishigaki, Hidehiko; Okada, Yasukazu; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Cornette, Richard; Miura, Toru

    2010-04-30

    Numerous cases of predator-induced polyphenisms, in which alternate phenotypes are produced in response to extrinsic stimuli, have been reported in aquatic taxa to date. The genus Daphnia (Branchiopoda, Cladocera) provides a model experimental system for the study of the developmental mechanisms and evolutionary processes associated with predator-induced polyphenisms. In D. pulex, juveniles form neckteeth in response to predatory kairomones released by Chaoborus larvae (Insecta, Diptera). Previous studies suggest that the timing of the sensitivity to kairomones in D. pulex can generally be divided into the embryonic and postembryonic developmental periods. We therefore examined which of the genes in the embryonic and first-instar juvenile stages exhibit different expression levels in the presence or absence of predator kairomones. Employing a candidate gene approach and identifying differentially-expressed genes revealed that the morphogenetic factors, Hox3, extradenticle and escargot, were up-regulated by kairomones in the postembryonic stage and may potentially be responsible for defense morph formation. In addition, the juvenile hormone pathway genes, JHAMT and Met, and the insulin signaling pathway genes, InR and IRS-1, were up-regulated in the first-instar stage. It is well known that these hormonal pathways are involved in physiological regulation following morphogenesis in many insect species. During the embryonic stage when morphotypes were determined, one of the novel genes identified by differential display was up-regulated, suggesting that this gene may be related to morphotype determination. Biological functions of the up-regulated genes are discussed in the context of defense morph formation. It is suggested that, following the reception of kairomone signals, the identified genes are involved in a series of defensive phenotypic alterations and the production of a defensive phenotype.

  9. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J induces its receptor--chNHE1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiguo; Meng, Wei; Cai, Liming; Cui, Xiyao; Pan, Zhifang; Wang, Guihua; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2016-04-02

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus which causes immunosuppression and neoplasia in meat-type and egg-type chickens. ALV-J infects host cells via specific interaction between the viral Env and the cell surface receptor -chicken sodium hydrogen exchanger type 1 (chNHE1). NHE1 involved in altering the cellular pH and playing a critical role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the other relationship between ALV-J and chNHE1. In ALV-J infected DF-1 cells, the mRNA level of chNHE1 was up-regulated with time-dependent manner tested by real time PCR, and accordingly, intracellular pH was increased tested by spectrofluorometer. In vivo, the mRNA level of chNHE1 was determined by real time PCR in ALV-J infected experimental chickens and field cases. The result showed that the mRNA level of chNHE1 was up-regulated after virus shedding, especially in continuous viremic shedders (CS group). However, no significant difference was found between non-shedding group (NS group) and control group. In field cases, mRNA level of chNHE1 was positively correlated with increasing ALV-J load in tumor bearing and immune tolerance chickens. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results showed that the protein expression of chNHE1 was up-regulated in different organs of both experimental chickens and tumor bearing chickens compared with the control. Taken together, we conclude that ALV-J induces chNHE1 up-regulation in viremia and neoplasia chickens.

  10. Rapid systemic up-regulation of genes after heat-wounding and electrical stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, E.; Vian, A.; Vian, C.; Stankovic, B.

    1997-01-01

    When one leaf of a tomato plant is electrically-stimulated or heat-wounded, proteinase inhibitor genes are rapidly up-regulated in distant leaves. The identity of the systemic wound signal(s) is not yet known, but major candidates include hormones transmitted via the phloem or the xylem, the electrically-stimulated self-propagating electrical signal in the phloem (the action potential, AP), or the heat-wound-induced surge in hydraulic pressure in the xylem evoking a local change in membrane potential in adjacent living cells (the variation potential, VP). In order to discriminate between these signals we have adopted two approaches. The first approach involves applying stimuli that evoke known signals and determining whether these signals have similar effects on the "model" transcripts for proteinase inhibitors (pin) and calmodulin (cal). Here we show that a heat wound almost invariably evokes a VP, while an electrical stimulation occasionally evokes an AP, and both of these signals induce accumulation of transcripts encoding proteinase inhibitors. The second approach involves identifying the array of genes turned on by heat-wounding. To this end, we have constructed a subtractive library for heat-wounded tissue, isolated over 800 putatively up-regulated clones, and shown that all but two of the fifty that we have analyzed by Northern hybridization are, indeed, up-regulated. Here we show the early kinetics of up-regulation of three of these transcripts in the terminal (4th) leaf in response to heat-wounding the 3rd leaf, about 5 cm away. Even though these transcripts show somewhat different time courses of induction, with one peaking at 30 min, another at 15 min, and another at 5 min after flaming of a distant leaf, they all exhibit a similar pattern, i.e., a transient period of transcript accumulation preceding a period of transcript decrease, followed by a second period of transcript accumulation.

  11. Identification of biotic and abiotic stress up-regulated ESTs in Gossypium arboreum.

    PubMed

    Barozai, Muhammad Younas Khan; Husnain, Tayyab

    2012-02-01

    Asiatic desi cotton (Gossypium arboreum) shows great potential against biotic and abiotic stresses. The stress resistant nature makes it a best source for the identification of biotic and abiotic stress resistant genes. As in many plants same set of genes show responding behavior against the various abiotic and biotic stresses. Thus in the present study the ESTs from the G. arboreum drought stressed leaves were subjected to find the up-regulated ESTs in abiotic and biotic stresses through homology and in-silico analysis. A cDNA library has been constructed from the drought stressed G. arboreum plant. 778 clones were randomly picked and sequenced. All these sequences were subjected to in-silico identification of biotic and abiotic up-regulated ESTs. Total 39 abiotic and biotic up-regulated ESTs were identified. The results were further validated by real-time PCR; by randomly selection of ten ESTs. These findings will help to develop stress resistant crop varieties for better yield and growth performance under stresses.

  12. General up regulation of Spodoptera frugiperda trypsins and chymotrypsins allows its adaptation to soybean proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brioschi, Daniela; Nadalini, Larissa D; Bengtson, Mario H; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Moura, Daniel S; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2007-12-01

    The existence of a diverse serine proteinase gene family in lepidopteran insects suggests they play a significant role in the insect adaptation to plant proteinase inhibitors. These proteinases have been shown to be involved in the process of proteolytic digestion in insect larvae. We carried out a selective transcriptome study of midguts from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae fed on a diet supplemented with soybean proteinase inhibitor (SPI). Using subtracted cDNA libraries made of gut-expressed transcripts, a total of 2100 partial sequences were obtained, of those 38% were related to digestive process. Two large and diverse groups of chymotrypsins and trypsins were obtained, and some of these proteinase-encoding genes were further characterized by quantitative RT-PCR. The transcription analyses revealed two groups: one group of genes constitutively expressed in the control larvae that is up regulated by introducing SPI to the diet, and a second group that is absent in the control but is induced by the SPI-rich diet. This observation suggests that adaptation of S. frugiperda to SPI involves de novo synthesis and also up regulation of existing enzymes. Proteases from intestines of larvae reared on a diet with SPI showed insensitivity to the inhibitor. The proteases were also insensitive to a broad-spectrum potato proteinase inhibitor preparation. We propose that adaptation of S. frugiperda to SPI follows a "shotgun" approach, based on a general up regulation of a large set of endoproteinases.

  13. Calorie restriction up-regulates iron and copper transport genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Mittal, Nitish; Deswal, Sumit; Roy, Nilanjan

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a non genetic intervention, known to confer longevity benefits across the various phyla from unicellular yeast to mammals. CR also invokes homeostatic responses similar to stress, however the sequence of molecular events leading to longevity is still illusive. In this study, we analysed the whole genome gene expression profile in response to CR, mutations mimicking CR, heat shock and H(2)O(2) from a gene ontology perspective. Our analysis revealed that mitochondrion is a common hub in the gene expression programme under these conditions and the electron transport chain (ETC) is a major player. Consequently the genes involved in the metal ion transport were also significantly up-regulated. We confirmed the results of the in silico analysis using quantitative real time PCR which showed up-regulation of genes involved in respiration and transport of iron and copper. The promoter activity of one of the representative genes, FET3, was also found to be higher upon calorie restriction. Altogether, our results indicate that upon calorie restriction the levels of iron and copper fall in cells, which elicits a transcriptional response up-regulating the genes involved in their uptake to maintain cellular homeostasis.

  14. Chronic Administration of KB-R7943 Induces Up-regulation of Cardiac NCX1*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Kappler, Christiana S.; Mani, Santhosh K.; Shepherd, Neal R.; Renaud, Ludivine; Snider, Paige; Conway, Simon J.; Menick, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    The NCX1 (sodium-calcium exchanger) is up-regulated in human heart failure and in many animal models of heart failure. The potential benefits and risks of therapeutically blocking NCX1 in heart failure and during ischemia-reperfusion are being actively investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that prolonged administration of the NCX1 inhibitor KB-R7943 resulted in the up-regulation of Ncx1 gene expression in both isolated adult cardiomyocytes and intact mouse hearts. Ncx1 up-regulation is mediated by the activation of p38. Importantly, p38 is not activated by KB-R7943 treatment in heart tubes from Ncx1−/− mice at 9.5 days postcoitum but is activated in heart tubes from Ncx1+/+ mice. p38 activation does not appear to be in response to changes in cytosolic calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i. Interestingly, chronic KB-R7943 treatment in mice leads to the formation of an NCX1-p38 complex. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the electrogenic sarcolemma membrane cardiac NCX1 can act as a regulator of “activity-dependent signal transduction” leading to changes in gene expression. PMID:19661061

  15. Chronic administration of KB-R7943 induces up-regulation of cardiac NCX1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Kappler, Christiana S; Mani, Santhosh K; Shepherd, Neal R; Renaud, Ludivine; Snider, Paige; Conway, Simon J; Menick, Donald R

    2009-10-02

    The NCX1 (sodium-calcium exchanger) is up-regulated in human heart failure and in many animal models of heart failure. The potential benefits and risks of therapeutically blocking NCX1 in heart failure and during ischemia-reperfusion are being actively investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that prolonged administration of the NCX1 inhibitor KB-R7943 resulted in the up-regulation of Ncx1 gene expression in both isolated adult cardiomyocytes and intact mouse hearts. Ncx1 up-regulation is mediated by the activation of p38. Importantly, p38 is not activated by KB-R7943 treatment in heart tubes from Ncx1(-/-) mice at 9.5 days postcoitum but is activated in heart tubes from Ncx1(+/+) mice. p38 activation does not appear to be in response to changes in cytosolic calcium concentration, [Ca(2+)](i). Interestingly, chronic KB-R7943 treatment in mice leads to the formation of an NCX1-p38 complex. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the electrogenic sarcolemma membrane cardiac NCX1 can act as a regulator of "activity-dependent signal transduction" leading to changes in gene expression.

  16. Selective Up-regulation of Human Selenoproteins in Response to Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Touat-Hamici, Zahia; Legrain, Yona; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Chavatte, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Selenocysteine is inserted into selenoproteins via the translational recoding of a UGA codon, normally used as a stop signal. This process depends on the nature of the selenocysteine insertion sequence element located in the 3′ UTR of selenoprotein mRNAs, selenium bioavailability, and, possibly, exogenous stimuli. To further understand the function and regulation of selenoproteins in antioxidant defense and redox homeostasis, we investigated how oxidative stress influences selenoprotein expression as a function of different selenium concentrations. We found that selenium supplementation of the culture media, which resulted in a hierarchical up-regulation of selenoproteins, protected HEK293 cells from reactive oxygen species formation. Furthermore, in response to oxidative stress, we identified a selective up-regulation of several selenoproteins involved in antioxidant defense (Gpx1, Gpx4, TR1, SelS, SelK, and Sps2). Interestingly, the response was more efficient when selenium was limiting. Although a modest change in mRNA levels was noted, we identified a novel translational control mechanism stimulated by oxidative stress that is characterized by up-regulation of UGA-selenocysteine recoding efficiency and relocalization of SBP2, selenocysteine-specific elongation factor, and L30 recoding factors from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. PMID:24706762

  17. GRK2 Up-Regulation Creates a Positive Feedback Loop for Catecholamine Production in Chromaffin Cells.

    PubMed

    Jafferjee, Malika; Reyes Valero, Thairy; Marrero, Christine; McCrink, Katie A; Brill, Ava; Lymperopoulos, Anastasios

    2016-03-01

    Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity aggravates several diseases, including heart failure. The molecular cause(s) underlying this SNS hyperactivity are not known. We have previously uncovered a neurohormonal mechanism, operating in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells, by which circulating catecholamine (CA) levels increase in heart failure: severe dysfunction of the adrenal α2-adrenergic receptors (ARs) due to the up-regulation of G protein-coupled receptor-kinase (GRK)-2, the kinase that desensitizes them. Herein we looked at the potential signaling mechanisms that bring about this GRK2 elevation in chromaffin cells. We found that chronic CA treatment of either PC12 or rat primary chromaffin cells can in itself result in GRK2 transcriptional up-regulation through α2ARs-Gi/o proteins-Src-ERK1/2. The resultant GRK2 increase severely enhances the α2AR desensitization/down-regulation elevating not only CA release but also CA biosynthesis, as evidenced by tyrosine hydroxylase up-regulation. Finally, GRK2 knockdown leads to enhanced apoptosis of PC12 cells, indicating an essential role for GRK2 in chromaffin cell homeostasis/survival. In conclusion, chromaffin cell GRK2 mediates a positive feedback loop that feeds into CA secretion, thereby enabling the adrenomedullary component of the SNS to turn itself on.

  18. TLR4 signaling induces TLR3 up-regulation in alveolar macrophages during acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xibing; Jin, Shuqing; Tong, Yao; Jiang, Xi; Chen, Zhixia; Mei, Shuya; Zhang, Liming; Billiar, Timothy R.; Li, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a life-threatening inflammatory response caused by severe infection. Toll-like receptors in alveolar macrophages (AMΦ) recognize the molecular constituents of pathogens and activate the host’s innate immune responses. Numerous studies have documented the importance of TLR-TLR cross talk, but few studies have specifically addressed the relationship between TLR4 and TLR3. We explored a novel mechanism of TLR3 up-regulation that is induced by LPS-TLR4 signaling in a dose- and time-dependent manner in AMΦ from C57BL/6 mice, while the LPS-induced TLR3 expression was significantly reduced in TLR4−/− and Myd88−/− mice and following pretreatment with a NF-κB inhibitor. The enhanced TLR3 up-regulation in AMΦ augmented the expression of cytokines and chemokines in response to sequential challenges with LPS and Poly I:C, a TLR3 ligand, which was physiologically associated with amplified AMΦ-induced PMN migration into lung alveoli. Our study demonstrates that the synergistic effect between TLR4 and TLR3 in macrophages is an important determinant in acute lung injury and, more importantly, that TLR3 up-regulation is dependent on TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB signaling. These results raise the possibility that bacterial infections can induce sensitivity to viral infections, which may have important implications for the therapeutic manipulation of the innate immune system. PMID:28198368

  19. Netrin-1 up-regulation in inflammatory bowel diseases is required for colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Paradisi, Andrea; Maisse, Carine; Coissieux, Marie-May; Gadot, Nicolas; Lépinasse, Florian; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Svrcek, Magali; Neufert, Clemens; Fléjou, Jean-François; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Mehlen, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and cancer are intimately associated. This is particularly true for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which show a major increased risk for colorectal cancer. While the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IBD has recently improved, the mechanisms that link these chronic inflammatory states to colorectal cancer development are in large part unknown. One of these mechanisms is NF-κB pathway activation which in turn may contribute to tumor formation by providing anti-apoptotic survival signals to the epithelial cells. Based on the observation that netrin-1, the anti-apoptotic ligand for the dependence receptors DCC and UNC5H is up-regulated in colonic crypts in response to NF-κB, we show here that colorectal cancers from inflammatory bowel diseases patients have selected up-regulation of netrin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate that this inflammation-driven netrin-1 up-regulation is causal for colorectal cancer development as interference with netrin-1 autocrine loop in a mouse model for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer, while showing no effect on inflammation, inhibits colorectal cancer progression. PMID:19721007

  20. Netrin-1 up-regulation in inflammatory bowel diseases is required for colorectal cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Paradisi, Andrea; Maisse, Carine; Coissieux, Marie-May; Gadot, Nicolas; Lépinasse, Florian; Delloye-Bourgeois, Céline; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Svrcek, Magali; Neufert, Clemens; Fléjou, Jean-François; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Mehlen, Patrick

    2009-10-06

    Chronic inflammation and cancer are intimately associated. This is particularly true for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which show a major increased risk for colorectal cancer. While the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of IBD has recently improved, the mechanisms that link these chronic inflammatory states to colorectal cancer development are in large part unknown. One of these mechanisms is NF-kappaB pathway activation which in turn may contribute to tumor formation by providing anti-apoptotic survival signals to the epithelial cells. Based on the observation that netrin-1, the anti-apoptotic ligand for the dependence receptors DCC and UNC5H is up-regulated in colonic crypts in response to NF-kappaB, we show here that colorectal cancers from inflammatory bowel diseases patients have selected up-regulation of netrin-1. Moreover, we demonstrate that this inflammation-driven netrin-1 up-regulation is causal for colorectal cancer development as interference with netrin-1 autocrine loop in a mouse model for ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer, while showing no effect on inflammation, inhibits colorectal cancer progression.

  1. Functional Inactivation of CXC Chemokine Receptor 4–mediated Responses through SOCS3 Up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Silvia F.; Hernanz-Falcón, Patricia; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; de Ana, Ana Martín; Garzón, Ruth; Carvalho-Pinto, Carla; Vila-Coro, Antonio J.; Zaballos, Angel; Balomenos, Dimitrios; Martínez-A., Carlos; Mellado, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation, and chemotactic responses require coordinated action between cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines promote receptor oligomerization, followed by Janus kinase (JAK) kinase activation, signal transducers and transactivators of transcription (STAT) nuclear translocation, and transcription of cytokine-responsive genes. These include genes that encode a family of negative regulators of cytokine signaling, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins. After binding their specific receptors, chemokines trigger receptor dimerization and activate the JAK/STAT pathway. We show that SOCS3 overexpression or up-regulation, stimulated by a cytokine such as growth hormone, impairs the response to CXCL12, measured by Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis in vitro and in vivo. This effect is mediated by SOCS3 binding to the CXC chemokine receptor 4 receptor, blocking JAK/STAT and Gαi pathways, without interfering with cell surface chemokine receptor expression. The data provide clear evidence for signaling cross-talk between cytokine and chemokine responses in building a functional immune system. PMID:12163560

  2. N-acetylcysteine inhibits the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in livers from rats fed ethanol chronically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration to experimental animals induces hepatic oxidative stress and up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. The mechanisms by which chronic EtOH up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis have not been fully explored. In this work, we hypothesized that oxidative ...

  3. Urban air pollution produces up-regulation of myocardial inflammatory genes and dark chocolate provides cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (nuclear factor κB), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures.

  4. Histone Hyperacetylation Up-regulates Protein Kinase Cδ in Dopaminergic Neurons to Induce Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease. PMID:25342743

  5. The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Up-regulation and Proapoptotic Function in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Saminathan, Hariharan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Sondarva, Gautam; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Qian, Ziqing; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain unclear. Pin1, a major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has recently been associated with certain diseases. Notably, Ryo et al. (Ryo, A., Togo, T., Nakai, T., Hirai, A., Nishi, M., Yamaguchi, A., Suzuki, K., Hirayasu, Y., Kobayashi, H., Perrem, K., Liou, Y. C., and Aoki, I. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4117–4125) implicated Pin1 in PD pathology. Therefore, we sought to systematically characterize the role of Pin1 in PD using cell culture and animal models. To our surprise we observed a dramatic up-regulation of Pin1 mRNA and protein levels in dopaminergic MN9D neuronal cells treated with the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) as well as in the substantia nigra of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Notably, a marked expression of Pin1 was also observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains along with a high co-localization of Pin1 within dopaminergic neurons. In functional studies, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pin1 almost completely prevented MPP+-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that Pin1 plays a proapoptotic role. Interestingly, multiple pharmacological Pin1 inhibitors, including juglone, attenuated MPP+-induced Pin1 up-regulation, α-synuclein aggregation, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Furthermore, juglone treatment in the MPTP mouse model of PD suppressed Pin1 levels and improved locomotor deficits, dopamine depletion, and nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Pin1 is up-regulated in PD and has a pathophysiological role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and suggest that modulation of Pin1 levels may be a useful translational therapeutic strategy in PD. PMID:23754278

  6. The Natural Antimicrobial Enzyme Lysozyme is Up-Regulated in Gastrointestinal Inflammatory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The cells that line the mucosa of the human gastrointestinal tract (GI, that is, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum) are constantly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as different pH, enzymes, and bacterial flora. With exception of the oral cavity, these microenvironments also contain remnant cocktails of secreted enzymes and bacteria from upper organs along the tract. The density of the GI bacteria varies, from 103/mL near the gastric outlet, to 1010/mL at the ileocecal valve, to 1011 to 1012/mL in the colon. The total microbial population (ca. 1014) exceeds the total number of cells in the tract. It is, therefore, remarkable that despite the prima facie inauspicious mixture of harmful secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To counteract the hostile microenvironment, the GI epithelia react by speeding cell exfoliation (the GI mucosa has a turnover time of two to three days), by increasing peristalsis, by eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial compounds, such as defensin-5 and lysozyme. Only recently, lysozyme was found up-regulated in Barrett’s oesophagitis, chronic gastritis, gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (coeliac disease), collagenous colitis, lymphocytic colitis, and Crohn’s colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed to the special types of bacteria recently detected in these diseases. The aim of lysozyme up-regulation is to protect individual mucosal segments to chronic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms connected to the crosstalk between the intraluminal bacterial flora and the production of lysozyme released by the GI mucosae, are discussed. Bacterial resistance continues to exhaust our supply of commercial antibiotics. The potential use of lysozyme to treat infectious diseases is receiving much attention. PMID:25437608

  7. Monocyte/macrophage-derived microparticles up-regulate inflammatory mediator synthesis by human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Chiara; Chimenti, Daniele; Conti, Ilaria; Neri, Tommaso; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

    2006-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MP) are membrane fragments shed by virtually all eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis that play a significant role in physiologically relevant processes, including coagulation and inflammation. We investigated whether MP derived from monocytes/macrophages have the potential to modulate human airway epithelial cell activation. Monocytes/macrophages were isolated from the buffy coats of blood donors by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, followed by overnight culture of the mononuclear cell fraction. Adherent cells were washed and incubated with the calcium ionophore, A23187, or with histamine. The MP-containing supernatant was incubated with cells of the human bronchial epithelial line BEAS-2B and of the human alveolar line A549. IL-8, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 production was assessed by ELISA and by RT-PCR. In some experiments, monocytes/macrophages were stained with the fluorescent lipid intercalating dye PKH67, and the supernatant was analyzed by FACS. Stimulation of monocytes/macrophages with A23187 caused the release of particles that retain their fluorescent lipid intercalating label, indicating that they are derived from cell membranes. Incubation with A549 and BEAS-2B cells up-regulate IL-8 synthesis. Ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation of the material abolished the effect, indicating that particulate matter, rather than soluble molecules, is responsible for it. Up-regulation of MCP-1 and ICAM-1 was also demonstrated in A549 cells. Similar results were obtained with histamine. Our data show that human monocytes/macrophages release MP that have the potential to sustain the innate immunity of the airway epithelium, as well as to contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the lungs through up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators.

  8. Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Yanina; Ortiz, Susana; Ruiz Lascano, Alejandro; Kuznitzky, Raquel; Serra, Horacio Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    Background Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have found that this chemokine is up-regulated in different human inflammatory skin diseases mediated by diverse specific immune responses. This study was carried out to investigate the involvement of CCL21 in human skin after challenge with irritant agents responsible for inducing Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ICD). Results Eleven normal individuals were challenged with different chemical or physical irritants. Two patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) were also challenged with the relevant antigen in order to have a positive control for CCL21 expression. Macroscopic as well as microscopic responses were evaluated. We observed typical ICD responses with mostly mononuclear cells in perivascular areas, but a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells away from the inflamed blood vessels and in the epidermis at 24 hours. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of CCL21 by lymphatic endothelial cells in all the biopsies taken from ICD and ACD lesions compared to normal skin. Kinetic study at 10, 48, 96 and 168 hours after contact with a classical irritant (sodium lauryl sulphate) showed that the expression of CCL21 was increased in lymphatic vessels at 10 hours, peaked at 48 hours, and then gradually declined. There was a strong correlation between CCL21 expression and the macroscopic response (r = 0.69; p = 0.0008), but not between CCL21 and the number of infiltrating cells in the lesions. Conclusions These results provide new evidence for the role of CCL21 in inflammatory processes. Since the up-regulation of this chemokine was observed in ICD and ACD, it is tempting to speculate that this mechanism operates independently of the type of dermal insult, facilitating the emigration of CCR7+ cells. PMID:15109401

  9. Urban Air Pollution Produces Up-Regulation of Myocardial Inflammatory Genes and Dark Chocolate Provides Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: Southwest (SW) and Northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (Nuclear Factor κ B), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. PMID:20932730

  10. Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 expression accelerates skin cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Vogel, Kristen; Yanagida, Jodi K; Marwaha, Nitin; Kandel, Amrit; Trempus, Carol; Repertinger, Susan K; Hansen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause severe damage to the skin and is the primary cause of most skin cancer. UV radiation causes DNA damage leading to mutations and also activates the Erbb2/HER2 receptor through indirect mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that Erbb2 activation accelerates the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Following the induction of benign squamous papillomas by UV exposure of v-ras(Ha) transgenic Tg.AC mice, mice were treated topically with the Erbb2 inhibitor AG825 and tumor progression monitored. AG825 treatment reduced tumor volume, increased tumor regression, and delayed the development of malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Progression to malignancy was associated with increased Erbb2 and ADAM12 (A Disintegin And Metalloproteinase 12) transcripts and protein, while inhibition of Erbb2 blocked the increase in ADAM12 message upon malignant progression. Similarly, human SCC and SCC cell lines had increased ADAM12 protein and transcripts when compared to normal controls. To determine whether Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 contributed to malignant progression of skin cancer, Erbb2 expression was modulated in cultured SCC cells using forced over-expression or siRNA targeting, demonstrating up-regulation of ADAM12 by Erbb2. Furthermore, ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting revealed that ADAM12 increased both the migration and invasion of cutaneous SCC cells. Collectively, these results suggest Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 as a novel mechanism contributing to the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Inhibition of Erbb2/HER2 reduced tumor burden, increased tumor regression, and delayed the progression of benign skin tumors to malignant SCC in UV-exposed mice. Inhibition of Erbb2 suppressed the increase in metalloproteinase ADAM12 expression in skin tumors, which in turn increased migration and tumor cell invasiveness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Lai, Chien-Chen; Huang, Su-Hua; Liao, Jun-Ming; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-09-05

    Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 μg/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β, IFN-γ, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans.

  12. Barnyard grass stress up regulates the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in allelopathic rice.

    PubMed

    He, Haibin; Wang, Haibin; Fang, Changxun; Wu, Hanwen; Guo, Xukui; Liu, Changhui; Lin, Zhihua; Lin, Wenxiong

    2012-11-15

    Allelopathic rice cultivar PI312777 (PI) and non-allelopathic rice cultivar Lemont (Le) were mixed with barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., BYG) at various ratios (rice:weed ratios of 4:1, 2:1, and 1:1) in hydroponic cultures. The expression of four genes, i.e. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase (F5H), and caffeic acid O-methyltransferases (COMT), which are involved in the biosynthesis of the phenolic compounds in rice, were evaluated by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The contents of phenolic compounds in leaves, roots, and culture solutions of the two rice cultivars were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that all of the four genes were up-regulated in leaves and roots of the allelopathic rice PI at all rice:weed ratios. However, three of the four genes, C4H, F5H, and COMT, were down-regulated in the leaves and roots of the non-allelopathic rice Le. The degree to which PAL was up-regulated in leaves and roots was much higher in PI than in Le. The contents of phenolic compounds in PI leaves, roots, and culture solutions were higher than that in Le leaves, roots, and culture solutions. The higher expression of the genes involved in the phenylpropanoid metabolism and the higher contents of phenolic compounds in PI are consistent with the higher inhibitory rates of PI on BYG. These results indicate that the PAL gene in PI is more sensitive to BYG stress than in Le, and barnyard grass up regulates the biosynthesis of phenolic compound in allelopathic rice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene and functional up-regulation of the BCRP/ABCG2 transporter in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is one member of ABC transporters proteins super family responsible of drug resistance. Since data on ABCG2 expression in liver malignances are scanty, here we report the expression of ABCG2 in adult human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in both in vivo and in vitro models with different degree of malignancy. Methods In cell lines derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma, ABCG2 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative real time PCR and function by Hoechst 33342 efflux assay; protein content was assessed by SDS-PAGE Western blot. Results ABCG2 expression was found to be highest in the most undifferentiated cell lines, and this was related with a higher functional activity. ABCG2 expression was sensitive to antineoplastic drugs since exposure to 5 μM doxorubicin for 24 hours resulted in significant up-regulations of ABCG2 in all cell lines, particularly in those lines with low basal ABCG2 expression (p<0.01). The gene expression was also investigated in 51 adult liver tissues with HCC and related cirrhosis; normal liver tissue was used as control. ABCG2 gene expression was higher in HCC than both cirrhotic paired tissue and normal tissue. This up-regulation was greater (p<0.05) in pathological poorly differentiated grade G3/G4 than in well-differentiated G1/G2 HCC. Conclusions Our results suggest a correlation of ABCG2 gene expression and differentiation stage both in human and HCC derived cell lines. The rapid up-regulation of ABCG2 to exposure to doxorubicin emphasizes the importance of this transporter in accounting for drug resistance in liver tumors. PMID:23153066

  14. Evidence That Up-Regulation of MicroRNA-29 Contributes to Postnatal Body Growth Deceleration

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Fariha; Andrade, Anenisia C.; Nella, Aikaterini A.; Clokie, Samuel J.; Rezvani, Geoffrey; Nilsson, Ola; Baron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Body growth is rapid in infancy but subsequently slows and eventually ceases due to a progressive decline in cell proliferation that occurs simultaneously in multiple organs. We previously showed that this decline in proliferation is driven in part by postnatal down-regulation of a large set of growth-promoting genes in multiple organs. We hypothesized that this growth-limiting genetic program is orchestrated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Bioinformatic analysis identified target sequences of the miR-29 family of miRNAs to be overrepresented in age–down-regulated genes. Concomitantly, expression microarray analysis in mouse kidney and lung showed that all members of the miR-29 family, miR-29a, -b, and -c, were strongly up-regulated from 1 to 6 weeks of age. Real-time PCR confirmed that miR-29a, -b, and -c were up-regulated with age in liver, kidney, lung, and heart, and their expression levels were higher in hepatocytes isolated from 5-week-old mice than in hepatocytes from embryonic mouse liver at embryonic day 16.5. We next focused on 3 predicted miR-29 target genes (Igf1, Imp1, and Mest), all of which are growth-promoting. A 3′-untranslated region containing the predicted target sequences from each gene was placed individually in a luciferase reporter construct. Transfection of miR-29 mimics suppressed luciferase gene activity for all 3 genes, and this suppression was diminished by mutating the target sequences, suggesting that these genes are indeed regulated by miR-29. Taken together, the findings suggest that up-regulation of miR-29 during juvenile life drives the down-regulation of multiple growth-promoting genes, thus contributing to physiological slowing and eventual cessation of body growth. PMID:25866874

  15. Myostatin signaling is up-regulated in female patients with advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Junichi; Konishi, Masaaki; Saitoh, Masakazu; Anker, Markus; Anker, Stefan D; Springer, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, is up-regulated in the myocardium of heart failure (HF) and increased myostatin is associated with weight loss in animal models with HF. Although there are disparities in pathophysiology and epidemiology between male and female patients with HF, it remains unclear whether there is gender difference in myostatin expression and whether it is associated with weight loss in HF patients. Heart tissue samples were collected from patients with advanced heart failure (n=31, female n=5) as well as healthy control donors (n=14, female n=6). Expression levels of myostatin and its related proteins in the heart were evaluated by western blotting analysis. Body mass index was significantly lower in female HF patients than in male counterparts (20.0±4.2 in female vs 25.2±3.8 in male, p=0.04). In female HF patients, both mature myostatin and pSmad2 were significantly up-regulated by 1.9 fold (p=0.05) and 2.5 fold (p<0.01) respectively compared to female donors, while expression of pSmad2 was increased by 2.8 times in male HF patients compared to male healthy subjects, but that of myostatin was not. There was no significant difference in protein expression related to myostatin signaling between male and female patients. In this study, myostatin and pSmad2 were significantly up-regulated in the failing heart of female patients, but not male patients, and female patients displayed lower body mass index. Enhanced myostatin signaling in female failing heart may causally contribute to pathogenesis of HF and cardiac cachexia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Up-regulation of the hyaluronate receptor CD44 in canine distemper demyelinated plaques.

    PubMed

    Alldinger, S; Fonfara, S; Kremmer, E; Baumgärtner, W

    2000-02-01

    CD44 antigen (CD44), the principle cell surface receptor for hyaluronate, is up-regulated in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis on fibrous astrocytes. As astrocytes are the main target cell of canine distemper virus (CDV), the consequences of a CDV infection on the CD44 expression and distribution in brains with spontaneous demyelinating canine distemper encephalitis (CDE) were of interest. Thirteen acute, 35 subacute, and 11 chronic plaques of nine dogs with immunohistologically confirmed CDE and brains of control dogs were included in the study. For light microscopy, 5-micron-thick serial sections were stained with H&E and incubated with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD44 and canine distemper virus nucleoprotein and polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and myelin basic protein (MBP). For immunoelectron microscopy, 90-nm-thick sections were double stained with anti-GFAP and anti-CD44 mAbs to specify CD44-expressing structures. In controls, CD44 was diffusely distributed in the white matter and single meningeal cells exhibited a marginal expression of the antigen. In acute and more prominently in subacute demyelinating encephalitis, there was a plaque-associated up-regulation of CD44 which paralleled GFAP. In chronic demyelinating lesions, a reduction of CD44 associated with a loss of GFAP-positive astrocytes was noted. Additionally, in chronic plaques, CD44 was expressed on the cell membrane of perivascular mononuclear cells. Immunoelectron microscopically, in controls, CD44 was rarely demonstrated on astrocytic cell processes. In contrast, in brains with CDE CD44 was found on the cell membrane of broadened astrocytic cell processes. In summary, CD44 is up-regulated on astrocytes in the early phase of CDE and seems to represent a marker for the activation of immune cells in the late phase of the infection.

  17. Mung bean decreases plasma cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Hao, Liu; Shi, Zhenxing; Wang, Lixia; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2014-06-01

    Our results affirmed that supplementation of 1 or 2% mung bean could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Mung bean increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Most importantly, mung bean increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of mung bean was most probable mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  18. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tetsuroh; Mine, Tetsuya; Katoh, Masaru

    2002-05-01

    WNT signal is transduced to the beta-catenin - TCF pathway, the JNK pathway, or the Ca2+-releasing pathway through seven-transmembrane-type WNT receptors encoded by Frizzled genes (FZD1-FZD10). We have previously cloned and characterized human WNT2B/WNT13, WNT3, WNT3A, WNT5B, WNT6, WNT7B, WNT8A, WNT8B, WNT10A, WNT10B, WNT11, WNT14, and WNT14B/WNT15 by using bioinformatics, cDNA-library screening, and cDNA-PCR. Here, we investigated expression of human WNT5A mRNA in various normal tissues, 66 primary tumors derived from various tissues, and 15 human cancer cell lines. WNT5A mRNA was relatively highly expressed in salivary gland, bladder, uterus, placenta, and fetal kidney. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was detected in 5 out of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer, 5 out of 18 cases of primary colorectal tumors, and in 2 out of 7 cases of primary uterus tumors by using matched tumor/normal expression array analysis. Up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA was also detected in 7 out of 10 other cases of primary gastric cancer by using cDNA-PCR. Although low-level expression of WNT5A mRNA was detected in gastric cancer cell line MKN45, WNT5A mRNA was almost undetectable in gastric cancer cell lines OKAJIMA, TMK1, MKN7, MKN28, MKN74, and KATO-III. Compared with frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in primary gastric cancer, expression levels of WNT5A mRNA in 7 gastric cancer cell lines were significantly lower than that in normal stomach. Frequent up-regulation of WNT5A mRNA in human primary gastric cancer might be due to cancer-stromal interaction.

  19. Transcriptional up-regulation of the human androgen receptor by androgen in bone cells.

    PubMed

    Wiren, K M; Zhang, X; Chang, C; Keenan, E; Orwoll, E S

    1997-06-01

    Androgen regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression has been observed in a variety of tissues, generally as inhibition, and is thought to attenuate cellular responses to androgen. AR is expressed in osteoblasts, the bone-forming cell, suggesting direct actions of androgens on bone. Here we characterized the effect of androgen exposure on AR gene expression in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 and U-2 OS cells. Treatment of osteoblastic cells with the nonaromatizable androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone increased AR steady state messenger RNA levels in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Reporter assays with 2.3 kilobases of the proximal 5'-flanking region of the human AR promoter linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in transfected cultures showed that up-regulation of AR promoter activity by androgen was time and dose dependent. Treatment with other steroid hormones, including progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and dexamethasone, was without effect. The antiandrogen hydroxyflutamide completely antagonized androgen up-regulation. Thus, in contrast to many other androgen target tissues, androgen exposure increases steady state AR messenger RNA levels in osteoblasts. This regulation occurs at least partially at the level of transcription, is mediated by the 5'-promoter region of the AR gene, and is dependent on functional AR. These results suggest that physiological concentrations of androgens have significant effects on AR expression in skeletal tissue.

  20. Up-regulation of SLAP in FLI-1-transformed erythroblasts interferes with EpoR signaling.

    PubMed

    Lebigot, Ingrid; Gardellin, Paola; Lefebvre, Laurent; Beug, Hartmut; Ghysdael, Jacques; Quang, Christine Tran

    2003-12-15

    Rearrangement of the FLI-1 locus and ensuing overexpression of FLI-1 protein is an early event in Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced erythroleukemia. When overexpressed in primary erythroblasts, FLI-1 converts erythropoietin (Epo)-induced terminal differentiation into a proliferative response. We found that SLAP, a gene encoding a recently described negative regulator of T-cell antigen receptor function during thymocyte development, is up-regulated both at the RNA and protein levels in FLI-1-transformed erythroblasts. Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) was found in a specific complex with erythropoietin receptor (EpoR), a cytokine receptor essential to erythroid differentiation. Constitutive expression of SLAP severely impairs hemoglobinization and late survival during Epo-induced terminal differentiation of erythroblasts. This impairment is associated with the specific inhibition of several critical Epo-dependent signaling events, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation and up-regulation of the expression of the antiapoptotic BCL-X gene. Our data support a model by which FLI-1 inhibits normal erythroid differentiation through the deregulation of genes encoding adaptors/effectors that modify the signaling output of cytokine receptors normally required for terminal differentiation.

  1. LTP but not seizure is associated with up-regulation of AKAP-150.

    PubMed

    Génin, A; French, P; Doyère, V; Davis, S; Errington, M L; Maroun, M; Stean, T; Truchet, B; Webber, M; Wills, T; Richter-Levin, G; Sanger, G; Hunt, S P; Mallet, J; Laroche, S; Bliss, T V P; O'Connor, V

    2003-01-01

    We have used differential display to profile and compare the mRNAs expressed in the hippocampus of freely moving animals after the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse with control rats receiving low-frequency stimulation. We have combined this with in situ hybridization and have identified A-kinase anchoring protein of 150 kDa (AKAP-150) as a gene selectively up-regulated during the maintenance phase of LTP. AKAP-150 mRNA has a biphasic modulation in the dentate gyrus following the induction of LTP. The expression of AKAP-150 was 29% lower than stimulated controls 1 h after the induction of LTP. Its expression was enhanced 3 (50%), 6 (239%) and 12 h (210%) after induction, returning to control levels by 24 h postinduction. The NMDA receptor antagonist CPP blocked the tetanus-induced modulation of AKAP-150 expression. Interestingly, strong generalized stimulation produced by electroconvulsive shock did not increase the expression of AKAP-150. This implies that the AKAP-150 harbours a novel property of selective responsiveness to the stimulation patterns that trigger NMDA-dependent LTP in vivo. Its selective up-regulation during LTP and its identified functions as a scaffold for protein kinase A, protein kinase C, calmodulin, calcineurin and ionotropic glutamate receptors suggest that AKAP-150 encodes is an important effector protein in the expression of late LTP.

  2. N-glycoprotein analysis discovers new up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Nicastri, Annalisa; Gaspari, Marco; Sacco, Rosario; Elia, Laura; Gabriele, Caterina; Romano, Roberto; Rizzuto, Antonia; Cuda, Giovanni

    2014-11-07

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide. Therefore, the identification of high-specificity and -sensitivity biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer is urgently needed. Post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, are known to play an important role in cancer progression. In the present work, we used a quantitative proteomic technique based on (18)O stable isotope labeling to identify differentially expressed N-linked glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue samples compared with healthy colorectal tissue from 19 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We identified 54 up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer samples, therefore potentially involved in the biological processes of tumorigenesis. In particular, nine of these (PLOD2, DPEP1, SE1L1, CD82, PAR1, PLOD3, S12A2, LAMP3, OLFM4) were found to be up-regulated in the great majority of the cohort, and, interestingly, the association with colorectal cancer of four (PLOD2, S12A2, PLOD3, CD82) has not been hitherto described.

  3. A comparative proteomic study identified calreticulin and prohibitin up-regulated in adrenocortical carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying novel tumor biomarkers to develop more effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with ACC is urgently needed. The aim of the study was to compare the proteomic profiles between adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) and normal adrenocortical tissues in order to identify novel potential biomarkers for ACC. Methods The protein samples from 12 ACC tissues and their paired adjacent normal adrenocortical tissues were profiled with two-dimensional electrophoresis; and differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Expression patterns of three differently expressed proteins calreticulin, prohibitin and HSP60 in ACC, adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and normal adrenocortical tissues were further validated by immunohistochemistry. Results In our proteomic study, we identified 20 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated proteins in ACC tissues compared with paired normal controls. Most of the up-regulated proteins were focused in protein binding and oxidoreductase activity in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function classification. By immunohistochemistry, two biomarkers calreticulin and prohibitin were validated to be overexpressed in ACC compared with adrenocortical adenomas (ACA) and normal tissues, but also calreticulin overexpression was significantly associated with tumor stages of ACC. Conclusion For the first time, calreticulin and prohibitin were identified to be novel candidate biomarkers for ACC, and their roles during ACC carcinogenesis and clinical significance deserves further investigation. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1897372598927465 PMID:23587357

  4. Midazolam inhibits the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of erythropoietin in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tomonori; Tanaka, Tomoharu; Tatsumi, Kenichiro; Daijo, Hiroki; Kai, Shinichi; Harada, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-15

    Erythropoietin (EPO), a regulator of red blood cell production, is endogenously expressed in the central nervous system. It is mainly produced by astrocytes under hypoxic conditions and has proven to have neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of midazolam on EPO expression in primary cultured astrocytes and the mouse brain. Midazolam was administered to 6-week-old BALB/c male mice under hypoxic conditions and pregnant C57BL/6N mice under normoxic conditions. Primary cultured astrocytes were also treated with midazolam under hypoxic conditions. The expression of EPO mRNA in mice brains and cultured astrocytes was studied. In addition, the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), known as the main regulator of EPO, was evaluated. Midazolam significantly reduced the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of EPO in BALB/c mice brains and primary cultured astrocytes and suppressed EPO expression in the fetal brain. Midazolam did not affect the total amount of HIF proteins but significantly inhibited the nuclear expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α proteins. These results demonstrated the suppressive effects of midazolam on the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of EPO both in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Gloria E.; Koban, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness. PMID:27997552

  6. Antimetastatic effects of norcantharidin on hepatocellular carcinoma cells by up-regulating FAM46C expression

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xu-Ying; Zhai, Xiao-Feng; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Han, Ting; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Xin, Hai-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Norcantharidin (NCTD), a demethylated analog of cantharidin, possesses antimetastatic effects on HCC cells. The aim of this study was to identify target proteins of NCTD. In this study, we confirmed the antimetastatic effects of NCTD on SMMC-7721 and MHCC-97H cells. Through RNA sequencing, we found a non-canonical poly (A) polymerase, Family-with-sequence-similarity-46C (FAM46C) was up-regulated in response to NCTD exposure. Gene set enrichment analysis on The Cancer Genome Atlas liver HCC (LIHC) dataset revealed that metastasis down pathway was strongly associated with FAM46C expression. Overexpression of FAM46C in HCC cells suppressed cell migration and invasion via suppressing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Additionally, the antimetastatic effects of NCTD on HCC cells were partially rescued by FAM46C knockdown. Collectively, our results suggested that FAM46C, up-regulated by NCTD treatment, played a critical role in promoting the migration and invasion of HCC cells via TGF-β/Smad signaling. We identified a new therapeutic target of NCTD. PMID:28123642

  7. Utrophin Up-Regulation by an Artificial Transcription Factor in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E.; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter “A”. Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics. PMID:17712422

  8. Apis mellifera ultraspiracle: cDNA sequence and rapid up-regulation by juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Barchuk, A R; Maleszka, R; Simões, Z L P

    2004-10-01

    Two hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) are key regulators of insect development including the differentiation of the alternative caste phenotypes of social insects. In addition, JH plays a different role in adult honey bees, acting as a 'behavioural pacemaker'. The functional receptor for 20E is a heterodimer consisting of the ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle (USP) whereas the identity of the JH receptor remains unknown. We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding Apis mellifera ultraspiracle (AMUSP) and examined its responses to JH. A rapid, but transient up-regulation of the AMUSP messenger is observed in the fat bodies of both queens and workers. AMusp appears to be a single copy gene that produces two transcripts ( approximately 4 and approximately 5 kb) that are differentially expressed in the animal's body. The predicted AMUSP protein shows greater sequence similarity to its orthologues from the vertebrate-crab-tick-locust group than to the dipteran-lepidopteran group. These characteristics and the rapid up-regulation by JH suggest that some of the USP functions in the honey bee may depend on ligand binding.

  9. Identification of three proteins up-regulated by raw starch in Cytophaga sp.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Rong-Jen; Wen, Yu-Der; Jeang, Chii-Ling

    2008-12-01

    Raw starch-digesting amylases (RSDAs) in many microorganisms convert starch granules into maltodextrins and simple sugars. We cloned and sequenced from Cytophaga sp. an RSDA with an excellent raw starch digestion activity. This RSDA was highly inducible by raw starch, but not by other sugars, suggesting that an unknown signal transduction mechanism is involved in the degradation of raw starch. We used a proteomic approach to investigate the effect of raw starch on protein expression in Cytophaga sp. Using MALDI-TOF MS protein analysis, we have identified three proteins up-regulated by raw starch, i.e., a 60-kDa chaperonin (cpn60), glutaminase, and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). Subsequent time-course studies detected an increased expression of RSDA as well as the highest expression of PPDK occurring 6 h post-incubation with raw corn starch, implying that the latter enzyme may work along with RSDA on the digestion of raw starch. Finding these proteins up-regulated by raw starch may provide an insight into how Cytophaga sp. cells respond to raw starch stimulation.

  10. Artemisia Extract Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by Up-Regulating Adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xia; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Ji, Xianghong

    2016-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has affected a great number of pregnant women worldwide. Artemisia extracts have been found to exhibit a potent antidiabetic effect in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine the effects of Artemisia extract on insulin resistance and lipid profiles in pregnant GDM patients. Patients in their second trimester were randomly assigned to the Artemisia extract group (AE) or to a placebo group (PO). They were instructed to consume either AE or PO daily for a period of 10 weeks. Glucose and insulin profiles and adiponectin level were assessed at baseline (week 0) and after the treatment (week 10). Compared to the PO group, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and β-cell function (HOMA-B) were significantly reduced in the AE group participants. Moreover, levels of circulating adiponectin were also significantly up-regulated in the AE group, which also positively contributed to improved insulin sensitivity. Daily administration of Artemisia extract improves insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adiponectin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Identification of genes up-regulated during somatic embryogenesis of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Anita; Grabowska, Agnieszka; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, Anna; Tagashira, Norikazu; Zuzga, Sabina; Wóycicki, Rafał; Przybecki, Zbigniew; Malepszy, Stefan; Filipecki, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a method of plant regeneration, but it can also be used as a model to study plant development. A normalized library of cDNA fragments representing genes up-regulated after the induction of somatic embryogenesis in cucumber suspension cultures was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. Candidate cDNA fragments (119) were classified according to their similarity to genes encoding known proteins and the presence of potential functional domains. Of the translation products with homology to known proteins, about 23% were possibly involved in metabolism, 13% represented proteins with a probable role in cellular communication and signal transduction, about 12% were likely to participate in protein synthesis, while around 10% were potential transcription factors. The genes corresponding to four of the cDNAs were subsequently analyzed in more detail: CsSEF2, CsSEM1 and CsSESTK1 encoding putative transcription factors or co-activators, and CsSECAD1 encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Full-length cDNAs were isolated and analyzed. RT-PCR confirmed the up-regulation of these genes after the induction of somatic embryogenesis and showed the presence of their transcripts in other tissues. The in situ localization of transcripts of the CsSEF2 and CsSEM1 genes demonstrated that signalling in somatic embryo tissues involving these factors is concentrated in the cotyledon primordia and roots. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Endothelial interleukin-21 receptor up-regulation in peripheral artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cunningham, Alexis; Houston, Kevin; Sharma, Aditya M; Chen, Lingdan; Dokun, Ayotunde O; Lye, R John; Spolski, Rosanne; Leonard, Warren J; Annex, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    In most patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), severe stenosis in or occlusion of the major blood vessels that supply the legs make the amount of distal blood flow dependent on the capacity to induce angiogenesis and collateral vessel formation. Currently, there are no medications that improve perfusion to the ischemic limb, and thus directly treat the primary problem of PAD. A recent report from our group in a pre-clinical mouse PAD model showed that interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) is up-regulated in the endothelial cells from ischemic hindlimb muscle. We further showed that loss of IL-21R resulted in impaired perfusion recovery in this model. In our study, we sought to determine whether IL-21R is present in the endothelium from ischemic muscle of patients with PAD. Using human gastrocnemius muscle biopsies, we found increased levels of IL-21R in the skeletal muscle endothelial cells of patients with PAD compared to control individuals. Interestingly, PAD patients had approximately 1.7-fold higher levels of circulating IL-21. These data provide direct evidence that the IL-21R pathway is indeed up-regulated in patients with PAD. This pathway may serve as a therapeutic target for modulation. PMID:26705256

  13. Salvianolic acid B inhibits mitochondrial dysfunction by up-regulating mortalin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunxia; Hu, Yingying; E, Qiukai; Zuo, Ji; Yang, Ling; Liu, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B is an antioxidative ingredient derived from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae that has been widely used to treat liver diseases. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying Salvianolic acid B has remained largely unknown. Our studies verified that Salvianolic acid B efficiently blocked mitochondrial deformation and dysfunction induced by H2O2 in the human hepatocyte cell line HL7702. Mortalin, a mitochondrial molecular chaperone, maintains mitochondrial morphology stabilization and function integrity. Previous results showed that mortalin overexpression has been observed in hematoma carcinoma cells and that mortalin maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and antagonizes oxidative stress damage. We found that Salvianolic acid B significantly up-regulated mortalin protein expression levels. In addition, Salvianolic acid B lost the function of preventing mitochondrial deformation and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress under mortalin knockdown conditions. We further found that mortalin overexpression increases the mRNA expression of mitofusin-related factor Mfn1 and mitofission-related factor hFis1. In conclusion, Salvianolic acid B maintains the mitochondrial structure stabilization and functional integrity by up-regulating mortalin, which may be associated with increased mitofusin factor Mfn1 and reduced mitofission factor hFis1. PMID:28251987

  14. Laughter up-regulates the genes related to NK cell activity in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takashi; Tsujii, Satoru; Iburi, Tadao; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Yamagami, Keiko; Ishibashi, Rieko; Hori, Miyo; Sakamoto, Shigeko; Ishii, Hitoshi; Murakami, Kazuo

    2007-12-01

    To elucidate the sustainable effects of laughter on gene expression, we recruited type 2 diabetic patients who were in-patient for receiving self-management education and examined time-dependent regulation for gene expression by laughter. Two-day experiment was performed. On one day, the patients watched comic video and laughed together with hospital staffs. On the other day, they participated in an inpatient diabetes educational program. Blood samples were collected before and 1.5, 4 h after watching comic video or spending lecture time, and changes in gene expression were comprehensively analyzed by microarray technique. Of the 41,000 genes analyzed, the laughter relatively up-regulated 39 genes, among which, 27 genes were relatively increased in the expression for all the observation period after watching comic video. By functional classification of these genes, 14 genes were found to be related to natural killer cell activity. No genes were included that are directly involved in blood glucose regulation, though successive suppression of postprandial blood glucose levels was observed. These results suggest that the laughter influences the expression of many genes classified into immune responses, and may contribute to amelioration of postprandial blood glucose elevation through a modulation of NK cell activity caused by up-regulation of relating genes.

  15. Up-regulation of intelectin in sheep after infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    PubMed

    French, Anne T; Knight, Pamela A; Smith, W David; Brown, Jeremy K; Craig, Nicola M; Pate, Judith A; Miller, Hugh R P; Pemberton, Alan D

    2008-03-01

    A novel intelectin molecule designated sheep intelectin 2 (sITLN2) was detected in sheep abomasal mucosa. The full sequence shared 76-83% homology with other mammalian intelectins. Intelectins are mucus-associated proteins that have been shown to be up-regulated in gastrointestinal nematode infections in rodents and in human asthma. Expression of sheep abomasal ITLN2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated on day 10 post-challenge of worm-free sheep with Teladorsagia circumcincta and at day 2 in previously infected, immune sheep. Increased expression of ITLN protein following challenge was confirmed by Western blot and was immunolocalised to the mucous neck cells of the abomasal mucosa. Infection with T. circumcincta was also associated with increased levels of abomasal transcripts encoding sheep mast cell protease-1, ovine galectin-14 and IL4, which collectively suggested a Th2 type response. Intelectin may play an important role in the mucosal response to gastrointestinal nematode infections in ruminants.

  16. Glutamate Transporter EAAT2 Expression is Up-Regulated in Reactive Astrocytes in Human Periventricular Leukomalacia

    PubMed Central

    DESILVA, TARA M.; BILLIARDS, SARAID S.; BORENSTEIN, NATALIA S.; TRACHTENBERG, FELICIA L.; VOLPE, JOSEPH J.; KINNEY, HANNAH C.; ROSENBERG, PAUL A.

    2010-01-01

    The major neuropathological correlate of cerebral palsy in premature infants is periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a disorder of the immature cerebral white matter. Cerebral ischemia leading to excitotoxicity is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder, implying a critical role for glutamate transporters, the major determinants of extracellular glutamate concentration. Previously, we found that EAAT2 expression is limited primarily to premyelinating oligodendrocytes early in development and is rarely observed in astrocytes until >40 weeks. In this study, we analyzed the expression of EAAT2 in cerebral white matter from PVL and control cases. Western blot analysis suggested an up-regulation of EAAT2 in PVL compared with control cases. Single- and double-label immunocytochemistry showed a significantly higher percentage of EAAT2-immunopositive astrocytes in PVL (51.8% ± 5.6%) compared with control white matter (21.4% ± 5.6%; P = 0.004). Macrophages in the necrotic foci in PVL also expressed EAAT2. Premyelinating oligodendrocytes in both PVL and control cases expressed EAAT2, without qualitative difference in expression. The previously unrecognized up-regulation of EAAT2 in reactive astrocytes and its presence in macrophages in PVL reported here may reflect a response to either hypoxic-ischemic injury or inflammation. PMID:18314905

  17. Salvianolic acid B inhibits mitochondrial dysfunction by up-regulating mortalin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxia; Hu, Yingying; E, Qiukai; Zuo, Ji; Yang, Ling; Liu, Wen

    2017-03-02

    Salvianolic acid B is an antioxidative ingredient derived from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae that has been widely used to treat liver diseases. However, the therapeutic mechanism underlying Salvianolic acid B has remained largely unknown. Our studies verified that Salvianolic acid B efficiently blocked mitochondrial deformation and dysfunction induced by H2O2 in the human hepatocyte cell line HL7702. Mortalin, a mitochondrial molecular chaperone, maintains mitochondrial morphology stabilization and function integrity. Previous results showed that mortalin overexpression has been observed in hematoma carcinoma cells and that mortalin maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and antagonizes oxidative stress damage. We found that Salvianolic acid B significantly up-regulated mortalin protein expression levels. In addition, Salvianolic acid B lost the function of preventing mitochondrial deformation and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress under mortalin knockdown conditions. We further found that mortalin overexpression increases the mRNA expression of mitofusin-related factor Mfn1 and mitofission-related factor hFis1. In conclusion, Salvianolic acid B maintains the mitochondrial structure stabilization and functional integrity by up-regulating mortalin, which may be associated with increased mitofusin factor Mfn1 and reduced mitofission factor hFis1.

  18. Utrophin up-regulation by an artificial transcription factor in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Elisabetta; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Strimpakos, Georgios; Severini, Cinzia; Onori, Annalisa; Desantis, Agata; Libri, Valentina; Buontempo, Serena; Floridi, Aristide; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baban, Dilair; Davies, Kay E; Passananti, Claudio

    2007-08-22

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter "A". Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics.

  19. Tetramethylpyrazine blocks TFAM degradation and up-regulates mitochondrial DNA copy number by interacting with TFAM

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Linhua; Guo, Miaomiao; Ai, Yong; Chen, Fuhong; Zhang, Ya; Xia, Lei; Huang, Dawei; Niu, Lili; Zheng, Ying; Suzuki, Carolyn K.

    2017-01-01

    The natural small molecule compound: 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), is a major component of the Chinese medicine Chuanxiong, which has wide clinical applications in dilating blood vessels, inhibiting platelet aggregation and treating thrombosis. Recent work suggests that TMP is also an antitumour agent. Despite its chemotherapeutic potential, the mechanism(s) underlying TMP action are unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that TMP binds to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and blocks its degradation by the mitochondrial Lon protease. TFAM is a key regulator of mtDNA replication, transcription and transmission. Our previous work showed that when TFAM is not bound to DNA, it is rapidly degraded by the ATP-dependent Lon protease, which is essential for mitochondrial proteostasis. In cultured cells, TMP specifically blocks Lon-mediated degradation of TFAM, leading to TFAM accumulation and subsequent up-regulation of mtDNA content in cells with substantially low levels of mtDNA. In vitro protease assays show that TMP does not directly inhibit mitochondrial Lon, rather interacts with TFAM and blocks degradation. Pull-down assays show that biotinylated TMP interacts with TFAM. These findings suggest a novel mechanism whereby TMP stabilizes TFAM and confers resistance to Lon-mediated degradation, thereby promoting mtDNA up-regulation in cells with low mtDNA content. PMID:28465355

  20. E2F transcription factors associated with up-regulated genes in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Donaires, Flávia S; Godoy, Paulo R D V; Leandro, Giovana S; Puthier, Denis; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is considered to the most common and malignant brain tumor in adults. Patients have a median survival of approximately one year from diagnosis due to poor response to therapy. We applied bioinformatics approaches to predict transcription factors (TF) that are deregulated in glioblastoma in an attempt to point out molecular targets for therapy. Up-regulated genes in glioblastoma selected from public microarray data were submitted to two TF association analyses. Thereafter, the expression levels of TF obtained in the overlap of analyses were assessed by RT-qPCR carried out in seven glioblastoma cell lines (T98, U251, U138, U87, U343, M059J, and M059K). E2F1 and E2F4 were highlighted in both TF analyses. However, only E2F1 was confirmed as significantly up-regulated in all glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. E2F1 is a potential common regulator of differentially expressed genes in glioblastoma, despite the genetic heterogeneity of tumor cells.

  1. Up-regulation of glycolytic metabolism is required for HIF1α-driven bone formation.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jenna N; Lim, Joohyun; Shi, Yu; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Shohet, Ralph V; Long, Fanxin

    2014-06-10

    The bone marrow environment is among the most hypoxic in the body, but how hypoxia affects bone formation is not known. Because low oxygen tension stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIFα) proteins, we have investigated the effect of expressing a stabilized form of HIF1α in osteoblast precursors. Brief stabilization of HIF1α in SP7-positive cells in postnatal mice dramatically stimulated cancellous bone formation via marked expansion of the osteoblast population. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in the mouse did not diminish bone accrual caused by HIF1α stabilization. Thus, HIF1α-driven bone formation is independent of VEGFA up-regulation and increased angiogenesis. On the other hand, HIF1α stabilization stimulated glycolysis in bone through up-regulation of key glycolytic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 completely reversed HIF1α-driven bone formation in vivo. Thus, HIF1α stimulates osteoblast formation through direct activation of glycolysis, and alterations in cellular metabolism may be a broadly applicable mechanism for regulating cell differentiation.

  2. Hypothalamic L-Histidine Decarboxylase Is Up-Regulated During Chronic REM Sleep Deprivation of Rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Gloria E; Koban, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A competition of neurobehavioral drives of sleep and wakefulness occurs during sleep deprivation. When enforced chronically, subjects must remain awake. This study examines histaminergic neurons of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus in response to enforced wakefulness in rats. We tested the hypothesis that the rate-limiting enzyme for histamine biosynthesis, L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC), would be up-regulated during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) because histamine plays a major role in maintaining wakefulness. Archived brain tissues of male Sprague Dawley rats from a previous study were used. Rats had been subjected to REM-SD by the flowerpot paradigm for 5, 10, or 15 days. For immunocytochemistry, rats were transcardially perfused with acrolein-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of L-HDC; separate controls used carbodiimide-paraformaldehyde for immunodetection of histamine. Immunolocalization of histamine within the tuberomammillary nucleus was validated using carbodiimide. Because HDC antiserum has cross-reactivity with other decarboxylases at high antibody concentrations, titrations localized L-HDC to only tuberomammillary nucleus at a dilution of ≥ 1:300,000. REM-SD increased immunoreactive HDC by day 5 and it remained elevated in both dorsal and ventral aspects of the tuberomammillary complex. Our results suggest that up-regulation of L-HDC within the tuberomammillary complex during chronic REM-SD may be responsible for maintaining wakefulness.

  3. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A.; Berenbaum, May R.

    2013-01-01

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses. PMID:23630255

  4. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  5. Transforming growth factor-β1 up-regulates connexin43 expression in human granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Tsai, Horng-Der; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) up-regulate connexin43 (Cx43) to promote cell–cell communication in human granulosa cells? SUMMARY ANSWER TGF-β1 up-regulates Cx43 and increases gap junction intercellular communication activities (GJIC) in human granulosa cells, and this effect occurs via the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)5-mediated Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)2/3-SMAD4-dependent pathway. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY TGF-β1 and its receptors are expressed in human granulosa cells, and follicular fluid contains TGF-β1 protein. In human granulosa cells, Cx43 gap junctions play an important role in the development of follicles and oocytes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This is an experimental study which was performed over a 1-year period. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from women undergoing IVF in an academic research center were used as the study models. Cx43 mRNA and protein expression levels were examined after exposure of SVOG cells to recombinant human TGF-β1. An activin/TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor, SB431542, and small interfering RNAs targeting ALK4, ALK5, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4 were used to verify the specificity of the effects and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Real-time-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the specific mRNA and protein levels, respectively. GJIC between SVOG cells were evaluated using a scrape loading and dye transfer assay. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE TGF-β1 treatment increased phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 (P < 0.0001) and up-regulated Cx43 mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.001) in SVOG cells and these stimulatory effects were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. In addition, the up-regulatory effect of TGF-β1 on Cx43 expression (mRNA and protein) was confirmed in primary

  6. Up-regulation and functional effect of cardiac β3-adrenoreceptors in alcoholic monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Heng-Jie; Grant, Kathleen A; Han, Qing-Hua; Daunais, James B; Friedman, David P; Masutani, Satoshi; Little, William C; Cheng, Che-Ping

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies link altered cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling to the pathology of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). However, the alteration and functional effect of beta(3)-AR activation in ACM are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic alcohol intake causes an up-regulation of cardiac beta(3)-AR, which exacerbates myocyte dysfunction and impairs calcium regulation, thereby directly contributing to the progression of ACM. We compared myocyte beta(3)- and beta(1)-AR expression and myocyte contractile ([Ca(2+)](i)), transient ([Ca(2+)](iT)), and Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) responses to beta- and beta(3)-AR stimulation in myocytes obtained from left ventricle (LV) tissue samples obtained from 10 normal control (C) and 16 monkeys with self-administered alcohol for 12 months prior to necropsy: 6 moderate (M) and 10 heavy (H) drinkers with group average alcohol intakes of 1.5 +/- 0.2 and 3.3 +/- 0.2 g/kg/d, respectively. Compared with control myocytes (C), in alcoholic cardiomyocytes, basal cell contraction (dL/dt(max), -39%, H: 69.8 vs. C: 114.6 microm/s), relaxation (dR/dt(max), -37%, 58.2 vs. 92.9 microm/s), [Ca(2+)](iT) (-34%, 0.23 vs. 0.35), and I(Ca,L) (-25%, 4.8 vs. 6.4pA/pF) were all significantly reduced. Compared with controls, in moderate and heavy drinkers, beta(1)-AR protein levels decreased by 23% and 42%, but beta(3)-AR protein increased by 46% and 85%, respectively. These changes were associated with altered myocyte functional responses to beta-AR agonist, isoproterenol (ISO), and beta(3)-AR agonist, BRL-37344 (BRL). Compared with controls, in alcoholic myocytes, ISO (10(-8) M) produced significantly smaller increases in dL/dt(max) (H: 40% vs. C: 71%), dR/dt(max) (37% vs. 52%), [Ca(2+)](iT) (17% vs. 37%), and I(Ca,L) (17% vs. 27%), but BRL (10(-8) M) produced a significantly greater decrease in dL/dt(max) (H: -23% vs. C: -11%), [Ca(2+)](iT) (-30% vs. -11%), and I(Ca,L) (-28% vs. -17%). Chronic alcohol consumption down-regulates cardiac

  7. Exercise-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 and IL-8 genes in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Katia; Felicetti, Michela; Capomaccio, Stefano; Pieramati, Camillo; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Background The stress response is a critical factor in the training of equine athletes; it is important for performance and for protection of the animal against physio-pathological disorders. In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to acute and strenuous exercise were investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect modifications in transcription levels of the genes for matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), which were derived from previous genome-wide expression analysis. Significant up-regulation of these two genes was found in 10 horses that had completed a race of 90–120 km in a time-course experimental design. Conclusion These results suggest that MMP-1 and IL-8 are both involved in the exercise-induced stress response, and this represents a starting point from which to understand the adaptive responses to this phenomenon. PMID:19552796

  8. Fetal nicotine exposure produces postnatal up-regulation of adenylate cyclase activity in peripheral tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Slotkin, T.A.; Navarro, H.A.; McCook, E.C.; Seidler, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Gestational exposure to nicotine has been shown to affect development of noradrenergic activity in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the current study, pregnant rats received nicotine infusions of 6 mg/kg/day throughout gestation, administered by osmotic minipump implants. After birth, offspring of the nicotine-infused dams exhibited marked increases in basal adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from kidney and heart, as well as supersensitivity to stimulation by either a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, or by forskolin. The altered responses were not accompanied by up-regulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors: in fact, ({sup 125}I)pindolol binding was significantly decreased in the nicotine group. These results indicate that fetal nicotine exposure affects enzymes involved in membrane receptor signal transduction, leading to altered responsiveness independently of changes at the receptor level.

  9. Up-regulating the human intestinal microbiome using whole plant foods, polyphenols, and/or fiber.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Kieran M; Conterno, Lorenza; Gasperotti, Mattia; Viola, Roberto

    2012-09-12

    Whole plant foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals, protect against chronic human diseases such as heart disease and cancer, with fiber and polyphenols thought to contribute significantly. These bioactive food components interact with the gut microbiota, with gut bacteria modifying polyphenol bioavailability and activity, and with fiber, constituting the main energy source for colonic fermentation. This paper discusses the consequences of increasing the consumption of whole plant foods on the gut microbiota and subsequent implications for human health. In humans, whole grain cereals can modify fecal bacterial profiles, increasing relative numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Polyphenol-rich chocolate and certain fruits have also been shown to increase fecal bifidobacteria. The recent FLAVURS study provides novel information on the impact of high fruit and vegetable diets on the gut microbiota. Increasing whole plant food consumption appears to up-regulate beneficial commensal bacteria and may contribute toward the health effects of these foods.

  10. Neuronal changes resulting in up-regulation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D

    2014-07-15

    Under normal conditions, the sympathetic neurotransmitter noradrenaline inhibits the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, after peripheral nerve and tissue injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines appear to induce the expression of the alpha1A-adrenoceptor subtype on immune cells and perhaps also on other cells in the injured tissue. In turn, noradrenaline may act on up-regulated alpha1-adrenoceptors to increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. In addition, the release of inflammatory mediators and nerve growth factor from keratinocytes and other cells may augment the expression of alpha1-adrenoceptors on peripheral nerve fibers. Consequently, nociceptive afferents acquire an abnormal excitability to adrenergic agents, and inflammatory processes build. These mechanisms could contribute to the development of sympathetically maintained pain in conditions such as post-herpetic neuralgia, cutaneous neuromas, amputation stump pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

  11. Water deprivation up-regulates urine osmolality and renal aquaporin 2 in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Meng; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    To better understand how desert rodents adapt to water scarcity, we examined urine osmolality, renal distribution and expression of aquaporins (AQPs) in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during 7 days of water deprivation (WD). Urine osmolality of the gerbils during WD averaged 7503 mOsm kg(-1). Renal distributions of AQP1, AQP2, and AQP3 were similar to that described in other rodents. After the 7 day WD, renal AQP2 was up-regulated, while resting metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss decreased by 43% and 36%, respectively. Our data demonstrated that Mongolian gerbils showed high urine concentration, renal AQPs expression and body water conservation to cope with limited water availability, which may be critical for their survival during dry seasons in cold deserts.

  12. Rapamycin up-regulates triglycerides in hepatocytes by down-regulating Prox1.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sora; Jeon, Ji-Sook; Kim, Su Bin; Hong, Young-Kwon; Ahn, Curie; Sung, Jung-Suk; Choi, Inho

    2016-02-27

    Although the prolonged use of rapamycin may cause unwanted side effects such as hyperlipidemia, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Prox1 is a transcription factor responsible for the development of several tissues including lymphatics and liver. There is growing evidences that Prox1 participates in metabolism in addition to embryogenesis. However, whether Prox1 is directly related to lipid metabolism is currently unknown. HepG2 human hepatoma cells were treated with rapamycin and total lipids were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The effect of rapamycin on the expression of Prox1 was determined by western blotting. To investigate the role of Prox1 in triglycerides regulation, siRNA and overexpression system were employed. Rapamycin was injected into mice for 2 weeks and total lipids and proteins in liver were measured by thin layer chromatography and western blot analysis, respectively. Rapamycin up-regulated the amount of triglyceride and down-regulated the expression of Prox1 in HepG2 cells by reducing protein half-life but did not affect its transcript. The loss-of-function of Prox1 was coincident with the increase of triglycerides in HepG2 cells treated with rapamycin. The up-regulation of triglycerides by rapamycin in HepG2 cells reverted to normal levels by the compensation of Prox1 using the overexpression system. Rapamycin also down-regulated Prox1 expression but increased triglycerides in mouse liver. This study suggests that rapamycin can increase the amount of triglycerides by down-regulating Prox1 expression in hepatocytes, which means that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is important for the regulation of triglycerides by maintaining Prox1 expression.

  13. Up-regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase expression and serotonin synthesis by sertraline.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Who; Park, So Yeon; Hwang, Onyou

    2002-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in a variety of brain functions, and abnormal changes in serotonin neurotransmission are associated with an array of psychiatric disorders, including depression. Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and an effective antidepressant. Sertraline increases the serotonin concentration in the synaptic cleft by a short-term action; however, clinical improvement is observed only after several weeks, suggesting that the therapeutic effect may be caused by long-term alterations in serotonin transmission. We determined the effects of sertraline on serotonin synthesis in vivo and in vitro. Long-term treatment of rats with sertraline up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of the serotonin-synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), as determined by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry, respectively. In vitro studies using RBL-2H3 cells also showed an increase in mRNA and protein levels of TPH by sertraline, as determined by Northern blot and immunoblot analyses, respectively. This was accompanied by increases in the levels of TPH enzymatic activity and total serotonin. These data demonstrate that in addition to the known short-term action as an uptake blocker, sertraline also exerts a long-term effect on the serotonin neurotransmission by enhancing serotonin synthesis. A similar effect was observed with another SSRI, fluoxetine, but not with the non-SSRI chlorpromazine. The up-regulation of TPH gene expression by sertraline was attenuated by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamine)-ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamine, suggesting that a mechanism involving the PKA signaling pathway might at least in part mediate the long-term therapeutic action.

  14. Up-Regulation of MicroRNA-21 Correlates with Lower Kidney Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mohd Saif; Shahryari, Varahram; Deng, Guoren; Thamminana, Sobha; Saini, Sharonjot; Majid, Shahana; Chang, Inik; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Koji; Yamamura, Soichiro; Singh, Kamaldeep; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA-21 is up-regulated in a variety of cancers like, breast, colorectal, lung, head and neck etc. However, the regulation of miR-21 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not yet been studied systematically. Methods and Results We measured miR-21 levels in 54 pairs of kidney cancers and their normal matched tissues by real-time PCR. The expression level of miR-21 was correlated with 5 year survival and the pathological stage. Functional studies were done after inhibiting miR-21 in RCC cell lines. We studied in vitro and in vivo effects of the chemo preventive agent genistein on miR-21 expression. In 48 cases (90%), miR-21 was increased. All patients with low miR-21 expression survived 5 years, while with high miR-21 expression, only 50% survived. Higher expression of miR-21 is associated with an increase in the stage of renal cancer. Functional studies after inhibiting miRNA-21 in RCC cell lines show cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and reduced invasive and migratory capabilities. Western blot analysis showed an increase in the expression of p21 and p38 MAP kinase genes and a reduction in cyclin E2. Genistein inhibited the expression of miR-21 in A-498 cells and in the tumors formed after injecting genistein treated A-498 cells in nude mice besides inhibiting tumor formation. Conclusions The current study shows a clear correlation between miR-21 expression and clinical characteristics of renal cancer. Thus we believe that miR-21 can be used as a tumor marker and its inhibition may prove to be useful in controlling cancers with up-regulated miR-21. PMID:22347428

  15. Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration with up-regulation of dynamin II expression.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Miao-Sui; Chen, Ying-Hsun; Liang, Fang-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used to treat sports-related tendinopathy or tendon injury. Tendon healing requires tenocyte migration to the repair site, followed by proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. This study was designed to determine the effect of laser on tenocyte migration. Furthermore, the correlation between this effect and expression of dynamin 2, a positive regulator of cell motility, was also investigated. Tenocytes intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with low-level laser (660 nm with energy density at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 J/cm(2)). Tenocyte migration was evaluated by an in vitro wound healing model and by transwell filter migration assay. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were determined by reverse transcription/real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and Western blot analysis respectively. Immunofluorescence staining was used to evaluate the dynamin 2 expression in tenocytes. Tenocytes with or without laser irradiation was treated with dynasore, a dynamin competitor and then underwent transwell filter migration assay. In vitro wound model revealed that more tenocytes with laser irradiation migrated across the wound border to the cell-free zone. Transwell filter migration assay confirmed that tenocyte migration was enhanced dose-dependently by laser. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analysis demonstrated that mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were up-regulated by laser irradiation dose-dependently. Confocal microscopy showed that laser enhanced the expression of dynamin 2 in cytoplasm of tenocytes. The stimulation effect of laser on tenocytes migration was suppressed by dynasore. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration in a process that is mediated by up-regulation of dynamin 2, which can be suppressed by dynasore.

  16. Up-regulation of GLT-1 severely impairs LTD at mossy fibre–CA3 synapses

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Azar; Melone, Marcello; Bellesi, Michele; Safiulina, Victoria; Aida, Tomomi; Tanaka, Kohishi; Cherubini, Enrico; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate transporters are responsible for clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space. By this action, they maintain low levels of ambient glutamate, thus preventing excitotoxic damage, and contribute to shaping synaptic currents. We show that up-regulation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by ceftriaxone severely impaired mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD), induced at rat mossy fibre (MF)–CA3 synapses by repetitive stimulation of afferent fibres. This effect involved GLT-1, since LTD was rescued by the selective GLT-1 antagonist dihydrokainate (DHK). DHK per se produced a modest decrease in fEPSP amplitude that rapidly regained control levels after DHK wash out. Moreover, the degree of fEPSP inhibition induced by the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist γ-DGG was similar during basal synaptic transmission but not during LTD, indicating that in ceftriaxone-treated rats LTD induction did not alter synaptic glutamate transient concentration. Furthermore, ceftriaxone-induced GLT-1 up-regulation significantly reduced the magnitude of LTP at MF–CA3 synapses but not at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses. Postembedding immunogold studies in rats showed an increased density of gold particles coding for GLT-1a in astrocytic processes and in mossy fibre terminals; in the latter, gold particles were located near and within the active zones. In both CEF-treated and untreated GLT-1 KO mice used for verifying the specificity of immunostaining, the density of gold particles in MF terminals was comparable to background levels. The enhanced expression of GLT-1 at release sites may prevent activation of presynaptic receptors, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which GLT-1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:19651762

  17. A-to-I RNA Editing Up-regulates Human Dihydrofolate Reductase in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masataka; Fukami, Tatsuki; Gotoh, Saki; Nakajima, Miki

    2017-03-24

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) plays a key role in folate metabolism and is a target molecule of methotrexate. An increase in the cellular expression level of DHFR is one of the mechanisms of tumor resistance to methotrexate. The present study investigated the possibility that adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, which causes nucleotide conversion by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, might modulate DHFR expression. In human breast adenocarcinoma-derived MCF-7 cells, 26 RNA editing sites were identified in the 3'-UTR of DHFR. Knockdown of ADAR1 decreased the RNA editing levels of DHFR and resulted in a decrease in the DHFR mRNA and protein levels, indicating that ADAR1 up-regulates DHFR expression. Using a computational analysis, miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p were predicted to bind to the non-edited 3'-UTR of DHFR but not to the edited sequence. The decrease in DHFR expression by the knockdown of ADAR1 was restored by transfection of antisense oligonucleotides for these miRNAs, suggesting that RNA editing mediated up-regulation of DHFR requires the function of these miRNAs. Interestingly, we observed that the knockdown of ADAR1 decreased cell viability and increased the sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to methotrexate. ADAR1 expression levels and the RNA editing levels in the 3'-UTR of DHFR in breast cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent normal tissues. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that ADAR1 positively regulates the expression of DHFR by editing the miR-25-3p and miR-125a-3p binding sites in the 3'-UTR of DHFR, enhancing cellular proliferation and resistance to methotrexate.

  18. Up-Regulation and Profibrotic Role of Osteopontin in Human Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Annie; Gibson, Kevin; Cisneros, José; Richards, Thomas J; Yang, Yinke; Becerril, Carina; Yousem, Samueal; Herrera, Iliana; Ruiz, Victor; Selman, Moisés; Kaminski, Naftali

    2005-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disorder characterized by fibroproliferation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung. Methods and Findings Using oligonucleotide arrays, we identified osteopontin as one of the genes that significantly distinguishes IPF from normal lungs. Osteopontin was localized to alveolar epithelial cells in IPF lungs and was also significantly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage from IPF patients. To study the fibrosis-relevant effects of osteopontin we stimulated primary human lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells (A549) with recombinant osteopontin. Osteopontin induced a significant increase of migration and proliferation in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Epithelial growth was inhibited by the pentapeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) and antibody to CD44, while fibroproliferation was inhibited by GRGDS and antibody to αvβ3 integrin. Fibroblast and epithelial cell migration were inhibited by GRGDS, anti-CD44, and anti-αvβ3. In fibroblasts, osteopontin up-regulated tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 and type I collagen, and down-regulated matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) expression, while in A549 cells it caused up-regulation of MMP-7. In human IPF lungs, osteopontin colocalized with MMP-7 in alveolar epithelial cells, and application of weakest link statistical models to microarray data suggested a significant interaction between osteopontin and MMP-7. Conclusions Our results provide a potential mechanism by which osteopontin secreted from the alveolar epithelium may exert a profibrotic effect in IPF lungs and highlight osteopontin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this incurable disease. PMID:16128620

  19. NOD1 receptor is up-regulated in diabetic human and murine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Patricia; Vallejo-Cremades, María Teresa; Benito, Gemma; González-Peramato, Pilar; Francés, Daniel; Agra, Noelia; Terrón, Verónica; Gónzalez-Ramos, Silvia; Delgado, Carmen; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano; Pacheco, Ivette; Velasco-Martín, Juan P; Regadera, Javier; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Boscá, Lisardo; Fernández-Velasco, María

    2014-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes has a complex pathology that involves a chronic inflammatory state. Emerging evidence suggests a link between the innate immune system receptor NOD1 (nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain 1) and the pathogenesis of diabetes, in monocytes and hepatic and adipose tissues. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of NOD1 in the progression of diabetic cardiomyopathy. We have measured NOD1 protein in cardiac tissue from Type 2 diabetic (db) mice. Heart and isolated cardiomyocytes from db mice revealed a significant increase in NOD1, together with an up-regulation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and increased apoptosis. Heart tissue also exhibited an enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Selective NOD1 activation with C12-γ-D-glutamyl-m-diaminopimelic acid (iEDAP) resulted in an increased NF-κB activation and apoptosis, demonstrating the involvement of NOD1 both in wild-type and db mice. Moreover, HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to elevated concentrations of glucose plus palmitate displayed an enhanced NF-κB activity and apoptotic profile, which was prevented by silencing of NOD1 expression. To address this issue in human pathology, NOD1 expression was evaluated in myocardium obtained from patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DMH) and from normoglycaemic individuals without cardiovascular histories (NH). We have found that NOD1 was expressed in both NH and T2DMH; however, NOD1 expression was significantly pronounced in T2DMH. Furthermore, both the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and the apoptosis mediator caspase-3 were up-regulated in T2DMH samples. Taken together, our results define an active role for NOD1 in the heightened inflammatory environment associated with both experimental and human diabetic cardiac disease.

  20. Propofol up-regulates Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lijun; Xun, Junmei; Jiang, Xinghua; Tan, Rong

    2013-08-01

    Mas is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that is involved in processing nociceptive information. A recent study reported the localization of Mas in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) produced a dose-dependent peripheral antinociceptive effect in rats through the Mas receptor by an opioid-independent mechanism. In the present study, we for the first time examined the effect of propofol on Mas expression in cultured DRG neurons. We treated rat DRG neurons with propofol at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 or 10 microM) for different length of time (0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 6 h) with or without transcription inhibitor actinomycin D or different kinase inhibitors. Propofol increased the Mas receptormRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4 h, which led to dose-dependent up-regulation of the Mas receptor protein level as well as Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD169316 (25 microM) completely abolished the effect of propofol on Mas receptor expression in DRG neurons. In conclusion, we demonstrate that propofol markedly up-regulates Mas receptor expression at the transcription level in DRG neurons by a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of propofol in peripheral antinociception, and suggests a new regulatory mechanism on the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the peripheral nervous system.

  1. Up-regulation of GLT-1 severely impairs LTD at mossy fibre--CA3 synapses.

    PubMed

    Omrani, Azar; Melone, Marcello; Bellesi, Michele; Safiulina, Victoria; Aida, Tomomi; Tanaka, Kohishi; Cherubini, Enrico; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2009-10-01

    Glutamate transporters are responsible for clearing synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space. By this action, they maintain low levels of ambient glutamate, thus preventing excitotoxic damage, and contribute to shaping synaptic currents. We show that up-regulation of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by ceftriaxone severely impaired mGluR-dependent long-term depression (LTD), induced at rat mossy fibre (MF)-CA3 synapses by repetitive stimulation of afferent fibres. This effect involved GLT-1, since LTD was rescued by the selective GLT-1 antagonist dihydrokainate (DHK). DHK per se produced a modest decrease in fEPSP amplitude that rapidly regained control levels after DHK wash out. Moreover, the degree of fEPSP inhibition induced by the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist gamma-DGG was similar during basal synaptic transmission but not during LTD, indicating that in ceftriaxone-treated rats LTD induction did not alter synaptic glutamate transient concentration. Furthermore, ceftriaxone-induced GLT-1 up-regulation significantly reduced the magnitude of LTP at MF-CA3 synapses but not at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Postembedding immunogold studies in rats showed an increased density of gold particles coding for GLT-1a in astrocytic processes and in mossy fibre terminals; in the latter, gold particles were located near and within the active zones. In both CEF-treated and untreated GLT-1 KO mice used for verifying the specificity of immunostaining, the density of gold particles in MF terminals was comparable to background levels. The enhanced expression of GLT-1 at release sites may prevent activation of presynaptic receptors, thus revealing a novel mechanism by which GLT-1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

  2. δ-Opioid receptors up-regulate excitatory amino acid transporters in mouse astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jianfeng; Chao, Dongman; Sandhu, Harleen K; Yu, Yanbing; Zhang, Li; Balboni, Gianfranco; Kim, Dong H; Xia, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Astrocytic excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) regulate extracellular glutamate concentrations and play a role in preventing neuroexcitotoxicity. As the δ-opioid receptor (DOP receptor) is neuroprotective against excitotoxic injury, we determined whether DOP receptor activation up-regulates EAAT expression and function. Experimental Approach We measured mRNA and protein expression of EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in cultured mouse astrocytes exposed to a specific DOP receptor agonist (UFP-512) with or without a DOP receptor antagonist, DOP receptor siRNA or inhibitors of PKC, PKA, PI3K, p38, MAPK, MEK and ERK, and evaluated the function of EAATs by measuring glutamate uptake. Key Results Astrocytic DOP receptor mRNA and protein were suppressed by DOP receptor siRNA knockdown. DOP receptor activation increased mRNA and protein expression of EAAT1 and EAAT2, but not EAAT3, thereby enhancing glutamate uptake of astrocytes. DOP receptor-induced EAAT1 and EAAT2 expression was largely reversed by DOP receptor antagonist naltrindole or by DOP receptor siRNA knockdown, and suppressed by inhibitors of MEK, ERK and p38. DOP receptor-accelerated glutamate uptake was inhibited by EAAT blockers, DOP receptor siRNA knockdown or inhibitors of MEK, ERK or p38. In contrast, inhibitors of PKA, PKC or PI3K had no significant effect on DOP receptor-induced EAAT expression. Conclusions and Implications DOP receptor activation up-regulates astrocytic EAATs via MEK-ERK-p38 signalling, suggesting a critical role for DOP receptors in the regulation of astrocytic EAATs and protection against neuroexcitotoxicity. As decreased EAAT expression contributes to pathophysiology in many neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, our findings present a new platform for potential treatments of these diseases. PMID:25052197

  3. Exploration of Up-regulated Key Proteins in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa for High-efficiency Petroleum Degradation by Proteomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Di; Li, Xu-Xiang; Qu, Cheng-Tun

    2017-07-11

    In this work, proteomic analysis was used to identify the up-regulated key proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P6), a bacteria used in petroleum degradation, responsible for its high efficiency in degrading crude oil. Seventeen proteins were identified as up-regulated proteins by proteomic analysis and classified by bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that most of the up-regulated proteins were responsible for P. aeruginosa (P6) survival under harsh environmental conditions and utilization crude oil as carbon source in a better way. The physiological processes, chemotaxis to carbon sources, terminal oxidation of carbons, carbon source uptake and nutrients transport, were associated with the up-regulated proteins in the study. The findings revealed the most influential proteins and set a clear direction for future research.

  4. Uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and enhanced cyanide toxicity are mediated by PPAR{alpha} activation and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Prabhakaran, K.; Zhang, L.; Leavesley, H.B.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2007-08-15

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane proton carrier that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}) and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. We have shown that up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) agonist, enhances cyanide cytotoxicity. The pathway by which Wy14,643 up-regulates UCP-2 was determined in a dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells). Since dopaminergic mesencephalic cells are a primary brain target of cyanide, the N27 immortalized mesencephalic cell was used in this study. Wy14,643 produced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of UCP-2 that was linked to enhanced cyanide-induced cell death. MK886 (PPAR{alpha} antagonist) or PPAR{alpha} knock-down by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited PPAR{alpha} activity as shown by the peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter assay, but only partially decreased up-regulation of UCP-2. The role of oxidative stress as an alternative pathway to UCP-2 up-regulation was determined. Wy14,643 induced a rapid surge of ROS generation and loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) or pre-treatment with vitamin E attenuated up-regulation of UCP-2. On the other hand, RNAi knockdown of PPAR{alpha} did not alter ROS generation, suggesting a PPAR{alpha}-independent component to the response. Co-treatment with PPAR{alpha}-RNAi and GSH-EE blocked both the up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643 and the cyanide-induced cell death. It was concluded that a PPAR{alpha}-mediated pathway and an oxidative stress pathway independent of PPAR{alpha} mediate the up-regulation of UCP-2 and subsequent increased vulnerability to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity.

  5. Uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and enhanced cyanide toxicity are mediated by PPARalpha activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Li, L; Prabhakaran, K; Zhang, L; Leavesley, H B; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

    2007-08-15

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane proton carrier that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. We have shown that up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonist, enhances cyanide cytotoxicity. The pathway by which Wy14,643 up-regulates UCP-2 was determined in a dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells). Since dopaminergic mesencephalic cells are a primary brain target of cyanide, the N27 immortalized mesencephalic cell was used in this study. Wy14,643 produced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of UCP-2 that was linked to enhanced cyanide-induced cell death. MK886 (PPARalpha antagonist) or PPARalpha knock-down by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited PPARalpha activity as shown by the peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter assay, but only partially decreased up-regulation of UCP-2. The role of oxidative stress as an alternative pathway to UCP-2 up-regulation was determined. Wy14,643 induced a rapid surge of ROS generation and loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) or pre-treatment with vitamin E attenuated up-regulation of UCP-2. On the other hand, RNAi knockdown of PPARalpha did not alter ROS generation, suggesting a PPARalpha-independent component to the response. Co-treatment with PPARalpha-RNAi and GSH-EE blocked both the up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643 and the cyanide-induced cell death. It was concluded that a PPARalpha-mediated pathway and an oxidative stress pathway independent of PPARalpha mediate the up-regulation of UCP-2 and subsequent increased vulnerability to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity.

  6. Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Da; He, Yanping; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Guonian; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-01

    Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification. PMID:25607733

  7. Insecticide-mediated up-regulation of cytochrome P450 genes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Da; He, Yanping; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Guonian; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-19

    Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.

  8. Up-Regulation and Functional Effect of Cardiac β3-Adrenoreceptors In Alcoholic Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Heng-Jie; Grant, Kathleen A.; Han, Qing-Hua; Daunais, James B.; Friedman, David P.; Masutani, Satoshi; Little, William C.; Cheng, Che-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies link altered cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling to the pathology of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). However, the alteration and functional effect of β3-AR activation in ACM is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic alcohol intake causes an up-regulation of cardiac β3-AR, which exacerbates myocyte dysfunction and impairs calcium regulation, thereby directly contributing to the progression of ACM. Methods We compared myocyte β3- and β1-AR expression and myocyte contractile, [Ca2+]i transient ([Ca2+]iT), and Ca2+ current (ICa,L) responses to β- and β3-AR stimulation in myocytes obtained from left ventricle (LV) tissue samples obtained from 10 normal control (C) and 16 monkeys with self-administered alcohol for 12 months prior to necropsy: 6 moderate (M) and 10 heavy (H) drinkers with group average alcohol intakes of 1.5 ± 0.2 and 3.3 ± 0.2 g/kg/day, respectively. Results Compared with control myocytes (C), in alcoholic cardiomyocytes, basal cell contraction (dL/dtmax, −39%, H: 69.8 vs C: 114.6 µm/s), relaxation (dR/dtmax, −37%, 58.2 vs 92.9 µm/s), [Ca2+]iT (−34%, 0.23 vs 0.35) and ICa,L (−25%, 4.8 vs 6.4pA/pF) were all significantly reduced. Compared with controls, in moderate and heavy drinkers, β1-AR protein levels decreased by 23% and 42%, but β3-AR protein increased by 46% and 85%, respectively. These changes were associated with altered myocyte functional responses to β-AR agonist, isoproterenol (ISO), and β3-AR agonist, BRL-37344 (BRL). Compared with controls, in alcoholic myocytes, ISO (10−8 M) produced significantly smaller increases in dL/dtmax (H: 40% vs C: 71%), dR/dtmax (37% vs 52%), [Ca2+]iT (17% vs 37%), and ICa,L (17% vs 27%), but BRL (10−8 M) produced a significantly greater decrease in dL/dtmax (H: −23% vs C: −11%), [Ca2+]iT (−30% vs −11%), and ICa,L (−28% vs −17%). Conclusions Chronic alcohol consumption down-regulates cardiac β1- and up-regulates β3-ARs

  9. Triethylene Glycol Up-Regulates Virulence-Associated Genes and Proteins in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghinejad, Lida; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Siqueira, Walter L.; Santerre, J. Paul; Finer, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is a diluent monomer used pervasively in dental composite resins. Through hydrolytic degradation of the composites in the oral cavity it yields a hydrophilic biodegradation product, triethylene glycol (TEG), which has been shown to promote the growth of Streptococcus mutans, a dominant cariogenic bacterium. Previously it was shown that TEG up-regulated gtfB, an important gene contributing to polysaccharide synthesis function in biofilms. However, molecular mechanisms related to TEG’s effect on bacterial function remained poorly understood. In the present study, S. mutans UA159 was incubated with clinically relevant concentrations of TEG at pH 5.5 and 7.0. Quantitative real-time PCR, proteomics analysis, and glucosyltransferase enzyme (GTF) activity measurements were employed to identify the bacterial phenotypic response to TEG. A S. mutans vicK isogenic mutant (SMΔvicK1) and its associated complemented strain (SMΔvicK1C), an important regulatory gene for biofilm-associated genes, were used to determine if this signaling pathway was involved in modulation of the S. mutans virulence-associated genes. Extracted proteins from S. mutans biofilms grown in the presence and absence of TEG were subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification, characterization and quantification. TEG up-regulated gtfB/C, gbpB, comC, comD and comE more significantly in biofilms at cariogenic pH (5.5) and defined concentrations. Differential response of the vicK knock-out (SMΔvicK1) and complemented strains (SMΔvicK1C) implicated this signalling pathway in TEG-modulated cellular responses. TEG resulted in increased GTF enzyme activity, responsible for synthesizing insoluble glucans involved in the formation of cariogenic biofilms. As well, TEG increased protein abundance related to biofilm formation, carbohydrate transport, acid tolerance, and stress-response. Proteomics data was consistent with gene expression findings for the

  10. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits development of atherosclerosis through up-regulating protein S-nitrosylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Chen, Yulong; Zhu, Ninghong; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule that serves many important regulatory roles in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. H2S exerts an anti-atherosclerotic effect through mediating the biological functions of nitric oxide (NO). However, its mechanism of action is unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect mechanism of H2S on the development of atherosclerosis with regard to protein S-nitrosylation. A total of 45 male apoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into three groups. Atherosclerosis was induced by Western diet (21% fat and 0.15% cholesterol) with/without administration of a H2S donor (NaHS) or an endogenous cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor (d, l-propargylglycine) for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, plasma lipid and plasma NO levels were measured. Aortic gross lesion area and histopathological features of aortic lesion were determined. Additionally, the level of S-nitrosylated proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was detected using immunofluorescence in aorta. Rat VSMCs were performed in an in vitro experiment. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression, NO generation, protein S-nitrosylation, and cell proliferation and migration were measured. We found that H2S significantly reduced the aortic atherosclerotic lesion area (P=0.006) and inhibited lipid and macrophage accumulation (P=0.004, P=0.002) and VSMC proliferation (P=0.019) in apoE(-/-) mice. H2S could up-regulate levels of plasma NO and protein S-nitrosylation in aorta VSMCs. However, d, l- propargylglycine had the opposite effect, increasing the lesion area and the content of lipids and macrophages in the lesions of apoE(-/-) mice and down-regulating plasma NO levels and protein S-nitrosylation in aorta VSMCs. In vitro experiments, H2S could significantly reverse the reduction of iNOS expression and NO generation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein in VSMCs. Moreover, H2S could increase the protein S

  11. Up-regulation of Tiam1 and Rac1 correlates with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanyong; Lv, Shemin; Liu, Xingyan; Liu, Hong; Yang, Wen; Hu, Fu

    2010-11-01

    T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) specifically activates Rho-like GTPases (e.g. Rac1) and Tiam1-Rac1 pathway affects the migration and invasion of many tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, breast cancer and retinoblastoma. However, no studies have yet comprehensively examined the involvement of Tiam1-Rac1 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we examined the relationship of the up-regulation of Tiam1 and Rac1 with clinicopathological features in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of Tiam1 and Rac1 was assessed in 242 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and their adjacent normal hepatic tissues by performing immunohistochemistry and was gauged regarding stage, grade and survival. Immunohistochemistry showed that patients with a high clinical stage hepatocellular carcinoma (III-IV) and α-fetoprotein levels had a higher tendency to express Tiam1 and Rac1 on tumor cells than the patients with low pathologic grade hepatocellular carcinoma (I-II) (P = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively) and low α-fetoprotein levels (P = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). In addition, Tiam1 and Rac1 up-regulation was also significantly associated with vascular invasion status (both P = 0.02), intrahepatic metastasis status (P = 0.009 and 0.01, respectively) and histological differentiation (P = 0.008 and 0.009, respectively) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, post-operative survival analysis indicated that hepatocellular carcinoma patients with strong Tiam1 (P = 0.01) and Rac1 (P = 0.02) expression had shorter disease-specific survival than those with weak expression. Multivariate analysis also showed that Tiam1 and Rac1 overexpression could be two predictors of poor prognosis (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). The current study demonstrated for the first time that the Tiam1-Rac1 pathway may play a critical role in tumor progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. The expression of Tiam1 and Rac1 can be considered as the two useful

  12. Genistein Up-Regulates Tumor Suppressor MicroRNA-574-3p in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiyomaru, Takeshi; Yamamura, Soichiro; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Hidaka, Hideo; Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Arora, Sumit; Deng, Guoren; Shahryari, Varahram; Chang, Inik; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Enokida, Hideki; Seki, Naohiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2013-01-01

    Genistein has been shown to inhibit cancers both in vitro and in vivo, by altering the expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we focused on tumor suppressor miRNAs regulated by genistein and investigated their function in prostate cancer (PCa) and target pathways. Using miRNA microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR we observed that miR-574-3p was significantly up-regulated in PCa cells treated with genistein compared with vehicle control. The expression of miR-574-3p was significantly lower in PCa cell lines and clinical PCa tissues compared with normal prostate cells (RWPE-1) and adjacent normal tissues. Low expression level of miR-574-3p was correlated with advanced tumor stage and higher Gleason score in PCa specimens. Re-expression of miR-574-3p in PCa cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. miR-574-3p restoration induced apoptosis through reducing Bcl-xL and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. Using GeneCodis software analysis, several pathways affected by miR-574-3p were identified, such as ‘Pathways in cancer’, ‘Jak-STAT signaling pathway’, and ‘Wnt signaling pathway’. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-574-3p directly binds to the 3′ UTR of several target genes (such as RAC1, EGFR and EP300) that are components of ‘Pathways in cancer’. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western analysis showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the three target genes in PCa cells were markedly down-regulated with miR-574-3p. Loss-of-function studies demonstrated that the three target genes significantly affect cell proliferation, migration and invasion in PCa cell lines. Our results show that genistein up-regulates tumor suppressor miR-574-3p expression targeting several cell signaling pathways. These findings enhance understanding of how genistein regulates with miRNA in PCa. PMID:23554959

  13. G-protein receptor kinase 5 regulates the cannabinoid receptor 2-induced up-regulation of serotonin 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Jade M; Carrasco, Gonzalo A

    2013-05-31

    We have recently reported that cannabinoid agonists can up-regulate and enhance the activity of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFCx). Increased expression and activity of cortical 5-HT2A receptors has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and schizophrenia. Here we report that repeated CP55940 exposure selectively up-regulates GRK5 proteins in rat PFCx and in a neuronal cell culture model. We sought to examine the mechanism underlying the regulation of GRK5 and to identify the role of GRK5 in the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation and enhanced activity of 5-HT2A receptors. Interestingly, we found that cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation of GRK5 involves CB2 receptors, β-arrestin 2, and ERK1/2 signaling because treatment with CB2 shRNA lentiviral particles, β-arrestin 2 shRNA lentiviral particles, or ERK1/2 inhibitor prevented the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation of GRK5. Most importantly, we found that GRK5 shRNA lentiviral particle treatment prevented the cannabinoid agonist-induced up-regulation and enhanced 5-HT2A receptor-mediated calcium release. Repeated cannabinoid exposure was also associated with enhanced phosphorylation of CB2 receptors and increased interaction between β-arrestin 2 and ERK1/2. These latter phenomena were also significantly inhibited by GRK5 shRNA lentiviral treatment. Our results suggest that sustained activation of CB2 receptors, which up-regulates 5-HT2A receptor signaling, enhances GRK5 expression; the phosphorylation of CB2 receptors; and the β-arrestin 2/ERK interactions. These data could provide a rationale for some of the adverse effects associated with repeated cannabinoid agonist exposure.

  14. SAMe Prevents the Up Regulation of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in Mallory-Denk Body Forming Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Lin, Andrew; Li, Jun; French, Barbara A.; French, Samuel W.

    2010-01-01

    Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation is a component of alcoholic and non alcoholic hepatitis. In the present study, the role of the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway was investigated in the mechanism of MDB formation in the DDC-fed mouse model. Microarray analysis data mining, performed on the livers of drug primed mice refed DDC, showed that TLR2/4 gene expression was significantly up regulated by DDC refeeding. SAMe supplementation prevented this up regulation and prevented the formation of MDBs. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed these results. TLR2/4 activates the adapter protein MyD88. The levels of MyD88 were increased by DDC refeeding. The increase of MyD88 was also prevented by SAMe supplementation. Results showed that MyD88-independent TLR3/4-TRIF-IRF3 pathway was not up regulated in the liver of DDC refed mice. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is the down stream protein recruited by the MyD88/IRAK protein complex, and is involved in the regulation of innate immune responses. Results showed a significant increase in the levels of TRAF-6. TRAF-6 activation leads to activation of NFkB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The TRAF-6 increase was ameliorated by SAMe supplementation. These results suggest that DDC induces MDB formation through the TLR2/4 and MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, SAMe blocked the over-expression of TLR2/4, and their downstream signaling components MyD88 and TRAF-6. SAMe prevented the DDC-induced up regulation of the TLR signaling pathways, probably by preventing the up regulation of INF-γ receptors by DDC feeding. INFγ stimulates the up regulation of TLR2. The ability of SAMe feeding to prevent TLR signaling up regulation has not been previously described. PMID:20206621

  15. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts estrogen-signaling through up-regulation of estrogen receptor β (ERβ).

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Nishimura, Hajime; Harada, Mari; Okajima, Shunsuke; Miyoshi, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Aramaki, Hironori

    2013-07-15

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) has been reported as possessing antiestrogenic activity, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly delineated. In this study, we used the estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model and showed that Δ(9)-THC exposures markedly suppresses 17β-estradiol (E2)- induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these effects result from Δ(9)-THC's ability to inhibit E2-liganded ERα activation. Mechanistically, the data obtained from biochemical analyses revealed that (i) Δ(9)-THC up-regulates ERβ, a repressor of ERα, inhibiting the expression of E2/ERα-regulated genes that promote cell growth and that (ii) Δ(9)-THC induction of ERβ modulates E2/ERα signaling in the absence of direct interaction with the E2 ligand binding site. Therefore, the data presented support the concept that Δ(9)-THC's antiestrogenic activities are mediated by the ERβ disruption of E2/ERα signaling.

  16. Bottom-up regulation of plant community structure in an aridland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Báez, Selene; Collins, Scott L; Lightfoot, David; Koontz, Terri L

    2006-11-01

    We conducted a long-term rodent exclosure experiment in native grass- and shrub-dominated vegetation to evaluate the importance of top-down and bottom-up controls on plant community structure in a low-productivity aridland ecosystem. Using multiple regressions and analysis of covariance, we assessed how bottom-up precipitation pulses cascade through vegetation to affect rodent populations, how rodent populations affect plant community structure, and how rodents alter rates of plant community change over time. Our findings showed that bottom-up pulses cascade through the system, increasing the abundances of plants and rodents, and that rodents exerted no control on plant community structure and rate of change in grass-dominated vegetation, and only limited control in shrub-dominated vegetation. These results were discussed in the context of top-down effects on plant communities across broad gradients of primary productivity. We conclude that bottom-up regulation maintains this ecosystem in a state of low primary productivity that constrains the abundance of consumers such that they exert limited influence on plant community structure and dynamics.

  17. Gibberellins Promote Trichome Formation by Up-Regulating GLABROUS1 in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Perazza, Daniel; Vachon, Gilles; Herzog, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Trichome development is dependent on gibberellin (GA) signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the GA-deficient mutant ga1–3, the GA-response mutant spy-5, and uniconazol (a GA-biosynthesis inhibitor), we show that the GA level response correlates positively with both trichome number and trichome branch number. Two genes, GL1 and TTG, are required for trichome initiation. In ga1–3, coexpression of GL1 and R, the maize TTG functional homolog, under control of the constitutive 35S promoter, restored trichome development, whereas overexpression of neither GL1 nor R alone was sufficient to significantly suppress the glabrous phenotype. We next focused on GL1 regulation by GAs. In the double mutant the gl1–1 glabrous phenotype is epistatic to the spy-5 phenotype, suggesting that GL1 acts downstream of the GA signal transduction pathway. The activity of a β-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the GL1 promoter was decreased in the wild type grown on uniconazol and showed a clear GA-dependent activation in ga1–3. Finally, quantification of GL1 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that relative to wild type, ga1–3 plants contained less transcript. These data support the hypothesis that GAs induce trichome development through up-regulation of GL1 and possibly TTG genes. PMID:9625690

  18. Arbutin inhibits TCCSUP human bladder cancer cell proliferation via up-regulation of p21.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailan; Jeong, Yun-Mi; Kim, Su Yeon; Kim, Myo-Kyoung; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2011-04-01

    Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone extracted from the bearberry plant (Arctostaphylos species). In the present study, we determined the effects of arbutin on TCCSUP human bladder carcinoma cell proliferation. Arbutin did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects in TCCSUP cells at concentrations of < 500 microg/ml. To determine the effects of arbutin on cell proliferation, TCCSUP cells were treated with arbutin at various concentrations, and the cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay. Arbutin significantly decreased TCCSUP cell proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis revealed that arbutin strongly disrupted the cell cycle in a time-dependent manner. Western blot analysis demonstrated that arbutin led to the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is known to critically regulate cell proliferation. In addition, arbutin markedly increased the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21), which is known to be highly involved in cell cycle regulation. Therefore, this study suggests that arbutin inhibits TCCSUP cell proliferation via ERK inactivation and p21 up-regulation.

  19. FOXO3-mediated up-regulation of Bim contributes to rhein-induced cancer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shu; Yin, Yancun; Li, Mingjin; Wang, Bo; Yang, Li; Jiang, Yangfu

    2015-03-01

    The anthraquinone compound rhein is a natural agent in the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb. Preclinical studies demonstrate that rhein has anticancer activity. Treatment of a variety of cancer cells with rhein may induce apoptosis. Here, we report that rhein induces atypical unfolded protein response in breast cancer MCF-7 cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells. Rhein induces CHOP expression, eIF2α phosphorylation and caspase cleavage, while it does not induce glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in both MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, rhein inhibits thapsigargin-induced GRP78 expression and X box-binding protein 1 splicing. In addition, rhein inhibits Akt phosphorylation and stimulates FOXO transactivation activity. Rhein induces Bim expression in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, which can be abrogated by FOXO3a knockdown. Knockdown of FOXO3a or Bim abrogates rhein-induced caspase cleavage and apoptosis. The chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate acid antagonizes the induction of FOXO activation, Bim expression and caspase cleavage by rhein, indicating that protein misfolding may be involved in triggering these deleterious effects. We conclude that FOXO3a-mediated up-regulation of Bim is a key mechanism underlying rhein-induced cancer cells apoptosis.

  20. Up-regulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 upon SVCV infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Huang, Jian; Li, Lijuan; Lin, Li; Zhai, Yanhua; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Xueqin; Wu, Zhixin; Yuan, Junfa

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear factor E2 - related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a crucial transcription factor that regulates the basal and inducible expression of many antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent genes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). The Nrf2/ARE pathway has been regarded as a critical switch in the initiation of cellular defence systems for surviving oxidative insults and viral infection. In this study, the Nrf2 gene of EPC cells, which is originally derived from Pimephales promelas, was cloned, and an investigation on the interactions between Nrf2 and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was performed. These results demonstrated that the virus facilitated the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and up-regulated its transcriptional and protein profiles in EPC cells. In addition, exogenous activation of Nrf2 conferred EPC cells with a higher cellular total antioxidant capacity via an increase in the expression of HO-1 and SOD1, but did not suppress the replication of SVCV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Syndecan-1 is up-regulated in ras-transformed intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Z. M.; Choo, B.; Li, M.; Carey, D. J.; Cano-Gauci, D. F.; Buick, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    The syndecans, a family of cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans, have been proposed to mediate cellular interactions with extracellular effector molecules, such as growth factors and components of the extracellular matrix, during critical phases of development. Transcripts of all four syndecans are expressed at varying levels in the developing rat intestine and in a series of immature rat intestinal epithelial cell lines. In addition, we report the novel finding that, in the intestinal epithelial cell lines, expression of syndecan-1 transcript is up-regulated by transformation with activated H-ras. This is in contrast to other cell lines in which ras transformation is associated with a decrease in syndecan-1 levels. The observed increase in the syndecan-1 occurs as a result of increased transcription and can be correlated with the degree of transformation of the IEC-18 cells. Transformation is also associated with a decrease in apparent molecular weight and increased shedding of the proteoglycan into the culture medium. Increased shedding of syndecan-1 into the culture medium after transformation with H-ras may contribute to the disruption of proteoglycan interactions with the extracellular matrix, leading to alterations in cell adhesion and organization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9528830

  2. Top-down and bottom-up regulation of macroalgal community structure on a Kenyan reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörk, Erik; Sjöö, Gustaf Lilliesköld; Kautsky, Nils; McClanahan, Tim R.

    2009-09-01

    Top-down and bottom-up regulation in the form of grazing by herbivores and nutrient availability are important factors governing macroalgal communities in the coral reef ecosystem. Today, anthropogenic activities, such as over-harvesting of herbivorous fish and sea urchins and increased nutrient loading, are altering the interaction of these two structuring forces. The present study was conducted in Kenya and investigates the relative importance of herbivory and nutrient loading on macroalgal community dynamics, by looking at alterations in macroalgal functional groups, species diversity ( H') and biomass within experimental quadrats. The experiment was conducted in situ for 42 days during the dry season. Cages excluding large herbivorous fish and sea urchins were used in the study and nutrient addition was conducted using coated, slow-release fertilizer (nitrogen and phosphorous) at a site where herbivory is generally low and nutrient levels are relatively high for the region. Nutrient addition increased tissue nutrient content in the algae, and fertilized quadrats had 24% higher species diversity. Herbivore exclusion resulted in a 77% increase in algal biomass, mainly attributable to a >1000% increase in corticated forms. These results are in accordance with similar studies in other regions, but are unique in that they indicate that, even when prevailing nutrient levels are relatively high and herbivore pressure is relatively low, continued anthropogenic disturbance results in further ecological responses and increased reef degradation.

  3. NPY up-regulation in the tadpole brain of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis during osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Heigrujam, Elizabeth; Ali, Ishfaq; Bhargava, Shobha

    2017-09-15

    Most of the amphibians breed in temporary ponds vulnerable to occasional desiccation, thus, leaving their larvae exposed to stressful fluctuations in various environmental parameters including salinity. These animals possess a well suited central adaptive mechanism to adapt to these alterations. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid neurotransmitter, has been reported to antagonize various neuropsychological consequences of stress within the mammalian brain. Osmotic regulation of NPY in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial pathway of mammalian brain is also known. Although the molecule possesses an extensive distribution in the brain of amphibians, its functional association is not well understood. We have investigated the endogenous response of NPY-ergic system to osmotically stressful conditions in the brain of Indian skipper frog-Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis tadpoles. Using Immunohistochemistry, we observed an up-regulation of NPY immunoreactivity (NPY-ir) in the brain of tadpoles exposed to stressful salt concentrations. A significant increase of NPY-ir occurred in the pallium and septum regions of telencephalon; preoptic area, epithalamic, thalamic and hypothalamic parts of diencephalon. Most of the regions are implicated in the modulation of stress and anxiety related brain functions and have also been shown to respond to the salinity stress in mammals. In addition, NPY producing neurons in pre-optic and hypothalamic parts show a close co-existence with the vasopressin-ergic neurons. Thus, our study suggests a possible role of NPY in stabilizing the neuro-endocrinological consequences of osmotic stress in an amphibian brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. VEGF Promotes Glycolysis in Pancreatic Cancer via HIF1α Up-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, S; Xu, J; Zhang, B; Ji, S; Xu, W; Liu, J; Jin, K; Liang, D; Liang, C; Liu, L; Liu, C; Qin, Y; Yu, X

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is highly expressed in many types of tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Tumor cellderived VEGF promotes angiogenesis and tumor progression. However, the role of VEGF in glucose metabolism remains unclear. We investigated the role and the underlying mechanism of VEGF in the glucose metabolism of pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic cancer cells were stimulated with VEGF165 for 1 or 2 h. The oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) were measured using the Seahorse XF96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Glycolytic enzymes were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) was silenced by shRNA in order to investigate its role in VEGF-induced glycolysis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to identify the correlation among VEGF, NRP1 and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) in pancreatic cancer tissues. VEGF stimulation led to a metabolic transition from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis in pancreatic cancer. HIF1α and NRP1 protein levels were both increased after VEGF stimulation. The down-regulation of NRP1 reduced glycolysis in pancreatic cancer cells. NRP1 and VEGF levels both correlated with HIF1α expression in pancreatic tumor tissues. VEGF enhances glycolysis in pancreatic cancer via HIF1α up-regulation. NRP1 plays a key role in VEGF-induced glycolysis.

  5. Caffeine Induces the Stress Response and Up-Regulates Heat Shock Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Gong, Joomi; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Caffeine has both positive and negative effects on physiological functions in a dose-dependent manner. C. elegans has been used as an animal model to investigate the effects of caffeine on development. Caffeine treatment at a high dose (30 mM) showed detrimental effects and caused early larval arrest. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the mode of action of high-dose caffeine treatment in C. elegans and found that the stress response proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)-4 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] chaperone), HSP-6 (mitochondrial chaperone), and HSP-16 (cytosolic chaperone), were induced and their expression was regulated at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that high-dose caffeine intake causes a strong stress response and activates all three stress-response pathways in the worms, including the ER-, mitochondrial-, and cytosolic pathways. RNA interference of each hsp gene or in triple combination retarded growth. In addition, caffeine treatment stimulated a food-avoidance behavior (aversion phenotype), which was enhanced by RNAi depletion of the hsp-4 gene. Therefore, up-regulation of hsp genes after caffeine treatment appeared to be the major responses to alleviate stress and protect against developmental arrest.

  6. Up-regulated extracellular matrix components and inflammatory chemokines may impair the regeneration of cholestatic liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Tao-Sheng; Soyama, Akihiko; Tanaka, Takayuki; Yan, Chen; Sakai, Yusuke; Hidaka, Masaaki; Kinoshita, Ayaka; Natsuda, Koji; Fujii, Mio; Kugiyama, Tota; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Gu, Weili; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Although the healthy liver is known to have high regenerative potential, poor liver regeneration under pathological conditions remains a substantial problem. We investigated the key molecules that impair the regeneration of cholestatic liver. C57BL/6 mice were randomly subjected to partial hepatectomy and bile duct ligation (PH+BDL group, n = 16), partial hepatectomy only (PH group, n = 16), or sham operation (Sham group, n = 16). The liver sizes and histological findings were similar in the PH and sham groups 14 days after operation. However, compared with those in the sham group, the livers in mice in the PH+BDL group had a smaller size, a lower cell proliferative activity, and more fibrotic tissue 14 days after the operation, suggesting the insufficient regeneration of the cholestatic liver. Pathway-focused array analysis showed that many genes were up- or down-regulated over 1.5-fold in both PH+BDL and PH groups at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment. Interestingly, more genes that were functionally related to the extracellular matrix and inflammatory chemokines were found in the PH+BDL group than in the PH group at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Our data suggest that up-regulated extracellular matrix components and inflammatory chemokines may impair the regeneration of cholestatic liver. PMID:27226149

  7. Urolithin A causes p21 up-regulation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Claudia; Ciudad, Carlos J; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Noé, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Walnuts contain several bioactive compounds, including pedunculagin, a polyphenol metabolized by microbiota to form urolithins, namely urolithin A (UA). The aim of this study was to determine gene expression changes in prostate cancer cells after incubation with UA. We performed a genomic analysis to study the effect of UA on LNCaP prostate cells. Cells were incubated with 40 µM UA for 24 h, and RNA was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix Human Genome U219 array. Microarray results were analyzed using GeneSpring v13 software. Differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, fold change > 2) were used to perform biological association networks. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and apoptosis measured by the rhodamine method and by caspases 3 and 7 activation. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. We identified two nodes, FN-1 and CDKN1A, among the differentially expressed genes upon UA treatment. CDKN1A was validated, its mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated, and the promoter activation measured by luciferase. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase in G1-phase, and we also observed an induction of apoptosis and caspases 3 and 7 activation upon UA treatment. Our results indicate a potential role of UA as a chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer.

  8. A2A adenosine receptors are up-regulated in lymphocytes from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Corciulo, Carmen; Targa, Martina; Casetta, Ilaria; Gentile, Mauro; Granieri, Enrico; Borea, Pier Andrea; Popoli, Patrizia; Varani, Katia

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine, a purine nucleoside interacting with A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs), is a potent endogenous modulator of inflammatory and neuronal processes involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, ARs were investigated in lymphocytes from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and compared with age-matched healthy subjects. In ALS patients A2AARs were analysed by using RT-PCR, Western blotting and saturation binding experiments. The effect of A2AAR stimulation on cyclic AMP levels was evaluated in lymphocytes from ALS patients and healthy subjects. An up-regulation of A2AARs was observed in ALS patients with respect to healthy subjects while A1, A2B and A3AR affinity and density did not change. In ALS patients, the A2AAR density values correlated with the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores. Furthermore, the stimulation of A2AARs mediated a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels in lymphocytes from ALS patients, with a higher potency than in lymphocytes from healthy subjects. In conclusion, the positive correlation between A2AAR density and ALSFRS-R scores could indicate a possible protective effect of this receptor subtype, representing an interesting starting point for the study of alternative therapeutic approaches for ALS based on A2AAR modulation.

  9. Trop-2 is up-regulated in invasive prostate cancer and displaces FAK from focal contacts

    PubMed Central

    Trerotola, Marco; Ganguly, Kirat K.; Fazli, Ladan; Fedele, Carmine; Lu, Huimin; Dutta, Anindita; Liu, Qin; De Angelis, Tiziana; Riddell, Luke W.; Riobo, Natalia A.; Gleave, Martin E.; Zoubeidi, Amina; Pestell, Richard G.; Altieri, Dario C.; Languino, Lucia R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we show that the transmembrane glycoprotein Trop-2 is up-regulated in human prostate cancer (PCa) with extracapsular extension (stages pT3/pT4) as compared to organ-confined (stage pT2) PCa. Consistent with this evidence, Trop-2 expression is found to be increased in metastatic prostate tumors of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice and to strongly correlate with α5β1 integrin levels. Using PCa cells, we show that Trop-2 specifically associates with the α5 integrin subunit, as binding to α3 is not observed, and that Trop-2 displaces focal adhesion kinase from focal contacts. In support of the role of Trop-2 as a promoter of PCa metastatic phenotype, we observe high expression of this molecule in exosomes purified from Trop-2-positive PCa cells. These vesicles are then found to promote migration of Trop-2-negative PCa cells on fibronectin, an α5β1 integrin/focal adhesion kinase substrate, thus suggesting that the biological function of Trop-2 may be propagated to recipient cells. In summary, our findings show that Trop-2 promotes an α5β1 integrin-dependent pro-metastatic signaling pathway in PCa cells and that the altered expression of Trop-2 may be utilized for early identification of capsule-invading PCa. PMID:26015409

  10. Caffeine Induces the Stress Response and Up-Regulates Heat Shock Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Gong, Joomi; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine has both positive and negative effects on physiological functions in a dose-dependent manner. C. elegans has been used as an animal model to investigate the effects of caffeine on development. Caffeine treatment at a high dose (30 mM) showed detrimental effects and caused early larval arrest. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the mode of action of high-dose caffeine treatment in C. elegans and found that the stress response proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)-4 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] chaperone), HSP-6 (mitochondrial chaperone), and HSP-16 (cytosolic chaperone), were induced and their expression was regulated at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that high-dose caffeine intake causes a strong stress response and activates all three stress-response pathways in the worms, including the ER-, mitochondrial-, and cytosolic pathways. RNA interference of each hsp gene or in triple combination retarded growth. In addition, caffeine treatment stimulated a food-avoidance behavior (aversion phenotype), which was enhanced by RNAi depletion of the hsp-4 gene. Therefore, up-regulation of hsp genes after caffeine treatment appeared to be the major responses to alleviate stress and protect against developmental arrest. PMID:26743903

  11. Up-regulation of Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein IAP-2 by Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zheng; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; Wang, Jinzhao; Patel, Yogendra; Saikumar, Pothana; Semenza, Gregg L.; Force, Thomas; Nishiyama, Junichiro

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia is a key determinant of tissue pathology during tumor development and organ ischemia. However, little is known regarding hypoxic regulation of genes that are directly involved in cell death or death resistance. Here we report the striking induction by severe hypoxia of the anti-apoptotic protein IAP-2. Hypoxic cells with IAP-2 up-regulation became resistant to apoptosis. IAP-2 was induced by hypoxia per se rather than by the secondary effects of hypoxia, including ATP depletion and cell injury. The inductive response did not relate to alterations of cellular redox status or arrest of mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, IAP-2 induction was attenuated by actinomycin D, suggesting a role for gene transcription. In vitro nuclear run-on assays demonstrated specific increases in IAP-2 transcriptional activity after hypoxia exposure. HIF-1, the primary transcription factor that is responsible for multiple gene activation under hypoxia, does not have a role in IAP-2 expression. HIF-1 and IAP-2 were induced by different degrees of hypoxia; severe hypoxia or anoxia was required for IAP-2 induction. Moreover, cobalt chloride and desferrioxamine activated HIF-1 but not IAP-2. Finally, IAP-2 was induced by severe hypoxia in mouse embryonic stem cells that were deficient of HIF-1. Thus, this study not only provides the first demonstration of hypoxic regulation of an anti-apoptotic gene but also suggests the participation of novel hypoxia-responsive transcription mechanisms. PMID:11278985

  12. Centenarians, but not octogenarians, up-regulate the expression of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Gambini, Juan; Borras, Consuelo; Abdelaziz, Kheira M; Mohammed, Kheira; Belenguer, Angel; Sanchis, Paula; Avellana, Juan A; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Viña, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians exhibit extreme longevity and a remarkable compression of morbidity. They have a unique capacity to maintain homeostatic mechanisms. Since small non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of gene expression, we hypothesised that longevity of centenarians may reflect alterations in small non-coding RNA expression. We report the first comparison of microRNAs expression profiles in mononuclear cells from centenarians, octogenarians and young individuals resident near Valencia, Spain. Principal Component Analysis of the expression of 15,644 mature microRNAs and, 2,334 snoRNAs and scaRNAs in centenarians revealed a significant overlap with profiles in young individuals but not with octogenarians and a significant up-regulation of 7 small non-coding RNAs in centenarians compared to young persons and notably 102 small non-coding RNAs when compared with octogenarians. We suggest that the small non-coding RNAs signature in centenarians may provide insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms endowing centenarians with extreme longevity.

  13. Withdrawal from chronic cocaine up-regulates 5-HT1B receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Przegaliński, Edmund; Czepiel, Klaudia; Nowak, Ewa; Dlaboga, Daniel; Filip, Małgorzata

    2003-11-20

    In the present study we examined the effect of prolonged treatment with cocaine (a sensitization and discrimination paradigm) on the expression of serotonin (5-HT)(1B) receptors in rat brain structures using a quantitative autoradiographic analysis. To estimate the distribution of 5-HT(1B) receptors in several brain coronal sections, we used [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743, a 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor antagonist, in the presence of ketanserin (a drug used to block 5-HT(1D) receptors). The binding of [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743 in the areas containing dopamine cell bodies (the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra) and terminals (the nucleus accumbens shell and core, but not in the caudate-putamen) and in the subiculum of the hippocampus was increased after withdrawal from repeated cocaine in both the discrimination and the sensitization paradigms, either being effective as confirmed by behavioral experiments. Neither acute cocaine injection nor the psychostimulant challenge following its repeated administration affected the binding of [N-methyl-(3)H]GR 125743 in the above brain areas. Our results indicate that withdrawal from chronic cocaine induces up-regulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors in a number of rat brain structures.

  14. Inflammasome Up-Regulation and Activation in Dysferlin-Deficient Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Rashmi; Cohen, Tatiana V.; Ampong, Beryl; Francia, Dwight; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-01-01

    A deficiency of the dysferlin protein results in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi myopathy, with resulting plasma membrane abnormalities in myofibers. Many patients show muscle inflammation, but the molecular mechanisms that initiate and perpetuate this inflammation are not well understood. We previously showed abnormal activation of macrophages and hypothesized that activation of the inflammasome pathway may play a role in disease progression. To test this, we studied the inflammasome molecular platform in dysferlin-deficient human and mouse muscle. Consistent with our model, components of the NACHT, LRR and PYD-containing proteins (NALP)-3 inflammasome pathway were specifically up-regulated and activated in dysferlin-deficient but not in dystrophin-deficient and normal muscle. We demonstrate for the first time that normal primary skeletal muscle cells are capable of secreting IL-1β in response to combined treatment with lipopolysaccharide and the P2X7 receptor agonist, benzylated ATP, suggesting that not only immune cells but also muscle cells can actively participate in inflammasome formation. In addition, we show that dysferlin-deficient primary muscle cells express toll-like receptors (TLRs; TLR-2 and TLR-4) and can efficiently produce IL-1β in response to lipopolysaccharide and benzylated ATP. These data indicate that skeletal muscle is an active contributor of IL-1β and strategies that interfere with this pathway may be therapeutically useful for patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. PMID:20413686

  15. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Barros, Rita; Gomes, Catarina; de Matos, Augusto J; Reis, Celso A; Rutteman, Gerard R; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness.

  16. Celecoxib suppresses hepatoma stemness and progression by up-regulating PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Mei; Liu, Li-Fen; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Kung, Mei-Lang; Lin, Shih-Wei; Wang, E-Ming; Ma, Yi-Ling; Cheng, Kwan-Hung; Lai, Kwok Hung; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Hsu, Ping-I; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, can prevent several types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we show that celecoxib suppressed the self-renewal and drug-pumping functions in HCC cells. Besides, celecoxib depleted CD44 + /CD133 + hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSC). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and CD133 overexpression did not reverse the celecoxib-induced depletion of hCSC. Also, celecoxib inhibited progression of rat Novikoff hepatoma. Moreover, a 60-day celecoxib program increased the survival rate of rats with hepatoma. Histological analysis revealed that celecoxib therapy reduced the abundance of CD44 + /CD133 + hCSCs in hepatoma tissues. Besides, the hCSCs depletion was associated with elevated apoptosis and blunted proliferation and angiogenesis in hepatoma. Celecoxib therapy activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and up-regulated PTEN, thereby inhibiting Akt and disrupting hCSC expansion. PTEN gene delivery by adenovirus reduced CD44/CD133 expression in vitro and hepatoma formation in vivo. This study suggests that celecoxib suppresses cancer stemness and progression of HCC via activation of PPARγ/PTEN signaling. PMID:24721996

  17. Snail up-regulates pro-inflammatory mediators and inhibits differentiation in oral keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, J. Guy; Patel, Vyomesh; Roue, Naomi C.; Fok, Sandra Y.; Soon, Lilian L.; Halliday, Gary M.; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2008-01-01

    The transcriptional repressor, Snail2, is over-expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) relative to non-malignant head and neck mucosal epithelium, and in locally recurrent relative to non-recurrent HNSCCs. We investigated the mechanisms by which Snails might contribute to the pathogenesis of HNSCCs using cell biological and molecular analyses. Oral keratinocytes that expressed Snails acquired an enhanced ability to attract monocytes and to invade a dense interstitial collagen matrix. They were also found to up-regulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), which have previously been shown to correlate with malignancy. Induction of nuclear factor-kappa B transcriptional activity by Snails was weak and not sufficient to account for the elevated levels of COX2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 or CXCL1. In addition, expression of Snails in oral keratinocytes impaired desquamation in vitro and strongly repressed expression of both ELF3 and matriptase-1, which play important roles in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Re-expression of matriptase-1 in Snail-expressing cells partially rescued desquamation. This implicates Snails as contributing to malignancy both at the early stages, by impeding terminal differentiation, and at later stages, when invasion and inflammation are important. PMID:18559496

  18. Functional up-regulation of KCNA gene family expression in murine mesenteric resistance artery smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, S J; Cheong, A; Flemming, R; Mair, L; Sivaprasadarao, A; Beech, D J

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on the hypothesis that KCNA genes (which encode KVα1 voltage-gated K+ channels) have enhanced functional expression in smooth muscle cells of a primary determinant of peripheral resistance – the small mesenteric artery. Real-time PCR methodology was developed to measure cell type-specific in situ gene expression. Profiles were determined for arterial myocyte expression of RNA species encoding KVα1 subunits as well as KVβ1, KVα2.1, KVγ9.3, BKCaα1 and BKCaβ1. The seven major KCNA genes were expressed and more readily detected in endothelium-denuded mesenteric resistance artery compared with thoracic aorta; quantification revealed dramatic differential expression of one to two orders of magnitude. There was also four times more RNA encoding KVα2.1 but less or similar amounts encoding KVβ1, KVγ9.3, BKCaα1 and BKCaβ1. Patch-clamp recordings from freshly isolated smooth muscle cells revealed dominant KVα1 K+ current and current density twice as large in mesenteric cells. Therefore, we suggest the increased RNA production of the resistance artery impacts on physiological function, although there is quantitatively less K+ current than might be expected. The mechanism conferring up-regulated expression of KCNA genes may be common to all the gene family and play a functional role in the physiological control of blood pressure. PMID:14742730

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and denervation alter sphingolipids and up-regulate glucosylceramide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Alexandre; Croixmarie, Vincent; Priestman, David A.; Rosenbohm, Angela; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; D'Ambra, Eleonora; Huebecker, Mylene; Hussain, Ghulam; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Ludolph, Albert C.; Platt, Frances M.; Walther, Bernard; Spedding, Michael; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset disease characterized by upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, muscle wasting and paralysis. Growing evidence suggests a link between changes in lipid metabolism and ALS. Here, we used UPLC/TOF-MS to survey the lipidome in SOD1(G86R) mice, a model of ALS. Significant changes in lipid expression were evident in spinal cord and skeletal muscle before overt neuropathology. In silico analysis also revealed appreciable changes in sphingolipids including ceramides and glucosylceramides (GlcCer). HPLC analysis showed increased amounts of GlcCer and downstream glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in SOD1(G86R) muscle compared with wild-type littermates. Glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), the enzyme responsible for GlcCer biosynthesis, was up-regulated in muscle of SOD1(G86R) mice and ALS patients, and in muscle of wild-type mice after surgically induced denervation. Conversely, inhibition of GCS in wild-type mice, following transient peripheral nerve injury, reversed the overexpression of genes in muscle involved in oxidative metabolism and delayed motor recovery. GCS inhibition in SOD1(G86R) mice also affected the expression of metabolic genes and induced a loss of muscle strength and morphological deterioration of the motor endplates. These findings suggest that GSLs may play a critical role in ALS muscle pathology and could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. PMID:26483191

  20. Indoxyl sulfate induces leukocyte-endothelial interactions through up-regulation of E-selectin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shunsuke; Osaka, Mizuko; Higuchi, Yusuke; Nishijima, Fuyuhiko; Ishii, Hideto; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2010-12-10

    Despite a positive correlation between chronic kidney disease and atherosclerosis, the causative role of uremic toxins in leukocyte-endothelial interactions has not been reported. We thus examined the effects of indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, on leukocyte adhesion to activated endothelial cells and the underlying mechanisms. Pretreatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with indoxyl sulfate significantly enhanced the adhesion of human monocytic cells (THP-1 cell line) to TNF-α-activated HUVEC under physiological flow conditions. Treatment with indoxyl sulfate enhanced the expression level of E-selectin, but not that of ICAM-1 or VCAM-1, in HUVEC. Indoxyl sulfate treatment enhanced the activation of JNK, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB in TNF-α-activated HUVEC. Inhibitors of JNK and NF-κB attenuated indoxyl sulfate-induced E-selectin expression in HUVEC and subsequent THP-1 adhesion. Furthermore, treatment with the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the glutathione donor N-acetylcysteine inhibited indoxyl sulfate-induced enhancement of THP-1 adhesion to HUVEC. Next, we examined the in vivo effect of indoxyl sulfate in nephrectomized chronic kidney disease model mice. Indoxyl sulfate-induced leukocyte adhesion to the femoral artery was significantly reduced by anti-E-selectin antibody treatment. These findings suggest that indoxyl sulfate enhances leukocyte-endothelial interactions through up-regulation of E-selectin, presumably via the JNK- and NF-κB-dependent pathway.

  1. [PPARγ up-regulates TGFβ/smad signal pathway repressor c-Ski].

    PubMed

    Li, Gong-bo; Li, Jun; Zeng, Yi-jun; Zhong, Dan; Wu, Geng-ze; Fu, Xiao-hong; He, Feng-tian; Dai, Shuang-shuang

    2011-02-25

    TGFβ/smad pathway is recognized as an important signal pathway to promote the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation is considered to be important in modulating AS. Herein, we investigated the regulation of PPARγ on c-Ski, the repressor of TGFβ/smad pathway, in rat AS model and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). c-Ski mRNA and protein expression were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively, in vivo and in vitro with treatment of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone and antagonist GW9662. The proliferation and collagen secretion of VSMCs after c-Ski transfection were investigated. The underlying mechanism was further investigated by online program NUBIScan and luciferase reporter gene analysis. Results showed that both mRNA and protein expressions of c-Ski in the AS lesions was down-regulated in vivo, while in cultured VSMCs, c-Ski transfection significantly suppressed the proliferation and collagen secretion of rat VSMCs. Rosiglitazone significantly up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of c-Ski in VSMCs, which could be blocked by GW9662. Online NUBIScan analysis suggested possible PPARγ binding sites in the promoter region of c-Ski. In addition, luciferase activity of c-Ski reporter gene was also increased obviously in the presence of rosiglitazone. These results indicate that c-Ski is one of the newly found target genes of PPARγ and thus involved in the anti-AS effect of PPARγ.

  2. PPM1D controls nucleolar formation by up-regulating phosphorylation of nucleophosmin

    PubMed Central

    Kozakai, Yuuki; Kamada, Rui; Furuta, Junya; Kiyota, Yuhei; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2016-01-01

    An increase of nucleolar number and size has made nucleoli essential markers for cytology and tumour development. However, the underlying basis for their structural integrity and abundance remains unclear. Protein phosphatase PPM1D was found to be up-regulated in different carcinomas including breast cancers. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation via inducing an increased phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein NPM. We show that PPM1D overexpression induces an increase in the nucleolar number regardless of p53 status. We also demonstrated that specific sequential phosphorylation of NPM is important for nucleolar formation and that PPM1D is a novel upstream regulator of this phosphorylation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern nucleoli formation by demonstrating that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation by regulating NPM phosphorylation status through a novel signalling pathway, PPM1D-CDC25C-CDK1-PLK1. PMID:27619510

  3. Cocaine up-regulates norepinephrine transporter binding in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Shearman, L P; Meyer, J S

    1999-12-10

    We investigated the influence of 3 days of continuous cocaine exposure on norepinephrine transporter binding in the rat placenta. On gestational day 17, pregnant rats were implanted subcutaneously with two cocaine-containing Silastic capsules. There were two control groups, one that received capsules with vehicle only and was pair-fed to the cocaine-treated females, and a second group that was untreated and fed ad libitum. Placentas and fetal brains were harvested and frozen on gestational day 20, and subsequently subjected to saturation analyses for norepinephrine transporter binding using the selective ligand [3H]nisoxetine. There was a marked increase in the density (B(max)) of norepinephrine transporter binding sites in the placentas of the cocaine-treated animals compared to both control groups, but no change in the fetal brain. The mechanism underlying this up-regulation of the placental norepinephrine transporter is not yet known, but it could involve a beta-adrenoceptor- and cAMP-mediated induction of transporter gene expression.

  4. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect. PMID:25698699

  5. Centenarians, but not octogenarians, up-regulate the expression of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Eva; Gambini, Juan; Borras, Consuelo; Mohammed, Kheira; Belenguer, Angel; Sanchis, Paula; Avellana, Juan A.; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Viña, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians exhibit extreme longevity and a remarkable compression of morbidity. They have a unique capacity to maintain homeostatic mechanisms. Since small non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of gene expression, we hypothesised that longevity of centenarians may reflect alterations in small non-coding RNA expression. We report the first comparison of microRNAs expression profiles in mononuclear cells from centenarians, octogenarians and young individuals resident near Valencia, Spain. Principal Component Analysis of the expression of 15,644 mature microRNAs and, 2,334 snoRNAs and scaRNAs in centenarians revealed a significant overlap with profiles in young individuals but not with octogenarians and a significant up-regulation of 7 small non-coding RNAs in centenarians compared to young persons and notably 102 small non-coding RNAs when compared with octogenarians. We suggest that the small non-coding RNAs signature in centenarians may provide insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms endowing centenarians with extreme longevity. PMID:23233880

  6. Is Activating Transcription Factor 3 Up-Regulated in Patients with Hypospadias?

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Selamettin; Zemheri, Ebru; Canat, Lutfi; Kilic, Mert; Caskurlu, Turhan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Even though hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies, the cause of hypospadias is largely unknown. With regard to molecular biology and microarray technology, it appears that hypospadias is potentially related to disrupted gene expression. Genomic analysis of hypospadiac tissue indicated a potential role for activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the development of this anomaly. This study prospectively examined the expression of ATF3 in tissues from 20 children with hypospadias compared with 26 normal penile skin tissue samples from elective circumcision. Materials and Methods Prepucial tissue was obtained from children who underwent repair of hypospadias for comparison with tissue samples from children who underwent elective circumcision. Skin specimens were evaluated for the expression of ATF3 protein by immunohistochemical staining. Results Immunohistochemical staining for ATF3 in samples from children who underwent repair of hypospadias was significantly greater than in samples from children who underwent elective circumcision (80% vs. 11%, respectively; p<0.05). Conclusions Our results indicate that ATF3 is up-regulated in the penile skin tissue of boys with hypospadias, which suggests a role for this transcription factor in the development of this abnormality. PMID:20733963

  7. Up-regulation of plasma membrane-associated redox activities in neuronal cells lacking functional mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong-Hoon; Hunt, Nicole D; Emerson, Scott S; Hernandez, Joe O; Mattson, Mark P; de Cabo, Rafael

    2007-03-01

    Mitochondria-deficient cells (rho(o) cells) survive through enhanced glycolytic metabolism in the presence of pyruvate and uridine. The plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) contains several NAD(P)H-related enzymes and plays a key role in maintaining the levels of NAD(+)/NADH and reduced coenzyme Q. In this study, rho(o) cells were used to investigate how the PMRS is regulated under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction. rho(o) cells exhibited a lower oxygen consumption rate and higher levels of lactate than parental cells, and were more sensitive to glycolysis inhibitors (2-deoxyglucose and iodoacetamide) than control cells. However, they were more resistant to H(2)O(2), consistent with increased catalase activity and decreased oxidative damage (protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine). PM-associated redox enzyme activities were enhanced in rho(o) cells compared to those in control cells. Our data suggest that all PMRS enzymes and biomarkers tested are closely related to the ability of the PMs to maintain redox homeostasis. These results illustrate that an up-regulated PM redox activity can protect cells from oxidative stress as a result of an improved antioxidant capacity, and suggest a mechanism by which neurons adapt to conditions of impaired mitochondrial function.

  8. Schisandra polysaccharide increased glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dun; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Wei-Wei; Mao, Guang-Hua; Zou, Ye; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Wang, Xin-Tong; Yang, Liu-Qing; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2016-06-01

    In our previous study, a polysaccharide was extracted from Schisandra Chinensis (Trucz.) Baill and found with anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of the low weight molecular polysaccharide (SCPP11) purified from crude Schisandra polysaccharide and illustrate the underlying mechanism in buffalo rat liver cells. The insulin resistance model of BRL cells was established by incubating with insulin solution for 24h. The effects of SCPP11 on regulating related protein and mRNA expression in an insulin and AMPK signal pathway were investigated by western blot and RT-PCR analysis. SCPP11 showed no cytotoxicity to BRL cells and could improve the glucose consumption in BRL cells. SCPP11 increased the protein expression of Akt, p-AMPK and GLUT-4 in BRL cells. Moreover, SCPP11 could enhance the mRNA expression levels of IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-4, AMPKα and PPAR-γ in BRL cells at the same time. In conclusion, SCPP11 possessed effects in improving glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4 which might occur via insulin and AMPK signal pathway and could be a potential functional food to prevent and mitigate the insulin resistance condition.

  9. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Rita; Gomes, Catarina; de Matos, Augusto J.; Reis, Celso A.; Rutteman, Gerard R.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness. PMID:26222311

  10. Multiple nodulation genes are up-regulated during establishment of reniform nematode feeding sites in soybean.

    PubMed

    Redding, Nathan Wayne; Agudelo, Paula; Wells, Christina E

    2017-09-15

    The semi-endoparastic reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) infects over 300 plant species. Females penetrate host roots and induce formation of complex, multinucleate feeding sites called syncytia. While anatomical changes associated with reniform nematode infection are well documented, little is known about their molecular basis. We grew soybean (Glycine max) in a split-root growth system, inoculated half of each root system with R. reniformis, and quantified gene expression in infected and control root tissue at four dates after inoculation. Over 6,000 genes were differentially expressed between inoculated and control roots on at least one date (FDR = 0.01, |log2FC| ≥ 1), and 507 gene sets were significantly enriched or depleted in inoculated roots (FDR = 0.05). Numerous genes up-regulated during syncytium formation had previously been associated with rhizobia nodulation. These included the nodule-initiating transcription factors CYCLOPS, NSP1, NSP2, and NIN, as well as multiple nodulins associated with the plant-derived peribacteroid membrane. Nodulation-related NIP aquaporins and SWEET sugar transporters were induced, as were plant CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) signaling proteins and cell cycle regulators such as CCS52A and E2F. Nodulins and nodule-associated genes may have ancestral functions in normal root development and mycorrhization that have been co-opted by both parasitic nematodes and rhizobial bacteria to promote feeding site and nodule formation.

  11. Hypoxia Induces Autophagy through Translational Up-Regulation of Lysosomal Proteins in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Chih; Chang, Chiao-May; Sun, H. Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia occurs in a wide variety of physiological and pathological conditions, including tumorigenesis. Tumor cells have to adapt to hypoxia by altering their gene expression and protein synthesis. Here, we showed that hypoxia inhibits translation through activation of PERK and inactivation of mTOR in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Prolonged hypoxia (1% O2, 16 h) dramatically inhibits general translation in HCT116 cells, yet selected mRNAs remain efficiently translated under such a condition. Using microarray analysis of polysome- associated mRNAs, we identified a large number of hypoxia-regulated genes at the translational level. Efficiently translated mRNAs during hypoxia were validated by polysome profiling and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that many of the up-regulated genes are involved in lysosome, glycan and lipid metabolism, antigen presentation, cell adhesion, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton. The majority of down-regulated genes are involved in apoptosis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. Further investigation showed that hypoxia induces lysosomal autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction through translational regulation in HCT116 cells. The abundance of several translation factors and the mTOR kinase activity are involved in hypoxia-induced mitochondrial autophagy in HCT116 cells. Our studies highlight the importance of translational regulation for tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:27078027

  12. Up-regulation of Vps4A promotes neuronal apoptosis after intracerebral hemorrhage in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianbing; Yuan, Debin; Xie, Lili; Tao, Xuelei; Duan, Chenwei; Bao, Yifeng; He, Yunfeng; Ge, Jianbin; Lu, Hongjian

    2017-04-01

    Vps4, vacuolar protein sorting 4, belongs to ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA) protein family which is made up of Vps4A and Vps4B. Previous studies demonstrated that Vps4A plays vital roles in diverse aspects such as virus budding, the efficient transport of H-Ras to the PM (plasma membrane) and the involvement in the MVB (multivesiculate bodies) pathway. Interestingly, Vps4A is also expressed in the brain. However, the distribution and function of Vps4A in ICH diseases remain unclear. In this study, we show that Vps4A may be involved in neuronal apoptosis during pathophysiological processes of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on the results of Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found a remarkable up-regulation of Vps4A expression surrounding the hematoma after ICH. Double labeled immunofluorescence showed that Vps4A was co-expressed with NeuN but rarely with astrocytes and microglia. Morever, we detected that neuronal apoptosis marker active caspase-3 had co-localizations with Vps4A. Additionaly, Vps4A knockdown in vitro specifically leads to decreasing neuronal apoptosis coupled with increased Akt phosphorylation. All datas suggested that Vps4A was involved in promoting neuronal apoptosis via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation after ICH.

  13. [Preliminary influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax up-regulation on cigarette retail price].

    PubMed

    Feng, G Z; Wang, C X; Yang, J Q; Jiang, Y

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of cigarette excise tax up-regulation on the retail price of cigarettes in 2015. Methods: Nominal and real price of selected cigarette varieties were calculated with data from Tobacco Retail Price Monitoring Project, which was conducted in 10 cities of China from 2013 to 2015. The trend of the cigarette prices changing was analyzed with annual data. Results: A total of 352 varieties of cigarettes were surveyed during the three years. The nominal price of these cigarettes did not change significantly from 2013 to 2014. Compared with nominal price of 2014, the price of 286 varieties increased and the price of 10 most popular varieties increased from 0.6% to 7.4% after cigarette excise tax increased, but the actual prices had both rise and fall compared with 2013. Conclusions: Cigarette excise tax raise in 2015 had influence on the retail price of cigarettes. But the increase in retail price was very limited, if factors including inflation and purchasing power are taken into consideration. Therefore, the influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax raise on tobacco control needs further evaluation.

  14. Zinc chloride for odontogenesis of dental pulp stem cells via metallothionein up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yung; Lin, Hsin-Hua; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Lin, Shau-Ping; Chen, Min-Huey

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)) can induce metallthionein (MT) in the liver and kidney to protect tissues against toxicants and shows a better corneal wound healing than conventional drugs do. We hypothesized that ZnCl(2) can promote odontogenesis of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) via MT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ZnCl(2) on human DPSCs and the expression of MT. DPSCs were isolated by flow cytometry with selective surface marker CD146 and STRO-1. After they grew into confluence, DPSCs were induced into odontoblasts with or without ZnCl(2) supplemented in the culture medium for 21 days. The effect of ZnCl(2) on DPSCs differentiation was examined followed by alkaline phosphatase staining/activity and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. By treating DPSCs with ZnCl(2), the duration of mineralization was shortened and expressions of differentiation markers into odontoblasts were more significant than those without ZnCl(2) stimulation. Besides, the MT gene expression was increased with the increasing expressions of odontoblasts' markers after treated with ZnCl(2). This was the first report that ZnCl(2) could promote odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs through the up-regulation of gene MT. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sarcoptic mange breaks up bottom-up regulation of body condition in a large herbivore population.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, João; Granados, José E; López-Olvera, Jorge R; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Pérez, Jesús M; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Velarde, Roser; Fonseca, Carlos; Ráez, Arian; Espinosa, José; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2015-11-06

    Both parasitic load and resource availability can impact individual fitness, yet little is known about the interplay between these parameters in shaping body condition, a key determinant of fitness in wild mammals inhabiting seasonal environments. Using partial least square regressions (PLSR), we explored how temporal variation in climatic conditions, vegetation dynamics and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) severity impacted body condition of 473 Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica) harvested between 1995 and 2008 in the highly seasonal Alpine ecosystem of Sierra Nevada Natural Space (SNNS), southern Spain. Bottom-up regulation was found to only occur in healthy ibexes; the condition of infected ibexes was independent of primary productivity and snow cover. No link between ibex abundance and ibex body condition could be established when only considering infected individuals. The pernicious effects of mange on Iberian ibexes overcome the benefits of favorable environmental conditions. Even though the increase in primary production exerts a positive effect on the body condition of healthy ibexes, the scabietic individuals do not derive any advantage from increased resource availability. Further applied research coupled with continuous sanitary surveillance are needed to address remaining knowledge gaps associated with the transmission dynamics and management of sarcoptic mange in free-living populations.

  16. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276–induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  17. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect.

  18. Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates apoptosis genes in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Knapp, Pamela E

    2007-01-22

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2h. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc (apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card) gene expression in neurons and astrocytes. Up-regulation occurred in both "on" and "stand-by" modes in neurons, but only in "on" mode in astrocytes. Additionally, astrocytes showed up-regulation of the Bax gene. The effects are specific since up-regulation was not seen for other genes associated with apoptosis, such as caspase-9 in either neurons or astrocytes, or Bax in neurons. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phone radiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect than astrocytes.

  19. Rck1 up-regulates pseudohyphal growth by activating the Ras2 and MAP kinase pathways independently in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Miwha; Kang, Chang-Min; Park, Yong-Sung; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2014-02-21

    Previously, we reported that Rck1 regulates Hog1 and Slt2 activities and affects MAP kinase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, we found that Rck1 up-regulates phospho-Kss1 and phospho-Fus3. Kss1 has been known as a component in the pseudohyphal growth pathway, and we attempted to identify the function of Rck1 in pseudohyphal growth. Rck1 up-regulated Ras2 at the protein level, not the transcriptional level. Additionally, FLO11 transcription was up-regulated by RCK1 over-expression. RCK1 expression was up-regulated during growth on SLAD+1% butanol medium. On nitrogen starvation agar plates, RCK1 over-expression induced pseudohyphal growth of colonies, and cells over-expressing RCK1 showed a filamentous morphology when grown in SLAD medium. Furthermore, 1-butanol greatly induced filamentous growth when RCK1 was over-expressed. Moreover, invasive growth was activated in haploid cells when RCK1 was over-expressed. The growth defect of cells observed on 1-butanol medium was recovered when RCK1 was over-expressed. Interestingly, Ras2 and phospho-Kss1 were up-regulated by Rck1 independently. Together, these results suggest that Rck1 promotes pseudohyphal growth by activating Ras2 and Kss1 via independent pathways in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic up-regulation of sonic hedgehog has little effect on postnatal craniofacial morphology of euploid and trisomic mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nandini; Dutka, Tara; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Ts65Dn, a mouse model of Down syndrome (DS), brain and craniofacial abnormalities that parallel those in people with DS are linked to an attenuated cellular response to sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling. If a similarly reduced response to SHH occurs in all trisomic cells, then chronic up-regulation of the pathway might have a positive effect on development in trisomic mice, resulting in amelioration of the craniofacial anomalies. Results We crossed Ts65Dn with Ptch1tm1Mps/+ mice and quantified the craniofacial morphology of Ts65Dn;Ptch+/− offspring to assess whether a chronic up-regulation of the SHH pathway rescued DS-related anomalies. Ts65Dn;Ptch1+/− mice experience a chronic increase in SHH in SHH-receptive cells due to haploinsufficiency of the pathway suppressor, Ptch1. Chronic up-regulation had minimal effect on craniofacial shape and did not correct facial abnormalities in Ts65Dn;Ptch+/− mice. We further compared effects of this chronic up-regulation of SHH to acute pathway stimulation in mice treated on the day of birth with a SHH pathway agonist, SAG. We found that SHH affects facial morphology differently based on chronic vs. acute postnatal pathway up-regulation. Conclusions Our findings have implications for understanding the function of SHH in craniofacial development and for the potential use of SHH-based agonists to treat DS-related abnormalities. PMID:26509735

  1. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis rapidly up-regulate galectin-3 secretion by human gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tamai, Riyoko; Kiyoura, Yusuke

    2014-02-01

    Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding C-type lectin that plays an important role in innate immunity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis up-regulate galectin-3 secretion by human gingival epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Ca9-22, a human gingival epithelial cell line, and human gingival fibroblasts were incubated in the presence or absence of C. albicans or C. parapsilosis without serum. Levels of secreted human galectin-3 in culture supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also pretreated Ca9-22 cells with cytochalasin D (an actin polymerization inhibitor), ALLN (a calpain inhibitor) and LY294002 [a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor] to determine whether the up-regulation of galectin-3 secretion was mediated by cytoskeletal changes, protease activity, or PI3K signaling. Galectin-3 secretion was significantly and rapidly up-regulated by live C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, as well as heat-killed C. albicans. In addition, cytochalasin D, LY294002 and ALLN did not inhibit the up-regulation in galectin-3 secretion. These results suggest that both live and heat-killed C. albicans and C. parapsilosis may increase the activity of the innate immune system and invasion by other microorganisms via up-regulation of galectin-3 secretion.

  2. Cellular Up-regulation of Nedd4 Family Interacting Protein 1 (Ndfip1) using Low Levels of Bioactive Cobalt Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Christine; Howitt, Jason; Putz, Ulrich; White, Jonathan M.; Parish, Clare L.; Donnelly, Paul S.; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2011-01-01

    The delivery of metal ions using cell membrane-permeable metal complexes represents a method for activating cellular pathways. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of new [CoIII(salen)(acac)] complexes capable of up-regulating the ubiquitin ligase adaptor protein Ndfip1. Ndfip1 is a neuroprotective protein that is up-regulated in the brain after injury and functions in combination with Nedd4 ligases to ubiquitinate harmful proteins for removal. We previously showed that Ndfip1 can be increased in human neurons using CoCl2 that is toxic at high concentration. Here we demonstrate a similar effect can be achieved by low concentrations of synthetic CoIII complexes that are non-toxic and designed to be activated following cellular entry. Activation is achieved by intracellular reduction of CoIII to CoII leading to release of CoII ions for Ndfip1 up-regulation. The cellular benefit of Ndfip1 up-regulation by CoIII complexes includes demonstrable protection against cell death in SH-SY5Y cells during stress. In vivo, focal delivery of CoIII complexes into the adult mouse brain was observed to up-regulate Ndfip1 in neurons. These results demonstrate that a cellular response pathway can be advantageously manipulated by chemical modification of metal complexes, and represents a significant step of harnessing low concentration metal complexes for therapeutic benefit. PMID:21187286

  3. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong-lin; Song, Jin-ning; Ma, Xu-dong; Zhang, Bin-fei; Li, Dan-dong; Pang, Hong-gang

    2016-01-01

    Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postulated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injury via its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser404(p-tau (S404)), and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S404) levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury. PMID:27482223

  4. Up-regulated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion in osteosarcoma: In vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Liu, Yang; Qin, Chunxia; Pan, Zhenyu; Luo, Jun; Yu, Aixi; Cheng, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have been reported the function of wild type IDH1 in tumor progress. Previously, we reported that IDH1 correlated with pathological grade and metastatic potential inversely in human osteosarcoma. Here, IDH1 was found lower expressed in osteosarcoma tissues than that of adjacent normal bone tissues. In addition, we observed in vitro anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects of up-regulated IDH1 on osteosarcoma cell lines. The migration and invasion activity was also markedly reduced by IDH1 up-regulation. Unexpectedly, IDH1 up-regulation also suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Therefore, IDH1 may represent a potential novel treatment and preventive strategy for osteosarcoma. PMID:24368190

  5. Up-regulation of microRNA-1290 impairs cytokinesis and affects the reprogramming of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia; Ji, Xiaowei; Zhu, Linlin; Jiang, Qiaoli; Wen, Zhenzhen; Xu, Song; Shao, Wei; Cai, Jianting; Du, Qin; Zhu, Yongliang; Mao, Jianshan

    2013-02-28

    Abnormal cytokinesis increases the possibility of nuclear fusion in tumor cells. However, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in abnormal cytokinesis is unclear. Here, we found that miR-1290 was significantly up-regulated in clinical colon cancer tissues. Up-regulation of miR-1290 postponed cytokinesis and led to the formation of multinucleated cells. KIF13B was a target of miR-1290 that was involved in aberrant cytokinesis. Furthermore, enforced expression of miR-1290 activated the Wnt pathway and increased the reprogramming-related transcript factors c-Myc and Nanog. Our results suggest that up-regulation of miR-1290 in colon cancer cells impaired cytokinesis and affected reprogramming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Up-regulation of niacinamide in intervertebral disc aggrecan in vitro.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoqian; Yang, Shuhua; Shao, Zengwu; Liu, Xin; Zhan, Zirui; Duan, Deyu

    2006-01-01

    The regulatory effects of niacinamide (Nia) on intervertebral disc (IVD) aggrecan in vitro was investigated. Chiba's 10 ng/mL interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced rabbit IVD degeneration model in vitro was established. 0.5, 0.25 and 0.05 mg/mL Nia was added to normal and degenerated IVDs for intervention. On the first and second week after intervention, safranin O-fast green staining intensity and glycosaminoglycan (GS) content were measured. The expression of aggrecan core protein was detected by RT-PCR. The results showed: (1) After treatment with 0.5 mg/mL Nia for one week, the GS content in nucleus pulposus (NP) was increased by 44.8% as compared with control group (P < 0 01); The GS content in IL-1 induction groups was increased with the increase of Nia concentrations: After treatment with 0.5 mg/mL for one week, the GS content in NP was increased by 68.3% as compared with control group (P < 0.01). After two weeks, GS content in NP and fibrous rings was still higher than in control group at the same period (P < 0.01) and untreated group (P < 0.01). (2) Safranin O-fast green staining revealed that with the increase of Nia concentrations, staining density in NP and fibrous rings was increased and histological structure damage to IVDs by IL-1beta was alleviated. (3) RT-PCR showed that the expression of core protein gene in IL-1beta-induced degenerated IVDS was increased with the increase of Nia concentrations. It was concluded that under conditions in vitro, Nia could up-regulate the expression of aggrecan in IVDs and protect IVDs from IL-1beta-induced degeneration at least partially, which offers a potential choice for IVD degeneration clinical therapy.

  7. Lysophosphatidic Acid Up-Regulates Hexokinase II and Glycolysis to Promote Proliferation of Ovarian Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abir; Ma, Yibao; Yuan, Fang; Gong, Yongling; Fang, Zhenyu; Mohamed, Esraa M; Berrios, Erika; Shao, Huanjie; Fang, Xianjun

    2015-09-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a blood-borne lipid mediator, is present in elevated concentrations in ascites of ovarian cancer patients and other malignant effusions. LPA is a potent mitogen in cancer cells. The mechanism linking LPA signal to cancer cell proliferation is not well understood. Little is known about whether LPA affects glucose metabolism to accommodate rapid proliferation of cancer cells. Here we describe that in ovarian cancer cells, LPA enhances glycolytic rate and lactate efflux. A real time PCR-based miniarray showed that hexokinase II (HK2) was the most dramatically induced glycolytic gene to promote glycolysis in LPA-treated cells. Analysis of the human HK2 gene promoter identified the sterol regulatory element-binding protein as the primary mediator of LPA-induced HK2 transcription. The effects of LPA on HK2 and glycolysis rely on LPA2, an LPA receptor subtype overexpressed in ovarian cancer and many other malignancies. We further examined the general role of growth factor-induced glycolysis in cell proliferation. Like LPA, epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicited robust glycolytic and proliferative responses in ovarian cancer cells. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, however, potently stimulated cell proliferation but only modestly induced glycolysis. Consistent with their differential effects on glycolysis, LPA and EGF-dependent cell proliferation was highly sensitive to glycolytic inhibition while the growth-promoting effect of IGF-1 or insulin was more resistant. These results indicate that LPA- and EGF-induced cell proliferation selectively involves up-regulation of HK2 and glycolytic metabolism. The work is the first to implicate LPA signaling in promotion of glucose metabolism in cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Resveratrol inhibits IL-6-induced ovarian cancer cell migration through epigenetic up-regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ferraresi, Alessandra; Phadngam, Suratchanee; Morani, Federica; Galetto, Alessandra; Alabiso, Oscar; Chiorino, Giovanna; Isidoro, Ciro

    2017-03-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by cancer-associated fibroblasts, has been linked to the invasive and metastatic behavior of ovarian cancer cells. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol with the potential to inhibit cancer cell migration. Here we show that Resveratrol and IL-6 affect in an opposite manner the expression of RNA messengers and of microRNAs involved in cell locomotion and extracellular matrix remodeling associated with the invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells. Among the several potential candidates responsible for the anti-invasive effect promoted by Resveratrol, here we focused our attention on ARH-I (DIRAS3), that encodes a Ras homolog GTPase of 26-kDa. This protein is known to inhibit cell motility, and it has been shown to regulate autophagy by interacting with BECLIN 1. IL-6 down-regulated the expression of ARH-I and inhibited the formation of LC3-positive autophagic vacuoles, while promoting cell migration. On opposite, Resveratrol could counteract the IL-6 induction of cell migration in ovarian cancer cells through induction of autophagy in the cells at the migration front, which was paralleled by up-regulation of ARH-I and down-regulation of STAT3 expression. Spautin 1-mediated disruption of BECLIN 1-dependent autophagy abrogated the effects of Resveratrol, while promoting cell migration. The present data indicate that Resveratrol elicits its anti-tumor effect through epigenetic mechanisms and support its inclusion in the chemotherapy regimen for highly aggressive ovarian cancers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Wheat VIN3-like PHD finger genes are up-regulated by vernalization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Daolin; Dunbar, Mignon; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2007-03-01

    The term 'vernalization' describes the acceleration of the transition between the vegetative and reproductive stages after exposing plants to an extended period of low temperature. In Arabidopsis, vernalization promotes flowering by silencing the flowering repressor gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Mitotically stable repression of FLC is the result of chromatin modifications mediated by the Vernalization-INsensitive 3 (VIN3) and VIN3-Like (VIL) proteins. In this study, we identified and characterized three VIL genes in diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), named TmVIL1, TmVIL2, and TmVIL3. Similar to Arabidopsis VIN3, all three wheat VIL proteins carry three conserved domains including a plant homeodomain finger motif (PHD), a fibronectin type III domain (FNIII), and a VIN3 interacting domain (VID). Genetic mapping placed TmVIL1, TmVIL2, and TmVIL3 loci in the centromeric regions of chromosome 5, 6, and 1, respectively. The chromosome location of TmVIL1 is close to that of the vernalization gene VRN-D5, but more precise mapping information is required to validate this relationship. Transcription of the wheat VIL genes was up-regulated by vernalization, with a peak after 4-6 weeks of cold treatment. When transferred back to warm conditions, transcript levels of the wheat VIL genes returned to pre-vernalization levels. In addition, the transcript levels of wheat VIL genes are affected by photoperiod. This study indicates that wheat VIL genes have retained a similar structure and transcriptional regulation as their Arabidopsis VIN3/VIL homologues, suggesting that they might have retained some of their functions.

  10. Molecular characterization of Quercus suber MYB1, a transcription factor up-regulated in cork tissues.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tânia; Menéndez, Esther; Capote, Tiago; Ribeiro, Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    The molecular processes associated with cork development in Quercus suber L. are poorly understood. A previous molecular approach identified a list of genes potentially important for cork formation and differentiation, providing a new basis for further molecular studies. This report is the first molecular characterization of one of these candidate genes, QsMYB1, coding for an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. The R2R3-MYB gene sub-family has been described as being involved in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways, both involved in cork biosynthesis. The results showed that the expression of QsMYB1 is putatively mediated by an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism that originates two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2), differing only in the 5'-untranslated region, due to retention of the first intron in one of the variants. Moreover, within the retained intron, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) was identified. The upstream regulatory region of QsMYB1 was extended by a genome walking approach, which allowed the identification of the putative gene promoter region. The relative expression pattern of QsMYB1 transcripts determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that both transcripts were up-regulated in cork tissues; the detected expression was several times higher in newly formed cork harvested from trees producing virgin, second or reproduction cork when compared with wood. Moreover, the expression analysis of QsMYB1 in several Q. suber organs showed very low expression in young branches and roots, whereas in leaves, immature acorns or male flowers, no expression was detected. These preliminary results suggest that QsMYB1 may be related to secondary growth and, in particular, with the cork biosynthesis process with a possible alternative splicing mechanism associated with its regulatory function.

  11. Acute cocaine exposure up-regulates complement expression in rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Tanhehco, E J; Yasojima, K; McGeer, P L; Lucchesi, B R

    2000-01-01

    The exact mechanism of the cardiotoxic actions of cocaine remains unclear. The finding that the heart may be a source of injurious complement components led us to investigate whether cocaine promotes myocardial expression of complement. Rabbit isolated hearts were perfused for 70 min with either cocaine hydrochloride (1 or 10 microM), the synthetic isomer (+)-cocaine (10 microM), or procaine hydrochloride (10 or 30 microM). Compared with controls perfused with drug-free buffer, both cocaine and procaine significantly (P <. 05) increased myocardial C1q, C1r, C8, and C9 mRNA expression, whereas 10 microM (+)-cocaine had no effect on complement mRNA expression. Cocaine also significantly increased (P <.05) C3 mRNA transcription. In addition, in vivo administration of cocaine (1 mg/kg) for three consecutive days significantly increased myocardial complement mRNA expression. Cocaine and procaine also increased membrane attack complex (MAC) formation in the myocardium. The antioxidant 2-N-mercaptopropionyl glycine, attenuated the increases in complement mRNA expression induced by 1 microM cocaine and 10 microM procaine. In vivo heparin administration (300 U/kg i.v.), 2 h before removal of the heart and exposure to 1 microM cocaine, did not inhibit C1q, C1r, C3, and C8 mRNA transcription, but decreased MAC expression. It was determined previously that heparin reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our results suggest that cocaine may cause myocardial injury by up-regulating local complement expression, possibly via the production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, the glycosaminoglycan heparin may modulate the cytotoxic effects of cocaine by impeding formation of the MAC.

  12. Zinc deficiency in rats is associated with up-regulation of hippocampal NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Doboszewska, Urszula; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Młyniec, Katarzyna; Pochwat, Bartłomiej; Hołuj, Malgorzata; Ostachowicz, Beata; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel; Szewczyk, Bernadeta

    2015-01-02

    Data indicated that zinc deficiency may contribute to the development of depression; however changes induced by zinc deficiency are not fully described. In the present paper we tested whether the dietary zinc restriction in rats causes alterations in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits in brain regions that are relevant to depression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a zinc adequate diet (ZnA, 50 mg Zn/kg) or a zinc deficient diet (ZnD, 3 mg Zn/kg) for 4 or 6weeks. Then, the behavior of the rats was examined in the forced swim test, sucrose intake test and social interaction test. Western blot assays were used to study the alterations in NMDAR subunits GluN2A and GluN2B and proteins associated with NMDAR signaling in the hippocampus (Hp) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Following 4 or 6 weeks of zinc restriction, behavioral despair, anhedonia and a reduction of social behavior occurred in rats with concomitant increased expression of GluN2A and GluN2B and decreased expression of the PSD-95, p-CREB and BDNF protein levels in the Hp. The up-regulation of GluN2A protein was also found in the PFC, but only after prolonged (6 weeks) zinc deprivation. The procedure of zinc restriction in rats causes behavioral changes that share some similarities to the pathophysiology of depression. Obtained data indicated that depressive-like behavior induced by zinc deficiency is associated with the changes in NMDAR signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary pectin up-regulates monocaboxylate transporter 1 in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Kirat, Doaa; Kondo, Koji; Shimada, Ritsu; Kato, Seiyu

    2009-04-01

    This work was undertaken to study the effect of pectin feeding on the expression level, cellular localization and functional activity of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. The results indicated that MCT1 protein level was significantly increased along the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract of pectin-fed rats in comparison with control animals. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an increase in MCT1 in the stratified squamous epithelia of the forestomach as well as in the basolateral membranes of the cells lining the gastric pit of the glandular stomach of pectin-fed rats when compared with control animals. The parietal cells, which showed barely any or no detectable MCT1 in the control group, exhibited a strong intensity of MCT1 on the basolateral membranes in pectin-fed rats. In the small intestine of pectin-fed rats, strong immunopositivity for MCT1 was detected in the brush border and basolateral membranes of the absorptive enterocytes lining the entire villi, while in control rats, weak reactivity was detected on the brush border membrane in a few absorptive enterocytes in the villus tip. In the large intestine of control animals, MCT1 was detected on the basolateral membranes of the epithelia lining the caecum and colon. This staining intensity was markedly increased in pectin-fed rats, along with the appearance of strong reactivity for MCT1 on the apical membranes of the surface and crypt epithelia of caecum and colon. Our results also showed that MCT1 co-localizes with its chaperone, basigin (CD147), in the rat gastrointestinal tract, and that the pectin feeding increased the expression of CD147. In vivo functional studies revealed an enhanced acetate absorption in the colon of pectin-fed in comparison with control animals. We conclude that MCT1 is up-regulated along the gastrointestinal tract of pectin-fed rats, which might represent an adaptive response to the increased availability of its substrates.

  14. Up-regulation of sucrose synthase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase impacts plant growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather D; Ellis, Dave D; Gilbert, Margarita; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the overexpression of sucrose synthase (SuSy) and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) on plant growth and metabolism were evaluated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). T(1) transgenic plants expressing either gene under the control of a tandem repeat cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (2x35S) or a xylem-localized 4CL promoter (4-coumarate:CoA ligase; 4CL) were generated, and reciprocally crossed to generate plants expressing both genes. Transcript levels, enzyme activity, growth parameters, fibre properties and carbohydrate content of stem tissue were quantified. The expression profiles of both genes confirmed the expression pattern of the promoters: 2x35S expressed more strongly in leaves, while 4CL expression was highest in stem tissue. In-depth plant characterization revealed that the single-transgene lines showed significant increases in the height growth compared with corresponding control lines. The double-transgene plants demonstrated an additive effect, proving to be even taller than the single-transgene parents. Several of these lines had associated increases in soluble sugar content. Although partitioning of storage carbohydrates into starch or cellulose was not observed, the increased height growth and increases in soluble carbohydrates suggest a role for SuSy as a marker in sink strength and lend credit to the function of UGPase in a similar role. The up-regulation of these two genes, although not increasing the percentage cellulose content, was effective in increasing the total biomass, and thus the overall cellulose yield, from a given plant.

  15. Gallium arsenide selectively up-regulates inflammatory cytokine expression at exposure site.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen M; McCoy, Kathleen L

    2003-12-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a technologically and economically important semiconductor, is widely utilized in both military and commercial applications. This chemical is a potential health hazard as a carcinogen and immunotoxicant. We previously reported that macrophages at the exposure site exhibit characteristics of activation. In vitro culture of macrophages with GaAs fails to recapitulate the in vivo phenotype, suggesting that complete GaAs-mediated activation in vivo may require other cells or components found in the body's microenvironment. Our present study examined the role of cytokines upon GaAs-mediated macrophage activation. Intraperitoneal administration of GaAs elicited rapid specific recruitment of blood monocytes to the exposure site. This recruitment occurred concomitant with up-regulation of 17 chemokine and inflammatory cytokine mRNAs, while transcripts of three inhibitory cytokines diminished. Administration of latex beads caused less cytokine induction than GaAs, indicating that changes in mRNA levels could not be attributed to phagocytosis. Four representative chemokines and cytokines were selected for further analysis. Increased cytokine mRNA expression was paralleled by similar increases in cytokine protein levels, and secreted protein products were detected in peritoneal fluid. Cytokine protein expression was constrained to myeloid cells, and to a lesser extent to B cells. Alterations in patterns of cytokine gene expression elucidate mechanisms for increased cellular activation and antigen processing, and modulation of the inflammatory response. Our findings indicate that in vivo GaAs exposure alters cytokine gene expression, which may lead to an inflammatory reaction and contribute to pathological tissue damage.

  16. Cathepsin D is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel disease macrophages

    PubMed Central

    HAUSMANN, M; OBERMEIER, F; SCHREITER, K; SPOTTL, T; FALK, W; SCHÖLMERICH, J; HERFARTH, H; SAFTIG, P; ROGLER, G

    2004-01-01

    Down-regulation of receptors involved in the recognition or transmission of inflammatory signals and a reduced responsiveness support the concept that macrophages are ‘desensitized’ during their differentiation in the intestinal mucosa. During inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) intestinal macrophages (IMACs) change to a reactive or ‘aggressive’ type. After having established a method of isolation and purification of IMACs, message for cathepsin D was one of the mRNAs we found to be up-regulated in a subtractive hybridization of Crohn's disease (CD) macrophages versus IMACs from control mucosa. The expression of cathepsin D in intestinal mucosa was analysed by immunohistochemistry in biopsies from IBD and control patients and in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced acute and chronic colitis. IMACs were isolated and purified from normal and inflamed mucosa by immunomagnetic beads armed with a CD33 antibody. RT-PCR was performed for cathepsin D mRNA. Results were confirmed by Northern blot and flow cytometrical analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in the cathepsin D protein expression in inflamed intestinal mucosa from IBD patients compared to non-inflamed mucosa. No cathepsin D polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product could be obtained with mRNA from CD33-positive IMACs from normal mucosa. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR showed an induction of mRNA for cathepsin D in purified IMACs from IBD patients. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis confirmed these results. Cathepsin D protein was also found in intestinal mucosa in acute and chronic DSS-colitis but was absent in normal mucosa. This study shows that expression of cathepsin D is induced in inflammation-associated IMACs. The presence of cathepsin D might contribute to the mucosal damage in IBD. PMID:15030527

  17. Cathepsin D is up-regulated in inflammatory bowel disease macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, M; Obermeier, F; Schreiter, K; Spottl, T; Falk, W; Schölmerich, J; Herfarth, H; Saftig, P; Rogler, G

    2004-04-01

    Down-regulation of receptors involved in the recognition or transmission of inflammatory signals and a reduced responsiveness support the concept that macrophages are 'desensitized' during their differentiation in the intestinal mucosa. During inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) intestinal macrophages (IMACs) change to a reactive or 'aggressive' type. After having established a method of isolation and purification of IMACs, message for cathepsin D was one of the mRNAs we found to be up-regulated in a subtractive hybridization of Crohn's disease (CD) macrophages versus IMACs from control mucosa. The expression of cathepsin D in intestinal mucosa was analysed by immunohistochemistry in biopsies from IBD and control patients and in a mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced acute and chronic colitis. IMACs were isolated and purified from normal and inflamed mucosa by immunomagnetic beads armed with a CD33 antibody. RT-PCR was performed for cathepsin D mRNA. Results were confirmed by Northern blot and flow cytometrical analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant increase in the cathepsin D protein expression in inflamed intestinal mucosa from IBD patients compared to non-inflamed mucosa. No cathepsin D polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product could be obtained with mRNA from CD33-positive IMACs from normal mucosa. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR showed an induction of mRNA for cathepsin D in purified IMACs from IBD patients. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis confirmed these results. Cathepsin D protein was also found in intestinal mucosa in acute and chronic DSS-colitis but was absent in normal mucosa. This study shows that expression of cathepsin D is induced in inflammation-associated IMACs. The presence of cathepsin D might contribute to the mucosal damage in IBD.

  18. Apigenin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer xenografts via phosphorylation and up-regulated FADD expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi Rui; Yao, Xue Qing; Wen, Ge; Fan, Qin; Li, Ying-Jia; Fu, Xiu Qiong; Li, Chang Ke; Sun, Xue Gang

    2011-01-01

    Apigenin is a flavonoid belonging to the flavone structural class. It has been implicated as a chemopreventive agent against prostate and breast cancers. However, to the best of our knowledge, no published data are available regarding apigenin in colorectal cancer (CRC). The effects and mechanisms of apigenin on CRC may vary significantly. This study aimed to analyze the effects of apigenin on the growth of CRC xenografts in nude mice derived from SW480, as well as to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Whole-body fluorescence imaging is an inexpensive optical system used to visualize gene expression in small mammals using reporter genes, such as eGFP as a reporter. In our study, the expression of eGFP may reflect the size of the tumor. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay showed that apigenin promoted the apoptosis of CRC cells. Furthermore, the expression of five genes related to the proliferation and apoptosis of CRC, i.e., cyclin D1, BAG-1, Bcl-2, yrdC and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Among these genes, the up-regulated expression of FADD was noted in CRC xenograft tumors treated with apigenin. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting confirmed the results at the protein level. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that apigenin induced the phosphorylation of FADD. Our findings suggest that apigenin enhances the expression of FADD and induces its phosphorylation, which may cause apoptosis of CRC cells and inhibition of tumor growth.

  19. The Wnt Inhibitor Sclerostin Is Up-regulated by Mechanical Unloading in Osteocytes in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Spatz, Jordan M.; Wein, Marc N.; Gooi, Jonathan H.; Qu, Yili; Garr, Jenna L.; Liu, Shawn; Barry, Kevin J.; Uda, Yuhei; Lai, Forest; Dedic, Christopher; Balcells-Camps, Mercedes; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Babij, Philip; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2015-01-01

    Although bone responds to its mechanical environment, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the skeleton to mechanical unloading are not completely understood. Osteocytes are the most abundant but least understood cells in bones and are thought to be responsible for sensing stresses and strains in bone. Sclerostin, a product of the SOST gene, is produced postnatally primarily by osteocytes and is a negative regulator of bone formation. Recent studies show that SOST is mechanically regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. During prolonged bed rest and immobilization, circulating sclerostin increases both in humans and in animal models, and its increase is associated with a decrease in parathyroid hormone. To investigate whether SOST/sclerostin up-regulation in mechanical unloading is a cell-autonomous response or a hormonal response to decreased parathyroid hormone levels, we subjected osteocytes to an in vitro unloading environment achieved by the NASA rotating wall vessel system. To perform these studies, we generated a novel osteocytic cell line (Ocy454) that produces high levels of SOST/sclerostin at early time points and in the absence of differentiation factors. Importantly, these osteocytes recapitulated the in vivo response to mechanical unloading with increased expression of SOST (3.4 ± 1.9-fold, p < 0.001), sclerostin (4.7 ± 0.1-fold, p < 0.001), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κΒ ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) (2.5 ± 0.7-fold, p < 0.001) ratio. These data demonstrate for the first time a cell-autonomous increase in SOST/sclerostin and RANKL/OPG ratio in the setting of unloading. Thus, targeted osteocyte therapies could hold promise as novel osteoporosis and disuse-induced bone loss treatments by directly modulating the mechanosensing cells in bone. PMID:25953900

  20. Didymin Induces Apoptosis by Inhibiting N-Myc and up regulating RKIP in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Jyotsana; Nagaprashantha, Lokesh Dalasanur; Vatsyayan, Rit; Singhal, Ashutosh; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S

    2011-01-01

    Neuroblastomas arise from the neural crest cells and represent the most common solid tumors outside the nervous system in children. The amplification of N-Myc plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of neuroblastomas whereas acquired mutations of p53 lead to refractory and relapsed cases of neuroblastomas. In this regard, dietary compounds which can target N-Myc and exert anti-cancer effects independent of p53 status acquire significance in the management of neuroblastomas. Hence, we investigated the anti-cancer properties of the flavonoid didymin in neuroblastomas. Didymin effectively inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis irrespective of p53 status in neuroblastomas. Didymin down regulated PI3K, pAkt, Akt, vimentin and up regulated RKIP levels. Didymin induced G2/M arrest along with decreasing the levels of cyclin D1, CDK4 and cyclin B1. Importantly, didymin inhibited NMyc as confirmed at protein, mRNA and transcriptional level by promoter-reporter assays. HPLC analysis of didymin (2 mg/kg b.w.) treated mice serum revealed effective oral absorption with free didymin concentration of 2.1 μM. Further in vivo mice xenograft studies revealed that didymin (2 mg/kg b.w.) treated animals had significant reductions in tumors size compared to controls. Didymin strongly inhibited the proliferation (Ki67) and angiogenesis (CD31) markers as well as N-Myc expression as revealed by the histopathological examination of paraffin embedded section of resected tumors. Collectively, our in vitro and in vivo studies elucidated the anti-cancer properties and mechanisms of action of a novel, orally active and palatable flavonoid didymin which makes it a potential new approach for neuroblastoma therapy (NANT) to target pediatric neuroblastomas. PMID:22174364

  1. Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated kinase: A novel target for breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Joelle N; Neely, Benjamin A; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2017-05-01

    Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated Kinase (Hunk) is a protein kinase that was originally identified in the murine mammary gland and has been shown to be highly expressed in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2(+)/ErbB2(+)) breast cancer cell lines as well as MMTV-neu derived mammary tumor cell lines. However, the physiological role of Hunk has been largely elusive since its identification. Though Hunk is predicted to be a Serine/Threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase with homology to the SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases, there are no known Hunk substrates that have been identified to date. Recent work demonstrates a role for Hunk in HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer progression, including drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, with Hunk potentially acting downstream of HER2/ErbB2 and the PI3K/Akt pathway. These studies have collectively shown that Hunk plays a vital role in promoting mammary tumorigenesis, as Hunk knockdown via shRNA in xenograft tumor models or crossing MMTV-neu or Pten-deficient genetically engineered mouse models into a Hunk knockout (Hunk-/-) background impairs mammary tumor growth in vivo. Because the majority of HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer patients acquire drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, the characterization of novel drug targets like Hunk that have the potential to simultaneously suppress tumorigenesis and potentially enhance efficacy of current therapeutics is an important facet of drug development. Therefore, work aimed at uncovering specific regulatory functions for Hunk that could contribute to this protein kinase's role in both tumorigenesis and drug resistance will be informative. This review focuses on what is currently known about this under-studied protein kinase, and how targeting Hunk may prove to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fasting induced up-regulation of activating transcription factor 5 in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yusuke I; Morita, Momoko; Ohmi, Asako; Aoyagi, Shun; Ebihara, Hitomi; Tonaki, Daijuro; Horino, Yoko; Iijima, Mika; Hirose, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yuji

    2009-06-19

    Food deprivation (fasting) is commonly encountered in the lives of animals and humans. In mammals, adaptive responses predominantly include the induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis, but the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Atf5 (activating transcription factor 5) is a transcription factor of the ATF/cAMP response element-binding protein family and is expressed abundantly in human liver. Atf5 has been associated with stress responses, cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. However, its role in the liver response to in vivo food deprivation has not yet been investigated. Adult mice were food-deprived for 48 h and the expression of two Atf5 mRNA subtypes (Atf5-R1 and Atf-R2) and gluconeogenic factors was investigated. Using in vitro cell culture, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) promoter activities after ectopic expression of Atf5 and Cebpg (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein gamma) proteins were measured. The Atf5-R1 transcript was found to be abundant in liver and other energy metabolism-related organs; Atf5-R2 was prominent in the testis. Fasting resulted in elevation of the expression of both Atf5-R1 and R2 in the liver. Interestingly, up-regulation of Atf5 was accompanied by increased expression of Cebpg and Pgc-1alpha. In human hepatoma cells (HepG2), but not in human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), forced expression of Atf5 and Cebpg cooperatively stimulated Pgc-1alpha promoter activity, suggesting that hepatic Pgc-1alpha could be induced by Atf5 and Cebpg in cooperation with other hepatic factors. Hepatic Atf5 might be potentially involved in the induction of gluconeogenetic factors during in vivo fasting stress.

  3. Up-regulation of inducible heat shock protein-70 expression in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, María José; Comabella, Manuel; Río, Jordi; Castilló, Joaquín; Castillo, Mireia; Martin, Roland; Montalban, Xavier; Espejo, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Inducible heat shock protein (HSP)70 (HSP70-1A and HSP70-1B proteins) is a chaperone responsible for assisting proper protein folding. Following stress conditions, HSP70 is highly up-regulated to mediate cytoprotective functions. In addition, HSP70 is able to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses that promote the immune recognition of antigens and to act as a cytokine when it is released. The data in the literature are controversial with regard to expression studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In the present study, we aimed to examine if alterations of HSP70-1A/B expression are involved in the autoimmune pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We determined both mRNA and protein expression in PBMCs of MS patients and healthy donors (HDs). We found a baseline increased expression of the HSPA1A gene in PBMCs from MS patients compared with HDs. Gene expression findings were associated with an increased protein expression of HSP70-1A/B in T lymphocytes (CD4+ and CD8+) and monocytes from MS patients under basal conditions that may reflect the immunological activation occurring in MS patients. We also provided evidence that heat shock (HS) stimulus induced HSP70-1A/B protein expression in HDs and MS patients, and that HS-induced HSP70-1A/B protein expression in monocytes correlated with the number of T2 lesions at baseline in MS patients. However, after lipopolysaccharide inflammatory stimulus, monocytes from MS patients failed to induce HSP70-1A/B protein expression. Our data hint at altered immune responses in MS and may indicate either a state of chronic stress or increased vulnerability to physiological immune responses in MS patients.

  4. Up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Rat Spleen Following Aniline Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianling; Ma, Huaxian; Boor, Paul J.; Sadagopa Ramanujam, V. M.; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2010-01-01

    Splenic toxicity of aniline is characterized by vascular congestion, hyperplasia, fibrosis and development of a variety of sarcomas in rats. However, underlying mechanisms by which aniline elicits splenotoxic response are not well understood. Previously we have shown that aniline exposure causes oxidative damage to the spleen. To further explore the oxidative mechanism of aniline toxicity, we evaluated the potential contribution of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes heme degradation and releases free iron. Male SD rats were given 1 mmol/kg/day aniline in water by gavage for 1, 4 or 7 days, while respective controls received water only. Aniline exposure led to significant increases in HO-1 mRNA expression in the spleen (2- and 2.4-fold at days 4 and 7, respectively) with corresponding increases in protein expression, as confirmed by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Furthermore, immunohistochemical assessment of spleen showed stronger immunostaining for HO-1 in the spleens of rats treated for 7 days, confined mainly to the red pulp areas. No changes were observed in mRNA and protein levels of HO-1 following 1 day exposure. The increase in HO-1 expression was associated with increases in total iron (2.4- and 2.7- fold), free iron (1.9- and 3.5-fold), and ferritin levels (1.9- and 2.1-fold) at 4 and 7 days of aniline exposure. Our data suggest that HO-1 up-regulation in aniline-induced splenic toxicity could be a contributing pro-oxidant mechanism, mediated through iron release, and leading to oxidative damage. PMID:19969074

  5. Up-Regulated Expression of SPRY4-IT1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenlong; Song, Zi-zheng; Xu, Qunfang; Qu, Xinyan; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yu; Yu, Qun; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNA SPRY4 intronic transcript 1 (lncRNA SPRY4-IT1) has been reported to be associated with the progression of several cancers, but its expression level in colorectal cancer (CRC) has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical significance of SPRY4-IT1 in CRC. Material/Methods The relative expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in diseased tissues and the adjacent normal tissues of 106 CRC patients. Chi-square method was used to evaluate the association between SPRY4-IT1 expression and the clinical features. Additionally, we assessed the overall survival at different expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 using Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of SPRY4-IT1 was estimated by Cox regression analysis. Results Up-regulated level of SPRY4-IT1 was detected in pathologic tissues of CRC patients compared with adjacent normal tissues (P=0.000). The relative expression of SPRY4-IT1 was associated with the tumor size, the depth of invasion, lymph node invasion, distant invasion, and tumor stage (P<0.05). Patients with high expression of SPRY4-IT1 had poor overall survival compared with those with high level (39.3 vs. 49.3 months, log-rank test, P=0.016). Cox regression analysis showed that SPRY4-IT1 could act as an independent prognostic factor in CRC (HR=2.341, 95% CI=1.136–4.826, P=0.021). Conclusions SPRY4-IT1 might be associated with tumorigenesis and progression of CRC, and it may be a promising biomarker for prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:28099409

  6. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress-Induced Up-Regulation of Occludin Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dokladny, Karol; Ye, Dongmei; Kennedy, John C.; Moseley, Pope L.; Ma, Thomas Y.

    2008-01-01

    The heat stress (HS)-induced increase in occludin protein expression has been postulated to be a protective response against HS-induced disruption of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cellular and molecular processes that mediate the HS-induced up-regulation of occludin expression in Caco-2 cells. Exposure to HS (39°C or 41°C) resulted in increased expression of occludin protein; this was preceded by an increase in occludin mRNA transcription and promoter activity. HS-induced activation of heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) resulted in cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of HSF-1 and binding to its binding motif in the occludin promoter region. HSF-1 activation was associated with an increase in occludin promoter activity, mRNA transcription, and protein expression; which were abolished by the HSF-1 inhibitor quercetin. Targeted HSF-1 knock-down by siRNA transfection inhibited the HSF-1-induced increase in occulin expression and junctional localization of occulin protein. Site-directed mutagenesis of the HSF-1 binding motif in the occludin promoter region inhibited HS-induced binding of HSF-1 to the occludin promoter region and subsequent promoter activity. In conclusion, our data show for the first time that the HS-induced increase in occludin protein expression is mediated by HSF-1 activation and subsequent binding of HSF-1 to the occludin promoter, which initiates a series of molecular and cellular events culminating in increased junctional localization of occludin protein. PMID:18276783

  7. Salsolinol Up-Regulates Oxytocin Expression and Release During Lactation in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Górski, K; Marciniak, E; Zielińska-Górska, M; Misztal, T

    2016-03-01

    Salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) is a dopamine-derived compound present in the central nervous system and pituitary gland. Several previous studies on lactating sheep and rats have reported that salsolinol plays a crucial role in the regulation of prolactin secretion. The present study investigated the effects of salsolinol, which was infused into the third ventricle of the brain, on oxytocin expression and release in lactating sheep, 48 h after weaning of 8-week-old lambs. Serial 30-min infusions of salsolinol and vehicle were performed at 30-min intervals from 10.00 to 15.00 h. Blood samples were collected every 10 min. The supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and posterior pituitary were collected immediately after the experiment. Expression levels of mRNAs for oxytocin and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), the terminal enzyme in the oxytocin synthesis pathway, were measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Oxytocin peptide content in the posterior pituitary was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and plasma oxytocin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. Salsolinol treatment significantly up-regulated oxytocin and PAM gene expression in the SON (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively), PVN (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and posterior pituitary (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively). Oxytocin peptide content in the posterior pituitary and the area under the response curve of plasma oxytocin were significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) higher in salsolinol-treated sheep than in control animals. The present study shows for the first time that salsolinol stimulates oxytocin secretion during lactation in sheep.

  8. Intermittent fasting up-regulates Fsp27/Cidec gene expression in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Karbowska, Joanna; Kochan, Zdzislaw

    2012-03-01

    Fat-specific protein of 27 kDa (FSP27) is a novel lipid droplet protein that promotes triacylglycerol storage in white adipose tissue (WAT). The regulation of the Fsp27 gene expression in WAT is largely unknown. We investigated the nutritional regulation of FSP27 in WAT. The effects of intermittent fasting (48 d, eight cycles of 3-d fasting and 3-d refeeding), caloric restriction (48 d), fasting-refeeding (3-d fasting and 3-d refeeding), and fasting (3 d) on mRNA expression of FSP27, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ2), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and M isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (a positive control for PPARγ activation) in epididymal WAT and on serum triacylglycerol, insulin, and leptin levels were determined in Wistar rats. We also determined the effects of PPARγ activation by rosiglitazone or pioglitazone on FSP27 mRNA levels in primary rat adipocytes. Long-term intermittent fasting, in contrast to other dietary manipulations, significantly up-regulated Fsp27 gene expression in WAT. Moreover, in rats subjected to intermittent fasting, serum insulin levels were elevated; PPARγ2 and C/EBPα mRNA expression in WAT was increased, and there was a positive correlation of Fsp27 gene expression with PPARγ2 and C/EBPα mRNA levels. FSP27 mRNA expression was also increased in adipocytes treated with PPARγ agonists. Our study demonstrates that the transcription of the Fsp27 gene in adipose tissue may be induced in response to nutritional stimuli. Furthermore, PPARγ2, C/EBPα, and insulin may be involved in the nutritional regulation of FSP27. Thus intermittent fasting, despite lower caloric intake, may promote triacylglycerol deposition in WAT by increasing the expression of genes involved in lipid storage, such as Fsp27. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified AS1411 Aptamer Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Up-Regulating Galectin-14

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Jong In; Im, Jong Hun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Oh, Eun Ju; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are small synthetic oligonucleotides that bind to target proteins with high specificity and affinity. AS1411 is an aptamer that binds to nucleolin, which is overexpressed in the cytoplasm and occurs on the surface of cancer cells. We investigated the therapeutic potential of aptamers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by evaluating anti-tumor effects and confirming the affinity and specificity of AS1411- and modified AS1411-aptamers in HCC cells. Cell growth was assessed using the MTS assay, and cell death signaling was explored by immunoblot analysis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed to evaluate the affinity and specificity of AS1411-aptamers in SNU-761 HCC cells. We investigated the in vivo effects of the AS1411-aptamer using BALB/c nude mice in a subcutaneous xenograft model with SNU-761 cells. Treatment with a modified AS1411-aptamer significantly decreased in vitro (under normoxic [P = 0.035] and hypoxic [P = 0.018] conditions) and in vivo (under normoxic conditions, P = 0.041) HCC cell proliferation compared to control aptamers. AS1411- and control aptamers failed to control HCC cell proliferation. However, AS1411- and the modified AS1411-aptamer did not induce caspase activation. Decrease in cell growth by AS1411 or modified AS1411 was not prevented by caspase or necrosis inhibitors. In a microarray, AS1411 significantly enhanced galectin-14 expression. Suppression of HCC cell proliferation by the modified AS1411-aptamer was attenuated by galectin-14 siRNA transfection. Modified AS1411-aptamer suppressed HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo by up-regulating galectin-14 expressions. Modified AS1411-aptamers may have therapeutic potential as a novel targeted therapy for HCC. PMID:27494117

  10. Molecular characterization of Ran gene up-regulated in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) immunity.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Yao, Cui-luan; Wang, Zhi-yong

    2010-08-01

    RanGTPase, one family of small G protein superfamily, has been widely demonstrated to be involved in transport system between cytoplasm and nucleus. However the knowledge about the function of RanGTPase in immunity remains limited. In this report, Ran gene (named LycRan) cDNA was cloned from the large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea, a marine fish. The full-length cDNA of LycRan was of 1033 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 43 bp, 3'-terminal UTR of 338 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 648 bp encoding a polypeptide of 216 amino acids. The deduced protein is highly homologous, it shares 90.74%, 88.89%, 89.35% and 85.20% identities with those of salmon, frog, human and fruit fly respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that LycRan gene was constitutively expressed in 9 tissues examined, including kidney, liver, gill, muscle, spleen, skin, heart, intestine and blood. The result of quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR analysis revealed the highest expression in kidney and the weakest expression in skin. Time course analysis showed that LycRan expression was obviously up-regulated in kidney, blood and spleen after immunization with either poly I:C or formalin-inactive Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus. It indicated that the highest expression was 2.8 times (at 48 h) as much as that in the control in the kidney (p < 0.05) challenged by poly I:C and 3.2 times (at 24 h) in the blood (p < 0.05) challenged by bacteria. These results suggested that LycRan might play an important role in large yellow croaker defense against the pathogen infection. Our study, therefore, might provide a clue to elucidate the large yellow croaker innate immunity.

  11. Thrombospondin-1 up-regulates expression of cell adhesion molecules and promotes monocyte binding to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Narizhneva, Natalya V.; Razorenova, Olga V.; Podrez, Eugene A.; Chen, Juhua; Chandrasekharan, Unni M.; DiCorleto, Paul E.; Plow, Edward F.; Topol, Eric J.; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2006-01-01

    Expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) responsible for leukocyte-endothelium interactions plays a crucial role in inflammation and atherogenesis. Up-regulation of vascular CAM-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin expression promotes monocyte recruitment to sites of injury and is considered to be a critical step in atherosclerotic plaque development. Factors that trigger this initial response are not well understood. As platelet activation not only promotes thrombosis but also early stages of atherogenesis, we considered the role of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matricellular protein released in abundance from activated platelets and accumulated in sites of vascular injury, as a regulator of CAM expression. TSP-1 induced expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 on endothelium of various origins, which in turn, resulted in a significant increase of monocyte attachment. This effect could be mimicked by a peptide derived from the C-terminal domain of TSP-1 and known to interact with CD47 on the cell surface. The essential role of CD47 in the cellular responses to TSP-1 was demonstrated further using inhibitory antibodies and knockdown of CD47 with small interfering RNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that secretion of endogenous TSP-1 and its interaction with CD47 on the cell surface mediates endothelial response to the major proinflammatory agent, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Taken together, this study identifies a novel mechanism regulating CAM expression and subsequent monocyte binding to endothelium, which might influence the development of anti-atherosclerosis therapeutic strategies. PMID:15833768

  12. Argonaute 2 is up-regulated in tissues of urothelial carcinoma of bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng-Qiang; Huang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Min; Yang, Feng-Ping; Li, Wei; Wang, Guang-Chun; Che, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Argonaute 2 proteins (Ago2) have been demonstrated to be widely expressed and involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing and play key roles in carcinogenesis. However, its expression profile and prognostic value in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) have not been investigated. Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to explore Ago2 expression in UCBs and normal bladder tissues. Moreover immunohistochemistry (ICH) was used to detect the expression of Ago2 in UCBs. Spearman’s rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to analyze the data. Results: Up-regulated expression of Ago2 mRNA and protein was observed in the majority of UCBs by qRT-PCR and Western blot when compared with their paired normal bladder tissues. Clinic pathological analysis was showed a significant correlation existed between the higher expression of Ago2 protein with the Histological grade, lymph node metastasis and Distant metastasis (P<0.05); Survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log-rank test demonstrated that elevated Ago2 expression in cancer tissue predicted poorer overall survival (OS) compared with group in lower expression (62.2% VS 86.3%, P<0.05). Notably, multivariate analyses by Cox’s proportional hazard model revealed that expression of Ago2 was an independent prognostic factor in UCB. Conclusions: These results suggest that the aberrant expression of Ago2 in human UCB is possibly involved with tumorigenesis and development, and the Ago2 protein could act as a potential biomarker for prognosis assessment of bladder cancer. Further studies on the cellular functions of Ago2 need to address these issues. PMID:24427355

  13. The Wnt Inhibitor Sclerostin Is Up-regulated by Mechanical Unloading in Osteocytes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Jordan M; Wein, Marc N; Gooi, Jonathan H; Qu, Yili; Garr, Jenna L; Liu, Shawn; Barry, Kevin J; Uda, Yuhei; Lai, Forest; Dedic, Christopher; Balcells-Camps, Mercedes; Kronenberg, Henry M; Babij, Philip; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2015-07-03

    Although bone responds to its mechanical environment, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the skeleton to mechanical unloading are not completely understood. Osteocytes are the most abundant but least understood cells in bones and are thought to be responsible for sensing stresses and strains in bone. Sclerostin, a product of the SOST gene, is produced postnatally primarily by osteocytes and is a negative regulator of bone formation. Recent studies show that SOST is mechanically regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. During prolonged bed rest and immobilization, circulating sclerostin increases both in humans and in animal models, and its increase is associated with a decrease in parathyroid hormone. To investigate whether SOST/sclerostin up-regulation in mechanical unloading is a cell-autonomous response or a hormonal response to decreased parathyroid hormone levels, we subjected osteocytes to an in vitro unloading environment achieved by the NASA rotating wall vessel system. To perform these studies, we generated a novel osteocytic cell line (Ocy454) that produces high levels of SOST/sclerostin at early time points and in the absence of differentiation factors. Importantly, these osteocytes recapitulated the in vivo response to mechanical unloading with increased expression of SOST (3.4 ± 1.9-fold, p < 0.001), sclerostin (4.7 ± 0.1-fold, p < 0.001), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κΒ ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) (2.5 ± 0.7-fold, p < 0.001) ratio. These data demonstrate for the first time a cell-autonomous increase in SOST/sclerostin and RANKL/OPG ratio in the setting of unloading. Thus, targeted osteocyte therapies could hold promise as novel osteoporosis and disuse-induced bone loss treatments by directly modulating the mechanosensing cells in bone.

  14. α1-Acid Glycoprotein Up-regulates CD163 via TLR4/CD14 Protein Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Hisakazu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kodama, Azusa; Maeda, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kai, Hirofumi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2012-01-01

    CD163, a scavenger receptor that is expressed at high levels in the monocyte-macrophage system, is a critical factor for the efficient extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) clearance during hemolysis. Because of the enormous detrimental effect of liberated Hb on our body by its ability to induce pro-inflammatory signals and tissue damage, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with CD163 expression during the acute phase response is a central issue. We report here that α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), an acute phase protein, the serum concentration of which is elevated under various inflammatory conditions, including hemolysis, up-regulates CD163 expression in both macrophage-like differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the subsequent induction of Hb uptake was also observed in AGP-treated dTHP-1 cells. Among representative acute phase proteins such as AGP, α1-antitrypsin, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin, only AGP increased CD163 expression, suggesting that AGP plays a specific role in the regulation of CD163. Consistently, the physiological concentrations of AGP induced CD163, and the subsequent induction of Hb uptake as well as the reduction of oxidative stress in plasma were observed in phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic model mice, confirming the in vivo role of AGP. Finally, AGP signaling through the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and CD14, the common innate immune receptor complex that normally recognizes bacterial components, was identified as a crucial stimulus that induces the autocrine regulatory loops of IL-6 and/or IL-10 via NF-κB, p38, and JNK pathways, which leads to an enhancement in CD163 expression. These findings provide possible insights into how AGP exerts anti-inflammatory properties against hemolysis-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22807450

  15. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  16. Up-regulation of Hsp72 and keratin16 mediates wound healing in streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rasha R; Mahmoud, Ayman; Ahmed, Osama M; Metwalli, Ali; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-10-01

    Impaired wound healing is a complication of diabetes and a serious problem in clinical practice. We previously found that whey protein (WP) was able to regulate wound healing normally in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic models. This subsequent study was designed to assess the effect of WP on heat shock protein-72 (Hsp72) and keratin16 (Krt16) expression during wound healing in diabetic rats. WP at a dosage of 100 mg/kg of body weight was orally administered daily to wounded normal and STZ-diabetic rats for 8 days. At day 4, the WP-treated diabetic wound was significantly reduced compared to that in the corresponding control. Diabetic wounded rats developed severe inflammatory infiltration and moderate capillary dilatation and regeneration. Treated rats had mild necrotic formation, moderate infiltration, moderate to severe capillary dilatation and regeneration, in addition to moderate epidermal formation. Hsp72 and Krt16 densities showed low and dense activity in diabetic wounded and diabetic wounded treated groups, respectively. At day 8, WP-treatment of diabetic wounded animals revealed great amelioration with complete recovery and closure of the wound. Reactivity of Hsp72 and Krt16 was reversed, showing dense and low, or medium and low, activity in the diabetic wounded and diabetic wounded treated groups, respectively. Hsp72 expression in the pancreas was found to show dense reactivity with WP-treated diabetic wound rats. This data provides evidence for the potential impact of WP in the up-regulation of Hsp72 and Krt16 in T1D, resulting in an improved wound healing process in diabetic models.

  17. Potential involvement of adipocyte insulin resistance in obesity-associated up-regulation of adipocyte lysophospholipase D/autotaxin expression

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jérémie; Quilliot, Didier; Pradère, Jean-Philippe; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Grès, Sandra; Guigné, Charlotte; Prévot, Danielle; Ferry, Gilles; Boutin, Jean A.; Carpéné, Christian; Valet, Philippe; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2005-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Autotaxin (ATX) is an adipocyte-secreted lysophospholipase D which expression is substantially up-regulated in obese-diabetic db/db-mice. The aim of the present study was to depict the physiopathological and cellular mechanisms involved in regulation of adipocyte-ATX expression. Methods ATX mRNAs were quantified in adipose tissue from db/db mice (obese and highly diabetic Type 2), gold-thioglucose-treated (GTG) mice (highly obese and moderately diabetic Type 2), high fat diet-fed (HFD) mice (obese and moderately diabetic Type 2), streptozotocin-treated (STREPTO) mice (thin and diabetic Type 1), and massively obese humans exhibiting glucose intolerance. Results When compared to non-obese controls, ATX expression was significantly increased in db/db mice, but not in GTG-, HFD-, or STREPTO-mice. During db/db-mice development, up-regulation of ATX occurred only 3 weeks after emergence of hyper-insulinemia, and was concomitant to emergence of hyperglycaemia. Adipocytes from db/db-mice exhibited strong impairment in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake when compared with non-obese and HFD-induced obese mice. ATX expression was up-regulated by treatment with TNFα (insulin resistance-promoting cytokine), and down-regulated by rosiglitazone treatment (insulin-sensitizing compound) in 3T3F442A adipocytes. Finally, adipose tissue-ATX expression was significantly up-regulated in patients exhibiting both insulin-resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Conclusions/interpretation The present work demonstrates the existence of a db/db-specific up-regulation of adipocyte-ATX expression which could be related to severe Type 2 diabetes phenotype and adipocyte insulin-resistance, rather than excess adiposity per se. The present work also revealed that Type 2 diabetes in human is also associated with up-regulation of adipocyte-ATX expression. PMID:15700135

  18. Ossotide promotes cell differentiation of human osteoblasts from osteogenesis imperfecta patients by up-regulating miR-145.

    PubMed

    Sun, Keming; Wang, Junjian; Liu, Fangna; Ji, Zejuan; Guo, Zhanhao; Zhang, Chunxu; Yao, Manye

    2016-10-01

    Ossotide as an effective bone formation compound preparation has been proved to promote osteoblasts differentiation. MiR-145 is significantly decreased in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) patients, but it is still unknown whether ossotide performed its effect by regulating miR-145. In this study, we investigated the effect of ossotide on regulating miR-145 expression and osteoblasts differentiation. The primary osteoblasts cells were isolated from OI patients and then cultured with different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200μg/l) of ossotide. The cell proliferation was detected with CCK-8 Elisa kit after ossotide treatment. The level of miR-145 expression was determined using qRT-PCR. In order to study whether ossotide up regulated miR-145, miR-145 mimic and miR-145 inhibitor were used to up regulate and down regulate the miR-145 levels in osteoblasts. The expressions of Runx2, Osx, β-catenin, TCF-1 were detected using Western blot and qRT-PCR. We observed that miR-145 was up regulated by ossotide treatment in miR-145 mimic or miR-145 inhibitor treated osteoblasts. What's more, up regulated miR-145 increased the expression of osteoblasts differentiation regulated protein Runx2 and Osx. In addition, Wnt signaling related β-catenin, TCF-1 were activated by up-regulated miR-145 which was induced by ossotide treatment. In summary, ossotide induced cell differentiation and Wnt signaling activation in osteoblasts by up regulating miR-145.

  19. Expression of a chitin deacetylase gene, up-regulated in Cryptococcus laurentii strain RY1, under nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Writachit; Sarkar, Soumyadev; Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-05-01

    This study reports the identification of a chitin deacetylase gene in Cryptococcus laurentii strain RY1 over-expressing under nitrogen limitation by differential display. The up-regulation took place in robustly growing cells rather than in starving quiescent autophagic cells. Quantitative Real Time-PCR, enzyme activity in cell lysate and cell wall analysis corroborated the up-regulation of chitin deacetylase under nitrogen limitation. These results suggest chitin deacetylase might play a significant role in nitrogen limiting growth of Cryptococcus laurentii strain RY1.

  20. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Joshua B.; Milner, Dallin C.; Lewis, Adam L.; Dunaway, Todd M.; Egbert, Kaleb M.; Albright, Scott C.; Merrell, Brigham J.; Monson, Troy D.; Broberg, Dallin S.; Gassman, Jason R.; Thomas, Daniel B.; Arroyo, Juan A.; Reynolds, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG) and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN) 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA) controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C) or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP), respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal captivating

  1. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joshua B; Milner, Dallin C; Lewis, Adam L; Dunaway, Todd M; Egbert, Kaleb M; Albright, Scott C; Merrell, Brigham J; Monson, Troy D; Broberg, Dallin S; Gassman, Jason R; Thomas, Daniel B; Arroyo, Juan A; Reynolds, Paul R

    2016-10-17

    It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG) and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN) 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA) controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C) or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP), respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal captivating

  2. Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation Up-Regulates Apoptosis Genes in Primary Cultures of Neurons and Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2007-01-01

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900 MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2 hrs. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc (apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card) gene expression in neurons and astrocytes. Upregulation occurred in both “on” and “stand-by” modes in neurons, but only in “on” mode in astrocytes. Additionally, astrocytes showed up-regulation of the Bax gene. The effects are specific since up-regulation was not seen for other genes associated with apoptosis, such as caspase-9 in either neurons and astrocytes, or Bax in neurons. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phone radiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect than astrocytes. PMID:17187929

  3. Hfr-2, a wheat cytolytic toxin-like gene, is up-regulated by virulent Hessian fly larval feedingdouble dagger.

    PubMed

    Puthoff, David P; Sardesai, Nagesh; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Nemacheck, Jill A; Williams, Christie E

    2005-07-01

    SUMMARY Both yield and grain-quality are dramatically decreased when susceptible wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants are infested by Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) larvae. Examination of the changes in wheat gene expression during infestation by virulent Hessian fly larvae has identified the up-regulation of a gene, Hessian fly responsive-2 (Hfr-2), which contains regions similar to genes encoding seed-specific agglutinin proteins from Amaranthus. Hfr-2, however, did not accumulate in developing seeds, as do other wheat seed storage proteins. Additionally, a separate region of the HFR-2 predicted amino acid sequence is similar to haemolytic proteins, from both mushroom and bacteria, that are able to form pores in cell membranes of mammalian red blood cells. The involvement of Hfr-2 in interactions with insects was supported by experiments demonstrating its up-regulation by both fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) infestations but not by virus infection. Examination of wheat defence response pathways showed Hfr-2 up-regulation following methyl jasmonate treatment and only slight up-regulation in response to salicylic acid, abscisic acid and wounding treatments. Like related proteins, HFR-2 may normally function in defence against certain insects or pathogens. However, we propose that as virulent Hessian fly larvae manipulate the physiology of the susceptible host, the HFR-2 protein inserts in plant cell membranes at the feeding sites and by forming pores provides water, ions and other small nutritive molecules to the developing larvae.

  4. Maternal obesity is associated with ovarian inflammation and up-regulation of early growth response factor 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity impairs reproductive functions through multiple mechanisms, possibly through disruption of ovarian function. We hypothesized that increased adiposity will lead to a pro-inflammatory gene signature and up-regulation of Egr-1 protein in ovaries from obese (OB, n=7) compared to lean (LN, n=10) ...

  5. Sildenafil prevents the up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical channels in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Kiso, Hironori; Ohba, Takayoshi; Iino, Kenji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Terata, Yutaka; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC1, 3 and 6) are up-regulated by ET-1. •Sildenafil inhibited hypertrophic responses (BNP, Ca entry, NFAT activation). •Sildenafil suppressed TRPC1, 3 and 6 expression. -- Abstract: Background: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels are up-regulated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Sildenafil inhibits TRPC6 activation and expression, leading to the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of sildenafil on the expression of other TRPCs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in addition to its effects of TRPC6, sildenafil blocks the up-regulation of other TRPC channels to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods and results: In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, a 48 h treatment with 10 nM endothelin (ET)-1 induced hypertrophic responses characterized by nuclear factor of activated T cells activation and enhancement of brain natriuretic peptide expression and cell surface area. Co-treatment with sildenafil (1 μM, 48 h) inhibited these ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses. Although ET-1 enhanced the gene expression of TRPCs, sildenafil inhibited the enhanced gene expression of TRPC1, C3 and C6. Moreover, co-treatment with sildenafil abolished the augmentation of SOCE in the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that sildenafil inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by suppressing the up-regulation of TRPC expression.

  6. PMA-induced dissociation of Ku86 from the promoter causes transcriptional up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Kohei; Terao, Takuma; Sakamoto, Noriko; Yamawaki, Yosuke; Adachi, Tsubasa; Ono, Shohei; Sasaki, Yohei; Yoshimura, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is up-regulated in patients with allergic rhinitis, and its expression level strongly correlates with the severity of symptoms. However, the mechanism underlying this remains unknown. Here we report the mechanism of H1R gene up-regulation. The luciferase assay revealed the existence of two promoter regions, A and B1. Two AP-1 and one Ets-1 bound to region A, while Ku86, Ku70, and PARP-1 bound to region B1. Ku86 was responsible for DNA binding and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated in response to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate stimulation, inducing its dissociation from region B1 that is crucial for promoter activity. Knockdown of Ku86 gene enhanced up-regulation of H1R gene expression. Experiments using inhibitors for MEK and PARP-1 indicate that regions A and B1 are downstream regulatory elements of the PKCδ/ERK/PARP-1 signaling pathway. Data suggest a novel mechanism for the up-regulation of H1R gene expression. PMID:23209876

  7. Up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor in endothelial cells by the microtubule-destabilizing agent combretastatin A-4.

    PubMed

    Samarin, Jana; Rehm, Margot; Krueger, Bettina; Waschke, Jens; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2009-02-01

    Incubation of microvascular endothelial cells with combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4P), a microtubule-destabilizing compound that preferentially targets tumor vessels, altered cell morphology and induced scattering of Golgi stacks. Concomitantly, CA-4P up-regulated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a pleiotropic factor with antiangiogenic properties. In contrast to the effects of other microtubule-targeting agents such as colchicine or nocodazole, up-regulation of CTGF was only detectable in sparse cells, which were not embedded in a cell monolayer. Furthermore, CA-4P induced CTGF expression in endothelial cells, forming tube-like structures on basement membrane gels. Up-regulation of CTGF by CA-4P was dependent on Rho kinase signaling and was increased when p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase was inhibited. Additionally, FoxO transcription factors were identified as potent regulators of CTGF expression in endothelial cells. Activation of FoxO transcription factors by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling resulted in a synergistic increase in CA-4P-mediated CTGF induction. CA-4P-mediated expression of CTGF was thus potentiated by the inhibition of kinase pathways, which are targets of novel antineoplastic drugs. Up-regulation of CTGF by low concentrations of CA-4P may thus occur in newly formed tumor vessels and contribute to the microvessel destabilization and antiangiogenic effects of CA-4P observed in vivo.

  8. Betel-derived alkaloid up-regulates keratinocyte alphavbeta6 integrin expression and promotes oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Moutasim, Karwan A; Jenei, Veronika; Sapienza, Karen; Marsh, Daniel; Weinreb, Paul H; Violette, Shelia M; Lewis, Mark P; Marshall, John F; Fortune, Farida; Tilakaratne, Waninayaka M; Hart, Ian R; Thomas, Gareth J

    2011-02-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant, fibrosing disorder of the mouth, pharynx, and oesophagus, with a malignant transformation rate of 7-13%. OSF is strongly associated with areca (betel) nut chewing and worldwide, over 5 million people are affected. As αvβ6 integrin is capable of promoting both tissue fibrosis and carcinoma invasion, we examined its expression in fibroepithelial hyperplasia and OSF. αvβ6 was markedly up-regulated in OSF, with high expression detected in 22 of 41 cases (p < 0.001). We investigated the functional role of αvβ6 using oral keratinocyte-derived cells genetically modified to express high αvβ6 (VB6), and also NTERT-immortalized oral keratinocytes, which express low αvβ6 (OKF6/TERT-1). VB6 cells showed significant αvβ6-dependent activation of TGF-β1, which induced transdifferentiation of oral fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and resulted in up-regulation of genes associated with tissue fibrosis. These experimental in vitro findings were confirmed using human clinical samples, where we showed that the stroma of OSF contained myofibroblasts and that TGF-β1-dependent Smad signalling was detectable both in keratinocytes and in myofibroblasts. We also found that arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nuts, up-regulated keratinocyte αvβ6 expression. This was modulated through the M(4) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and was suppressed by the M(4) antagonist, tropicamide. Arecoline-dependent αvβ6 up-regulation promoted keratinocyte migration and induced invasion, raising the possibility that this mechanism may support malignant transformation. Over 80% of OSF-related oral cancers examined had moderate/high αvβ6 expression. These data suggest that the pathogenesis of OSF may be epithelial-driven and involve arecoline-dependent up-regulation of αvβ6 integrin.

  9. Trigeminal nerve injury-induced thrombospondin-4 up-regulation contributes to orofacial neuropathic pain states in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, K-W; Kim, D-S; Zaucke, F; Luo, Z D

    2014-04-01

    Injury to the trigeminal nerve often results in the development of chronic pain states including tactile allodynia, or hypersensitivity to light touch, in orofacial area, but its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Peripheral nerve injury has been shown to cause up-regulation of thrombospondin-4 (TSP4) in dorsal spinal cord that correlates with neuropathic pain development. In this study, we examined whether injury-induced TSP4 is critical in mediating orofacial pain development in a rat model of chronic constriction injury to the infraorbital nerve. Orofacial sensitivity to mechanical stimulation was examined in a unilateral infraorbital nerve ligation rat model. The levels of TSP4 in trigeminal ganglia and associated spinal subnucleus caudalis and C1/C2 spinal cord (Vc/C2) from injured rats were examined at time points correlating with the initiation and peak orofacial hypersensitivity. TSP4 antisense and mismatch oligodeoxynucleotides were intrathecally injected into injured rats to see if antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment could reverse injury-induced TSP4 up-regulation and orofacial behavioural hypersensitivity. Our data indicated that trigeminal nerve injury induced TSP4 up-regulation in Vc/C2 at a time point correlated with orofacial tactile allodynia. In addition, intrathecal treatment with TSP4 antisense, but not mismatch, oligodeoxynucleotides blocked both injury-induced TSP4 up-regulation in Vc/C2 and behavioural hypersensitivity. Our data support that infraorbital nerve injury leads to TSP4 up-regulation in trigeminal spinal complex that contributes to orofacial neuropathic pain states. Blocking this pathway may provide an alternative approach in management of orofacial neuropathic pain states. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  10. A novel prognostic biomarker SPC24 up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yan; Li, Jun; Yu, Xue-Zhong; Liao, Weijia; He, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    identified SPC24 upregualtion (p = 0.001), PVTT (p = 0.007), size of tumor > 5 cm (p < 0.001) as independent risk factors of DFS after resection, and SPC24 upregualtion (p < 0.001), PVTT (p = 0.029), size of tumor > 5 cm (p = 0.002), recurrence (p < 0.001) as independent prognostic factors for the OS of HCC patients. Additionally, siRNA-mediated silencing of SPC24 dramatically suppressed cell growth, adhesion, invasion and increased apoptosis in HCC cells. In conclusion, these results showed for the first time that SPC24 expression was significantly up-regulated in HCC, which may act as a novel prognostic biomarker for patients suffering from this deadly disease. Additionally, silence of SPC24 inhibiting HCC cell growth indicated that SPC24 may be a promising molecular target for HCC therapy. PMID:26515591

  11. Localization of a filarial phosphate permease that is up-regulated in response to depletion of essential Wolbachia endobacteria.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

    2014-03-01

    Wolbachia of filarial nematodes are essential, obligate endobacteria. When depleted by doxycycline worm embryogenesis, larval development and worm survival are inhibited. The molecular basis governing the endosymbiosis between Wolbachia and their filarial host is still being deciphered. In rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis, a nematode encoded phosphate permease gene (Ls-ppe-1) was up-regulated at the mRNA level in response to Wolbachia depletion and this gene promises to have an important role in Wolbachia-nematode endosymbiosis. To further characterize this gene, the regulation of phosphate permease during Wolbachia depletion was studied at the protein level in L. sigmodontis and in the human filaria Onchocerca volvulus. And the localization of phosphate permease (PPE) and Wolbachia in L. sigmodontis and O. volvulus was investigated in untreated and antibiotic treated worms. Depletion of Wolbachia by tetracycline (Tet) resulted in up-regulation of Ls-ppe-1 in L. sigmodontis. On day 36 of Tet treatment, compared to controls (Con), >98% of Wolbachia were depleted with a 3-fold increase in mRNA levels of Ls-ppe-1. Anti-Ls-PPE serum used in Western blots showed up-regulation of Ls-PPE at the protein level in Tet worms on day 15 and 36 of treatment. Immunohistology revealed the localization of Wolbachia and Ls-PPE in the embryos, microfilariae and hypodermis of L. sigmodontis female worms and up-regulation of Ls-PPE in response to Wolbachia depletion. Expression of O. volvulus phosphate permease (Ov-PPE) studied using anti-Ov-PPE serum, showed up-regulation of Ov-PPE at the protein level in doxycycline treated Wolbachia depleted O. volvulus worms and immunohistology revealed localization of Ov-PPE and Wolbachia and up-regulation of Ov-PPE in the hypodermis and embryos of doxycycline treated worms. Ls-PPE and Ov-PPE are upregulated upon Wolbachia depletion in same tissues and regions where Wolbachia are located in untreated worms, reinforcing a link

  12. Up-regulation of gastric cancer cell invasion by Twist is accompanied by N-cadherin and fibronectin expression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhou; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gang, Haiju; Li, Xiaojun; Li, Zumao; Wang, Tao; Han, Juan; Luo, Ting; Wen, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaoting

    2007-07-06

    Twist, a newly found EMT-inducer, has been reported to be up-regulated in those of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas with high N-cadherin level. We show here MKN45, a cell line derived from undifferentiated carcinomas cells, expresses high levels of Twist. Down-regulation of Twist, using an antisense Twist vector in MKN45 cells, inhibits cell migration and invasion, companied with a morphologic changes associated with MET. Suppression of Twist also decreases the expressions of N-cadherin and fibronectin, but not of E-cadherin in MKN45. In contrast, overexpression of Twist in MKN28, a cell line derived from moderate differentiated carcinomas, results in up-regulation of N-cadherin and fibronectin, companied with down-regulation of E-cadherin. Taken together, our results suggest that Twist regulates cell motility and invasion in gastric cancer cell lines, probably through the N-cadherin and fibronectin production.

  13. Ischemic postconditioning protects against ischemic brain injury by up-regulation of acid-sensing ion channel 2a

    PubMed Central

    Duanmu, Wang-sheng; Cao, Liu; Chen, Jing-yu; Ge, Hong-fei; Hu, Rong; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning renders brain tissue tolerant to brain ischemia, thereby alleviating ischemic brain injury. However, the exact mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, a rat model of global brain ischemia was subjected to ischemic postconditioning treatment using the vessel occlusion method. After 2 hours of ischemia, the bilateral common carotid arteries were blocked immediately for 10 seconds and then perfused for 10 seconds. This procedure was repeated six times. Ischemic postconditioning was found to mitigate hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage in rats with brain ischemia, and up-regulate acid-sensing ion channel 2a expression at the mRNA and protein level. These findings suggest that ischemic postconditioning up-regulates acid-sensing ion channel 2a expression in the rat hippocampus after global brain ischemia, which promotes neuronal tolerance to ischemic brain injury. PMID:27212927

  14. {beta}-Catenin up-regulates Nanog expression through interaction with Oct-3/4 in embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takao, Yukinari; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi . E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-16

    It is well known that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be maintained by the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Recent studies have revealed that Wnt also exhibits activity similar to LIF. The molecular mechanism behind the maintenance of ES cells by these factors, however, is not fully understood. In this study, we found that LIF enhances level of nuclear {beta}-catenin, a component of the Wnt signaling pathway. Expression of an activated mutant of {beta}-catenin led to the long-term proliferation of ES cells, even in the absence of LIF. Furthermore, it was found that {beta}-catenin up-regulates Nanog in an Oct-3/4-dependent manner and that {beta}-catenin physically associates with Oct-3/4. These results suggest that up-regulating Nanog through interaction with Oct-3/4 involves {beta}-catenin in the LIF- and Wnt-mediated maintenance of ES cell self-renewal.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; hide

    2003-01-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle.

  16. Lopinavir up-regulates expression of the antiviral protein ribonuclease L in human papillomavirus-positive cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Batman, Gavin; Oliver, Anthony W; Zehbe, Ingeborg; Richard, Christina; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that the HIV protease inhibitor lopinavir has selective toxicity against human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive cervical carcinoma cells via an unknown mechanism. SiHa cervical carcinoma cells were stably transfected with the proteasome sensor vector pZsProSensor-1 to confirm lopinavir inhibits the proteasome in these cells. The Panorama Xpress profiler 725 antibody array was then used to analyse specific changes in protein expression in lopinavir-treated versus control untreated SiHa cells followed by PCR and western blotting. Colorimetric growth assays of lopinavir-treated E6/E7 immortalised versus control human keratinocytes were performed. Targeted small interfering RNA gene silencing followed by growth assay comparison of lopinavir-treated/untreated SiHa cells was also used. Lopinavir induced an increase in the fluorescence of pZsProSensor-1 transfected SiHa cells, indicative of proteasomal inhibition. Ribonuclease L (RNASEL) protein was shown to be up-regulated in lopinavir-treated SiHa cells, which was confirmed by PCR and western blot. Targeted silencing of RNASEL reduced the sensitivity of SiHa cells to lopinavir. Selective toxicity against E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes versus control cells was also seen with lopinavir and was associated with up-regulated RNASEL expression. These data are consistent with the toxicity of lopinavir against HPV-positive cervical carcinoma cells being related to its ability to block viral proteasome activation and induce an up-regulation of the antiviral protein RNASEL. This is supported by the drug's selective toxicity and up-regulation of RNASEL in E6/E7 immortalised keratinocytes combined with the increased resistance to lopinavir observed in SiHa cells following silencing of RNASEL gene expression.

  17. Mucin depleted foci, colonic preneoplastic lesions lacking Muc2, show up-regulation of Tlr2 but not bacterial infiltration.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Swidsinski, Alexander; Dolara, Piero; Salvadori, Maddalena; Amedei, Amedeo; Caderni, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Mucin depleted foci (MDF) are precancerous lesions of the colon in carcinogen-treated rodents and humans at high risk. Since MDF show signs of inflammation we hypothesized that the defective mucous production would expose them to the risk of being penetrated by intestinal bacteria, which can be sensed by Toll-like receptors (Tlrs) and activate inflammatory pathways. To verify this hypothesis we tested the expression of 84 genes coding for Tlrs and associated pathways using RT-qPCR in MDF (n = 7) from 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated rats. Among the 84 tested genes, 26 were differentially expressed in MDF with 5 genes significantly up-regulated and 21 down-regulated when compared to the normal mucosa. Tlr2, as well as other downstream genes (Map4k4, Hspd1, Irak1, Ube2n), was significantly up-regulated. Among the genes regulating the NFkB pathway, only Map4k4 was significantly up-regulated, while 19 genes were not varied and 6 were down-regulated. Tlr2 protein was weakly expressed both in normal mucosa and MDF. To determine whether inflammation observed in MDF could be caused by bacteria contacting or infiltrating crypts, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments with a rRNA universal bacterial probe. None of the 21 MDF tested, showed bacteria inside the crypts, while among the colonic tumors (n = 15), only one had very few bacteria on the surface and on the surrounding normal mucosa. In conclusion, the up-regulation of Tlr2 in MDF, suggests a link between this receptor and carcinogenesis, possibly related to a defective barrier function of these lesions. The data of FISH experiments do not support the hypothesis that inflammation in MDF and tumors is stimulated by bacterial infiltration.

  18. Mucin Depleted Foci, Colonic Preneoplastic Lesions Lacking Muc2, Show Up-Regulation of Tlr2 but Not Bacterial Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Swidsinski, Alexander; Dolara, Piero; Salvadori, Maddalena; Amedei, Amedeo; Caderni, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Mucin depleted foci (MDF) are precancerous lesions of the colon in carcinogen-treated rodents and humans at high risk. Since MDF show signs of inflammation we hypothesized that the defective mucous production would expose them to the risk of being penetrated by intestinal bacteria, which can be sensed by Toll-like receptors (Tlrs) and activate inflammatory pathways. To verify this hypothesis we tested the expression of 84 genes coding for Tlrs and associated pathways using RT-qPCR in MDF (n = 7) from 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-treated rats. Among the 84 tested genes, 26 were differentially expressed in MDF with 5 genes significantly up-regulated and 21 down-regulated when compared to the normal mucosa. Tlr2, as well as other downstream genes (Map4k4, Hspd1, Irak1, Ube2n), was significantly up-regulated. Among the genes regulating the NFkB pathway, only Map4k4 was significantly up-regulated, while 19 genes were not varied and 6 were down-regulated. Tlr2 protein was weakly expressed both in normal mucosa and MDF. To determine whether inflammation observed in MDF could be caused by bacteria contacting or infiltrating crypts, we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments with a rRNA universal bacterial probe. None of the 21 MDF tested, showed bacteria inside the crypts, while among the colonic tumors (n = 15), only one had very few bacteria on the surface and on the surrounding normal mucosa. In conclusion, the up-regulation of Tlr2 in MDF, suggests a link between this receptor and carcinogenesis, possibly related to a defective barrier function of these lesions. The data of FISH experiments do not support the hypothesis that inflammation in MDF and tumors is stimulated by bacterial infiltration. PMID:22242189

  19. Antitumor effects of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, against gastric cancer cells via death receptor 5 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Sachiko; Endo, Shinji; Saito, Rie; Hirose, Mitsuaki; Ueno, Takunori; Suzuki, Hideo; Yamato, Kenji; Abei, Masato; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-01-01

    Up-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylase, deacetylates p53 and inhibits its transcriptional activity, leading to cell survival. SIRT1 overexpression has been reported to predict poor survival in some malignancies, including gastric cancer. However, the antitumor effect of SIRT1 inhibition remains elusive in gastric cancer. Here, we investigated the antitumor mechanisms of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, in seven human gastric cancer cell lines (four cell lines with wild-type TP53, two with mutant-type TP53, and one with null TP53). Interestingly, tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in all cell lines, not only those with wild-type TP53, but also mutant-type and null versions, accompanied by up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5). In the KatoIII cell line (TP53-null), DR5 silencing markedly attenuated tenovin-6-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the pivotal mechanism behind its antitumor effects is based on activation of the death receptor signal pathway. Although endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by sirtuin inhibitors was reported to induce DR5 up-regulation in other cancer cell lines, we could not find marked activation of its related molecules, such as ATF6, PERK, and CHOP, in gastric cancer cells treated with tenovin-6. Tenovin-6 in combination with docetaxel or SN-38 exerted a slight to moderate synergistic cytotoxicity against gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, tenovin-6 has potent antitumor activity against human gastric cancer cells via DR5 up-regulation. Our results should be helpful for the future clinical development of sirtuin inhibitors.

  20. Integrin-linked kinase mediates the hydrogen peroxide-dependent transforming growth factor-β1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ramos, M; de Frutos, S; Griera, M; Luengo, A; Olmos, G; Rodriguez-Puyol, D; Calleros, L; Rodriguez-Puyol, M

    2013-08-01

    Transforming growth factor type-β1 (TGF-β1) has been recognized as a central mediator in many pathological events related to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins accumulation, where their locally increased expression has been implicated in the fibrosis process of numerous organs, including glomerular fibrosis in the kidney. We and others have reported the TGF-β1 synthesis regulation by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moreover we also described the implication of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the AP-1-dependent TGF-β1 up-regulation. Thus, we propose here that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent TGF-β1 regulation may be mediated by ILK activation. First we confirmed the increase in TGF-β1 expression in human mesangial cells (HMC) after treatment with H2O2 or with an alternative H2O2-generating system such as the glucose-oxidase enzyme (GOX). By using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and ELISA techniques, we demonstrate that extracellular H2O2 up-regulates TGF-β1 transcription, as well as increases TGF-β1 promoter activity. Furthermore, catalase-decreased intracellular H2O2 abolished TGF-β1 up-regulation. The use of pharmacological inhibitors as well as knockdown of ILK with small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated the implication of a PI3K/ILK/AKT/ERK MAPK signaling pathway axis in the H2O2-induced TGF-β1 overexpression. Finally, we explored the physiological relevance of these findings by treating HMC with angiotensin II, a known stimuli of H2O2 synthesis. Our results confirm the relevance of previous findings after a more physiological stimulus. In summary, our results provide evidence that ILK activity changes may act as a mechanism in response to different stimuli such as H2O2 in the induced TGF-β1 up-regulation in pathological or even physiological conditions.

  1. Up-regulation of M1 muscarinic receptors expressed in CHOm1 cells by panaxynol via cAMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wang; Xing-Jun, Wu; Yong-Yao, Cui; Liang, Zhu; Yang, Lu; Hong-Zhuan, Chen

    Loss of cholinergic neurons along with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus is closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent drug development for AD treatment focuses heavily on identifying M(1) receptor agonists. However, mAChRs undergo down-regulation in response to agonist-induced sustained activation. Therefore, therapeutic effectiveness wanes during continuous use. Thus, another potentially effective approach, which overcomes this drawback is to develop compounds, which instead up-regulate M(1) receptor expression. In the present study, we took this alternative approach and contrasted in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human m(1) subtype gene (CHOm(1) cells) changes of M(1) receptor expression levels caused by muscarinic agonists and upregulators of its expression. The muscarinic agonists carbachol and pilocarpine reduced M(1) receptor number in CHOm(1) cells by 29 and 46%, respectively, at 100muM, whereas panaxynol, a polyacetylene compound isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Panax notoginseng, concentration-dependently up-regulated the M(1) receptor number after pre-incubation with CHOm(1) cells for 48 h, reaching a plateau at 1 microM, and was accompanied by enhanced M(1) mRNA levels. Moreover, the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor RP-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic mono-phosphoro-thioate triethylamine salt (RP-cAMPs) 5 microM completely prevented panaxynol-induced up-regulation of M(1) receptors. Panaxynol (1muM) caused a significant and consistent stimulation of cAMP accumulation (27% increase above basal at 40 min). These results suggest that in CHOm(1) cells panaxynol up-regulates M(1) receptor number through cAMP pathway-mediated stimulation of gene transcription.

  2. Up-regulation of the complement system in subcutaneous adipocytes from nonobese, hypertriglyceridemic subjects is associated with adipocyte insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    van Greevenbroek, M M J; Ghosh, S; van der Kallen, C J H; Brouwers, M C G J; Schalkwijk, C G; Stehouwer, C D A

    2012-12-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue plays an important role in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipocyte dysfunction are incompletely understood. The aim of the study was to identify differentially regulated pathways in sc adipocytes of dyslipidemic subjects. Whole-genome expression profiling was conducted on sc adipocytes from a discovery group of nine marginally overweight subjects with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and nine controls of comparable body sizes as well as two independent confirmation groups. In this study, FCHL served as a model of familial insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, in the absence of frank obesity. Functional analyses and gene set enrichment analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes or a custom pathway database identified the complement system and complement regulators as one of the top up-regulated pathways in FCHL [false discovery rate (FDR) < 1E-30]. Higher adipocyte complement expression in FCHL was confirmed in the appropriate confirmation group. Higher complement gene expression was associated with lower adipocyte insulin receptor substrate-1 expression as marker of adipocyte insulin resistance, independent of age, sex, or disease status, and this association was corroborated in the two confirmation groups. Additionally, complement gene expression was associated with triglycerides in the discovery set and with triglycerides and/or waist circumference in the confirmation groups. Complement pathway up-regulation did not appear to be driven by hypertriglyceridemia because a 40% pharmacological reduction in triglycerides did not affect complement expression. These findings point to an up-regulation of a complement-related transcriptome in sc adipocytes under metabolically stressed conditions, even in the absence of overt obesity. Such up-regulation may subsequently influence downstream processes, including macrophage infiltration

  3. Up-regulation of the embryonic self-renewal network through reversible polyploidy in irradiated p53-mutant tumour cells

    SciTech Connect

    Salmina, Kristine; Jankevics, Eriks; Huna, Anda; Perminov, Dmitry; Radovica, Ilze; Klymenko, Tetyana; Ivanov, Andrey; Jascenko, Elina; Scherthan, Harry; Cragg, Mark; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina

    2010-08-01

    We have previously documented that transient polyploidy is a potential cell survival strategy underlying the clonogenic re-growth of tumour cells after genotoxic treatment. In an attempt to better define this mechanism, we recently documented the key role of meiotic genes in regulating the DNA repair and return of the endopolyploid tumour cells (ETC) to diploidy through reduction divisions after irradiation. Here, we studied the role of the pluripotency and self-renewal stem cell genes NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 in this polyploidy-dependent survival mechanism. In irradiation-resistant p53-mutated lymphoma cell-lines (Namalwa and WI-L2-NS) but not sensitive p53 wild-type counterparts (TK6), low background expression of OCT4 and NANOG was up-regulated by ionising radiation with protein accumulation evident in ETC as detected by OCT4/DNA flow cytometry and immunofluorescence (IF). IF analysis also showed that the ETC generate PML bodies that appear to concentrate OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 proteins, which extend into complex nuclear networks. These polyploid tumour cells resist apoptosis, overcome cellular senescence and undergo bi- and multi-polar divisions transmitting the up-regulated OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 self-renewal cassette to their descendents. Altogether, our observations indicate that irradiation-induced ETC up-regulate key components of germ-line cells, which potentially facilitate survival and propagation of the tumour cell population.

  4. Respiratory virus infection up-regulates TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 receptors on airway cells.

    PubMed

    Omar, Shadia; Clarke, Rebecca; Abdullah, Haniah; Brady, Clare; Corry, John; Winter, Hanagh; Touzelet, Olivier; Power, Ultan F; Lundy, Fionnuala; McGarvey, Lorcan P A; Cosby, S Louise

    2017-01-01

    Receptors implicated in cough hypersensitivity are transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential cation channel, Subfamily A, Member 1 (TRPA1) and acid sensing ion channel receptor 3 (ASIC3). Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) may interact directly and/or indirectly with these receptors on sensory nerves and epithelial cells in the airways. We used in vitro models of sensory neurones (SHSY5Y or differentiated IMR-32 cells) and human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cells) as well as primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to study the effect of MV and RSV infection on receptor expression. Receptor mRNA and protein levels were examined by qPCR and flow cytometry, respectively, following infection or treatment with UV inactivated virus, virus-induced soluble factors or pelleted virus. Concentrations of a range of cytokines in resultant BEAS-2B and PBEC supernatants were determined by ELISA. Up-regulation of TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 expression occurred by 12 hours post-infection in each cell type. This was independent of replicating virus, within the same cell, as virus-induced soluble factors alone were sufficient to increase channel expression. IL-8 and IL-6 increased in infected cell supernatants. Antibodies against these factors inhibited TRP receptor up-regulation. Capsazepine treatment inhibited virus induced up-regulation of TRPV1 indicating that these receptors are targets for treating virus-induced cough.

  5. Protracted treatment with MDMA induces heteromeric nicotinic receptor up-regulation in the rat brain: an autoradiography study.

    PubMed

    Ciudad-Roberts, Andrés; Camarasa, Jorge; Pubill, David; Escubedo, Elena

    2014-08-04

    Previous studies indicate that 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) can induce a heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, mainly of α4β2 subtype) up-regulation. In this study we treated male Sprague-Dawley rats twice-daily for 10 days with either saline or MDMA (7 mg/kg) and sacrificed them the day after to perform [(125)I]Epibatidine binding autoradiograms on serial coronal slices. MDMA induced significant increases in nAChR density in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, anterior caudate-putamen, somatosensory, motor, auditory and retrosplenial cortex, laterodorsal thalamus nuclei, amygdala, postsubiculum and pontine nuclei. These increases ranged from 3% (retrosplenial cortex) to 30 and 34% (amygdala and substantia nigra). No increased α4 subunit immunoreactivity was found in up-regulated areas compared with saline-treated rats, suggesting a post-translational mechanism as occurs with nicotine. The heteromeric nAChR up-regulation in certain areas could account, at least in part, for the reinforcing, sensitizing and psychiatric disorders observed after long-term consumption of MDMA.

  6. Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment Diminishes Fungal Viability and Up-Regulates Resistance Genes in a Plant Host

    PubMed Central

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  7. RNA interference of three up-regulated transcripts associated with insecticide resistance in an imidacloprid resistant population of Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Clements, Justin; Schoville, Sean; Peterson, Nathan; Huseth, Anders S; Lan, Que; Groves, Russell L

    2017-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is a major agricultural pest of potatoes in the Central Sands production region of Wisconsin. Previous studies have shown that populations of L. decemlineata have become resistant to many classes of insecticides, including the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, L. decemlineata has multiple mechanisms of resistance to deal with a pesticide insult, including enhanced metabolic detoxification by cytochrome p450s and glutathione S-transferases. With recent advances in the transcriptomic analysis of imidacloprid susceptible and resistant L. decemlineata populations, it is possible to investigate the role of candidate genes involved in imidacloprid resistance. A recently annotated transcriptome analysis of L. decemlineata was obtained from select populations of L. decemlineata collected in the Central Sands potato production region, which revealed a subset of mRNA transcripts constitutively up-regulated in resistant populations. We hypothesize that a portion of the up-regulated transcripts encoding for genes within the resistant populations also encode for pesticide resistance and can be suppressed to re-establish a susceptible phenotype. In this study, a discrete set of three up-regulated targets were selected for RNA interference experiments using a resistant L. decemlineata population. Following the successful suppression of transcripts encoding for a cytochrome p450, a cuticular protein, and a glutathione synthetase protein in a select L. decemlineata population, we observed reductions in measured resistance to imidacloprid that strongly suggest these genes control essential steps in imidacloprid metabolism in these field populations.

  8. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A up-regulated by progesterone promotes adhesion and proliferation of trophoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shuai; Qin, Hua-Min; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Embryo implantation and development is a complex biological process for the establishment of the successful pregnancy. Progesterone is a critical factor in the regulation of embryo adhesion to uterine endometrium and proliferation. Although it has been reported that pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is increased in pregnant women, the relationship between progesterone and PAPPA, and the effects of PAPPA on embryo adhesion and proliferation are still not clear. The present results showed that the serum level of progesterone and PAPPA was closely correlated by ELISA assay (p<0.01). PAPPA was detected in the villi of early embryo by RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. Moreover, PAPPA was significantly up-regulated by progesterone in trophoblastic (JAR) cells by Real-time PCR and ELISA assay (p<0.01); while the expression was decreased by the progesterone receptor inhibitor RU486. The down-regulation of PAPPA by siRNA transfection or up-regulation of PAPPA by progesterone treatment significantly decreased or increased the adhesion rate of trophoblastic cells to human uterine epithelial cell lines (RL95-2 and HEC-1A), respectively (p<0.01), as well as the proliferation of trophoblastic cells. In conclusion, PAPPA is up-regulated by progesterone, which promotes the adhesion and proliferation potential of trophoblastic cells.

  9. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A up-regulated by progesterone promotes adhesion and proliferation of trophoblastic cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiao; Liu, Shuai; Qin, Hua-Min; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Embryo implantation and development is a complex biological process for the establishment of the successful pregnancy. Progesterone is a critical factor in the regulation of embryo adhesion to uterine endometrium and proliferation. Although it has been reported that pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is increased in pregnant women, the relationship between progesterone and PAPPA, and the effects of PAPPA on embryo adhesion and proliferation are still not clear. The present results showed that the serum level of progesterone and PAPPA was closely correlated by ELISA assay (p < 0.01). PAPPA was detected in the villi of early embryo by RT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent staining. Moreover, PAPPA was significantly up-regulated by progesterone in trophoblastic (JAR) cells by Real-time PCR and ELISA assay (p < 0.01); while the expression was decreased by the progesterone receptor inhibitor RU486. The down-regulation of PAPPA by siRNA transfection or up-regulation of PAPPA by progesterone treatment significantly decreased or increased the adhesion rate of trophoblastic cells to human uterine epithelial cell lines (RL95-2 and HEC-1A), respectively (p < 0.01), as well as the proliferation of trophoblastic cells. In conclusion, PAPPA is up-regulated by progesterone, which promotes the adhesion and proliferation potential of trophoblastic cells. PMID:24817938

  10. Respiratory virus infection up-regulates TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 receptors on airway cells

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Shadia; Clarke, Rebecca; Abdullah, Haniah; Brady, Clare; Corry, John; Winter, Hanagh; Touzelet, Olivier; Power, Ultan F.; Lundy, Fionnuala; McGarvey, Lorcan P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Receptors implicated in cough hypersensitivity are transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential cation channel, Subfamily A, Member 1 (TRPA1) and acid sensing ion channel receptor 3 (ASIC3). Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) may interact directly and/or indirectly with these receptors on sensory nerves and epithelial cells in the airways. We used in vitro models of sensory neurones (SHSY5Y or differentiated IMR-32 cells) and human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cells) as well as primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to study the effect of MV and RSV infection on receptor expression. Receptor mRNA and protein levels were examined by qPCR and flow cytometry, respectively, following infection or treatment with UV inactivated virus, virus-induced soluble factors or pelleted virus. Concentrations of a range of cytokines in resultant BEAS-2B and PBEC supernatants were determined by ELISA. Up-regulation of TRPV1, TRPA1 and ASICS3 expression occurred by 12 hours post-infection in each cell type. This was independent of replicating virus, within the same cell, as virus-induced soluble factors alone were sufficient to increase channel expression. IL-8 and IL-6 increased in infected cell supernatants. Antibodies against these factors inhibited TRP receptor up-regulation. Capsazepine treatment inhibited virus induced up-regulation of TRPV1 indicating that these receptors are targets for treating virus-induced cough. PMID:28187208

  11. Continuous up-regulation of heat shock proteins in larvae, but not adults, of a polar insect.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Joseph P; Hayward, Scott A L; Elnitsky, Michael A; Sandro, Luke H; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

    2006-09-19

    Antarctica's terrestrial environment is a challenge to which very few animals have adapted. The largest, free-living animal to inhabit the continent year-round is a flightless midge, Belgica antarctica. Larval midges survive the lengthy austral winter encased in ice, and when the ice melts in summer, the larvae complete their 2-yr life cycle, and the wingless adults form mating aggregations while subjected to surprisingly high substrate temperatures. Here we report a dichotomy in survival strategies exploited by this insect at different stages of its life cycle. Larvae constitutively up-regulate their heat shock proteins (small hsp, hsp70, and hsp90) and maintain a high inherent tolerance to temperature stress. High or low temperature exposure does not further up-regulate these genes nor does it further enhance thermotolerance. Such "preemptive" synthesis of hsps is sufficient to prevent irreversible protein aggregation in response to a variety of common environmental stresses. Conversely, adults exhibit no constitutive up-regulation of their hsps and have a lower intrinsic tolerance to high temperatures, but their hsps can be thermally activated, resulting in enhanced thermotolerance. Thus, the midge larvae, but not the adults, have adopted the unusual strategy of expressing hsps continuously, possibly to facilitate proper protein folding in a cold habitat that is more thermally stable than that of the adults but a habitat subjected frequently to freeze-thaw episodes and bouts of pH, anoxic, and osmotic stress.

  12. Resveratrol attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor B.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Jincai; Li, Jing; Yang, Liang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Fei; Yang, Yinan; Kang, Licheng; Shen, Yanna; Qi, Zhi

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to examine the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and whether the mechanism was related to vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) signaling pathway. Rat hearts were isolated for Langendorff perfusion test and H9c2 cells were used for in vitro assessments. RSV treatment significantly improved left ventricular function, inhibited CK-MB release, and reduced infarct size in comparison with IR group ex vivo. RSV treatment markedly decreased cell death and apoptosis of H9c2 cells during IR. We found that RSV was responsible for the up-regulation of VEGF-B mRNA and protein level, which caused the activation of Akt and the inhibition of GSK3β. Additionally, RSV prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by up-regulating the expression of MnSOD either in vitro or ex vivo. We also found that the inhibition of VEGF-B abolished the cardioprotective effect of RSV, increased apoptosis, and led to the down-regulation of phosphorylated Akt, GSK3β, and MnSOD in H9c2 cells. These results demonstrated that RSV was able to attenuate myocardial IR injury via promotion of VEGF-B/antioxidant signaling pathway. Therefore, the up-regulation of VEGF-B can be a promising modality for clinical myocardial IR injury therapy.

  13. Fisetin Induces Apoptosis Through p53-Mediated Up-Regulation of DR5 Expression in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Jin; Nam, Ju-Ock; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2017-08-02

    Fisetin is a natural compound found in fruits and vegetables such as strawberries, apples, cucumbers, and onions. Since fisetin can elicit anti-cancer effects, including anti-proliferation and anti-migration, we investigated whether fisetin induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki) cells. Fisetin markedly induced sub-G1 population and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which is a marker of apoptosis, and increased caspase activation. We found that pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) inhibited fisetin-induced apoptosis. In addition, fisetin induced death receptor 5 (DR5) expression at the transcriptional level, and down-regulation of DR5 by siRNA blocked fisetin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, fisetin induced p53 protein expression through up-regulation of protein stability, whereas down-regulation of p53 by siRNA markedly inhibited fisetin-induced DR5 expression. In contrast, fisetin induced up-regulation of CHOP expression and reactive oxygen species production, which had no effect on fisetin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that fisetin induced apoptosis through p53 mediated up-regulation of DR5 expression at the transcriptional level.

  14. Prolonged illumination up-regulates arrestin and two guanylate cyclase activating proteins: a novel mechanism for light adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Codega, Paolo; Santina, Luca Della; Gargini, Claudia; Bedolla, Diana E; Subkhankulova, Tatiana; Livesey, Frederick J; Cervetto, Luigi; Torre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Light adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors is mediated by multiple mechanisms, one of which could involve nuclear feedback and changes in gene expression. Therefore, we have investigated light adaptation-associated changes in gene expression using microarrays and real-time PCR in isolated photoreceptors, in cultured isolated retinas and in acutely isolated retinas. In all three preparations after 2 h of an exposure to a bright light, we observed an up-regulation of almost 100% of three genes, Sag, Guca1a and Guca1b, coding for proteins known to play a major role in phototransduction: arrestin, GCAP1 and GCAP2. No detectable up-regulation occurred for light exposures of less than 1 h. Functional in vivo electroretinographic tests show that a partial recovery of the dark current occurred 1–2 h after prolonged illumination with a steady light that initially caused a substantial suppression of the photoresponse. These observations demonstrate that prolonged illumination results in the up-regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the phototransduction signalling cascade, possibly underlying a novel component of light adaptation occurring 1–2 h after the onset of a steady bright light. PMID:19332500

  15. Prolonged illumination up-regulates arrestin and two guanylate cyclase activating proteins: a novel mechanism for light adaptation.

    PubMed

    Codega, Paolo; Della Santina, Luca; Gargini, Claudia; Bedolla, Diana E; Subkhankulova, Tatiana; Livesey, Frederick J; Cervetto, Luigi; Torre, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    Light adaptation in vertebrate photoreceptors is mediated by multiple mechanisms, one of which could involve nuclear feedback and changes in gene expression. Therefore, we have investigated light adaptation-associated changes in gene expression using microarrays and real-time PCR in isolated photoreceptors, in cultured isolated retinas and in acutely isolated retinas. In all three preparations after 2 h of an exposure to a bright light, we observed an up-regulation of almost 100% of three genes, Sag, Guca1a and Guca1b, coding for proteins known to play a major role in phototransduction: arrestin, GCAP1 and GCAP2. No detectable up-regulation occurred for light exposures of less than 1 h. Functional in vivo electroretinographic tests show that a partial recovery of the dark current occurred 1-2 h after prolonged illumination with a steady light that initially caused a substantial suppression of the photoresponse. These observations demonstrate that prolonged illumination results in the up-regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the phototransduction signalling cascade, possibly underlying a novel component of light adaptation occurring 1-2 h after the onset of a steady bright light.

  16. Antithrombin reduces monocyte and neutrophil CD11b up regulation in addition to blocking platelet activation during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Rinder, Christine S; Rinder, Henry M; Smith, Michael J; Fitch, Jane C K; Tracey, Jayne B; Chandler, Wayne L; Rollins, Scott A; Smith, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass develop a systemic inflammatory reaction. Antithrombin III (AT) has anticoagulant effects but also shows evidence of anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to examine whether exogenous AT could reduce white blood cell activation (CD11b up regulation or elastase release), in addition to inhibiting platelet (PLT) activation and fibrin generation, during simulated cardiopulmonary bypass (sCPB), undertaken in the absence of endothelium. sCPB was carried out with minimally heparinized (2 U/mL) human blood for 90 minutes in controls and with supplementation by low-dose (1 U/mL) and high-dose (5 U/mL) AT. High-dose AT blunted thrombin generation during sCPB (prothrombin fragment 1.2); both doses significantly inhibited thrombin activity (fibrinopeptide A). Complement activation (C3a and C5b-9) was unaffected by AT. High-dose AT inhibited PLT activation (P-selectin expression and P-selectin-dependent monocyte-PLT conjugate formation). AT supplementation at the higher dose significantly abrogated monocyte and neutrophil CD11b up regulation and neutrophil elastase release. In addition to anticoagulant and anti-PLT effects, pharmacologic AT doses significantly blunted monocyte and neutrophil CD11b up regulation and neutrophil elastase release during sCPB, independent of endothelial effects. These data provide evidence for the direct anti-inflammatory activity of AT that has clinical relevance for CPB complications.

  17. Zinc mesoporphyrin induces rapid and marked degradation of the transcription factor Bach1 and up-regulates HO-1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weihong; Shan, Ying; Zheng, Jianyu; Lambrecht, Richard W; Donohue, Susan E; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2008-03-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is the first and rate-controlling enzyme in heme degradation. Bach1 is a mammalian transcriptional repressor of HO-1. To understand how zinc mesoporphyrin (ZnMP) induces the expression of HO-1, we investigated the effects of ZnMP on Bach1 mRNA and protein levels in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blots. We found that ZnMP markedly up-regulated HO-1 mRNA and protein levels, and rapidly and significantly decreased Bach1 protein levels by increasing degradation of Bach1 protein [half life (t(1/2)) from 19 h to 45 min], whereas ZnMP did not influence Bach1 mRNA levels. The proteasome inhibitors, epoxomicin and MG132, significantly inhibited degradation of Bach1 by ZnMP in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating that the degradation of Bach1 by ZnMP is proteasome-dependent. Purified Bach1 C-terminal fragment bound heme, but there was no evidence for binding of ZnMP to the heme-binding region of Bach1. In conclusion, ZnMP produces profound post-transcriptional down-regulation of Bach1 protein levels and transcriptional up-regulation of HO-1. Our results indicate that ZnMP up-regulates HO-1 gene expression by markedly increasing Bach1 protein degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner.

  18. Berberine exerts anti-adipogenic activity through up-regulation of C/EBP inhibitors, CHOP and DEC2.

    PubMed

    Pham, Truc P T; Kwon, Jeongho; Shin, Jaekyoon

    2011-09-23

    Berberine exerts an anti-adipogenic activity that is associated with the down-regulation of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Stimulation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) caused by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration has been suggested to underlie such molecular regulation. In the present study, we show that berberine up-regulated the expression of two different sets of C/EBP inhibitors, CHOP and DEC2, while down-modulating C/EBPα, PPARγ and other adipogenic markers and effectors in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. Data also suggested that the berberine-induced up-regulation of CHOP and DEC2 was attributable to selective activation of an unfolded protein response (UPR) and modified extracellular environment, respectively. As a result, the anti-adipogenic activity of berberine was diminished remarkably by adjusting the differentiation culture media and limitedly but consistently by knockdown of CHOP expression. Together, up-regulation of C/EBP inhibitors appears to underlie the berberine-induced repression of C/EBPα and PPARγ and, so, the inhibition of adipogenesis.

  19. Histamine up-regulates phosphodiesterase 4 activity and reduces prostaglandin E2-inhibitory effects in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dasí, F J; Ortiz, J L; Cortijo, J; Morcillo, E J

    2000-11-01

    To investigate whether histamine produces up-regulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity with functional consequences in human peripheral blood neutrophils. PDE activity was studied by a radioisotopic method following anion-exchange chromatography. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for detection of mRNA transcripts of PDE4 subtypes. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were measured by enzyme-immunoassay, and superoxide generation by cytochrome c reduction. Neutrophils were incubated for 4 h with histamine (1 microM). PDE4 was the only isoenzyme activity increased in treated neutrophils. Kinetic analysis showed a approximately 1.5-fold increase in Vmax without alteration of Km values. cAMP content in treated cells was higher than resting values (0.52+/-0.07 vs. 2.75+/-0.31 pmol/10(6) cells). RT-PCR showed increased expression of mRNA transcripts for PDE4B in histamine-treated cells. Functionally, up-regulation of PDE4 reduced the inhibition by prostaglandin E2 of zymosan-induced superoxide generation. Histamine up-regulates PDE4 activity and produces heterologous desensitisation of human neutrophils.

  20. NADPH Oxidase Activation in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Is Mediated through Akt-dependent Up-regulation of p22phox*

    PubMed Central

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Nitsche, Claudia; Zheng, Ling; Pandol, Stephen J.; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S.

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that Nox4 NADPH oxidase is highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and that it is activated by growth factors and plays a pro-survival, anti-apoptotic role. Here we investigate the mechanisms through which insulin-like growth factor I and serum (FBS) activate NADPH oxidase in pancreatic cancer (PaCa) cells. We show that in PaCa cells, NADPH oxidase is composed of Nox4 and p22phox catalytic subunits, which are both required for NADPH oxidase activity. Insulin-like growth factor I and FBS activate NADPH oxidase through transcriptional up-regulation of p22phox. This involves activation of the transcription factor NF-κB mediated by Akt kinase. Up-regulation of p22phox by the growth factors results in increased Nox4-p22phox complex formation and activation of NADPH oxidase. This mechanism is different from that for receptor-induced activation of phagocytic NADPH oxidase, which is mediated by phosphorylation of its regulatory subunits. Up-regulation of p22phox represents a novel pro-survival mechanism through which growth factors and Akt inhibit apoptosis in PaCa cells. PMID:21118808

  1. Short-term dietary phosphate restriction up-regulates ileal fibroblast growth factor 15 gene expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakahashi, Otoki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tanaka, Sarasa; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Masuda, Masashi; Kaneko, Ichiro; Taketani, Yutaka; Iwano, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 subfamily, including FGF23, FGF15/19, and FGF21, have a role as endocrine factors which influence the metabolism of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D, bile acid, and energy. It has been reported that dietary Pi regulates circulating FGF23. In this study, the short-term effects of dietary Pi restriction on the expression of FGF19 subfamily members in mice were analyzed. An initial analysis confirmed plasma FGF23 levels positively correlated with the amount of dietary Pi. On the other hand, ileal Fgf15 gene expression, but not hepatic Fgf21 gene expression, was up-regulated by dietary Pi restriction. In addition, we observed the increase of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels by dietary Pi restriction, and the up-regulation of ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Importantly, dietary Pi restriction-induced Fgf15 gene expression was prevented in VDR-knockout mice. Furthermore, diurnal variations of plasma triglyceride concentrations and hepatic mRNA expression of the bile acid synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 as one of Fgf15 negative target genes was influenced by dietary Pi restriction. These results suggest that dietary Pi restriction up-regulates ileal Fgf15 gene expression through 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR, and may affect hepatic bile acid homeostasis. PMID:24688219

  2. Phototransduction genes are up-regulated in a global gene expression study of Drosophila melanogaster selected for heat resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Justesen, Just; Loeschcke, Volker

    2006-01-01

    The genetic architecture underlying heat resistance remains partly unclear despite the well-documented involvement of heat shock proteins (Hsps). It was previously shown that factors besides Hsps are likely to play an important role for heat resistance. In this study, gene expression arrays were used to make replicate measurements of gene expression before and up to 64 hours after a mild heat stress treatment, in flies selected for heat resistance and unselected control flies, to identify genes differentially expressed in heat resistance–selected flies. We found 108 genes up-regulated and 10 down-regulated using the Affymetrix gene expression platform. Among the up-regulated genes, a substantial number are involved in the phototransduction process. Another group of genes up-regulated in selected flies is characterized by also responding to heat shock treatment several hours after peak induction of known Hsps revert to nonstress levels. These findings suggest phototransduction genes to be critically involved in heat resistance, and support a role for components of the phototransduction process in stress-sensing mechanisms. In addition, the results suggest yet-uncharacterized genes responding to heat stress several hours after treatment to be involved in heat stress resistance. These findings mark an important increase in the understanding of heat resistance. PMID:17278881

  3. Acute transcriptional up-regulation specific to osteoblasts/osteoclasts in medaka fish immediately after exposure to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Chatani, Masahiro; Morimoto, Hiroya; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Mantoku, Akiko; Tanigawa, Naoki; Kubota, Koji; Suzuki, Hiromi; Uchida, Satoko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Gusev, Oleg; Sychev, Vladimir; Takano, Yoshiro; Itoh, Takehiko; Kudo, Akira

    2016-12-22

    Bone loss is a serious problem in spaceflight; however, the initial action of microgravity has not been identified. To examine this action, we performed live-imaging of animals during a space mission followed by transcriptome analysis using medaka transgenic lines expressing osteoblast and osteoclast-specific promoter-driven GFP and DsRed. In live-imaging for osteoblasts, the intensity of osterix- or osteocalcin-DsRed fluorescence in pharyngeal bones was significantly enhanced 1 day after launch; and this enhancement continued for 8 or 5 days. In osteoclasts, the signals of TRAP-GFP and MMP9-DsRed were highly increased at days 4 and 6 after launch in flight. HiSeq from pharyngeal bones of juvenile fish at day 2 after launch showed up-regulation of 2 osteoblast- and 3 osteoclast- related genes. Gene ontology analysis for the whole-body showed that transcription of genes in the category "nucleus" was significantly enhanced; particularly, transcription-regulators were more up-regulated at day 2 than at day 6. Lastly, we identified 5 genes, c-fos, jun-B-like, pai-1, ddit4 and tsc22d3, which were up-regulated commonly in the whole-body at days 2 and 6, and in the pharyngeal bone at day 2. Our results suggested that exposure to microgravity immediately induced dynamic alteration of gene expression levels in osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  4. Isolation of genes up-regulated by copper in a copper-tolerant birch (Betula pendula) clone.

    PubMed

    Keinänen, Sirpa I; Hassinen, Viivi H; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O; Tervahauta, Arja I

    2007-09-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to isolate genes differentially expressed following exposure to copper (Cu) in a naturally selected Cu-tolerant birch (Betula pendula Roth.) clone originating from a disused lead/zinc smelter. Of the 352 cDNA fragments initially isolated, 108 were up-regulated by Cu, of which 55 showed over twofold induction by macroarray analysis. Searches against protein databases (Blastx) and sequence analysis provided the tentative identity of 21 genes. Three fragments lacked homology to any sequences in the databases. Most of the identified genes are involved in cellular transport, regulation or cell rescue and defense. Several genes have not previously been reported to be up-regulated by Cu, e.g., plasma intrinsic protein 2, glutamine synthetase and multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP4). The expression of MRP4, a vacuolar sorting receptor-like protein and an unidentified gene was studied in more detail by quantitative real-time PCR. These genes showed stronger up-regulation by Cu in the roots and shoots of the Cu-tolerant birch clone compared with a less tolerant clone. Clear clonal differences in gene expression were observed, e.g., for the regulator of chromosome condensation family protein, DnaJ protein homolog, vacuolar sorting receptor-like protein and MRP4. These findings contribute to our understanding of Cu tolerance in birch, a pioneer plant in metal-contaminated soils.

  5. Acute transcriptional up-regulation specific to osteoblasts/osteoclasts in medaka fish immediately after exposure to microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Chatani, Masahiro; Morimoto, Hiroya; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Mantoku, Akiko; Tanigawa, Naoki; Kubota, Koji; Suzuki, Hiromi; Uchida, Satoko; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Gusev, Oleg; Sychev, Vladimir; Takano, Yoshiro; Itoh, Takehiko; Kudo, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss is a serious problem in spaceflight; however, the initial action of microgravity has not been identified. To examine this action, we performed live-imaging of animals during a space mission followed by transcriptome analysis using medaka transgenic lines expressing osteoblast and osteoclast-specific promoter-driven GFP and DsRed. In live-imaging for osteoblasts, the intensity of osterix- or osteocalcin-DsRed fluorescence in pharyngeal bones was significantly enhanced 1 day after launch; and this enhancement continued for 8 or 5 days. In osteoclasts, the signals of TRAP-GFP and MMP9-DsRed were highly increased at days 4 and 6 after launch in flight. HiSeq from pharyngeal bones of juvenile fish at day 2 after launch showed up-regulation of 2 osteoblast- and 3 osteoclast- related genes. Gene ontology analysis for the whole-body showed that transcription of genes in the category “nucleus” was significantly enhanced; particularly, transcription-regulators were more up-regulated at day 2 than at day 6. Lastly, we identified 5 genes, c-fos, jun-B-like, pai-1, ddit4 and tsc22d3, which were up-regulated commonly in the whole-body at days 2 and 6, and in the pharyngeal bone at day 2. Our results suggested that exposure to microgravity immediately induced dynamic alteration of gene expression levels in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:28004797

  6. Increased Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Protein Underlies Chronic Nicotine-Induced Up-Regulation of Nicotinic Agonist Binding Sites in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    McClure-Begley, Tristan D.; Whiteaker, Paul; Salminen, Outi; Brown, Robert W. B.; Cooper, John; Collins, Allan C.; Lindstrom, Jon M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic nicotine treatment elicits a brain region-selective increase in the number of high-affinity agonist binding sites, a phenomenon termed up-regulation. Nicotine-induced up-regulation of α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in cell cultures results from increased assembly and/or decreased degradation of nAChRs, leading to increased nAChR protein levels. To evaluate whether the increased binding in mouse brain results from an increase in nAChR subunit proteins, C57BL/6 mice were treated with nicotine by chronic intravenous infusion. Tissue sections were prepared, and binding of [125I]3-((2S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-iodo-pyridine (A85380) to β2*-nAChR sites, [125I]monoclonal antibody (mAb) 299 to α4 nAChR subunits, and [125I]mAb 270 to β2 nAChR subunits was determined by quantitative autoradiography. Chronic nicotine treatment dose-dependently increased binding of all three ligands. In regions that express α4β2-nAChR almost exclusively, binding of all three ligands increased coordinately. However, in brain regions containing significant β2*-nAChR without α4 subunits, relatively less increase in mAb 270 binding to β2 subunits was observed. Signal intensity measured with the mAbs was lower than that with [125I]A85380, perhaps because the small ligand penetrated deeply into the sections, whereas the much larger mAbs encountered permeability barriers. Immunoprecipitation of [125I]epibatidine binding sites with mAb 270 in select regions of nicotine-treated mice was nearly quantitative, although somewhat less so with mAb 299, confirming that the mAbs effectively recognize their targets. The patterns of change measured using immunoprecipitation were comparable with those determined autoradiographically. Thus, increases in α4β2*-nAChR binding sites after chronic nicotine treatment reflect increased nAChR protein. PMID:21228066

  7. Hypoxia Suppresses Spontaneous Mineralization and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via IGFBP3 Up-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Yoon, Sei Mee; Song, Sun U.; Park, Sang Gyu; Kim, Won-Serk; Park, In Guk; Lee, Jinu; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia has diverse stimulatory effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). In the present study, we investigated whether hypoxic culture conditions (2% O2) suppress spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. We also investigated signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We found that hypoxia suppressed spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, and up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in ASCs. Although treatment with recombinant IGFBPs did not affect osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, siRNA-mediated inhibition of IGFBP3 attenuated hypoxia-suppressed osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. In contrast, overexpression of IGFBP3 via lentiviral vectors inhibited ASC osteogenic differentiation. These results indicate that hypoxia suppresses spontaneous mineralization and osteogenic differentiation of ASCs via intracellular IGFBP3 up-regulation. We determined that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation followed by activation of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways play pivotal roles in IGFBP3 expression under hypoxia. For example, ROS scavengers and inhibitors for MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways attenuated the hypoxia-induced IGFBP3 expression. Inhibition of Elk1 and NF-κB through siRNA transfection also led to down-regulation of IGFBP3 mRNA expression. We next addressed the proliferative potential of ASCs with overexpressed IGFBP3, but IGFBP3 overexpression reduced the proliferation of ASCs. In addition, hypoxia reduced the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells. Collectively, our results indicate that hypoxia suppresses the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via IGFBP3 up-regulation. PMID:27563882

  8. Ciprofloxacin up-regulates tendon cells to express matrix metalloproteinase-2 with degradation of type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Chen, Carl P C; Chang, Hsiang-Ning; Wong, Alice M K; Lin, Miao-Sui; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2011-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin-induced tendinopathy and tendon rupture have been previously described, principally affecting the Achilles tendon. This study was designed to investigate the effect of ciprofloxacin on expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2 as well as type I collagen in tendon cells. Tendon cells intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with ciprofloxacin and then underwent MTT (tetrazolium) assay. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were used, respectively, to evaluate the gene and protein expressions of type I collagen, and MMP-2. Gelatin zymography was used to evaluate the enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and -9. Reverse zymography was used to evaluate TIMP-1 and -2. Immunohistochemical staining for MMP-2 in ciprofloxacin-treated tendon explants was performed. Collagen degradation was evaluated by incubation of conditioned medium with collagen. The results revealed that ciprofloxacin up-regulated the expression of MMP-2 in tendon cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Immunohistochemistry also confirmed the increased expressions of MMP-2 in ciprofloxacin-treated tendon explants. The enzymatic activity of MMP-2 was up-regulated whereas that of MMP-9, TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 was unchanged. The amount of secreted type I collagen in the conditioned medium decreased and type I collagen was degraded after ciprofloxacin treatment. In conclusion, ciprofloxacin up-regulates the expressions of MMP-2 in tendon cells and thus degraded type I collagen. These findings suggest a possible mechanism of ciprofloxacin-associated tendinopathy. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. HYOU1, Regulated by LPLUNC1, Is Up-Regulated in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujuan; Liao, Qianjin; Li, Xiayu; Wang, Hui; Wei, Fang; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Xiaofang; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Wenling; Tang, Ke; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the roles and mechanisms of long palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (LPLUNC1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: The two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins after over-expressing LPLUNC1 in NPC cells. The qRT-PCR and Western Blot were used to further validate differentially expression of Hypoxia up-regulated 1 (HYOU1). We also applied immunohistochemistry (IHC) to validate the expression of HYOU1 protein in NPC tissues. Results: Totally 44 differentially expressed proteins were identified, among which 19 proteins were up-regulated and 25 proteins were down-regulated. Function annotation indicated that these proteins were involved in molecular chaperone, cytoskeleton, metabolism and signal transduction. It was shown that the expression of HYOU1 both at mRNA level and protein level was up-regulated significantly in NPC tissues, and HYOU1 protein expression was positively correlated with clinical staging and metastasis of NPC. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high expression of HYOU1 protein in NPC patients had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). COX multivariate regression analysis further indicated that over-expressed HYOU1 was one of the predictors for poor prognosis in NPC patients. Conclusion: Through regulating proteins in different pathways, LPLUNC1 may inhibit the growth of NPC through participating in cell metabolism, proliferation, transcription and signaling transduction. HYOU1 can be regarded as potential molecular biomarker for progression and prognosis of NPC. PMID:26918051

  10. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to the amelioration of aluminum-induced oxidative stress in Medicago sativa.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weiti; Zhang, Jing; Xuan, Wei; Xie, Yanjie

    2013-10-15

    In this report, pharmacological, histochemical and molecular approaches were used to investigate the effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) up-regulation on the alleviation of aluminum (Al)-induced oxidative stress in Medicago sativa. Exposure of alfalfa to AlCl3 (0-100 μM) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of root elongation as well as the enhancement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content. 1 and 10 μM (in particular) Al(3+) increased alfalfa HO-1 transcript or its protein level, and HO activity in comparison with the decreased changes in 100 μM Al-treated samples. After recuperation, however, TBARS levels in 1 and 10 μM Al-treated alfalfa roots returned to control values, which were accompanied with the higher levels of HO activity. Subsequently, exogenous CO, a byproduct of HO-1, could substitute for the cytoprotective effects of the up-regulation of HO-1 in alfalfa plants upon Al stress, which was confirmed by the alleviation of TBARS and Al accumulation, as well as the histochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and loss of plasma membrane integrity. Theses results indicated that endogenous CO generated via heme degradation by HO-1 could contribute in a critical manner to its protective effects. Additionally, the pretreatments of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and hemin, an inducer of HO-1, exhibited the similar cytoprotective roles in the alleviation of oxidative stress, both of which were impaired by the potent inhibitor of HO-1, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). However, the Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was not influenced by CO, BHT and hemin, respectively. Together, the present results showed up-regulation of HO-1 expression could act as a mechanism of cell protection against oxidative stress induced by Al treatment.

  11. Estrogen-dependent up-regulation of TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptor proteins in the rat endometrium.

    PubMed

    Pohóczky, Krisztina; Kun, József; Szalontai, Bálint; Szőke, Éva; Sághy, Éva; Payrits, Maja; Kajtár, Béla; Kovács, Krisztina; Környei, József László; Garai, János; Garami, András; Perkecz, Anikó; Czeglédi, Levente; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2016-02-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors expressed predominantly in sensory nerves are activated by inflammatory stimuli and mediate inflammation and pain. Although they have been shown in the human endometrium, their regulation and function are unknown. Therefore, we investigated their estrogen- and progesterone-dependent alterations in the rat endometrium in comparison with the estrogen-regulated inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Four-week-old (sexually immature) and four-month-old (sexually mature) female rats were treated with the non-selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonist diethylstilboestrol (DES), progesterone and their combination, or ovariectomized. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels respectively. Channel function was investigated with ratiometric [Ca(2+)]i measurement in cultured primary rat endometrial cells. Both TRP receptors and MIF were detected in the endometrium at mRNA and protein levels, and their localizations were similar. Immunostaining was observed in the immature epithelium, while stromal, glandular and epithelial positivity were observed in adults. Functionally active TRP receptor proteins were shown in endometrial cells by activation-induced calcium influx. In adults, Trpa1 and Trpv1 mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated after DES treatment. TRPA1 increased after every treatment, but TRPV1 remained unchanged following the combined treatment and ovariectomy. In immature rats, DES treatment resulted in increased mRNA expression of both channels and elevated TRPV1 immunopositivity. MIF expression changed in parallel with TRPA1/TRPV1 in most cases. DES up-regulated Trpa1, Trpv1 and Mif mRNA levels in endometrial cell cultures, but 17β-oestradiol having ERα-selective potency increased only the expression of Trpv1. We provide the first evidence for TRPA1/TRPV1 expression and their estrogen-induced up-regulation

  12. Alteration of TEAD1 expression levels confers apoptotic resistance through the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin.

    PubMed

    Landin Malt, André; Cagliero, Julie; Legent, Kevin; Silber, Joël; Zider, Alain; Flagiello, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    TEA domain (TEAD) proteins are highly conserved transcription factors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of various tissues. More recently, emerging evidences for a contribution of these proteins towards apoptosis and cell proliferation regulation have also been proposed. These effects appear to be mediated by the interaction between TEAD and its co-activator Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), the downstream effector of the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway. We further investigated the mechanisms underlying TEAD-mediated apoptosis regulation and showed that overexpression or RNAi-mediated silencing of the TEAD1 protein is sufficient to protect mammalian cell lines from induced apoptosis, suggesting a proapoptotic function for TEAD1 and a non physiological cytoprotective effect for overexpressed TEAD1. Moreover we show that the apoptotic resistance conferred by altered TEAD1 expression is mediated by the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin, a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. In addition, we show that overexpression of a repressive form of TEAD1 can induce Livin up-regulation, indicating that the effect of TEAD1 on Livin expression is indirect and favoring a model in which TEAD1 activates a repressor of Livin by interacting with a limiting cofactor that gets titrated upon TEAD1 up-regulation. Interestingly, we show that overexpression of a mutated form of TEAD1 (Y421H) implicated in Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy that strongly reduces its interaction with YAP as well as its activation, can induce Livin expression and protect cells from induced apoptosis, suggesting that YAP is not the cofactor involved in this process. Taken together our data reveal a new, Livin-dependent, apoptotic role for TEAD1 in mammals and provide mechanistic insight downstream of TEAD1 deregulation in cancers.

  13. Alteration of TEAD1 Expression Levels Confers Apoptotic Resistance through the Transcriptional Up-Regulation of Livin

    PubMed Central

    Landin Malt, André; Cagliero, Julie; Legent, Kevin; Silber, Joël; Zider, Alain; Flagiello, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Background TEA domain (TEAD) proteins are highly conserved transcription factors involved in embryonic development and differentiation of various tissues. More recently, emerging evidences for a contribution of these proteins towards apoptosis and cell proliferation regulation have also been proposed. These effects appear to be mediated by the interaction between TEAD and its co-activator Yes-Associated Protein (YAP), the downstream effector of the Hippo tumour suppressor pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We further investigated the mechanisms underlying TEAD-mediated apoptosis regulation and showed that overexpression or RNAi-mediated silencing of the TEAD1 protein is sufficient to protect mammalian cell lines from induced apoptosis, suggesting a proapoptotic function for TEAD1 and a non physiological cytoprotective effect for overexpressed TEAD1. Moreover we show that the apoptotic resistance conferred by altered TEAD1 expression is mediated by the transcriptional up-regulation of Livin, a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family. In addition, we show that overexpression of a repressive form of TEAD1 can induce Livin up-regulation, indicating that the effect of TEAD1 on Livin expression is indirect and favoring a model in which TEAD1 activates a repressor of Livin by interacting with a limiting cofactor that gets titrated upon TEAD1 up-regulation. Interestingly, we show that overexpression of a mutated form of TEAD1 (Y421H) implicated in Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy that strongly reduces its interaction with YAP as well as its activation, can induce Livin expression and protect cells from induced apoptosis, suggesting that YAP is not the cofactor involved in this process. Conclusions/Significance Taken together our data reveal a new, Livin-dependent, apoptotic role for TEAD1 in mammals and provide mechanistic insight downstream of TEAD1 deregulation in cancers. PMID:23029054

  14. Induction of salt tolerance and up-regulation of aquaporin genes in tropical corn by rhizobacterium Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Gond, S K; Torres, M S; Bergen, M S; Helsel, Z; White, J F

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria were isolated from surface disinfected seeds of eight modern corn types and an ancestor of corn, 'teosinte' and identified using 16S rDNA sequences. From each of the modern corn types we obtained Bacillus spp. (including, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis); while from teosinte we obtained only Pantoea agglomerans and Agrobacterium species. Of these bacteria, only P. agglomerans could actively grow under hypersaline conditions and increase salt tolerance of tropical corn seedlings. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments where plants were watered with a 0.2 mol l(-1) NaCl solution, P. agglomerans was found to enhance the capacity of tropical corn to grow compared to uninoculated controls. The total dry biomass was significantly higher in P. agglomerans-treated plants compared to controls under saline water. Gene expression analysis showed the up-regulation of the aquaporin gene family especially plasma membrane integral protein (ZmPIP) genes in P. agglomerans-treated plants. The plasma membrane integral protein type 2 (PIP2-1) gene in tropical corn seedlings was highly up-regulated by P. agglomerans treatment under salt stress conditions. Microscopic examination of P. agglomerans inoculated seedlings revealed that the bacterium colonized root meristems densely, and as roots developed, the bacterium became sparsely located in cell junctions. The enhancement of salt tolerance capacity in tropical corn, an important food crop, has the capacity to increase its cultivation area and yield in saline soils. The application of rhizobacteria to improve salt tolerance of tropical corn is ecofriendly and cost effective. We show that P. agglomerans isolated from teosinte (an ancestor of corn) induces salt tolerance in tropical corn and up-regulation of aquaporin genes. This study shows that microbes that increase salt tolerance may be used to enhance crop growth in saline soils. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Fruit extracts of Momordica charantia potentiate glucose uptake and up-regulate Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramadhar; Balaji, S; Uma, T S; Sehgal, P K

    2009-12-10

    Momordica charantia fruit is a widely used traditional medicinal herb as, anti-diabetic, anti-HIV, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-leukemic, anti-microbial, and anti-tumor. The present study is undertaken to investigate the possible mode of action of fruit extracts derived from Momordica charantia (MC) and study its pharmacological effects for controlling diabetic mellitus. Effects of aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit on glucose uptake and up-regulation of glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), were investigated to show its efficacy as a hypoglycaemic agent. Dose dependent glucose uptake assay was performed on L6 myotubes using 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H] glucose. Up-regulatory effects of the extracts on the mRNA expression level of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K have been studied. The association of Momordica charantia with the aqueous and chloroform extracts of Momordica charantia fruit at 6 microg/ml has shown significant up-regulatory effect, respectively, by 3.6-, 2.8- and 3.8-fold on the battery of targets Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K involved in glucose transport. The up-regulation of glucose uptake was comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone which was approximately 2-fold over the control. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the cyclohexamide on Momordica charantia fruit extract mediated glucose uptake suggested the requirement of new protein synthesis for the enhanced glucose uptake. This study demonstrated the significance of Glut-4, PPAR gamma and PI3K up-regulation by Momordica charantia in augmenting the glucose uptake and homeostasis.

  16. Radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2 involves increased mRNA stability, redox modulation, and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiling; Goswami, Prabhat C; Robbins, Mike E C

    2004-04-01

    We have previously observed time- and dose-dependent increases in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) protein levels in rat tubule epithelial cells (NRK52E) after irradiation. However, the mechanism(s) involved remains unclear. In the present study, irradiating NRK52E cells with 0-20 Gy gamma rays was associated with time- and dose-dependent increases in Mmp2 mRNA. Studies using the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) added 24 h after irradiation revealed the t(1/2) of Mmp2 mRNA to be approximately 8 h in control cells. In contrast, the increase in Mmp2 mRNA levels in irradiated cells was essentially unchanged after incubation with ActD for up to 12 h. Incubating cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine or ebselen or the MEK pathway inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 prior to irradiation abolished the radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2. Irradiating NRK52E cells led to reactive oxygen species-mediated Erk1/2 activation; preincubation with NAC prevented the radiation-induced increase in phosphorylated Erk1/2. Transfecting cells with a dominant-negative ERK mutant completely inhibited radiation-induced Erk phosphorylation and abolished the radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2 protein. Thus the radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2 mRNA is due in part to increased mRNA stability and is mediated by redox; the ERK MAPK signaling pathway may be involved.

  17. Involvement of the Up-regulated FoxO1 Expression in Follicular Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ming; Lin, Fei; Zhang, Jiaqing; Tang, Yiting; Chen, Wei-Kang; Liu, Honglin

    2012-01-01

    Follicular atresia is common in female mammalian ovaries, where most follicles undergo degeneration at any stage of growth and development. Oxidative stress gives rise to triggering granulosa cell apoptosis, which has been suggested as a major cause of follicular atresia. However, the underlying mechanism by which the oxidative stress induces follicular atresia remains unclear. FoxO transcription factors are known as critical mediators in the regulation of oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this study, the involvement of FoxO1 in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of mouse follicular granulosa cells (MGCs) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. It was observed that increased apoptotic signals correlated with elevated expression of FoxO1 in MGCs when mice were treated with the oxidant. Correspondingly, the expressions of FoxO1 target genes, such as proapoptotic genes and antioxidative genes, were also up-regulated. In primary cultured MGCs, treatment with H2O2 led to FoxO1 nuclear translocation. Further studies with overexpression and knockdown of FoxO1 demonstrated the critical role of FoxO1 in the induction of MGC apoptosis by oxidative stress. Finally, inactivation of FoxO1 by insulin treatment confirmed that FoxO1 induced by oxidative stress played a pivotal role in up-regulating the expression of downstream apoptosis-related genes in MGCs. Our results suggest that up-regulation of FoxO1 by oxidative stress leads to apoptosis of granulosa cells, which eventually results in follicular atresia in mice. PMID:22669940

  18. High therapeutic concentration of prazosin up-regulates angiogenic IL6 and CCL2 genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zu-Yau; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2012-12-01

    Alteration of the oxidative stress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells can influence the expressions of genes favored angiogenesis. Quinone reductase 2 which can activate quinones leading to reactive oxygen species production is a melatonin receptor known as MT3. Prazosin prescribed for benign prostate hyperplasia and hypertension is a potent antagonist for MT3. This study was to investigate the influence of therapeutic concentrations of prazosin (0.01 and 0.1μM) on cell proliferation and differential expressions of CCL2, CCL20, CXCL6, CXCL10, IL8 and IL6 genes related to inflammation and/or oxidative stress in human HCC cell lines. Two HCC cell lines including one without susceptible to amphotericin B-induced oxidative stress (cell line A; HCC24/KMUH) and one with this effect (cell line B; HCC38/KMUH) were investigated by 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin. The premixed WST-1 cell proliferation reagent was applied for proliferation assay. Differential expressions of genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that both 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin did not influence cell proliferation in both cell lines. Both 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin in cell line A and 0.01μM prazosin in cell line B did not cause differential expressions of tested genes. However, 0.1μM prazosin caused remarkable up-regulation of IL6 gene and slightly up-regulation of CCL2 gene in cell line B. In conclusion, high therapeutic concentration of prazosin can up-regulate angiogenic IL6 and CCL2 genes in human HCC cells susceptible to amphotericin B-induced oxidative stress. Clinical application of prazosin in patients with HCC should consider this possibility.

  19. Up-regulation of endothelial monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 by coplanar PCB77 is caveolin-1-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Majkova, Zuzana; Smart, Eric; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2009-05-15

    Atherosclerosis, the primary cause of heart disease and stroke is initiated in the vascular endothelium, and risk factors for its development include environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants. Caveolae are membrane microdomains involved in regulation of many signaling pathways, and in particular in endothelial cells. We tested the hypothesis that intact caveolae are required for coplanar PCB77-induced up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an endothelium-derived chemokine that attracts monocytes into sub-endothelial space in early stages of the atherosclerosis development. Atherosclerosis-prone LDL-R{sup -/-} mice (control) or caveolin-1{sup -/-}/LDL-R{sup -/-} mice were treated with PCB77. PCB77 induced aortic mRNA expression and plasma protein levels of MCP-1 in control, but not caveolin-1{sup -/-}/LDL-R{sup -/-} mice. To study the mechanism of this effect, primary endothelial cells were used. PCB77 increased MCP-1 levels in endothelial cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was abolished by caveolin-1 silencing using siRNA. Also, MCP-1 up-regulation by PCB77 was prevented by inhibiting p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not ERK1/2, suggesting regulatory functions via p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Finally, pre-treatment of endothelial cells with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inhibitor {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF) partially blocked MCP-1 up-regulation. Thus, our data demonstrate that coplanar PCB77 can induce MCP-1 expression by endothelial cells and that this effect is mediated by AhR, as well as p 38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Intact caveolae are required for these processes both in vivo and in vitro. This further supports a key role for caveolae in vascular inflammation induced by persistent organic pollutants.

  20. Selective up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor I in tumor-bearing rats with cancer-related cachexia.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Maria G; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Arena, Katia; Costelli, Paola; Aragno, Manuela; Danni, Oliviero; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe

    2003-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are important mediators in cancer cachexia; however, the expression of these cytokines and their receptors in tumor-bearing animals is poorly characterized. We analyzed expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-RI, TNF-RII) and interleukin 6 (IL-6R) receptors in the brain, kidney, spleen, liver, muscle, ascite tumors and serum, from Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma-bearing rats. TNF-alpha increased in the brain, spleen, liver, and muscle of cachectic animals; IL-6 increased in the liver and muscle. AH-130 cells expressed a good level of TNF-alpha; on the contrary, no TNF-alpha or IL-6 protein was detected in the serum of either tumor-bearing or control animals. TNF-RI mRNA was up-regulated in the spleen, liver and muscle of tumor-bearing rats. TNF-RI protein levels confirmed up-regulation in the spleen and liver, but failed to detect any increase in the muscle. Western blotting against TNF-RI revealed two bands of lower molecular weight in cachectic muscle, suggesting proteolysis involving TNF-RI. No significant increase of either TNF-RII or IL-6R was observed. This is the first demonstration of a selective up-regulation of TNF-RI in cancer cachexia and suggests that local production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 is a corner-stone in the induction/maintenance of this syndrome.

  1. IL-9 promotes IL-13-dependent paneth cell hyperplasia and up-regulation of innate immunity mediators in intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Steenwinckel, Valérie; Louahed, Jamila; Lemaire, Muriel M; Sommereyns, Caroline; Warnier, Guy; McKenzie, Andrew; Brombacher, Frank; Van Snick, Jacques; Renauld, Jean-Christophe

    2009-04-15

    IL-9 contributes to lung inflammatory processes such as asthma, by promoting mast cell differentiation, B cell activation, eosinophilia, and mucus production by lung epithelial cells. The observation that IL-9 overexpressing mice show increased mast cell numbers in the intestinal mucosa suggests that this cytokine might also play a role in intestinal inflammation. In colons from IL-9 transgenic mice, the expression of Muc2, a major intestinal mucin gene, was up-regulated, together with that of CLCA3 chloride channel and resistin like alpha, which are goblet cell-associated genes. Additional IL-9 up-regulated genes were identified and included innate immunity genes such as angiogenin 4 and the PLA2g2a phospholipase A(2), which are typical Paneth cell markers. Histochemical staining of Paneth cells by phloxine/tartrazine showed that IL-9 induces Paneth cell hyperplasia in Lieberkühn glands of the small intestine, and in the colonic mucosa, where this cell type is normally absent. Expression of Paneth cell markers, including angiogenin 4, PLA2g2a, and cryptdins, was induced in the colon of wild-type mice after two to four daily administrations of IL-9. By crossing IL-9 transgenic mice with IL-13(-/-) mice, or by injecting IL-9 into IL-4R(-/-) mice, we showed that IL-13 was required for the up-regulation of these Paneth cell-specific genes by IL-9. Taken together, our data indicate that Paneth cell hyperplasia and expression of their various antimicrobial products contribute to the immune response driven by TH2 cytokines, such as IL-9 and IL-13 in the intestinal mucosa.

  2. Tobacco carcinogen mediated up-regulation of AP-1 dependent pro-angiogenic cytokines in head and neck carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Wade G; Wuertz, Beverly R K; Ondrey, Frank G

    2011-09-01

    Tobacco is notably genotoxic and associated with head and neck carcinogenesis. Cigarette carcinogens have the capacity to alter early response gene expression in tobacco-related malignancies via genes such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). A number of early response gene activation events are also facilitated by fos/jun activator protein 1 (AP-1) associated pathways. In the present study, we hypothesize that tobacco products may induce microenvironment alterations, promoting angiogenesis and providing a permissive environment for head and neck cancer progression. In an in vitro analysis, we employed immortalized oral keratinocyte (HOK-16B) and laryngeal squamous carcinoma (UM-SCC-11A) cells to investigate interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induction by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). IL-8 and VEGF expression is based on interactions between NFκB, AP-1, and NF-IL6. We identified at least 1.5-fold dose-dependent induction of AP-1, VEGF, and IL-8 promoter/reporter gene activity after 24 h exposure to CSC. Next, we stably transfected UM-SCC-11A cells with A-Fos, a dominant negative AP-1 protein. Treatment with CSC of the A-Fos cell lines compared to empty vector controls significantly down-regulated AP-1, VEGF, and IL-8 promoter/reporter gene expression. We also performed ELISAs and discovered significant up-regulation of IL-8 and VEGF secretion by UMSCC 11A after treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and CSC, which was down-regulated by the A-Fos dominant negative protein. We conclude tobacco carcinogens up-regulate AP-1 activity and AP-1 dependent IL-8 and VEGF gene expression in head and neck cancer. This up-regulation may promote an angiogenic phenotype favoring invasion in both premalignant and squamous cancer cells of the head and neck.

  3. Up-regulation of CCL11 and CCL26 is associated with activated eosinophils in bullous pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Günther, C; Wozel, G; Meurer, M; Pfeiffer, C

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of bullous pemphigoid (BP) by secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and proteases. Trafficking of eosinophils into tissue in animal models and asthma depends on interleukin-5 and a family of chemokines named eotaxins, comprising CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26. Up-regulation of CCL11 has been described in BP, but the expression of the other two members of the eotaxin-family, CCL24 and CCL26, has not been investigated. In addition to these chemokines, expression of adhesion molecules associated with eosinophil migration to the skin should be analysed. We demonstrate that similar to CCL11, the concentration of CCL26 was up-regulated in serum and blister fluid of BP patients. In contrast, the concentration of CCL24 was not elevated in sera and blister fluid of the same BP patients. In lesional skin, CCL11 and CCL26 were detected in epidermis and dermis by immunohistochemistry. In contrast to CCL11, CCL26 was expressed strongly by endothelial cells. In line with these findings, eosinophils represented the dominating cell population in BP lesional skin outnumbering other leucocytes. The percentage of eosinophils expressing very late antigen (VLA): VLA-4 (CD49d) and CD11c correlated with their quantity in tissue. Macrophage antigen (MAC)-1 (CD11b/CD18) was expressed constitutively by tissue eosinophils. In conclusion, these data link the up-regulation of the eosinophil chemotactic factor CCL26 in BP to the lesional accumulation of activated eosinophils in the skin. Thereby they broaden the understanding of BP pathogenesis and might indicate new options for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21985360

  4. Up-regulation of CXCR4 expression contributes to persistent abdominal pain in rats with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Yan; Liu, Xuelian; Miao, Xiuhua; Li, Di; Wang, Shusheng; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Background Pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis is critical hallmark that accompanied inflammation, fibrosis, and destruction of glandular pancreas. Many researchers have demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor 1 (also named as CXCL12) and its cognate receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) involved in mediating neuropathic and bone cancer pain. However, their roles in chronic pancreatic pain remain largely unclear. Methods Chronic pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to the pancreas. Von Frey filament tests were conducted to evaluate pancreas hypersensitivity of rat. Expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, NaV1.8, and pERK in rat dorsal root ganglion was detected by Western blot analyses. Dorsal root ganglion neuronal excitability was assessed by electrophysiological recordings. Results We showed that both CXCL12 and CXCR4 were dramatically up-regulated in the dorsal root ganglion in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced chronic pancreatitis pain model. Intrathecal application with AMD3100, a potent and selective CXCR4 inhibitor, reversed the hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the pancreas of rats following trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid injection. Furthermore, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and Nav1.8 up-regulation in dorsal root ganglias were reversed by intrathecal application with AMD3100 as well as by blockade of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by intrathecal U0126. More importantly, the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced persistent pain was significantly suppressed by CXCR4 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors. Conclusions The present results suggest that the activation of CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling might contribute to pancreatic pain and that extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent Nav1.8 up-regulation might lead to hyperexcitability of the primary nociceptor neurons in rats with

  5. Lipopolysaccharide augments the uptake of oxidized LDL by up-regulating lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Ota, Akinobu; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Takahashi, Miyuki; Mannan, Shahnewaj B; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka

    2015-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting an intimate association of immune activation with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) through scavenging receptors promotes the formation of mature lipid-laden macrophages, which subsequently leads to exacerbation of regional inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque formation. In this study, we first examined changes in the mRNA level of the lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and the human PMA-induced macrophage cell line THP-1 after LPS stimulation. LPS significantly up-regulated LOX-1 mRNA in RAW264.7 cells; LOX-1 cell-surface protein expression was also increased. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that cellular uptake of fluorescence (Dil)-labeled oxLDL was significantly augmented with LPS stimulation. The augmented uptake of Dil-oxLDL was almost completely abrogated by treatment with an anti-LOX-1 antibody. Of note, knockdown of Erk1/2 resulted in a significant reduction of LPS-induced LOX-1 up-regulation. Treatment with U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK, significantly suppressed LPS-induced expression of LOX-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, LOX-1 promoter activity was significantly augmented by LPS stimulation; this augmentation was prevented by U0126 treatment. Similar results were also observed in human PMA-induced THP-1 macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that LPS up-regulates LOX-1, at least in part through activation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway, followed by augmented cellular oxLDL uptake, thus highlighting a critical role of TLR4-mediated aberrant LOX-1 signaling in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  6. Linc-ROR and its spliced variants 2 and 4 are significantly up-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Reza; Malakootian, Mahshid; Balalaee, Baharak; Shahryari, Alireza; Khoshnia, Masoud; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Javad Mowla, Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Similar characteristics of molecular pathways between cellular reprogramming events and tumorigenesis have been accentuated in recent years. Reprogramming-related transcription factors, also known as Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC), are also well-known oncogenes promoting cancer initiation, progression, and cellular transformation into cancer stem cells. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a major class of RNA molecules with emerging roles in stem cell pluripotency, cellular reprogramming, cellular transformation, and tumorigenesis. The long intergenic non-coding RNA ROR (lincRNA-ROR, linc-ROR) acts as a regulator of cellular reprograming through sponging miR-145 that normally negatively regulates the expression of the stemness factors NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2. Materials and Methods: Here, we employed a real-time PCR approach to determine the expression patterns of linc-ROR and its two novel spliced variants (variants 2 and 4) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Results: The quantitative real-time RT-PCR results revealed a significant up-regulation of linc-ROR (P=0.0098) and its variants 2 (P=0.0250) and 4 (P=0.0002) in tumor samples of ESCC, compared to their matched non-tumor tissues obtained from the margin of same tumors. Our data also demonstrated a significant up-regulation of variant 4 in high-grade tumor samples, in comparison to the low-grade ones (P=0.04). Moreover, the ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the variant 4 of ROR has a potential to discriminate between tumor and non-tumor samples (AUC=0.66, P<0.05). Conclusion: Our data suggest a significant up-regulation of linc-ROR and its variants 2 and 4 in ESCC tissue samples. PMID:27872710

  7. Sulfatase 2 up-regulates glypican 3, promotes fibroblast growth factor signaling, and decreases survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jin-Ping; Sandhu, Dalbir S; Yu, Chunrong; Han, Tao; Moser, Catherine D; Jackson, Kenard K; Guerrero, Ruben Bonilla; Aderca, Ileana; Isomoto, Hajime; Garrity-Park, Megan M; Zou, Hongzhi; Shire, Abdirashid M; Nagorney, David M; Sanderson, Schuyler O; Adjei, Alex A; Lee, Ju-Seog; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Roberts, Lewis R

    2008-04-01

    It has been shown that the heparin-degrading endosulfatase, sulfatase 1 (SULF1), functions as a liver tumor suppressor, but the role of the related sulfatase, sulfatase 2 (SULF2), in liver carcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of SULF2 on liver tumorigenesis. Expression of SULF2 was increased in 79 (57%) of 139 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and 8 (73%) of 11 HCC cell lines. Forced expression of SULF2 increased HCC cell growth and migration, whereas knockdown of SULF2 using short hairpin RNA targeting SULF2 abrogated HCC cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Because SULF1 and SULF2 desulfate heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and the HSPG glypican 3 (GPC3) is up-regulated in HCC, we investigated the effects of SULF2 on GPC3 expression and the association of SULF2 with GPC3. SULF2-mediated cell growth was associated with increased binding of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT, and expression of GPC3. Knockdown of GPC3 attenuated FGF2 binding in SULF2-expressing HCC cells. The effects of SULF2 on up-regulation of GPC3 and tumor growth were confirmed in nude mouse xenografts. Moreover, HCC patients with increased SULF2 expression in resected HCC tissues had a worse prognosis and a higher rate of recurrence after surgery. In contrast to the tumor suppressor effect of SULF1, SULF2 has an oncogenic effect in HCC mediated in part through up-regulation of FGF signaling and GPC3 expression.

  8. Pregnancy-induced up-regulation of aquaporin-4 protein in brain and its role in eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Quick, Allison M; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2005-02-01

    Neurologic complications of eclampsia are thought to be similar to hypertensive encephalopathy in which an acute, excessive elevation in blood pressure causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and edema formation. Because women who develop eclampsia are in general normotensive and asymptomatic prior to pregnancy, we hypothesized that pregnancy alone predisposes the brain to edema formation by up-regulation of aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water channel in the brain that has been shown to positively correlate with edema formation. To test this hypothesis, we compared localization (immunohistochemistry), mRNA (RT-PCR), and protein levels (Western analysis) of AQP4 in brains from Sprague Dawley rats that were nonpregnant (NP, proestrous), mid-pregnant (MP, days 9-10), late-pregnant (LP, days 19-20), and postpartum (PP, days 3-4). AQP4 mRNA was detected in the brains of all the animals and was localized primarily around the brain parenchymal blood vessels, strongly implicating its role in BBB function. Western analysis revealed that the major AQP4 band at approximately 32 kDa was significantly elevated in MP, LP, and PP animals compared with NP by 9-, 22-, and 17-fold, respectively. These results suggest that pregnancy and the postpartum state up-regulate AQP4 protein located around the intraparenchymal blood vessels, a consequence that could promote edema formation when blood pressure is acutely and excessively elevated, as during eclampsia.-Quick, A. M., Cipolla, M. J. Pregnancy-induced up-regulation of aquaporin-4 protein in brain and its role in eclampsia.

  9. IL-20 is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor and up-regulated after experimental ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Chang, Ming-Shi

    2009-04-15

    IL-20, an IL-10 family member, is involved in various inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. We investigated whether hypoxia in vitro and an in vivo model of ischemic stroke would up-regulate IL-20 expression. In vitro, IL-20 expression increased in hypoxic HaCaT, HEK293 cells, chondrocytes, monocytes, and glioblastoma cells. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha inhibited CoCl(2)-induced IL-20 expression. We identified two putative hypoxia response elements in the human il20 gene promoter. Promoter activity assays showed that CoCl(2) mimicked hypoxia-activated luciferase reporter gene expression. In vivo, experimental ischemic stroke up-regulated IL-20 in the sera and brain tissue of rats. IL-20 stained positively in glia-like cells in peri-infarcted lesions, but not in contralateral tissue. Administration of IL-20 mAb ameliorated ischemia-induced brain infarction of rats after experimental ischemic stroke. In vitro, RT-PCR analysis showed that glioblastoma cells, GBM8901, expressed IL-20 and its receptor subunits IL-20R1, IL-20R2, and IL-22R1. IL-20 induced cell proliferation in GBM8901 cells by activating the JAK2/STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. IL-20 also induced production of IL-1beta, IL-8, and MCP-1 in GBM8901 cells. We conclude that IL-20 was responsive to hypoxia in vitro and in the ischemic stroke model and that up-regulation of IL-20 in the ischemic brain may contribute to brain injury.

  10. Methamphetamine acutely inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels but chronically up-regulates L-type channels.

    PubMed

    Andres, Marilou A; Cooke, Ian M; Bellinger, Frederick P; Berry, Marla J; Zaporteza, Maribel M; Rueli, Rachel H; Barayuga, Stephanie M; Chang, Linda

    2015-07-01

    In neurons, calcium (Ca(2+) ) channels regulate a wide variety of functions ranging from synaptic transmission to gene expression. They also induce neuroplastic changes that alter gene expression following psychostimulant administration. Ca(2+) channel blockers have been considered as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH) dependence because of their ability to reduce drug craving among METH users. Here, we studied the effects of METH exposure on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels using SH-SY5Y cells as a model of dopaminergic neurons. We found that METH has different short- and long-term effects. A short-term effect involves immediate (< 5 min) direct inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movements through Ca(2+) channels. Longer exposure to METH (20 min or 48 h) selectively up-regulates the expression of only the CACNA1C gene, thus increasing the number of L-type Ca(2+) channels. This up-regulation of CACNA1C is associated with the expression of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), a known regulator of CACNA1C gene expression, and the MYC gene, which encodes a transcription factor that putatively binds to a site proximal to the CACNA1C gene transcription initiation site. The short-term inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movement and later, the up-regulation of Ca(2+) channel gene expression together suggest the operation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein- and C-MYC-mediated mechanisms to compensate for Ca(2+) channel inhibition by METH. Increased Ca(2+) current density and subsequent increased intracellular Ca(2+) may contribute to the neurodegeneration accompanying chronic METH abuse. Methamphetamine (METH) exposure has both short- and long-term effects. Acutely, methamphetamine directly inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels. Chronically, neurons compensate by up-regulating the L-type Ca(2+) channel gene, CACNA1C. This compensatory mechanism is mediated by transcription factors C-MYC and CREB, in which CREB is linked to the

  11. Induction of delta opioid receptor function by up-regulation of membrane receptors in mouse primary afferent neurons.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, Wendy; Maidment, Nigel T; Sanders, Matthew; Evans, Christopher J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Hales, Tim G

    2005-12-01

    It is not clear whether primary afferent neurons express functional cell-surface opioid receptors. We examined delta receptor coupling to Ca2+ channels in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons under basal conditions and after receptor up-regulation. [D-Ala2,Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin (DADLE), trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl) benzene-acetamide methanesulfonate (U-50,488H; 1 microM), and baclofen (50 microM) inhibited Ca2+ currents, whereas the -selective ligands [D-Pen2,Pen5]-enkephalin (DPDPE) and deltorphin II (1 microM) did not. The effect of DADLE (1 microM) was blocked by the mu-antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP; 300 nM) but not by the -antagonist Tyr-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-Phe-Phe-OH (300 nM), implicating mu receptors. Despite a lack of functional delta receptors, flow cytometry revealed cell-surface receptors. We used this approach to identify conditions that up-regulate receptors, including mu receptor gene deletion in dorsal root ganglion neurons of mu-/- mice and 18-h incubation of mu+/+ neurons with CTAP followed by brief (10-min) DPDPE exposure. Under these conditions, the expression of cell-surface delta receptors was up-regulated to 149 +/- 9 and 139 +/- 5%, respectively; furthermore, DPDPE and deltorphin II (1 microM) inhibited Ca2+ currents in both cases. Viral replacement of mu receptors in mu-/- neurons reduced delta receptor expression to mu+/+ levels, restored the inhibition of Ca2+ currents by DAMGO, and abolished receptor coupling. Our observations suggest that receptor-Ca2+ channel coupling in primary afferent fibers may have little functional significance under basal conditions in which mu receptors predominate. However, up-regulation of cell-surface delta receptors induces their coupling to Ca2+ channels. Pharmacological approaches that increase functional delta receptor expression may reveal a novel target for analgesic therapy.

  12. Discovering up-regulated VEGF-C expression in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells by classical swine fever virus Shimen.

    PubMed

    Ning, Pengbo; Zhang, Yanming; Guo, Kangkang; Chen, Ru; Liang, Wulong; Lin, Zhi; Li, Helin

    2014-04-23

    Infection of domestic swine with the highly virulent Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus causes hemorrhagic lymphadenitis and diffuse hemorrhaging in infected swine. We analyzed patterns of gene expression for CSFV Shimen in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVECs). Transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C gene (VEGF-C) and translation of the corresponding protein were significantly up-regulated in SUVECs. Our findings suggest that VEGF-C is involved in mechanisms of acute infection caused by virulent strains of CSFV.

  13. Nicotine-induced up-regulation and desensitization of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic receptors depend on subunit ratio.

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Gretchen Y; Sánchez-Padilla, Javier; Ortiz-Acevedo, Alejandro; Lizardi-Ortiz, José; Salas-Vincenty, Janice; Rojas, Legier V; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A

    2004-09-03

    Desensitization induced by chronic nicotine exposure has been hypothesized to trigger the up-regulation of the alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in the central nervous system. We studied the effect of acute and chronic nicotine exposure on the desensitization and up-regulation of different alpha4beta2 subunit ratios (1alpha:4beta, 2alpha:3beta, and 4alpha:1beta) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The presence of alpha4 subunit in the oocyte plasmatic membrane increased linearly with the amount of alpha4 mRNA injected. nAChR function and expression were assessed during acute and after chronic nicotine exposure using a two-electrode voltage clamp and whole-mount immunofluorescence assay along with confocal imaging for the detection of the alpha4 subunit. The 2alpha4:3beta2 subunit ratio displayed the highest ACh sensitivity. Nicotine dose-response curves for the 1alpha4:4beta2 and 2alpha4:3beta2 subunit ratios displayed a biphasic behavior at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 microm. A biphasic curve for 4alpha4:1beta2 was obtained at nicotine concentrations higher than 300 microm. The 1alpha4:4beta2 subunit ratio exhibited the lowest ACh- and nicotine-induced macroscopic current, whereas 4alpha4:1beta2 presented the largest currents at all agonist concentrations tested. Desensitization by acute nicotine exposure was more evident as the ratio of beta2:alpha4 subunits increased. All three alpha4beta2 subunit ratios displayed a reduced state of activation after chronic nicotine exposure. Chronic nicotine-induced up-regulation was obvious only for the 2alpha4: 3beta2 subunit ratio. Our data suggest that the subunit ratio of alpha4beta2 determines the functional state of activation, desensitization, and up-regulation of this neuronal nAChR. We propose that independent structural sites regulate alpha4beta2 receptor activation and desensitization.

  14. B-Lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) up-regulation in mixed cryoglobulinaemia syndrome and hepatitis-C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fabris, M; Quartuccio, L; Sacco, S; De Marchi, G; Pozzato, G; Mazzaro, C; Ferraccioli, G; Migone, T S; De Vita, S

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the role of B-Lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) in mixed cryoglobulinaemia syndrome (MCsn), a systemic vasculitis associated with a high risk to develop lymphoma, since BLyS up-regulation may favour both autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. BLyS serum levels were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (positive when >0.85 ng/ml) in 66 patients with MCsn, 54 (81.8%) of whom were positive for hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection. Thirty-three HCV-positive patients without MCsn were also studied. Patients were compared with 48 healthy blood donors (HBDs). BLyS modifications after antiviral therapy were also studied. A significantly higher frequency of BLyS serum positivity was detected both in MCsn patients and in HCV-positive patients without MCsn (37.9 and 30.3%, respectively) when compared with HBDs (4.2%) (P < 0.0001 vs MCsn and P = 0.0026 vs HCV-positive patients without MCsn, respectively). BLyS appeared significantly higher in MCsn (3.70 +/- 2.97 ng/ml) than in HCV-positive patients without MCsn (1.56 +/- 0.63 ng/ml; P = 0.0044). BLyS expression did not correlate with rheumatoid factor levels, cryoglobulin levels or definite MCsn-related systemic features. High BLyS levels were significantly associated only with MCsn-related overt lymphoproliferative disorder. Finally, antiviral treatment significantly increased BLyS levels, independently from HCV-RNA negativization. However, BLyS normalization was noticed after both HCV-RNA negativization and suspension of antiviral therapy by preliminary data. BLyS is up-regulated and may play a pathogenetic role in a fraction of patients with MCsn, similarly to other autoimmune diseases. HCV infection likely represents the early event leading to BLyS up-regulation in this setting. BLyS is up-regulated during antiviral treatment. Overall, these data provide new insights for BLyS and virus-related autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation and possible treatment strategies.

  15. Hypoxic stress up-regulates Kir2.1 expression and facilitates cell proliferation in brain capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, Hideto; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Hisao; Asai, Kiyofumi; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2016-08-05

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is mainly composed of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), astrocytes and pericytes. Brain ischemia causes hypoxic encephalopathy and damages BBB. However, it remains still unclear how hypoxia affects BCECs. In the present study, t-BBEC117 cells, an immortalized bovine brain endothelial cell line, were cultured under hypoxic conditions at 4–5% oxygen for 72 h. This hypoxic stress caused hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential. Patch-clamp recordings revealed a marked increase in Ba{sup 2+}-sensitive inward rectifier K{sup +} current in t-BBEC117 cells after hypoxic culture. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses showed that Kir2.1 expression was significantly up-regulated at protein level but not at mRNA level after the hypoxic culture. Ca{sup 2+} imaging study revealed that the hypoxic stress enhanced store-operated Ca{sup 2+} (SOC) entry, which was significantly reduced in the presence of 100 μM Ba{sup 2+}. On the other hand, the expression of SOC channels such as Orai1, Orai2, and transient receptor potential channels was not affected by hypoxic stress. MTT assay showed that the hypoxic stress significantly enhanced t-BBEC117 cell proliferation, which was inhibited by approximately 60% in the presence of 100 μM Ba{sup 2+}. We first show here that moderate cellular stress by cultivation under hypoxic conditions hyperpolarizes membrane potential via the up-regulation of functional Kir2.1 expression and presumably enhances Ca{sup 2+} entry, resulting in the facilitation of BCEC proliferation. These findings suggest potential roles of Kir2.1 expression in functional changes of BCECs in BBB following ischemia. -- Highlights: •Hypoxic culture of brain endothelial cells (BEC) caused membrane hyperpolarization. •This hyperpolarization was due to the increased expression of Kir2.1 channels. •Hypoxia enhanced store-operated Ca{sup 2+} (SOC) entry via Kir2.1 up-regulation. •Expression levels of putative SOC

  16. Up-regulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the rat nucleus accumbens after repeated electroconvulsive shock.

    PubMed

    Roh, Myoung-Sun; Cui, Feng Ji; Ahn, Yong Min; Kang, Ung Gu

    2009-10-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide regulates appetite, reward, and mood. CART expression is regulated via the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, and electroconvulsive shock (ECS), an efficient antipsychotic and antidepressant measure, activates PKA-related signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that ECS may regulate the expression of CART. ECS given daily for five consecutive days increased CART mRNA and protein in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc), accompanied by an increase in CREB phosphorylation. Our results suggest that ECS-induced CART up-regulation might be associated with PKA-CREB signaling, but the causal direction remains to be elucidated in future studies.

  17. N-acetylcysteine inhibits the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in livers from rats fed ethanol chronically.

    PubMed

    Caro, Andres A; Bell, Matthew; Ejiofor, Shannon; Zurcher, Grant; Petersen, Dennis R; Ronis, Martin J J

    2014-12-01

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) administration to experimental animals induces hepatic oxidative stress and up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis. The mechanisms by which chronic EtOH up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis have not been fully explored. In this work, we hypothesized that oxidative stress is a factor that triggers mitochondrial biogenesis after chronic EtOH feeding. If our hypothesis is correct, co-administration of antioxidants should prevent up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Rats were fed an EtOH-containing diet intragastrically by total enteral nutrition for 150 days, in the absence or presence of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 1.7 g/kg/d; control rats were administered isocaloric diets where carbohydrates substituted for EtOH calories. EtOH administration significantly increased hepatic oxidative stress, evidenced as decreased liver total glutathione and reduced glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio. These effects were inhibited by co-administration of EtOH and NAC. Chronic EtOH increased the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-coactivator-1 alpha and mitochondrial transcription factor A, and mitochondrial DNA; co-administration of EtOH and NAC prevented these effects. Chronic EtOH administration was associated with decreased mitochondrial mass, inactivation and depletion of mitochondrial complex I and complex IV, and increased hepatic mitochondrial oxidative damage, effects that were not prevented by NAC. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by chronic EtOH triggered the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis genes in rat liver, because an antioxidant such as NAC prevented both effects. Because NAC did not prevent liver mitochondrial oxidative damage, extra-mitochondrial effects of reactive oxygen species may regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. In spite of the induction of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis genes by chronic EtOH, mitochondrial

  18. Poisson Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Ying; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-02-01

    Harmonic functions are the critical points of a Dirichlet energy functional, the linear projections of conformal maps. They play an important role in computer graphics, particularly for gradient-domain image processing and shape-preserving geometric computation. We propose Poisson coordinates, a novel transfinite interpolation scheme based on the Poisson integral formula, as a rapid way to estimate a harmonic function on a certain domain with desired boundary values. Poisson coordinates are an extension of the Mean Value coordinates (MVCs) which inherit their linear precision, smoothness, and kernel positivity. We give explicit formulas for Poisson coordinates in both continuous and 2D discrete forms. Superior to MVCs, Poisson coordinates are proved to be pseudoharmonic (i.e., they reproduce harmonic functions on n-dimensional balls). Our experimental results show that Poisson coordinates have lower Dirichlet energies than MVCs on a number of typical 2D domains (particularly convex domains). As well as presenting a formula, our approach provides useful insights for further studies on coordinates-based interpolation and fast estimation of harmonic functions.

  19. Convergence of multiple signaling pathways is required to coordinately up-regulate mtDNA and mitochondrial biogenesis during T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Anthony D.; Parikh, Neal; Kaech, Susan M.; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    The quantity and activity of mitochondria vary dramatically in tissues and are modulated in response to changing cellular energy demands and environmental factors. The amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes required for cellular ATP production, is also tightly regulated, but by largely unknown mechanisms. Using murine T cells as a model system, we have addressed how specific signaling pathways influence mitochondrial biogenesis and mtDNA levels. T cell receptor (TCR) activation results in a large increase in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential and a corresponding increase of mtDNA copy number, indicating the vital role for mitochondrial function for the growth and proliferation of these cells. Independent activation of protein kinase C (via PMA) or calcium-related pathways (via ionomycin) had differential and sub-maximal effects on these mitochondrial parameters, as did activation of naïve T cells with proliferative cytokines. Thus, the robust mitochondrial biogenesis response observed upon TCR activation requires synergy of multiple downstream signaling pathways. One such pathway involves AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which we show has an unprecedented role in negatively regulating mitochondrial biogenesis that is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent. That is, inhibition of AMPK after TCR signaling commences results in excessive, but uncoordinated mitochondrial proliferation. We propose that mitochondrial biogenesis is not under control of a master regulatory circuit, but rather requires the convergence of multiple signaling pathways with distinct downstream consequences on the organelle’s structure, composition, and function. PMID:17890163

  20. Coordinate up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-1 target genes during multi-stage epidermal carcinogenesis and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Elson, D A; Ryan, H E; Snow, J W; Johnson, R; Arbeit, J M

    2000-11-01

    Both carcinogenesis and wound healing proceed through stages of proliferation and tissue remodeling. Here, using either a model of multistage epidermal carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice or creation of full-thickness back wounds in nontransgenic mice, we determined patterns of expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, and three targets of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK)-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skin. Neither HIF-1alpha, GLUT-1, PGK-1, nor VEGF mRNA was detectable in unwounded nontransgenic skin. In epidermal carcinogenesis, HIF-1alpha, GLUT-1, PGK-1, and VEGF mRNAs were just detectable in early-stage hyperplasia, markedly increased in high-grade epidermal chest dysplasias, and further increased in invasive squamous carcinomas. In neoplastic skin, HIF-1alpha, GLUT-1, and PGK-1 mRNAs localized in the basal and immediate suprabasal epidermal layers, whereas VEGF mRNA was predominantly expressed in the more superior spinous and granular epidermal layers. Immediately after wounding, HIF-1alpha, GLUT-1, and PGK-1 mRNAs were detectable in basal keratinocytes at the wound edge. Expression of all three genes increased to maximum levels in reepithelializing basal keratinocytes and then diminished to near undetectable levels after wound epithelialization. Although VEGF mRNA similarly increased and decreased during wound healing, its expression pattern was more punctate; the most intense hybridization signals were detected in the upper spinous and granular layers of reepithelializing keratinocytes and in dermal cells morphologically similar to macrophages. These data suggest stage-specific and spatio-temporal control of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1 target gene expression in both multistage epithelial carcinogenesis and wound healing.

  1. Cadmium at high dose perturbs growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism while at low dose it up regulates sulfur assimilation and antioxidant machinery in garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Khan, Nafees A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-01-01

    Metal contamination of soils has become a worldwide problem and great environmental threat, as these metals accumulate in soils and plants in excess, and enter the food chain. Increased cadmium (Cd) uptake from contaminated soils leads to altered plant metabolism and limits the crop productivity. The experimental crop, Lepidium sativum L. (Garden Cress, Family: Brassicaceae) is a medicinally and economically important plant. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different concentrations of Cd (0, 25, 50 or 100 mg kg(-1) soil) on the performance of L. sativum. Cd accumulation in roots and leaves (roots>leaves) increased with the increaseing Cd concentration in soil. High Cd concentration (100mg Cd kg(-1) soil) inhibited the leaf area and plant dry mass and significant decline in net photosynthetic rate (P(N)), stomatal conductance (gs), intercellular CO(2) (Ci), chlorophyll (Chl a, Chl b, total Chl) content, carbonic anhydrase (CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1) activity, nitrate reductase (NR; E.C. 1.6.6.1) activity and nitrogen (N) content was also observed. However, ATP-sulfurylase (ATP-S; EC. 2.7.7.4) activity, sulfur (S) content and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD; E.C. 1.15.1.1); catalase (CAT; E.C. 1.11.1.6); ascorbate peroxidase (APX; E.C. 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR; E.C. 1.6.4.2) and glutathione (GSH) content were increased. Specifically, the decrease in NR activity and N content showed that Cd affects N metabolism negatively; whereas, the increase in ATP-S activity and S content suggests the up-regulation of S assimilation pathway for possible Cd tolerance in coordination with enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH. High Cd concentration (100mg Cd kg(-1) soil) perturbs the L. sativum growth by interfering with the photosynthetic machinery and disrupting the coordination between carbon, N and S metabolism. On the other hand, at low Cd concentration (25mg Cd kg(-1) soil) co-ordination of S and N

  2. Up-regulated A20 promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and induces chemotherapy resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuying; Xing, Haiyan; Li, Shouyun; Yu, Jing; Li, Huan; Liu, Shuang; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang

    2015-09-01

    A20, also known as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), has been identified as a key regulator of cell survival in many solid tumors. However, little is known about the protein expression level and function of A20 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we found that A20 is up-regulated in ALL patients and several cell lines. Knockdown of A20 in Jurkat, Nalm-6, and Reh cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation, which was associated with cell cycle arrest. Phospho-ERK (p-ERK) was also down-regulated, while p53 and p21 were up-regulated in A20 knockdown cells. In addition, A20 knockdown induced apoptosis in Jurkat and Reh cells and enhanced the sensitivity of these cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs. These results indicate that A20 may stimulate cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle progression. A20 inhibited apoptosis in some types of ALL cells, thereby enhancing their resistance to chemotherapy. This effect was abolished through A20 silencing. These findings suggest that A20 may contribute to the pathogenesis of ALL and that it may be used as a new therapeutic target for ALL treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Up-regulation of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Ester; Noé, Véronique; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Lluis, Carmen; Ferrer, Isidre; Ciudad, Carlos J; Franco, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    Gene expression throughout the different stages of Alzheimer's disease was analysed in samples from cerebral cortex. The gene encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 was already overexpressed in early stages of the disease, and in advanced stages Kv3.4 was present at high levels in neurodegenerative structures. This subunit regulates delayed-rectifier currents, which are primary determinants of spike repolarization in neurones. In unique samples from a patient with Alzheimer's disease whose amount of amyloid plaques was decreased by beta amyloid immunization, Kv3.4 was overexpressed. The channel subunit was expressed in the neuropil, in the remaining conventional plaques in the frontal cortex and in collapsed plaques in the orbitary cortex. Therefore, amyloid deposition in plaques does not seem to be responsible for the increase in Kv3.4 levels. Nevertheless, Kv3.4 up-regulation is related to amyloid pathology, given that transgenic mice with the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein showed increased expression of Kv3.4. Up-regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits alters potassium currents in neurones and leads to altered synaptic activity that may underlie the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, Kv3.4 likely represents a novel therapeutic target for the disease.

  4. MicroRNAs up-regulated by CagA of Helicobacter pylori induce intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongliang; Jiang, Qiaoli; Lou, Xiaojun; Ji, Xiaowei; Wen, Zhenzhen; Wu, Jia; Tao, Haiying; Jiang, Tingting; He, Wei; Wang, Caihua; Du, Qin; Zheng, Shu; Mao, Jianshan; Huang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    CagA of Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium-derived oncogenic protein closely associated with the development of gastric cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of widespread non-coding RNAs, many of which are involved in cell growth, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. The relationship between CagA protein and miRNAs is unclear. Using mammalian miRNA profile microarrays, we found that miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 expression was up-regulated in CagA-transformed cells, miRNA-1290 was up-regulated in an Erk1/2-dependent manner, and miRNA-584 was activated by NF-κB. miRNA-584 sustained Erk1/2 activities through inhibition of PPP2a activities, and miRNA-1290 activated NF-κB by knockdown of NKRF. Foxa1 was revealed to be an important target of miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290. Knockdown of Foxa1 promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition significantly. Overexpression of miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 induced intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells in knock-in mice. These results indicate that miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 interfere with cell differentiation and remodel the tissues. Thus, the miRNA pathway is a new pathogenic mechanism of CagA.

  5. Up-regulation of photoprotection and PSII-repair gene expression by irradiance in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Park, Seunghye; Polle, Juergen E W; Melis, Anastasios; Lee, Taek Kyun; Jin, Eonseon

    2006-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina is an attractive model organism for studying photoacclimation responses and the photosystem II (PSII) damage and repair process in the photosynthetic apparatus. Irradiance during cell growth defines both the photoacclimation and the PSII repair status of the cells. To identify genes specific to these processes, a cDNA library was created from irradiance-stressed D. salina. From the cDNA library, 1112 randomly selected expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed. Because ESTs constitute the expressed part of the genome, the strategy of randomly sequencing cDNA clones at their 5'-ends allowed us to obtain information about the transcript level of numerous genes in light-stressed D. salina. The results of a BLASTX search performed on the obtained total set of ESTs showed that approximately 1% of the ESTs could be assigned to genes coding for proteins that are known to be up-regulated in response to high-light stress. Specifically, after 48 h of high-light exposure of the cells, an increase in the expression level of antioxidant genes, such as Fe-SOD and APX, was observed, as well as elevated levels of the Cbr transcript, a light-harvesting Chl-protein homolog. Further, the ATP-dependent Clp protease gene was also up-regulated in D. salina cells after 48 h of exposure to high light. The results provide initial insight into the global gene regulation process in response to irradiance.

  6. Global up-regulation of microtubule dynamics and polarity reversal during regeneration of an axon from a dendrite.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michelle C; Nguyen, Michelle M; Tao, Juan; Allender, Dana L; Rolls, Melissa M

    2010-03-01

    Axon regeneration is crucial for recovery after trauma to the nervous system. For neurons to recover from complete axon removal they must respecify a dendrite as an axon: a complete reversal of polarity. We show that Drosophila neurons in vivo can convert a dendrite to a regenerating axon and that this process involves rebuilding the entire neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton. Two major microtubule rearrangements are specifically induced by axon and not dendrite removal: 1) 10-fold up-regulation of the number of growing microtubules and 2) microtubule polarity reversal. After one dendrite reverses its microtubules, it initiates tip growth and takes on morphological and molecular characteristics of an axon. Only neurons with a single dendrite that reverses polarity are able to initiate tip growth, and normal microtubule plus-end dynamics are required to initiate this growth. In addition, we find that JNK signaling is required for both the up-regulation of microtubule dynamics and microtubule polarity reversal initiated by axon injury. We conclude that regulation of microtubule dynamics and polarity in response to JNK signaling is key to initiating regeneration of an axon from a dendrite.

  7. Acquired resistance to ABT-737 in lymphoma cells that up-regulate MCL-1 and BFL-1

    PubMed Central

    Yecies, Derek; Carlson, Nicole E.; Deng, Jing

    2010-01-01

    ABT-737 is a small-molecule antagonist of BCL-2 currently under evaluation in clinical trials in the oral form of ABT-263. We anticipate that acquired resistance to this promising drug will inevitably arise. To study potential mechanisms of resistance to ABT-737, we derived resistant lines from initially sensitive OCI-Ly1 and SU-DHL-4 lymphoma cell lines via long-term exposure. Resistance was based in the mitochondria and not due to an inability of the drug to bind BCL-2. Resistant cells had increased levels of BFL-1 and/or MCL-1 proteins, which are not targeted by ABT-737. Proapoptotic BIM was displaced from BCL-2 by ABT-737 in both parental and resistant cells, but in resistant cells, BIM was sequestered by the additional BFL-1 and/or MCL-1. Decreasing MCL-1 levels with flavopiridol, PHA 767491, or shRNA restored sensitivity to ABT-737 resistant cells. MCL-1 was up-regulated not by protein stabilization but rather by increased transcript levels. Surprisingly, in addition to stable increases in MCL-1 transcript and protein in resistant cells, there was a dynamic increase within hours after ABT-737 treatment. BFL-1 protein and transcript levels in resistant cells were similarly dynamically up-regulated. This dynamic increase suggests a novel mechanism whereby modulation of antiapoptotic protein function communicates with nuclear transcriptional machinery. PMID:20197552

  8. Cyclo(His-Pro) promotes cytoprotection by activating Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of antioxidant defence

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Alba; Conte, Carmela; Grottelli, Silvia; Bellezza, Maria; Cacciatore, Ivana; Bolaños, Juan P

    2009-01-01

    Hystidyl-proline [cyclo(His-Pro)] is an endogenous cyclic dipeptide produced by the cleavage of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Previous studies have shown that cyclo(His-Pro) protects against oxidative stress, although the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we addressed this issue and found that cyclo(His-Pro) triggered nuclear accumulation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that up-regulates antioxidant-/electrophile-responsive element (ARE-EpRE)-related genes, in PC12 cells. Cyclo(His-Pro) attenuated reactive oxygen species production, and prevented glutathione depletion caused by glutamate, rotenone, paraquat and β-amyloid treatment. Moreover, real-time PCR analyses revealed that cyclo(His-Pro) induced the expression of a number of ARE-related genes and protected cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated apoptotic death. Furthermore, these effects were abolished by RNA interference-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of p-38 MAPK partially prevented both cyclo(His-Pro)-mediated Nrf2 activation and cellular protection. These results suggest that the signalling mechanism responsible for the cytoprotective actions of cyclo(His-Pro) would involve p-38 MAPK activation leading to Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of antioxidant cellular defence. PMID:18373731

  9. Nicotine Induced Murine Spermatozoa Apoptosis via Up-Regulation of Deubiquitinated RIP1 by Trim27 Promoter Hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Nie, Dongsheng; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Jingbo; Zhang, Meixing; Zhao, Xianglong; Xu, Wangjie; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Lianyun; Wang, Zhaoxia; Qiao, Zhongdong

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine significantly promoted apoptosis in stages I, VII, VIII, and XI spermatogonia, stages I, VII, VIII, X, and XI spermatocytes, and stages I-V, VII, and VIII elongating spermatids. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, sperm mRNA next-generation sequencing of nicotine-treated mice was conducted. Out of the 86 genes related to apoptosis, Tnf (tumor necrosis factor alpha) was screened to be the most significant varied transcript, and the Onto-pathway analysis indicated that the TNF apoptotic pathway was especially activated by nicotine exposure. The TNF pathway was further studied at the gene and protein levels. The results showed that RIP1, the key component in the TNF apoptotic pathway, was up-expressed in its deubiquitinated form in nicotine-treated mice testis. TRIM27, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activated TNF apoptotic pathway through up-regulating deubiquitinated RIP1, was also overexpressed in nicotine-treated spermatocytes; moreover, four consecutive CpG sites near the Trim27 transcription start site were less frequently methylated. Finally, in vitro experiments of Trim27 overexpression and RNA interference in GC-1 spermatogonial cells confirmed that the RIP1 deubiquitination and TRIM27 hyopmethylation were both positively correlated with spermatocyte apoptosis. In summary, our study suggests that nicotine may induce murine spermatozoal apoptosis via the TNF apoptotic pathway through up-regulation of deubiquitinated RIP1 by Trim27 promoter hypomethylation.

  10. The "Senobi" breathing exercise ameliorates depression in obese women through up-regulation of sympathetic nerve activity and hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazunari; Kawamura, Toshihiko; Yamagiwa, Satoshi

    2011-04-01

    Obese individuals have an increased risk of developing depression. This study aimed to determine whether the "Senobi" breathing exercise (SBE), a stretching-breathing exercise that we have established, could relieve depression, especially in obese women. Forty premenopausal women, aged 40 to 49 years, participated in the present study. Twenty were healthy, and the other 20 were obese (body mass index > 25 and body fat > 30%) and in a depressive state (OWD). Sympathetic nerve activity determined by analyzing heart rate variability, and the hormone levels in the urine were investigated before and 30 min after one minute of SBE. The relative proportion of sympathetic nerve activity among healthy women in the daytime was 79.2 ± 2.3%, whereas that in OWD group was 30.4 ± 1.9%. After one minute of SBE, significant up-regulation of sympathetic nerve activity and increased concentrations of catecholamines, estradiol, and growth hormone (all P values < 0.001) were observed in OWD group. After 30 days of SBE, the sympathetic nerve activity and hormone levels had recovered in OWD group, and the depressive state, as evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Scale, had ameliorated. The "Senobi" breathing exercise was found to be effective for amelioration of depression in obese women possibly through up-regulation of sympathetic nerve activity and hormone secretion.

  11. Chronic up-regulation of the SHH pathway normalizes some developmental effects of trisomy in Ts65Dn mice

    PubMed Central

    Dutka, Tara; Hallberg, Dorothy; Reeves, Roger H.

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is a highly complex developmental genetic disorder caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). All individuals with DS exhibit some degree of brain structural changes and cognitive impairment; mouse models such as Ts65Dn have been instrumental in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Several phenotypes of DS might arise from a reduced response of trisomic cells to the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) growth factor. If all trisomic cells show a similar reduced response to SHH, then up-regulation of the pathway in trisomic cells might ameliorate multiple DS phenotypes. We crossed Ptch1tm1Mps/+ mice, in which the canonical SHH pathway is expected to be up-regulated in every SHH-responsive cell due to the loss of function of one allele of the pathway suppressor, Ptch1, to the Ts65Dn DS model and assessed the progeny for possible rescue of multiple DS-related phenotypes. Down-regulation of Ptch produced several previously unreported effects on development by itself, complicating interpretation of some phenotypes, and a number structural or behavioral effects of trisomy were not compensated by SHH signaling. However, a deficit in a nest-building task was partially restored in Ts;Ptch+/− mice, as were structural anomalies of the cerebellum in Ts65Dn mice. These results extend the body of evidence indicating that reduced response to SHH in trisomic cells and tissues contributes to various aspects of the trisomic phenotype. PMID:25511459

  12. Demethoxycurcumin inhibited human epithelia ovarian cancer cells' growth via up-regulating miR-551a.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhenhua; Sha, Xianqun

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin is a natural agent that has ability to dampen tumor cells' growth. However, the natural form of curcumin is prone to degrade and unstable in vitro. Here, we demonstrated that demethoxycurcumin (a curcumin-related demethoxy compound) could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, IRS2/PI3K/Akt axis was inactivated in cells treated with demethoxycurcumin. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that miR-551a was down-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and ovarian cancer cell lines. Over-expression of miR-551a inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, whereas down-regulation of miR-551a exerted the opposite function. Luciferase assays confirmed that there was a binding site of miR-551a in IRS2, and we found that miR-551a exerted tumor-suppressive function by targeting IRS2 in ovarian cancer cells. Remarkably, miR-551a was up-regulated in the cells treated with demethoxycurcumin, and demethoxycurcumin suppressed IRS2 by restoration of miR-551a. In conclusion, demethoxycurcumin hindered ovarian cancer cells' malignant progress via up-regulating miR-551a.

  13. Nitrogen mustard up-regulates Bcl-2 and GSH and increases NTP and PCr in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boddie, A. W.; Constantinou, A.; Williams, C.; Reed, A.

    1998-01-01

    We hypothesized that unexplained increases in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) observed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after treatment of tumours by DNA-damaging agents were related to chemotherapy-induced up-regulation of the bcl-2 gene and DNA damage prevention and repair processes. To test this hypothesis, we treated HT-29 cells with 10(-4) M nitrogen mustard (HN2) and performed sequential perchloric acid extractions in replicate over 0-18 h. By reference to an internal standard (methylene diphosphonic acid), absolute changes in 31P-detectable high-energy phosphates in these extracts were determined and correlated with changes in bcl-2 protein levels, cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and total cellular glutathione (GSH) (an important defence against DNA damage from alkylating agents). After HN2 administration, bcl-2 protein levels in the HT-29 cell line rose at 2 h. Cell viability declined to 25% within 18 h, but apoptosis measured using fluorescence techniques remained in the 1-4% range. Increased cell division was noted at 4 h. Two high-energy interconvertible phosphates, NTP (P < or = 0.006) and phosphocreatine (PCr) (P < or = 0.0002), increased at 2 h concurrently with increased levels of bcl-2 protein and glutathione. This study demonstrates that bcl-2 and glutathione are up-regulated by HN2 and links this to a previously unexplained 31P MRS phenomenon: increased NTP after chemotherapy. Images Figure 6 PMID:9652754

  14. Social stress up-regulates inflammatory gene expression in the leukocyte transcriptome via β-adrenergic induction of myelopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Nicole D.; Sloan, Erica K.; Bailey, Michael T.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Kobor, Michael S.; Reader, Brenda F.; Sheridan, John F.; Cole, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Across a variety of adverse life circumstances, such as social isolation and low socioeconomic status, mammalian immune cells have been found to show a conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) involving increased expression of proinflammatory genes. The present study examines whether such effects might stem in part from the selective up-regulation of a subpopulation of immature proinflammatory monocytes (Ly-6chigh in mice, CD16− in humans) within the circulating leukocyte pool. Transcriptome representation analyses showed relative expansion of the immature proinflammatory monocyte transcriptome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from people subject to chronic social stress (low socioeconomic status) and mice subject to repeated social defeat. Cellular dissection of the mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcriptome confirmed these results, and promoter-based bioinformatic analyses indicated increased activity of transcription factors involved in early myeloid lineage differentiation and proinflammatory effector function (PU.1, NF-κB, EGR1, MZF1, NRF2). Analysis of bone marrow hematopoiesis confirmed increased myelopoietic output of Ly-6chigh monocytes and Ly-6cintermediate granulocytes in mice subject to repeated social defeat, and these effects were blocked by pharmacologic antagonists of β-adrenoreceptors and the myelopoietic growth factor GM-CSF. These results suggest that sympathetic nervous system-induced up-regulation of myelopoiesis mediates the proinflammatory component of the leukocyte CTRA dynamic and may contribute to the increased risk of inflammation-related disease associated with adverse social conditions. PMID:24062448

  15. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Samuelian, Suren; Kleine, Michael; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P; Klein-Lankhorst, René M; Jung, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from hairy root clones and sugar beet plants infected or not with the beet cyst nematode and 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were analysed. One TDF was found to be differentially expressed in both materials and was further investigated. Real-time PCR confirmed that this TDF is specifically up-regulated in resistant sugar beet upon nematode infection and its full-length cDNA was isolated. Sequence analysis suggests that the gene encodes a 317 amino acid polypeptide of unknown function. No homology to any sequence present in the public databases could be detected. To further elucidate its function in resistance to the beet cyst nematode, the cDNA was transformed into hairy roots of susceptible sugar beet under the control of the 35S promoter and hairy root clones were inoculated with nematodes. The number of developing females was significantly reduced in 12 out of 15 clones resulting from independent transgenic events suggesting that the gene can be used for inducing cyst nematode resistance in plants.

  16. Candida albicans up-regulates the Fas-L expression in liver Natural Killer and Natural Killer T cells.

    PubMed

    Renna, María Sol; Figueredo, Carlos Mauricio; Rodríguez-Galán, María Cecilia; Icely, Paula Alejandra; Cejas, Hugo; Cano, Roxana; Correa, Silvia Graciela; Sotomayor, Claudia Elena

    2015-11-01

    After Candida albicans arrival to the liver, the local production of proinflammatory cytokines and the expanded intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHL) can be either beneficial or detrimental to the host. Herein we explored the balance between protective inflammatory reaction and liver damage, focusing our study on the contribution of TNF-α and Fas-Fas-L pathways in the hepatocellular apoptosis associated to C. albicans infection. A robust tissue reaction and a progressive increase of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were observed in infected animals. Blocking the biological activity of TNF-α did not modify the number of apoptotic cells observed in C. albicans infected animals. Fas-L molecule was up regulated on purified hepatic mononuclear cells and its expression progressed with the infection. In the IHL compartment, the absolute number of Fas-L+ NK and NKT cells increased on days 1 and 3 of the infection. C. albicans was also able to up regulate Fas-L expression in normal liver NK and NKT cells after in vitro contact. The innate receptor TLR2 was involved in this phenomenon. In the interplay between host factors and evasion strategies exploited by pathogens, the mechanism supported here could represent an additional way that allows this fungus to circumvent protective immune responses in the liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, MLN4924 (Pevonedistat) induces NOXA-dependent apoptosis through up-regulation of ATF-4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Yanan; Wu, Jianfu; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Yupei; Jia, Lijun; Yu, Jinha; Jeong, L S; Li, Lihui

    2017-06-17

    It has been reported that MLN4924 can inhibit cell growth and metastasis in various kinds of cancer. We have reported that MLN4924 is able to inhibit angiogenesis through the induction of cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo models. Moreover, Neddylation inhibition using MLN4924 triggered the accumulation of pro-apoptotic protein NOXA in Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). However, the mechanism of MLN4924-induced NOXA up-regulation has not been addressed in HUVECs yet. In this study, we investigated how MLN4924 induced NOXA expression and cellular apoptosis in HUVECs treated with MLN4924 at indicated concentrations. MLN4924-induced apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC/PI analysis and expression of genes associated with apoptosis was assessed by Quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. As a result, MLN4924 triggered NOXA-dependent apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in HUVECs. Mechanistically, inactivation of Neddylation pathway caused up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), a substrate of Cullin-Ring E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL). NOXA was subsequently transactivated by ATF-4 and further induced apoptosis. More importantly, knockdown of ATF-4 by siRNA significantly decreased NOXA expression and apoptotic induction in HUVECs. In summary, our study reveals a new mechanism underlying MLN4924-induced NOXA accumulation in HUVECs, which may help extend further study of MLN4924 for angiogenesis inhibition treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Uncoupling Protein-2 is an Antioxidant that is Up-Regulated in the Enamel Organ of Fluoride-Treated Rats*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Maiko; Sierant, Megan L.; Antone, Jerry V.; Everett, Eric T.; Whitford, Gary M.; Bartlett, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Dental fluorosis is characterized by subsurface hypomineralization and retention of enamel matrix proteins. Fluoride (F−) exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can cause ER-stress. We therefore screened oxidative stress arrays to identify genes regulated by F− exposure. Vitamin E is an antioxidant so we asked if a diet high in vitamin E would attenuate dental fluorosis. Maturation stage incisor enamel organs (EO) were harvested from F− treated rats and mice were assessed to determine if vitamin E ameliorates dental fluorosis. Uncoupling protein-2 (Ucp2) was significantly up-regulated by F− (~1.5 & 2.0 fold for the 50 or 100 ppm F− treatment groups respectively). Immunohistochemical results on maturation stage rat incisors demonstrated that UCP2 protein levels increased with F− treatment. UCP2 down-regulates mitochondrial production of ROS, which decreases ATP production. Thus, in addition to reduced protein translation caused by ER-stress, a reduction in ATP production by UCP2 may contribute to the inability of ameloblasts to remove protein from the hardening enamel. Fluoride treated mouse enamel had significantly higher quantitative fluorescence (QF) than the untreated controls. No significant QF difference was observed between control and vitamin E enriched diets within a given F− treatment group. Therefore, a diet rich in vitamin E did not attenuate dental fluorosis. We have identified a novel oxidative stress response gene that is up-regulated in vivo by F− and activation of this gene may adversely affect ameloblast function. PMID:25158175

  19. Sesamin induces melanogenesis by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase up-regulation via cAMP signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zequn; Li, Shasha; Liu, Yunyi; Deng, Pengyi; Huang, Jianguo; He, Guangyuan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we confirmed that sesamin, an active lignan isolated from sesame seed and oil, is a novel skin-tanning compound. The melanin content and tyrosinase activity were increased by sesamin in a dose-dependent manner in B16 melanoma cells. The mRNA and protein levels of tyrosinase were also enhanced after the treatment with sesamin. Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin induced and sustained up-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Sesamin could activate cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB), but it had no effect on the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt. Moreover, sesamin activated protein kinase A (PKA) via a cAMP-dependent pathway. Consistent with these results, sesamin-mediated increase of melanin synthesis was reduced significantly by H-89, a PKA inhibitor, but not by SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor or by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Sesamin-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and induction of MITF and tyrosinase expression were also inhibited by H-89. These findings indicated that sesamin could stimulate melanogenesis in B16 cells via the up-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which was, in turn, due to the activation of cAMP signaling.

  20. Post-transcriptional up-regulation of PDGF-C by HuR in advanced and stressed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Nian-An; Qu, Ya-Qi; Yang, Guo-Dong; Wang, Tao; Li, Ren-Li; Jia, Lin-Tao; Dong, Rui

    2014-11-06

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple genetic alterations leading to the activation of growth factor signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation. Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is overexpressed in various malignancies; however, the involvement of PDGF-C in breast cancers and the mechanisms underlying PDGF-C deregulation remain unclear. Here, we show that PDGF-C is overexpressed in clinical breast cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. PDGF-C up-regulation was mediated by the human embryonic lethal abnormal vision-like protein HuR, which stabilizes the PDGF-C transcript by binding to two predicted AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). HuR is up-regulated in hydrogen peroxide-treated or ultraviolet-irradiated breast cancer cells. Clinically, HuR levels are correlated with PDGF-C expression and histological grade or pathological tumor-node-metastasis (pTNM) stage. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying HuR-mediated breast cancer progression, and suggest that HuR and PDGF-C are potential molecular candidates for targeted therapy of breast cancers.

  1. TWIST1 induces MMP3 expression through up-regulating DNA hydroxymethylation and promotes catabolic responses in human chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hasei, Joe; Teramura, Takeshi; Takehara, Toshiyuki; Onodera, Yuta; Horii, Takuro; Olmer, Merissa; Hatada, Izuho; Fukuda, Kanji; Ozaki, Toshifumi; Lotz, Martin K.; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the levels of TWIST1 in normal and OA cartilage and examine its role in regulating gene expression in chondrocytes. Human cartilage tissues and chondrocytes were obtained at autopsy from normal knee joints and from OA-affected joints at the time of total knee arthroplasty. TWIST1 expression was increased in human OA knee cartilage compared to normal knee cartilage. TWIST1 induced matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) expression without direct binding to MMP3 promoter and increased the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level at the MMP3 promoter. The effect of TWIST1 on expression of TET family (TET1, 2 and 3) was measured in stable TWIST1 transfected TC28 cells, and TET1 expression was up-regulated. TWIST1 dependent upregulation of Mmp3 expression was suppressed in Tet triple KO fibroblast derived from mouse ES cells. Increased TWIST1 expression is a feature of OA-affected cartilage. We identified a novel mechanism of catabolic reaction where TWIST1 up-regulates MMP3 expression by enriching 5hmC levels at the MMP3 promoter via TET1 induction. These findings implicate TWIST1 as an important factor regulating OA related gene expression. Clarifying epigenetic mechanisms of 5hmC induced by TWIST1 is a critical molecule to understanding OA pathogenesis. PMID:28220902

  2. Up-regulation of muscle uncoupling protein 3 gene expression by calcium channel blocker, benidipine hydrochloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakane, Naoki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Hioki, Chizuko; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kawada, Teruo

    2007-12-01

    To examine whether benidipine hydrochloride, one of the calcium channel blockers, up-regulate uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) expression in two skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) in rats. Wistar rats were treated orally with benidipine hydrochloride at 4 mg/kg for 7 days. Blood pressure was measured after 4 days. At the end of experiments, the rats were weighed, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) were removed. The mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP3 were measured using the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method. Benidipine reduced body weight and also had a hypotensive effect. In rats treated with benidipine, UCP1 mRNA levels were significantly increased 1.4-fold in BAT, and UCP3 mRNA levels in BAT and gastrocnemius muscle were significantly increased 1.7 and 3.0-fold, respectively, compared with the control rats. There was no difference in UCP3 mRNA levels in soleus muscle between the two groups. We concluded that benidipine up-regulates not only UCP1 gene expression in BAT but also UCP3 gene expression in BAT and gastrocnemius muscle, which may contribute to thermogenesis in rats.

  3. beta-Adrenoceptor stimulation up-regulates phosphodiesterase 4 activity and reduces prostaglandin E2-inhibitory effects in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, J L; Dasí, F J; Cortijo, J; Morcillo, E J

    2000-04-01

    Human neutrophils were treated for 4 h with a combination of salbutamol (1 microM), a beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, and rolipram (30 microM), a selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, to investigate whether this treatment produces up-regulation of phosphodiesterase activity with functional consequences. Anion-exchange chromatography coupled with the use of selective activators and inhibitors demonstrated that a phosphodiesterase activity with characteristics of the isoenzyme type 4 was increased in drug-treated cells. Kinetic analysis showed a approximately 1.5-fold increase in Vmax without alteration of Km values. The augmented phosphodiesterase activity in drug-treated cells was abolished by actinomycin D. Cyclic AMP content in drug-treated cells was higher than resting values (27.28+/-2.79 pmol/10(6) cells vs. 0.34+/-0.03 pmol/10(6) cells). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed increased expression of mRNA transcripts for PDE4B and PDE4A in drug-treated cells. Functionally, up-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4 reduced the inhibition by prostaglandin E2 of zymosan-induced superoxide generation.

  4. A specialist herbivore pest adaptation to xenobiotics through up-regulation of multiple Cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fang; Moural, Timothy W.; Nelson, David R.; Palli, Subba R.

    2016-01-01

    The adaptation of herbivorous insects to their host plants is hypothesized to be intimately associated with their ubiquitous development of resistance to synthetic pesticides. However, not much is known about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between detoxification of plant toxins and synthetic pesticides. To address this knowledge gap, we used specialist pest Colorado potato beetle (CPB) and its host plant, potato, as a model system. Next-generation sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) was performed to reveal the CPB transcriptome. Differential expression patterns of cytochrome P450 complement (CYPome) were analyzed between the susceptible (S) and imidacloprid resistant (R) beetles. We also evaluated the global transcriptome repertoire of CPB CYPome in response to the challenge by potato leaf allelochemicals and imidacloprid. The results showed that more than half (51.2%) of the CBP cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) that are up-regulated in the R strain are also induced by both host plant toxins and pesticide in a tissue-specific manner. These data suggest that xenobiotic adaptation in this specialist herbivore is through up-regulation of multiple P450s that are potentially involved in detoxifying both pesticide and plant allelochemicals. PMID:26861263

  5. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by isoflurane preconditioning during tolerance against neuronal injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qifang; Zhu, Yesen; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Hui; Liu, Heping

    2008-09-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to produce bile pigments and carbon monoxide. The HO-1 isozyme is induced by a variety of factors such as heat, heme, ischemia, and hydrogen peroxide. In recent years, mounting findings have suggested that HO-1 has a neuroprotective activity against ischemic injury. The neuroprotective role of isoflurane, a commonly used anesthetic, has been well documented, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved. Recently, isoflurane has been shown to up-regulate HO-1 in the liver. In this study, we show that isoflurane preconditioning promotes the survival of cultured ischemic hippocampal neurons by increasing the number of surviving neurons and their viability. Further study by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that isoflurane preconditioning significantly increases HO-1 expression in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury. Furthermore, inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin partially abolishes isoflurane preconditioning's protective effect as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release in OGD neurons. These findings indicated that the neuroprotective role of isoflurane preconditioning against OGD-induced injury might be associated with its role in up-regulating HO-1 in ischemic neurons.

  6. Up-regulating of RASD1 and apoptosis of DU-145 human prostate cancer cells induced by formononetin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jia; Li, Yun-Qian; Chen, Qiu-Yue; Xiao, Sheng-Jun; Zeng, Si-En

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignant cancers in men. The isoflavone formononetin is a main active component of red clover plants. In the present study, we assessed the effect of formononetin on human prostate cancer DU-145 cells in vitro, and elucidated possible mechanisms. DU-145 cells were treated with different concentrations of formononetin and cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, cell apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 and flow cytometry, and protein levels of RASD1, Bcl-2 and Bax by Western blotting. The results showed that formononetin inhibited the proliferation of DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner. DU-145 cells treated with different concentrations of formononetin displayed obvious morphological changes of apoptosis under fluorescence microscopy. In addition, formononetin increased the proportion of early apoptotic DU-145 cells, down-regulated the protein levels of Bcl-2 and up-regulated those of RASD1 and Bax. The level of RASD1 reached its maximum at 48 h post-treatment, and rapidly decreased thereafter. Together, we present evidence that formononetin triggered cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by up-regulating RASD1.

  7. Cathepsin B Is Up-Regulated and Mediates Extracellular Matrix Degradation in Trabecular Meshwork Cells Following Phagocytic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kristine; Lin, Yizhi; Liton, Paloma B.

    2013-01-01

    Cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM), a tissue responsible for draining aqueous humor out of the eye, are known to be highly phagocytic. Phagocytic activity in TM cells is thought to play an important role in outflow pathway physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by phagocytosis in TM cells are unknown. Here we investigated the effects of chronic phagocytic stress on lysosomal function using different phagocytic ligands (E. coli, carboxylated beads, collagen I-coated beads, and pigment). Lysotracker red co-localization and electron micrographs showed the maturation of E. coli- and collagen I-coated beads-containing phagosomes into phagolysosomes. Maturation of phagosomes into phagolysosomes was not observed with carboxylated beads or pigment particles. In addition, phagocytosis of E. coli and collagen I-coated beads led to increased lysosomal mass, and the specific up-regulation and activity of cathepsin B (CTSB). Higher levels of membrane-bound and secreted CTSB were also detected. Moreover, in vivo zymography showed the intralysosomal degradation of ECM components associated with active CTSB, as well as an overall increased gelatinolytic activity in phagocytically challenged TM cells. This increased gelatinolytic activity with phagocytosis was partially blocked with an intracellular CTSB inhibitor. Altogether, these results suggest a potential role of phagocytosis in outflow pathway tissue homeostasis through the up-regulation and/or proteolytic activation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes. PMID:23844232

  8. TGEV infection up-regulates FcRn expression via activation of NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinyue; Li, Fei; Qian, Shaoju; Bi, Dingren; He, Qigai; Jin, Hui; Luo, Rui; Li, Shaowen; Meng, Xianrong; Li, Zili

    2016-01-01

    It has been well characterized that the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) transports maternal IgG to a fetus or newborn and protects IgG from degradation. We previously reported that FcRn is expressed in a model of normal porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). Transmissible gastroenteritis is an acute enteric disease of swine that is caused by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). How porcine FcRn (pFcRn) expression is regulated by pathogenic infection remains unknown. Our research shows that IPEC-J2 cells infected with TGEV had up-regulated pFcRn expression. In addition, the NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in IPEC-J2 cells by TGEV infection. Furthermore, treatment of TGEV-infected IPEC-J2 cells with the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY 11-7082 resulted in down-regulation of pFcRn expression. Transient transfection of pFcRn promoter luciferase report plasmids with overexpression of NF-κB p65 transcription factor enhanced the activation of the luciferase report plasmids. We identified four NF-κB transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region of this gene using luciferase reporter system, chromatin immunoprecipitation, electromobility shift assay, and supershift analysis. Together, the data provide the first evidence that TGEV infection up-regulates pFcRn expression via activation of NF-κB signaling. PMID:27555521

  9. High-antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cells up-regulate intracellular protein transport and glutathione synthesis.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Camila A; Marcellin, Esteban; Schulz, Benjamin L; Nouwens, Amanda S; Gray, Peter P; Nielsen, Lars K

    2015-02-06

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) due to their ability to perform post-translational modifications and their successful approval history. The completion of the genome sequence for CHO cells has reignited interest in using quantitative proteomics to identify markers of good production lines. Here we applied two different proteomic techniques, iTRAQ and SWATH, for the identification of expression differences between a high- and low-antibody-producing CHO cell lines derived from the same transfection. More than 2000 proteins were quantified with 70 of them classified as differentially expressed in both techniques. Two biological processes were identified as differentially regulated by both methods: up-regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and down-regulation of DNA replication. Metabolomic analysis confirmed that the high producing cell line displayed higher intracellular levels of glutathione. SWATH further identified up-regulation of actin filament processes and intracellular transport and down regulation of several growth-related processes. These processes may be important for conferring high mAb production and as such are promising candidates for targeted engineering of high-expression cell lines.

  10. Global Up-Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics and Polarity Reversal during Regeneration of an Axon from a Dendrite

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michelle C.; Nguyen, Michelle M.; Tao, Juan; Allender, Dana L.

    2010-01-01

    Axon regeneration is crucial for recovery after trauma to the nervous system. For neurons to recover from complete axon removal they must respecify a dendrite as an axon: a complete reversal of polarity. We show that Drosophila neurons in vivo can convert a dendrite to a regenerating axon and that this process involves rebuilding the entire neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton. Two major microtubule rearrangements are specifically induced by axon and not dendrite removal: 1) 10-fold up-regulation of the number of growing microtubules and 2) microtubule polarity reversal. After one dendrite reverses its microtubules, it initiates tip growth and takes on morphological and molecular characteristics of an axon. Only neurons with a single dendrite that reverses polarity are able to initiate tip growth, and normal microtubule plus-end dynamics are required to initiate this growth. In addition, we find that JNK signaling is required for both the up-regulation of microtubule dynamics and microtubule polarity reversal initiated by axon injury. We conclude that regulation of microtubule dynamics and polarity in response to JNK signaling is key to initiating regeneration of an axon from a dendrite. PMID:20053676

  11. UCP2 up-regulation within the course of autoimmune encephalomyelitis correlates with T-lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Smorodchenko, Alina; Schneider, Stephanie; Rupprecht, Anne; Hilse, Karoline; Sasgary, Soleman; Zeitz, Ute; Erben, Reinhold G; Pohl, Elena E

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with severe neurological disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Several members of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein subfamily (UCP2-UCP5) were suggested to regulate ROS by diminishing the mitochondrial membrane potential and constitute therefore a promising pharmacological target for MS. To evaluate the role of different uncoupling proteins in neuroinflammation, we have investigated their expression patterns in murine brain and spinal cord (SC) during different stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. At mRNA and protein levels we found that only UCP2 is up-regulated in the SC, but not in brain. The increase in UCP2 expression was antigen-independent, reached its maximum between 14 and 21days in both OVA and MOG immunized animals and correlated with an augmented number of CD3(+) T-lymphocytes in SC parenchyma. The decrease in abundance of UCP4 was due to neuronal injury and was only detected in CNS of MOG-induced EAE animals. The results provide evidence that the involvement of mitochondrial UCP2 in CNS inflammation during EAE may be mainly explained by the invasion of activated T-lymphocytes. This conclusion coincides with our previous observation that UCP2 is up-regulated in activated and rapidly proliferating T-cells and participates in fast metabolic re-programming of cells during proliferation.

  12. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liucheng; Song, Tao; Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n=15), DM group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  13. Up-regulation of neurohemerythrin expression in the central nervous system of the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, following septic injury.

    PubMed

    Vergote, David; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Vieau, Didier; Mitta, Guillaume; Macagno, Eduardo R; Salzet, Michel

    2004-10-15

    We report here some results of a proteomic analysis of changes in protein expression in the leech Hirudo medicinalis in response to septic injury. Comparison of two-dimensional protein gels revealed several significant differences between normal and experimental tissues. One protein found to be up-regulated after septic shock was identified, through a combination of Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning, as a novel member of the hemerythrin family, a group of non-heme-iron oxygen transport proteins found in four invertebrate phyla: sipunculids, priapulids, brachiopods, and annelids. We found by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry that the new leech protein, which we have called neurohemerythrin, is indeed expressed in the leech central nervous system. Both message and protein were detected in the pair of large glia within the ganglionic neuropile, in the six packet glia that surround neuronal somata in each central ganglion, and in the bilateral pair of glia that separate axonal fascicles in the interganglionic connective nerves. No expression was detected in central neurons or in central nervous system microglia. Expression was also observed in many other, non-neuronal tissues in the body wall. Real-time PCR experiments suggest that neurohemerythrin is up-regulated posttranscriptionaly. We consider potential roles of neurohemerythrin, associated with its ability to bind oxygen and iron, in the innate immune response of the leech nervous system to bacterial invasion.

  14. Up-Regulation of RFC3 Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis and is Associated With Poor Prognosis Via EMT.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Ying; Chen, Ming; Bao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) was regarded as the most aggressive and mortal subtype of breast cancer (BC) since the molecular subtype system has been established. Abundant studies have revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) played a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis and progression, especially in TNBC. Herein, we showed that inhibition the expression of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3) significantly attenuated TNBC metastasis and progression, which was associated with EMT signal pathway. In TNBC cells, knockdown of RFC3 can down-regulate mesenchymal markers and up-regulate epithelial markers, significantly attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, silencing RFC3 expression can decrease nude mice tumor volume, weight and relieve lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that overexpression of RFC3 in TNBC showed increased metastasis, progression and poor prognosis. We confirmed all of these results by immunohistochemistry analysis in 127 human TNBC tissues and found that RFC3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in TNBC. Taken all these findings into consideration, we can conclude that up-regulation of RFC3 promotes TNBC progression through EMT signal pathway. Therefore, RFC3 could be an independent prognostic factor and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  15. Monophosphoryl lipid A stimulated up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide release by human monocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saha, D C; Astiz, M E; Lin, R Y; Rackow, E C; Eales, L J

    1997-10-01

    Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) is a derivative of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with reduced toxicity which has been shown to modulate various immune functions in monocytes. We examined whether human monocytes can be stimulated to produce nitric oxide (NO) and its catalytic enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Monocytes were stimulated with LPS or MPL and both NOS and NO (as nitrite) production were measured. MPL at high doses (> 100 micrograms/ml) stimulated monocytes to release NO that was significantly greater than both the control and LPS-treated monocytes (p < 0.05). NO release by control cells and the LPS treated cells was not significantly different. Both arginase and N-monomethyl arginine (NMLA) inhibited the MPL stimulated release of NO (p < 0.01). MPL significantly increased inducible NOS (iNOS) expression as measured by both fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry (p < 0.05). Similarly, both soluble NOS (sNOS) and particulate NOS (pNOS) activity were significantly up-regulated by MPL (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found between pNOS expression and sNOS release (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001) and between 12 h NO release and sNOS production (r = 0.44, p < 0.005). These experiments confirm that human monocytes can be stimulated with MPL to produce NO in vitro and suggest that up-regulation of pNOS does not preclude NO release.

  16. Sex-dependent up-regulation of two splicing factors, Psf and Srp20, during hippocampal memory formation.

    PubMed

    Antunes-Martins, Ana; Mizuno, Keiko; Irvine, Elaine E; Lepicard, Eve M; Giese, K Peter

    2007-10-01

    Gene transcription is required for long-term memory (LTM) formation. LTM formation is impaired in a male-specific manner in mice lacking either of the two Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (Camkk) genes. Since altered transcription was suggested to cause these impairments in LTM formation, we used microarrays to screen for CaMKKbeta-dependent gene expression changes. Here we show that the hippocampal mRNA expression of two splicing factors, splicing factor arginine/serine-rich 3 (Sfrs3/Srp20) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (Psf), is altered in CaMKKbeta-deficient males. In wild-type (WT) mice, the basal expression level in the hippocampus is higher in males than in females, and the sex difference in Srp20 expression is detectable before puberty. Training in two hippocampus-dependent learning tasks, the spatial version of the Morris water maze (MWM) and background contextual fear conditioning, increases the hippocampal mRNA expression of both splicing factors in WT males. However, the increase in Srp20 mRNA expression occurs only in males and not in females, whereas the up-regulation of Psf expression occurs in both sexes. Importantly, control experiments demonstrate that the up-regulation of both splicing factors is specific for the learned associations after contextual fear conditioning. In summary, we provide the first evidence for a regulation of splicing factors during LTM formation and we suggest that alternative splicing contributes to sex differences in LTM formation.

  17. Eucheuma cottonii Sulfated Oligosaccharides Decrease Food Allergic Responses in Animal Models by Up-regulating Regulatory T (Treg) Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sha-Sha; Liu, Qing-Mei; Xiao, An-Feng; Maleki, Soheila J; Alcocer, Marcos; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Min-Jie; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2017-04-19

    In the present study, the anti-food allergy activity of Eucheuma cottonii sulfated oligosaccharide (ESO) was investigated. ESO was obtained by enzymatic degradation and purified by column chromatography. RBL-2H3 cells and BALB/c mouse model were used to test the anti-food allergy activity of ESO. The effects of ESO on the regulatory T (Treg) cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were investigated by flow cytometry. The results of in vivo assay showed that ESO decreased the levels of mast cell protease-1 and histamine and inhibited the levels of specific IgE by 77.7%. In addition, the production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 was diminished in the ESO groups compared to the non-ESO-treated group. Furthermore, ESO could up-regulate Treg cells by 22.2-97.1%. In conclusion, ESO decreased the allergy response in mice by reducing basophil degranulation, up-regulating Treg cells via Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3), and releasing IL-10. ESO may have preventive and therapeutic potential in allergic disease.

  18. P2Y2 receptor up-regulation induced by guanosine or UTP in rat brain cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ballerini, P; Di Iorio, P; Caciagli, F; Rathbone, M P; Jiang, S; Nargi, E; Buccella, S; Giuliani, P; D'Alimonte, I; Fischione, G; Masciulli, A; Romano, S; Ciccarelli, R

    2006-01-01

    Among P2 metabotropic ATP receptors, P2Y2 subtype seems to be peculiar as its upregulation triggers important biological events in different cells types. In non-stimulated cells including astrocytes, P2Y2 receptors are usually expressed at levels lower than P2Y1 sites, however the promoter region of the P2Y2 receptors has not yet been studied and little is known about the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the expression of this ATP receptor. We showed that not only UTP and ATP are the most potent and naturally occurring agonist for P2Y2 sites, but also guanosine induced an up-regulation of astrocyte P2Y2 receptor mRNA evaluated by Northern blot analysis. We also focused our attention on this nucleoside since in our previous studies it was reported to be released by cultured astrocytes and to exert different neuroprotective effects. UTP and guanosine-evoked P2Y2 receptor up-regulation in rat brain cultured astrocytes was linked to an increased P2Y2-mediated intracellular calcium response, thus suggesting an increased P2Y2 activity. Actinomycin D, a RNA polymerase inhibitor, abrogated both UTP and guanosine-mediated P2Y2 up-regulation, thus indicating that de novo transcription was required. The effect of UTP and guanosine was also evaluated in astrocytes pretreated with different inhibitors of signal transduction pathways including ERK, PKC and PKA reported to be involved in the regulation of other cell surface receptor mRNAs. The results show that ERK1-2/MAPK pathway play a key role in the P2Y2 receptor up-regulation mediated by either UTP or guanosine. Moreover, our data suggest that PKA is also involved in guanosine-induced transcriptional activation of P2Y2 mRNA and that increased intracellular calcium levels and PKC activation may also mediate P2Y2 receptor up-regulation triggered by UTP. The extracellular release of ATP under physiological and pathological conditions has been widely studied. On the contrary, little is known about the release of

  19. Multi-Layer Identification of Highly-Potent ABCA1 Up-Regulators Targeting LXRβ Using Multiple QSAR Modeling, Structural Similarity Analysis, and Molecular Docking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meimei; Yang, Fafu; Kang, Jie; Yang, Xuemei; Lai, Xinmei; Gao, Yuxing

    2016-11-29

    In this study, in silico approaches, including multiple QSAR modeling, structural similarity analysis, and molecular docking, were applied to develop QSAR classification models as a fast screening tool for identifying highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ based on a series of new flavonoids. Initially, four modeling approaches, including linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, radial basis function neural network, and classification and regression trees, were applied to construct different QSAR classification models. The statistics results indicated that these four kinds of QSAR models were powerful tools for screening highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators. Then, a consensus QSAR model was developed by combining the predictions from these four models. To discover new ABCA1 up-regulators at maximum accuracy, the compounds in the ZINC database that fulfilled the requirement of structural similarity of 0.7 compared to known potent ABCA1 up-regulator were subjected to the consensus QSAR model, which led to the discovery of 50 compounds. Finally, they were docked into the LXRβ binding site to understand their role in up-regulating ABCA1 expression. The excellent binding modes and docking scores of 10 hit compounds suggested they were highly-potent ABCA1 up-regulators targeting LXRβ. Overall, this study provided an effective strategy to discover highly potent ABCA1 up-regulators.

  20. A Cytostatic Ruthenium(II)-Platinum(II) Bis(terpyridyl) Anticancer Complex That Blocks Entry into S Phase by Up-regulating p27(KIP1).

    PubMed

    Ramu, Vadde; Gill, Martin R; Jarman, Paul J; Turton, David; Thomas, Jim A; Das, Amitava; Smythe, Carl

    2015-06-15

    Cytostatic agents that interfere with specific cellular components to prevent cancer cell growth offer an attractive alternative, or complement, to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new binuclear Ru(II) -Pt(II) complex [Ru(tpy)(tpypma)Pt(Cl)(DMSO)](3+) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and tpypma=4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)aniline), VR54, which employs the extended terpyridine tpypma ligand to link the two metal centres. In cell-free conditions, VR54 binds DNA by non-intercalative reversible mechanisms (Kb =1.3×10(5)  M(-1) ) and does not irreversibly bind guanosine. Cellular studies reveal that VR54 suppresses proliferation of A2780 ovarian cancer cells with no cross-resistance in the A2780CIS cisplatin-resistant cell line. Through the preparation of mononuclear Ru(II) and Pt(II) structural derivatives it was determined that both metal centres are required for this anti-proliferative activity. In stark contrast to cisplatin, VR54 neither activates the DNA-damage response network nor induces significant levels of cell death. Instead, VR54 is cytostatic and inhibits cell proliferation by up-regulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) and inhibiting retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, which blocks entry into S phase and results in G1 cell cycle arrest. Thus, VR54 inhibits cancer cell growth by a gain of function at the G1 restriction point. This is the first metal-coordination compound to demonstrate such activity.

  1. ABA-dependent control of GIGANTEA signalling enables drought escape via up-regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Riboni, Matteo; Robustelli Test, Alice; Galbiati, Massimo; Tonelli, Chiara; Conti, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also required for the DE response, by promoting the transcriptional up-regulation of the florigen genes. The mode of interaction between ABA and the photoperiodic genes remains obscure. In this work we use a genetic approach to demonstrate that ABA modulates GI signalling and consequently its ability to activate the florigen genes. We also reveal that the ABA-dependent activation of FT, but not TSF, requires CONSTANS (CO) and that impairing ABA signalling dramatically reduces the expression of florigen genes with little effect on the CO transcript profile. ABA signalling thus has an impact on the core genes of photoperiodic signalling GI and CO by modulating their downstream function and/or activities rather than their transcript accumulation. In addition, we show that as well as promoting flowering, ABA simultaneously represses flowering, independent of the florigen genes. Genetic analysis indicates that the target of the repressive function of ABA is the flowering-promoting gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1), a transcription factor integrating floral cues in the shoot meristem. Our study suggests that variations in ABA signalling provide different developmental information that allows plants to co-ordinate the onset of the reproductive phase according to the available water resources. PMID:27733440

  2. Growth Arrest Specific 2 Is Up-Regulated in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells and Required for Their Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjuan; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Xiuyan; Hu, Xiaohui; Eaves, Connie J.; Wu, Depei; Zhao, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Although the generation of BCR-ABL is the molecular hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the comprehensive molecular mechanisms of the disease remain unclear yet. Growth arrest specific 2 (GAS2) regulates multiple cellular functions including cell cycle, apoptosis and calpain activities. In the present study, we found GAS2 was up-regulated in CML cells including CD34+ progenitor cells compared to their normal counterparts. We utilized RNAi and the expression of dominant negative form of GAS2 (GAS2DN) to target GAS2, which resulted in calpain activity enhancement and growth inhibition of both K562 and MEG-01 cells. Targeting GAS2 also sensitized K562 cells to Imatinib mesylate (IM). GAS2DN suppressed the tumorigenic ability of MEG-01 cells and impaired the tumour growth as well. Moreover, the CD34+ cells from CML patients and healthy donors were transduced with control and GAS2DN lentiviral vectors, and the CD34+ transduced (YFP+) progeny cells (CD34+YFP+) were plated for colony-forming cell (CFC) assay. The results showed that GAS2DN inhibited the CFC production of CML cells by 57±3% (n = 3), while affected those of normal hematopoietic cells by 31±1% (n = 2). Next, we found the inhibition of CML cells by GAS2DN was dependent on calpain activity but not the degradation of beta-catenin. Lastly, we generated microarray data to identify the differentially expressed genes upon GAS2DN and validated that the expression of HNRPDL, PTK7 and UCHL5 was suppressed by GAS2DN. These 3 genes were up-regulated in CML cells compared to normal control cells and the growth of K562 cells was inhibited upon HNRPDL silence. Taken together, we have demonstrated that GAS2 is up-regulated in CML cells and the inhibition of GAS2 impairs the growth of CML cells, which indicates GAS2 is a novel regulator of CML cells and a potential therapeutic target of this disease. PMID:24465953

  3. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine interact with central nicotinic receptors and induce their up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Rates, Sara; Camarasa, Jordi; Escubedo, Elena; Pubill, David

    2007-09-15

    Previous work from our group indicated that {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ({alpha}7 nAChR) potentially play a role in methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) neurotoxicity. The aims of the present study were two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the interaction of METH and MDMA with homomeric {alpha}7 nAChR ([{sup 3}H]methyllycaconitine binding) and other heteromeric subtypes ([{sup 3}H]epibatidine binding); and (2) to show the effects of amphetamine derivative pretreatment on the density of binding sites. METH and MDMA displaced [{sup 3}H]methyllycaconitine and [{sup 3}H]epibatidine binding in membranes from NGF-differentiated PC 12 cells and mouse brain, with K{sub i} values in the micromolar range, MDMA revealing a greater affinity than METH. In addition, METH and MDMA induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in [{sup 3}H]methyllycaconitine and [{sup 3}H]epibatidine binding; which had already been apparent after 6 h of pretreatment, and which peaked in differentiated PC 12 cells after 48 h. The highest increases were found in [{sup 3}H]epibatidine binding, with MDMA inducing higher increases than METH. Treatment with METH and MDMA increased B{sub max} of high-affinity sites for both radioligands without affecting K{sub d}. The heightened binding was inhibited by pretreatment with cycloheximide, suggesting the participation of newly synthesised proteins while inhibition of protein trafficking to plasma membrane did not block up-regulation. The effects of protein kinase and cyclophilin inhibitors on such up-regulation were explored, revealing a rapid, differential and complex regulation, similar to that described for nicotinic ligands. All of these results demonstrate that METH and MDMA have affinity for, and can interact with, nAChR, inducing their up-regulation, specially when higher doses are used. Such effects may have a role in METH- and MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, cholinergic neurotransmission, and in processes

  4. Up-Regulated Expression of LAMP2 and Autophagy Activity during Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Prostate Cancer LNCaP Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vara-Ciruelos, Diana; Ramos-Torres, Ágata; Altamirano-Dimas, Manuel; Díaz-Laviada, Inés; Rodríguez-Henche, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) prostate cancer (PCa) is a highly aggressive subtype of prostate cancer associated with resistance to androgen ablation therapy. In this study, we used LNCaP prostate cancer cells cultured in a serum-free medium for 6 days as a NE model of prostate cancer. Serum deprivation increased the expression of NE markers such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and βIII tubulin (βIII tub) and decreased the expression of the androgen receptor protein in LNCaP cells. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared gene expression profiles of NE cells and non-differentiated LNCaP cells. We identified up-regulation of 155 genes, among them LAMP2, a lysosomal membrane protein involved in lysosomal stability and autophagy. We then confirmed up-regulation of LAMP2 in NE cells by qRT-PCR, Western blot and confocal microscopy assays, showing that mRNA up-regulation correlated with increased levels of LAMP2 protein. Subsequently, we determined autophagy activity in NE cells by assessing the protein levels of SQSTM/p62 and LC3 by Western blot and LC3 and Atg5 mRNAs content by qRT-PCR. The decreased levels of SQSTM/p62 was accompanied by an enhanced expression of LC3 and ATG5, suggesting activation of autophagy in NE cells. Blockage of autophagy with 1μM AKT inhibitor IV, or by silencing Beclin 1 and Atg5, prevented NE cell differentiation, as revealed by decreased levels of the NE markers. In addition, AKT inhibitor IV as well as Beclin1 and Atg5 kwockdown attenuated LAMP2 expression in NE cells. On the other hand, LAMP2 knockdown by siRNA led to a marked blockage of autophagy, prevention of NE differentiation and decrease of cell survival. Taken together, these results suggest that LAMP2 overexpression assists NE differentiation of LNCaP cells induced by serum deprivation and facilitates autophagy activity in order to attain the NE phenotype and cell survival. LAMP2 could thus be a potential biomarker and potential target for NE prostate cancer. PMID:27627761

  5. Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Ni; Kido, Takashi; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.; Breemen, Cornelis van; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-09-01

    Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-{kappa}B (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by {approx} 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-{kappa}B activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-{kappa}B activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R{sup 2} = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-{kappa}B-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: > Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. > Examine iNOS expression and activity in the

  6. Caveolin-1 mediates tissue plasminogen activator-induced MMP-9 up-regulation in cultured brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinchun; Sun, Yanyun; Xu, Ji; Liu, Wenlan

    2015-03-01

    Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the ischemic brain, which exacerbates blood-brain barrier injury and increases the risk of symptomatic cerebral hemorrhage. The mechanism through which tPA enhances MMP-9 activity is not well understood. Here we report an important role of caveolin-1 in mediating tPA-induced MMP-9 synthesis. Brain microvascular endothelial cell line bEnd3 cells were incubated with 5 or 20 μg/ml tPA for 24 hrs before analyzing MMP-9 levels in the conditioned media and cellular extracts by gelatin zymography. tPA at a dose of 20 μg/mL tPA, but not 5 μg/mL, significantly increased MMP-9 level in cultured media while decreasing it in cellular extracts. Concurrently, tPA treatment induced a 2.3-fold increase of caveolin-1 protein levels in endothelial cells. Interestingly, knockdown of Cav-1 with siRNA inhibited tPA-induced MMP-9 mRNA up-regulation and MMP-9 increase in the conditioned media, but did not affect MMP-9 decrease in cellular extracts. These results suggest that caveolin-1 critically contributes to tPA-mediated MMP-9 up-regulation, but may not facilitate MMP-9 secretion in endothelial cells. Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in the ischemic brain, which exacerbates ischemic blood brain barrier (BBB) injury and increases the risk of symptomatic cerebral hemorrhage. Our results suggest a novel mechanism underlying this tPA-MMP 9 axis. In response to tPA treatment, caveolin-1 protein levels increased in endothelial cells, which mediate MMP-9 mRNA up-regulation and its secretion into extracellular space. Caveolin-1 may, however, not facilitate MMP-9 secretion in endothelial cells. Our data suggest caveolin-1 as a novel therapeutic target for protecting the BBB against ischemic damage. The schematic outlines tPA-induced MMP-9 upreguation.

  7. Functional analysis of the buckwheat metallothionein promoter: tissue specificity pattern and up-regulation under complex stress stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bratić, Ana M; Majić, Dragana B; Samardzić, Jelena T; Maksimović, Vesna R

    2009-06-01

    To shed light on expression regulation of the metallothionein gene from buckwheat (FeMT3), functional promoter analysis was performed with a complete 5' regulatory region and two deletion variants, employing stably transformed tobacco plants. Histochemical GUS assay of transgenic tobacco lines showed the strongest signals in vascular elements of leaves and in pollen grains, while somewhat weaker staining was observed in the roots of mature plants. This tissue specificity pattern implies a possible function of buckwheat MT3 in those tissues. Quantitative GUS assay showed strong up-regulation of all three promoter constructs (proportional to the length of the regulatory region) in leaves submerged in liquid MS medium containing sucrose, after a prolonged time period. This represented a complex stress situation composed of several synergistically related stress stimuli. These findings suggest complex transcriptional regulation of FeMT3, requiring interactions among a number of different factors.

  8. Transcriptomic meta-analysis reveals up-regulation of gene expression functional in osteoclast differentiation in human septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Samanwoy; Thatoi, Pravat K.; Pandey, Abhay D.; Das, Bidyut K.; Ravindran, Balachandran; Bhattacharjee, Samsiddhi; Mohapatra, Saroj K.

    2017-01-01

    Septic shock is a major medical problem with high morbidity and mortality and incompletely understood biology. Integration of multiple data sets into a single analysis framework empowers discovery of new knowledge about the condition that may have been missed by individual analysis of each of these datasets. Electronic search was performed on medical literature and gene expression databases for selection of transcriptomic studies done in circulating leukocytes from human subjects suffering from septic shock. Gene-level meta-analysis was conducted on the six selected studies to identify the genes consistently differentially expressed in septic shock. This was followed by pathway-level analysis using three different algorithms (ORA, GSEA, SPIA). The identified up-regulated pathway, Osteoclast differentiation pathway (hsa04380) was validated in two independent cohorts. Of the pathway, 25 key genes were selected that serve as an expression signature of Septic Shock. PMID:28199355

  9. Substance P up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase-1 and down-regulates collagen in human lung fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos; Montaño, Martha; Cisneros, Jose; Sommer, Bettina; Delgado, Javier; Gonzalez-Avila, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    Substance P is involved in inflammatory processes, but its effect on extracellular matrix metabolism has not been studied; therefore, the authors evaluated its effect on collagen synthesis and degradation, expression of pro-alpha1(I) collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -2, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 in normal human lung fibroblast strains. Substance P induced a decrease in collagen biosynthesis, concomitant to a down-regulation of pro-alpha1(I) collagen mRNA. In contrast, an increase in collagen degradation was observed, accompanied with an up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1. Substance P did not influence tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 or matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. The results suggest that substance P participates in extracellular matrix metabolism.

  10. Glucose metabolism activation by SHIP2 inhibitors via up-regulation of GLUT1 gene in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Akira; Kurama, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Sawada, Akihiko; Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Aramori, Ichiro

    2010-09-10

    Lipid phosphatase SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2) plays an important role in the regulation of insulin signaling. In this report, we identified AS1938909, a novel small-molecule SHIP2 inhibitor. AS1938909 showed potent inhibition of SHIP2 (Ki=0.44 microuM) and significant selectivity over other related phosphatases. Further, AS1938909 increased Akt phosphorylation, glucose consumption, and glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Treatment of L6 myotubes with SHIP2 inhibitors for 48 h significantly induced expression of GLUT1 mRNA, but not that of GLUT4. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of SHIP2 activates glucose metabolism due, at least in part, to up-regulation of GLUT1 gene expression.

  11. Up-regulation of hepatic receptor for growth hormone in the flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) after oral administration with exogenous GH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zong-Zhu; Wang, Jin-Bao; Xu, Yong-Li; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-06-01

    The iodination efficiency of salmon GH(sGH) was 38.82%, using a modification of the chloramine-T method. The specific activity of the125I-sGH was about 40 μCi/μg protein. The results of binding assay showed a single class of high affinity and low-capacity binding site in flounder liver. Long-term administration with exogenous GH can induce the up-regulation of hepatic GH receptor in total binding capacity though there was no significant difference in capacity of free binding sites of livers from control and experimental fish, this result also indicated that the liver from experimental fish, compared to that from control fish, had more occupied binding sites.

  12. Proto-oncogene ACTR/AIB1 promotes cancer cell invasion by up-regulating specific matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Li B; Louie, Maggie C; Chen, H-W; Zou, June X

    2008-03-08

    Overexpression of ACTR/AIB1 is frequently found in different cancers with distant metastasis. To address its possible involvement in tumor metastasis, we performed invasion assays to examine the effect of ACTR alteration on the invasiveness of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 or T-47D) and found that high levels of ACTR are required for their strong invasiveness. Molecular analysis indicates that ACTR functions as a coactivator of AP-1 to up-regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases such as MMP-7 and MMP-10 and reduce cell adhesion to specific extracellular matrix proteins. These novel findings provide a mechanistic link between ACTR and MMPs, and suggest that ACTR may also play an important role in cancer progression by facilitating tumor invasion.

  13. Mannose receptor induces T-cell tolerance via inhibition of CD45 and up-regulation of CTLA-4

    PubMed Central

    Schuette, Verena; Embgenbroich, Maria; Ulas, Thomas; Welz, Meike; Schulte-Schrepping, Jonas; Draffehn, Astrid M.; Quast, Thomas; Koch, Katharina; Nehring, Melanie; König, Jessica; Zweynert, Annegret; Harms, Frederike L.; Steiner, Nancy; Limmer, Andreas; Förster, Irmgard; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Knolle, Percy A.; Wohlleber, Dirk; Kolanus, Waldemar; Beyer, Marc; Schultze, Joachim L.; Burgdorf, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor involved in serum homeostasis and antigen presentation. Here, we identify the MR as a direct regulator of CD8+ T-cell activity. We demonstrate that MR expression on dendritic cells (DCs) impaired T-cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. This regulatory effect of the MR was mediated by a direct interaction with CD45 on the T cell, inhibiting its phosphatase activity, which resulted in up-regulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) and the induction of T-cell tolerance. Inhibition of CD45 prevented expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), a transcriptional inhibitor that directly bound the CTLA-4 promoter and regulated its activity. These data demonstrate that endocytic receptors expressed on DCs contribute to the regulation of T-cell functionality. PMID:27601670

  14. Berberine up-regulates the BDNF expression in hippocampus and attenuates corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ji-Duo; Ma, Li-Gang; Hu, Chun-Yue; Pei, Yang-Yi; Jin, Shuang-Li; Fang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yu-Cheng

    2016-02-12

    Depression is increasingly become a global public healthy problem. This study was to investigate whether berberine could attenuate the depressive-like behavior induced by repeated corticosterone injection and explore the possible mechanisms. The present results showed that exogenous corticosterone injection caused depressive-like behaviors in mice, such as decreased sucrose intake in sucrose preference test (SPT) and increased immobility time in forced swimming test (FST). These behavioral alterations were accompanying with the decreased BDNF mRNA and protein levels in hippocampus and the elevated serum corticosterone levels. Treatment with berberine prevented these changes above. Our findings confirmed the antidepressant-like effect of berberine and suggested its mechanisms might be partially mediated by up-regulation of BDNF in hippocampus.

  15. Differential expression of Prx I and II in mouse testis and their up-regulation by radiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keesook; Park, Ji-Sun; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Soo Lee, Yong Soo; Sook Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Dae-Joong; Park, Eun-Mi; Park, Young-Mee

    2002-08-16

    Testis is one of the most sensitive organs to ionizing radiation. The present study was designed to unravel the possible role of antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin I and II (Prx I and II) in the testis. Our results show that Prx I and II are constitutively expressed in the testis and their expression levels are decreased to some extent as the testis develops. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a preferential expression of Prx I and II in Leydig and Sertoli cells, respectively. Neither Prx I nor Prx II expression was obvious in the testicular germ cells including spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Ionizing radiation exerted oxidative stress on the testis and induced apoptosis primarily in the germ cells. When the irradiated testis was examined, the Prx system was found to be transiently up-regulated. Taken together, we suggest that the relative radiation-resistance of Leydig and Sertoli cells could be attributed in part to the antioxidant function of the Prx system in these cells.

  16. Transcriptomic meta-analysis reveals up-regulation of gene expression functional in osteoclast differentiation in human septic shock.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Samanwoy; Thatoi, Pravat K; Pandey, Abhay D; Das, Bidyut K; Ravindran, Balachandran; Bhattacharjee, Samsiddhi; Mohapatra, Saroj K

    2017-01-01

    Septic shock is a major medical problem with high morbidity and mortality and incompletely understood biology. Integration of multiple data sets into a single analysis framework empowers discovery of new knowledge about the condition that may have been missed by individual analysis of each of these datasets. Electronic search was performed on medical literature and gene expression databases for selection of transcriptomic studies done in circulating leukocytes from human subjects suffering from septic shock. Gene-level meta-analysis was conducted on the six selected studies to identify the genes consistently differentially expressed in septic shock. This was followed by pathway-level analysis using three different algorithms (ORA, GSEA, SPIA). The identified up-regulated pathway, Osteoclast differentiation pathway (hsa04380) was validated in two independent cohorts. Of the pathway, 25 key genes were selected that serve as an expression signature of Septic Shock.

  17. [Genistein attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yukun; Wang, Daoxin; Zhu, Tao; Li, Changyi

    2012-02-01

    To study the effect of genistein on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT). Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15), namely the control group, model group, low-dose (20 µg/kg) genistein group and high-dose (80 µg/kg) genistein group. The hemodynamic parameters were measured and the remodeling of pulmonary small arteries was observed by electron microscope (EM). The expression of HO-1 in the lung tissues were detected by Western blotting. Compared with the model group, genistein treatment significantly reduced the elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure, improved the right ventricular hypertrophy index, and increased the expression of HO-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Genistein attentuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in MCT-treated rats possibly by up-regulation of HO-1 in the lung tissues.

  18. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun; Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Choi, Il-Whan; Jeong, Yongsu; Shin, Jae-Gook; Oh, Sangtaek

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  19. Up-Regulation of MiR-300 Promotes Proliferation and Invasion of Osteosarcoma by Targeting BRD7.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhen; Zhao, Jindong; Niu, Liyuan; An, Gang; Guo, Yashan; Ni, Linying

    2015-01-01

    Increasing reports suggest that deregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) might provide novel therapeutic targets for cancers. However, the expression and function of miR-300 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. In our study, we found that the expression of miR-300 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cells compared with paired adjacent non-tumor bone tissues and osteoblastic cells using RT-qPCR. The enforced expression of miR-300 could promote cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, we identified that bromodomain-containing protein 7 (BRD7), a new tumor suppressor gene, was a direct target of miR-300. Ectopic expression of BRD7 could significantly inhibit miR-300-promoted proliferation, invasion and EMT. Therefore, our results identify an important role for miR-300 in osteosarcoma through regulating BRD7 expression.

  20. MicroRNA miR-1 is up-regulated in remote myocardium in patients with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bostjancic, E; Zidar, N; Stajner, D; Glavac, D

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNA molecules that mediate regulation of gene expression, thus affecting a variety of physiological, developmental and pathological conditions. They are believed to be new promising therapeutic targets. In recent studies two muscle-specific microRNAs were discovered to contribute to heart diseases and development: miR-1 and miR-133, but there is little data on their expression patterns in human myocardial infarction. We performed simultaneous expression analysis of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b in samples of infarcted tissue and remote myocardium from twenty- four patients with acute myocardial infarction. MicroRNA expression was analysed using quantitative real-time PCR and compared to the expression patterns in myocardium of eight healthy adults who died in accidents. We found ~3.8-fold miR-1 up-regulation in remote myocardium when compared to infarcted tissue or healthy adult hearts. As miR-1 has been shown in animal models and clinical studies to contribute to arrhythmogenesis by regulating pacemaker channel genes, our finding of miR-1 up-regulation in patients with myocardial infarction indicates that it might be responsible for the higher risk for arrhythmias in these patients. In addition, miR-133a/b down-regulation in infarcted tissue and remote myocardium was observed, indicating miR-133a/b involvement in the heart response to myocardial infarction. We conclude that miR-1 and miR-133 seem to be important regulators of heart adaptation after ischaemic stress.

  1. Ampelopsin Improves Insulin Resistance by Activating PPARγ and Subsequently Up-Regulating FGF21-AMPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Liu, Lei; Wan, Jing; Zou, Lingyun; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-01-01

    Ampelopsin (APL), a major bioactive constituent of Ampelopsis grossedentata, exerts a number of biological effects. Here, we explored the anti-diabetic activity of APL and elucidate the underlying mechanism of this action. In palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes, APL treatment markedly up- regulated phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 and protein kinase B, along with a corresponding increase of glucose uptake capacity. APL treatment also increased expressions of fibroblast growth factor (FGF21) and phosphorylated adenosine 5’-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), however inhibiting AMPK by Compound C or AMPK siRNA, or blockage of FGF21 by FGF21 siRNA, obviously weakened APL -induced increases of FGF21 and p-AMPK as well as glucose uptake capacity in palmitate -pretreated L6 myotubes. Furthermore, APL could activate PPAR γ resulting in increases of glucose uptake capacity and expressions of FGF21 and p-AMPK in palmitate -pretreated L6 myotubes, whereas all those effects were obviously abolished by addition of GW9662, a specific inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor –γ (PPARγ), and PPARγsiRNA. Using molecular modeling and the luciferase reporter assays, we observed that APL could dock with the catalytic domain of PPARγ and dose-dependently up-regulate PPARγ activity. In summary, APL maybe a potential agonist of PPARγ and promotes insulin sensitization by activating PPARγ and subsequently regulating FGF21- AMPK signaling pathway. These results provide new insights into the protective health effects of APL, especially for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27391974

  2. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An early ethylene up-regulated gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein involved in plant senescence and death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    35S-Labeled calmodulin (CaM) was used to screen a tobacco anther cDNA library. A positive clone (NtER1) with high homology to an early ethylene-up-regulated gene (ER66) in tomato, and an Arabidopsis homolog was isolated and characterized. Based on the helical wheel projection, a 25-mer peptide corresponding to the predicted CaM-binding region of NtER1 (amino acids 796-820) was synthesized. The gel-mobility shift assay showed that the peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of Ca(2+). CaM binds to NtER1 with high affinity (K(d) approximately 12 nm) in a calcium-dependent manner. Tobacco flowers at different stages of development were treated with ethylene or with 1-methylcyclopropene for 2 h before treating with ethylene. Northern analysis showed that the NtER1 was rapidly induced after 15 min of exposure to ethylene. However, the 2-h 1-methylcyclopropene treatment totally blocked NtER1 expression in flowers at all stages of development, suggesting that NtER1 is an early ethylene-up-regulated gene. The senescing leaves and petals had significantly increased NtER1 induction as compared with young leaves and petals, implying that NtER1 is developmentally regulated and acts as a trigger for senescence and death. This is the first documented evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signaling in ethylene action.

  4. Beta- Lactam Antibiotics Stimulate Biofilm Formation in Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae by Up-Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M.; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended. PMID:25007395

  5. Increased curvature of hollow fiber membranes could up-regulate differential functions of renal tubular cell layers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Meng, Qin; Zhang, Guoliang

    2013-08-01

    Tissue engineering devices as in vitro cell culture systems in scaffolds has encountered the bottleneck due to their much lower cell functions than real tissues/organs in vivo. Such situation has been improved in some extent by mimicking the cell microenvironments in vivo from either chemical or physical ways. However, microenvironmental curvature, commonly seen in real tissues/organs, has never been manipulated to regulate the cell performance in vitro. In this regard, this paper fabricated polysulfone membranes with or without polyethylene glycol modification to investigate the impact of curvature on two renal tubular cells. Regardless the varying membrane curvatures among hollow fiber membranes of different diameters and flat membrane of zero curvature, both renal cells could well attach at 4 h of seeding and form similar confluent layers at 6 days on each membrane. Nevertheless, the renal cells on hollow fibers, though showing confluent morphology as those on flat membranes, expressed higher renal functions and, moreover, the renal functions significantly increased with the membrane curvature among hollow fibers. Such upregulation on functions was unassociated with mass transport barrier of hollow fibers, because the cultures on lengthwise cut hollow fibers without mass transfer barrier showed same curvature effect on renal functions as whole hollow fibers. It could be proposed that the curvature of hollow fiber membrane approaching to the large curvature in kidney tubules increased the mechanical stress in the renal cells and thus might up-regulate the renal cell functions. In conclusion, the increase of substrate curvature could up-regulate the cell functions without altering the confluent cell morphology and this finding will facilitate the design of functional tissue engineering devices.

  6. Simvastatin alleviates cardiac fibrosis induced by infarction via up-regulation of TGF-β receptor III expression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Duan, Wenqi; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lingling; Qile, Muge; Liu, Zengyan; Qiu, Fang; Zhao, Dan; Lu, Yanjie; Chu, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Statins decrease heart disease risk, but their mechanisms are not completely understood. We examined the role of the TGF-β receptor III (TGFBR3) in the inhibition of cardiac fibrosis by simvastatin. Experimental Approach Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice given simvastatin orally for 7 days. Cardiac fibrosis was measured by Masson staining and electron microscopy. Heart function was evaluated by echocardiography. Signalling through TGFBR3, ERK1/2, JNK and p38 pathways was measured using Western blotting. Collagen content and cell viability were measured in cultures of neonatal mouse cardiac fibroblasts (NMCFs). Interactions between TGFBR3 and the scaffolding protein, GAIP-interacting protein C-terminus (GIPC) were detected using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP). In vivo, hearts were injected with lentivirus carrying shRNA for TGFBR3. Key Results Simvastatin prevented fibrosis following MI, improved heart ultrastructure and function, up-regulated TGFBR3 and decreased ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Simvastatin up-regulated TGFBR3 in NMCFs, whereas silencing TGFBR3 reversed inhibitory effects of simvastatin on cell proliferation and collagen production. Simvastatin inhibited ERK1/2 and JNK signalling while silencing TGFBR3 opposed this effect. Co-IP demonstrated TGFBR3 binding to GIPC. Overexpressing TGFBR3 inhibited ERK1/2 and JNK signalling which was abolished by knock-down of GIPC. In vivo, suppression of cardiac TGFBR3 abolished anti-fibrotic effects, improvement of cardiac function and changes in related proteins after simvastatin. Conclusions and Implications TGFBR3 mediated the decreased cardiac fibrosis, collagen deposition and fibroblast activity, induced by simvastatin, following MI. These effects involved GIPC inhibition of the ERK1/2/JNK pathway. PMID:25884615

  7. Simvastatin alleviates cardiac fibrosis induced by infarction via up-regulation of TGF-β receptor III expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Duan, Wenqi; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Lingling; Qile, Muge; Liu, Zengyan; Qiu, Fang; Zhao, Dan; Lu, Yanjie; Chu, Wenfeng

    2015-08-01

    Statins decrease heart disease risk, but their mechanisms are not completely understood. We examined the role of the TGF-β receptor III (TGFBR3) in the inhibition of cardiac fibrosis by simvastatin. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice given simvastatin orally for 7 days. Cardiac fibrosis was measured by Masson staining and electron microscopy. Heart function was evaluated by echocardiography. Signalling through TGFBR3, ERK1/2, JNK and p38 pathways was measured using Western blotting. Collagen content and cell viability were measured in cultures of neonatal mouse cardiac fibroblasts (NMCFs). Interactions between TGFBR3 and the scaffolding protein, GAIP-interacting protein C-terminus (GIPC) were detected using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP). In vivo, hearts were injected with lentivirus carrying shRNA for TGFBR3. Simvastatin prevented fibrosis following MI, improved heart ultrastructure and function, up-regulated TGFBR3 and decreased ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Simvastatin up-regulated TGFBR3 in NMCFs, whereas silencing TGFBR3 reversed inhibitory effects of simvastatin on cell proliferation and collagen production. Simvastatin inhibited ERK1/2 and JNK signalling while silencing TGFBR3 opposed this effect. Co-IP demonstrated TGFBR3 binding to GIPC. Overexpressing TGFBR3 inhibited ERK1/2 and JNK signalling which was abolished by knock-down of GIPC. In vivo, suppression of cardiac TGFBR3 abolished anti-fibrotic effects, improvement of cardiac function and changes in related proteins after simvastatin. TGFBR3 mediated the decreased cardiac fibrosis, collagen deposition and fibroblast activity, induced by simvastatin, following MI. These effects involved GIPC inhibition of the ERK1/2/JNK pathway. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Body fat mass reduction and up-regulation of uncoupling protein by novel lipolysis-promoting plant extract.

    PubMed

    Mori, Shinobu; Satou, Mayumi; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Yoshizuka, Naonobu; Hase, Tadashi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Takema, Yoshinori; Nishizawa, Yoshinori; Yada, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    We have found natural products exhibiting lipolysis-promoting activity in subcutaneous adipocytes, which are less sensitive to hormones than visceral adipocytes. The activities and a action mechanisms of a novel plant extract of Cirsium oligophyllum (CE) were investigated in isolated adipocytes from rat subcutaneous fat, and its fat-reducing effects by peroral administration and topical application were evaluated in vivo. CE-induced lipolysis was synergistically enhanced by caffeine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and was reduced by propranolol, a beta adrenergic antagonist. The peroral administration of 10% CE solution to Wistar rats for 32 days reduced body weight gain, subcutaneous, and visceral fat weights by 6.6, 26.2, and 3.0%, respectively, as compared to the control group. By the topical application of 2% of this extract to rats for 7 days, weight of subcutaneous fat in the treated skin was reduced by 23.2%. This fat mass reduction was accompanied by the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP), a principal thermogenic mitochondrial molecule related to energy dissipating, in subcutaneous fat and UCP3 in skin except for the fat layer. These results indicate that CE promotes lipolysis via a mechanism involving the beta adrenergic receptor, and affects the body fat mass. This fat reduction may be partially due to UCP up-regulation in the skin including subcutaneous fat. This is the first report showing that repeated lipolysis promotion through CE administration may be beneficial for the systematic suppression of body fat accumulation or the control of fat distribution in obesity.

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Inhibits Lung Epithelial Na+ Channels by Up-regulating Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Weifeng; Liu, Gang; Bosworth, Charles A.; Walker, John R.; Megaw, George A.; Lazrak, Ahmed; Abraham, Edward; Sullender, Wayne M.; Matalon, Sadis

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has been shown to reduce Na+-driven alveolar fluid clearance in BALB/c mice in vivo. To investigate the cellular mechanisms by which RSV inhibits amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC), the main pathways through which Na+ ions enter lung epithelial cells, we infected human Clara-like lung (H441) cells with RSV that expresses green fluorescent protein (rRA2). 3-6 days later patch clamp recordings showed that infected cells (i.e. cells expressing green fluorescence; GFP(+)) had significantly lower whole-cell amiloride-sensitive currents and single channel activity (NPo) as compared with non-infected (GFP(-)), non-inoculated, or cells infected with UV-inactivated RSV. Both α and β ENaC mRNA levels were significantly reduced in GFP(+) cells as measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Infection with RSV increased expression of the inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrite concentration in the culture medium; nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and NF-κB activation were also up-regulated. iNOS up-regulation in GFP(+) cells was prevented by knocking down IκB kinase γ before infection. Furthermore, pretreatment of H441 cells with the specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W (1 μm) resulted in a doubling of the amiloride-sensitive Na+ current in GFP(+) cells. Additionally, preincubation of H441 cells with A77-1726 (20 μm), a de novo UTP synthesis inhibitor, and 1400W completely reversed the RSV inhibition of amiloride-sensitive currents in GFP(+) cells. Thus, both UTP- and iNOS-generated reactive species contribute to ENaC down-regulation in RSV-infected airway epithelial cells. PMID:19131335

  10. Anabolic Effect of Insulin Therapy on the Bone: Osteoprotegerin and Osteocalcin Up-Regulation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Raul Hernandes; Freire Neto, Francisco Paulo; Arcaro, Carlos Alberto; Bezerra, João Felipe; da Silva, Flávio Santos; Ururahy, Marcela Abbott Galvão; Souza, Karla Simone da Costa; Lima, Valeria Morgiana Gualberto Duarte Moreira; Luchessi, André Ducati; Lima, Francisco Pignataro; Lia Fook, Marcus Vinicius; da Silva, Bartolomeu Jorge; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Abreu, Bento João; de Rezende, Luciana Augusto; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto

    2017-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with several skeletal alterations, particularly in conditions of poor glycaemic control. Insulin therapy is the major conservative treatment for T1DM; however, the effects of this hormone on bone markers of T1DM rats are limited, and the regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, the evaluation of molecular and non-molecular parameters in a chronic animal model of T1DM-induced bone loss, treated with and without insulin, may help in elucidating the insulin mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were assigned into three groups: control, T1DM (T1DM rats induced with streptozotocin [STZ] at 40 mg/kg intravenously) and T1DM plus insulin therapy (T1DMI). After 8 weeks, we evaluated the serum biochemical, tibia histomorphometric and biomechanical parameters, as well as the gene expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin (OC) of femur mRNA. Compared with T1DM, the T1DMI group showed less bone loss, which was revealed by the increased trabecular width (TbWi, p < 0.001) and trabecular bone area (BAr, p < 0.01), reduced trabecular separation (TbSp, p < 0.01) and increased Young's modulus (p < 0.05). Moreover, molecular analyses indicated that the expression of OPG and OC was up-regulated (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, the up-regulation of OPG and OC in the T1DMI group supports an anabolic effect of insulin, which was demonstrated by the maintenance of bone architecture and flexibility. These results suggest that insulin therapy may prevent T1DM-induced bone loss via the effects on the bone formation.

  11. Up regulation of Bax and down regulation of Bcl2 during 3-NC mediated apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mohammad Hassan; Mahdavi, Majid; Davoodi, Jamshid; Tackallou, Saeed Hesami; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Neishabouri, Shima Hallaj

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have reported the induction of apoptosis by 2-amino-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4H-chromene (3-NC) in HepG2, T47D and HCT116 cells with low nano molar IC50 values. In this study, anti-proliferative effects of modified 4-aryle-4H-chromenes derivatives; 2-amino-4-(3-bromophenyl)-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4H-chromene (3-BC), 2-amino-4-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4H-chromene (3-TFC) and 2-amino-4-(4,5-methylenedioxyphenyl)-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4H-chromene (4, 5-MC) were investigated in three human cancer cell lines. Compared to 3-NC none of the compounds displayed better anti-proliferative effect, although 3-BC appeared somewhat similar. Therefore 3-NC was selected for further studies. Treatment of HepG2, T47D and HCT116 cells with this compound induced apoptosis as visualized by fluorescence microscopic study of Hoechst 33258 stained cells. Induction of apoptosis was quantified by Annexin V/PI staining using flow cytometry. Western blot analysis also revealed that 3-NC down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and up-regulated pro-apoptotic protein Bax, in all of the cell lines. Nonetheless, HepG2 cell line was the most responsive to 3-NC as Bax and Bcl2 showed the most dramatic up and down regulation. Our previous finding that 3-NC down regulates Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) and the present observation that Bax is upregulated and Bcl2 is down regulated upon 3-NC treatment, this chromene derivative has the potential to overcome chemotherapy resistance caused by up regulation of these proteins.

  12. Failure to up-regulate transcription of genes necessary for muscle adaptation underlies limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (calpainopathy).

    PubMed

    Kramerova, Irina; Ermolova, Natalia; Eskin, Ascia; Hevener, Andrea; Quehenberger, Oswald; Armando, Aaron M; Haller, Ronald; Romain, Nadine; Nelson, Stanley F; Spencer, Melissa J

    2016-06-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is due to loss-of-function mutations in the Calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene. Our previous data suggest that CAPN3 helps to maintain the integrity of the triad complex in skeletal muscle. In Capn3 knock-out mice (C3KO), Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) signaling are attenuated. We hypothesized that calpainopathy may result from a failure to transmit loading-induced Ca(2+)-mediated signals, necessary to up-regulate expression of muscle adaptation genes. To test this hypothesis, we compared transcriptomes of muscles from wild type (WT) and C3KO mice subjected to endurance exercise. In WT mice, exercise induces a gene signature that includes myofibrillar, mitochondrial and oxidative lipid metabolism genes, necessary for muscle adaptation. C3KO muscles fail to activate the same gene signature. Furthermore, in agreement with the aberrant transcriptional profile, we observe a commensurate functional defect in lipid metabolism whereby C3KO muscles fail to release fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol. In conjunction with the defects in oxidative metabolism, C3KO mice demonstrate reduced exercise endurance. Failure to up-regulate genes in C3KO muscles is due, in part, to decreased levels of PGC1α, a transcriptional co-regulator that orchestrates the muscle adaptation response. Destabilization of PGC1α is attributable to decreased p38 MAPK activation via diminished CaMKII signaling. Thus, we elucidate a pathway downstream of Ca(2+)-mediated CaMKII activation that is dysfunctional in C3KO mice, leading to reduced transcription of genes involved in muscle adaptation. These studies identify a novel mechanism of muscular dystrophy: a blunted transcriptional response to muscle loading resulting in chronic failure to adapt and remodel. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Oestrogen up-regulates interleukin-21 production by CD4(+) T lymphocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Shin, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Seon-Yeong; Her, Yang-Mi; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Park, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2014-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which abnormal immune responses are mediated by tissue-binding autoantibodies and immune complex deposition. Because most SLE patients are women of child-bearing age, oestrogen has been suggested to play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. One proposed role is to induce B-cell activation, culminating in increased autoantibody production. Interleukin-21 (IL-21) has been shown to be crucial in the differentiation of activated B cells into plasma cells. We therefore hypothesized that oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 production and induces subsequent B-cell activation in SLE patients. Peripheral blood was obtained from 22 SLE patients and 16 healthy controls. Expression levels of IL-21 and its receptor in serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and CD4(+) T cells were higher in SLE patients than in healthy controls. Exposure of CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients to 17β-oestradiol led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in IL-21 expression, which was abolished in the presence of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (MAPK kinase, p38, Jun N-terminal kinase) inhibitors. B cells from healthy controls showed increased antibody production when they were co-cultured with oestrogen-treated CD4(+) T cells from SLE patients. Treatment with IL-21 antibody abrogated the increased antibody production of the co-culture systems. This study revealed the association between oestrogen and IL-21 in SLE patients. Oestrogen up-regulates IL-21 expression of CD4(+) T cells via MAPK-dependent pathways in SLE patients, which in turn induces increased antibody production by B cells.

  14. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate increase apolipoprotein AV and decrease triglycerides by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xian-sheng; Zhao, Shui-ping; Bai, Lin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Wang; Zhang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Combining statin and fibrate in clinical practice provides a greater reduction of triglycerides than either drug given alone, but the mechanism for this effect is poorly understood. Apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) has been implicated in triglyceride metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the combination of statin and fibrate on apoAV and the underlying mechanism(s). Experimental approach: Hypertriglyceridaemia was induced in rats by giving them 10% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks. They were then treated with atorvastatin, fenofibrate or the two agents combined for 4 weeks, and plasma triglyceride and apoAV measured. We also tested the effects of these two agents on triglycerides and apoAV in HepG2 cells in culture. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure apoAV and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) expression. Key results: The combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate resulted in a greater decrease in plasma triglycerides and a greater increase in plasma and hepatic apoAV than either agent given alone. Hepatic expression of the PPARα was also more extensively up-regulated in rats treated with the combination. A similar, greater increase in apoAV and a greater decrease in triglycerides were observed following treatment of HepG2 cells pre-exposed to fructose), with the combination. Adding an inhibitor of PPARα (MK886) abolished the effects of atorvastatin on HepG2 cells. Conclusions and implications: A combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate increased apoAV and decreased triglycerides through up-regulation of PPARα. PMID:19694729

  15. Adrenomedullin is Up-regulated in Patients With Pancreatic Cancer and Causes Insulin Resistance in β Cells and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Gaurav; Ramachandran, Vijaya; Javeed, Naureen; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Dutta, Shamit; Klee, George G.; Klee, Eric W.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Bamlet, William; Han, Jing Jing; Rumie Vittar, Natalia B.; De Andrade, Mariza; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Petersen, Gloria M.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Logsdon, Craig D.; Chari, Suresh T.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims New-onset diabetes in patients with pancreatic cancer is likely to be a paraneoplastic phenomenon caused by tumor-secreted products. We aimed to identify the diabetogenic secretory product(s) of pancreatic cancer Methods Using microarray analysis, we identified adrenomedullin as a potential mediator of diabetes in patients with pancreatic cancer. Adrenomedullin was up-regulated in pancreatic cancer cell lines, in which supernatants reduced insulin signaling in beta cell lines. We performed quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry on human pancreatic cancer and healthy pancreatic tissues (controls) to determine expression of adrenomedullin messenger RNA and protein, respectively. We studied the effects of adrenomedullin on insulin secretion by beta cell lines and whole islets from mice and on glucose tolerance in pancreatic xenografts in mice. We measured plasma levels of adrenomedullin in patients with pancreatic cancer, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and individuals with normal fasting glucose levels (controls) Results Levels of adrenomedullin messenger RNA and protein were increased in human pancreatic cancer samples compared with controls. Adrenomedullin and conditioned media from pancreatic cell lines inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta cell lines and islets isolated from mice; the effects of conditioned media from pancreatic cancer cells were reduced by small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of adrenomedullin. Conversely, overexpression of adrenomedullin in mice with pancreatic cancer led to glucose intolerance. Mean plasma levels of adrenomedullin (femtomoles per liter) were higher in patients with pancreatic cancer compared with patients with diabetes or controls. Levels of adrenomedullin were higher in patients with pancreatic cancer who developed diabetes compared those who did not. Conclusions Adrenomedullin is up-regulated in patients with pancreatic cancer and

  16. Curcumin attenuates EGF-induced AQP3 up-regulation and cell migration in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chao; Cao, Cong; Lu, Shan; Kivlin, Rebecca; Amaral, Ashley; Kouttab, Nicola; Yang, Hui; Chu, Wenming; Bi, Zhigang; Di, Wen; Wan, Yinsheng

    2008-10-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed in high-grade tumor cells of different tissue origins. Based on the involvement of AQPs in angiogenesis and cell migration as well as our previous studies which show that AQP3 is involved in human skin fibroblasts cell migration, in this study, we investigated whether AQP3 is expressed in cultured human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV3 cells, and whether AQP3 expression in these cells enhances cell migration and metastatic potential. Cultured CaOV3 cells were treated with EGF and/or various reagents and subjected to cell migration assay by phagokinetic track mobility assay or biochemical analysis for expression or activation of proteins by SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that AQP3 is expressed in CaOV3 cells. EGF induces CaOV3 migration and up-regulates AQP3 expression. EGF-induced cell migration is inhibited by specific AQP3 siRNA knockdown or AQP3 water transport inhibitor CuSO4 and NiCl2. We also find that curcumin, a well known anti-ovarian cancer drug, down-regulates AQP3 expression and reduces cell migration in CaOV3, and the effects of curcumin are mediated, at least in part, by its inhibitory effects on EGFR and downstream AKT/ERK activation. Collectively, our results provide evidence for AQP3-facilitated ovarian cancer cell migration, suggesting a novel function for AQP3 expression in high-grade tumors. The results that curcumin inhibits EGF-induced up-regulation of AQP3 and cell migration, provide a new explanation for the anticancer potential of curcumin.

  17. Failure to up-regulate transcription of genes necessary for muscle adaptation underlies limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (calpainopathy)

    PubMed Central

    Kramerova, Irina; Ermolova, Natalia; Eskin, Ascia; Hevener, Andrea; Quehenberger, Oswald; Armando, Aaron M.; Haller, Ronald; Romain, Nadine; Nelson, Stanley F.; Spencer, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A is due to loss-of-function mutations in the Calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene. Our previous data suggest that CAPN3 helps to maintain the integrity of the triad complex in skeletal muscle. In Capn3 knock-out mice (C3KO), Ca2+ release and Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) signaling are attenuated. We hypothesized that calpainopathy may result from a failure to transmit loading-induced Ca2+-mediated signals, necessary to up-regulate expression of muscle adaptation genes. To test this hypothesis, we compared transcriptomes of muscles from wild type (WT) and C3KO mice subjected to endurance exercise. In WT mice, exercise induces a gene signature that includes myofibrillar, mitochondrial and oxidative lipid metabolism genes, necessary for muscle adaptation. C3KO muscles fail to activate the same gene signature. Furthermore, in agreement with the aberrant transcriptional profile, we observe a commensurate functional defect in lipid metabolism whereby C3KO muscles fail to release fatty acids from stored triacylglycerol. In conjunction with the defects in oxidative metabolism, C3KO mice demonstrate reduced exercise endurance. Failure to up-regulate genes in C3KO muscles is due, in part, to decreased levels of PGC1α, a transcriptional co-regulator that orchestrates the muscle adaptation response. Destabilization of PGC1α is attributable to decreased p38 MAPK activation via diminished CaMKII signaling. Thus, we elucidate a pathway downstream of Ca2+-mediated CaMKII activation that is dysfunctional in C3KO mice, leading to reduced transcription of genes involved in muscle adaptation. These studies identify a novel mechanism of muscular dystrophy: a blunted transcriptional response to muscle loading resulting in chronic failure to adapt and remodel. PMID:27005420

  18. 16-Dehydropregnenolone lowers serum cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1 in hyperlipidemic male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Kumar, Durgesh; Bhateria, Manisha; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2017-04-01

    16-Dehydropregnenolone (DHP) has been developed and patented as a promising antihyperlipidemic agent by CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR-CDRI), India. Although DHP is implicated in controlling cholesterol homeostasis, the mechanism underlying its pharmacological effect in hyperlipidemic disease models is poorly understood. In the present study, we postulated that DHP lowers serum lipids through regulating the key hepatic genes accountable for cholesterol metabolism. The hypothesis was tested on golden Syrian hamsters fed with high-fat diet (HFD) following oral administration of DHP at a dose of 72mg/kg body weight for a period of one week. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and total bile acids (TBA) in feces were measured. Real time comparative gene expression studies were performed for CYP7A1, LXRα and PPARα level in liver tissue of hamsters. The results revealed that the DHP profoundly decreased the levels of serum TC, TG, LDL-C and atherogenic index (AI), whilst elevated the HDL-C/TC ratio. Besides, DHP exhibited an anti-hyperlipidemic effect in the HFD induced hyperlipidemic hamsters by means of: (1) up-regulating the gene expression of CYP7A1 encoded cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, that promotes the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid; (2) inducing the gene expression of transcription factors LXRα and PPARα; (3) increasing the TBA excretion through feces. Collectively, the findings presented confer the hypolipidemic activity of DHP via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 pathway that promotes cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and bile acid excretion.

  19. Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Up-regulates iNOS Expression in ApoE Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ni; Kido, Takashi; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Rosenfeld, Michael E.; van Breemen, Cornelis; van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200µg/m3 of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6h/day, 5days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400W). NF-κB (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-κB (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by ~20%, which was partly reversed by 1400W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-κB was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-κB activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-κB activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R2= 0.5998). Conclusions We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-κB-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:21722660

  20. Improved Myocardial Perfusion in Chronic Diabetic Mice by the Up-Regulation of pLKB1 and AMPK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kusmic, Claudia; L'Abbate, Antonio; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Drummond, George; Barsanti, Cristina; Matteucci, Marco; Cao, Jian; Piccolomini, Francesco; Cheng, Jennifer; Abraham, Nader G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies related impaired myocardial microcirculation in diabetes to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, this study was aimed to determine the effect of up-regulating pAMPK-pAKT signaling on coronary microvascular reactivity in the isolated heart of diabetic mice. We measured coronary resistance in wild-type and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice, during perfusion pressure changes. Glucose, insulin, and adiponectin levels in plasma and superoxide formation, NOx levels and heme oxygenase (HO) activity in myocardial tissue were determined. In addition, the expression of HO-1, 3-nitrotyrosine, pLKB1, pAMPK, pAKT, and peNOS proteins in control and diabetic hearts were measured. Coronary response to changes in perfusion pressure diverged from control in a time-dependent manner following STZ administration. The responses observed at 28 weeks of diabetes (the maximum time examined) were mimicked by L-NAME administration to control animals and were associated with a decrease in serum adiponectin and myocardial pLKB1, pAMPK, pAKT, and pGSK-3 expression. Cobalt protoporphyrin treatment to induce HO-1 expression reversed the microvascular reactivity seen in diabetes towards that of controls. Up-regulation of HO-1 was associated with an increase in adiponectin, pLKB1, pAKT, pAMPK, pGSK-3, and peNOS levels and a decrease in myocardial superoxide and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. In the present study we describe the time course of microvascular functional changes during the development of diabetes and the existence of a unique relationship between the levels of serum adiponectin, pLKB1, pAKT, and pAMPK activation in diabetic hearts. The restoration of microvascular function suggests a new therapeutic approach to even advanced cardiac microvascular derangement in diabetes. PMID:20108250

  1. Immunomodulatory drugs act as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases and induce PU.1 up-regulation in myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Endo, Shinya; Amano, Masayuki; Nishimura, Nao; Ueno, Niina; Ueno, Shikiko; Yuki, Hiromichi; Fujiwara, Shiho; Wada, Naoko; Hirata, Shinya; Hata, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Okuno, Yutaka

    2016-01-08

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide are efficacious in the treatment of multiple myeloma and significantly prolong their survival. However, the mechanisms of such effects of IMiDs have not been fully elucidated. Recently, cereblon has been identified as a target binding protein of thalidomide. Lenalidomide-resistant myeloma cell lines often lose the expression of cereblon, suggesting that IMiDs act as an anti-myeloma agent through interacting with cereblon. Cereblon binds to damaged DNA-binding protein and functions as a ubiquitin ligase, inducing degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 that are essential transcription factors for B and T cell development. Degradation of both IKZF1 and IKZF3 reportedly suppresses myeloma cell growth. Here, we found that IMiDs act as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DMNTs). We previously reported that PU.1, which is an ETS family transcription factor and essential for myeloid and lymphoid development, functions as a tumor suppressor in myeloma cells. PU.1 induces growth arrest and apoptosis of myeloma cell lines. In this study, we found that low-dose lenalidomide and pomalidomide up-regulate PU.1 expression through inducing demethylation of the PU.1 promoter. In addition, IMiDs inhibited DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b activities in vitro. Furthermore, lenalidomide and pomalidomide decreased the methylation status of the whole genome in myeloma cells. Collectively, IMiDs exert demethylation activity through inhibiting DNMT1, 3a, and 3b, and up-regulating PU.1 expression, which may be one of the mechanisms of the anti-myeloma activity of IMiDs.

  2. Internal focus of attention in anxiety-sensitive females up-regulates amygdale activity: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, Bettina; Berse, Timo; Stroux, Daniel; Ewert, Adrianna; Konrad, Carsten; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive behavioral models of panic disorder (PD) stress the importance of an increased attentional focus towards bodily symptoms in the onset and maintenance of this debilitating anxiety disorder. In this fMRI mental tracking paradigm, we looked at the effects of focusing one's attention internally (interoception) vs. externally (exteroception) in a well-studied group at risk for PD-that is anxiety-sensitive females (AS-high). We hypothesized that AS-high subjects compared to control subjects will present higher arousal and decreased valence scores during interoception and parallel higher activity in brain areas which are associated with fear and interoception. 24 healthy female students with high levels of anxiety sensitivity and 24 healthy female students with normal levels of anxiety sensitivity serving as control group were investigated by 3 T fMRI. Subjects either focused their attention on their heartbeats (internal condition) or on neutral tones (external condition). Task performance was monitored by reporting the number of heartbeats or tones after each block. State of arousal and emotional valence were also assessed. The high anxiety-sensitive group reported higher arousal scores compared to controls during the course of the experiment. Simultaneously, fMRI results indicated higher activation in anxiety-sensitive participants than in controls during interoception in a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions (thalamus, amygdala, parahippocampus) that overlaps with known fear circuitry structures. In particular, the activity of the right amygdala was up-regulated. Future prospective-longitudinal studies are needed to validate the role of the amygdala for transition to disorder. Attention to internal body functions up-regulates the activity of interoceptive and fear-relevant brain regions in anxiety-sensitive females, a high-risk group for the development of anxiety disorders.

  3. Sevoflurane postconditioning improves myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by up-regulating HIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Long; Xie, Peng; Wu, Jianjiang; Yu, Jin; Yu, Tian; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Jiang; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) can exert myocardial protective effects similar to ischemic preconditioning. However, the exact myocardial protection mechanism by SPostC is unclear. Studies indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) maintains cellular respiration homeostasis by regulating mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activity under hypoxic conditions. This study investigated whether SPostC could regulate the expression of myocardial HIF-1α and to improve mitochondrial respiratory function, thereby relieving myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established using the Langendorff isolated heart perfusion apparatus. Additionally, postconditioning was performed using sevoflurane alone or in combination with the HIF-1α inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2). The changes in hemodynamic parameters, HIF-1α protein expression levels, mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activity, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were measured or observed. Results: Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) group, HIF-1α expression in the SPostC group was significantly up-regulated. Additionally, cardiac function indicators, mitochondrial state 3 respiratory rate, respiratory control ratio (RCR), cytochrome C oxidase (CcO), NADH oxidase (NADHO), and succinate oxidase (SUCO) activities, mitochondrial ROS production rate, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were significantly better than those in the I/R group. However, these advantages were completely reversed by the HIF-1α specific inhibitor 2ME2 (P<0.05). Conclusion: The myocardial protective function of SPostC might be associated with the improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function after up-regulation of HIF-1α expression. PMID:27830025

  4. NFATc3 Mediates Chronic Hypoxia-induced Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling with α-Actin Up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    de Frutos, S.; Spangler, R.; Alò, D.; González Bosc, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Physiological responses to chronic hypoxia include polycythemia, pulmonary arterial remodeling and vasoconstriction. Chronic hypoxia causes pulmonary arterial hypertension leading to right ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. During pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arteries exhibit increased expression of smooth muscle-α-actin and -myosin heavy chain. NFATc3 (nuclear factor of activated T cells isoform c3), which is a Ca2+-dependent transcription factor, has been recently linked to smooth muscle phenotypic maintenance through the regulation of the expression of α-actin. The aim of this study was to determine if: a) NFATc3 is expressed in murine pulmonary arteries, b) hypoxia induces NFAT activation, c) NFATc3 mediates the up-regulation of α-actin during chronic hypoxia, and d) NFATc3 is involved in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. NFATc3 transcript and protein were found in pulmonary arteries. NFAT-luciferase reporter mice were exposed to normoxia (630 torr) or hypoxia (380 torr) for 2, 7 or 21 days. Exposure to hypoxia elicited a significant increase in luciferase activity and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle nuclear NFATc3 localization, demonstrating NFAT activation. Hypoxia induced up-regulation of α-actin and was prevented by the calcineurin/NFAT inhibitor, cyclosporin A (25 mg/Kg/day s.c.). In addition, NFATc3 knockout mice did not showed increased α-actin levels and arterial wall thickness after hypoxia. These results strongly suggest that NFATc3 plays a role in the chronic hypoxia-induced vascular changes that underlie pulmonary hypertension. PMID:17403661

  5. An early ethylene up-regulated gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein involved in plant senescence and death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    35S-Labeled calmodulin (CaM) was used to screen a tobacco anther cDNA library. A positive clone (NtER1) with high homology to an early ethylene-up-regulated gene (ER66) in tomato, and an Arabidopsis homolog was isolated and characterized. Based on the helical wheel projection, a 25-mer peptide corresponding to the predicted CaM-binding region of NtER1 (amino acids 796-820) was synthesized. The gel-mobility shift assay showed that the peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of Ca(2+). CaM binds to NtER1 with high affinity (K(d) approximately 12 nm) in a calcium-dependent manner. Tobacco flowers at different stages of development were treated with ethylene or with 1-methylcyclopropene for 2 h before treating with ethylene. Northern analysis showed that the NtER1 was rapidly induced after 15 min of exposure to ethylene. However, the 2-h 1-methylcyclopropene treatment totally blocked NtER1 expression in flowers at all stages of development, suggesting that NtER1 is an early ethylene-up-regulated gene. The senescing leaves and petals had significantly increased NtER1 induction as compared with young leaves and petals, implying that NtER1 is developmentally regulated and acts as a trigger for senescence and death. This is the first documented evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signaling in ethylene action.

  6. Prevention by sulforaphane of diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with up-regulation of Nrf2 expression and transcription activation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Cui, Wenpeng; Xin, Ying; Miao, Xiao; Barati, Michelle T; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Qiang; Tan, Yi; Cui, Taixing; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

    2013-04-01

    This study was to investigate whether sulforaphane (SFN) can prevent diabetic cardiomyopathy. Type 1 diabetes was induced in FVB mice by multiple intraperitoneal injections with low-dose streptozotocin. Hyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with or without SFN at 0.5mg/kg daily in five days of each week for 3 months and then kept until 6 months. At 3 and 6 months of diabetes, blood pressure and cardiac function were assessed. Cardiac fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative damage were assessed by Western blot, real-time qPCR, and histopathological examination. SFN significantly prevented diabetes-induced high blood pressure and cardiac dysfunction at both 3 and 6 months, and also prevented diabetes-induced cardiac hypertrophy (increased the ratio of heart weight to tibia length and the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA and protein) and fibrosis (increased the accumulation of collagen and expression of connective tissue growth factor and tissue growth factor-β). SFN also almost completely prevented diabetes-induced cardiac oxidative damage (increased accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal) and inflammation (increased tumor necrotic factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 expression). SFN up-regulated NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and transcription activity that was reflected by increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and phosphorylation as well as the mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidants. Furthermore, in cultured H9c2 cardiac cells silencing Nrf2 gene with its siRNA abolished the SFN's prevention of high glucose-induced fibrotic response. These results suggest that diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy can be prevented by SFN, which was associated with the up-regulated Nrf2 expression and transcription function.

  7. Celastrol protects ischaemic myocardium through a heat shock response with up-regulation of haeme oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, S; Cailhier, J-F; Borie, M; Stevens, L-M; Gaboury, L; Mansour, S; Hamet, P; Noiseux, N

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Celastrol, a triterpene from plants, has been used in traditional oriental medicine to treat various diseases. Here, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of celastrol against ischaemia. Experimental Approach Protective pathways induced by celastrol were investigated in hypoxic cultures of H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts and in a rat model of myocardial infarction, assessed with echocardiographic and histological analysis. Key Results In H9c2 cells, celastrol triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation within minutes, induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) resulting in a heat shock response (HSR) leading to increased expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs). ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine reduced expression of HSP70 and HSP32 (haeme oxygenase-1, HO-1). Celastrol improved H9c2 survival under hypoxic stress, and functional analysis revealed HSF1 and HO-1 as key effectors of the HSR, induced by celastrol, in promoting cytoprotection. In the rat ischaemic myocardium, celastrol treatment improved cardiac function and reduced adverse left ventricular remodelling at 14 days. Celastrol triggered expression of cardioprotective HO-1 and inhibited fibrosis and infarct size. In the peri-infarct area, celastrol reduced myofibroblast and macrophage infiltration, while attenuating up-regulation of TGF-β and collagen genes. Conclusions and Implications Celastrol treatment induced an HSR through activation of HSF1 with up-regulation of HO-1 as the key effector, promoting cardiomyocyte survival, reduction of injury and adverse remodelling with preservation of cardiac function. Celastrol may represent a novel potent pharmacological cardioprotective agent mimicking ischaemic conditioning that could have a valuable impact in the treatment of myocardial infarction. PMID:25041185

  8. Uterine Expression of NDRG4 Is Induced by Estrogen and Up-Regulated during Embryo Implantation Process in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Mei; He, Ya-Ping; Shi, Yan; Sun, Zhao-Gui; Shi, Hui-Juan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Embryo implantation is an essential step for the establishment of pregnancy and dynamically regulated by estrogen and progesterone. NDRG4 (N-myc down-regulated gene 4) is a tumor suppressor that participates in cell survival, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to preliminarily explore the role of NDRG4 in embryo implantation. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitive RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that uterine expression of NDRG4 was increased along with puberal development, and its expression in adult females reached the peak at the estrus stage during the estrus cycle. Furthermore, uterine NDRG4 expression was significantly induced by the treatment of estradiol (E2) both in pre-puberty females and ovariectomized adult females. Uterine expression pattern of NDRG4 during the peri-implantation period in mice was determined by IHC, qRT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that NDRG4 expression was up-regulated during the implantation process, and its expression level at the implantation sites was significantly higher than that at the inter-implantation sites. Meanwhile, an increased expression in NDRG4 was associated with artificial decidualization as well as the activation of delayed implantation. By qRT-PCR and Western blot, we found that the in vitro decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) was accompanied by up-regulation of NDRG4 expression, whereas knockdown of its expression in these cells by siRNA inhibited the decidualization process. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that NDRG4 protein expression was decreased in human villus tissues of recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients compared to normal pregnant women. Collectively, these data suggested that uterine NDRG4 expression could be induced by estrogen, and NDRG4 might play an important role during early pregnancy. PMID:27175791

  9. Induced Sézary syndrome PBMCs poorly express immune response genes up-regulated in stimulated memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Chong, Benjamin F; Dantzer, Patrick; Germeroth, Thomas; Hafner, Mikehl; Wilson, Adam J; Xiao, Guanghua; Wong, Henry K

    2010-10-01

    Dysfunctions in memory T cells contribute to various inflammatory autoimmune diseases and neoplasms. We hypothesize that investigating the differences of genetic profiles between resting and activated naïve and memory T cells may provide insight into the characterization of abnormal memory T cells in diseases, such as Sézary syndrome (SS), a neoplasm composed of CD4(+) CD45RO(+) cells. We determined genes distinctively expressed between resting and activated naive and memory cells. Levels of up-regulated genes in resting and activated memory cells were measured in SS PBMCs, which were largely comprised of CD4(+) CD45RO(+) cells, to quantitatively assess how different Sézary cells were from memory cells. We compared gene expression profiles using high-density oligo-microarrays between resting and activated naïve and memory CD4(+) T cells. Differentially expressed genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Levels of genes up-regulated in activated and resting memory T cells were determined in SS PBMCs by qRT-PCR. Activated memory cells expressed greater numbers of immune-mediated genes involved in effector function compared to naïve cells in our microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. Nine out of 14 genes with enhanced levels in activated memory cells had reduced levels in SS PBMCs (p<0.05). Activation of memory and naïve CD4(+) T cells revealed a diverging gap in gene expression between these subsets, with memory cells expressing immune-related genes important for effector function. Many of these genes were markedly depressed in SS patients, implying Sézary cells are markedly impaired in mounting immune responses compared to memory cells. Copyright © 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cocaine Up-regulation of the Norepinephrine Transporter Requires Threonine 30 Phosphorylation by p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Arapulisamy, Obulakshmi; Shippenberg, Toni S .; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.

    2011-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates NE signaling by rapidly clearing synaptic NE. Cocaine binds NET and modulates NE transport. These actions contribute to rewarding effects and abuse liability of cocaine. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades is implicated in cocaine-induced neuroadaptations. However, the role of MAPK and the mechanisms involved in cocaine modulation of NET are not clear. Acute intra-peritoneal injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in increased NE uptake by prefrontal cortex (PFC) synaptosomes with a parallel increase in the surface expression of endogenous NET. Cocaine also enhanced the immunoreactivity of phospho-p38 MAPK in the PFC synaptosomes without affecting the total p38 MAPK. In vitro cocaine (30–50 μm) treatment of rat PFC synaptosomes increased native NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation in a manner sensitive to p38 MAPK inhibition by PD169316. We next examined cocaine-elicited effects on wild-type human NET (hNET) expressed heterologously in human placental trophoblast cells to gain more insights into the mechanisms involved. Cocaine treatment of hNET expressing human placental trophoblast cells up-regulated the function, surface expression, and phosphorylation of hNET in a PD169316-sensitive manner. In addition, cocaine inhibited constitutive endocytosis of hNET. Mutational analysis of serine and threonine residues revealed that substitution of threonine 30, located at the amino terminus of hNET with alanine (T30A-hNET), abolished cocaine-induced up-regulation of NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation. Furthermore, cocaine did not alter T30A-hNET endocytosis. These studies identify a novel molecular mechanism that cocaine-activated p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of NET-T30 dictates surface NET availability, and hence, NE transport. PMID:21498515

  11. Cocaine up-regulation of the norepinephrine transporter requires threonine 30 phosphorylation by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Arapulisamy, Obulakshmi; Shippenberg, Toni S; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D

    2011-06-10

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates NE signaling by rapidly clearing synaptic NE. Cocaine binds NET and modulates NE transport. These actions contribute to rewarding effects and abuse liability of cocaine. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades is implicated in cocaine-induced neuroadaptations. However, the role of MAPK and the mechanisms involved in cocaine modulation of NET are not clear. Acute intra-peritoneal injections of cocaine (20 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in increased NE uptake by prefrontal cortex (PFC) synaptosomes with a parallel increase in the surface expression of endogenous NET. Cocaine also enhanced the immunoreactivity of phospho-p38 MAPK in the PFC synaptosomes without affecting the total p38 MAPK. In vitro cocaine (30-50 μM) treatment of rat PFC synaptosomes increased native NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation in a manner sensitive to p38 MAPK inhibition by PD169316. We next examined cocaine-elicited effects on wild-type human NET (hNET) expressed heterologously in human placental trophoblast cells to gain more insights into the mechanisms involved. Cocaine treatment of hNET expressing human placental trophoblast cells up-regulated the function, surface expression, and phosphorylation of hNET in a PD169316-sensitive manner. In addition, cocaine inhibited constitutive endocytosis of hNET. Mutational analysis of serine and threonine residues revealed that substitution of threonine 30, located at the amino terminus of hNET with alanine (T30A-hNET), abolished cocaine-induced up-regulation of NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation. Furthermore, cocaine did not alter T30A-hNET endocytosis. These studies identify a novel molecular mechanism that cocaine-activated p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of NET-T30 dictates surface NET availability, and hence, NE transport.

  12. Up-regulation of C1GALT1 promotes breast cancer cell growth through MUC1-C signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Miao-Juei; Chen, Chi-Hau; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Huang, John; Hung, Ji-Shiang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is frequently observed in cancers. Core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) is an exclusive enzyme in humans that catalyzes the biosynthesis of core 1 O-glycan structure, Gal-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr, whose expression is commonly up-regulated during tumorigenesis. Little is known about the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer. This study aims to determine the correlation between C1GALT1 expression and breast cancer clinicopathological features and roles of C1GALT1 in breast cancer malignant phenotypes. Public databases and our data showed that C1GALT1 mRNA and C1GALT1 protein are frequently up-regulated in breast cancer; and increased C1GALT1 expression correlates with higher histological grade and advanced tumor stage. Overexpression of C1GALT1 enhanced breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, C1GALT1 knockdown suppressed these malignant phenotypes. Furthermore, C1GALT1 modulates O-glycan structures on Mucin (MUC) 1 and promotes MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that C1GALT1 enhances breast cancer malignant progression through promoting MUC1-C/β-catenin signaling pathway. Unveiling the function of C1GALT1 in breast cancer opens new insights to the roles of C1GALT1 and O-glycosylation in tumorigenesis and renders the potential of C1GALT1 as a target of novel therapeutic agent development. PMID:25762620

  13. Up-regulation of microRNA let-7c by quercetin inhibits pancreatic cancer progression by activation of Numbl.

    PubMed

    Nwaeburu, Clifford C; Bauer, Natalie; Zhao, Zhefu; Abukiwan, Alia; Gladkich, Jury; Benner, Axel; Herr, Ingrid

    2016-09-06

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRs) may offer novel therapeutic approaches to treatment. The polyphenol quercetin, present in many fruits and vegetables, possesses anti-carcinogenic properties. To unravel the effect of quercetin to miR signaling we performed miR profiling in PDA cells before and after quercetin treatment, followed by biostatistical analysis. miR let-7c was among the top up-regulated candidates after quercetin treatment, as measured by qRT-PCR and confirmed in two established and one primary PDA cell lines. By computational analysis we identified the Notch-inhibitor Numbl as let-7c target gene. This was strengthened by luciferase assays, where lipofected let-7c mimics induced a Numbl 3-UTR wild type construct, but not the mutated counterpart. Let-7c induced Numbl mRNA and protein expression but inhibited Notch just like quercetin. It also inhibited colony formation, wound healing, and protein expression of progression markers. In vivo xenotransplantation of PDA cells and subsequent intravenous injection of let-7c resulted in a significant decrease in tumor mass without obvious toxic effects in the fertilized chick egg model. The delivery rate of the miR mimics to the tumor mass was 80%, whereas minor amounts were present in host tissue. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that let-7c inhibited Notch and progression markers but up-regulated Numbl. These findings show that quercetin-induced let-7c decreases tumor growth by posttranscriptional activation of Numbl and indirect inhibition of Notch.

  14. Characteristics of genes up-regulated and down-regulated after 24 h starvation in the head of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Aya; Nishimura, Azusa; Itoh, Masanobu; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2009-10-01

    Starvation is a common experience under fluctuating food conditions in nature, and response to it is vital for many organisms. Many studies have investigated the response at physiological and behavioral level, whereas the studies on starvation-induced transcriptional changes in the brain and the surrounding tissues are still limited. We here investigated global changes in transcript abundance in the head after 24 h starvation by microarray expression profiling of 2 wild-derived inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster, and identified a core set of 65 up-regulated and 48 down-regulated genes upon starvation. Among these up-regulated genes, 22 genes were circadian oscillating genes previously identified in the head of Drosophila. Interestingly, most (86%) of these circadian genes show their expression peak in a narrow time range of ZT7.0-12.0, when flies are relatively restless and less feeding in the normal condition. Among the down-regulated genes, 2 genes with highest fold-differences, fit and CG8147, are known to have female-biased expression in the head, and 1 gene, Obp99b, is known to be male-biased. Together with the realtime qPCR experiments on female and male transcripts, our data suggest that these sex-specific genes are candidate genes mediating a possible trade-off between starvation resistance and reproduction. Eleven down-regulated genes are known to be involved in the immune response. These changes in head transcriptome upon starvation reflect modulation of expression in some normally oscillating rhythmic genes and reduction in the resource allocation toward sexual activity and immunity.

  15. COORDINATED AV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…

  16. COORDINATED AV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEAVES, PAUL C.; AND OTHERS

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER IS LOCATED IN THE LOCAL HIGH SCHOOL AND SUPPLIES ALL SCHOOLS IN THE AREA. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS, AFTER SELECTIONS ARE MADE BY THE CLASSROOM TEACHER, ARE PROCESSED BY THE CENTER, CONFIRMED AND DELIVERED BY TRUCK THREE TIMES EACH WEEK. EACH SCHOOL HAS A BUILDING COORDINATOR WHO CHECKS THE ORDERS INTO THE…

  17. 125 INCOMPLETE COMPENSATORY UP-REGULATION OF X-LINKED GENES IN BOVINE GERMLINE, EARLY EMBRYOS, AND SOMATIC TISSUES.

    PubMed

    Duan, J; Jue, N K; Jiang, Z; O'Neill, R; Wolf, E; Blomberg, L A; Dong, H; Zheng, X; Chen, J; Tian, X

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of a proper gene dosage is essential in cellular networks. To resolve the dosage imbalance between eutherian females (XX) and male (XY), X chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs in females, while X-chromosome dosage compensation up-regulates the active X to balance its expression with that of autosome pairs [Ohno's hypothesis; Ohno 1967 Sex Chromosomes and Sex-linked Genes (Springer-Verlag), p. 99]. These phenomena have been well studied in humans and mice, despite many controversies over the existence of such up-regulation. Using RNA sequencing data, we determined X chromosome dosage compensation in the bovine by analysing the global expression profiles of germ cells, embryos, and somatic tissues. Eight bovine RNA-seq data sets were obtained in from the Gene Expression Omnibus, covering bovine immature/mature oocytes (GSE59186 and GSE52415), pre-implantation conceptuses (GSE59186, GSE52415, and GSE56513), extra-embryonic tissues (PRJNA229443), and male/female somatic tissues (GSE74076, GSE63509, PRJEB6377, and GSE65125). The RNAseq data were trimmed and non-uniquely (paralogs included) mapped to the bovine reference genome assembly UMD3.1.1 using Hisat2 (version 2.0.5) aligner. The mRNA level of each gene, estimated by transformed transcripts per kilobase million was quantified by IsoEM (version 1.1.5). These RNA-seq data sets represented 4 chromosome scenarios in cells: XXXX:AAAA (diploid immature oocyte with DNA duplication), XX:AA (haploid mature oocyte with DNA duplication), XX:AA and X:AA (gradual changed X status in bovine pre-implantation conceptuses), and X:AA (extra-embryonic tissues and somatic cells in female with one active X or XY male) were analysed for dosage compensation. A total of 959 X-linked genes and 20,316 autosome genes were used to calculate the relative X to autosomal gene (A) expression (RXE): log2 (X expression) - log2 (A expression). The following dosage determinations were made: RXE values ≥ 0: complete dosage

  18. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yue; Du, Chengli; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Ren, Guoping

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The expression of eEF1A2 is up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues. • Suppression of eEF1A2 inhibits the proliferation and promotes apoptosis. • Inhibition of eEF1A2 enhances the expression of apoptotic relevant proteins. • The expressions of eEF1A2 and cleavage-caspase3 are inversely correlated. - Abstract: Background: eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. Methods: We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Results: Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Conclusion: Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

  19. Expression and up-regulation of interleukin-6 in oesophageal carcinoma cells by n-sodium butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L-S; Chow, K-C; Wu, C-W

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the serum level of interleukin (IL)-6 has been shown to correlate with disease progression and prognosis of cancer patients. However, the available information about the source and the pathophysiological regulation of IL-6 in cancer cells is limited. Thus, in this study, we tried to identify the source and the clinical roles of serum IL-6 in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and then further to characterize the biological regulation of IL-6 in ESCC cell lines. Sera and tissue specimens from 80 consecutive patients with ESCC were collected between 1993 and 1997. Additionally, three ESCC cell lines were used for in vitro study. The concentration of serum IL-6 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and correlated the survival time with measured IL-6 level. Expressions of IL-6, IL-6Rα (IL-6 receptor alpha) and gp130 in pathological sections and cell lines were characterized by immunological staining. Detection of IL-6 mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Up-regulation of IL-6 by n-sodium butyrate (n-BT) was studied in ESCC cell lines. The levels of serum IL-6 in patients with ESCC were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. Serum levels of IL-6 were also shown to correlate with disease progression and survival. However, sCD8 levels and lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood were not parallel to the changed pattern of serum IL-6. In pathological sections and ESCC cell lines, message of IL-6 was identified by ISH in cancer cells. Expression of IL-6 mRNA was further confirmed with RT-PCR in ESCC cell lines. Although IL-6 was detected in some ESCC cell lines, IL-6 gene expression and protein production could be induced or enhanced by n-BT treatment in all three cell lines. The serum levels of IL-6 are frequently elevated at diagnosis of ESCC, and are associated with poor prognosis. IL-6 that could be produced by cancer

  20. [Effects of up-regulation of cathepsin S by HBx gene on HepG2 cell].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Guo, P; Sun, X; Xiao, Y; Xu, J; Fang, Z S; Wu, S Y; Huang, H

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To explore the expression of cathepsin S (Cat S) and Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBeAg(-) and HBeAg(+ ) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discuss the effects of Cat S and HBx interaction on HepG2 cell. Methods: Seventy HCC tissue specimens were collected from the surgical resection which were confirmed by pathology in the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University. The tissue samples were separated into two groups: HBeAg(-) group and HBeAg(+ ) group according to the serology of HBeAg. The expression of Cat S and HBx in the para-carcinoma tissue and the HCC tissue was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The recombinant plasmid of pcDNA3.1-HBx and empty plasmid were constructed and transfected transiently into HepG2 cell. Cells were harvested, and Western blot assay was performed to detectthe protein expression of Cat S and HBx. The cell proliferation was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, wound healing assay and transwell migration assay. Results: Immunohistochemical staining showed that Cat S expression was up-regulated in HBeAg(+ ) HCC cancer tissues, compared with HBeAg(-)HCC cancer tissues (52.67%±0.33% vs 41.23%±0.52%, P<0.05). HBx expression was up-regulated in HBeAg(+ ) HCC cancer tissues (92.89%), but not in HBeAg(-)HCC cancer tissues. Compared with HepG2 control group, cells in HepG2-HBx group had significantly higher protein level of Cat S and HBx, more obvious proliferation and migration (21.98%±1.69% vs 58.23%±1.47%) and invasion (24.12%±1.15%vs 64.25%±1.42%) (all P<0.05). Conclusions: The expression of HBx and Cat S had a linear positive correlation in liver tissues, and increased expression of HBx can promote the cell proliferation of HepG2-HBx cell line.

  1. Gene expression array of HTLV type 1-infected T cells: Up-regulation of transcription factors and cell cycle genes.

    PubMed

    de La Fuente, C; Deng, L; Santiago, F; Arce, L; Wang, L; Kashanchi, F

    2000-11-01

    By utilizing a human cDNA expression array blot (588 genes), we have observed overexpression of various transcription factors, cell cycle regulated kinases, and DNA repair genes in HTLV-1-infected T cells. One of the genes of interest, and focus in this study, is the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21/waf1. The p21/waf1 transcription and protein is overexpressed in all HTLV-1-infected cell lines tested as well as ATL and HAM/TSP patient samples. While p21/waf1 has been shown to display a selectivity for G(1)/S cyclin/cdk complexes, we have observed p21/waf1 to be complexed with cyclin A/cdk2. Functionally, the association of p21/cyclin A/cdk2 decreased the histone H1 phosphorylation in vitro, as observed in immunoprecipitations followed by kinase assays, as well as affecting other substrates such as the C-terminus of Rb protein involved in c-Abl and HDAC1 regulation. Wild-type, but not a mutant form (M47) of Tax, was found to be able to transactivate the p21/waf1 promoter in a p53-independent manner. We found that the minimal p21/waf1 promoter (-49 to +49 sequence) was activated by Tax and the minimal promoter contained two E2A transcription factor binding sites located between the TATA box and the initiation site. E2A proteins, E12 and E47, as well as a related helix-loop-helix protein, HEB, are all up-regulated in HTLV-1-infected T cells. When using band shift analysis, we found that only the E1 site (overlapping the transcription start site) was a functional DNA binding site. By using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we observed that histone H4, and not histone H3, was acetylated from the endogenous p21/waf1 promoter in vivo, implying that CBP/p300, and not the SAGA complex, was critical in complexing with E2A in up-regulation of p21/waf1 in HTLV-1-infected cells.

  2. Arginase-2 is cooperatively up-regulated by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibition in human umbilical artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Bernardo J; Hernandez, Cherie; Caniuguir, Andres; Vasquez-Devaud, Paola; Carrasco-Wong, Ivo; Uauy, Ricardo; Casanello, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Arginase-2 counteracts endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity in human endothelium, and its expression is negatively controlled by histone deacetylase (HDAC2). Conversely NO inhibits HDAC and previous studies suggest that arginase-2 is up-regulated by NO. We studied whether NO regulates arginase-2 expression in umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAEC) increasing ARG2 promoter accessibility. HUAEC exposed to NOC-18 (NO donor, 1-100 μM, 0-24 h) showed an increase in arginase-2 but a decrease in eNOS mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner, with a maximal effect at 100 μM (24 h). Conversely NOS inhibition with L-NAME (100 μM) reduced arginase-2 mRNA and protein levels, an effect reverted by co-incubation with NOC-18. Treatment with TSA paralleled the effects of NO on arginase-2 and eNOS at mRNA and protein levels, with maximal effect at 10 μM. Co-incubation of NOC-18 (100 μM) with a sub-maximal concentration of TSA (1 μM) potentiated the increase in arginase-2 mRNA levels, whilst L-NAME prevented TSA-dependent arginase-2 induction. The effects on arginase-2 mRNA were paralleled by changes in chromatin accessibility, as well as increased levels of H3K9 and H4K12 acetylation, at ARG2 proximal (-579 to -367 and -280 to -73 bp from TSS) and core (-121 to +126 bp from TSS) promoter. Finally NO-dependent arginase-2 induction was prevented by pre-incubation for 10 min with the cysteine blocker MMTS (10 mM). These data showed for the first time that NO up-regulates arginase-2 expression in primary cultured human endothelial cells by an epigenetic-mediated mechanism increasing ARG2 promoter accessibility suggesting a negative regulatory loop for eNOS activity.

  3. t-Darpp promotes cancer cell survival by up-regulation of Bcl2 through Akt-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Belkhiri, Abbes; Dar, Altaf A; Zaika, Alexander; Kelley, Mark; El-Rifai, Wael

    2008-01-15

    t-Darpp is a cancer-related truncated isoform of Darpp-32 (dopamine and cyclic-AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of M(r) 32,000). We detected overexpression of t-Darpp mRNA in two thirds of gastric cancers compared with normal samples (P = 0.004). Using 20 micromol/L ceramide treatment as a model for induction of apoptosis in AGS cancer cells, we found that expression of t-Darpp led to an increase in Bcl2 protein levels and blocked the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. The MitoCapture mitochondrial apoptosis and cytochrome c release assays indicated that t-Darpp expression enforces the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and protects against ceramide-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the expression of t-Darpp in AGS cells led to >or=2-fold increase in Akt kinase activity with an increase in protein levels of p-Ser(473) Akt and p-Ser(9) GSK3 beta. These findings were further confirmed using tetracycline-inducible AGS cells stably expressing t-Darpp. We also showed transcriptional up-regulation of Bcl2 using the luciferase assay with Bcl2 reporter containing P1 full promoter, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and t-Darpp small interfering RNA. The Bcl2 promoter contains binding sites for cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein CREB/ATF1 transcription factors and using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay with a CREB response element, we detected a stronger binding in t-Darpp-expressing cells. The t-Darpp expression led to an increase in expression and phosphorylation of CREB and ATF-1 transcription factors that were required for up-regulating Bcl2 levels. Indeed, knockdown of Akt, CREB, or ATF1 in t-Darpp-expressing cells reduced Bcl2 protein levels. In conclusion, the t-Darpp/Akt axis underscores a novel oncogenic potential of t-Darpp in gastric carcinogenesis and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis.

  4. Azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) inhibits peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by contradicting the up-regulation of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, K; Yamamoto, T; Ueta, E; Osaki, T

    1997-10-01

    Inhibition of peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) was examined using ICR mice, and the effects of both drugs on signal transduction were investigated. Microscopically, Azeptin (a total of 56 mg/kg for 28 days) suppressed pulmonary fibrosis in mice which received an i.p. injection of a total of 60 or 75 mg/kg PLM. In parallel with the microscopic findings, smaller amounts of collagen were synthesized in the lungs of Azeptin-injected mice. PLM enhanced the expression of interleukin-1 beta- and transforming growth factor-beta-mRNA in lungs. In contrast, Azeptin suppressed the expression. Compatible with these in vivo results, Azeptin and PLM contradictively regulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation and c-myc mRNA expression in human gingival and mouse pulmonary fibroblasts. In addition, NF-kappa B was activated by fibroblast treatment with 5 micrograms/ml PLM for 1 h, but intranuclear NF-kappa B was decreased by cell treatment with 10(-5) M Azeptin. From these results, it is concluded that Azeptin inhibits PLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by antagonizing the up-regulation of signal transduction.

  5. Coagulation factor Xa drives tumor cells into apoptosis through BH3-only protein Bim up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Borensztajn, Keren S. . E-mail: K.S.Borensztajn@amc.uva.nl; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Brueggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2007-07-15

    Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we show that coagulation factor (F)Xa drives tumor cells of epithelial origin, but not endothelial cells or monocytes, into apoptosis, whereas it even enhances fibroblast survival. FXa signals through the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 to activate extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38. This activation is associated with phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, and in tumor cells with up-regulation of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein Bim, leading to caspase-3 cleavage, the main hallmark of apoptosis. Transfection of tumor cells with dominant negative forms of CREB or siRNA for either PAR-1, Bim, ERK1 and/or p38 inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of FXa. In fibroblasts, FXa-induced PAR-1 activation leads to down-regulation of Bim and pre-treatment with PAR-1 or Bim siRNA abolishes proliferation. We thus provide evidence that beyond its role in blood coagulation, FXa plays a key role in cellular processes in which Bim is the central player in determining cell survival.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ enhances adiponectin secretion via up-regulating DsbA-L expression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dan; Sun, Jun; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, An; He, Yiduo; Li, Qiang; Yang, Zaiqing

    2015-08-15

    Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase like-protein (DsbA-L) was identified as a molecular chaperone facilitating the assembly and secretion of adiponectin, an adipokine with multiple beneficial effects. In obesity the level of DsbA-L is reduced with a concomitant decrease of the circulating adiponectin level, especially of the high molecular weight form (HMW). Both rodent and human studies have shown that the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists increase adiponectin levels in serum by activating PPARγ, which up-regulates critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones thus facilitating protein folding. As shown in the present study, overexpression of PPARγ in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells elicited the cellular release of HMW adiponectin. PPARγ enhanced expression of DsbA-L by binding directly to peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) site within the DsbA-L promoter. Conversely, in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, PPARγ knockdown resulted in decreased expression of Adiponectin, DsbA-L and ERp44. DsbA-L expression increased after PPARγ agonist treatment and decreased upon treatment with PPARγ antagonist in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DsbA-L deficiency in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells impaired the secretion of adiponectin. We therefore propose that DsbA-L plays an important role in facilitating HMW adiponectin formation and release from cells under the regulation of PPARγ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatic and Nephric NRF2 Pathway Up-Regulation, an Early Antioxidant Response, in Acute Arsenic-Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinlong; Duan, Xiaoxu; Dong, Dandan; Zhang, Yang; Li, Wei; Zhao, Lu; Nie, Huifang; Sun, Guifan; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a proven human carcinogen, damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms, one of them being reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. NRF2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that positively regulates the genes of encoding antioxidant and detoxification enzymes to neutralize ROS. Although NRF2 pathway activation by iAs has been reported in various cell types, however, the experimental data in vivo are very limited and not fully elucidated in humans. The present investigation aimed to explore the hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway upregulation in acute arsenic-exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed 10 mg/kg NaAsO2 elevated the NRF2 protein and increased the transcription of Nrf2 mRNA, as well as up-regulated NRF2 downstream targets HO-1, GST and GCLC time- and dose-dependently both in the liver and kidney. Acute NaAsO2 exposure also resulted in obvious imbalance of oxidative redox status represented by the increase of GSH and MDA, and the decrease of T-AOC. The present investigation reveals that hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway expression is an early antioxidant defensive response upon iAs exposure. A better knowledge about the NRF2 pathway involvment in the cellular response against arsenic could help improve the strategies for reducing the cellular toxicity related to this metalloid. PMID:26473898

  8. Up-regulation of antioxidants in tobacco by low concentrations of H₂O₂ suppresses necrotic disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Yaser Mohamed; Bacsó, Renáta; Király, Zoltán; Künstler, András; Király, Lóránt

    2012-09-01

    Pretreatment of tobacco leaves with low concentrations (5 to 10 mM) of H₂O₂ suppressed hypersensitive-type necrosis associated with resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. The same pretreatment resulted in suppression of normosensitive necrosis associated with susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. This type of H₂O₂-mediated, induced disease symptom resistance correlated with enhanced host antioxidant capacity, i.e., elevated enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POX) after viral and bacterial infections. Induction of genes that encode the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, and APX was also enhanced early after TMV infection. Artificial application of SOD and CAT suppressed necroses caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens similarly as H₂O₂ pretreatment, implying that H₂O₂-mediated symptom resistance operates through enhancement of plant antioxidant capacity. Pathogen multiplication was not significantly affected in H₂O₂-pretreated plants. Salicylic acid (SA), a central component of plant defense, does not seem to function in this type of H₂O₂-mediated symptom resistance, indicated by unchanged levels of free and bound SA and a lack of early up-regulation of an SA glucosyltransferase gene in TMV-infected H₂O₂-pretreated tobacco. Taken together, H₂O₂-mediated, induced resistance to necrotic symptoms in tobacco seems to depend on enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  9. Ferrous Iron Up-regulation in Fibroblasts of Patients with Beta Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN)

    PubMed Central

    Ingrassia, Rosaria; Memo, Maurizio; Garavaglia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WDR45 gene, coding for a beta-propeller protein, have been found in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, NBIA5 (also known as BPAN). BPAN is a movement disorder with Non Transferrin Bound Iron (NTBI) accumulation in the basal ganglia as common hallmark between NBIA classes (Hayflick et al., 2013). WDR45 has been predicted to have a role in autophagy, while the impairment of iron metabolism in the different NBIA subclasses has not currently been clarified. We found the up-regulation of the ferrous iron transporter (-)IRE/Divalent Metal Transporter1 and down-regulation of Transferrin receptor in the fibroblasts of two BPAN affected patients with splicing mutations 235+1G>A (BPAN1) and 517_519ΔVal 173 (BPAN2). The BPAN patients showed a concomitant increase of intracellular ferrous iron after starvation. An altered pattern of iron transporters with iron overload is highlighted in BPAN human fibroblasts, supporting for a role of DMT1 in NBIA. We here present a novel element, about iron accumulation, to the existing knowledge in field of NBIA. Attention is focused to a starvation-dependent iron overload, possibly accounting for iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Further investigation could clarify iron regulation in BPAN. PMID:28261264

  10. Zirconium ions up-regulate the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway and promote the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjuan; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, ZuFu; Zreiqat, Hala; Dunstan, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2) or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs) with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV) oxynitrate (ZrO(NO3)2) at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling.

  11. Up-regulation of Na + expression in the area postrema of total sleep deprived rats by TOF-SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Fu-Der; Chen, Bo-Jung; Ling, Yong-Chien; Wu, Un-In; Huang, Yi-Lun; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2008-12-01

    Area postrema (AP) is a circumventricular organ plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Since sleep deficiency will cause cardiovascular dysfunction, the present study aims to determine whether sodium level would significantly alter in AP following total sleep deprivation (TSD). Sodium level was investigated in vivo by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Clinical manifestation of cardiovascular function was demonstrated by mean arterial pressure (MAP) values. Results indicated that in normal rats, TOF-SIMS spectrum revealed a major peak of sodium ion counting as 5.61 × 10 5 at m/ z 23. The sodium ions were homogeneous distributed in AP without specific localization. However, following TSD, the sodium intensity was relatively increased (6.73 × 10 5) and the signal for sodium image was strongly expressed throughout AP with definite spatial distribution. MAP of TSD rats is 138 ± 5 mmHg, which is significantly higher than that of normal ones (121 ± 3 mmHg). Regarding AP is an important area for sodium sensation and development of hypernatremic related sympatho-excitation; up-regulation of sodium expression following TSD suggests that high sodium level might over-activate AP, through complex neuronal networks involving in sympathetic regulation, which could lead to the formation of TSD relevant cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Abraxane, the Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel Can Induce Drug Resistance by Up-Regulation of P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Gong, He; Liu, Juan; Fang, Xiangdong; Hu, Zhiyuan; Fang, Qiaojun

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can actively pump paclitaxel (PTX) out of cells and induces drug resistance. Abraxane, a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of PTX, has multiple clinical advantages over the single molecule form. However, it is still unclear whether Abraxane overcomes the common small molecule drug resistance problem mediated by P-gp. Here we were able to establish an Abraxane-resistant cell line from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We compared the transcriptome of A549/Abr resistant cell line to that of its parental cell line using RNA-Seq technology. Several pathways were found to be up or down regulated. Specifically, the most significantly up-regulated gene was ABCB1, which translates into P-glycoprotein. We verified the overexpression of P-glycoprotein and confirmed its function by reversing the drug resistance with P-gp inhibitor Verapamil. The results suggest that efflux pathway plays an important role in the Abraxane-resistant cell line we established. However, the relevance of this P-gp mediated Abraxane resistance in tumors of lung cancer patients remains unknown. PMID:26182353

  13. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Rebecca; Zeino, Maen; Frewert, Simon; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation.

  14. Farnesoid X receptor up-regulates expression of Lipid transfer inhibitor protein in liver cells and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liangpeng; Liu, Hong; Peng, Jiahe; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Yan; Dong, Jinyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Guo, Dongmei; Jiang, Yu

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •FXR up-regulates apoF. •It binds to ER1 element. •It activates apoF gene promoter. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein F is a component protein mainly secreted by liver and resides on several lipoprotein classes. It can inhibit lipids transfer between different lipoproteins. FXR is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily which is also highly expressed in the liver. It modulates bile acids synthesis and lipids metabolism by transcriptional regulation. We aimed to determine whether apoF can be regulated by FXR. The FXR agonist Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and GW4064 both can activate the expression of apoF in liver cell lines and in C57/BL6 mouse liver. This is dependent on the binding of FXR to the FXR element ER1 (−2904 to −2892 bp) in the apoF gene promoter. Taken together, we have identified apoF as likely another target gene of FXR.

  15. CCR7 pathway induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition through up-regulation of Snail signaling in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Zhou, Yunzhe; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-02-01

    The chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and Snail signaling have been linked to various types of cancers. The associations between these signalings and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are not clear in gastric cancer. Here, the expression of CCR7 and Snail was detected in gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Meanwhile, gastric cancer cells were subjected to CCL19, si-control, and si-Snail treatment. Cell cycle, migration, and invasion were also analyzed. The expression patterns of CCR7 and Snail were similar in either gastric cancer tissues or cells. The increased expression of CCR7 was closely associated with the increased Snail expression, which both were closely correlated with metastasis, stage and differentiation, and poor prognosis. The increased p-ERK, p-AKT, Snail, and MMP9 expression and the decreased E-cadherin were confirmed in MGC803 cells in a dose-dependent manner in response to CCL19 treatment. However, the blockade of Snail abrogated the up-regulation of MMP9 and down-regulation of E-cadherin. CCR7-induced ERK and PI3K pathway regulated Snail signaling. Besides si-Snail treatment led to MGC803 cell cycle arrest and affected the migration and invasion. In conclusion, our study suggested that CCR7 promotes Snail expression to induce the EMT, resulting in cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion in gastric cancer. CCR7-Snail pathway provided more potential regimens for cancer therapy.

  16. Calcium-dependent N-cadherin up-regulation mediates reactive astrogliosis and neuroprotection after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kanemaru, Kazunori; Kubota, Jun; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Hirose, Kenzo; Okubo, Yohei; Iino, Masamitsu

    2013-07-09

    Brain injury induces phenotypic changes in astrocytes, known as reactive astrogliosis, which may influence neuronal survival. Here we show that brain injury induces inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytes, and that the Ca(2+) signaling is required for astrogliosis. We found that type 2 IP3 receptor knockout (IP3R2KO) mice deficient in astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling have impaired reactive astrogliosis and increased injury-associated neuronal death. We identified N-cadherin and pumilio 2 (Pum2) as downstream signaling molecules, and found that brain injury induces up-regulation of N-cadherin around the injured site. This effect is mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent down-regulation of Pum2, which in turn attenuates Pum2-dependent translational repression of N-cadherin. Furthermore, we show that astrocyte-specific knockout of N-cadherin results in impairment of astrogliosis and neuroprotection. Thus, astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling and the downstream function of N-cadherin play indispensable roles in the cellular responses to brain injury. These findings define a previously unreported signaling axis required for reactive astrogliosis and neuroprotection following brain injury.

  17. Calcium-dependent N-cadherin up-regulation mediates reactive astrogliosis and neuroprotection after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazunori; Kubota, Jun; Sekiya, Hiroshi; Hirose, Kenzo; Okubo, Yohei; Iino, Masamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Brain injury induces phenotypic changes in astrocytes, known as reactive astrogliosis, which may influence neuronal survival. Here we show that brain injury induces inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes, and that the Ca2+ signaling is required for astrogliosis. We found that type 2 IP3 receptor knockout (IP3R2KO) mice deficient in astrocytic Ca2+ signaling have impaired reactive astrogliosis and increased injury-associated neuronal death. We identified N-cadherin and pumilio 2 (Pum2) as downstream signaling molecules, and found that brain injury induces up-regulation of N-cadherin around the injured site. This effect is mediated by Ca2+-dependent down-regulation of Pum2, which in turn attenuates Pum2-dependent translational repression of N-cadherin. Furthermore, we show that astrocyte-specific knockout of N-cadherin results in impairment of astrogliosis and neuroprotection. Thus, astrocytic Ca2+ signaling and the downstream function of N-cadherin play indispensable roles in the cellular responses to brain injury. These findings define a previously unreported signaling axis required for reactive astrogliosis and neuroprotection following brain injury. PMID:23798419

  18. Zirconium Ions Up-Regulate the BMP/SMAD Signaling Pathway and Promote the Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongjuan; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Lu, ZuFu; Zreiqat, Hala; Dunstan, Colin R.

    2015-01-01

    Zirconium (Zr) is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2) or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs) with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV) oxynitrate (ZrO(NO3)2) at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling. PMID:25602473

  19. Up-Regulation of Pressure-activated Ca2+-permeable Cation Channel in Intact Vascular Endothelium of Hypertensive Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, J.; Kohler, R.; Haase, W.; Distler, A.

    1996-10-01

    In endothelial cells, stretch-activated cation channels have been proposed to act as mechanosensors for changes in hemodynamic forces. We have identified a novel mechanosensitive pressure-activated channel in intact endothelium from rat aorta and mesenteric artery. The 18-pS cation channel responded with a multifold increase in channel activity when positive pressure was applied to the luminal cell surface with the patch pipette and inactivated at negative pipette pressure. Channel permeability ratio for K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions was 1:0.98:0.23. Ca2+ influx through the channel was sufficient to activate a neighboring Ca2+-dependent K+ channel. Hemodynamic forces are chronically disturbed in arterial hypertension. Endothelial cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. In two comparative studies, density of the pressure-activated channel was found to be significantly higher in spontaneously hypertensive rats and renovascular hypertensive rats compared with their respective normotensive controls. Channel activity presumably leads to mechanosensitive Ca2+ influx and induces cell hyperpolarization by K+ channel activity. Both Ca2+ influx and hyperpolarization are known to induce a vasodilatory endothelial response by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Up-regulation of channel density in hypertension could, therefore, represent a counterregulatory mechanism of vascular endothelium.

  20. Up-regulation of CD81 inhibits cytotrophoblast invasion and mediates maternal endothelial cell dysfunction in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Diao, Zhenyu; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Yan, Gui-Jun; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Ruo-Tian; Dai, Yimin; Wang, Jingmei; Li, Jie; Ding, Hailing; Zhao, Guangfeng; Zheng, Mingming; Xue, Pingping; Liu, Mo; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is initiated by abnormal placentation in the early stages of pregnancy, followed by systemic activation of endothelial cells of the maternal small arterioles in the late second or third trimester (TM) of pregnancy. During normal pregnancy, placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) invade the maternal uterine wall and spiral arteries, whereas this process is interrupted in PE. However, it is not known how the malformed placenta triggers maternal endothelial crisis and the associated manifestations. Here, we have focused on the association of CD81 with PE. CD81, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, plays significant roles in cell growth, adhesion, and motility. The function of CD81 in human placentation and its association with pregnancy complications are currently unknown. In the present study, we have demonstrated that CD81 was preferentially expressed in normal first TM placentas and progressively down-regulated with gestation advance. In patients with early-onset severe PE (sPE), CD81 expression was significantly up-regulated in syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs), CTBs and the cells in the villous core. In addition, high levels of CD81 were observed in the maternal sera of patients with sPE. Overexpressing CD81 in CTBs significantly decreased CTB invasion, and culturing primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the presence of a high dose of exogenous CD81 resulted in interrupted angiogenesis and endothelial cell activation in vitro. Importantly, the phenotype of human PE was mimicked in the CD81-induced rat model. PMID:28167787

  1. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei; Lu, Su; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  2. Transcript profiling reveals that cysteine protease inhibitors are up-regulated in tuber sprouts after extended darkness.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Veronica; Fantino, Elisa; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Bachmann, Sandra; Santin, Franco; Ulloa, Rita M

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are an excellent staple food due to its high nutritional value. When the tuber reaches physiological competence, sprouting proceeds accompanied by changes at mRNA and protein levels. Potato tubers become a source of carbon and energy until sprouts are capable of independent growth. Transcript profiling of sprouts grown under continuous light or dark conditions was performed using the TIGR 10K EST Solanaceae microarray. The profiles analyzed show a core of highly expressed transcripts that are associated to the reactivation of growth. Under light conditions, the photosynthetic machinery was fully activated; the highest up-regulation was observed for the Rubisco activase (RCA), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the Photosystem II 22 kDa protein (CP22) genes, among others. On the other hand, sprouts exposed to continuous darkness elongate longer, and after extended darkness, synthesis of chloroplast components was repressed, the expression of proteases was reduced while genes encoding cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) and metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MPIs) were strongly induced. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis confirmed that MPI levels correlated with the length of the dark period; however, CPI expression was strong only after longer periods of darkness, suggesting a feedback loop (regulation mechanism) in response to dark-induced senescence. Prevention of cysteine protease activity in etiolated sprouts exposed to extended darkness could delay senescence until they emerge to light.

  3. Interleukin-6 enhances cancer stemness and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma via up-regulating osteopontin expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Sun, Hao-Ting; Gao, Xiao-Mei; Ren, Ning; Sheng, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Zheng; Zheng, Yan; Wei, Jin-Wang; Zhang, Kai-Li; Yu, Xin-Xin; Zhu, Yin; Luo, Qin; Yang, Lu-Yu; Dong, Qiong-Zhu; Qin, Lun-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), one of the most important inflammatory cytokines, plays a pivotal role in metastasis and stemness of solid tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms of IL-6 in HCC metastasis remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that stemness and metastatic potential of HCC cells were significantly enhanced after IL-6 stimulation. IL-6 could induce expression of osteopontin (OPN), along with other stemness-related genes, including HIF1α, BMI1, and HEY1. Block of OPN induction could significantly abrogate the effect of IL-6 on stemness and metastasis of HCC cells. Furthermore, IL-6 level was positively correlated with OPN in HCC. Patients with high plasma IL-6 or OPN level had poorer prognosis. In multivariate analysis, IL-6 and OPN were demonstrated to be independent prognostic indicators for HCC patients, and their combination had a better prognostic performance than IL-6 or OPN alone. Collectively, our findings indicate that IL-6 could enhance stemness and promote metastasis of HCC via up-regulating OPN expression, which can be a potential therapeutic target for combating HCC metastasis, and the combination of IL-6 and OPN serves as a promising prognostic predictor for HCC. PMID:27725896

  4. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2016-08-01

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT.

  5. The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 promotes tumor-driven angiogenesis by up-regulating pro-angiogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tee, Andrew E; Liu, Bing; Song, Renhua; Li, Jinyan; Pasquier, Eddy; Cheung, Belamy B; Jiang, Cizhong; Marshall, Glenn M; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Fletcher, Jamie I; Dinger, Marcel E; Liu, Tao

    2016-02-23

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor during early childhood. One of the key features of neuroblastoma is extensive tumor-driven angiogenesis due to hypoxia. However, the mechanism through which neuroblastoma cells drive angiogenesis is poorly understood. Here we show that the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 was upregulated in human neuroblastoma cell lines under hypoxic conditions. Conditioned media from neuroblastoma cells transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting MALAT1, compared with conditioned media from neuroblastoma cells transfected with control siRNAs, induced significantly less endothelial cell migration, invasion and vasculature formation. Microarray-based differential gene expression analysis showed that one of the genes most significantly down-regulated following MALAT1 suppression in human neuroblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions was fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses confirmed that MALAT1 suppression reduced FGF2 expression, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays revealed that transfection with MALAT1 siRNAs reduced FGF2 protein secretion from neuroblastoma cells. Importantly, addition of recombinant FGF2 protein to the cell culture media reversed the effects of MALAT1 siRNA on vasculature formation. Taken together, our data suggest that up-regulation of MALAT1 expression in human neuroblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions increases FGF2 expression and promotes vasculature formation, and therefore plays an important role in tumor-driven angiogenesis.

  6. Up-regulating BDNF with an ampakine rescues synaptic plasticity and memory in Huntington's disease knockin mice.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Danielle A; Rex, Christopher S; Palmer, Linda; Pandyarajan, Vijay; Fedulov, Vadim; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary

    2009-03-24

    Cognitive problems occur in asymptomatic gene carriers of Huntington's disease (HD), and mouse models of the disease exhibit impaired learning and substantial deficits in the cytoskeletal changes that stabilize long-term potentiation (LTP). The latter effects may be related to the decreased production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) associated with the HD mutation. This study asked whether up-regulating endogenous BDNF levels with an ampakine, a positive modulator of AMPA-type glutamate receptors, rescues plasticity and reduces learning problems in HD (CAG140) mice. Twice-daily injections of a short half-life ampakine normalized BDNF levels, activity-driven actin polymerization in dendritic spines, and LTP stabilization in 8-week-old mutants. Comparable results were obtained in 16-week-old HD mice with more severe LTP deficits. Ampakine treatments had no measurable effect on the decreased locomotor activity observed in the mutants but offset their impairments in long-term memory. Given that ampakines are well tolerated in clinical trials and were effective in this study after brief exposures, these results suggest a novel strategy for chronic treatment of the cognitive difficulties that occur in the early stages of HD.

  7. Expression of endothelial PDGF receptors alpha and beta in breast cancer: up-regulation of endothelial PDGF receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Vrekoussis, T; Stathopoulos, E N; Kafousi, M; Navrozoglou, I; Zoras, O

    2007-05-01

    The PDGF pathway is essential in tumor angiogenesis. Although the expression of the PDGF receptors has been excessively studied on breast cancer cells, few studies exist on PDGFR expression on the tumor endothelial cells. In the present study, it is investigated whether endothelial PDGF receptors' expression is altered in breast cancer. Endothelial PDGFRalpha and beta expression was initially studied under the influence of tumor conditioned medium derived from a breast cancer cell line. Following tissue culture experiments the endothelial expression of both receptors was studied on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of normal breast and breast cancer specimens. The tissue culture experiment revealed a possible up-regulation of endothelial PDGFRbeta by breast cancer environment. Immunohistochemistry verified the result since 69.7% of the breast cancer sections were positive for PDGFRbeta compared to 43.3% of normal breast sections (p<0.05). No statistical difference was revealed by studying PDGFRalpha expression. In conclusion, our findings support the thesis of possible anti-PDGFRbeta anti-angiogenic therapy, in cases of endothelial PDGFRbeta-expressing breast cancer.

  8. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 is up-regulated in human head and neck, skin, pancreatic, and prostate tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjuan; Nichols, Krystle; Nathan, Cherie-Ann; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) uncouples electron transport from ATP production. UCP2 has been shown to play an important role in obesity and diabetes. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that UCP2 is up-regulated in human colon cancer samples. In order to study the role of UCP2 in human cancers, we detected the UCP2 protein level in various human tumor tissues. Six types of human tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were collected and analyzed by Western blot assays to detect the levels of UCP2. The results showed that in the human head and neck, skin, prostate, and pancreatic tumor samples examined, the protein levels of UCP2 were significantly higher in tumor tissues than that in the adjacent normal tissues. The protein levels of UCP2 was lower in non-small cell lung tumor tissues, which is marginal significant. Over expression of UCP2 in certain tumors provides the rationale to speculate that UCP2 may promote tumor growth in these cancers.

  9. Up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 by ketamine requires glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Steven F; Cheng, Yuyan; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Jope, Richard S; Beurel, Eléonore

    2017-01-04

    An antidepressant dose of the rapidly-acting ketamine inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in mouse hippocampus, and this inhibition is required for the antidepressant effect of ketamine in learned helplessness depression-like behavior. Here we report that treatment with an antidepressant dose of ketamine (10mg/kg) increased expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) in mouse hippocampus, an effect that required ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK3. Ketamine also inhibited hippocampal GSK3 and increased expression of hippocampal IGF2 in mice when administered after the induction of learned helplessness. Treatment with the specific GSK3 inhibitor L803-mts was sufficient to up-regulate hippocampal IGF2 expression. Administration of IGF2 siRNA reduced ketamine's antidepressant effect in the learned helplessness paradigm. Mice subjected to the learned helplessness paradigm were separated into two groups, those that were resilient (non-depressed) and those that were susceptible (depressed). Non-depressed resilient mice displayed higher expression of IGF2 than susceptible mice. These results indicate that IGF2 contributes to ketamine's antidepressant effect and that IGF2 may confer resilience to depression-like behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Atypical antipsychotics suppress production of proinflammatory cytokines and up-regulate interleukin-10 in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Haruhiko; Futamura, Takashi; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide; Maeda, Kenji; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2009-03-17

    There is considerable evidence that schizophrenia is associated with immune system dysregulation. For example, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of proinflammatory cytokines are significantly increased in schizophrenic patients, and their normalization correlates with improvement in psychotic symptoms. In fact, typical and atypical antipsychotics are reported to modulate immune function in in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of antipsychotics, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol, on serum cytokine levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. Atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone, but not haloperidol, suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6, and up-regulated IL-10. Moreover, only clozapine, robustly increased the serum levels of IL-10. Clozapine reproduced its anti-inflammatory feature in polyinsinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt (Poly[I:C])-induced inflammation. Thus, the anti-inflammatory effect of clozapine would adapt to inflammation induced by some varieties of antigens. Several receptor ligands, such as 8-OH-DPAT, ketanserin, prazosin and scopolamine, were also examined as to their anti-inflammatory effects on serum cytokine levels in LPS-treated mice. Ketanserin and prazosin, but not 8-OH-DPAT nor scopolamine, behaved similarly to atypical antipsychotics. However, the remarkable increase of serum IL-10 level observed in clozapine was not detected in ketanserin and prazosin. These results suggest the unique efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in the suppression of proinflammatory cytokines, and the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10.

  11. MiR-128 up-regulation inhibits Reelin and DCX expression and reduces neuroblastoma cell motility and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Cristina; Florian, Maria Carolina; Massimi, Isabella; Dominici, Carlo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Galardi, Silvia; Buè, Maria Cristina; Massalini, Simone; McDowell, Heather P; Messi, Elio; Gulino, Alberto; Farace, Maria Giulia; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of sophisticated regulators of gene expression, acting as post-transcriptional inhibitors that recognize their target mRNAs through base pairing with short regions along the 3'UTRs. Several microRNAs are tissue specific, suggesting a specialized role in tissue differentiation or maintenance, and quite a few are critically involved in tumorigenesis. We studied miR-128, a brain-enriched microRNA, in retinoic acid-differentiated neuroblastoma cells, and we found that this microRNA is up-regulated in treated cells, where it down-modulates the expression of two proteins involved in the migratory potential of neural cells: Reelin and DCX. Consistently, miR-128 ectopic overexpression suppressed Reelin and DCX, whereas the LNA antisense-mediated miR-128 knockdown caused the two proteins to increase. Ectopic miR-128 overexpression reduced neuroblastoma cell motility and invasiveness, and impaired cell growth. Finally, the analysis of a small series of primary human neuroblastomas showed an association between high levels of miR-128 expression and favorable features, such as favorable Shimada category or very young age at diagnosis. Thus, we provide evidence for a role for miR-128 in the molecular events modulating neuroblastoma progression and aggressiveness.

  12. Glycerotoxin from Glycera convoluta stimulates neurosecretion by up-regulating N-type Ca2+ channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Frédéric A.; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Molgó, Jordi; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2002-01-01

    We report here the purification of glycerotoxin from the venom of Glycera convoluta, a novel 320 kDa protein capable of reversibly stimulating spontaneous and evoked neurotransmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction. However, glycerotoxin is ineffective at the murine neuromuscular junction, which displays a different subtype of voltage- dependent Ca2+ channels. By sequential and selective inhibition of various types of Ca2+ channels, we found that glycerotoxin was acting via Cav2.2 (N-type). In neuroendocrine cells, it elicits a robust, albeit transient, influx of Ca2+ sensitive to the Cav2.2 blockers ω-conotoxin GVIA and MVIIA. Moreover, glycerotoxin triggers a Ca2+ transient in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over-expressing Cav2.2 but not Cav2.1 (P/Q-type). Whole-cell patch–clamp analysis of Cav2.2 expressing HEK cells revealed an up-regulation of Ca2+ currents due to a leftward shift of the activation peak upon glycerotoxin addition. A direct interaction between Cav2.2 and this neurotoxin was revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Therefore, glycerotoxin is a unique addition to the arsenal of tools available to unravel the mechanism controlling Ca2+-regulated exocytosis via the specific activation of Cav2.2. PMID:12485994

  13. Chelidonic acid evokes antidepressant-like effect through the up-regulation of BDNF in forced swimming test

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hee-Yun; Kim, Na-Rae; Jang, Jae-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Depression is usually accompanied by neuro-inflammatory reactions. Chelidonic acid, in particular, has shown anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-depressant effects of chelidonic acid and to discuss the potential mechanisms of a forced swimming test. Chelidonic acid was administered orally once a day for 14 days. On the 14th day, chelidonic acid resulted in a significant decrease in immobility time during the forced swimming test without alteration of locomotor activity, in an open field test. Chelidonic acid also increased the number of nissl bodies in the hippocampus. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation in the hippocampus were up-regulated by the administration of chelidonic acid. Chelidonic acid administration significantly increased the mRNA expression of hippocampal estrogen receptor-β. The levels of hippocampal interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were effectively attenuated by the administration of chelidonic acid. In addition, chelidonic acid significantly increased the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), dopamine, and norepinephrine compared with those levels for the mice that were administered distilled water in the hippocampus. These results suggest that chelidonic acid might serve as a new therapeutic strategy for the regulation of depression associated with inflammation. PMID:27037280

  14. Aniline exposure associated with up-regulated transcriptional responses of three glutathione S-transferase Delta genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wen-Chiao; Chien, Yi-Chih; Chien, Cheng-I

    2015-03-01

    Complex transcriptional profile of glutathione S-transferase Delta cluster genes occurred in the developmental process of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The purpose of this project was to quantify the expression levels of Gst Delta class genes altered by aniline exposure and to understand the relationship between aniline dosages and the variation of Gst Delta genes expressed in D. melanogaster. Using RT-PCR expression assays, the expression patterns of the transcript mRNAs of the glutathione S-transferase Delta genes were revealed and their expression levels were measured at eggs, larvae, pupae and adults. The adult stage was selected for further dose-response assays. After analysis, the results indicated that three Gst Delta genes (Gst D2, Gst D5 and Gst D6) were found to show a peak of up-regulated transcriptional response at 6-8h of exposure of aniline. Furthermore, the dose-response relationship of their induction levels within the dose regiments (from 1.2 to 2.0 μl/tube) had been measured. The expression patterns and annotations of these genes were discussed in the context.

  15. Growth differentiation factor 8 suppresses cell proliferation by up-regulating CTGF expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Pan, Hui-Hui; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Zhu, Yi-Min; Leung, Peter C K

    2016-02-15

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that plays a critical role in the development of ovarian follicles. Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is mainly, but not exclusively, expressed in the mammalian musculoskeletal system and is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GDF8 and CTGF on the regulation of cell proliferation in human granulosa cells and to examine its underlying molecular determinants. Using dual inhibition approaches (inhibitors and small interfering RNAs), we have demonstrated that GDF8 induces the up-regulation of CTGF expression through the activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)4/5-mediated SMAD2/3-dependent signaling pathways. In addition, the increase in CTGF expression contributes to the GDF8-induced suppressive effect on granulosa cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that GDF8 and CTGF may play critical roles in the regulation of proliferative events in human granulosa cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MIP-1α enhances Jurkat cell transendothelial migration by up-regulating endothelial adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi-Ran; Ma, Ying-Huan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) in Jurkat cells and its effect on transendothelial migration. In the present study, human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells (Jurkat cells) were used as a model of T cells in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), which demonstrated significantly higher MIP-1α expression compared with that in normal T-cell controls. The ability of Jurkat cells to cross a human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) monolayer was almost completely abrogated by MIP-1α siRNA. In addition, the overexpression of MIP-1α resulted in the up-regulated expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, which enhanced the migration of Jurkat cells through a monolayer of HBMEC. MIP-1α levels in Jurkat cells appeared to be an important factor for its transendothelial migration, which may provide the theoretical basis to understand the mechanisms of brain metastases of T-ALL at cellular and molecular levels.

  17. YAP is up-regulated in the bronchial airway smooth muscle of the chronic asthma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Jing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by leukocytic infiltration and tissue remodeling with structural changes including subepithelial fibrosis and ASM cells proliferation. The Hippo pathway is a key regulatory point involved in cell proliferation, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cell differentiation. In order to disclose the relation between asthma and the Hippo pathway, expression of the Yes-associated protein (YAP), a key gene in the Hippo pathway, in the bronchial smooth muscle of chronic asthma model (CAM) was studied. 40 mice were randomly divided into control (wide type) and experimental group to construct CAM using chicken ovalbumin (OVA). Pathological changes of the lung tissues were observed in the CAM mice compared with the control using HE staining method. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect if YAP protein is expressed in the lung tissues. The pathological changes of the CAM group showed that a large number of inflammatory cells infiltration including mainly lymphocytes and a small amount of eosinophilic, with the presence of certain airway smooth muscle hyperplasia, was observed in comparison with the control. IHC results showed that the YAP protein was significantly increased compared with the control groups (P < 0.01). This result was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay which detected the up-regulation of the YAP gene (P < 0.01) and Western blot. In conclusion, the YAP protein was significantly expressed in the bronchial airway tissues of the CAM mice, and could be used as an indicator for asthma. PMID:26617833

  18. Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 is up-regulated in gastric cancer and associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen-Yu; Hua, Long; Yao, Kun-Hou; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumor progression. The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of lncRNA CCAT2 expression in human gastric cancer. Methods: Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in 85 pairs of gastric cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to determine its prognostic value, overall survival and progression-free survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent non-tumor tissues. By statistical analyses, high lncRNA CCAT2 expression was observed to be closely correlated with higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis. Moreover, patients with high lncRNA CCAT2 expression had shorter overall survival and progression-free survival compared with the low lncRNA CCAT2 group. Multivariate analyses indicated that high lncRNA CCAT2 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Conclusions: Our results suggested that up-regulation of lncRNA CCAT2 was correlated with gastric cancer progression, and lncRNA CCAT2 might be a potential molecular biomarker for predicting the prognosis of patients. PMID:25755774

  19. Ferrous Iron Up-regulation in Fibroblasts of Patients with Beta Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN).

    PubMed

    Ingrassia, Rosaria; Memo, Maurizio; Garavaglia, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WDR45 gene, coding for a beta-propeller protein, have been found in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, NBIA5 (also known as BPAN). BPAN is a movement disorder with Non Transferrin Bound Iron (NTBI) accumulation in the basal ganglia as common hallmark between NBIA classes (Hayflick et al., 2013). WDR45 has been predicted to have a role in autophagy, while the impairment of iron metabolism in the different NBIA subclasses has not currently been clarified. We found the up-regulation of the ferrous iron transporter (-)IRE/Divalent Metal Transporter1 and down-regulation of Transferrin receptor in the fibroblasts of two BPAN affected patients with splicing mutations 235+1G>A (BPAN1) and 517_519ΔVal 173 (BPAN2). The BPAN patients showed a concomitant increase of intracellular ferrous iron after starvation. An altered pattern of iron transporters with iron overload is highlighted in BPAN human fibroblasts, supporting for a role of DMT1 in NBIA. We here present a novel element, about iron accumulation, to the existing knowledge in field of NBIA. Attention is focused to a starvation-dependent iron overload, possibly accounting for iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Further investigation could clarify iron regulation in BPAN.

  20. H19 Antisense RNA Can Up-Regulate Igf2 Transcription by Activation of a Novel Promoter in Mouse Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Duputié, Anne; Antoine, Etienne; Aptel, Nathalie; Milligan, Laura; Carbonell, Françoise; Lelay-Taha, Marie-Noëlle; Piette, Jacques; Weber, Michaël; Montarras, Didier; Pinset, Christian; Dandolo, Luisa; Forné, Thierry; Cathala, Guy

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), that we named the 91H RNA (i.e. antisense H19 transcript), is overexpressed in human breast tumours and contributes in trans to the expression of the Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene on the paternal chromosome. Our preliminary experiments suggested that an H19 antisense transcript having a similar function may also be conserved in the mouse. In the present work, we further characterise the mouse 91H RNA and, using a genetic complementation approach in H19 KO myoblast cells, we show that ectopic expression of the mouse 91H RNA can up-regulate Igf2 expression in trans despite almost complete unmethylation of the Imprinting-Control Region (ICR). We then demonstrate that this activation occurs at the transcriptional level by activation of a previously unknown Igf2 promoter which displays, in mouse tissues, a preferential mesodermic expression (Pm promoter). Finally, our experiments indicate that a large excess of the H19 transcript can counteract 91H-mediated Igf2 activation. Our work contributes, in conjunction with other recent findings, to open new horizons to our understanding of Igf2 gene regulation and functions of the 91H/H19 RNAs in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:22662250