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Sample records for cibacron blue 3ga

  1. Adsorption of papain with Cibacron Blue F3GA carrying chitosan-coated nylon affinity membranes.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hua-Li; Zhu, Li-Min

    2007-02-20

    Covalent coupling of chitosan (CS) to activated nylon membrane was performed after the reaction of the microporous nylon membrane with formaldehyde. Non-specific adsorption on the CS-coated nylon membrane decreased greatly, compared with plain nylon membrane. The dye Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB F3GA) as a ligand was then covalently immobilized on the CS-coated membranes. Physical properties of the composite membrane and its applications in affinity membrane chromatography were examined. The contents of CS and CB F3GA-attached membranes were 89.6 mg/g nylon membrane and 146.1 micromol/g nylon membrane, respectively. These CB F3GA-attached composite membranes were used in the papain adsorption studies. Higher papain adsorption capacity, up to 235.3mg/g affinity membrane, was obtained. The adsorption isotherm fitted the Freundlich model well. Significant amount of the adsorbed papain (about 94.3%) was eluted by 1.0M NaSCN at pH 9.0. Experiments on regeneration and dynamic adsorption were also performed. It appears that CB F3GA-CS nylon membranes can be applied for papain separation without causing any denaturation.

  2. Non-linear slow-binding inhibition of Aerococcus viridans lactate oxidase by Cibacron Blue 3GA.

    PubMed

    Streitenberger, S A; López-Mas, J A; Sánchez-Ferrer, A; García-Carmona, F

    2001-10-01

    Lactate oxidase (LOD) was purified from cells of Aerococcus viridans by phase partitioning in Triton X-114 (TX-114), ammonium sulphate fractionation and FPLC ion exchange chromatography. The purification achieved from a crude extract of A. viridans was 32-fold with a 60% recovery of activity. The isolated enzyme was a true FMN-containing LOD in tetrameric form with a subunit molecular weight of 48,000. The KM for L-lactate was 175 microM, a 6-fold less value than described in the literature. Among the inhibitors tested, Cibacron Blue 3GA showed the lowest Ki. At low concentrations, Cibacron Blue 3GA behaved as a dye-, pH- and time-dependent inhibitor. A Dixon plot of the steady-state rate showed the time-dependent inhibition to be non-linear, contrary to that described for other slow-binding inhibitors. A model to explain this phenomenon was proposed. The model implies the binding of Cibacron Blue 3GA to the isomerised form of the initial enzyme-inhibition complex (E'I).

  3. Affinity adsorption of lysozyme on a macroligand prepared with Cibacron Blue 3GA attached to yeast cells.

    PubMed

    del Pilar Ferraris, María; Barrera, Guillermo I; Padilla, A Pérez; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this study was the development of affinity adsorbent particles with the appropriate characteristics to be applied in protein purification using the affinity ultrafiltration method. To prepare affinity macroligands Cibacron Blue 3GA, as a ligand molecule, was immobilized by covalent bonding onto yeast cell walls, the support material or matrix. The maximum attachment of the ligand to the matrix was 212 μmol/g (ligand dry weight/yeast dry weight). Lysozyme was selected as the protein model for the adsorption studies. Its adsorption onto the matrix without ligand and matrix with attached ligand were investigated batch-wise. The adsorption equilibrium isotherms appeared to follow a typical Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) of the Cell-Cibacron macroligand for lysozyme was 110 mg/ml of wet macroligand. The adsorbent was also employed for the separation of lysozyme from hen egg white. High purity lysozyme was obtained.

  4. A general method for fractionation of plasma proteins. Dye-ligand affinity chromatography on immobilized Cibacron blue F3-GA.

    PubMed

    Gianazza, E; Arnaud, P

    1982-01-01

    The chromatographic behaviour of 27 different plasma proteins on fractionation of human plasma on immobilized Cibacron Blue F3-GA was studied. The column was eluted by using a three-step procedure. First, a low-molarity buffer (30 mM-H3PO4/Na3PO4, pH 7.0, I0.053) was used, then a linear salt gradient (0-1 M-NaCl in the buffer above) was applied, followed by a wash with two bed volumes of 1.0 M-NaCl. Finally, bound proteins were 'stripped' with 0.5 M-NaSCN. Up to 1 ml of whole plasma could be loaded per 5 ml bed volume. No denaturation of proteinase inhibitors or complement fractions was observed. The recovery of individual proteins ranged between 52 and greater than 95%. Enrichment of four individual plasma components (alpha 1-antitrypsin, caeruloplasmin, antithrombin III and haemopexin) was between 10-fold and 75-fold. These results indicate that chromatography on immobilized Cibacron Blue F3-GA can be a useful initial step in the purification of plasma proteins.

  5. Protein separation with surfactant-coated polystyrene involving Cibacron Blue 3GA-conjugated triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tohru; Hattori, Naoto; Hiraide, Masataka

    2004-02-27

    Through mixing of porous polystyrene particles (Amberlite XAD-4), non-ionic surfactants, and surfactant-conjugated substrates (affinity ligand) in an aqueous solution led to the formation of a novel medium (affinity admicelle) for protein separation. The ligand (CB-Triton) was synthesized by mixing a triazine dye (Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB)) and a polyoxyethylene-type non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) in weakly alkaline solutions. Triton X-100 and CB-Triton were competitively sorbed onto XAD-4. Albumin (bovine serum), alcohol dehydrogenase (yeast), and lysozyme (chicken egg) having specific interaction to CB were collected onto the affinity admicelle. On the other hand, the collection of ovalubmin (chicken egg white), having no binding ability to CB, was negligibly small. Lysozyme in 100 microl of chicken egg white, diluted with 900 microl of 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), was successfully collected on 18 mg of CB-Triton admicelles and, then, it was eluted with 1 ml of aqueous solution of 100 mM phosphate (pH 7.4). The recovery based on the activity for the lysis of micrococcus and the concentration factor were 60% and 40 (n = 3), respectively.

  6. An experimental model of affinity filtration for the isolation of egg white Lysozyme using Cibacron Blue immobilized to yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, María del Pilar; Gonzalez, Ulises A; Aguilar, Carlos F; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2016-05-01

    An experimental model of affinity filtration process was designed using a macroligand composed by Cibacron Blue F3GA immobilized to yeast cells. Its performance was evaluated, at bench scale, through the recovery of egg white Lysozyme. The selective and reversible binding between the Cibacron ligand molecule and the enzyme is described. The separation of Lysozyme from the protein mixture included the application of stages such as affinity adsorption, concentration, diafiltration and elution. A tangential microfiltration system with an inorganic membrane was designed. The main finding was the development of the diafiltration operation, key stage in the enzyme isolation. The macroligand particle kept its integrity along the whole process and the degree of purity of the isolated Lysozyme was significant.

  7. Catalytic thermolysis in treating Cibacron Blue in aqueous solution: Kinetics and degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Claire Xin-Hui; Teng, Tjoon-Tow; Wong, Yee-Shian; Morad, Norhashimah; Rafatullah, Mohd

    2016-03-01

    A thermal degradation pathway of the decolourisation of Reactive Cibacron Blue F3GA (RCB) in aqueous solution through catalytic thermolysis is established. Catalytic thermolysis is suitable for the removal of dyes from wastewater as it breaks down the complex dye molecules instead of only transferring them into another phase. RCB is a reactive dye that consists of three main groups, namely anthraquinone, benzene and triazine groups. Through catalytic thermolysis, the bonds that hold the three groups together were effectively broken and at the same time, the complex molecules degraded to form simple molecules of lower molecular weight. The degradation pathway and products were characterized and determined through UV-Vis, FT-IR and GCMS analysis. RCB dye molecule was successfully broken down into simpler molecules, namely, benzene derivatives, amines and triazine. The addition of copper sulphate, CuSO4, as a catalyst, hastens the thermal degradation of RCB by aiding in the breakdown of large, complex molecules. At pH 2 and catalyst mass loading of 5 g/L, an optimum colour removal of 66.14% was observed. The degradation rate of RCB is well explained by first order kinetics model.

  8. Effect of Cibacron blue on tubulin assembly in the absence and presence of microtubule-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Deinum, J; Sörskog, L; Wallin, M

    1982-11-24

    Cibacron blue was found to inhibit assembly and increase the critical concentration of microtubule proteins. In the presence of 4 mol Cibacron blue/mol tubulin, assembly was completely inhibited and pre-formed microtubules disassembled. Addition of 8% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide to Cibacron blue-inhibited samples induced assembly of normal microtubules in addition to sheets of protofilaments. Disassembly was induced upon addition of 1 mM colchicine or 2 mM Ca2+. No obvious difference was seen in the protein composition of these microtubules compared with controls. GTP exchange was not affected by the presence of Cibacron blue nor was GTP able to counteract its effect. This indicates that the exchangeable GTP site is not involved. The extent of assembly of phosphocellulose purified tubulin in the presence of 8% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide was only slightly less in the presence of Cibacron blue, although the assembly rate was decreased. These results suggest that Cibacron blue might alter the binding of one or more of the associated proteins stimulating assembly.

  9. Cibacron Blue and proteomics: the mystery of the platoon missing in action.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Chung, Maxey C M

    2011-11-18

    The use of Cibacron Blue columns (HiTrapBlue) in proteome analysis for removal of plasma albumin, for facilitating biomarker discovery, has not borne any fruit. In fact, the visibility of low-abundance proteins was obscured. It is here reported that, upon albumin sequestering from plasma, there is adsorption, via hydrophobic interaction, of a substantial number of plasma proteins, which are lost for subsequent analysis if the blue resin is eluted via an ion shock (2 M NaCl) or with a somewhat more robust eluant (5 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% CHAPS, 2% sulphobetain 3-10) as recommended by manufacturers. Such treatments, in fact, release at most 25 to 30 unique gene products, including albumin. If, however, the Affigel-Blue resin, after elution with either of the two above eluants, is further eluted with boiling 4% SDS in 25 mM DTT, all the missing proteins (amounting to at least 112 unique species) are desorbed and biomarker analysis can be conducted in a correct way. It is also suggested that such blue-resin treatment could be coupled to ProteoMiner adsorption, this coupled treatment further enhancing the chances of success for discovery of low-abundance proteins.

  10. Activation of the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel by the triazine dyes cibacron blue F3A-G and reactive red 120

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Jones, R.V.; Meissner, G. )

    1989-11-01

    Vesicle-{sup 45}Ca2+ ion flux and planar lipid bilayer single-channel measurements have shown that the Ca2+ release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is activated by micromolar concentrations of Cibacron Blue F3A-G (Reactive Blue 2) and Reactive Red 120. Cibacron Blue increased the {sup 45}Ca2+ efflux rate from heavy SR vesicles by apparently interacting with both the adenine nucleotide and caffeine activating sites of the channel. Dye-induced {sup 45}Ca2+ release was inhibited by Mg2+ and ruthenium red. In single channel recordings with the purified channel protein complex, Cibacron Blue increased the open time of the Ca2+ release channel without an apparent change in the conductance of the main and subconductance states of the channel.

  11. Strong ionic interactions in noncovalent complexes between poly(ethylene imine), a cationic electrolyte, and Cibacron Blue, a nucleotide mimic--implications for oligonucleotide vectors.

    PubMed

    Çelikbıçak, Ömür; Salih, Bekir; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2014-07-01

    Cationic polymers can bind DNA to form polyplexes, which are noncovalent complexes used for gene delivery into the targeted cells. For more insight on such biologically relevant systems, the noncovalent complexes between the cationic polymer poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and the nucleotide mimicking dye Cibacron Blue F3G-A (CB) were investigated using mass spectrometry methods. Two PEIs of low molecular weight were utilized (Mn  ≈ 423 and 600 Da). The different types of CB anions produced by Na(+)/H(+) exchanges on the three sulfonic acid groups of CB and their dehydrated counterparts were responsible for complex formation with PEI. The CB anions underwent noncovalent complex formation with protonated, but not with sodiated PEI. A higher proportion of cyclic oligomers were detected in PEI423 than PEI600, but both architectures formed association products with CB. Tandem mass spectrometry studies revealed a significantly stronger noncovalent interaction between PEI and dehydrated CB than between PEI and intact CB.

  12. Rapid purification of mitochondrial hexokinase from rat brain by a single affinity chromatography step on Affi-Gel blue.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E

    1989-01-01

    The mitochondrial hexokinase from rat brain, selectively released from mitochondria by the action of glucose 6-phosphate, can be purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by a single affinity chromatography step on Affi-Gel Blue; the Cibacron Blue F3GA ligand bound to this matrix serves as an analog of ATP, the normal substrate for the enzyme, and selective elution is accomplished using glucose 6-phosphate which is a competitive ligand vs. ATP. With this and other modifications to the previously described procedure highly purified enzyme is readily obtained in good yield and with retention of the ability to rebind to mitochondria.

  13. Preparation of highly selective solid-phase extractants for Cibacron reactive dyes using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Al-Degs, Yahya S; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S; Ibrahim, Khalid A

    2009-02-01

    Selective polymeric extractants were prepared for preconcentration of Cibacron reactive red dye, a dye that is often applied with Cibacron reactive blue and Cibacron reactive yellow for dyeing of fabrics. The best extractant was fabricated (in chloroform) using methacrylic acid (as monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (as crosslinker), AIBN (as initiator for polymerization), and red dye as template molecule, with a molar stoichiometric ratio of 8.0:40.0:2.5:0.63, respectively. The structure of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was robust, and resisted dissolution up to 260 degrees C. Compared with the un-imprinted polymer, the imprinted product has a large specific surface area which improved its adsorption capacity. The effect of imprinting was obvious from the adsorption capacity measured at pH 4 for red dye (the imprinted molecule), which was increased from 24.0 to 79.3 mg g(-1) after imprinting. Equilibrium adsorption studies revealed that the dye-imprinted-polymer enables efficient extraction of red dye even in the presence of blue and yellow dyes which have similar chemical natures to the red dye. The selectivity coefficients S (red dye/dye), were 13.9 and 17.1 relative to the yellow and blue dyes, respectively. The MIP was found to be effective for red dye preconcentration, with a preconcentration factor of 100, from tap water and treated textile wastewater. The factors affecting extraction of red dye by the MIP were studied and optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, red dye was selectively quantified in the presence of other competing dyes at a concentration of 20 microg L(-1) from different water systems with satisfactory recoveries (91-95%) and RSD values (approximately 5.0%).

  14. Photocatalytic oxidation of Cibacron Yellow LS-R.

    PubMed

    Kositzi, Maria; Poulios, Ioannis; Samara, Konstantini; Tsatsaroni, Euthimia; Darakas, Efthymios

    2007-07-31

    The photocatalytic degradation of Cibacron Yellow LS-R (CIY), an azo dye, has been investigated in aqueous heterogeneous solutions containing semiconductor oxides as photocatalysts. The disappearance of the organic molecule follows approximately a pseudo-first kinetic order according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Various commercial photocatalysts are compared with respect to their decolorization efficiency, the COD, as well as the toxicity reduction. The effect of the temperature on the reaction rate is ascertained.

  15. Dye attached poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel for albumin depletion from human serum.

    PubMed

    Andac, Muge; Galaev, Igor; Denizli, Adil

    2012-05-01

    Cibacron Blue F3GA was immobilized on poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel and it was used for selective and efficient depletion of albumin from human serum. The poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was selected as the basic component because of its inertness, mechanical strength, chemical and biological stability, and biocompatibility. Cibacron Blue F3GA was covalently attached to the poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel to produce poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel affinity column. The poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel was characterized with respect to gelation yield, swelling degree, total volume of macropores, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the maximum amount of adsorption (343 mg/g of dry cryogel) obtained from experimental results is very close to the calculated Langmuir adsorption capacity (345 mg/g of dry cryogel). The maximum adsorption capacity for poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel column was obtained as 950 mg/g of dry cryogel for nondiluted serum. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing dilution ratios while the depletion ratio of albumin remained as 77% in serum sample. Finally, the poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-Cibacron Blue F3GA cryogel was optimized for using in the fast protein liquid chromatography system for rapid removal of the high abundant proteins from the human serum.

  16. Dynamics of Pre-3 Ga Crust-Mantle Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchett, P. J.; Chase, C. G.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2004-05-01

    During 3.0 to 2.7 Ga, the Earth's crust underwent a non-uniformitarian change from a pre-3.0 Ga environment where long-term preservation of cratons was rare and difficult, to post-2.7 Ga conditions where cratons were established and new continental crust generation took place largely at craton margins. Many models view the Earth's surface during pre-3 Ga time as broadly equivalent to the post 2.7 Ga regime. Any such uniformitarian or gradual evolution cannot explain the conundrum that only a tiny amount of pre-3 Ga crust is preserved today coupled with the fact that very little pre-3 Ga crust was incorporated into the large amount of new craton that came into existence during 3.0-2.7 Ga. If large volumes of pre-3 Ga continental crust existed, it disappeared either just prior to 3 Ga, or during 3.0-2.7 Ga. To explain sudden appearance of surviving but dominantly juvenile continental crust in a model where continents were large prior to 3 Ga, it would be necessary either that pre-3 Ga continent was recycled into the mantle at sites systematically different from those where new 3.0-2.7 Ga crust was made, or that widespread continent destruction preceded the 3.0-2.7 Ga crustal genesis. From expected mantle overturn in response to the heat budget, it is likely that most pre-3 Ga crust was both more mafic and shorter-lived than after 3 Ga. Although Nd and Hf ratios for pre-3 Ga rocks are uncertain due to polymetamorphism, it appears that depleted upper mantle was widespread by 2.7 Ga, even pre-3 Ga. Depletion may have been largely achieved by formation, subduction and storage of mafic crust for periods of 200-500 m.y. The rapid change to large surviving continents during 3.0-2.7 Ga was due to declining mantle overturn, and particularly to development of the ability to maintain subduction in one zone of the earth's surface for the time needed to allow evolution to felsic igneous rock compositions. In as much as storage of subducted slabs is probably occurring today, and

  17. Nanocrystalline lanthanide-doped Lu3Ga5O12 garnets: interesting materials for light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Venkatramu, V; Giarola, M; Mariotto, G; Enzo, S; Polizzi, S; Jayasankar, C K; Piccinelli, F; Bettinelli, M; Speghini, A

    2010-04-30

    Nanocrystalline Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12), with average particle sizes of 40 nm, doped with a wide variety of luminescent trivalent lanthanide ions have been prepared using a sol-gel technique. The structural and morphological properties of the powders have been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Structural data have been refined and are presented for Pr(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+) and Tm(3+) dopants, while room temperature excited luminescence spectra and emission decay curves of Eu(3+)-, Tm(3+)- and Ho(3+)-doped Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) nanocrystals have been measured and are discussed. The Eu(3+) emission spectrum shows typical bands due to 5D(0)-->7F(J) (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) transitions and the broadening of these emission bands with the non-exponential behaviour of the decay curves indicates the presence of structural disorder around the lanthanide ions. Lanthanide-doped nanocrystalline Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) materials show better luminescence intensities compared to Y(2)O(3), Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) and Y(3)Al(5)O(12) nanocrystalline hosts. Moreover, the upconversion emission intensity in the blue-green region for the Tm(3+)- and Ho(3+)-doped samples shows a significant increase upon 647.5 nm excitation with respect to other common oxide hosts doped with the same lanthanide ions.

  18. Europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12) and Eu3GaO6: Synthesis and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Kenji; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were synthesized from a mixture of cubic (c-) Eu2O3 and monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-Ga2O3) raw powders using the solid-state reaction method by calcination at Tc = 1200 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. Stoichiometric compounds such as cubic Eu3Ga5O12 (EGG) and orthorhombic Eu3GaO6 were synthesized using molar ratios of x = 0.375 and 0.75 [x≡Eu2O3/(Eu2O3 + Ga2O3)], respectively, together with the end-point binary compounds β-Ga2O3 (x = 0) and monoclinic (m-) Eu2O3 (x = 1.0). The structural change from "cubic" to "monoclinic" in Eu2O3 is due to the structural phase transition occurring at Tc ≥ 1050 °C. In principle, the perovskite-type EuGaO3 and monoclinic Eu4Ga2O9 can also be synthesized at x = 0.5 and 0.667, respectively; however, such stoichiometric compounds could not be synthesized in this study. The PL and PLE properties of EGG and Eu3GaO6 were studied in detail. The temperature dependence of the PL spectra was observed through measurements carried out between T = 20 and 300 K and explained using a newly developed model. Raman scattering measurements were also performed on the Eu-Ga-O ternary systems over the entire composition range from x = 0 (β-Ga2O3) to 1.0 (m-Eu2O3).

  19. The testing of several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R azo dye removal.

    PubMed

    García-Montaño, Julia; Domènech, Xavier; García-Hortal, José A; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José

    2008-06-15

    Several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R reactive azo dye degradation have been evaluated. Initially, a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biotreatment has been assessed for different dye concentrations (250, 1250 and 3135 mg l(-1)). 92-97% decolourisation was attained during the anaerobic digestion operating in batch mode. However, no dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal neither biogas production was observed during the process, indicating that no methanogenesis occurred. Additionally, according to Biotox and Zahn-Wellens assays, the anaerobically generated colourless solutions (presumably containing the resulting aromatic amines from azo bond cleavage) were found to be more toxic than the initial dye as well as aerobically non-biodegradable, thus impeding the anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment. In a second part, the use of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) like photo-Fenton or ozonation as a chemical post-treatments of the anaerobic process has been considered for the complete dye by-products mineralisation. The best results were obtained by means of ozonation at pH 10.5, achieving a global 83% mineralisation and giving place to a final harmless effluent. On the contrary, the tested photo-Fenton conditions were not efficient enough to complete oxidation.

  20. Method of making V.sub.3 Ga superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Dew-Hughes, David

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for producing a vanadium-gallium superconductor wire having aluminum as a component thereof is disclosed, said wire being encased in a gallium bearing copper sheath. The superconductors disclosed herein may be fabricated under normal atmospheres and room temperatures by forming a tubular shaped billet having a core composed of an alloy of vanadium and aluminum and an outer sheath composed of an alloy of copper, gallium and aluminum. Thereafter the entire billet is swage reduced to form a wire therefrom and heat treated to form a layer of V.sub.3 Ga in the interior of the wire.

  1. Density functional theory study of Fe{sub 3}Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Paduani, C.; Bormio-Nunes, C.

    2011-02-01

    First-principles scalar relativistic calculations in supercells of 16 atoms are used to represent disordered B2 ordering of Fe{sub 3}Ga in order to observe the effect of Ga-Ga pairs on the electronic structure of this alloy. From a comparison with pure bcc Fe it is observed that the energy position and occupation of e{sub g} and t{sub 2g} states are largely affected by the Ga-Ga pairs and strengthened intraplane interactions takes place. The results show that a larger hybridization of the conduction band is in the source of the magnetostriction enhancement experimentally observed in Galfenol.

  2. Treatment of Terasil Red R and Cibacron Red R wastewater using extracted aluminum from red earth: factorial design.

    PubMed

    Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Lim, Han Khim; Yusup, Yusri; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Abu Bakar, Mohd Azri; Cheah, Khai Siean

    2013-06-15

    The ability of aluminum coagulant extracted from red earth to treat Terasil Red R (disperse) and Cibacron Red R (reactive) synthetic dye wastewater was studied. The effects of extractant concentration, soil-to-volume of extractant ratio, and the types of extracting agents (NaOH vs. KCl) on the concentration of aluminum extracted were also investigated. In addition, the efficiency of extracted aluminum was compared with aluminum sulfate, in terms of its capability to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and to remove synthetic color. Factorial design was applied to determine the effect of selected factors on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth (i.e., pH, dose of coagulant, type of coagulant on COD reduction, and color removal). It was found that only selected factors exhibited a significant effect on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth. It was also determined that all factors and their interactions exhibited a significant effect on COD reduction and color removal when applying the extracted aluminum in a standard coagulation process. The results were also compared to aluminum sulfate. Furthermore, NaOH was found to be a better extractant of aluminum in red earth than KCl. Therefore, the best extracting conditions for both extractants were as follows: 2 M NaOH and in a 1:5 (soil/volume of extractant) ratio; 1 M KCl and 1:5 ratio. In treating synthetic dye wastewater, the extracted coagulant showed comparable treatment efficiency to the commercial coagulant. The extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the dispersed dye by 85% and to remove 99% of the color of the dispersed dye, whereas the commercial coagulant reduced 90% of the COD and removed 99% of the color of the dispersed dye. Additionally, the extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 73% and to remove 99% of the color of the reactive dye. However, the commercial coagulant managed to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 94% and to remove 96% of

  3. Development of a Multifilament PIT V3Ga Conductor for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Distin, J.S.; Ghosh, A.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Lu, X.F.; Cheggour, N.; Stauffer, T.C.; Goodrich, L.F.

    2011-08-03

    Previous studies on V{sub 3}Ga assert its suitability for use in proposed fusion reactors. V{sub 3}Ga may outperform Nb{sub 3}Sn in a fusion reactor environment based on its relatively flat critical-current profile in the 15 T-20 T range, resilience to applied strain, and reduced risk of induced radioactivity. A multifilament powder-in-tube V{sub 3}Ga conductor was designed, fabricated and tested with a focus on evaluating critical current versus applied field and applied strain performance, wire drawing difficulties, heat-treatment optimization, and overall feasibility of the concept.

  4. Irregular Mare Patches (IMPs): 100 Ma or 3 Ga?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stopar, Julie; Robinson, Mark Southwick; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Giguere, Thomas; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Ostrach, Lillian Rose; Clegg-Watkins, Ryan N.

    2016-01-01

    IMPs exhibit a perplexing combination of characteristics that are consistent with either an approximately 100 Ma or 3 Ga formation. Dozens of small-area IMPs have crisp morphologies and crater size-frequency distributions (SFDs) that denote relatively recent geologic activity (less than 100 Ma); however, the apparently well-developed regolith on portions of the IMPs are in conflict with such a young age [1]. To test possible formation hypotheses (e.g., [1-5]), which range from ancient volcanism to contemporary outgassing, we examined IMP morphology at the meter-scale with LROC NAC images and derived elevation models. We focused on the largest IMPs (Ina, Sosigenes, Cauchy, Maskelyne, and Nubium), where contacts between deposits are best developed. Most of our observations are consistent with multiple generations of inflation and breakouts (or squeeze-ups) of basaltic lavas that were affected by local slopes. Some of the extrusions coalesced into larger mounds or filled pre-existing craters. We did not observe evidence of large-scale void space (e.g., fissures, fractures, linear depressions, or pits) within or beneath the mounds or rougher deposits (e.g., [5]). But, small-scale voids may be signified by isolated pitted textures. We also did not detect evidence of the cooling fractures or lava plates expected in young lava flows and observed in lunar impact melt deposits. The smooth texture of the mounds is enigmatic. Block-less craters suggest at least 5 m of friable or poorly-cohesive material (such as regolith), yet mound margins exhibit slopes greater than 30 deg requiring significant material strength. Blocks are not common on the mounds, but are sometimes excavated by impacts (usually excavated from beneath the mounds). The uneven deposits are equally enigmatic and texturally varied (blocky, pitted, and crenulated). They are deficient in superposed craters compared to the mounds. If the mounds are indeed of similar age to the rougher units, then their different

  5. Anisotropic intermediate valence in Yb2M3Ga9 (M = Rh, Ir)

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, A.D.; Lawrence, J.M.; Lobos, A.M.; Aligia, A.A.; Bauer, E.D.; Moreno, N.O.; Booth, C.H.; Goremychkin, E.A.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.; Batista, C.D.; Trouw, F.R.; Hehlen, M.P.

    2005-04-26

    The intermediate valence compounds Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9} (M = Rh, Ir) exhibit an anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the 4f occupation number, n{sub f}(T), for Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9} as well as the magnetic inelastic neutron scattering spectrum S{sub mag}({Delta}E) at 12 and 300 K for Yb{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}. Both n{sub f}(T) and S{sub mag}({Delta}E) were calculated for the Anderson impurity model with crystal field terms within an approach based on the non-crossing approximation. These results corroborate the importance of crystal field effects in these materials; they also suggest that Anderson lattice effects are important to the physics of Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}.

  6. [Maternity blues].

    PubMed

    Gonidakis, F

    2007-04-01

    Maternity blues is a transient change of mood that occurs mainly between the 1st and 10th day of puerpartum and is characterized by bursts of tears, mild depressive mood, anxiety and liability of mood. The frequency of maternity blues varies in different studies form 4% to 80%. A number of biological and psychosocial parameters have been studied in order to determine their correlation with maternity blues. The most well studied biological parameters are progesterone and cortizol although their relation with maternity blues has not yet been clearly defined. Stress and the emotional state of the woman during pregnancy as well as history of mood disorders or maternity blues in a previous birth are the psychosocial parameters that are more likely to correlate with the occurrence of maternity blues. Most of the authors suggest that information on maternity blues and reassurance of the woman are the best way to deal with maternity blues both on preventive and therapeutical basis.

  7. V/sub 3/Ga-NbTi magnet system with different currents from one power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, D.; Fischer, K.; Frenzel, C.; Gladun, A.; Holzhaeuser, W.; Knorn, M.; Lange, F.; Moebius, A.; Verges, P.

    1981-09-01

    In recent years the manufacture of Nb/sub 2/Sn or V/sub 3/Ga composite wires by the bronze process has been mastered. Nb/sub 3/Sn was investigated more intensively than V/sub 3/Ga although in high fields V/sub 3/Ga is expected to be superior. Accordingly, V/sub 3/Ga tape was used in a 17.5 Tesla magnet, and multifilamentary V/sub 3/Ga conductor in a 10 Tesla magnet. An 11 Tesla V/sub 3/Ga-NbTi magnet system is described which was produced in a laboratory. A numerical quench analysis for the system is presented. 9 refs.

  8. High pressure transport and structural studies on Nb3Ga superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Mkrtcheyan, Vahe; Kumar, Ravhi; Baker, Jason; ...

    2014-11-24

    We investigated the crystal structure of A-15 superconductor Nb3Ga with a critical temperature Tc = 16.5 K by high pressure x-ray diffraction (HPXRD) using synchrotron x-rays and a diamond anvil cell under Ne pressure medium. Furthermore, the high pressure structural results indicate that Nb3Ga is stable up to 41 GPa. The P-V plot shows an anomaly around 15 GPa even though there are no pressure induced structural transitions are observed. High pressure resistance measurements were performed up to 0.5 GPa to understand the variation of Tc under pressure. Finally, our results show a positive pressure effect on Tc.

  9. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  10. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  11. Dimensionality tuning of the electronic structure in Fe3Ga4 magnetic materials

    PubMed Central

    Moura, K. O.; de Oliveira, L. A. S.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Saleta, M. E.; Granado, E.; Béron, F.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Pirota, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the dimensionality effects on the magnetic behavior of Fe3Ga4 compounds by means of magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. Our results show that reducing the Fe3Ga4 dimensionality, via nanowire shape, intriguingly modifies its electronic structure. In particular, the bulk system exhibits two transitions, a ferromagnetic (FM) transition temperature at T1 = 50 K and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) one at T2 = 390 K. On the other hand, nanowires shift these transition temperatures, towards higher and lower temperature for T1 and T2, respectively. Moreover, the dimensionality reduction seems to also modify the microscopic nature of the T1 transition. Instead of a FM to AFM transition, as observed in the 3D system, a transition from FM to ferrimagnetic (FERRI) or to coexistence of FM and AFM phases is found for the nanowires. Our results allowed us to propose the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram for Fe3Ga4 in both bulk and nanostructured forms. The interesting microscopic tuning of the magnetic interactions induced by dimensionality in Fe3Ga4 opens a new route to optimize the use of such materials in nanostructured devices. PMID:27329581

  12. Magnetism and the defect state in the magnetocaloric antiperovskite Mn3GaC1-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, L. H.; Yoder, D.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Fischer, D. A.; Yu, M.-H.

    2006-02-01

    Magnetic and spectroscopic techniques were used to study the intermetallic antiperovskite Mn3GaC. An antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic magnetostructural transition at 160 K underlies a remarkable magnetocaloric effect; these phenomena are suppressed in the substoichiometric composition Mn3GaC1-δ. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data reported for three compositions Mn3GaC1-δ, δ = 0, 0.10, 0.22, are the basis for drawing inferences concerning the mechanism controlling magnetic order as a function of carbon stoichiometry. While the temperature dependence of the Mn3GaC carbon K edge reveals no observable change across the first-order magnetic transition, a clear splitting of the carbon absorption bands is observed that increases with increasing carbon deficiency. The room temperature Mn and Ga K edges indicate no significant variation with C content. FEFF 8.2 code calculations are in good qualitative agreement with data for the stoichiometric sample, but do not predict the changes in XAS observed in C-deficient samples. These results and the Goodenough-Anderson-Kanamori rules are the basis for a phenomenological model that attributes the carbon content dependence of the low temperature transition to the promotion of weak near-neighbour 90° Mn-Mn pairs in the carbon-deficient compound over the stronger 180° Mn-C-Mn interaction, locking in dominant ferromagnetism at low temperatures.

  13. Upconversion luminescence in La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, S.; Voiculescu, A. M.; Matei, C.; Stefan, A. G.; Toma, O.

    2013-06-01

    Green (525, 550 nm, Er3+ transition (2H11/2, 4S3/2) → 4I15/2), red (660 nm, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2), blue (440 - 490 nm, 4F3/2,5/2,7/2 → 4I15/2), violet (410 nm, 2H9/2 → 4I15/2), and near ultraviolet (380 nm, 4G11/2 → 4I15/2) upconversion luminescence in langatate (La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) doped with erbium and ytterbium ceramic sample, synthesized by solid state reaction in air, was obtained by pumping at 973 nm. Yb3+ - Er3+ energy transfer processes accounting for population of the emitting levels are discussed. The measured lifetimes of the emitting and intermediate Er3+ levels are compared with the radiative lifetimes estimated with the Judd-Ofelt theory.

  14. Triazine dyes as inhibitors and affinity ligands of glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, J; Dziecioł, J; Kościelak, J

    1999-11-01

    The triazine dyes: Cibacron Blue 3GA, Reactive Red 120, Reactive Yellow 86, Reactive Green 19, Reactive Blue 4, Reactive Brown 10 inhibited the activity of a purified preparation of alpha1,6fucosyltransferase (GDP-L-fucose: N-acetyl beta-glucosaminide 6-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.68) from human blood platelets. Cibacron Blue 3GA and Reactive Red 120 were examined for the nature of the inhibition and both were found to be competitive inhibitors of the enzyme, with Ki = 11 microM and 2 microM, respectively. The two dyes inhibited also serum glycosyltransferases: alpha1,2fucosyltransferase (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactosyl-R2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), beta1,4galactosyltransferase (UDP-galactose: N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.90) and beta1,3N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (UDP-GlcNAc: 4-beta-D-galactosyl-D-glucose). Cibacron Blue 3GA was a more effective inhibitor of the glycosyltransferases that use UDP-linked sugar donors than Reactive Red 120 while the latter was a stronger inhibitor of the fucosyltransferases that use GDP-linked donor. All four glycosyltransferases could be affinity purified on Cibacron Blue 3GA-Agarose columns. The order of elution of glycosyltransferases from the columns with solutions of 0.25-1.0 M potassium iodide also depended upon the structure of nucleotide sugar donor, i.e. whether it contained UDP or GDP. Thus, triazine dyes should interact with the sugar donor binding sites of glycosyltransferases. The main advantages of the use of triazine dyes as affinity ligands for isolation of glycosyltransferases are their universal applicability regardless of enzyme specificity, low cost, and insensitivity to high concentration of other proteins present in the solution.

  15. Blue Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  16. Phase structure and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 3}Ga{sub 2} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q. M. Yu, F.; Yue, M.; Zhang, H. G.; Li, Y. Q.; Liu, Y. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Yan, X. L.

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, Mn{sub 3}Ga{sub 2} alloys with high saturation magnetization and high Curie temperatures were prepared by levitation melting high pure Mn and Ga elements followed by annealing. The effect of annealing temperature on phase structure and magnetic properties was investigated by means of x-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. A single phase alloy Mn{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}, which has tetragonal P4/mmm structure, was obtained with an annealing temperature of 773 K and annealing time of 24 h. The hysteresis curve of its easy axis for this single phase alloy shows that the room temperature coercivity and saturation magnetization are 4.18 kOe and 50.81 emu/g, respectively. The thermomagnetic curves indicate that the Curie temperature is about 650 K and a phase transformation occurs above 823 K.

  17. Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rathaiah, Mamilla; Haritha, Pamuluri; Lozano-Gorrín, Antonio Diego; Babu, Palamandala; Jayasankar, Chalicheemalapalli Kulala; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Ulises Ruyman; Lavín, Victor; Venkatramu, Vemula

    2016-06-07

    Nanocrystalline Lu3Ga5O12 garnets doped with Tm(3+)/Yb(3+) ions have been synthesized by a low cost and environmentally benign sol-gel technique and characterized for their structural, Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence properties. The diffuse reflectance spectra of doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets have been measured to derive the partial energy level structure of Tm(3+) and Yb(3+) ions and possible energy transfer channels between them. Upon laser excitation at 473 nm, weak red and intense near-infrared Stokes emissions have been observed in the nano-garnets. The decay curves of (3)H4 and (1)G4 levels of Tm(3+) ions and the (2)F5/2 level of Yb(3+) ions have been measured upon resonant laser excitation and are found to be non-exponential in nature due to multipolar interactions. In order to know the kind of multipolar interaction among optically active ions, the decay curves are analyzed through the generalized Yokota-Tanimoto model. Moreover, under 970 nm laser excitation, intense blue anti-Stokes emission is observed by the naked eye in Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) co-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets. The results show that as-synthesized nano-garnets may be useful in the field of phosphors and photonics.

  18. Strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk and the (001) surface of DO22Mn3Ga: a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Won Seok; Cha, Gi-Beom; Kim, In Gee; Rhim, S H; Hong, Soon Cheol

    2012-10-17

    Strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) and low saturation magnetization are found in DO22Mn(3)Ga using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. The ferrimagnetism in the bulk is well preserved in the surfaces of Mn(3)Ga for two possible terminations, where the perpendicular MCA in the (001) direction is greatly enhanced over the bulk, consistent with experiments. Furthermore, the robustness of MCA with respect to lattice strain and a good lattice match with popular substrates suggest that Mn(3)Ga can be a good candidate for strain-resistance spintronics applications.

  19. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  20. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Fe3Ga/Ga1-xAlxAs Heterostructures: Growth, Properties and Spin Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmstrøm, C. J.; Adelmann, C.; Lou, X.; Srivastava, S. K.; Crowell, P. A.

    2006-03-01

    Single crystal Fe3Ga thin films have been grown on Ga1-xAlxAs (001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The films are found to be pseudomorphic on Ga1-xAlxAs and grow in a tetragonally-distorted Heusler-like D03 crystal structure. The Fe3Ga films are ferromagnetic above room temperature with a saturation magnetization of 1200 emu/cm^3. They exhibit a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to the strain-induced tetragonal distortion. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry finds no interfacial reactions of Fe3Ga/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting that Fe3Ga is thermally stable on GaAs. Spin injection from Fe3Ga into GaAs has been assessed by using Fe3Ga/Ga1-xAlxAs spin light-emitting diode (LED) structures. A steady-state spin polarization of 20% is obtained at 2K. The bias dependence of spin injection is found to be very similar to that of Fe/Ga1-xAlxAs spin LEDs [1]. This work was supported in part by ONR and NSF-MRSEC. [1] C. Adelmann et al., Phys. Rev. B 71, 121301 (2005).

  1. Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb:Y3Ga5O12 laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongdong; Wei, Zhiyi; Zhou, Binbin; Xu, Changwen; Zou, Yuwan; Li, Dehua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang; Yu, Haohai; Wu, Kui; Yao, Bin; Wang, Junli

    2009-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrated femtosecond operation in a diode-pumped Yb:Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) laser for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By using Gires-Tournois interferometer mirrors for dispersion compensation and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for passive mode locking, pulses with a duration as short as 245 fs at the central wavelength of 1045 nm have been produced at a repetition rate of 64.3 MHz. Under the full pump power of 7 W, the maximum output power was 570 mW, with an average slope efficiency of 14.1%.

  2. Incommensurate Spin Density Wave state in metamagnetic Fe3Ga4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Cao, Huibo; Dos Santos, António; McCandless, Greg; Chan, Julia; Karki, Amar; Jin, Rongying; Ditusa, John

    Fe3Ga4 displays a rich competition between magnetic states without structural transitions: a ferromagnetic(FM) ground state transitions to an antiferromagnetic(AFM) intermediate state above 68 K followed by a reemergence of the FM state above room temprature(T). The reentrance of the FM state hints of a coupling of the magnetic degrees of freedom to other modes. To explore the nature of the magnetic states, we have performed extensive single crystal neutron diffraction measurements over a wide range of T and pressure. These measurements revealed two very different magnetic states with the low T FM state having magnetic moments along the c-axis while we discovered that the AFM state is in an incommensurate spin density wave(SDW) order with moments mostly along the a-axis. However, there is still considerable non-collinear and non-coplanar contributions along the b- and c-axial directions. This non-coplanar moment is likely to be the origin of the very large anomalous Hall effect(HE) including a substantial topological HE that we discovered in Fe3Ga4. Study of the effect of hydrostatic pressure indicates a reduction of the Tc and a destabilization of the SDW phase.

  3. Crystal structure of Li3Ga(BO3)2.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert W; Holman, Darien; Villa, Eric M

    2017-03-01

    The crystal structure of trilithium gallium bis-(orthoborate), Li3Ga(BO3)2, is isotypic with Li3Al(BO3)2 in a triclinic cell in space-group type P-1. The three Li and the unique Ga atom are coordinated by four O atoms each in tetra-hedra, and the two B atoms are coordinated by three O atoms in orthoborate triangles. Chains with composition [Ga2(BO3)4](6-) extend along the a axis. The Li atoms inter-leave these chains in tetra-hedral inter-stices. A comparison is made between the structure model of the title compound and that of a previously reported model for a compound with the same composition [Abdullaev & Mamedov (1972 ▸). Zh. Strukt. Khim. 13, 943-946.].

  4. Crystal structure of Li3Ga(BO3)2

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert W.; Holman, Darien; Villa, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of trilithium gallium bis­(orthoborate), Li3Ga(BO3)2, is isotypic with Li3Al(BO3)2 in a triclinic cell in space-group type P-1. The three Li and the unique Ga atom are coordinated by four O atoms each in tetra­hedra, and the two B atoms are coordinated by three O atoms in orthoborate triangles. Chains with composition [Ga2(BO3)4]6− extend along the a axis. The Li atoms inter­leave these chains in tetra­hedral inter­stices. A comparison is made between the structure model of the title compound and that of a previously reported model for a compound with the same composition [Abdullaev & Mamedov (1972 ▸). Zh. Strukt. Khim. 13, 943–946.] PMID:28316831

  5. Low-field magnetocaloric effect in antiperovskite Mn3Ga1-xGexC compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qiang; Lv, Qun; Yang, Xiaozhi; Han, Zhida; Dong, Shiyuan; Qian, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Changliang; Fang, Yong; Jiang, Xuefan

    2015-12-01

    A series of Mn3Ga1-xGexC (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) compounds were prepared by solid state reaction, and their magnetic properties, phase transitions, and magnetocaloric effect were investigated. All samples, after becoming ferromagnetic below Curie temperature Tc, undergo a first-order ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at Tt at low temperature, giving rise to conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effect. Tt increases while Tc shows a decrease with the increase of Ge content. Isothermal magnetization curves around Tt are strongly history-dependent, which may result in spurious peak in the magnetic field induced entropy change (ΔSM). The magnetothermal properties near Tt, compared with those near Tc, are of larger ΔSM , but have larger magnetic hysteresis and smaller refrigerant capacity.

  6. Photoelectric characteristics of metal-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kalygina, V. M. Vishnikina, V. V.; Petrova, Yu. S.; Prudaev, I. A.; Yaskevich, T. M.

    2015-03-15

    We investigate the effect of thermal annealing in argon and of oxygen plasma processing on the photoelectric properties of GaAs-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Me structures. Gallium-oxide films are fabricated by photostimulated electrochemical oxidation of epitaxial gallium-arsenide layers with n-type conductivity. The as-deposited films were amorphous, but their processing in oxygen plasma led to the nucleation of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites. The unannealed films are nontransparent in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) ranges and there is no photocurrent in structures based on them. After annealing at 900°C for 30 min, the gallium-oxide films contain only β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites and become transparent. Under illumination of the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs structures with visible light, the photocurrent appears. This effect can be attributed to radiation absorption in GaAs. The photocurrent and its voltage dependence are determined by the time of exposure to the oxygen plasma. In the UV range, the sensitivity of the structures increases with decreasing radiation wavelength, starting at λ ≤ 230 nm. This is due to absorption in the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. Reduction in the structure sensitivity with an increase in the time of exposure to oxygen plasma can be caused by the incorporation of defects both at the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs interface and in the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film.

  7. Anomalous Hall effect in epitaxially grown ferromagnetic FeGa/Fe3Ga hybrid structure: Evidence of spin carrier polarized by clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc Dung, Dang; Cho, Sunglae

    2013-05-01

    The anomalous Hall resistance relative with magnetic anisotropy of clusters Fe3Ga in Fe3Ga/Fe-Ga hybrid structural epitaxial was reported. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy was obtained for Fe3Ga/Fe-Ga hybrid structure, while in-plane magnetic anisotropy is shown in the single Fe-Ga phase epitaxial on GaAs(001). The observation of trend of saturation Hall resistance in Fe3Ga/Fe-Ga hybrid structural is compared with the Fe-Ga single crystal, which is solid evidence for spin polarization by local magnetic clusters.

  8. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  9. The temperature dependence of intersubband absorption in a barrier-doped GaAs/Al 0.3Ga 0.7As quantum well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmulowicz, F.; Manasreh, M. O.; Fischer, D. W.; Madarasz, F.; Evans, K. R.; Stutz, E.; Vaughan, T.

    We compare the results of an envelope function (EFA) calculation of absorption spectra as a function of temperature of a barrier-doped GaAs/Al 0.3Ga 0.7As multiple quantum well (MQW) with experimental results. The linewidth, total integrated area, and peak positions of the intersubband transition (IT) in the MQW were measured as a function of temperature with the infrared absorption technique. We infer the density of electrons σ in the well from the total integrated intensity of the IT. Using the temperature dependence of σ we find that the Fermi energy in our MQW is also temperature dependent. The peak position of the IT is found to exhibit a nonlinear blue shift as the temperature is lowered. We calculate a one-electron energy band structure of the MQW versus the in-plane wave vector as a function of temperature using Ekenberg's nonparabolic-anisotropic EFA formalism. In our calculation we employ temperature dependent effective masses in both the well and barrier materials and temperature dependent conduction band offset and nonparabolicity parameter. Using the calculated bands and Fermi distribution functions to reflect the occupancies of both the ground and excited states with temperature dependent Fermi levels, we also obtain the optical absorption spectra as a function of temperature. These "raw" calculated spectra are then convoluted with a Lorentzian broadening function using the broadening parameters obtained from the measured lineshapes. The peak of the broadened spectra shows hardly any shift as a function of temperature. We conclude that the exchange interaction for the ground state electrons, which is temperature dependent owing to the temperature dependence of σ, is responsible for the observed peak positions as well as for their blue shift.

  10. First principles calculations of La2O3/GaAs interface properties under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li-Bin; Li, Ming-Biao; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Xu-Yang; Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Chun-Ran; Dong, Hai-Kuan

    2017-04-01

    La2O3 is a potential dielectric material with high permittivity (high-κ) for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. However, band offsets and oxide defects should still be concerned. Smaller band offsets and carrier traps increase leakage current, and degenerate performance of the devices. In this paper, the interface behaviors of La2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure are investigated, which is performed by first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Strain engineering is attempted to improve performance of the metal/La2O3/GaAs devices. First of all, we creatively realize band alignment of La2O3/GaAs interface under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure. The proper biaxial tensile strain can effectively increase valence band offsets (VBO) and conduction band offsets (CBO), which can be used to suppress leakage current. However, the VBO will decrease with the increase of hydrostatic pressure, indicating that performance of the devices is degenerated. Then, a direct tunneling leakage current model is used to investigate current and voltage characteristics of the metal/La2O3/GaAs. The impact of biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure on leakage current is discussed. At last, formation energies and transition levels of oxygen interstitial (Oi) and oxygen vacancy (VO) in La2O3 are assessed. We investigate how they will affect performance of the devices.

  11. Optical decoherence studies of Tm3 +:Y3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, C. W.; Sinclair, N.; Tittel, W.; Cone, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Decoherence of the 795 nm 3H6 to 3H4 transition in 1 %Tm3 +:Y3Ga5O12 (Tm:YGG) is studied at temperatures as low as 1.2 K. The temperature, magnetic field, frequency, and time scale (spectral diffusion) dependence of the optical coherence lifetime is measured. Our results show that the coherence lifetime is impacted less by spectral diffusion than other known thulium-doped materials. Photon echo excitation and spectral hole burning methods reveal uniform decoherence properties and the possibility to produce full transparency for persistent spectral holes across the entire 56 GHz inhomogeneous bandwidth of the optical transition. Temperature-dependent decoherence is well described by elastic Raman scattering of phonons with an additional weaker component that may arise from a low density of glass-like dynamic disorder modes (two-level systems). Analysis of the observed behavior suggests that an optical coherence lifetime approaching 1 ms may be possible in this system at temperatures below 1 K for crystals grown with optimized properties. Overall, we find that Tm:YGG has superior decoherence properties compared to other Tm-doped crystals and is a promising candidate for applications that rely on long coherence lifetimes, such as optical quantum memories and photonic signal processing.

  12. Magnetooptics of the luminescent transitions in Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, Uygun V.; Gruber, John B.; Ivanov, Igor'A.; Burdick, Gary W.; Liang, Hongbin; Zhou, Lei; Fu, Dejun; Pelenovich, Oleg V.; Pelenovich, Vasiliy O.; Lin, Zhou

    2015-08-01

    The spectra of the luminescence and magnetic circular polarization of luminescence in terbium-gadolinium gallium garnet Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Tb3+:GGG) were studied within the visible spectral range at temperatures T = 90 and 300 K in an external magnetic field of 0.45 T. The Zeeman effect in the luminescence "green" band associated with 4f → 4f transition 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+:GGG was also studied at T = 90 K in an external field of 0.55 T. Measurement of the Zeeman effect in Tb3+:GGG carried out for some doublet lines of the luminescence band 5D4 → 7F5 at T = 90 K shows that a magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the emitted light is observed on these lines, in contrast to pure Zeeman splitting of the emission lines measured in the luminescence band 5D4 → 7F6. For the systems we have studied, the maximal value of the magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the luminescence line at low temperatures has been achieved in paramagnetic garnet Tb0.2Y2.8Al5O12 at comparatively low magnetic fields.

  13. Pressure-induced structural evolution and amorphization in Eu3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. L.; Li, Y. C.; Li, X. D.; Li, R.; Lin, J. F.; Liu, J.

    2013-10-01

    Crystal structural evolution of europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12; EGG) has been investigated by a combination of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy in a high-pressure diamond anvil cell. The cubic garnet EGG mostly collapses into an amorphous state upon compression to 85 GPa at room temperature. High-pressure Raman and photoluminescence spectra indicate that the amorphization process is related to the interaction and deformation of the tetrahedra GaO4 and octahedra GaO6 under compression, leading to the increase of the asymmetry of the local oxygen environment around the Eu3+ site with increasing pressures. The amorphization of EGG is associated with the overlapping of the tetrahedra and octahedra and the increase of the average coordination numbers of the Ga3+ ions in the amorphous state. X-ray diffraction spectra of EGG taken from a laser-heated diamond anvil cell demonstrate that the pressure-induced garnet-to-amorphous transition could result from the kinetic hindrance of a crystal-to-crystal phase transition at room temperature, rather than the decomposition reported earlier.

  14. Al00.3Ga0.7N PN diode with breakdown voltage >1600 V

    DOE PAGES

    Allerman, A. A.; Armstrong, A. M.; Fischer, A. J.; ...

    2016-07-21

    Demonstration of Al00.3Ga0.7N PN diodes grown with breakdown voltages in excess of 1600 V is reported. The total epilayer thickness is 9.1 μm and was grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy on 1.3-mm-thick sapphire in order to achieve crack-free structures. A junction termination edge structure was employed to control the lateral electric fields. A current density of 3.5 kA/cm2 was achieved under DC forward bias and a reverse leakage current <3 nA was measured for voltages <1200 V. The differential on-resistance of 16 mΩ cm2 is limited by the lateral conductivity of the n-type contact layer required by the front-surface contactmore » geometry of the device. An effective critical electric field of 5.9 MV/cm was determined from the epilayer properties and the reverse current–voltage characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN)-based PN diode exhibiting a breakdown voltage in excess of 1 kV. Finally, we note that a Baliga figure of merit (Vbr2/Rspec,on) of 150 MW/cm2 found is the highest reported for an AlGaN PN diode and illustrates the potential of larger-bandgap AlGaN alloys for high-voltage devices.« less

  15. Magma source transition of lunar mare volcanism at 2.3 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Morota, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar mare basalts, the most common volcanic feature on the Moon, provide insights into compositions and thermal history of lunar mantle. According to the model ages of mare basalt units determined by crater counting with remote sensing data indicate that magma activity has a second peak at the end of mare volcanism (~2 Ga), and the latest eruptions were limited in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), which is characterized by high abundances of heat-producing elements. In order to understand the magma source of the latest volcanism and mechanism for causing the second peak, we examined the correlation between the titanium contents and eruption ages of mare basalt units using compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE/Kaguya. Although the systematic relationship is not observed globally, a rapid increase in mean titanium (Ti) content occurred at 2.3 Ga in the PKT, suggesting that the magma source of mare basalts changed at that time. The high-Ti basaltic eruptions can be correlated with the second peak of volcanic activity at ~2 Ga. The latest volcanic activity can be induced by a high-Ti hot plume originated from the core-mantle boundary. If the hot plume was occurred, the topographic features formed by the hot plume may be remained. Then, we calculated the difference between topography and selenoid and found the circular feature like a plateau in the center of the PKT, which scale is ~1000 km horizontal and ~500 m vertical. Moreover, mare ridges in this region seem to connect with the plateau. Using detailed models of the flexural response of the lunar elastic lithosphere, we estimated the elastic thickness at the time of occurrence of the hot plume. From our results, the effective elastic thickness at the period of latest volcanism is estimated 20-30 km, which is thinner than that of the period before ~2 Ga. These results may suggest that the up lift of lithosphere caused by the hot plume.

  16. Fundamental Bulk/Surface Structure Photoactivity Relationships of Supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Roberts, Charles; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst was examined as a model nitride photocatalyst system to assist in the development of fundamental structure photoactivity relationships for UV activated water splitting. Surface characterization of the outermost surface layers by High Sensitivity-LEIS and High Resolution-XPS revealed for the first time that the GaN support consists of a GaOx outermost surface layer and a thin film of GaOxNy in the surface region. HR-XPS also demonstrates that the supported (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide nanoparticles (NPs) exclusively consist of Cr+3 and Rh+3 cations and are surface enriched for the supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst. Bulk analysis by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy show that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of the GaN support are not perturbed by the deposition of the (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide NPs. The function of the GaN bulk lattice is to generate photoexcited electrons/holes, with the electrons harnessed by the surface Rh+3 sites for evolution of H2 and the holes trapped at the Ga oxide/oxynitride surface sites for splitting of water and evolving O2. These new structure-photoactivity relationships for supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN also extend to the best performing visible light activated supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/(Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) photocatalyst.

  17. The Blue Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, J. Joel

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

  18. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats parts of the blue nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... is found in the blue nightshade ( Solanum dulcamara ) plant, especially in the fruit and leaves.

  19. Enantiomorphism of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} compound and comparison of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} and Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mill, B. V. Klimenkova, A. A.; Maximov, B. A.; Molchanov, V. N.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2007-09-15

    The absolute crystal structures of two enantiomorphic forms of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} crystals (a = 8.075(1) A, c = 4.9723(6) A, space group P321) with the positive and negative senses of the optical activity are determined using X-ray diffraction analysis. The final R factors are as follows: R = 1.75% and R{sub w} = 2.57% for the crystal with the positive sense of the optical activity and R = 1.86% and R{sub w} = 2.78% for the crystal with the negative sense of the optical activity. The replacement of the Ca{sup 2+} ions by larger Sr{sup 2+} ions (with the formation of the Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} compound) leads to an anisotropic expansion of the crystal lattice (with a more considerable increase in the lattice parameter a as compared to the lattice parameter c), a change in the occupation of the 1a and 3f positions by the Ga{sup 3+} and Ge{sup 4+} ions, and symmetrization of the octahedra and tetrahedra forming the structural framework. The shape of the dodecahedron changes so that its size along the polar electric axis 2 increases significantly. This change is the main factor responsible for the increase in the piezoelectric activity of the Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} compound as compared to the piezoelectric activity of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} compound.

  20. Magnetic properties and anisotropic magnetoresistance of antiperovskite nitride Mn{sub 3}GaN/Co{sub 3}FeN exchange-coupled bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, H. Ando, H.; Kuroki, Y.; Kawai, S.; Ueda, K.; Asano, H.

    2015-05-07

    Epitaxial bilayers of antiferromagnetic Mn{sub 3}GaN/ferromagnetic Co{sub 3}FeN with an antiperovskite structure were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering, and their structural, magnetic, and electrical properties were investigated. Exchange coupling with an exchange field H{sub ex} of 0.4 kOe at 4 K was observed for Mn{sub 3}GaN (20 nm)/Co{sub 3}FeN (5 nm) bilayers. Negative anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect in Co{sub 3}FeN was observed and utilized to detect magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled Mn{sub 3}GaN/Co{sub 3}FeN bilayers. The AMR results showed evidence for current-induced spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic Mn{sub 3}GaN.

  1. Liquid Water at the Base of a 3 Ga Old Ice Sheet: A Glacial Interpretation of the Thumbprint Terrain in Isidis Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, O.; Souček, O.; Pochat, S.; Guidat, T.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical modeling and geomorphological mapping indicate the existence of a 3 km-thick polythermal ice sheet in Isidis Planitia, Mars, ca. 3 Ga ago. Liquid water was produced by melting of the base of this ice sheet.

  2. Oxidation of the GaAs semiconductor at the Al2O3/GaAs junction.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Marjukka; Yasir, Muhammad; Lång, Jouko; Dahl, Johnny; Kuzmin, Mikhail; Mäkelä, Jaakko; Punkkinen, Marko; Laukkanen, Pekka; Kokko, Kalevi; Schulte, Karina; Punkkinen, Risto; Korpijärvi, Ville-Markus; Polojärvi, Ville; Guina, Mircea

    2015-03-14

    Atomic-scale understanding and processing of the oxidation of III-V compound-semiconductor surfaces are essential for developing materials for various devices (e.g., transistors, solar cells, and light emitting diodes). The oxidation-induced defect-rich phases at the interfaces of oxide/III-V junctions significantly affect the electrical performance of devices. In this study, a method to control the GaAs oxidation and interfacial defect density at the prototypical Al2O3/GaAs junction grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated. Namely, pre-oxidation of GaAs(100) with an In-induced c(8 × 2) surface reconstruction, leading to a crystalline c(4 × 2)-O interface oxide before ALD of Al2O3, decreases band-gap defect density at the Al2O3/GaAs interface. Concomitantly, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) from these Al2O3/GaAs interfaces shows that the high oxidation state of Ga (Ga2O3 type) decreases, and the corresponding In2O3 type phase forms when employing the c(4 × 2)-O interface layer. Detailed synchrotron-radiation XPS of the counterpart c(4 × 2)-O oxide of InAs(100) has been utilized to elucidate the atomic structure of the useful c(4 × 2)-O interface layer and its oxidation process. The spectral analysis reveals that three different oxygen sites, five oxidation-induced group-III atomic sites with core-level shifts between -0.2 eV and +1.0 eV, and hardly any oxygen-induced changes at the As sites form during the oxidation. These results, discussed within the current atomic model of the c(4 × 2)-O interface, provide insight into the atomic structures of oxide/III-V interfaces and a way to control the semiconductor oxidation.

  3. Simultaneous dual-wavelength laser operation at 937 and 1062 nm in Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Sun, G. C.; Li, Y. D.; Dong, Y.; Li, S. T.

    2013-08-01

    Diode-end-pumped continuous-wave (cw) simultaneous dual-wavelength laser operation at 937 and 1062 nm in a single Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd:GGG) crystal was demonstrated. A total output power of 1.12 W at the two fundamental wavelengths was achieved at incident pump power of 17.6 W. The optical-to-optical conversion was up to 6.4% with respect to the incident pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is first work on cw simultaneous dual-wavelength operation at 937 and 1062 nm in Nd:GGG crystal.

  4. Investigation on the structural and magnetic properties of sputtered TbFe{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}Ga heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ranchal, R.; Gonzalez-Martin, V.

    2011-09-01

    We have analyzed the structural and magnetic properties of as-grown and annealed [TbFe{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}Ga]{sub n} heterostructures grown by sputtering. Evidence of the bcc structure in the Fe{sub 3}Ga layers has been found. The diffraction peak related to this structure shifts to high angles with the annealing temperature. Also, we have observed a change in the microstructure of the Tb-Fe layers when the thickness layer is reduced in the as-grown heterostructures. Moreover, the Tb content is lower than 33% of the TbFe{sub 2} Laves phase and it depends on the layer thickness. The thermal treatments promote the increase of the Tb content, but only in the heterostructures with thick layers. The strong lattice mismatch between the Tb-Fe and Fe-Ga layers seems to prevent a complete Tb diffusion upon the annealing process. Thus, the crystallization of the TbFe{sub 2} Laves phase is inhibited in the heterostructures with thin layers, although our experimental results indicate the presence of potential magnetostrictive TbFeGa alloys.

  5. Role of Ce4+ in the scintillation mechanism of codoped Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yuntao; Meng, Fang; Li, Qi; ...

    2014-10-17

    To control the time-response performance of widely used cerium-activated scintillators in cutting-edge medical-imaging devices, such as time-of-flight positron-emission tomography, a comprehensive understanding of the role of Ce valence states, especially stable Ce4+, in the scintillation mechanism is essential. However, despite some progress made recently, an understanding of the physical processes involving Ce4+ is still lacking. The aim of this work is to clarify the role of Ce4+ in scintillators by studying Ca2+ codoped Gd3Ga3Al2O12∶Ce (GGAG∶Ce). By using a combination of optical absorption spectra and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopies, the correlation between Ca2+codoping content and the Ce4+ fraction is seen. The energy-levelmore » diagrams of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the Gd3Ga3Al2O12 host are established by using theoretical and experimental methods, which indicate a higher position of the 5d1 state of Ce4+ in the forbidden gap in comparison to that of Ce3+. Underlying reasons for the decay-time acceleration resulting from Ca2+ codoping are revealed, and the physical processes of the Ce4+-emission model are proposed and further demonstrated by temperature-dependent radioluminescence spectra under x-ray excitation.« less

  6. Giant barocaloric effect enhanced by the frustration of the antiferromagnetic phase in Mn3GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Daichi; Fujita, Asaya; Takenaka, Koshi; Kano, Mika

    2015-01-01

    First-order phase transitions are accompanied by a latent heat. Consequently, manipulating them by means of an external field causes a caloric effect. Although transitions from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic states are not controlled by a magnetic field, a large barocaloric effect is expected when strong cross-correlations between the volume and magnetic order occur. Here we examine how geometric frustration in itinerant antiferromagnetic compounds can enhance the barocaloric effect. We study the thermodynamic behaviour of the frustrated antiferromagnet Mn3GaN, and report an entropy change of 22.3 J kg-1 K-1 that is concomitant with a hydrostatic pressure change of 139 MPa. Furthermore, the calculated value of the adiabatic temperature change reaches 5 K by depressurization of 93 MPa. The giant barocaloric effect in Mn3GaN is caused by a frustration-driven enhancement of the ratio of volume change against the pressure coefficient of the Néel temperature. This mechanism for enhancing the barocaloric effect can form the basis for a new class of materials for solid-state refrigerants.

  7. List 47: blue honeysuckle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This summary presents the descriptions of a newly released blue honeysuckle (Lonicera cerulea L.) cultivar for the List of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars. This blue honeysuckle cultivar was released in Canada in 2012 and has pending Plant Breeder’s Rights Certification with Agriculture Canada. The cult...

  8. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  9. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  10. Introducing the Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the blues and presents a list of resources that are designed to introduce the blues, both as a feeling and as an influential part of American music and culture. Includes picture books and nonfiction for young readers, nonfiction for older readers, Web sites, and compact disks. (LRW)

  11. After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Light May Help Beat the Blues Akin to sunlight, it could ward off depression during rehab, study ... facility used "blue" light in its lighting system. Sunlight is humans' largest source of blue-spectrum light, ...

  12. FROM BLUE JEANS TO BLUE GENES

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. Dr Mulliken envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of two young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for-gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in the field of vascular anomalies. Two blue genes’ mutations were discovered, which account for the majority, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved thanks to Dr Mulliken, who inspired two young investigators in blue jeans to find two blue genes. PMID:19190503

  13. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    PubMed

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  14. Synthesis and luminescent properties of Gd3Ga2Al3O12 phosphors doped with Eu3+ or Ce3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, M. J.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    Eu3+-or Ce3+-doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet (GGAG), Gd3Ga2Al3O12, phosphors are fabricated using solid-state reactions with Gd2O3, Ga2O3, Al2O3, CeO2 and Eu2O3 powders. The Eu3+-or Ce3+-doped Gd3Ga2Al3O12 phosphors are sintered at 1300 °C or 1600 °C for 5 hours by using an electric furnace under normal atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy studies are carried out in order to analyze the physical properties of these materials, and their luminescence properties are also measured by using UV and X-ray sources. The Eu3+-or Ce3+-doped Gd3Ga2Al3O12 phosphors show higher light yields in comparison to commercial phosphors such as Gd2O2S:Tb (gadox). This indicates that Gd3Ga2Al3O12:Eu3+ phosphors are promising materials for use in X-ray imaging and dose monitoring at proton beamlines.

  15. BluePort: A Platform to Study the Eosinophilic Response of Mice to the Bite of a Vector of Leishmania Parasites, Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, J. Santiago; Toot-Zimmer, Amanda L.; Schultheiss, Patricia C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Titus, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Visceral Leishmaniasis is a serious human disease transmitted, in the New World, by Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies. Natural resistance to Leishmania transmission in residents of endemic areas has been attributed to the acquisition of immunity to sand fly salivary proteins. One theoretical way to accelerate the acquisition of this immunity is to increase the density of antigen-presenting cells at the sand fly bite site. Here we describe a novel tissue platform that can be used for this purpose. Methodology/Principal Findings BluePort is a well-vascularized and macrophage-rich compartment induced in the subcutaneous tissue of mice via injection of agarose beads covered with Cibacron blue. We describe the sequence of inflammatory events leading to its formation and how it can be used to study the dermal response to the bite of L. longipalpis sand flies. Results presented indicate that a shift in the inflammatory response, from neutrophilic to eosinophilic, is the main histopathological feature associated with the immunity acquired through repeated exposure to the bite of sand flies, and that the BluePort tissue compartment could be used to accelerate this process. In addition, changes observed inside the BluePort parenchyma indicate that it could be used to study complex immunobiological processes, and to develop ectopic secondary lymphoid structures. Conclusions/Significance Understanding the characteristics of the dermal response to the bite of sand flies is a critical element of strategies to control leishmaniasis using vaccines that target salivary proteins. Finding that dermal eosinophilia is such a prominent component of the anti-salivary immunity induced by repeated exposure to sand fly bites raises one important consideration: how to avoid the immunological conflict derived from a protective Th2-driven immunity directed to sand fly saliva with a protective Th1-driven immunity directed to the parasite. The BluePort platform is an ideal tool to

  16. Oceanic mantle rocks reveal evidence for an ancient, 1.2-1.3 Ga global melting event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, A. H.; Sergeev, D.; McTaminey, L.; Dale, C. W.; Meisel, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    It is now increasingly being recognized that many oceanic peridotites are refertilized harzburgites, and that the refertilization often masks an extremely refractory character of the original mantle rock 'protolith'. Oceanic peridotites are, when the effects of melt refertilization are undone, often too refractory to be simple mantle melting residues after the extraction of mid-ocean ridge basalts at a spreading center. Rhenium-osmium isotope analysis is a powerful method to look through the effects of refertilization and to obtain constraints on the age of the melting that produced the refractory mantle protolith. Rhenium-depletion model ages of such anomalously refractory oceanic mantle rocks - found as abyssal peridotites or as mantle xenoliths on ocean islands - are typically >1 Ga, i.e., much older than the ridge system at which they were emplaced. In my contribution I will show results from two case studies of refertilized anciently depleted mantle rocks (Macquarie Island 'abyssal' peridotites and Lanzarote mantle xenoliths). Interestingly, very refractory oceanic mantle rocks from sites all around the world show recurring evidence for a Mesoproterozoic (~1.2-1.3 Ga) melting event [1]. Therefore, oceanic mantle rocks seem to preserve evidence for ancient melting events of global significance. Alternatively, such mantle rocks may be samples of rafts of ancient continental lithospheric mantle. Laser-ablation osmium isotope 'dating' of large populations of individual osmium-bearing alloys from mantle rocks is the key to better constrain the nature and significance of these ancient depletion events. Osmium-bearing alloys form when mantle rocks are melted to high-degrees. We have now extracted over >250 detrital osmium alloys from placer gold occurrences in the river Rhine. These alloys are derived from outcrops of ophiolitic mantle rocks in the Alps, which include blocks of mantle rocks emplaced within the Tethys Ocean, and ultramafic lenses of unknown

  17. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic-field-induced transition in Mn{sub 3}GaC

    SciTech Connect

    Çakir, Ö.; Acet, M.; Farle, M.; Senyshyn, A.

    2014-01-28

    The antiperovskite Mn{sub 3}GaC undergoes an isostructural cubic–cubic first order transition from a low-temperature, large-cell-volume antiferromagnetic state to a high-temperature, small-cell-volume ferromagnetic state at around 160 K. The transition can also be induced by applying a magnetic field. We study here the isothermal magnetic-field-evolution of the transition as ferromagnetism is stabilized at the expense of antiferromagnetism. We make use of the presence of the two distinct cell volumes of the two magnetic states as a probe to observe by neutron diffraction the evolution of the transition, as the external magnetic field carries the system from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state. We show that the large-volume antiferromagnetic and the small-volume ferromagnetic states coexist in the temperature range of the transition. The ferromagnetic state is progressively stabilized as the field increases.

  18. Continuous-wave laser operation of diode-pumped Tm-doped Gd3Ga5O12 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Lan, Jinglong; Zhou, Zhiyong; Guan, Xiaofeng; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Wang, Yan; Tu, Chaoyang

    2017-04-01

    We report on a diode-pumped Tm:Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) laser at 2004 nm operated in continuous-wave mode with two-mirror linear cavity configuration. The maximum output power reaches 0.58 W with laser threshold absorbed pump power of about 0.39 W and overall slope efficiency of about 18.4%, which is believed to be the highest output power for Tm:GGG laser up to now. The Tm:GGG laser shows obvious thermally induced saturation of the output power, which indicated that power and efficiency scaling could be furtherly realized by more efficient thermal removal of the laser crystal.

  19. Er1.33Pt3Ga8: A modulated variant of the Er4Pt9Al24-structure type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Iain W. H.; Gourdon, Olivier; Bekins, Amy; Evans, Jess; Treadwell, LaRico J.; Chan, Julia Y.; Macaluso, Robin T.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of Er1.33Pt3Ga8 were synthesized in a molten Ga flux. Er1.33Pt3Ga8 can be considered to be a modulated variant of the Er4Pt9Al24-structure type, where the partial occupancies are ordered. Indeed, the presence of weak satellite reflections indicates a complex organization and distribution of the Er and Ga atoms within the [ErGa] slabs. The structure has been solved based on single crystal X-ray diffraction data in the monoclinic superspace group X2/m(0β0)00 with a commensurate modulated vector q=1/3b*. Precession images also indicate diffusion in the perpendicular direction indicating a partial disorder of this arrangement from layer to layer. In addition, Er1.33Pt3Ga8 shows antiferromagnetic ordering at TN~5 K.

  20. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  1. High temperature mass spectrometric studies on Usbnd Ga system: Thermodynamic properties over (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and (UGa2 + UGa3) phase regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, P.; Trinadh, V. V.; Bera, Suranjan; Narasimhan, T. S. Lakshmi; Joseph, M.

    2016-07-01

    Vaporisation studies over gallium rich biphasic regions (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and (UGa2 + UGa3) in the Usbnd Ga system were carried out by Knusen effusion mass spectrometry in the temperature ranges of 1208-1366 K and 1133-1338 K, respectively. Ga(g) was the species observed in the mass spectra of the equilibrium vapour over both phase regions. From temperature dependence measurements, pressure-temperature relations were deduced as: log (pGa/Pa) = (-18216 ± 239)/(T/K) + (12.88 ± 0.18) over (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and log (pGa/Pa) = (-16225 ± 124)/(T/K) + (11.78 ± 0.10) over (UGa2 + UGa3). From these data, Gibbs free energy changes for the reactions 3UGa2(s) = U3Ga5(s) + Ga(g) and UGa3(s) = UGa2(s) + Ga(g) were computed and subsequently Gibbs free energies of formation of U3Ga5(s) and UGa3(s) were deduced as ΔfGTo U3Ga5(s) (±5.5) = -352.4 + 0.133 T(K) (kJ mol-1) (1208-1366 K) and ΔfGTo UGa3(s) (±3.8) = -191.9 + 0.082 T(K) (kJ mol-1) (1133-1338 K). The Gibbs free energy of formation of U3Ga5(s) is being reported for the first time.

  2. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises. This can raise a question about possible child abuse. It is important to recognize that Mongolian blue ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 11. Read More Benign Child abuse - physical Rashes Review Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  3. Mongolian blue spots (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian blue spots are flat bluish- to bluish-gray skin markings commonly appearing at birth or shortly ... back and also can appear on the shoulders. Mongolian spots are benign and are not associated with ...

  4. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePlus

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  5. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  6. Faraday rotation and photoluminescence in heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses for fiber-integrated magneto-optics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-03-10

    We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb(3+) ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 10(21) cm(-3), the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400-1500 nm is found for a Tb(3+) concentration of ~6.5 × 10(21) cm(-3). For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb(3+) photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10(-21) cm(2) for ~ 5.0 × 10(21) cm(-3) Tb(3+). This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10(-24) cm(2)s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb(3+) fiber laser.

  7. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties and Carrier Transport Mechanisms of TMAH-Treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Puneetha, Peddathimula; Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Lee, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Park, Chinho

    2016-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electrical properties and carrier transport mechanisms of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes have been investigated by current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements. The experimental results reveal that the barrier height ( I- V) increases whereas the ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature. The TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode showed nonideal behaviors which indicate the presence of a nonuniform distribution of interface states ( N SS) and effect of series resistance ( R S). The obtained R S and N SS were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Furthermore, it was found that different transport mechanisms dominated in the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode. At 150 K to 250 K, Poole-Frenkel emission (PFE) was found to be responsible for the reverse leakage, while Schottky emission (SE) was the dominant mechanism at high electric fields in the temperature range from 300 K to 400 K. Feasible energy band diagrams and possible carrier transport mechanisms for the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode are discussed based on PFE and SE.

  8. Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?*

    PubMed Central

    Daltro, Luise Ribeiro; Yaegashi, Lygia Bertalha; Freitas, Rodrigo Abdalah; Fantini, Bruno de Carvalho; Souza, Cacilda da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. After surgical excision, histopathological examination revealed atypical cellular blue nevus. Presence of mitoses, ulceration, infiltration, cytological atypia or necrosis may occur in atypical cellular blue nevus, making it difficult to differentiate it from melanoma. The growth of blue nevus is unusual and considered of high-risk for malignancy, being an indicator for complete resection and periodic follow-up of these patients. PMID:28225968

  9. Carotenoid genes transcriptional regulation for astaxanthin accumulation in fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis by gibberellin A3 (GA3).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Meng, Chunxiao; Gao, Hongzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Shitan; Liu, Banghui; Su, Yuanfeng; Ye, Naihao

    2013-12-01

    The fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis is a promising natural source of astaxanthin. The present study investigated the transcriptional expression of carotenoid genes for astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). With treatments of 20 and 40 mg/L of gibberllin A3 (GA3), five genes ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated with different expression profiles. GA20 (20 mg/L of GA3) treatment had a greater effect on transcriptional expression of bkt2 than on ipi-1 ipi-2, psy and pds (> 4-fold up-regulation). However, GA40 (40 mg/L of GA3) induced more transcriptional expression of ipi-2, psy and bkt2 than both ipi-1 and pds. The expression of lyc, crtR-B and crtO for astaxanthin biosynthesis was not affected by GA3 in H. piuvialis. In the presence of GA3, astaxanthin biosynthesis genes of ipi-1, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated at transcriptional level, psy at post-transcriptional level, whereas ipi-2 was up-regulated at both levels. The study could potentially lead to a scale application of exogenous GA3 in astaxanthin production with H. pluvialis just like GAs perform in increasing crops production and it would provide new insight about the multifunctional roles of carotenogenesis in response to GA3.

  10. [Blue light and eye health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  11. Learning the Blues. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This lesson introduces students to the "blues," one of the most distinctive and influential elements of African-American musical tradition. With this lesson plan, students can take a virtual field trip to Memphis, Tennessee, one of the prominent centers of blues activities, and explore the history of the blues in the work of W. C. Handy…

  12. Effects of doping concentration and co-doping with cerium on the luminescence properties of Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ for thermometry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareja, Jhon; Litterscheid, Christian; Molina, Alejandro; Albert, Barbara; Kaiser, Bernhard; Dreizler, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The accuracy of surface temperature measurements using thermographic phosphors relies on an extensive knowledge of the temperature-dependent properties of the phosphor. This paper addresses the effects of doping concentration and co-doping with cerium on the luminescence properties of the Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ phosphor. High-crystallinity Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+,Ce3+ powder samples (GGG:Cr,Ce) with different Cr3+ and Ce3+ concentrations were synthesized, and their luminescence spectra as well as their decay lifetime properties were characterized after UV laser excitation. Results revealed that the concentration quenching decreases the luminescence lifetime at concentrations above 0.5 mol% Cr3+ while the emission spectrum remains independent of the Cr3+ concentration. Co-doping with small amounts of Ce3+ improves the temperature-dependent luminescence characteristics by reducing the afterglow and producing fairly mono-exponential luminescence decays without changing the lifetime.

  13. Faraday effect in Gd sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 12 and Gd sub 3 Ga sub 5 O sub 12 rare earth garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Valiev, U.V.; Klochkov, A.A.; Popov, A.I.; Sokolov, Y.B.

    1989-03-01

    The dispersion of the Faraday rotation of the garnets Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} in the 440--700-nm region in the 85--295-K temperature interval and the spectral dependence of the Faraday effect in the garnets Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} for wavelengths from 250 to 700 nm are investigated. The contributions to the Faraday rotation caused by the Gd{sup 3+} ions and the diamagnetic lattice of the garnets are separated.

  14. Weak arrest-like and field-driven first order magnetic phase transitions of itinerant Fe3Ga4 revealed by magnetization and magnetoresistance isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samatham, S. Shanmukharao; Suresh, K. G.

    2017-01-01

    The detailed magnetic study of complex 3d-electron based Fe3Ga4 is reported. It undergoes paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic (TN) and antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (TC) transitions respectively around 380 and 70 K. The thermal hysteresis of field-cooled cooling (FCC) and field-cooled warming (FCW) hints at first order phase transition below Curie temperature. A weak phase coexistence of ferro and antiferromagnetic phases is suggested by exploring the arrest-like first-order phenomenon. In the intermediate temperature range, field-driven metamagnetic transition from antiferro to ferromagnetic phase is confirmed. Further bringing the system very near to TN, field-induced transitions disappear and above TN predominant paramagnetic contribution is evident. The magnetic H-T phase diagram distinguishing different magnetic phases of Fe3Ga4 is obtained.

  15. Low-temperature synthesis and characterization of yttrium-gallium garnet Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YGG)

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Sanjay; Shen Hao; Leleckaite, Asta; Beganskiene, Aldona; Kareiva, Aivaras . E-mail: aivaras.kareiva@chf.vu.lt

    2005-03-08

    To obtain yttrium-gallium garnet (Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}, YGG) a simple 'chimie douce' method has been developed. This sol-gel method yielded excellent starting gel precursor for the fabrication of YGG phase, which could be used as host material for optical applications. The pattern of X-ray diffraction analysis of the ceramic sample sintered for 10 h at 1000 deg. C showed the formation of monophasic Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase. The phase transformations, composition and micro-structural features in the gels and polycrystalline sample were studied by thermoanalytical methods (TGA/DTA), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The quality of the resulting products (homogeneity, crystallisation temperature, grain size, grain size distribution, etc.) is discussed.

  16. LGT (La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) langatate bulk crystal grown from the melt by Czochralski technique and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutahraoui, B.; Nehari, A.; Boy, J.; Vacheret, X.; Allani, M.; Cabane, H.; Dumortier, M.; Derbal, M.; Lebbou, K.

    2017-03-01

    La3Ga5,5Ta0,5O14 (LGT) langatate crystals were grown along Z-axis by Czochralski technique in argon and mixed argon with 0.1%O2 atmosphere. The coloration and the performance of langatate crystals were strongly connected to the starting chemical composition, the gas atmosphere and the growth parameters. Any deviation from the optimal LGT generate macroscopic defects such cracks and grains boundary causing a deterioration of the crystals performance.

  17. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  18. Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zharikov, E.V.; Il'ichev, N.N.; Laptev, V.V.; Malyutin, A.A.; Ostroumov, V.G.; Pashinin, P.P.; Shcherbakov, I.A.

    1982-03-01

    An investigation is reported of the spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of a Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystal activated with chromium and neodymium ions. The high efficiency of the energy transfer process from chromium to neodymium ions is demonstrated. For example, the probability of an elementary Cr/sup 3 +/--Nd/sup 3 +/ interaction event in a Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystal was 12 times higher than that in a Y/sub 3/Al/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystal. It was found that sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions can increase severalfold the energy characteristics of cw and pulsed neodymium lasers. An investigation of the free-lasing parameters shows that the ultimate differential lasing efficiency of neodymium in a Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/:Cr:Nd crystal is 3.6 times higher than that for a YAG:Nd crystal under comparable conditions.

  19. Pulse shape discrimination properties of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B single crystal in comparison with CsI:Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, S.; Tyagi, Mohit; Netrakanti, P. K.; Kashyap, V. K. S.; Mitra, A.; Singh, A. K.; Desai, D. G.; Kumar, G. Anil; Gadkari, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B and CsI:Tl were grown by Czochralski and Bridgman techniques, respectively. While both the crystals exhibited similar emission at about 550 nm, their scintillation decay times showed significantly different characteristics. The average scintillation decay time of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B crystal was found to be about 284 ns for alpha excitation compared to 108 ns measured for a gamma source. On the other hand in CsI:Tl crystals, the alpha excitation resulted in a lower average decay time of 600 ns compared to 1200 ns with gamma excitation. Their pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for gamma and alpha radiations were studied by coupling the scintillators with photomultiplier tube or SiPM and employing an advanced digitizer as well as a conventional zero-crossing setup. In spite of having a poor α/γ light yield ratio, the PSD figure of merit and the difference of zero-crossing time in Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B crystals were found to be superior in comparison to CsI:Tl crystals.

  20. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  1. Blue metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    We review the discovery of blue metal-poor (BMP) stars and the resolution of this population into blue stragglers and intermediate-age Main-Sequence stars by use of binary fractions. We show that the specific frequencies of blue stragglers in the halo field and in globular clusters differ by an order of magnitude. We attribute this difference to the different modes of production of these two populations. We report carbon and s-process enrichment among very metal-poor field blue stragglers and discuss how this result can be used to further resolve field blue stragglers into groups formed during RGB and AGB evolution of their erstwhile primary companions.

  2. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  3. Blue upconversion thulium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.; Weber, Michael E.; Dulick, Michael

    1990-04-01

    We report a blue emission upconversion solid-state laser based on Tm3+:YLF. Under double resonance excitation at 780.8 nm (near-ir) and 648.8 nm (red), the Tm3+ ion is sequentially excited from the 3H6 ground state to the 1D2 excited state through the 3H4 intermediate level. The laser output at 450 and 453 nm corresponds to the 1D2 -> 3F4 transitions of Tm3+ ions in YLF.

  4. Keratoglobus and blue sclera.

    PubMed

    Biglan, A W; Brown, S I; Johnson, B L

    1977-02-01

    Five patients from two families had similar features including keratoglobus, blue scleras, hyperextensibility of the hand, wrist, and ankle joints, sensorineural conduction hearing alterations, and mottling of the teeth. Keratoglobus had been observed in all patients at, or shortly after, birth. Corneal perforations developed in seven of the ten eyes after minimal trauma. Repair of these perforations was complicated by the extremely thin corneas and six eyes had to be either enucleated or eviscerated. Histopathological examination of two of the enucleated eyes showed the corneal stromas of both eyes to be estremely thin, Bowman's membrane was absent, and Descemet's membrane was unusually thick. This condition has an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern.

  5. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  6. Magnetic ordering and exchange interactions in structural modifications of M n3Ga alloys: Interplay of frustration, atomic order, and off-stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelevskyi, Sergii; Ruban, Andrei V.; Mohn, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Mn-Ga alloys close to the M n3Ga stoichiometry can be synthesized in three different crystal modifications: hexagonal, tetragonal, and face-centered cubic, both in bulk and in thin-film forms. The magnetic ordering of these modifications is varying from noncollinear antiferromagnetic in the hexagonal case to ferrimagnetic order in the tetragonal one, whereas it is still unknown for the atomically disordered fcc structure. Here we study the onset of magnetic order at finite temperatures in these systems on a first-principles basis calculating the interatomic magnetic exchange interactions in the high-temperature paramagnetic regime. We employ the disordered local moment formalism and the magnetic force theorem within the framework of the local spin-density approximation and Monte Carlo simulations taking also the effects of atomic disorder in fcc alloys into account. In particular we find the origin of the stabilization of the noncollinear 3 k structure in competition between antiferromagnetic inter- and in-plane couplings of frustrated kagome planes in hexagonal M n3Ga and predict the antiferromagnetic-1 collinear order due to frustration in fcc alloys. Special attention is paid to the effects of the off-stoichiometry and the consequences of atomic disorder. We calculate the site-preference energy of Ga antisite atoms in the tetragonal structures in the range of the compositions from M n3Ga to M n2Ga and slightly beyond and confirm the earlier explanation of the effect of magnetization increase due to Ga preferentially occupying one of the Mn sites.

  7. Temperature dependence of circular photogalvanic effect in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Jiang, Chongyun; Liu, Yu; Yu, Jinling; Chen, Yonghai

    2012-12-01

    Structure inversion asymmetry (SIA) related circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) has been investigated under near-infrared radiation at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 290 K in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures. The result shows nonmonotonic changes of CPGE with temperature variation; obviously larger signal at low temperature and sign inversions in the temperature range between 140 K and 170 K are observed. We suggest this result is not only related to the photoconductivity and Rashba spin splitting, but other factors superpose on them.

  8. Pluto’s Blue Haze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  9. Role of Ce4+ in the Scintillation Mechanism of Codoped Gd3Ga3Al2O12∶Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Meng, Fang; Li, Qi; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.

    2014-10-01

    To control the time-response performance of widely used cerium-activated scintillators in cutting-edge medical-imaging devices, such as time-of-flight positron-emission tomography, a comprehensive understanding of the role of Ce valence states, especially stable Ce44, in the scintillation mechanism is essential. However, despite some progress made recently, an understanding of the physical processes involving Ce4+ is still lacking. The aim of this work is to clarify the role of Ce4+ in scintillators by studying Ca2+ codoped Gd3Ga3Al2O12∶Ce (GGAG ∶Ce). By using a combination of optical absorption spectra and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopies, the correlation between Ca2+ codoping content and the Ce4+ fraction is seen. The energy-level diagrams of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the Gd3Ga3Al2O12 host are established by using theoretical and experimental methods, which indicate a higher position of the 5d1 state of Ce4+ in the forbidden gap in comparison to that of Ce3+. Underlying reasons for the decay-time acceleration resulting from Ca2+ codoping are revealed, and the physical processes of the Ce4+-emission model are proposed and further demonstrated by temperature-dependent radioluminescence spectra under x-ray excitation.

  10. Convection effects on crystallinity in the growth of In0.3Ga0.7 as crystals by the traveling liquidus zone method.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kyoichi; Ogata, Yasuyuki; Adachi, Satoshi; Yoda, Shinichi; Tsuru, Tetsuya; Miyata, Hiroaki; Muramatsu, Yuji

    2006-09-01

    The influence of convection in a melt on the crystallinity of the TLZ-grown In(0.3)Ga(0.7)As crystals has been investigated by growing crystals with various shapes and dimensions on the ground. No single crystals have been grown when the crystal diameter was 10 mm, but we were successful in growing single crystals by reducing crystal diameter to 2 mm. These results suggested the importance of suppressing convection in the melt during alloy crystal growth because constitutional supercooling tends to occur at the freezing interface or ahead of the interface by the segregation effect. Large area is required for substrate use in various applications. This requirement can be fulfilled by the crystal growth in microgravity because density difference-induced convection is suppressed in microgravity. Another means for suppressing convection without deteriorating area is plate-shape crystal growth with reduced thickness. The latter can be applied on the ground and we succeeded in growing single crystals of plate-shaped In(0.3)Ga(0.7)As by the traveling liquidus zone (TLZ) method. Dimensions of obtained single crystals were 10 mm in width and 2 mm in thickness and lengths ranged from 20 to 40 mm. Compositional uniformity was good and 0.3 +/- 0.02 in InAs mole fraction was achieved.

  11. Improved crystal quality of semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN on Si(001) substrates using AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Bae, Si-Young; Lekhal, Kaddour; Mitsunari, Tadashi; Tamura, Akira; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    The planar epitaxial growth of semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN on a Si(001) substrate was performed on a directionally sputtered AlN buffer layer. Three types of interlayers, i.e., single AlN, double AlN, and a stack of AlN/GaN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to achieve high quality GaN films. The results for the stack of AlN/GaN layers provide highest crystal quality and optical properties for GaN. Comparing the top (Ga face) and bottom (N face) surfaces of grown semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN confirms the defect density reduction that is due to the application of interlayers. Moreover, reduced inversion domain density on the bottom surface is attributed with the insertion of interlayers. Improving the quality of semipolar GaN on Si(001) substrates is expected to be useful for GaN/Si(001) integrated optoelectronics.

  12. 5 7 Fe Emission Mössbauer Study on Gd 3 Ga 5 O 1 2 implanted with dilute 5 7 Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, P. B.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Nomura, K.; Adoons, V.; Gerami, A. M.; Johnston, K.; Ncube, M.; Mantovan, R.; Masenda, H.; Matveyev, Y. A.; Mølholt, T. E.; Unzueta, I.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Gislason, H.; Langouche, G.; Naidoo, D.; Ólafsson, S.

    2016-12-01

    57Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy has been applied to study the lattice location and properties of Fe in gadolinium gallium garnet Gd3Ga5 O 12 (GGG) single crystals in the temperature interval 300 - 563 K within the extremely dilute (<10-4 at.%) regime following the implantation of57Mn ( T 1 / 2= 1.5 min.) at ISOLDE/CERN. These results are compared with earlier Mössbauer spectroscopy study of Fe-doped gadolinium gallium garnet Gd3Ga5 O 12(GGG), with implantation fluences between 8×1015 and 6×1016 atoms cm-2. Three Fe components are observed in the emission Mössbauer spectra: (i) high spin Fe2+ located at damage sites due to the implantation process, (ii) high spin Fe3+ at substitutional tetrahedral Ga sites, and (iii) interstitial Fe, probably due to the recoil imparted on the daughter57∗Fe nucleus in the β - decay of57Mn. In contrast to high fluence57Fe implantation studies the Fe3+ ions are found to prefer the tetrahedral Ga site over the octahedral Ga site. No annealing stages are evident in the temperature range investigated. Despite the very low concentration, high-spin Fe3+ shows fast spin relaxation, presumably due to an indirect interaction between nearby gadolinium atoms.

  13. Ti{sub 3}GaC{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}InC{sub 2}: First bulk synthesis, DFT stability calculations and structural systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Cuskelly, Dylan T.; Richards, Erin R.; Kisi, Erich H.; Keast, Vicki J.

    2015-10-15

    A simple methodology for identifying possible higher order M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} phases (n≥2) from the chemical characteristics of known phases was developed. The method was used to identify two potential M{sub 3}AC{sub 2} phases Ti{sub 3}GaC{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}InC{sub 2}. After verifying that the n=1 MAX phases in these systems could be synthesised in bulk using a simple pressureless reactive sintering process, the new phases were synthesised using the same method. DFT calculations were used to test the thermodynamic stability of the new phases against the known competing phases within the same ternary systems. Both were found to be stable although Ti{sub 3}InC{sub 2} only marginally so. Crystal structure refinements and comparison to other MAX phases revealed a linear increase in the c-axis length as a function of the atomic radius of the A element. - Highlights: • Chemical systematics were used to highlight a search window for new MAX phases. • Two new higher order MAX phases, Ti{sub 3}InC{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}GaC{sub 2}, were synthesised. • Pressureless reactive sintering was effective in producing bulk material. • DFT calculations indicate that the new phases are stable.

  14. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What’s more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3. PMID:27121446

  15. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What’s more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3.

  16. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  17. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-05-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, "why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?" This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment.

  18. Purification of NAD(+) glycohydrolase from human serum.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Ozlem; Nurten, Rüstem

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, NAD(+) glycohydrolase was purified from serum samples collected from healthy individuals using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Affi-Gel blue (Cibacron Blue F3GA) affinity chromatography, Sephadex G-100 column chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The final step was followed by a second Sephadex G-100 column chromatography assay in order to remove the ampholytes from the isoelectric focusing step. In terms of enhancement of specific activity, the NAD(+) glycohydrolase protein was purified ∼480-fold, with a yield of 1% compared with the initial serum fraction. The purified fraction appeared to be homogeneous, with a molecular weight of 39 kDa, as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, and also corresponded to the soluble (monomeric) form of surface antigen CD38.

  19. Electrical and structural characterizations of crystallized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN interfaces formed by in situ metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. Yeluri, R.; Kim, J.; Keller, S.; Mishra, U. K.; Jackson, C. M.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Wu, F.; Mazumder, B.; Speck, J. S.

    2016-01-07

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown in situ by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 900 °C on GaN of both Ga- and N-face polarities. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were crystalline and primarily γ-phase. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ga-GaN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/N-GaN interfaces were both atomically sharp, and the latter further exhibited a biatomic step feature. The corresponding current-voltage (J-V) characteristics were measured on a metal-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) structure. The leakage current was very high when the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness was comparable with the size of the crystalline defects, but was suppressed to the order of 1 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2} with larger Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses. The interface states densities (D{sub it}) were measured on the same MOSCAPs by using combined ultraviolet (UV)-assisted capacitance-voltage (C-V), constant capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy (CC-DLTS), and constant capacitance deep level optical spectroscopy (CC-DLOS) techniques. The average D{sub it} measured by CC-DLTS and CC-DLOS were 6.6 × 10{sup 12} and 8.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ga-GaN and 8.6 × 10{sup 12} and 8.6 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/N-GaN, respectively. The possible origins of the positive (negative) polarization compensation charges in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ga-GaN (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/N-GaN), including the filling of interface states and the existence of structure defects and impurities in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer, were discussed in accordance with the experimental results and relevant studies in the literature.

  20. Growth of Atomically Flat Ultra-Thin Ag Films on Si(111) by Introducing a √3 × √3-Ga Buffer Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jie-Hui; Jiang, Li-Qun; Qiu, Jing-Lan; Chen, Lan; Wu, Ke-Hui

    2014-12-01

    It is known that, when Ag is deposited on Si(111)-7×7 substrates in a conventional growth procedure at room temperature, no atomically flat Ag film could be obtained. We use scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction to investigate the growth of ultra-thin Ag films on the Si(111) substrates at room temperature. Our study reveals that, upon introducing a Si(111)-√3 × √3-Ga buffer layer, atomically flat Ag films can easily grow on Si(111) with a critical thickness of two monolayers. Moreover, Ag film growth follows a layer-by-layer mode with further deposition. This novel growth behavior of Ag can be explained in terms of a free electron model (i.e., particle in a box) and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Independent dynamic acousto-mechanical and electrostatic control of individual quantum dots in a LiNbO{sub 3}-GaAs hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Pustiowski, Jens; Müller, Kai; Bichler, Max; Koblmüller, Gregor; Finley, Jonathan J.; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2015-01-05

    We demonstrate tuning of single quantum dot emission lines by the combined action of the dynamic acoustic field of a radio frequency surface acoustic wave and a static electric field. Both tuning parameters are set all-electrically in a LiNbO{sub 3}-GaAs hybrid device. The surface acoustic wave is excited directly on the strong piezoelectric LiNbO{sub 3} onto which a GaAs-based p-i-n photodiode containing a single layer of quantum dots was epitaxially transferred. We demonstrate dynamic spectral tuning with bandwidths exceeding 3 meV of single quantum dot emission lines due to deformation potential coupling. The center energy of the dynamic spectral oscillation can be independently programmed simply by setting the bias voltage applied to the diode.

  2. A resistive-gate Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs 2DEG CCD with high charge-transfer efficiency at 1 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, J.-I.; Rossi, D. V.; Xin, S.; Wang, W. I.; Fossum, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The fabrication and performance of an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs modulation-doped resistive-gate CCD are reported. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) CCD, implemented as a 32-stage four-phase delay line, was tested at both low (1-13 MHz) and high (0.6-1.0 GHz) frequency. It exhibits a room-temperature charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) of better than 0.999 at clock frequencies from 10 MHz up to 1 GHz without a fat-zero signal and is limited by dark current below 10 MHz. The high-frequency test showed no CTE degradation up to 1-GHz operation. The CTE degraded at frequencies lower than approximately 5 MHz due to dark current. The charge-handling capability and minimum clock swing of the resistive-gate 2DEG CCD are calculated.

  3. Effects of Mg-codoping on luminescence and scintillation properties of Ce doped Lu3(Ga,Al)5O12 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Kamada, Kei; Pejchal, Jan; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-03-01

    Effects of Mg co-doping on scintillation properties of Ce:Lu3(Ga,Al)5O12 (LGAG) were investigated. Mg 200 ppm co-doped Ce:LGAG single crystals were prepared by micro pulling down method. Absorption and radioluminescence spectra were measured together with several other scintillation characteristics, namely the scintillation decay and light yield to reveal the effect of Mg co-doping. Ce4+ charge transfer absorption was observed below 340 nm in Mg,Ce:LGAG which is in good agreement with previous reports for other garnet-based crystals. The scintillation decay time showed the tendency to be accelerated and the light yield was enhanced by Mg co-doping.

  4. Helicity dependent photocurrent enabled by unpolarized radiation in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Jiang, Chongyun; Liu, Yu; Yu, Jinling; Chen, Yonghai

    2013-05-01

    We report the experimental observation of photo-assisted generation of helicity dependent photocurrents (PA-HDPC) in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two-dimensional electron gas, which is distinct from the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE). The PA-HDPC is generated under suppressed configuration of CPGE with the illumination of an obliquely incident unpolarized radiation in the system of C2v point group symmetry. We suggest that the PA-HDPC originates from spin-orbit coupling as well as the CPGE. The unpolarized assisted radiation, instead of the circularly polarized radiation, imposes an asymmetric distribution of the spin-polarized carriers in the system and results in a helicity dependent photocurrent.

  5. A spectroscopic comparison of IGZO thin films and the parent In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberle, J.; Brizzi, S.; Gaspar, D.; Barquinha, P.; Galazka, Z.; Schulz, D.; Schmeißer, D.

    2016-10-01

    We use resonant photoelectron spectroscopy at the Zn 2p, Ga 2p, In 3d, and O 1s absorption edges to report on the electronic properties of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin films. We also compare the data with the respective data of the corresponding single crystals In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO. We focus on the elemental composition and, in particular, find no evidence for oxygen deficiency. The In, Ga, and Zn absorption data at resonance can be used to analyze the conduction band states in detail. We deduce that a configuration interaction between d10s0 and d9s1states is of importance. We provided a novel mechanism in which configuration interaction induced gap states create both, extended unoccupied states around E F as well as localized occupied states within the gap.

  6. Bias current dependence of the spin lifetime in insulating Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As

    SciTech Connect

    Misuraca, Jennifer Kim, Joon-Il; Xiong, Peng; Molnár, Stephan von; Lu, Jun; Meng, Kangkang; Chen, Lin; Yu, Xuezhe; Zhao, Jianhua

    2014-02-24

    The spin lifetime and Hanle signal amplitude dependence on bias current has been investigated in insulating Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As:Si using a three-terminal Hanle effect geometry. The amplitudes of the Hanle signals are much larger for forward bias than for reverse bias, although the spin lifetimes found are statistically equivalent. The spin resistance-area product shows a strong increase with bias current for reverse bias and small forward bias until 150 μA, beyond which a weak dependence is observed. The spin lifetimes diminish substantially with increasing bias current. The dependence of the spin accumulation and lifetime diminish only moderately with temperature from 5 K to 30 K.

  7. Optimizing white light luminescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haritha, P.; Linganna, K.; Venkatramu, V.; Martín, I. R.; Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Babu, P.; León-Luis, S. F.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavín, V.

    2014-11-07

    Trivalent dysprosium-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and laser excited spectroscopy. Under a cw 457 nm laser excitation, the white luminescence properties of Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been studied as a function of the optically active Dy{sup 3+} ion concentration and at low temperature. Decay curves for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ion exhibit non-exponential nature for all the Dy{sup 3+} concentrations, which have been well-fitted to a generalized energy transfer model for a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between Dy{sup 3+} ions without diffusion. From these data, a simple rate-equations model can be applied to predict that intense white luminescence could be obtained from 1.8 mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions-doped nano-garnets, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Chromaticity color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been determined as a function of temperature and are found to be within the white light region for all Dy{sup 3+} concentrations. These results indicate that 2.0 mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions doped nano-garnet could be useful for white light emitting device applications.

  8. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  9. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  10. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  11. Blue-green upconversion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  12. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  13. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  14. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  15. Teaching Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    A college teacher discusses his experiences of departing from the established literary canon to teach Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" as part of an upper-level American literature survey class. Students reacted to the novel and its characters, evaluated Alexie's writing techniques, and discussed their personal experiences with Native…

  16. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  17. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  18. Practical utility of the blue spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some aspects of multispectral photography in the blue region are discussed briefly, and sample images are submitted to demonstrate the potential utility of the blue multispectral record for oceanography.

  19. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  1. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  2. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  3. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  4. Growth and characterization of the La3Ga4.85Fe0.15SiO14 piezoelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Renqin; Liu, Wenpeng; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun; Shi, Zibin; Sun, Dunlu; Wang, Jiyang

    2017-01-01

    A new piezoelectric single crystal La3Ga4.85Fe0.15SiO14 (LGFS) was grown by the Czochralski method firstly. Its structural parameters were obtained by Rietveld refinement to the X-ray diffraction. The effective segregation coefficient k eff of Fe in the LGFS was determined to be 0.6. The cost of LGFS is reduced due to the doping of cheap Fe. The crystal density was measured to be 5.7 g cm-3 by the buoyancy method. The defect structure of LGFS crystal was investigated by the chemical etching with 85% H2SO4 etchant. Dislocation etching pit patterns of LGFS crystal are consistent with the corresponding atomic arrangement schematics. Compared with LGS, LGN, LGT, and LGAS crystal, the LGFS crystal exhibits outstanding dielectric and piezoelectric properties, and ɛ 11, ɛ 33, d 11, and d 14 are 20.86, 51.99, 6.5 pC/N, and -5.10 pC/N, respectively. Therefore, LGFS may be a new potential piezoelectric crystal with high performance and low expense.

  5. Effect of Mg2+ ions co-doping on luminescence and defects formation processes in Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12:Ce single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, V.; Bohacek, P.; Grigorjeva, L.; Kučera, M.; Nikl, M.; Zazubovich, S.; Zolotarjovs, A.

    2017-04-01

    Photo- and radioluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence characteristics of Ce3+ - doped and Ce3+, Mg2+ co-doped Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 (GAGG) single crystals of similar composition are investigated in the 9-500 K temperature range. The Ce3+ - related luminescence spectra and the photoluminescence decay kinetics in these crystals are found to be similar. Under photoexcitation in the Ce3+ - and Gd3+ - related absorption bands, no prominent rise of the photoluminescence intensity in time is observed neither in GAGG:Ce,Mg nor in GAGG:Ce crystals. The afterglow is strongly reduced in GAGG:Ce,Mg as compared to GAGG:Ce, and the afterglow decay kinetics is much faster. Co-doping with Mg2+ results in a drastic decrease of the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) intensity in the whole investigated temperature range and in the appearance of a new complex Mg2+ - related TSL glow curve peak around 285 K. After irradiation in the Ce3+ - related 3.6 eV absorption band, the TSL intensity in GAGG:Ce,Mg is found to be comparable with that in the GAGG:Ce epitaxial film of similar composition. The Mg2+ - induced changes in the concentration, origin and structure of the crystal lattice defects and their influence on the scintillation characteristics of GAGG:Ce,Mg are discussed.

  6. Dynamic compression of dense oxide (Gd3Ga5O12) from 0.4 to 2.6 TPa: Universal Hugoniot of fluid metals

    DOE PAGES

    Ozaki, N.; Nellis, W. J.; Mashimo, T.; ...

    2016-05-19

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great current interest for warm dense matter physics, planetary sciences, and inertial fusion energy research. Shock-compression equation-of-state data and optical reflectivities of the fluid dense oxide, Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), were measured at extremely high pressures up to 2.6 TPa (26 Mbar) generated by high-power laser irradiation and magnetically-driven hypervelocity impacts. Above 0.75 TPa, the GGG Hugoniot data approach/reach a universal linear line of fluid metals, and the optical reflectivity most likely reaches a constant value indicating that GGG undergoes a crossover from fluid semiconductor to poor metal with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC). Thesemore » results suggest that most fluid compounds, e.g., strong planetary oxides, reach a common state on the universal Hugoniot of fluid metals (UHFM) with MMC at sufficiently extreme pressures and temperatures. Lastly, the systematic behaviors of warm dense fluid would be useful benchmarks for developing theoretical equation-of-state and transport models in the warm dense matter regime in determining computational predictions.« less

  7. Angular dependence of light trapping in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. H.; Li, P. C.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.; Yu, E. T.

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of light trapping effects in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells on wavelength and incident angle is experimentally characterized and analyzed. Separation of active device layers from their epitaxial growth substrate enables integration of thin-film semiconductor device layers with nanostructured metal/dielectric rear contacts to increase optical absorption via coupling to both Fabry-Perot resonances and guided lateral propagation modes in the semiconductor. The roles of Fabry-Perot resonances and coupling to guided modes are analyzed via photocurrent response measurements and numerical modeling for light incident at angles of 0° (normal incidence) to 30° off normal. Light trapping enables external quantum efficiency at long wavelengths as high as 2.9% per quantum well to be achieved experimentally, substantially exceeding the ˜1% per quantum well level typically observed. Increased long wavelength quantum efficiency is shown in experimental measurements to persist with increasing angle of incidence and is explained as a consequence of the large number of guided modes available in the device structure.

  8. Control of Nd and Cr concentrations in Nd,Cr : Gd 3Ga 5O 12 single crystals grown by Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszei, B.; Paitz, J.; Vandlik, J.; Süveges, A.

    2001-06-01

    During the growth process of the Nd,Cr : Gd 3Ga 5O 12 (Nd,Cr : GGG) laser crystals the optimum concentrations of the dopants cannot be realized in axial direction of the crystal at a constant pulling (growth) rate as the effective segregation coefficients ( k) of Nd 3+ and Cr 3+ are not unity and not uniform ( k<1 and k>1, respectively). To solve this problem the dopant concentrations were measured in the crystals grown at different pulling rates by atomic absorption to determine the effective and equilibrium segregation coefficients and the ratio of the boundary layer thickness and diffusion coefficients. In the light of these parameters we suggest a pulling (growth) rate program as a function of the fraction of the crystallized melt leading to the smallest concentration variation of the dopants along the length axis of the crystals. The variation of Nd 3+ concentration in the crystal reduced from 35% to 19% while the laser efficiency increased by 15-20% by this method.

  9. 3T and nonlocal 4T Hanle measurements of spin accumulation in the persistent photoconductor Al0.3Ga0.7As:Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joon-Il; Kountouriotis, K.; Liu, T.; von Molnar, S.; Xiong, P.; Lu, J.; Yu, X. Z.; Zhao, J. H.

    3-terminal (3T) and nonlocal 4-terminal (4T) Hanle measurements have been performed on a spin injection/detection device with patterned Fe electrodes and Al0.3Ga0.7As:Si, a persistent photoconductor, as the channel. The persistent photoconductivity facilitates in situ incremental photo-doping of the AlGaAs channel, which enables direct comparisons of the 3T and 4T Hanle results on the same device over a broad range of carrier densities across the insulator-metal transition. Although their magnitudes differ by about an order of magnitude, the 3T and 4T Hanle signals exhibit broad similarities in their dependencies on the injection current and carrier density, as well as the resulting spin lifetimes. Specifically, at each bias current, the magnitudes of both the 3T and 4T Hanle signals are observed to decrease exponentially with increasing carrier density of the AlGaAs deep into the metallic state. The spin lifetimes extracted from the 3T and 4T Hanle curves, both via the FWHM of the Lorentzian fit and the 1D spin drift-diffusion model analysis, show similar values and evolution with the carrier density. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1308613.

  10. Angular dependence of light trapping in In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. H.; Li, P. C.; Yu, E. T.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.

    2014-01-28

    The dependence of light trapping effects in In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells on wavelength and incident angle is experimentally characterized and analyzed. Separation of active device layers from their epitaxial growth substrate enables integration of thin-film semiconductor device layers with nanostructured metal/dielectric rear contacts to increase optical absorption via coupling to both Fabry-Perot resonances and guided lateral propagation modes in the semiconductor. The roles of Fabry-Perot resonances and coupling to guided modes are analyzed via photocurrent response measurements and numerical modeling for light incident at angles of 0° (normal incidence) to 30° off normal. Light trapping enables external quantum efficiency at long wavelengths as high as 2.9% per quantum well to be achieved experimentally, substantially exceeding the ∼1% per quantum well level typically observed. Increased long wavelength quantum efficiency is shown in experimental measurements to persist with increasing angle of incidence and is explained as a consequence of the large number of guided modes available in the device structure.

  11. Quantum electronic properties of the Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Caird, J.A.; Payne, S.A.; Staver, P.R.; Ramponi, A.J.; Chase, L.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1988-06-01

    Few of the existing Cr/sup 3+/ vibronic lasers have achieved the slope efficiency and tuning range expected based on their known spectroscopic properties. In order to discover the causes of this behavior, the performance of chromium doped gallium fluoride garnet, Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/, as a laser material has been investigated experimentally. The data reported here include absorption and emission spectra, emission rates, quantum efficiency, laser wavelength tuning range, laser output slope efficiencies, and excited state absorption spectra. Similar properties of the alexandrite laser material were studied for comparison. The results indicate that the performance of the gallium fluoride garnet laser is severely limited by Cr/sup 3+/ excited state absorption (ESA). A model is presented to account for the unexpected nature of the ESA, which appears to be a common problem for all Cr/sup 3+/ vibronic lasers. Criteria are suggested for choosing Cr/sup 3+/ hosts for which the effects of ESA will be minimized.

  12. Low phonon energies and wideband optical windows of La2O3-Ga2O3 glasses prepared using an aerodynamic levitation technique

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Kohei; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ueda, Motoi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tastunori

    2017-01-01

    xLa2O3-(100 − x)Ga2O3 binary glasses were synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique. The glass-forming region was found to be 20 ≤ x ≤ 57. The refractive indices were greater than 1.92 and increased linearly with increasing x. The polarizabilities of oxide ions were estimated to be 2.16–2.41 Å3, indicating that the glasses were highly ionic. The glasses were transparent over a very wide range from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region. The widest transparent window among the oxide glasses was from 270 nm to 10 μm at x = 55. From the Raman scattering spectra, a decrease in bridging oxide ions and an increase in non-bridging oxide ions were confirmed to occur with increasing La2O3 content. The maximum phonon energy was found to be approximately 650 cm−1, being one of the lowest among oxide glasses. These results show that La2O3-Ga2O3 binary glasses should be promising host materials for optical applications such as lenses, windows, and filters over a very wide wavelength range. PMID:28358112

  13. Dynamic compression of dense oxide (Gd3Ga5O12) from 0.4 to 2.6 TPa: Universal Hugoniot of fluid metals

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, N.; Nellis, W. J.; Mashimo, T.; Ramzan, M.; Ahuja, R.; Kaewmaraya, T.; Kimura, T.; Knudson, M.; Miyanishi, K.; Sakawa, Y.; Sano, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-01-01

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great current interest for warm dense matter physics, planetary sciences, and inertial fusion energy research. Shock-compression equation-of-state data and optical reflectivities of the fluid dense oxide, Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), were measured at extremely high pressures up to 2.6 TPa (26 Mbar) generated by high-power laser irradiation and magnetically-driven hypervelocity impacts. Above 0.75 TPa, the GGG Hugoniot data approach/reach a universal linear line of fluid metals, and the optical reflectivity most likely reaches a constant value indicating that GGG undergoes a crossover from fluid semiconductor to poor metal with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC). These results suggest that most fluid compounds, e.g., strong planetary oxides, reach a common state on the universal Hugoniot of fluid metals (UHFM) with MMC at sufficiently extreme pressures and temperatures. The systematic behaviors of warm dense fluid would be useful benchmarks for developing theoretical equation-of-state and transport models in the warm dense matter regime in determining computational predictions. PMID:27193942

  14. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  15. Development of a plate technique for screening of polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms by using a mixture of insoluble chromogenic substrates.

    PubMed

    Ten, Leonid N; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Myung-Kyum; Kang, Myung Suk; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2004-03-01

    A plate assay based on the visible solubilization of small substrate particles and the formation of haloes on Petri dishes, containing a mixture of different dye-labelled polysaccharides as substrates, provides a specific, reliable and rapid simultaneous detection of corresponding polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms. It has potential for increasing the efficacy of screening of microorganisms, utilizing different polysaccharides, in large numbers of natural samples. Diversely colored insoluble forms of amylose, xylan and hydroxyethyl-cellulose (HE-cellulose) were prepared as chromogenic substrates by using the cross-linking reagent 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether and the dyes Brilliant Red 3B-A, Cibacron Blue 3GA and Reactive Orange 14. Using the method, the bacteria with amylase or xylanase or cellulase or a combination of these activities were screened from soil and sludge samples, selected and identified according to 16S rDNA sequencing.

  16. Affinity Chromatography in Nonionic Detergent Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Jack B.; Strottmann, James M.; Wick, Donald G.; Stellwagen, Earle

    1980-10-01

    Anionic dye affinity chromatography is commonly unproductive in the presence of nonionic detergents used to extract particulate proteins. Using lactate dehydrogenase as a model protein, Cibacron blue F3GA as a model dye, and Triton X-100 as a model detergent, we find that the dye is encapsulated in nonionic detergent micelles, rendering the dye incapable of ligation with the enzyme. However, the dye can be liberated from the micelles without altering the nonionic detergent concentration by addition of an anionic detergent, such as deoxycholate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, forming mixed anionic/nonionic micelles that displace the anionic dye. Encapsulation of the anionic detergents prevents their activity as protein denaturants. These observations have been successfully translated to the dye affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of brain particulate cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

  17. Bacteriophage T4 deoxynucleotide kinase: gene cloning and enzyme purification.

    PubMed Central

    Brush, G S; Bhatnagar, S K; Bessman, M J

    1990-01-01

    Gene 1 of bacteriophage T4 has been cloned into a lambda pL expression vector, resulting in the overproduction of deoxynucleotide kinase. A procedure that includes affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue F3GA-agarose has been used to purify milligram quantities of enzymes from a 2-liter culture. The enzyme has been partially characterized in vitro and in vivo, and it appears to be identical to the deoxynucleotide kinase isolated from T4-infected Escherichia coli. These results prove the earlier contention that the phosphorylation of three dissimilar deoxynucleotides (5-hydroxymethyldeoxycytidylate, dTMP, and dGMP), to the exclusion of most others, is catalyzed by a single protein. Images PMID:2160930

  18. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  19. Blue phases of cholesteryl nonanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiboom, S.; Sammon, M.

    1981-07-01

    The transformation on heating of an ordinary (helical) cholesteric liquid crystal (CHOL) into the isotropic phase (ISO) often occurs via a number of intermediate "blue" phases. We find the following scheme of phase transitions in cholesteryl nonanoate: CHOL-->91.35BPI-->91.76BPII-->91.84BPIII-->91.95ISO. Here BPI, BPII, and BPIII indicate three distinct, thermodynamically stable phases; transition temperatures are in °C. From observations of supercooling and coexistence, we conclude that all these transformations are first order, except possibly the BPIII-->ISO, the character of which remains in doubt. A similar behavior is found in cholesteryl myristate and in a mixture of cholesteryl nonanoate and cholesteryl chloride. A few observations having a bearing on the structure of the blue phases are reported.

  20. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

  2. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  3. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-01-01

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

  4. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-09-23

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants.

  5. Characterization of the ligandin site of maize glutathione S-transferase I

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic GSTs (glutathione S-transferases) are a major reserve of high-capacity binding proteins and exhibit ligand-binding properties for a large variety of compounds. In the present study, the binding of two non-substrate anthraquinone dyes VBAR (Vilmafix Blue A-R) and CB3GA (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to maize (Zea mays) GST I was investigated. The results showed that the enzyme was specifically and irreversible inactivated by VBAR with a Kd of 35.5±2.2 μM and a k3 of 0.47 min−1. Proteolytic cleavage of the VBAR-modified enzyme and subsequent separation of peptides gave only one modified peptide. Sequencing of the modified peptide revealed the target site of VBAR reaction to be Lys41. CB3GA binds reversibly to GST I and behaves as a competitive inhibitor towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and glutathione. CB3GA binding to GST I is accompanied by a characteristic spectral change in the absorption at positive maximum (670 nm) which exhibited a hyperbolic dependence on dye concentration with a Kd of 12.1±0.5 μM. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues (Trp12, Phe35, Lys41, Asn49, Gln53, Ser67 and Ile118) was employed, and the mutated enzymes were assessed for CB3GA binding. These results, together with molecular-modelling studies, established that the ligandin-binding site of GST I is located mainly in the hydrophobic binding site. The ability of VBAR to specifically inactivate GST I was exploited further to demonstrate the specific binding of several plant hormones and flavonoids to GST I. The inactivation of other GST isoenzymes by VBAR was also investigated, and it was concluded that VBAR may have wide applicability as an affinity label for probing structure–function relationships of GST isoenzymes. PMID:15196053

  6. Blue straggler stars: lessons from open clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.

    Open clusters enable a deep dive into blue straggler characteristics. Recent work shows that the binary properties (frequency, orbital elements and companion masses and evolutionary states) of the blue stragglers are the most important diagnostic for determining their origins. To date the multi-epoch radial-velocity observations necessary for characterizing these blue straggler binaries have only been carried out in open clusters. In this paper, I highlight recent results in the open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2682 (M67) and NGC 6819. The characteristics of many of the blue stragglers in these open clusters point directly to origins through mass transfer from an evolved donor star. Additionally, a handful of blue stragglers show clear signatures of past dynamical encounters. These comprehensive, diverse and detailed observations also reveal important challenges for blue straggler formation models (and particularly the mass-transfer channel), which we must overcome to fully understand the origins of blue straggler stars and other mass-transfer products.

  7. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  8. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  9. Mixed tetrahedral anionic framework in the K{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, O. V.; Steele, I.; Kireev, V. V.

    2008-11-15

    The crystal structure of a new synthetic potassium gallophosphate K{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} grown from a solution in the melt of a mixture of GaPO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is determined using X-ray diffraction (Bruker Smart diffractometer, 2{theta}{sub max}= 56.6{sup o}, R = 0.044 for 2931 reflections, T = 100 K). The main crystal data are as follows: a = 8.661(2) A, b = 17.002(4) A, c = 8.386(2) A, space group Pna2{sub 1}, Z= 4, and {rho}{sub calcd} = 2.91 g/cm{sup 3}. The synthesized crystals represent the third phase in the structure type previously established for the K{sub 3}Al{sub 2}[(As,P)O{sub 4}]{sub 3} compound. It is shown that the structure consists of a three-dimensional anionic microporous tetrahedral framework of the mixed type, which is formed by PO{sub 4} and GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra shared by vertices. Large-sized cations K{sup +} occupy channels of the zeolite-like framework. The crystal chemical features of the formation of structure types of compounds with mixed frameworks described by the general formula A{sub 3}{sup +}M{sub 2}{sup 3+}(TO{sub 4}){sub 3} (where A = K, Rb, (NH{sub 4}), Tl; M = Al, Ga, Fe, Sc, Yb; T = P, As) are analyzed.

  10. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  11. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  12. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael

    2016-11-01

    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  13. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

  14. Crystal field energy levels, spin-Hamiltonian parameters and local structures for the Cr3+ and Mn4+ centers in La3Ga5SiO14 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yang; Chen, Bo-Wei; Zheng, Wen-Chen; Li, Bang-Xing

    2017-02-01

    The crystal field energy levels (obtained from optical spectra) together with the spin-Hamiltonian parameters g//, g⊥ and D (obtained from EPR spectra) for 3d3 ions Cr3+ and Mn4+ at the trigonal octahedral Ga3+ sites in La3Ga5SiO14 crystals are computed from the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method based on the two-spin-orbit-parameter model. The model takes into account the contributions due to the spin-orbit parameter of central dn ion (in the traditional crystal field theory) and that of ligand ions via covalence effect. The calculated results are in rational accord with the experimental values. The calculations also imply that the covalence of (MnO6)8- center in La3Ga5SiO14 crystals is stronger than that of (CrO6)9- center, and the impurity-induced local lattice relaxation for (MnO6)8- center is larger than that for (CrO6)9- cluster because of the larger size and charge mismatch for Mn4+ replacing Ga3+ in La3Ga5SiO14 crystals.

  15. Blue and UV Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krukowski, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M.; Bockowski, M.; Porowski, S.

    2006-04-01

    Despite many technological difficulties the group III nitrides: GaN, AlN and InN and their alloys are primary candidates for electro-optical coherent light sources. In the recent years the research and technology of the nitride based continuous wave (CW) laser diodes (LDs) led to creation of blue-violet coherent light sources of power up to 200 mW. The progress has been attained by using various ways to attack the main obstacles in the technology of these devices such as insufficient size of high quality lattice matched substrates, low p-doping efficiency of Mg acceptor, poor contact to p-type semiconductor and low efficiency of radiative recombination. The two different approaches were used to overcome the substrate problem: hetero-epitaxy and homoepitaxy. Homoepitaxy used high pressure GaN high quality crystals. Heteroepitaxy used sapphire, SiC or GaAs substrates and very sophisticated techniques of reduction of the dislocation density. The low p-doping efficiency by using Mg acceptor is related to creation of Mg--H complexes due to hydrogen presence during the growth of laser diode quantum structures. In addition, Mg acceptor has low efficiency due to its high energy. High Mg concentrations can be obtained by using either MOCVD or ammonia source MBE growth. An alternative route is to use hydrogen-free plasma activated MBE (PA-MBE) method. The recent advances and the prospects of both approaches will be discussed. Solid AlGaInN solution offers a possibility to cover wide spectral range, starting from near UV to blue, green and red. Arsenide based laser diodes (LDs) are efficient coherent red light sources. Therefore, nitride based LDs are considered to be devices of choice for green, blue and UV spectral range. So far only blue and violet laser has been realized. The progress toward green and UV lasers is far less spectacular. The results in all these areas and future prospects will be discussed.

  16. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  17. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  18. Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Lin, T.-H.; Liu, J.-H.

    2010-03-22

    This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

  19. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  20. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon.

  1. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  2. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  3. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  4. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA

  5. The compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of a Fe3O4/Ga2O3/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Huang, Shimin; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zhu, Shunming; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Mingxiang; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the authors have designed and fabricated a Fe3O4/Ga2O3/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of the hetero-structure have been characterized and discussed. From the characterizations, the hetero-structure has been successfully grown generally. However, due to the unintentional diffusion of Ga ions from Ga2O3/GaN layers, the most part of the nominal Fe3O4 layer is actually in the form of GaxFe3-xO4 with gradually decreased x values from the Fe3O4/Ga2O3 interface to the Fe3O4 surface. Post-annealing process can further aggravate the diffusion. Due to the similar ionic radius of Ga and Fe, the structural configuration of the GaxFe3-xO4 does not differ from that of pure Fe3O4. However, the ferromagnetism has been reduced with the incorporation of Ga into Fe3O4, which has been explained by the increased Yafet-Kittel angles in presence of considerable amount of Ga incorporation. A different behavior of the magnetoresistance has been found on the as-grown and annealed samples, which could be modelled and explained by the competition between the spin-dependent and spin-independent conduction channels. This work has provided detailed information on the interfacial properties of the Fe3O4/Ga2O3/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure, which is the solid basis for further improvement and application of the structure.

  6. Identifying different mechanisms of circular photogalvanic effect in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two dimensional electron gas by photo-modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Jiang, Chongyun; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Chen, Yonghai

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) excited by sub-bandgap radiation in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two dimensional electron gas and tune its amplitude by synchronously imposing an above-bandgap unpolarized light at normal incidence. With this photo-modulation technique, we identify two microscopic mechanisms of CPGE according to the dramatic change of apparent Rashba and Dresselhaus effects. We suggest the optical transitions to be Franz-Keldysh and intraband regime, respectively. Both regimes coexist in conventional CPGE and the intraband regime dominates at sufficient modulation power.

  7. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2016-11-15

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  8. [Biodegradation of reactive turquoise blue].

    PubMed

    Fu, L; Wen, X; Xu, L; Qian, Y

    2001-07-01

    In this study, the anaerobic degradation and the aerobic degradation of a kind of reactive dye--Reactive Turquoise Blue(RTB) were compared. The results proved that anaerobic sludge could only decompose RTB in the presence of glucose while aerobic sludge decomposed RTB with or without the presence of glucose (RTB of 20 mg/L was reduced by 37.4% through 24 hours' aerobic treatment with RTB as sole carbon source). The enhancement of glucose concentration was beneficial for both anaerobic and aerobic degradation of RTB: the anaerobic and the aerobic removal efficiencies were respectively 81.5% and 73.6% with RTB of 20 mg/L and glucose of 1200 mg/L. In the influent RTB concentration also had influence on the activity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. When glucose concentration was 800 mg/L or 1200 mg/L and RTB concentration was 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L, anaerobic removal efficiency of RTB was higher than aerobic removal efficiency by 4.9%-27.2%, which meant that anaerobic bacteria is more powerful than aerobic bacteria in terms of RTB removal.

  9. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  10. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  11. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  12. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist

    Cancer.gov

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  13. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2016-07-12

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  14. Blue Origin Tests BE-3 Engine

    NASA Video Gallery

    Blue Origin successfully fires the thrust chamber assembly for its new 100,000 pound thrust BE-3 liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen rocket engine. As part of the company's Reusable Booster System (RBS)...

  15. Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

    2003-09-01

    Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

  16. Blue Ribbon Panel Report Cover Letter

    Cancer.gov

    The letter from NCI Acting Director Douglas R. Lowy, M.D., to Vice President Biden that accompanied the Blue Ribbon Panel final report, thanking the Vice President for his commitment to and leadership of the Cancer Moonshot.

  17. Asymmetrical In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum rings and their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tangmettajittakul, O. Changmoung, P. Thainoi, S. Ratanathammaphan, S. Panyakeow, S.

    2013-12-04

    In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum rings were fabricated by droplet epitaxy technique using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). 7.5 ML In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As droplets are deposited on Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epitaxial layer at 350°C and 250°C. After that, they were crystallized under As{sub 4} pressure of 8×10{sup −6} torr at 250°C. The surface morphology of quantum rings is studied by atomic force microscopy. It is found that quantum rings are not symmetrical due to anisotropic behavior of In and Ga atom migration during crystallization process. The quantum ring density of the sample deposition at 350°C and 250°C are 1×10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} and 2.6×10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}, respectively. Consequently, the asymmetric quantum rings with deposition at 350°C give two photoluminescence (PL) peaks at 1.27 and 1.38 eV at 20K. However, the PL peak of quantum rings with deposition at 350°C is merged with GaAs peak due to the poor size distribution.

  18. Comparative study on hydrostatic strain, stress and dislocation density of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN heterostructure before and after a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Dinara, Syed Mukulika Jana, Sanjay Kr.; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ghosh, Saptarsi; Bhattacharya, Sekhar; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2015-08-28

    The hydrostatic strain, stress and dislocation densities were comparatively analyzed before and after passivation of amorphous silicon nitride (a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) layer on Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN heterostructure by nondestructive high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) technique. The crystalline quality, in-plane and out-of plane strain were evaluated from triple-axis (TA) (ω-2θ) diffraction profile across the (002) reflection plane and double-axis (DA) (ω-2θ) glancing incidence (GI) diffraction profile across (105) reflection plane. The hydrostatic strain and stress of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N barrier layer were increased significantly after passivation and both are tensile in nature. The dislocation density of GaN was also analyzed and no significant change was observed after passivation of the heterostructure. The crystalline quality was not degraded after passivation on the heterostructure confirmed by the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) analysis.

  19. Highly-stable and low-state-density Al2O3/GaN interfaces using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneki, Shota; Ohira, Joji; Toiya, Shota; Yatabe, Zenji; Asubar, Joel T.; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    Interface characterization was carried out on Al2O3/GaN structures using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates with relatively low dislocation density (<3 × 106 cm-2). The Al2O3 layer was prepared by atomic layer deposition. The as-deposited metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) sample showed a significant frequency dispersion and a bump-like feature in capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves at reverse bias, showing high-density interface states in the range of 1012 cm-1 eV-1. On the other hand, excellent C-V characteristics with negligible frequency dispersion were observed from the MOS sample after annealing under a reverse bias at 300 °C in air for 3 h. The reverse-bias-annealed sample showed state densities less than 1 × 1011 cm-1 eV-1 and small shifts of flat-band voltage. In addition, the C-V curve measured at 200 °C remained essentially similar compared with the room-temperature C-V curves. These results indicate that the present process realizes a stable Al2O3/GaN interface with low interface state densities.

  20. Spectra of circular and linear photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in In0.15Ga0.85As/Al0.3Ga0.7As multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinling; Chen, Yonghai; Cheng, Shuying; Lai, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Spectra of circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) and linear photogalvanic effect (LPGE) for inter-band transition have been experimentally investigated in In0.15Ga0.85As/Al0.3Ga0.7As multiple quantum wells (QWs) at room temperature. The CPGE and LPGE spectra are quite similar during the spectral region corresponding to the transitions 1e1hh (the first valence subband of heavy hole to the first conduction band) and 1e2hh, which is also similar to that of the photoconductivity. Comparing the photocurrent induced by LPGE and CPGE along [1 1 0] and [1 1bar 0] directions, we obtain the anisotropic ratio of the linear photogalvanic tensor χ and circular photogalvanic tensor γ to be χxxz/χyyz=3.6 and γxy/γyx=1.3 (x∥[1 1 0] and y∥[1 1bar 0]), which indicate that the symmetry of the structure belongs to C2v point group and the Rashba spin splitting is the dominant mechanism to induce the k-linear spin splitting of the subband in the In0.15Ga0.85As/Al0.3Ga0.7As QWs. The magnitude of the LPGE is nearly at the same order with that of the CPGE for the investigated spectral region at room temperature.

  1. Si-based blue light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namavar, Fereydoon

    1994-05-01

    Phase 1 results demonstrated for the first time a strong, stable blue-green emission from C-implanted red-emitting porous silicon. The objective of Phase 1 was to obtain blue-green emission from porous Si structure either by increasing the bandgap of the substrate by growth of Si-C random alloys prior to forming nanostructures with quantum confined properties, or by increasing the confinement energy of red-emitting Si nanostructures. Porous structures fabricated from group 4 alloys epitaxially grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulted in an enhancement in light emission of about one order of magnitude after incorporation of a very small amount of carbon in the epitaxial grown films. Strong blue-green light emission was observed by the naked eye from C-implanted and annealed porous Si. Using AlGaAs as a reference, we observed that the intensity of blue-green emission was one order of magnitude higher than that of the original red-emitting porous Si. Catholuminescence measurements of our samples performed at the University of Colorado show blue emission at 1.80 eV and 2.80 eV. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of a blue-green emitting porous structure shows an IR absorption line identical to that of SiC and electron diffraction studies clearly show reflections corresponding to beta-SiC. Phase 1 results indicate that blue-green light is from SiC nanostructures with quantum confined properties. This material may be used to fabricate blue light-emitting Si-based devices which can be easily integrated into Si technology.

  2. Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masaaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Takeda, Kosaku

    2005-08-11

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We believe that this tetrametal complex may represent a previously undiscovered type of supermolecular pigment.

  3. Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Toshihiko; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Yasuhara, Hajime; Koide, Ryohei; Dawson, William W

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J/cm(2) energy densities. The values of energy density were measured before the blue filter. Lesions were measured before and at 2 and 30 days after irradiation of a 2.8 mm diameter region within the macular arcade. Measures were fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and long wavelength scanning by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) unit. The lesions, which were produced, were scored and compared to irradiant energy density of the blue LED (NSPB500S, Nichia, Tokushima, Japan). The exposure at the 20 J/cm(2) produced no detectable result at 2 or 30 days. Exposure at 35 J/cm(2) showed definite lesion production without blue filter. With the filter added there was one indication of minor change. At 60 J/cm(2) there was extensive heavy, enduring damage without the filter and with the filter damage was present but was significantly attenuated. These results strongly support the conclusion that the blue filter attenuation reduces the frequency of damage by exposure. This experimental system is a useful model for normal human eye aging and continuous spectrum environment irradiance.

  4. Quality-enhanced In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film grown on GaAs substrate with an ultrathin amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fangliang; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-01-27

    Using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As layers have been grown on GaAs substrates to act as buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxial growth of In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As films. It is revealed that the crystallinity of as-grown In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As films is strongly affected by the thickness of the large-mismatched amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer. Given an optimized thickness of 2 nm, this amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer can efficiently release the misfit strain between the In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epi-layer and the GaAs substrate, trap the threading and misfit dislocations from propagating to the following In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epi-layer, and reduce the surface fluctuation of the as-grown In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As, leading to a high-quality In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film with competitive crystallinity to that grown on GaAs substrate using compositionally graded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As metamorphic buffer layers. Considering the complexity of the application of the conventional In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As graded buffer layers, this work demonstrates a much simpler approach to achieve high-quality In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film on GaAs substrate and, therefore, is of huge potential for the InGaAs-based high-efficiency photovoltaic industry.

  5. Vibrio azureus emits blue-shifted light via an accessory blue fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Karatani, Hajime; Wada, Minoru; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2012-04-01

    Luminous marine bacteria usually emit bluish-green light with a peak emission wavelength (λ(max) ) at about 490 nm. Some species belonging to the genus Photobacterium are exceptions, producing an accessory blue fluorescent protein (lumazine protein: LumP) that causes a blue shift, from λ(max)  ≈ 490 to λ(max)  ≈ 476 nm. However, the incidence of blue-shifted light emission or the presence of accessory fluorescent proteins in bacteria of the genus Vibrio has never been reported. From our spectral analysis of light emitted by 16 luminous strains of the genus Vibrio, it was revealed that most strains of Vibrio azureus emit a blue-shifted light with a peak at approximately 472 nm, whereas other Vibrio strains emit light with a peak at around 482 nm. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this blue shift in V. azureus NBRC 104587(T) . Here, we describe the blue-shifted light emission spectra and the isolation of a blue fluorescent protein. Intracellular protein analyses showed that this strain had a blue fluorescent protein (that we termed VA-BFP), the fluorescent spectrum of which was almost identical to that of the in vivo light emission spectrum of the strain. This result strongly suggested that VA-BFP was responsible for the blue-shifted light emission of V. azureus.

  6. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.

  8. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  9. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  10. Use of big data by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Helm-Murtagh, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The health care industry is grappling with the challenges of working with and analyzing large, complex, diverse data sets. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina provides several promising examples of how big data can be used to reduce the cost of care, to predict and manage health risks, and to improve clinical outcomes.

  11. Structure of anthocyanin from the blue petals of Phacelia campanularia and its blue flower color development.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mihoko; Kondo, Tadao; Toki, Kenjiro; Yoshida, Kumi

    2006-03-01

    The dicaffeoyl anthocyanin, phacelianin, was isolated from blue petals of Phacelia campanularia. Its structure was determined to be 3-O-(6-O-(4'-O-(6-O-(4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(E)-caffeoyl)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-(E)-caffeoyl)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-5-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)delphinidin. The CD of the blue petals of the phacelia showed a strong negative Cotton effect and that of the suspension of the colored protoplasts was the same, indicating that the chromophores of phacelianin may stack intermolecularly in an anti-clockwise stacking manner in the blue-colored vacuoles. In a weakly acidic aqueous solution, phacelianin displayed the same blue color and negative Cotton effect in CD as those of the petals. However, blue-black colored precipitates gradually formed without metal ions. A very small amount of Al(3+) or Fe(3+) may be required to stabilize the blue solution. Phacelianin may take both an inter- and intramolecular stacking form and shows the blue petal color by molecular association and the co-existence of a small amount of metal ions. We also isolated a major anthocyanin from the blue petals of Evolvulus pilosus and revised the structure identical to phacelianin.

  12. Identifying blues: an interview with lesbian blues musician and lyricist Gaye Adegbalola. Interview by Carmen Phelps.

    PubMed

    Adegbalola, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, blues lyricist and musician Gaye Adegbalola shares with audiences how various political, social, and artistic influences have inspired her work since her activist years during the Black Arts Movement leading up to the present day. As a lesbian blues artist, Adegbalola's personal and artistic development implicates the often inextricable and intimate relationships between artistic production, political involvement, and individual fulfillment.

  13. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  14. Blue cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines--a review.

    PubMed

    Skog, Kerstin

    2004-03-25

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of compounds formed when protein-rich foods, such as meat or fish, are prepared under normal cooking conditions, such as frying, grilling, or broiling. To evaluate and estimate the risks associated with HCAs contained in the diet, it is important to determine the levels in cooked foods, and the levels of HCAs and metabolites in the body. HCAs are normally found at low amounts in a complex matrix, which necessitates a good purification method and a sensitive detection system. The objective of this review was to briefly present the current knowledge on the use of Blue Cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of HCAs.

  15. The behavior of the I-V-T characteristics of inhomogeneous (Ni /Au)-Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN/GaN heterostructures at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekeli, Z.; Altındal, Ş.; ćakmak, M.; Özçelik, S.; ćalışkan, D.; Özbay, E.

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the behavior of the forward bias current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) characteristics of inhomogeneous (Ni/Au)-Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN/GaN heterostructures in the temperature range of 295-415K. The experimental results show that all forward bias semilogarithmic I-V curves for the different temperatures have a nearly common cross point at a certain bias voltage, even with finite series resistance. At this cross point, the sample current is temperature independent. We also found that the values of series resistance (Rs) that were obtained from Cheung's method are strongly dependent on temperature and the values abnormally increased with increasing temperature. Moreover, the ideality factor (n ), zero-bias barrier height (ΦB0) obtained from I-V curves, and Rs were found to be strongly temperature dependent and while ΦB0 increases, n decreases with increasing temperature. Such behavior of ΦB0 and n is attributed to Schottky barrier inhomogeneities by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights (BHs) at the metal/semiconductor interface. We attempted to draw a ΦB0 versus q /2kT plot in order to obtain evidence of the GD of BHs, and the values of Φ¯B0=1.63eV and σ0=0.217V for the mean barrier height and standard deviation at a zero bias, respectively, were obtained from this plot. Therefore, a modified ln(I0/T2)-q2σ02/2(kT)2 versus q /kT plot gives ΦB0 and Richardson constant A* as 1.64eV and 34.25A/cm2K2, respectively, without using the temperature coefficient of the barrier height. The Richardson constant value of 34.25A/cm2K2 is very close to the theoretical value of 33.74A/cm2K2 for undoped Al0,3Ga0,7N. Therefore, it has been concluded that the temperature dependence of the forward I-V characteristics of the (Ni /Au)-Al0.3Ga0.7/AlN/GaN heterostructures can be successfully explained based on the thermionic emission mechanism with the GD of BHs.

  16. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (<1 Hz) to relatively high frequencies (∼kHz) and are also low-cost, lightweight, and easy to fabricate. Several important steps have been taken by Wang's group to develop TENG technology for blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  17. Bump in the blue axion isocurvature spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Upadhye, Amol

    2017-01-01

    Blue axion isocurvature perturbations are both theoretically well motivated and interesting from a detectability perspective. These power spectra generically have a break from the blue region to a flat region. Previous investigations of the power spectra were analytic, which left a gap in the predicted spectrum in the break region due to the nonapplicability of the used analytic techniques. We therefore compute the isocurvature spectrum numerically for an explicit supersymmetric axion model. We find a bump that enhances the isocurvature signal for this class of scenarios. A fitting function of three parameters is constructed that fits the spectrum well for the particular axion model we study. This fitting function should be useful for blue isocurvature signal hunting in data and making experimental sensitivity forecasts.

  18. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  19. Accurate crystal-structure refinement of Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} at 295 and 100 K and analysis of the disorder in the atomic positions

    SciTech Connect

    Dudka, A. P.; Mill', B. V.

    2013-07-15

    The accurate X-ray diffraction study of a Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} crystal (sp. gr. P321, Z = 1) has been performed using repeated X-ray diffraction data sets collected on a diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector at 295 and 100 K. The asymmetric disorder in the atomic positions in Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} is described in two alternative ways: with the use of anharmonic atomic displacements (at 295 K R/wR = 0.68/0.60%, 3754 reflections; at 100 K R/wR = 0.90/0.70%, 3632 reflections) and using a split model (SM) (at 295 K R/wR = 0.74/0.67%; at 100 K R/wR = 0.95/0.74%). An analysis of the probability density function that defines the probability of finding an atom at a particular point in space shows that, at 295 K, five of the seven independent atoms in the unit cell are asymmetrically disordered in the vicinity of their sites, whereas only three atoms are disordered at 100 K. At both temperatures the largest disorder is observed at the 3f site on a twofold axis, which is a prerequisite for the formation of helicoidal chains of atoms along the c axis of the crystal and can serve as a structural basis for multiferroic properties of this family of crystals with magnetic ions.

  20. Preparation and characterization of (Ba,Cs)(M,Ti) 8O 16 (M = Al 3+, Fe 3+, Ga 3+, Cr 3+, Sc 3+, Mg 2+) hollandite ceramics developed for radioactive cesium immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin-Chevaldonnet, V.; Caurant, D.; Dannoux, A.; Gourier, D.; Charpentier, T.; Mazerolles, L.; Advocat, T.

    2007-06-01

    Among the different matrices proposed for selective and durable immobilization of radioactive cesium, (Ba x,Cs y)(M,Ti) 8O 16 hollandite ceramics, with x + y < 2 and M = divalent or trivalent cation appeared as the best candidates. In this study, hollandite ceramics were prepared using oxide route from oxide, carbonate and nitrate powders with and without Cs for different cations M (Al 3+, Cr 3+, Ga 3+, Fe 3+, Mg 2+, Sc 3+) of increasing size, in order to evaluate the effect of composition on ceramics microstructure and structure and on cesium incorporation. To reduce the risks of Cs vaporization during synthesis, calcined powders were sintered in air at moderate temperature (1200 °C). This oxide route appeared as an alternative to the alkoxide route generally proposed to prepare hollandite waste form. For y = 0, single phase Ba x(M,Ti) 8O 16 was obtained only for M 3+ = Al 3+, Cr 3+ and Fe 3+. For y ≠ 0 and Fe 3+, all cesium was incorporated in hollandite and ceramic was well densified. For Cr 3+ and Ga 3+, only 46% and 63%, respectively, of Cs were retained in hollandite phase. For these samples, a high fraction of Cs was either evaporated and/or concentrated in a Cs-rich parasitic phase. Mixed hollandite samples with M 3+ = Ga 3+ + Al 3+ and M 3+ = Fe 3+ + Al 3+ were also synthesized and the best results regarding Cs immobilization and ceramic density were obtained with iron + aluminum but the sample porosity was higher than that of the sample containing only iron. All results were discussed by considering cations size and refractory character of oxides and hollandite ceramics.

  1. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  2. Removal of some textile dyes from aqueous solutions by poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Hatice Kaplan; Kirci, Betül; Kavlak, Serap; Güner, Ali

    2003-12-01

    Poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/water and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/K 2S 2O 8/water systems are hydrogels prepared by irradiation with γ-rays at ambient temperature. Both hydrogel systems were employed for diffusion and swelling experiments in various textile dyes aqueous solutions (textile dyes such as Cibacron Blue (CB) F3GA, Methyl Orange (MO), Congo Red (CR)). For these hydrogel systems, swelling studies indicated that swelling percentages increased in the following order: MO>CB F3GA>CR at fixed dose 96 kGy. Because of this reason MO dye solution has been chosen and all swelling properties are investigated for 26, 64, 96 and 124 kGy. The swelling capabilities of PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels in MO dye solution vary in the range of 400-1500%. The diffusion of dye solutions PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels was assumed to be Fickian character. The swelling behavior of PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels exhibits second-order kinetic in all dye solutions. Diffusion coefficient, initial swelling rate, swelling rate constant, maximum swelling and equilibrium water/dye content were found for all gel systems in dye solutions.

  3. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  4. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  5. Bdellovibrios in Callinectus sapidus, the Blue Crab

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jacqueline I.; Williams, Henry N.

    1992-01-01

    Bdellovibrios were recovered from the gill tissue of all of 31 crabs sampled and from all samples of epibiota obtained from the ventral shell surface of 15 crabs. The results suggest that the blue crab is a reservoir for bdellovibrios. The association with crabs may be an important factor in the ecology of the bdellovibrios. PMID:16348706

  6. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  7. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  8. Prussian blue type nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Long, J; Guari, Y; Guérin, C; Larionova, J

    2016-11-28

    Prussian blue type nanoparticles are exciting nano-objects that combine the advantages of molecule-based materials and nanochemistry. Here we provide a short overview focalizing on the recent advances of these nano-objects designed for biomedical applications and give an outlook on the future research orientations in this domain.

  9. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  10. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  11. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  12. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time.

  13. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    PubMed

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments.

  14. A Discography of the Real Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Dean

    1972-01-01

    A short account of the rise and decline of the Blues and a discussion of the artists who performed it is followed by an annotated bibliography of periodicals, books, records and tapes related to this form of Black" music. (184 references) (NH)

  15. Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

  16. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Melcón, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  17. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  18. Blue-hazard-free Candlelight OLED.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Singh, Meenu; Su, Yu-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hao; He, Zhe-Kai

    2017-03-19

    A candlelight-style organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a human-friendly type of lighting because it is blue-hazard-free and has a low correlated color temperature (CCT) illumination. The low CCT lighting is deprived of high-energy blue radiation, and it can be used for a longer duration before causing retinal damage. This work presents the comprehensive protocols for the fabrication of blue-hazard-free candlelight OLEDs. The emission spectrum of the OLED was characterized by the maximum exposure time limit of the retina and the melatonin suppression sensitivity. The devices can be fabricated using dry and wet processes. The dry-processed OLED resulted in a CCT of 1,940 K and exhibited a maximum retinal exposure limit of 1,287 s at a brightness of 500 lx. It showed 2.61% melatonin suppression sensitivity relative to 480 nm blue light. The wet-processed OLED, where the spin coating is used to deposit hole injection, hole transport, and emissive layers, making fabrication fast and economical, produced a CCT of 1,922 K and showed a maximum retinal exposure limit of 7,092 at a brightness of 500 lx. The achieved relative melatonin suppression sensitivity of 1.05% is 86% and 96% less than that of the light emitting diode (LED) and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), respectively. Wet-processed blue-hazard-free candlelight OLED exhibited a power efficiency of 30 lm/W, which is 2 times that of the incandescent bulb and 300 times that of the candle.

  19. Chiral heteropoly blues and controllable switching of achiral polyoxometalate clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhan; Li, Haolong; Wu, Che; Yang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wu, Lixin

    2013-04-22

    Managing the blues: Chiral heteropoly blues of achiral polyoxometalate clusters were created through an intermolecular interaction with a chiral organic compound. Controllable chiroptical switching of the cluster complexes was possible through reversible photochromism of the polyoxometalates (see picture).

  20. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Kailash; Cheung, Felix; Lee, Wai; Thalappillil, Richard; Florence, F Barry; Kim, Jason

    2016-11-01

    Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  1. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  2. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  3. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  4. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  5. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  6. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  7. Is blue light good or bad for plants?

    PubMed

    Dougher, T A; Bugbee, B G

    1998-01-01

    Blue photons are energetically expensive so the most energy-efficient lamps contain the least blue light. Blue photons are not used efficiently in photosynthesis, but blue light has dramatic effects on plant development. We studied the growth and development of soybean, wheat, and lettuce plants under high-pressure sodium and metal halide lamps with yellow filters creating five fractions of blue light (0.5%, 3.5%, 6%, 1 8%, and 26% blue) at 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 and (< 0.1%, 1.7%, 6%, 12%, and 26%) at 200 mol m-2 s-1. The response was species dependent. Lettuce was highly sensitive to blue light fraction and had an optimum dry weight and leaf area at about 6% blue, but results were complicated by sensitivity to lamp type. Wheat and soybean were less sensitive to blue light, but dry mass and leaf area decreased steadily with increasing blue light. Blue light fraction significantly affected specific leaf area (SLA, m2 kg-1) and chlorophyll in lettuce, but had no significant effect on wheat and soybeans. The data suggest that lettuce benefits from some added blue light, but soybean and wheat may not.

  8. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of proposed award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA. SUMMARY... award temporary concession contracts for the conduct of certain visitor services within the Blue...

  9. 78 FR 19413 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Reactive Blue 246 and Reactive Blue 247...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... C.I. Reactive Blue 246. Studies included guinea pig maximization studies, in vivo ocular irritation... copolymerized color additives of C. I. Reactive Blue 247. Studies included guinea pig maximization studies,...

  10. Acute blue finger: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed; Elmasry, Mohamed; Mabote, Thato; Elsayed, Ayman; Sunthareswaran, Rame

    2014-01-01

    The management of the acute blue finger is controversial with many regarding it as a benign condition. However, we would argue that it should always be considered as an emergency. We present a challenging case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with a 1-week history of sudden onset blue discolouration of the left fifth digit, and a 6-week history of episodic joint problems. Examination showed bilateral normal radial and ulnar pulses. Following blood investigations, an initial working diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis with associated Raynaud's phenomenon was made. Also, infective endocarditis was considered due to temporary misleading physical signs. Later, CT angiography of the left upper limb arteries showed a significant proximal left subclavian stenosis. Subsequently, a diagnosis of the left subclavian arteritis associated with digit ischaemia from embolic debris was made and the patient underwent a left subclavian angioplasty. However, delayed management resulted in a necrotic digit, which was left to autoamputate. PMID:24429047

  11. Epikeratoplasty for keratoglobus associated with blue sclera.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J A; Cotter, J B; Risco, J M; Alvarez, H

    1991-04-01

    Patients with keratoglobus and blue sclera as part of a generalized connective tissue disorder are at a high risk of developing corneal perforations either spontaneously or after mild trauma. Six patients (6 eyes) between the ages of 2 and 16 years of age (mean, 7.5 years) with keratoglobus, blue sclera, hypermobile joints, and consanguineous parents were treated by epikeratoplasty, using commercially prepared 12.5-mm lenticules. Surgery was performed for tectonic support and/or visual improvement and was successful in five of six patients with a follow-up period of 11 to 27 months (mean, 21 months). One lenticule was removed because the epithelium did not heal. Peripheral interface opacities occurred in three patients.

  12. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  13. Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    very helpful. W. Krupke of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory contributed useful discussions on high power solid-state lasers . Financial support was...Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps F. W. Perkins CIAM * Accesion For7 DTIC TAB [] Urnannouriced lI Justification By...combining the technology of moderate pressure electrodeless discharge lamps with the efficiency of a resonantly pumped solid-state laser to achieve an

  14. Indicator characteristics of bromothymol blue derivatives.

    PubMed

    Puschett, J B; Rao, B S; Karandikar, B M; Matyjaszewski, K

    1991-03-01

    Some Bromothymol Blue derivatives with a nitro, amino, isothiocyanato or sulfonamide group substituted on the sulfonated ring of the dibromothymolsulfonephthalein have been studied spectrometrically. All the dyes have two characteristic absorption peaks which can be used to measure pH in the physiological range. The molar absorptivities, wavelengths of maximum absorption and pK(a) values have been determined from the absorbances, and are similar for all four dyes.

  15. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  16. Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

  17. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

    2006-05-01

    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  18. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  19. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  20. Blue Fermi flat spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Sbarrato, T.; Ghirlanda, G.; Maraschi, L.

    2012-09-01

    Many blazars detected by the Fermi satellite, observed spectroscopically in the optical, are line-less, and have been classified as BL Lac objects. Optical-ultraviolet (UV) photometry of nearly 100 of them allowed us to determine the redshift for a handful of objects and redshift upper limits in the great majority. A few of these are candidates to be 'blue quasars', namely flat spectrum radio quasars whose broad emission lines are hidden by an overwhelming synchrotron emission peaking in the UV. This implies that the emitting electrons have high energies. In turn, this requires relatively weak radiative cooling, a condition that can be met if the main radiative dissipation of the jet power occurs outside the broad-line region. We confirm this hypothesis by studying and modelling the spectral energy distributions of the four 'blue quasars' recently discovered. Furthermore, we discuss the distribution of Fermi blazars in the γ-ray spectral index-γ-ray luminosity plane, and argue that 'blue quasars' objects are a minority within the blazar populations.

  1. QCD and the BlueGene

    SciTech Connect

    Vranas, P

    2007-06-18

    Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

  2. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  3. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  4. Enhancement of two dimensional electron gas concentrations due to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation on Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN heterostructure: strain and interface capacitance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dinara, Syed Mukulika Jana, Sanjay Kr.; Ghosh, Saptarsi; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kumar, Rahul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Biswas, Dhrubes; Bhattacharya, Sekhar

    2015-04-15

    Enhancement of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentrations at Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN hetero interface after a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (SiN) passivation has been investigated from non-destructive High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) analysis, depletion depth and capacitance-voltage (C-V) profile measurement. The crystalline quality and strained in-plane lattice parameters of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N and GaN were evaluated from double axis (002) symmetric (ω-2θ) diffraction scan and double axis (105) asymmetric reciprocal space mapping (DA RSM) which revealed that the tensile strain of the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer increased by 15.6% after SiN passivation. In accordance with the predictions from theoretical solution of Schrödinger-Poisson’s equations, both electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV) depletion depth profile and C-V characteristics analyses were performed which implied effective 9.5% increase in 2DEG carrier density after passivation. The enhancement of polarization charges results from increased tensile strain in the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer and also due to the decreased surface states at the interface of SiN/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer, effectively improving the carrier confinement at the interface.

  5. Postnatal blues: a risk factor for postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, C; Foreman, D; Cox, J

    2004-01-01

    Postnatal blues have been regarded as brief, benign and without clinical significance. However, several studies have proposed a link between blues and subsequent depression but have methodological problems. We report a prospective, controlled study of postpartum women with severe blues which uses systematically devised and validated instruments for that purpose which tests the hypothesis that severe blues increases the risk of depression in the six months following childbirth. 206 first-time mothers were recruited in late pregnancy. Blues status was defined using the Blues Questionnaire and those with severe blues and their controls who had no blues (matched for age, marital status and social class) were followed for 6 months with postal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. RDC diagnoses were made following SADS-L interview at the end of the protocol. Backwards stepwise Cox regression analysis found severe blues and past history of depression to be independent predictors each raising the risk by almost 3 times. Depression in those with severe blues onset sooner after delivery and lasted longer. The difference was largely accounted for by major depression. Severe postpartum blues are identified as an independent risk factor for subsequent postpartum depression. Screening and intervention programs could be devised.

  6. Quality issues in blue noise halftoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing; Parker, Kevin J.

    1998-01-01

    The blue noise mask (BNM) is a halftone screen that produces unstructured visually pleasing dot patterns. The BNM combines the blue-noise characteristics of error diffusion and the simplicity of ordered dither. A BNM is constructed by designing a set of interdependent binary patterns for individual gray levels. In this paper, we investigate the quality issues in blue-noise binary pattern design and mask generation as well as in application to color reproduction. Using a global filtering technique and a local 'force' process for rearranging black and white pixels, we are able to generate a series of binary patterns, all representing a certain gray level, ranging from white-noise pattern to highly structured pattern. The quality of these individual patterns are studied in terms of low-frequency structure and graininess. Typically, the low-frequency structure (LF) is identified with a measurement of the energy around dc in the spatial frequency domain, while the graininess is quantified by a measurement of the average minimum distance (AMD) between minority dots as well as the kurtosis of the local kurtosis distribution (KLK) for minority pixels of the binary pattern. A set of partial BNMs are generated by using the different patterns as unique starting 'seeds.' In this way, we are able to study the quality of binary patterns over a range of gray levels. We observe that the optimality of a binary pattern for mask generation is related to its own quality mertirc values as well as the transition smoothness of those quality metric values over neighboring levels. Several schemes have been developed to apply blue-noise halftoning to color reproduction. Different schemes generate halftone patterns with different textures. In a previous paper, a human visual system (HVS) model was used to study the color halftone quality in terms of luminance and chrominance error in CIELAB color space. In this paper, a new series of psycho-visual experiments address the 'preferred' color

  7. Terrestrial Biomarkers for Early Life on Earth as Analogs for Possible Martian Life Forms: Examples of Minerally Replaced Bacteria and Biofilms From the 3.5 - 3.3-Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; deWit, M. J.; Dann, J.; Gerneke, D.; deRonde, C. E. J.

    1998-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and especially martian life hinges on a variety of methods used to identify vestiges of what we could recognize as life, including chemical signatures, morphological fossils, and biogenic precipitates. Although the possibility of extant life on Mars (subsurface) is being considered, most exploration efforts may be directed toward the search for fossil life. Geomorphological evidence points to a warmer and wetter Mars early on in its history, a scenario that encourages comparison with the early Earth. For this reason, study of the early terrestrial life forms and environment in which they lived may provide clues as to how to search for extinct martian life. As a contribution to the early Archean database of terrestrial microfossils, we present new data on morphological fossils from the 3.5-3.3-Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. This study underlines the variety of fossil types already present in some of the oldest, best-preserved terrestrial sediments, ranging from minerally replaced bacteria and bacteria molds of vaRious morphologies (coccoid, coccobacillus, bacillus) to minerally replaced biofilm. Biofilm or extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is produced by bacteria and appears to be more readily fossilisable than bacteria themselves. The BGB fossils occur in shallow water to subaerial sediments interbedded with volcanic lavas, the whole being deposited on oceanic crust. Penecontemporaneous silicification of sediments and volcanics resulted in the chertification of the rocks, which were later subjected to low-grade metamorphism (lower greenschist).

  8. Systematic investigation of effects of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering on photoluminescence rise times of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Masaaki Ohno, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-07

    We have systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells, focusing on the energy relaxation process due to exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering under non-resonant and weak excitation conditions as a function of GaAs-layer thickness from 3.6 to 12.0 nm and temperature from 30 to 50 K. The free exciton characteristics were confirmed by observation that the PL decay time has a linear dependence with temperature. We found that the free exciton PL rise rate, which is the reciprocal of the rise time, is inversely linear with the GaAs-layer thickness and linear with temperature. This is consistent with a reported theoretical study of the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate in the energy relaxation process in quantum wells. Consequently, it is conclusively verified that the PL rise rate is dominated by the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate. In addition, from quantitative analysis of the GaAs-layer thickness and temperature dependences, we suggest that the PL rise rate reflects the number of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering events.

  9. Depletion-mode In 0.2Ga 0.8As/GaAs MOSFET with molecular beam epitaxy grown Al 2O 3/Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) as gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. A.; Lin, T. D.; Chiang, T. H.; Chiu, H. C.; Chang, P.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2009-03-01

    Depletion-mode In 0.2Ga 0.8As/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown Al 2O 3/Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) as the gate dielectric in two comparable processes. In the "metal-gate-last" process, a 12 μm gate-length depletion-mode n-channel InGaAs/GaAs MOSFET with a Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) gate oxide 6 nm thick shows an accumulated drain current density of 135 mA/mm at Vg=2 V. In the other process of "metal-gate-first" process, the device with same gate dielectric, channel, and gate length exhibits a larger drain current density of 175 mA/mm at the same gate bias. In addition, there is a broader transfer characteristics and higher extrinsic peak transconductance of 48 mS/mm in the metal-gate-first process. MOS capacitors from both processes have exhibited excellent capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics with minor dispersion, negligible hysteresis, and κ values of 13.7-13.9 in Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3).

  10. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:(LaxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 crystal at 1062 nm CW and PQS laser performance of Nd:LaGGG crystal at 1062 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Fu, X.-W.; Jia, Z.-T.; He, J.-L.; Yang, X.-Q.; Zhang, B.-T.; Wang, R.-H.; Liu, X.-M.; Hou, J.; Lou, F.; Wang, Z.-W.; Yang, Y.

    2012-10-01

    The performance of diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched (PQS) Nd:(LaxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 lasers at 1062 nm were demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. The highest CW output power of 9.9 W was obtained, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 42.9%. For the passive Q-switching operation, when the output coupler of Toc = 27% was adopted, the maximum output power of 3.97 W was obtained by a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber with the initial transmission of T0 = 89.9%.While at T0 = 81.4% and Toc = 27%, the output power of 2.83 W, with pulse width of 7.4 ns and the repetition rate of 13.87 kHz, was obtained, corresponding to the maximum peak power of 27.6 kW and single pulse energy of 0.2 mJ, respectively.

  11. Anisotropy and optical gain improvement in type-II In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs0.4Sb0.6 nano-scale heterostructure under external uniaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Riyaj, Md.; Anjum, S. G.; Yadav, Nisha; Rathi, Amit; Siddiqui, M. J.; Alvi, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in optical transitions and distortions in wave symmetry in nano-scale QW (quantum well) heterostructures are seen due to external uniaxial strain under different polarizations. This paper reports the anisotropy phenomena and optical gain improvement realized in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs0.4Sb0.6 type-II QW-heterostructure (well width = 20 Å) under uniaxial strain in the SWIR (short wave infra red) region. The detailed study of the band structure, wave functions associated with the charge carriers in the respective bands and optical gain under electromagnetic field perturbation is reported. The 6 × 6 diagonal k → ·p → Hamiltonian matrix is evaluated and Luttinger-Kohn model is used for the band structure calculation. Optical gain spectrum in the QW-heterostructure under uniaxial strain along [110] for different polarizations of light is calculated. For a charge carrier injection of 5 × 1012/cm2 the optical gain is ∼1600/cm under input z-polarization, ∼14500/cm under x-polarization and ∼15700/cm under y-polarization without external uniaxial strain applied. A significant improvement in optical gain is observed under uniaxial strain along [110] direction under different input polarizations. Keeping in views its utilization in optoelectronics due its very high optical gain in near-infra-red region in x- or y-polarization mode, such structure can be considered as a novel structure.

  12. Nitride passivation reduces interfacial traps in atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs (001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T. Fukuhara, N.; Osada, T.; Sazawa, H.; Hata, M.; Inoue, T.

    2014-07-21

    Using an atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system, we passivated GaAs with AlN prior to atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This AlN passivation incorporated nitrogen at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs interface, improving the capacitance-voltage (C–V) characteristics of the resultant metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs). The C–V curves of these devices showed a remarkable reduction in the frequency dispersion of the accumulation capacitance. Using the conductance method at various temperatures, we extracted the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}). The D{sub it} was reduced over the entire GaAs band gap. In particular, these devices exhibited D{sub it} around the midgap of less than 4 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1}, showing that AlN passivation effectively reduced interfacial traps in the MOS structure.

  13. For-profit conversion and merger trends among Blue Cross Blue Shield health plans.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Joy M; Strunk, Bradley C

    2004-01-01

    Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) health plans, which insure nearly one in three Americans, historically have operated as local, nonprofit or mutual organizations. However, since the mid-1990s, BCBS plans increasingly have converted to for-profit companies and merged with Blue plans in other states. State insurance regulators, charged with weighing the costs and benefits of conversions and mergers to consumers, often wrestle with the legal complexities of these deals, according to Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. Although state regulatory scrutiny has slowed the pace of conversions recently, conversion activity is likely to accelerate again as the political and regulatory landscapes shift and plans adapt conversion strategies. The limited evidence available from HSC site visits and conversion proceedings suggests that conversions and mergers have had neither significant negative nor positive effects on consumers.

  14. Why are blue zhamanshinites blue? Liquid immiscibility in an impact melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Koeberl, Christian

    1991-01-01

    A study of the cause of the coloration of blue zhamanshinites, which are glassy impact melt rocks from the Zhamanshin crater in the USSR are reported. It is found that the blue color results from Rayleigh scattering from spherical, 100 nm-diameter inclusions of a separate Ca-Fe-Mg-P-rich silicate glass. These observations can best be explained by the operation of liquid immiscibility in the zhamanshinite melt, and suggest that liquid immiscibility may have a more general role in impactite evolution.

  15. MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu

    2013-11-10

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Γ in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

  16. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  17. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  18. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  19. Maya Blue Paint: An Ancient Nanostructured Material

    PubMed

    Jose-Yacaman; Rendon; Arenas; Serra Puche MC

    1996-07-12

    Maya blue paint was often used in Mesoamerica. The origin of its color and its resistance to acids and biocorrosion have not been fully understood. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray microanalysis studies of authentic samples show that palygorskite crystals in the paint form a superlattice that probably occurs as a result of mixing with indigo molecules. An amorphous silicate substrate contains inclusions of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in the substrate and oxide nanoparticles on the surface. The beautiful tone of the color is obtained only when both the particles and the superlattice are present.

  20. The curious conversion of Empire Blue Cross.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The for-profit conversion of Empire Blue Cross in New York challenges the case law and conventional policy wisdom that financial assets from formerly nonprofit organizations should be used to endow independent charitable foundations. The appropriation of Empire's assets by state government itself, and their subsequent deployment to subsidize health care institutions and repay political obligations, changes the conversion process from one that pits nonprofits against for-profits to one that pits private, nonprofit organizations against public-sector programs in the competition for new financial resources.

  1. Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

  2. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  3. Photometric monitoring of Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, Carla; Distefano, Elisa; Leto, Paolo; Schillirò, Francesco; Trigilio, Corrado; Umana, Grazia; Bernabei, Stefano; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from our program of intensive near-infrared photometric monitoring of a sample of confirmed and candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Clear long-term variability has been observed for Wray 17-96 and V481 Sct, with overall brightness variation greater than 1 mag in the J band. Other sources, such as LBV 1806-20 showed detectable variability with amplitudes of few tenths of a magnitude with a time-scale of about 60 days.

  4. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  5. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    PubMed

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  6. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades.

  7. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, M H; Spalding, E P

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition. PMID:8755616

  8. Design, synthesis and application of benzyl-sulfonate biomimetic affinity adsorbents for monoclonal antibody purification from transgenic corn.

    PubMed

    Maltezos, Anastasios; Platis, Dimitris; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Marinou, Marigianna; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2014-01-01

    The human anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody 2G12 (mAb 2G12) is one of the most broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV that recognizes a unique epitope on the surface glycoprotein gp120. In the present work, a limited affinity-ligand library was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to bind and purify recombinant mAb 2G12 expressed in transgenic corn. The affinity ligands were structural fragments of polysulfonate triazine dye Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB3GA) and represent novel lead scaffolds for designing synthetic affinity ligands. Solid phase chemistry was used to synthesize variants of CB3GA lead ligand. One immobilized ligand, bearing 4-aminobenzyl sulfonic acid (4ABS) linked on two chlorine atoms of the triazine ring (4ABS-Trz-4ABS), displayed high affinity for mAb 2G12. Absorption equilibrium, 3D molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulation studies were carried out to provide a detailed picture of the 4ABS-Trz-4ABS interaction with mAb 2G12. This biomimetic affinity ligand was exploited for the development of a facile two-step purification protocol for mAb 2G12. In the first step of the procedure, mAb 2G12 was purified on an S-Sepharose FF cation exchanger, and in the second step, mAb 2G12 was purified using affinity chromatography on 4ABS-Trz-4ABS affinity adsorbent. Analysis of the antibody preparation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the mAb 2G12 was fully active and of sufficient purity suitable for analytical applications.

  9. Differential migration of Blue Grouse in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    We examined migration of adult Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) in north-central Colorado by radio tracking 13 males and 19 females. Elevational changes associated with movements to winter areas were greater for males (median = 488 m, range = 183-671 m) than females (median = 122 m, range = -61-760 m). Males (median = 10.5 km, range = 1.0-29.4 km) also moved farther than females (median = 1.0 km, range = 0.1-28.0 km), resulting in partial segregation of sexes during winter. Directional orientation of movements to wintering areas was nonrandom for long-distance (>3 km) migrants. Median elevational change (122 m) and distance (0.6 km) between the first-winter and first-breeding areas for seven juvenile females were similar to movements of adult females. Males (median = 7 July) departed breeding areas earlier than females (median = 11 August), but arrived (median = 14 October) on winter areas about the same time as females (median = 23 October). Both sexes exhibited fidelity to winter areas. The average distance between winter locations ranged from 94 to 312 m (median = 135 m) for 11 radio-marked adults, suggesting Blue Grouse were sedentary on their winter ranges.

  10. Blue LEDs feasibility for tissue fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Denisov, Nikolay A.

    2000-04-01

    We considered the limited number of light-induced fluorescence applications for marketed ultra-bright blue LEDs where they can compete with versatile laser sources. Satisfactory optical output and miniature size as well as low power consumption of blue LEDs emitting at 470 nm allow to consider them as a promising alternatives to metal vapor or gas lasers used in many expires LIF applications. Available to authors LEDs form Hewlett-Packard, Micro Electronics Corp., Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd. and Toyoda Gosei Co. were tested to comply with demands to a tissue excitation source for portable spectroscopes. The optical performance of LEDs has shown that selected group of InGaN LEDs could be successfully used for that. The miniature illuminator that includes LED, focusing condenser, filter set and distal fiberoptic light concentrator was designed and tested in conjunction with portable CCD- equipped spectroscope. Operating in dark condition the proposed LED illuminator provides the level of fluorescence signal sufficient to detect spectral abnormalities in human Caucasian skin and excised gastrointestinal samples. All tissue autofluorescence data taken under LED illumination were compared with readings under He-Cd laser excitation and showed a good match. A new diagnostic designs based on LEDs were considered for clinical use.

  11. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  12. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  13. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications. PMID:27666663

  14. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae cr cyanobacteria . Although cyanobacteria are found in almost any environment ranging from hot...p ecst Available Copy ~’ COPy Ni AD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS:’ I ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION < DTIC ANNUAL/FINAL...AA I 78 11. TITLE (In•.ju . ’,curry Ci.si fication) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolatior and CharacteriZation 12. PERSONAL

  15. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  16. Federal Blue-Collar Employees: A Workforce in Transistion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    should include example, a GAO study of the Mare Island explicit consideration of the needs of the blue-collar downsizing in 1990 noted that the layoff ...setting personnel policies. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES Federal Government, blue-collar workforce, downsizing , performance managem pg...Federal BIW-Colar Emp£lo .: A Workforn in Transition v contents Downsizing in the Blue-Collar W orkforce

  17. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  18. Metal ion displacements in noncentrosymmetric chalcogenides La3Ga1.67S7, La3Ag0.6GaCh7 (Ch=S, Se), and La3MGaSe7 (M=Zn, Cd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Yin, Wenlong; Rudyk, Brent W.; Lin, Xinsong; Nilges, Tom; Mar, Arthur

    2016-11-01

    The quaternary Ga-containing chalcogenides La3Ag0.6GaS7, La3Ag0.6GaSe7, La3ZnGaSe7, and La3CdGaSe7, as well as the related ternary chalcogenide La3Ga1.67S7, were prepared by reactions of the elements at 950 °C. They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (space group P63, Z=2) with cell parameters (a=10.2 Å, c=6.1 Å for the sulfides; a=10.6 Å, c=6.4 Å for the selenides) that are largely controlled by the geometrical requirements of one-dimensional stacks of Ga-centered tetrahedra separated by the La atoms. Among these compounds, which share the common formulation La3M1-xGaCh7 (M=Ga, Ag, Zn, Cd; Ch=S, Se), the M atoms occupy sites within a stacking of trigonal antiprisms formed by Ch atoms. The location of the M site varies between extremes with trigonal antiprismatic (CN6) and trigonal planar (CN3) geometry. Partial occupation of these sites and intermediate ones accounts for the considerable versatility of these structures and the occurrence of large metal displacement parameters. The site occupations can be understood in a simple way as being driven by the need to satisfy appropriate bond valence sums for both the M and Ch atoms. Band structure calculations rationalize the substoichiometry observed in the Ag-containing compounds (La3Ag0.6GaS7, La3Ag0.6GaSe7) as a response to overbonding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy supports the presence of monovalent Ag atoms in these compounds, which are not charge-balanced.

  19. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  20. Approaches toward a blue semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.

    1989-01-01

    Possible approaches for obtaining semiconductor diode laser action in the blue region of the spectrum are surveyed. A discussion of diode lasers is included along with a review of the current status of visible emitters, presently limited to 670 nm. Methods are discussed for shifting laser emission toward shorter wavelengths, including the use of II-IV materials, the increase in the bandgap of III-V materials by addition of nitrogen, and changing the bandstructure from indirect to direct by incorporating interstitial atoms or by constructing superlattices. Non-pn-junction injection methods are surveyed, including avalanche breakdown, Langmuir-Blodgett diodes, heterostructures, carrier accumulation, and Berglund diodes. Prospects of inventing new multinary semiconducting materials are discussed, and a number of novel materials described in the literature are tabulated. New approaches available through the development of quantum wells and superlattices are described, including resonant tunneling and the synthesis of arbitrary bandgap materials through multiple quantum wells.

  1. Red spectra from white and blue noise

    PubMed Central

    Balmforth, N. J.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E. A.; Martens, M.; Tresser, C.; Wu, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The value of maps of the interval in modelling population dynamics has recently been called into question because temporal variations from such maps have blue or white power spectra, whereas many observations of real populations show time-series with red spectra. One way to deal with this discrepancy is to introduce chaotic or stochastic fluctuations in the parameters of the map. This leads to on–off intermittency and can markedly redden the spectrum produced by a model that does not by itself have a red spectrum. The parameter fluctuations need not themselves have a red spectrum in order to achieve this effect. Because the power spectrum is not invariant under a change of variable, another way to redden the spectrum is by a suitable transformation of the variables used. The question this poses is whether spectra are the best means of characterizing a fluctuating variable.

  2. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  3. Blue Skies Research and the global economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2002-11-01

    Robert Solow's seminal work of the 1950s showed that science and technology are major sources of long-term global economic growth. But we have recently changed the ways that science and technology are managed. Industrial and academic research once thrived on individual freedom and flair. Progressively for the past three decades or so, however, research has been focused on short-term objectives selected by consensus. Global per-capita growth has steadily declined. Scientific enterprise is losing diversity. Blue Skies Research can help to restore diversity and to create the new technologies that can stimulate growth, but funding agencies nowadays rarely allow total freedom. A new coefficient of adventurousness is described. Its use, or other means, may help restore economic growth to its former levels.

  4. A clock reaction based on molybdenum blue.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich; Negron, Arnaldo; Jensen, Klavs F

    2013-05-30

    Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow molybdenum complex as precursor, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the concomitant color change is reversible, enabling multiple clock cycles to be executed consecutively. The kinetics of the clock reaction were experimentally characterized, and by adding insights from quantum chemical calculations, a plausible reaction mechanism was postulated. Key elementary reaction steps comprise sigmatropic rearrangements with five-membered or bicyclo[3.1.0] transition states. Importantly, numerical kinetic modeling demonstrated the mechanism's ability to reproduce the experimental findings. It also revealed that clock behavior is intimately connected to the sudden exhaustion of hydrogen peroxide. Due to the stoichiometric coproduction of ketone, the reaction bears potential for application in alcohol oxidation catalysis.

  5. Blue Dots Team Transits Working Group Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.; Afonso, C.; Alonso, R.; Blank, D. L.; Catala, C.; Deeg, H.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hellier, C.; Latham, D. W.; Minniti, D.; Pont, F.; Rauer, H.

    2010-10-01

    Transiting planet systems offer a unique opportunity to observationally constrain proposed models of the interiors (radius, composition) and atmospheres (chemistry, dynamics) of extrasolar planets. The spectacular successes of ground-based transit surveys (more than 60 transiting systems known to-date) and the host of multi-wavelength, spectro-photometric follow-up studies, carried out in particular by HST and Spitzer, have paved the way to the next generation of transit search projects, which are currently ongoing (CoRoT, Kepler), or planned. The possibility of detecting and characterizing transiting Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of their parent stars appears tantalizingly close. In this contribution we briefly review the power of the transit technique for characterization of extrasolar planets, summarize the state of the art of both ground-based and space-borne transit search programs, and illustrate how the science of planetary transits fits within the Blue Dots perspective.

  6. Sunspot temperatures from red and blue photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.; Preminger, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Photometric images are used to measure the temperature of sunspots at different wavelengths. Images at 672.3 nm and 472.3 nm are obtained at the San Fernando Observatory using the CFDT2 (2.5'' x 2.5'' pixels). Images at 607.1 nm and 409.4 nm are obtained by the PSPT at Mauna Loa Observatory. Monochromatic intensities are converted to temperatures as in Steinegger et al (1990). The pixel by pixel temperature for a sunspot is converted into a bolometric contrast for that sunspot according to Chapman et al (1994). Sunspot temperatures, i.e., their bolometric contrasts, are calculated from both red (672.3 nm) and blue wavelengths (472.3 nm) and compared.

  7. Roquefortine C occurrence in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Finoli, C; Vecchio, A; Galli, A; Dragoni, I

    2001-02-01

    Several strains of Penicillium are used for the production of mold-ripened cheeses, and some of them are able to produce mycotoxins. The aims of the research were the determination of roquefortine C and PR toxin in domestic and imported blue cheeses, the identification of the penicillia used as starter, and the investigation of their capacity for producing toxins in culture media. Roquefortine C was always found in the cheeses at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 mg/kg, whereas the PR toxin was never found. The identification of the fungal strains present in the domestic cheeses included Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium roqueforti, and Penicillium cyclopium in the Gorgonzola "dolce" and Penicillium roqueforti in the Gorgonzola "naturale"; in one case, the presence of Penicillium crustosum was observed. The strains isolated from the foreign cheeses belonged to P. roqueforti. The strains were able to produce between 0.18 and 8.44 mg/liter of roquefortine in yeast extract sucrose medium and between 0.06 and 3.08 mg/liter and less than 0.05 mg/liter when inoculated in milk at 20 degrees C for 14 days and 4 degrees C for 24 days, respectively. Linear relations between production of roquefortine in culture media and cheeses did not emerge. PR toxin ranged from less than 0.05 to 60.30 mg/liter in yeast extract sucrose medium and was produced in milk at 20 degrees C from only one strain. The low levels and the relatively low toxicity of roquefortine make the consumption of blue cheese safe for the consumer.

  8. Recognizing blue emission in artificial aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holma, H.; Kaila, K.; Jussila, J.; Kosch, M.; Rietveld, M.

    On 12th November 2001, during the EISCAT UK/GE artificial aurora campaign, the optical group of University of Oulu performed the optical measurements at the EISCAT site in Ramfjordmoen. That campaign was the first successful attempt of inducing blue emission in artificial aurora at high latitudes. Optical instruments were monitoring emis-sions and they included a photometer, a real speed TV camera and a digital camera. The emissions measured by the photometer are 557.7 nm (OI), 630.0 nm (OI) and 427.8 nm (N2+). The threshold energies for these emissions to arise are 2 eV, 4 eV and 19 eV, re-spectively. In the natural aurora the blue emission at around 427 nm is always highly dominated by N2+ 1NG (0,1) rotational band. However, there are two weak emissions lying under this strong emission. These bands are N2 VK(4,15) (threshold energy 6 eV) and N2 2P(1,5) (threshold 11 eV). These energies are remarkably lower and could obviously have stronger intensity in the spectrum of artificial aurora than in natural aurora that is domi-nated by harder electron bombardment. The auroral photometer of the university of Oulu has been designed for investigating natural aurora, which results some limitations regarding the artificial aurora, to the data that has been obtained. The photometer was equipped with two channels measuring two close wavelength bands around 427 nm. These channels were aimed to be used to de-termine rotational temperature from the ratio of the intensities through the channels. Now they will be used to estimate the intensities of the three overlapping emission bands instead.

  9. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  10. Blue diffuse dwarf galaxies: a clearer picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.

    2017-03-01

    The search for chemically unevolved galaxies remains prevalent in the nearby Universe, mostly because these systems provide excellent proxies for exploring in detail the physics of high-z systems. The most promising candidates are extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), i.e. galaxies with <1/10 solar metallicity. However, due to the bright emission-line-based search criteria traditionally used to find XMPs, we may not be sampling the full XMP population. In 2014, we reoriented this search using only morphological properties and uncovered a population of ∼150 'blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies', and published a sub-sample of 12 BDD spectra. Here, we present optical spectroscopic observations of a larger sample of 51 BDDs, along with their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric properties. With our improved statistics, we use direct-method abundances to confirm that BDDs are chemically unevolved (7.43 < 12 + log(O/H) < 8.01), with ∼20 per cent of our sample classified as being XMP galaxies, and find that they are actively forming stars at rates of ∼1-33 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1 in H II regions randomly embedded in a blue, low-surface-brightness continuum. Stellar masses are calculated from population synthesis models and estimated to be in the range log (M*/M⊙) ≃ 5-9. Unlike other low-metallicity star-forming galaxies, BDDs are in agreement with the mass-metallicity relation at low masses, suggesting that they are not accreting large amounts of pristine gas relative to their stellar mass. BDD galaxies appear to be a population of actively star-forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies which fall within the class of low-surface-brightness dIrr galaxies. Their ongoing star formation and irregular morphology make them excellent analogues for galaxies in the early Universe.

  11. Underwater Chaotic Lidar using Blue Laser Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaugh, Luke K.

    The thesis proposes and explores an underwater lidar system architecture based on chaotic modulation of recently introduced, commercially available, low cost blue laser diodes. This approach is experimentally shown to allow accurate underwater impulse response measurements while eliminating the need for several major components typically found in high-performance underwater lidar systems. The proposed approach is to: 1. Generate wideband, noise-like intensity modulation signals using optical chaotic modulation of blue-green laser diodes, and then 2. Use this signal source to develop an underwater chaotic lidar system that uses no electrical signal generator, no electro-optic modulator, no optical frequency doubler, and no large-aperture photodetector. The outcome of this thesis is the demonstration of a new underwater lidar system architecture that could allow high resolution ranging, imaging, and water profiling measurements in turbid water, at a reduced size, weight, power and cost relative to state-of-the-art high-performance underwater lidar sensors. This work also makes contributions to the state of the art in optics, nonlinear dynamics, and underwater sensing by demonstrating for the first time: 1. Wideband noise-like intensity modulation of a blue laser diode using no electrical signal generator or electro-optic modulator. Optical chaotic modulation of a 462 nm blue InGaN laser diode by self-feedback is explored for the first time. The usefulness of the signal to chaotic lidar is evaluated in terms of bandwidth, modulation depth, and autocorrelation peak-to-sidelobe-ratio (PSLR) using both computer and laboratory experiments. In laboratory experiments, the optical feedback technique is shown to be effective in generating wideband, noise-like chaotic signals with strong modulation depth when the diode is operated in an external-cavity dominated state. The modulation signal strength is shown to be limited by the onset of lasing within the diode's internal

  12. 77 FR 68117 - Blue Summit Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Summit Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2), Blue Summit Wind, LLC (Blue Summit) filed a...) interconnection facilities that deliver power from the Blue Summit's wind energy generator (Blue Summit...

  13. Components of protocyanin, a blue pigment from the blue flowers of Centaurea cyanus.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosaku; Osakabe, Akiko; Saito, Shinomi; Furuyama, Daisuke; Tomita, Atsuko; Kojima, Yumi; Yamadera, Mayumi; Sakuta, Masaaki

    2005-07-01

    The components involved in the formation of protocyanin, a stable blue complex pigment from the blue cornflower, Centaurea cyanus, were investigated. Reconstruction experiments using highly purified anthocyanin [centaurocyanin, cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-succinylglucoside)-5-O-glucoside], flavone glycoside [apigenin 7-O-glucuronide-4'-O-(6-O-malonylglucoside)] and metals, Fe and Mg, showed the presence of another factor essential for the formation of protocyanin. The unknown factor was revealed to be Ca. Reconstructed protocyanin using anthocyanin, flavone, Fe, Mg, and Ca was identical with protocyanin from nature in UV-Vis and CD spectra, and was isolated as crystals for the first time. In addition, substitution of the metal components in protocyanin with other metals was also examined.

  14. The Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Technology Evaluation Center: how we evaluate radiology technologies.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kathleen M; Flamm, Carole Redding; Aronson, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based technology assessment can help answer critical questions concerning the safety, effectiveness, and appropriate uses of medical technologies. This practice can be used to avoid the promotion of ineffective technologies and the premature diffusion of technologies that have not been demonstrated to improve patient-oriented health outcomes, both of which draw resources from effective and appropriate medical care. This article describes the process of such evaluation as undertaken by the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Technology Evaluation Center. The key components of the assessment process are described, including the problem formulation and evaluation of study quality, as well as the process by which the available evidence is judged against the five Technology Evaluation Center criteria.

  15. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue.

    PubMed

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-21

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis-especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting-other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars.

  16. Yellow taxis have fewer accidents than blue taxis because yellow is more visible than blue

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Teck-Hua; Chong, Juin Kuan; Xia, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Is there a link between the color of a taxi and how many accidents it has? An analysis of 36 mo of detailed taxi, driver, and accident data (comprising millions of data points) from the largest taxi company in Singapore suggests that there is an explicit link. Yellow taxis had 6.1 fewer accidents per 1,000 taxis per month than blue taxis, a 9% reduction in accident probability. We rule out driver difference as an explanatory variable and empirically show that because yellow taxis are more noticeable than blue taxis—especially when in front of another vehicle, and in street lighting—other drivers can better avoid hitting them, directly reducing the accident rate. This finding can play a significant role when choosing colors for public transportation and may save lives as well as millions of dollars. PMID:28265081

  17. Using the Blue Gourami in Ethological and Embryological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Theresa; Pollak, Edward I.

    1981-01-01

    Lists advantages in the use of the blue gourami in laboratory experiments on reproduction and embryogenesis. Materials and procedures for maintaining and spawning blue gouramis are provided. Also includes details on microscopic examination of developing embryos and histological techniques for microscope slide preparation. (CS)

  18. Rectal Blue Nevus: Distinguishing Features of a Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Neena; McCue, Peter; Quirk, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old African American man with a history of depression and tuberculosis presented to the gastroenterology department after several months of rectal pain with bowel movements. Colonoscopy revealed hyperpigmentation in the distal rectum and internal hemorrhoids, which resulted in a diagnosis of blue nevi. This is only the third known description of a blue nevus involving the gastrointestinal mucosa. PMID:28008401

  19. Blue light effects on rose photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abidi, F; Girault, T; Douillet, O; Guillemain, G; Sintes, G; Laffaire, M; Ben Ahmed, H; Smiti, S; Huché-Thélier, L; Leduc, N

    2013-01-01

    Through its impact on photosynthesis and morphogenesis, light is the environmental factor that most affects plant architecture. Using light rather than chemicals to manage plant architecture could reduce the impact on the environment. However, the understanding of how light modulates plant architecture is still poor and further research is needed. To address this question, we examined the development of two rose cultivars, Rosa hybrida'Radrazz' and Rosa chinensis'Old Blush', cultivated under two light qualities. Plants were grown from one-node cuttings for 6 weeks under white or blue light at equal photosynthetic efficiencies. While plant development was totally inhibited in darkness, blue light could sustain full development from bud burst until flowering. Blue light reduced the net CO(2) assimilation rate of fully expanded leaves in both cultivars, despite increasing stomatal conductance and intercellular CO(2) concentrations. In 'Radrazz', the reduction in CO(2) assimilation under blue light was related to a decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, while in both cultivars, the chl a/b ratio increased. Surprisingly, blue light could induce the same organogenetic activity of the shoot apical meristem, growth of the metamers and flower development as white light. The normal development of rose plants under blue light reveals the strong adaptive properties of rose plants to their light environment. It also indicates that photomorphogenetic processes can all be triggered by blue wavelengths and that despite a lower assimilation rate, blue light can provide sufficient energy via photosynthesis to sustain normal growth and development in roses.

  20. [Blue Light-Filtering IOLs - Currently available data].

    PubMed

    Augustin, A J

    2010-08-01

    Data from both experimental and epidemiological trials have suggested a potential correlation between extraction of the natural lens associated with exposure to photo-oxidative stress to the retina and a progression of diseases such as AMD. A fundamental factor could be the unchecked exposure to blue light. This is why in the past years so-called blue light-filtering intraocular lenses have been implanted to serve as a protection to the retina. The following contribution is based on a data base research (Pub Med, National Library of Medicine, USA) and summarises information currently available on the use of blue light-filtering lenses. Experimental modeling has shown that, compared to regular UV lenses, blue light-filtering lenses block a considerable part of blue light transmission to the retina and reduce damage to retinal cells and production of inflammatory markers such as VEGF. The majority of the clinical data demonstrate that blue light-filtering lenses are compatible in terms of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and colour perception as well as patient-rated quality of vision. But a few additional studies report reduced contrast sensitivity and limitations in mesopic vision.This is also true for the circadian rhythm. However, the evaluation of this parameter in connection with blue light-filtering lenses has only been done on a theoretical basis. Long-term data showing that blue light-filtering lenses actually do reduce the incidence of retinal diseases such as AMD are currently not available.

  1. On the use of a single blue band in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1970-01-01

    The selection of a single blue band to quantitatively measure ocean chlorophyll is dependent upon the altitude and spectral bandwidth of the filter. These relationships are discussed, and the conclusion made that a blue band from 0.44 to 0.50 microns would best serve this oceanographic application.

  2. The Blue Bottle Experiment and Pattern Formation in this System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamčíková, L'.; Ševčík, P.

    1997-09-01

    The methylene blue - saccharide - NaOH system, the so-called "Blue Bottle" experiment was investigated. When this system is poured into an open petri dish, spatial structures start to generate after an induction period. The induction period increases in the order of xylose < glucose < galactose < arabinose < mannose.

  3. Molybdenum blue: binding to collagen fibres and microcrystal formation.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Reiber, Andreas; Therese, Helen Annal; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Collagen fibres have been shown by transmission electron microscopy to progressively bind the polyoxomolybdate ring-complex, termed molybdenum blue. Nucleation of cuboidal molybdenum blue microcrystals occurs on the surface of the collagen fibres, leading eventually to extensive coating of the fibres with microcrystals.

  4. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23... signal display. (a) Blue signals displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 signify that workers are on, under, or between rolling equipment. When so displayed— (1) The equipment may not...

  5. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23... signal display. (a) Blue signals displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 signify that workers are on, under, or between rolling equipment. When so displayed— (1) The equipment may not...

  6. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23... signal display. (a) Blue signals displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 signify that workers are on, under, or between rolling equipment. When so displayed— (1) The equipment may not...

  7. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23... signal display. (a) Blue signals displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 signify that workers are on, under, or between rolling equipment. When so displayed— (1) The equipment may not...

  8. 49 CFR 218.23 - Blue signal display.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blue signal display. 218.23 Section 218.23... signal display. (a) Blue signals displayed in accordance with § 218.25, 218.27, or 218.29 signify that workers are on, under, or between rolling equipment. When so displayed— (1) The equipment may not...

  9. Contemporary Use of Ticagrelor in Interventional Practice (from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium).

    PubMed

    Karve, Amrita M; Seth, Milan; Sharma, Manoj; LaLonde, Thomas; Dixon, Simon; Wohns, David; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2015-06-01

    Ticagrelor has greater antiplatelet activity than clopidogrel and is approved for use in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). There are limited data on use of ticagrelor in real-world practice. We assessed ticagrelor use in 64,600 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from January 2012 to March 2014 at 47 Michigan hospitals in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium. Preprocedural risk of major adverse events was estimated with Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium risk prediction models. The proportion of patients receiving clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor was 72% (n = 46,864), 20% (n = 12,596), and 8% (n = 5,140), respectively, using ticagrelor increasing over time. Ticagrelor was used at 45 hospitals, ranging from 0.5% to 64.9% of discharges. Patients receiving ticagrelor were older (63.6 vs 59.4), more often women (32.9% vs 26.7%), and were more likely to present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (24.4% vs 18.8%), cardiogenic shock within 24 hours (1.3% vs 0.9%), and anginal class IV (47.8% vs 43.0%) (p <0.05). Compared with prasugrel, ticagrelor was prescribed in patients with a higher predicted risk of percutaneous coronary intervention complications: contrast nephropathy (2.5% vs 1.6%), transfusion (2.2% vs 1.4%), and death (1.2% vs 0.7%) (p <0.001); >10% of patients were given prasugrel or ticagrelor for a non-ACS indication. Ticagrelor is prescribed to a higher risk population, and 1 in 10 patients prescribed ticagrelor or prasugrel did not have ACS.

  10. How does the blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata) flash its blue rings?

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Bell, George R R; Kuzirian, Alan M; Allen, Justine J; Hanlon, Roger T

    2012-11-01

    The blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata), one of the world's most venomous animals, has long captivated and endangered a large audience: children playing at the beach, divers turning over rocks, and biologists researching neurotoxins. These small animals spend much of their time in hiding, showing effective camouflage patterns. When disturbed, the octopus will flash around 60 iridescent blue rings and, when strongly harassed, bite and deliver a neurotoxin that can kill a human. Here, we describe the flashing mechanism and optical properties of these rings. The rings contain physiologically inert multilayer reflectors, arranged to reflect blue-green light in a broad viewing direction. Dark pigmented chromatophores are found beneath and around each ring to enhance contrast. No chromatophores are above the ring; this is unusual for cephalopods, which typically use chromatophores to cover or spectrally modify iridescence. The fast flashes are achieved using muscles under direct neural control. The ring is hidden by contraction of muscles above the iridophores; relaxation of these muscles and contraction of muscles outside the ring expose the iridescence. This mechanism of producing iridescent signals has not previously been reported in cephalopods and we suggest that it is an exceptionally effective way to create a fast and conspicuous warning display.

  11. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(b)-(h),...

  12. UNC Health Systems and Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina patient-centered medical home collaborative.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Don; Rubinow, David R

    2011-01-01

    UNC Health Systems and Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina have entered into a joint venture that is designed to improve patient outcomes and experience and to control medical costs for patients with chronic conditions. This commentary reviews the impetus for, and the anticipated outcomes of, the model practice.

  13. Color-by-blue display using blue quantum dot light-emitting diodes and green/red color converting phosphors.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Ki-Heon; Yoon, Hee Chang; Yang, Heesun; Do, Young Rag

    2014-03-10

    We report a novel full-color display based on the generation of full-color by a highly efficient blue QD-LED light approach, or so called color-by-blue QD-LED display. This newly proposed color-by-blue QD-LED display combines a blue CdZnS/ZnS QD-LED blue subpixel and excitation source with front-emitting green/red phosphor subpixels. It is carefully estimated that the detailed display characteristics as well as full color-conversion and reasonable device efficiency of blue, green, and red satisfy the minimum requirements for display application. Also, we would like to emphasize that the proposed blue, green, and red device shows maximum luminance of 1570, 12920, and 3120 cd/m², respectively, luminous efficiency of 1.5, 12.1, and 2.5 cd/A, respectively, and external quantum efficiency of 6.8, 2.8, and 2.0%, respectively. It is expected that full color generation by color-by-blue QD-LED will lead to further technological advancements in the area of efficient and facile display applications.

  14. 76 FR 19466 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, et al.; Amended Certification Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    .../Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers... Health Plans of Kentucky Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Louisville, Kentucky TA-W-74,895B Wellpoint, Inc. Enterprise Provider Data Management Team Saint Louis, Missouri TA-W-74,895C Wellpoint,...

  15. 76 FR 22923 - Wellpoint, Inc. D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield Enterprise Provider Data Management Team...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Provider Data Management Team Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Jacobsen Group, et...,895 Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team... Wellpoint, Inc., D/B/A/Anthem Health Plans Of Kentucky, Enterprise Provider Data Management Team,...

  16. Isolation and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Blue Crab Meat (Callinectus sapidus) and Blue Crab Processing Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive, intracellular food borne pathogen which causes a severe disease called listeriosis in high risk groups. However, there is limited information about the prevalence and sources of L. monocytogenes in blue crab and blue crab processing plants in Maryland. The...

  17. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-09-24

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases.

  18. Blue light-induced oxidative stress in live skin.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yuya; Ohta, Shigeo; Wolf, Alexander M

    2017-03-15

    Skin damage from exposure to sunlight induces aging-like changes in appearance and is attributed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of light. Photosensitized production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by UVA light is widely accepted to contribute to skin damage and carcinogenesis, but visible light is thought not to do so. Using mice expressing redox-sensitive GFP to detect ROS, blue light could produce oxidative stress in live skin. Blue light induced oxidative stress preferentially in mitochondria, but green, red, far red or infrared light did not. Blue light-induced oxidative stress was also detected in cultured human keratinocytes, but the per photon efficacy was only 25% of UVA in human keratinocyte mitochondria, compared to 68% of UVA in mouse skin. Skin autofluorescence was reduced by blue light, suggesting flavins are the photosensitizer. Exposing human skin to the blue light contained in sunlight depressed flavin autofluorescence, demonstrating that the visible component of sunlight has a physiologically significant effect on human skin. The ROS produced by blue light is probably superoxide, but not singlet oxygen. These results suggest that blue light contributes to skin aging similar to UVA.

  19. Blue glass: A new impactite variety from Zhamanshin crater, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. )

    1988-03-01

    A new variety of impact glass has been discovered at Zhamanshin impact crater (USSR). The crater has been known as the source of different impact glasses such as irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites (Si-rich varieties) and Si-poor (andesitic) zhamanshinites. The newly discovered impact glass is of distinct blue color and shows a layered structure with numerous small vesicles. The blue color ranges between the layers from opaque turquoise to very dark blue. The layers of blue glass are usually connected with layers of greyish or brownish color showing normal Si-rich zhamanshinite composition. The major and trace element chemistry of the blue glass differs from the chemistry of other Si-rich impact glasses from the Zhamanshin crater in several ways. One of the most distinct features is the high CaO content (up to about 7 wt.%), and the different CaO/MgO ratios. Volatile trace elements are generally intermediate between irghizites and Si-rich zhamanshinites, or even higher than in Si-rich zhamanshinites, reflecting the inhomogeneity of the blue glass. REE abundances are slightly larger than in Si-rich zhamanshinites and irghizites and show a less pronounced Eu anomaly. Impact mixing of country rocks present at the crater seems capable of explaining the chemistry of the blue glass.

  20. GPAW on Blue Gene/P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Nichols; Enkovaara, Jussi; Dulak, Marcin; Glinsvad, Christian; Larsen, Ask; Mortensen, Jens; Shende, Sameer; Morozov, Vitali; Greeley, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    Density function theory (DFT) is the most widely employed electronic structure method due to its favorable scaling with system size and accuracy for a broad range of molecular and condensed-phase systems. The advent of massively parallel supercomputers have enhanced the scientific community's ability to study larger system sizes. Ground state DFT calculations of systems with O (103) valence electrons can be routinely performed on present-day supercomputers. The performance of these massively parallel DFT codes at the scale of 1 - 10K execution threads are not well understood; even experienced DFT users are unaware of Amdahl's Law and the non-trivial scaling bottlenecks that are present in standard O (N3) DFT algorithms. The GPAW code was ported an optimized for the Blue Gene/P. We present our algorithmic parallelization strategy and interpret the results for a number of benchmark tests cases. Lastly, I will describe opportunities for computer allocations at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility. This work has been supported by the Academy of Finland (Project 110013), Tekes MASI-program, Danish Center for Scientific Computing, Lundbeck Foundation, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Spin caloritronics of blue phosphorene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y S; Zhang, X; Yang, X F; Hong, X K; Feng, J F; Si, M S; Wang, X F

    2015-04-28

    We report a first-principles study of the magnetic properties and spin caloritronics of zigzag-type blue phosphorene nanoribbons (zBPNRs). It is found that the bare zBPNR (0H-zBPNR) or monohydrogenated zBPNR (1H-zBPNR) exhibit spin-semiconducting properties arising from the edge electronic states. We further confirm that the py orbitals of the edge P atoms have the main contributions to these states. The spin-semiconducting property has a natural advantage for fabricating perfect thermospin devices with a stronger spin Seebeck effect than charge Seebeck effect at the Fermi level. When a temperature difference is applied, the electric current with the different spin index displays a bipolar behavior, and the spin-filtering efficiency can reach 1200%. By changing the widths of 0H-zBPNR and 1H-zBPNR, the ratio of the spin Seebeck coefficient to the charge Seebeck coefficient at the Fermi level is about 10 at room temperature.

  2. Modeling the Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2012-10-01

    Blue stragglers {BS} have been extensively observed in Galactic globular clusters {GGC}. primarily with HST. Many theoretical studies have identified BS formation channels and it is understood that dynamics in GCs modifies formation and distribution of the BSs. Despite the wealth of observational data, comprehensive theoretical models including all relevant physical processes in dynamically evolving GCs do not exist. Our dynamical cluster modeling code, developed over the past decade, includes all relevant physical processes in a GC including two-body relaxation, strong scattering, physical collisions, and stellar-evolution {single and binary}. We can model GCs with realistic N and provide star-by-star models for GCs directly comparable with the observed data. This proposed study will create realistic GC models with initial conditions from a grid spanning a large range in the multidimensional parameter space including cluster mass, binary fraction, concentration, and Galactic position. Our numerical models combined with observational constraints from existing HST data will for the first time provide explanations for the observed trends in the BS populations in GGCs, the dominant formation channel for these BSs, typical dynamical ages of the BSs, and find detailed dynamical histories of the BSs in GGCs. These models will yield valuable insight on the correlations between the BS properties and a number of cluster dynamical properties {central density, binary fraction, and binary orbital properties} which will potentially help constrain a GC's past evolutionary history. As a bonus a large set of realistic theoretical GC models will be constructed.

  3. Blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade.

    PubMed

    Suvarnaphaet, Phitsini; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wetcharungsri, Jutaphet; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara; Ajayan, Pulickel Madhavapanicker; Tang, I-Ming; Asanithi, Piyapong

    2016-12-01

    Carbon-based photoluminescent nanodot has currently been one of the promising materials for various applications. The remaining challenges are the carbon sources and the simple synthetic processes that enhance the quantum yield, photostability and biocompatibility of the nanodots. In this work, the synthesis of blue photoluminescent carbon nanodots from limeade via a single-step hydrothermal carbonization process is presented. Lime carbon nanodot (L-CnD), whose the quantum yield exceeding 50% for the 490nm emission in gram-scale amounts, has the structure of graphene core functionalized with the oxygen functional groups. The micron-sized flake of the as-prepared L-CnD powder exhibits multicolor emission depending on an excitation wavelength. The L-CnDs are demonstrated for rapidly ferric-ion (Fe(3+)) detection in water compared to Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Co(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) ions. The photoluminescence quenching of L-CnD solution under UV light is used to distinguish the Fe(3+) ions from others by naked eyes as low concentration as 100μM. Additionally, L-CnDs provide exceptional photostability and biocompatibility for imaging yeast cell morphology. Changes in morphology of living yeast cells, i.e. cell shape variation, and budding, can be observed in a minute-period until more than an hour without the photoluminescent intensity loss.

  4. Prussian Blue Mg—Li Hybrid Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg2+ ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li+ insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two “high voltage” Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg2+; 3.0 V vs Li/Li+) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g−1 are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g−1 (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g−1 (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system. PMID:27818909

  5. Pulsating Blue Metal-poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Landolt, Arlo U.

    1999-12-01

    The blue metal-poor (BMP) star CS 22966-043 is an SX Phoenicis star and the primary of a spectroscopic binary with a provisional orbital period of ~430 days. Radial velocity and UBV photometric observations of this star made in 1998 require downward revision of the orbital period to 319 days. The BMP star CS 29499-057 also appears to be an SX Phoenicis star with small amplitude (ΔV~0.04 mag) and short period (P=0.0417 days), on the basis of photometric and radial velocity observations obtained in 1998. There is some indication that it too may be the primary of a spectroscopic binary. Three other BMP stars have radial velocity standard deviations greater than those of 17 BMP radial velocity standards. We suggest that they may be small-amplitude SX Phoenicis stars. Finally, the BMP star CS 29497-017 is shown to be a short-period velocity variable (P=0.302 days) on the basis of observations accumulated over an interval of 2200 days, but we were unable to detect a light variation in 1998 July. Therefore, the nature of the velocity variation of this object remains uncertain.

  6. Brighter yellow blue tits make better parents.

    PubMed Central

    Senar, J C; Figuerola, J; Pascual, J

    2002-01-01

    Whether or not bird ornaments are a signal for direct (e.g. good parents) or indirect (e.g. good genes) benefits to prospective partners in sexual selection is controversial. Carotene coloration in Parus species is directly related to the ingestion of caterpillars, so that a brightly carotene-coloured tit may be signalling its ability to find caterpillars, a main high-quality food source for good fledgling development, and hence its parental abilities. If carotene-based plumage coloration is related to the good-parent hypothesis, we predict that yellow plumage brightness of tit fathers should be positively correlated to their investment in offspring provisioning. Here, we use cross-fostering experiments in blue tits (Parus caeruleus) to show that chick development (as measured by tarsus length) is related to yellowness of the foster father, but not to that of the genetic parents. Using these data, we were able to measure, for the first time to our knowledge, the separate contribution of genetic and environmental factors (i.e. parental plumage coloration) to chick development, and hence parental investment. Our data, which relate carotenoid coloration to models of good parents, and data from other authors, which relate ultraviolet coloration to good-genes models, stress that different kinds of coloration within an individual may provide different units of information to prospective females. PMID:11839194

  7. Prussian Blue Mg-Li Hybrid Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-08-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg(2+) ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li(+) insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two "high voltage" Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg(2+); 3.0 V vs Li/Li(+)) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g(-1) are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g(-1) (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g(-1) (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system.

  8. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  9. Removal of Radioactive Cesium Using Prussian Blue Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Chan; Hong, Sang-Bum; Yang, Hee-Man; Lee, Kune-Woo; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Huh, Yun Suk; Roh, Changhyun

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive cesium (137Cs) has inevitably become a human concern due to exposure from nuclear power plants and nuclear accident releases. Many efforts have been focused on removing cesium and the remediation of the contaminated environment. In this study, we elucidated the ability of Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles to eliminate cesium from radioactive contaminated waste. Thus, the obtained Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then characterized and examined for their physical and radioactive cesium adsorption properties. This Prussian blue-coated magnetic nanoparticle-based cesium magnetic sorbent can offer great potential for use in in situ remediation. PMID:28344255

  10. Mechanisms for Binding between Methylene Blue and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardevanyan, P. O.; Antonyan, A. P.; Parsadanyan, M. A.; Shahinyan, M. A.; Hambardzumyan, L. A.

    2013-09-01

    We have used absorption and fl uorimetric methods to study the interaction between methylene blue (MB) and calfthymus DNA. Based on Scatchard analysis of the experimental data, we plotted the methylene blue-DNA binding curve. This curve consists of two linear sections, which indicates two types of interaction, for which we determined the constants K and the number of binding sites n for binding of this ligand to DNA. Comparison of the data obtained with analogous values found for interaction between ethidium bromide and DNA allowed us to conclude that there are two modes of interaction between methylene blue and DNA: strong binding (semi-intercalation) and weak binding (electrostatic).

  11. Combatant eye protection: an introduction to the blue light hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimore, Morris R.

    2016-05-01

    Emerging evidence of metabolic vulnerability to visible blue light is vitally important, as it is indicative of a scalable threshold effect. Added stressors (e.g., increased altitude or contact lens wear) could shift the wavelength effects toward a more damaging clinical picture. Recent reports have indicated rod photo-pigment damage resulting from solar blue-light exposures, adversely affecting unaided night vision, a militarily important performance decrement. The activation wavelength for the daily synchronous setting of the Circadian Clock, which regulates the synchronization of all hormonal and organ systems throughout the body, falls within this blue light perceptual range.

  12. Disproportionation of semimethylene blue and oxidation of leucomethylene blue by methylene blue and by Fe(III). Kinetics, equilibria, and medium effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, D.W.; Martin, S.A.; Ray, S.; Lichtin, N.N.

    1981-05-28

    The dependence on reaction medium of the kinetics of three ground-state elementary reactions occurring in the iron-methylene blue photoredox system has been investigated by studying the relaxation of the photostationary state and by flash photolysis. The rate constants which have been evaluated include 2k/sub 6/, for disproportionation of semimethylene blue (S), k/sub -6/, for syn proportionation (the oxidation of leucomethylene blue (L) by methylene blue (MB)), and k/sub 10/, for the oxidation of leucomethylene blue by ferric ion. Variations of media include nature of the solvent and anions, ionic strength, and concentration of acid. Values of the equilibrium constant K/sub 6/ = k/sub -6/2k/sub 6/ = (S)/sup 2//(L)(MB) have been derived from the kinetic data and used in conjunction with potentiometric data to determine values of the one-electron standard reduction potentials, epsilon/sup o'//sub MB/S/ and epsilon/sup o'//sub S/L/ in several media. As in the iron-thionine photoredox system, the half-reduced dye, S, is a minor component of the photostationary state and oxidation of leuco dye by ferric ion appears to proceed via a metastable association complex of the reactants. Mechanistic interpretations of some of the medium effects are suggested.

  13. [Preparation of reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff and its spectral properties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Yuan, Ya-Qin; Cai, Yu; Zhu, Xian; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2004-08-01

    Reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff was prepared by using reactive bright blue and praseodymium oxide. The spectra of reactive bright blue praseodymium and dyed silk cloth by reactive bright blue praseodymium dyestuff were studied by UV-Vis and IR spectra respectively. In the range of 200-800 nm, reactive bright blue has four absorption peaks, and lambda(max) is 259 nm; reactive bright blue praseodymium has three absorption peaks, while lambda(max), is 264.00 nm. In the range of 420-760 nm, reactive bright blue has two absorption peaks at 661.50 and 625.50 nm, respectively, and lambda(max) is 661.50 nm; reactive bright blue praseodymium has only one absorption peak at 618.00 nm. Coordinate bond links reactive bright blue to praseodymium ion. Reactive bright blue praseodymium increases linking radicals as compared with reactive bright blue.

  14. Blue Polar Dunes In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    The small dunes in this image are 'bluer' than the rest of the layered ice/dust units to the left.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.5, Longitude 206.6 East (153.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  16. Photodegradation of fluoride glass blue fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandonnet, Alain; Laperle, Pierre; LaRochelle, Sophie; Vallee, Real

    1997-01-01

    The first demonstration of blue upconversion fiber lasers in Tm-ZBLAN has generated considerable interest among laser scientists looking for all-solid-state visible sources. Although initial experiments have shown a large conversion efficiency, a good spatial beam quality and an overall simplicity of the approach, these sources have not yet appeared on the market. In an attempt to reproduce these early results, many research teams including our own have encountered unexplained and detrimental start-up effects in these lasers. We have recently shown that this behavior is the result of photochromic damage in the fluoride fibers generated by the infrared pumping source. Progressive build- up of photoinduced loss ultimately prevents operation of the device. The photoinduced absorption spectrum extends from the UV to the near infrared, with three major bands centered around 300 nm, 500 nm and 800 nm. Pump-probe experiments show that the damage mechanism depends on the Tm3+ concentration and that it follows a fourth power dependence on the pumping intensity. Further investigation has revealed that photobleaching of the defects is possible using visible and near infrared radiation. The residual absorption spectrum following photobleaching suggests that three different species of defects are created. One type of defects is related to the 800 nm band and can be permanently removed. The other two are only temporarily removed by photobleaching and reappear on a time-scale of a few minutes. In addition, thermal bleaching can completely erase the defects in certain fibers. This paper summarizes the current understanding of photoinduced phenomena occurring in Tm3+-ZBLAN fibers.

  17. Oxidative decolorization of methylene blue using pelagite.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Liang-Yong

    2008-01-15

    Pelagite generally has large surface area and high adsorbing and oxidizing reactivity due to highly amorphous nature, and high reducing potential of Mn (hydro)oxide phases present in it. In the present study, pelagite, collected from the East Pacific Ocean, was tested as a potential oxidant for decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in a batch system under air-bubbling and motor-stirring conditions. The effects of suspension pH (3.0-10.0), MB concentration (10-100 mgL(-1)) and loading (0.2-3.0 gL(-1)), and particle size (100-200 mesh) of pelagite on kinetics of MB decolorization were assessed. Results show that in typical concentration range of dye wastewaters (10-50 mgL(-1)), pelagite can be used as a highly efficient material for oxidative degradation of MB. MB decolorization was through a surface mechanism, that is, formation of surface precursor complex between MB and surface bound Mn(III, IV) center, followed by electron transfer within the surface complex. Iron (hydro)oxide phases present in the pelagite did not play an important role in MB decolorization. Suspension pH exerted double-edged effects on MB decolorization by influencing the formation of surface precursor complex, and reducing potential of the system. Kinetic rate of MB decolorization is directly proportional to saturation degree of available reaction sites by MB adsorption. At the initial and later stages, the kinetics for MB decolorization with respect to MB concentration, pelagite loading, and particle size could be described separately using two pseudofirst rate equations, except at very high pelagite loading (3.0 mgL(-1)). Accumulation of Mn(2+) and probably some organic intermediates exerted marked inhibitory effect on MB decolorization. Vigorous dynamic condition was favorable for MB decolorization. The presence of oxygen could enhance MB decolorization to a limited extent.

  18. Blue maize: morphology and starch synthase characterization of starch granule.

    PubMed

    Utrilla-Coello, Rubi G; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; de la Rosa, Ana Paulina Barba; Martinez-Salgado, Jose L; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Perez, Luis A

    2009-03-01

    The use of pigmented maize varieties has increased due to their high anthocyanins content, but very few studies are reported about the starch properties of these grains. The aim of this work was to isolate the starch granules from pigmented blue maize and carry out the morphological, physicochemical, and biochemical characterization studies. The proximate composition of starch granules showed high protein contents, after purification, the blue maize starch presented lower protein amount than starch from white maize (control). Although the purity of starch granules was increased, the damaged starch (determined for the Maltase cross absence) was also increased. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of some pores and channels in the blue maize starch. The electrophoretic protein profiles showed differences in the bands that correspond to the enzymes involved in the starch biosynthesis; these differences could explain the variation in morphological characteristics of blue maize starches against starch from white maize.

  19. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  20. Investigation of picosecond blue laser emission from chlorophyll molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yixian; Wang Yagang; Zhu Wei; Li Fuming; Yang Shanyuan; Zhou Peilin

    1988-03-01

    Results on picosecond blue laser emission from a chlorophyll (chl) dye laser with an ultrashort cavity are reported. The laser mechanism involves intermolecular energy transfer from excited coumarin (co) molecules to chlorophyll a and b pigment molecules.

  1. Improved wound healing in blue LED treated superficial abrasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Francesca; Tatini, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Bacci, Stefano; De Siena, Gaetano; Cicchi, Riccardo; Pavone, Francesco; Alfieri, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    A blue-LED photocoagulator device was designed in order to induce a selective photocoagulation effect in superficial bleeding. An in vivo study in rat back skin evidenced an improved healing process in the LED treated abrasions.

  2. Think global, act local; projectome estimation with BlueMatter.

    PubMed

    Sherbondy, Anthony J; Dougherty, Robert F; Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal; Modha, Dharmendra S; Wandell, Brian A

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the complete set of white matter fascicles (the projectome) from diffusion data requires evaluating an enormous number of potential pathways; consequently, most algorithms use computationally efficient greedy methods to search for pathways. The limitation of this approach is that critical global parameters--such as data prediction error and white matter volume conservation--are not taken into account. We describe BlueMatter, a parallel algorithm for global projectome evaluation, which uniquely accounts for global prediction error and volume conservation. Leveraging the BlueGene/L supercomputing architecture, BlueMatter explores a massive database of 180 billion candidate fascicles. The candidates are derived from several sources, including atlases and multiple tractography algorithms. Using BlueMatter we created the highest resolution, volume-conserved projectome of the human brain.

  3. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs.

    PubMed

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-12

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or 'gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts.

  4. View of secondfloor Blue Lodge lobby from the southwest. Left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of second-floor Blue Lodge lobby from the southwest. Left door leads to the hallway to Norman Hall. Central door opens to the Egyptian Hall inner vestibule. - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  6. Salamander Blue-sensitive Cones Lost During Metamorphosis†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Znoiko, Sergey; DeGrip, Willem J.; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Ma, Jian-xing

    2009-01-01

    The tiger salamander lives in shallow water with bright light in the aquatic phase, and in dim tunnels or caves in the terrestrial phase. In the aquatic phase, there are five types of photoreceptors—two types of rods and three types of cones. Our previous studies showed that the green rods and blue-sensitive cones contain the same visual pigment and have the same absorbance spectra; however, the green rods have a larger photon-catch area and thus have higher light sensitivity than the blue-sensitive cones. Here we show that after metamorphosis, the terrestrial salamander looses the blue-sensitive cones, while the density of the green rods increases. Moreover, the size of the green rod outer segments is increased in the terrestrial phase, compared to that in the aquatic phase. This switch from the blue-sensitive cones to the green rods may represent an adaptation to the dim light environment of the terrestrial phase. PMID:18331398

  7. Nested Paleozoic "successor" basins in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tull, James F.; Groszos, Mark S.

    1990-11-01

    Field studies in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge and its southwest extension, the Talladega belt, indicate that in at least three regions, polydeformed and metamorphosed turbidite-dominated sequences unconformably overlie rifted-margin continental-terrace wedge clastic rocks and overlying carbonate-platform deposits. These sequences are (1) the Talladega Group (in the Talladega belt), (2) the Walden Creek Group (along the west flank of the Blue Ridge), and (3) the Mineral Bluff Formation (within the core of the Blue Ridge). Paleontologic evidence indicates that the Talladega and Walden Creek Groups are in part as young as Silurian-Devonian. The presence of these anomalously young sequences unconformably above the trailing-margin stratigraphy in the Blue Ridge brings into question conventional ideas of the timing and nature of the tectonic evolution of the ancient continental margin.

  8. Nested Paleozoic successor basins in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, J.F.; Groszos, M.S. )

    1990-11-01

    Field studies in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge and its southwest extension, the Talladega belt, indicate that in at least three regions, polydeformed and metamorphosed turbidite-dominated sequences unconformably overlie rifted-margin continental-terrace wedge clastic rocks and overlying carbonate-platform deposits. These sequences are (1) the Talladega Group (in the Talladega belt), (2) the Walden Creek Group (along the west flank of the Blue Ridge), and (3) the Mineral Bluff Formation (within the core of the Blue Ridge). Paleontologic evidence indicates that the Talladega and Walden Creek Groups are in part as young as Silurian-Devonian. The presence of these anomalously young sequences unconformably above the trailing-margin stratigraphy in the Blue Ridge brings into question conventional ideas of the timing and nature of the tectonic evolution of the ancient continental margin.

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey From The Blue Book, Official ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey From The Blue Book, Official Souvenir View Book Panama Pacific International Exposition - 1915 VIEW FROM THE EAST - Palace of Fine Arts, Baker Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Suzanne Newton's "I Will Call it Georgie's Blues".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes Suzanne Newton's children's book, "I Will Call It Georgie's Blues." Includes discussion questions about the book, and a list of activities. Provides an annotated bibliography of fiction, picture books, nonfiction, and biography titles about jazz and jazz musicians. (AEF)

  11. Long Smoke Plumes from CA Blue Cut Fire

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    article title:  Long Smoke Plumes from California's Destructive Blue Cut Fire Spotted by NASA's MISR ... rapidly, burning through brush left tinder-dry by years of drought. Firefighters quickly responded, ordering the evacuation of about ...

  12. 44. Blue Coal Corporation Office Building (foreground), Huber Breaker (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Blue Coal Corporation Office Building (foreground), Huber Breaker (left), Retail Coal Storage Bins (far center) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  13. Blue Ribbon Panel Report-BRP-Cancer Moonshot

    Cancer.gov

    The Blue Ribbon Panel Report outlines 10 recommendations to accelerate progress against cancer. The panel was established to ensure that the Cancer Moonshot's approaches are grounded in the best science.

  14. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. "Brilliant Blue G" and "Membrane Blue Dual" assisted vitrectomy for macular hole.

    PubMed

    Kovacević, Damir; Mance, Tea Caljkusić; Markusić, Vedran

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate vital dyes "Brilliant Blue G" (BBG) and "Membrane Blue Dual" (MBD) for intraoperative staining of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) during vitrectomy for macular hole (MH). Retrospective, comparative case series on 18 eyes with macular holes who underwent "23 and 25 gauge" pars plana vitrectomy. Main outcome measurements were staining intensity and characteristics, visual acuity, visual field, OCT measurements and complications over a period of 6 months. With the help of BBG and MBD successfully was removed complete ILM in 14 eyes. Postoperative visual acuity was improved in 12 patients, unchanged in 2 patients and worse in 4 patients. Central retinal thickness showed significant postoperative reduction with closure of macular hole. OCT values range were from -10 to -250 microm. No visual field defects and no adverse effects were found. BBG and MBD successfully identificate internal limiting membrane during vitrectomy for MH. Good anatomical and functional results are achieved with the use of both vital dyes.

  5. Mica deposits of the Blue Ridge in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank Gardner

    1968-01-01

    Pegmatites in the Blue Ridge of North Carolina are important sources of sheet and scrap mica, feldspar, kaolin, and quartz.  Small amounts of beryl, columbite-tantalite, monazite, samarskite, and uranium minerals also have been produced.  The mica-bearing pegmatites occur in mica and hornblende gneiss and schist throughout the Blue Ridge province but are concentrated in the Spruce Pine and Franklin-Sylva districts.

  6. Intense excitation source of blue-green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-10-01

    An intense and efficient excitation source for blue-green lasers useful for the space-based satellite laser applications, underwater strategic communication, and measurement of ocean bottom profile is being developed. The source in use, hypocycloidal pinch plasma (HCP), and a newly designed dense-plasma focus (DPF) can produce intense UV photons (200 to 300 nm) which match the absorption spectra of both near UV and blue green dye lasers (300 to 400 nm). During the current project period, the successful enhancement of blue-green laser output of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 dye through the spectral conversion of the HCP pumping light has been achieved with a converter dye BBQ. The factor of enhancement in the blue-green laser output energy of both Coumarin 503 and LD490 is almost 73%. This enhancement will definitely be helpful in achieving the direct high power blue-green laser (> 1 MW) with the existing blue green dye laser. On the other hand the dense-plasma focus (DPF) with new optical coupling has been designed and constructed. For the optimization of the DPF device as the UV pumping light source, the velocity of current sheath and the formation of plasma focus have been measured as function of argon or argon-deuterium fill gas pressure. Finally, the blue-green dye laser (LD490) has been pumped with the DPF device for preliminary tests. Experimental results with the DPF device show that the velocity of the current sheath follows the inverse relation of sq st. of pressure as expected. The blue-green dye (LD490) laser output exceeded 3.1 m at the best cavity tuning of laser system. This corresponds to 3J/1 cu cm laser energy extraction.

  7. Methylene blue treatment in experimental ischemic stroke: a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhao; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and long-term disability. Methylene blue, a drug grandfathered by the Food and Drug Administration with a long history of safe usage in humans for treating methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning, has recently been shown to be neuroprotective in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. The goal of this paper is to review studies on methylene blue in experimental stroke models. PMID:27042692

  8. Combatant Eye Protection: An Introduction to the Blue Light Hazard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    visible light ( esp . blue). .................... 3  Figure 4. Example of the underlying spectral output of a very bright white LED...Figure 3. Data extrapolation indicating metabolic effect of visible light ( esp . blue). The experimental effects of UVR on the corneal...related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the central visual field, capable of reducing visual acuity to the point of legal blindness (Margrain et al

  9. Incidentally Detected Blue Nevus of Endocervix: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Shaila Talengala; Shivamurthy, Archana; Kini Rao, Anuradha Calicut

    2015-01-01

    Blue nevi are uncommon, asymptomatic lesions of the uterine cervix. These lesions are not often detected clinically or on colposcopy. Careful histopathological examination is required. The nevus cells are said to originate from the immature melanoblasts of the neural crest. These lesions need to be differentiated from malignant melanoma and melanosis of the cervix. We present here a case report of incidentally detected cervical blue nevus in a 52 year old lady. PMID:26351493

  10. Blue whale vocalizations recorded around New Zealand: 1964-2013.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian S; Collins, Kym; Barlow, Jay; Calderan, Susannah; Leaper, Russell; McDonald, Mark; Ensor, Paul; Olson, Paula A; Olavarria, Carlos; Double, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Previous underwater recordings made in New Zealand have identified a complex sequence of low frequency sounds that have been attributed to blue whales based on similarity to blue whale songs in other areas. Recordings of sounds with these characteristics were made opportunistically during the Southern Ocean Research Partnership's recent Antarctic Blue Whale Voyage. Detections of these sounds occurred all around the South Island of New Zealand during the voyage transits from Nelson, New Zealand to the Antarctic and return. By following acoustic bearings from directional sonobuoys, blue whales were visually detected and confirmed as the source of these sounds. These recordings, together with the historical recordings made northeast of New Zealand, indicate song types that persist over several decades and are indicative of the year-round presence of a population of blue whales that inhabits the waters around New Zealand. Measurements of the four-part vocalizations reveal that blue whale song in this region has changed slowly, but consistently over the past 50 years. The most intense units of these calls were detected as far south as 53°S, which represents a considerable range extension compared to the limited prior data on the spatial distribution of this population.

  11. Function of blue iridescence in tropical understorey plants

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katherine R.; Kolle, Mathias; Whitney, Heather M.; Glover, Beverley J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2010-01-01

    The blue colouration seen in the leaves of Selaginella willdenowii is shown to be iridescent. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the presence of a layered lamellar structure of the upper cuticle of iridescent leaves. Modelling of these multi-layer structures suggests that they are responsible for the blue iridescence, confirming the link between the observed lamellae and the recorded optical properties. Comparison of blue and green leaves from the same plant indicates that the loss of the blue iridescence corresponds to a loss of the multi-layer structure. The results reported here do not support the idea that iridescence in plants acts to enhance light capture of photosynthetically important wavelengths. The reflectance of light in the range 600–700 nm is very similar for both iridescent and non-iridescent leaves. However, owing to the occurrence of blue colouration in a wide variety of shade dwelling plants it is probable that this iridescence has some adaptive benefit. Possible adaptive advantages of the blue iridescence in these plants are discussed. PMID:20519208

  12. STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Trejo, W. H.; Bennett, R. E.

    1963-01-01

    Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676–690. 1963.—The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level. Images PMID:14042949

  13. Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, Christian

    This chapter explores how we might use the observed statistics of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers—which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions—is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

  14. Copper blue in an ancient glass bead: a XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, J. P.; Figueiredo, M. O.

    2006-06-01

    The blue colour in ancient soda-lime glasses has been attributed to the presence of copper and/or cobalt but the origin of different shades is not yet fully interpreted. As a contribution to this question, a non-destructive X-ray absorption study at [ Cu]K-edge was undertaken on the blue (turquoise) layer from a “Nueva Cadiz” type tubular glass bead dated pre-XVII century where copper is the unique colouring agent. Minerals configuring two distinct blue tonalities due to Cu (2+) in similar square coordination were selected as basic model compounds: azurite, which is a classical navy-blue pigment used in ancient wall paintings over plaster, and chalcanthite, displaying exactly the same turquoise-blue tonality of tubular glass beads manufactured since the Egyptian Antiquity. Theoretical modelling of the XAFS spectra was undertaken using the FEFF code. The IFEFFIT software package was used for fitting the calculated spectra to experimental data. EXAFS results are discussed in view of the crystal structures of copper minerals chosen to model the speciation state and structural situation of that element prevailing in the turquoise-blue archaeological glass. Special attention is focused on the difficulties in theoretical modelling [ Cu]K-XANES spectra of ancient glasses with different colourings.

  15. Decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous suspensions of titanium peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Chiaki; Dadjour, Mahmoud Farshbaf; Iida, Yasuo; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2008-05-01

    The pretreatment of TiO(2)-photocatalysts in solutions of H(2)O(2) was studied by examining the decolorization of methylene blue in the dark. Incubation of TiO(2) particles in H(2)O(2) solutions increased the oxidizing capacity of TiO(2). Methylene blue (0.3 mM) was degraded in the presence of pretreated TiO(2), and a decolorizing ratio of 47% was obtained after a 48-h incubation period in the presence of 5.0 g/L pretreated TiO(2). Titanium peroxide as a stable oxidant, which can be synthesized with the reaction of titanium sulfate and H(2)O(2), was studied in the decolorizing process of methylene blue. Concentrations of methylene blue were significantly reduced in the presence of titanium peroxide, and a greater extent of decolorization was obtained with larger amounts of titanium peroxide. A 63% decrease in methylene blue concentration was achieved in 5h incubation in the presence of 4.0 g/L titanium peroxide. H(2)O(2) accelerated the decolorizing process in the presence of titanium peroxide. The addition of 100 mM H(2)O(2) to a methylene blue solution containing 2.0 g/L titanium peroxide increased the decolorizing ratio to 85% after 5 h incubation. The addition of a hydroxyl radical scavenger, dimethyl sulfoxide, significantly decreased the decolorizing ratio, indicating the role of hydroxyl radicals in the oxidation process.

  16. Observed upper limits on lithium abundances in blue stragglers

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, L.M.; Mathieu, R.D. Wisconsin, University, Madison )

    1991-05-01

    High-dispersion echelle spectra which include the Li I 6708 A line are reported for four blue stragglers. Two are field Population II stars with Fe/H near {minus}1.4, while the other two are members of the open cluster M 67. The Li I line is not detected in the spectra of any of these four blue stragglers; consequent upper limits on the surface lithium abundances are further deduced from suitable model atmospheres. The upper limits are significantly lower than the initial lithium abundances inferred for the respective stellar populations associated with these blue stragglers. The negative results for the two metal-deficient stars may reveal the existence of a narrow 'lithium gap' along the Population II main sequence. Alternatively, some mechanism associated with the formation and evolution of halo blue stragglers may account for their reduced atmospheric lithium abundance. The negative results in M 67 argue that blue stragglers do not result from delayed star formation, and that blue stragglers do not remain near the main sequence for extended lifetimes as a result of interior mixing, unless the surfaces of such stars are also mixed. 32 refs.

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of disperse Blue 7.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Disperse Blue 7 is an anthraquinone dye used in cosmetics as a hair colorant in five hair dye and color products reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hair dyes containing Disperse Blue 7, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. Disperse Blue 7 is also used as a textile dye. The components of Disperse Blue 7 reportedly include Disperse Turquoise ALF Granules, Disperse Turquoise LF2G, Reax 83A, Tamol SW, and Twitchell Oil. No data were available that addressed the acute, short-term, or chronic toxicity of Disperse Blue 7. A mouse lymph node assay used to predict the sensitization potential of Disperse Blue 7 was negative. Although most bacterial assays for genotoxicity were negative in the absence of metabolic activation, consistently positive results were found with metabolic activation in Salmonella strains TA1537, TA1538, and TA98, which were interpreted as indicative of point mutations. Studies using L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells appeared to confirm this mutagenic activity. Mammalian assays for chromosome damage, however, were negative and animal tests found no evidence of dominant lethal mutations. Cases reports describe patients patch tested with Disperse Blue 7 to determine the source of apparent adverse reactions to textiles. In most patients, patch tests were negative, but there are examples in which the patch test for Disperse Blue 7 was positive. In general, anthraquinone dyes are considered frequent causes of clothing dermatitis. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel determined that there was a paucity of data regarding the safety of Disperse Blue 7 as used in cosmetics. The following data are needed in order to arrive at a conclusion on the safety of

  18. Differential photodynamic response of cultured cells to methylene blue and toluidine blue: role of dark redox processes.

    PubMed

    Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Stockert, Juan C; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Zamarrón, Alicia; Juarranz, Angeles

    2009-03-01

    Cultured cells treated with equal concentrations of thiazine photosensitizers methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue (TB) showed a distinct photodynamic lethality, with TB being much more effective, when exposed to red light from a LED source. This effect is accounted for because of the differences in the chemical reduction of MB and TB in the intracellular environment. While TB accumulates as blue granular structures, MB does not give such a localization pattern. However, upon exposure of MB-treated cells to oxidant agents, the dye becomes clearly localized in the cytoplasm as blue granules. We propose that massive reduction of MB to its leuco form inside the cell inhibits most of the photodynamic damage, while no such reduction occurs with TB.

  19. [Pigment molecules linked to polymer support: blue rayon, blue chitin, and green chitosan-synthesis and applications].

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H

    2000-06-01

    The fact that hemin can inhibit the mutagenic activity of compounds bearing polycyclic structures is ascribable to the ability of the porphyrin structure to complex with the planar surface of the mutagens. The elucidation of this mechanism has led to the discovery of copper phthalocyanine trisulfonate (cpt) as an efficient ligand to trap polycyclic compounds on polymeric supports that bear cpt through covalent bond linkages. In blue cotton, the support for cpt is cotton, in blue rayon, it is amorphous rayon, and in blue chitin it is poly-N-acetylglucosamine. Using these blue materials, we have successfully isolated mutagens of polycyclic structures, e.g., heterocyclic amines, from environmental complex mixtures such as food, urine, feces, and river water. Preparation and properties of these adsorbents are described. Chlorophyllin linked to Sepharose and chitosan is also described. The use of these green materials is discussed.

  20. Water quality in the Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek, Oklahoma, March-October 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurklin, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Based on samples collected bimonthly for major inorganic and trace elements and monthly for biota and bacteria, water from the Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek is suitable for most uses when compared to water-quality standards or criteria. Concentrations of most chemical constituents gradually increased from spring to fall. The concentrations generally were within established drinking-water standards, with the exception of iron and manganese. Using water-quality determinations and biologic indicators, the water from Blue Creek arm of Lake Eufaula and Blue Creek is: (1) Soft and acidic with little mineral content and conductivity; (2) calm or very slowly moving; and (3) warm and enriched with organic matter.

  1. The blue copper protein gene of Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 directs secretion of blue copper protein from Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, K; Uozumi, T; Beppu, T

    1987-01-01

    The gene encoding a blue copper protein (a member of the pseudoazurins) of 123 amino acid residues, containing a single type I Cu2+ ion, was cloned from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6. The nucleotide sequence of the coding region, as well as the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions, was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence after Glu-24 coincided with the reported sequence of the blue protein, and its NH2-terminal sequence of 23 residues resembled a typical signal peptide. The cloned gene was expressed under the control of the tac promoter in Escherichia coli, and the correctly processed blue protein was secreted into the periplasm. The blue protein produced in E. coli possessed the activity to transfer electrons to the copper-containing nitrite reductase of A. faecalis S-6 in vitro. Images PMID:2824441

  2. Optimized extraction of a single-chain variable fragment of antibody by using aqueous micellar two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Malpiedi, Luciana P; Nerli, Bibiana B; Taqueda, Maria E S; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the purification of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody by using liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous micellar two-phase systems was optimized by means of central composite design. Protein partitioning assays were performed by using the selected system composition in previous works: Triton X-114 at 4% wt/wt, yeast fermentation supernatant at 60% wt/wt, McIlvaine buffer pH 7.00. The other system component concentrations, Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB), Fabsorbent™ F1P HF (HF) and NaCl, were selected as independent variables. ScFv recovery percentage (%R) and purification factor (PF) were selected as the responses. According to the optimization process both, scFv recovery percentage and purification factor were favored with the addition of HF and NaCl in a range of concentrations around the central point of the second central composite design (HF 0.0120% w/w, CB 0.0200% w/w, NaCl 0.200% w/w). These experimental conditions allowed the concentration and pre-purification of scFv in the micelle-rich bottom phase of the systems with a recovery percentage superior to 88% and a purification factor of approximately 3.5. These results improved the previously presented works and demonstrated the convenience of using aqueous micellar two-phase systems as a first step in the purification of scFv molecules.

  3. Dried calcium alginate/magnetite spheres: a new support for chromatographic separations and enzyme immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, M.A.; Kvesitadze, G.I.; Graves, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    Dried spheres made from an alginate solution containing magnetite particles have excellent potential as a support for enzyme immobilization and chromatographic applications. The beads were found to be much stronger than gels such as polyacrylamide and dextran, indicating that high flow rates and pressures could be used in column separations. The support withstood not only temperatures of up to 120/sup 0/C, but also most pH values and common solvents. While some solutions, such as phosphate buffers, dissolved the spheres, stabilization with Tyzor TE eliminated this problem. The physical properties of the beads include a glasslike density of 2.2 g/mL, excellent sphericity, low porosity, and a narrow size distribution. The magnetite present in the support allows the beads to be used for magnetic separations such as high gradient magnetic filtration. Their high degree of microroughness provides a large exposed surface area for enzyme and ligand binding. Mixed Actinomyces fradiae proteases and Aspergillus niger ..cap alpha..-amylase, two enzymes representative of classes which attack large substrates, were immobilized on the bead's surface with high activity and stability. A cyanuric dye which can be used in chromatographic applications (Cibacron Blue F3GA) was also readily coupled to the surface of this support with good yield.

  4. Red, White, and the Blues Part 3 of 4: The New Beat of the Blues: R&B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassinos-Carr, Cathy

    2004-01-01

    When rhythm & blues--or, as it is more commonly called, R&B, was first born, it did not even have a name. Prior to 1949, all black popular music, including jazz, blues, and gospel, was known as "race music." But by the end of the 1940s, the music had become so successful that it gained a new-found respect--and Billboard magazine, realizing that…

  5. Abundances in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewolfe, O. M.; Salzer, J. J.

    1994-12-01

    The nebular abundances in dwarf galaxies provide valuable clues to their star-formation histories. We have been engaged in an extensive observational study of actively star-forming blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). Our program combines optical and NIR imaging, optical spectroscopy, and HI and CO radio data in an attempt to understand the status of star-formation and chemical evolution in these systems. Luminosities of the BCDs in our sample lie in the range M_B = -13 -- -16. We have obtained high-quality optical spectra of 21 BCDs for the purpose of deriving nebular abundances. We present values for the abundances of He, N, O, S, Ne, and Ar for this sample. In addition, we have estimated O and N abundances for a sample of 7 non-dwarf starburst galaxies of higher luminosity. For the BCD sample, we find that the N/O ratio remains constant at a mean value of 0.032 +/- 0.004 with increasing O/H. This result, which extends over a factor of more than 10 in O/H, is indicative of the N being chiefly of primary origin in these systems. The value of N/O is observed to increase in the sample of larger starburst galaxies for log(O/H) above -3.5, consistent with previous studies. S/O and Ne/O are also both constant with increasing O/H, and have mean values of 0.032 +/- 0.007 and 0.135 +/- 0.013 respectively. The BCD and starburst O/H values were used to calibrate an abundance sequence for a number of key emission-line diagnostic ratios which allow us to estimate metallicities for a large sample of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to an accuracy of 0.1 -- 0.2 dex. The calibrations were applied to spectral data from two large published samples of ELGs from the Michigan and Case surveys. We use these data, representing nearly 200 individual galaxies, to investigate the existence of a metallicity-luminosity relationship for actively star-forming galaxies. We find the ELGs exhibit a relationship very similar to that found for more quiescent dwarf and Magellanic irregular galaxies by

  6. Linguistic Structure and Non-linguistic Cognition: English and Russian Blues Compared.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the influence of linguistic structure on non-linguistic cognition by comparing Russian and English behavior on tasks involving the color blue. Russians, who differentiate this region into "dark blue" and "light blue," were expected to separate blues more often than English subjects for whom the colors belong to one lexical category.…

  7. 76 FR 81004 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Woman in Blue, Against...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard...

  8. Global monthly water scarcity: blue water footprints versus blue water availability.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Chapagain, Ashok K; Mathews, Ruth E; Richter, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values. We analyzed 405 river basins for the period 1996-2005. In 201 basins with 2.67 billion inhabitants there was severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. The ecological and economic consequences of increasing degrees of water scarcity--as evidenced by the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), Indus, and Murray-Darling River Basins--can include complete desiccation during dry seasons, decimation of aquatic biodiversity, and substantial economic disruption.

  9. Blue-blocking IOLs decrease photoreception without providing significant photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Mainster, Martin A; Turner, Patricia L

    2010-01-01

    Violet and blue light are responsible for 45% of scotopic, 67% of melanopsin, 83% of human circadian (melatonin suppression) and 94% of S-cone photoreception in pseudophakic eyes (isoilluminance source). Yellow chromophores in blue-blocking intraocular lenses (IOLs) eliminate between 43 and 57% of violet and blue light between 400 and 500 nm, depending on their dioptric power. This restriction adversely affects pseudophakic photopic luminance contrast, photopic S-cone foveal threshold, mesopic contrast acuity, scotopic short-wavelength sensitivity and circadian photoreception. Yellow IOL chromophores provide no tangible clinical benefits in exchange for the photoreception losses they cause. They fail to decrease disability glare or improve contrast sensitivity. Most epidemiological evidence shows that environmental light exposure and cataract surgery are not significant risk factors for the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, the use of blue-blocking IOLs is not evidence-based medicine. Most AMD occurs in phakic adults over 60 years of age, despite crystalline lens photoprotection far greater than that of blue-blocking IOLs. Therefore, if light does play some role in the pathogenesis of AMD, then 1) senescent crystalline lenses do not prevent it, so neither can blue-blocking IOLs that offer far less photoprotection, and 2) all pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments. Pseudophakes have the freedom to remove their sunglasses for optimal photoreception whenever they choose to do so, provided that they are not encumbered permanently by yellow IOL chromophores. In essence, yellow chromophores are placebos for prevention of AMD that permanently restrict a pseudophake's dim light and circadian photoreception at ages when they are needed most. If yellow IOLs had been the standard of care, then colorless UV-blocking IOLs could be advocated now as "premium" IOLs because they offer dim light and circadian photoreception roughly 15

  10. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  11. Hurricane preparedness: Current procedures at Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida.

    PubMed

    Devaney, Everett

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses experience, methodology and recommendations for successful business continuity and disaster recovery planning for health care organisations. Hurricanes, tornadoes and other natural disasters are a regular occurrence in Florida. Low-lying coastal areas are at increased risk, with populations in inland areas as far as 200-300 miles with potential to suffer heavy damage. This case study shows how one institution, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, provides and maintains emergency response plans for critical functions, services or processes before, during and after a disaster, in support of its 8.3 million customers, its stakeholders and colleagues such as providers and vendors. Even though modern tracking gives fair warning regarding hurricanes, the use of specific and tested emergency response planning is critical to allow business continuity decision-making well before disaster strikes. This study examines how functional units within a health care organisation can plan and prepare to protect the public who depend on their services and resources, as well as minimise the risk to employees and business stakeholders. Coordination of a Contingency Response Team (within the functional units) and an Enterprise Operations Centre must be well managed to minimise adverse customer service disruptions and at the same time minimise impact to the company. Decision making and communications are strictly organised to protect stakeholders, make temporary business rule changes, allow for alternative business processes and handle benefit decisions, following methodology known, tested and used in past scenarios. In summary, the paper explores key points to achieve active and engaged business continuity in the face of natural disasters - (1) planning & coordination, (2) monitoring, (3) response/activation and (4) recovery.

  12. Sustainable Life on the Blue Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helvarg, D.

    2002-05-01

    the 1950s suggest we now have the technological capacity for a new energy transition to non-carbon systems including photovoltaics, wind-turbines, biofuels and hydrogen fuel-cells. A (largely) hydrogen based economy could also lead to a decentralized power grid less vulnerable to terrorism and the increased natural disasters we can expect in the coming greenhouse century. Sustainable development of limited resources and the shift to renewable forms of agriculture, water-planning, energy and other technologies will ultimately depend not simply on earth science, but on a highly political process which will (hopefully) combine the best-available science, and society's values to determine public policy that benefits the long-term interests of our blue planet's varied residents, recognizing that our economy is a fully owned subsidiary of our environment.

  13. Blue-Light Filtering Spectacle Lenses: Optical and Clinical Performances

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purposes To evaluate the optical performance of blue-light filtering spectacle lenses and investigate whether a reduction in blue light transmission affects visual performance and sleep quality. Methods Experiment 1: The relative changes in phototoxicity, scotopic sensitivity, and melatonin suppression of five blue-light filtering plano spectacle lenses were calculated based on their spectral transmittances measured by a spectrophotometer. Experiment 2: A pseudo-randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the clinical performance of two blue-light filtering spectacle lenses (BF: blue-filtering anti-reflection coating; BT: brown-tinted) with a regular clear lens (AR) serving as a control. A total of eighty computer users were recruited from two age cohorts (young adults: 18–30 yrs, middle-aged adults: 40–55 yrs). Contrast sensitivity under standard and glare conditions, and colour discrimination were measured using standard clinical tests. After one month of lens wear, subjective ratings of lens performance were collected by questionnaire. Results All tested blue-light filtering spectacle lenses theoretically reduced the calculated phototoxicity by 10.6% to 23.6%. Although use of the blue-light filters also decreased scotopic sensitivity by 2.4% to 9.6%, and melatonin suppression by 5.8% to 15.0%, over 70% of the participants could not detect these optical changes. Our clinical tests revealed no significant decrease in contrast sensitivity either with (95% confidence intervals [CI]: AR–BT [–0.05, 0.05]; AR–BF [–0.05, 0.06]; BT–BF [–0.06, 0.06]) or without glare (95% CI: AR–BT [–0.01, 0.03]; AR–BF [–0.01, 0.03]; BT–BF [–0.02, 0.02]) and colour discrimination (95% CI: AR–BT [–9.07, 1.02]; AR–BF [–7.06, 4.46]; BT–BF [–3.12, 8.57]). Conclusion Blue-light filtering spectacle lenses can partially filter high-energy short-wavelength light without substantially degrading visual performance and sleep quality. These lenses may

  14. The BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework: Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. C.; Larkin, N.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; ONeill, S. M.; Leung, F. T.; Qu, J. J.; Hao, X.

    2012-12-01

    BlueSky systems—a set of decision support tools including SmartFire and the BlueSky Framework—aid public policy decision makers and scientific researchers in evaluating the air quality impacts of fires. Smoke and fire managers use BlueSky systems in decisions about prescribed burns and wildland firefighting. Air quality agencies use BlueSky systems to support decisions related to air quality regulations. We will discuss a range of recent improvements to the BlueSky systems, as well as examples of applications and future plans. BlueSky systems have the flexibility to accept basic fire information from virtually any source and can reconcile multiple information sources so that duplication of fire records is eliminated. BlueSky systems currently apply information from (1) the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Hazard Mapping System (HMS), which represents remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES); (2) the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) interagency project, which derives fire perimeters from Landsat 30-meter burn scars; (3) the Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group (GeoMAC), which produces helicopter-flown burn perimeters; and (4) ground-based fire reports, such as the ICS-209 reports managed by the National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Efforts are currently underway to streamline the use of additional ground-based systems, such as states' prescribed burn databases. BlueSky systems were recently modified to address known uncertainties in smoke modeling associated with (1) estimates of biomass consumption derived from sparse fuel moisture data, and (2) models of plume injection heights. Additional sources of remotely sensed data are being applied to address these issues as follows: - The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

  15. Proteomics meets blue biotechnology: a wealth of novelties and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Erica M; Durighello, Emie; Pible, Olivier; Nogales, Balbina; Beltrametti, Fabrizio; Bosch, Rafael; Christie-Oleza, Joseph A; Armengaud, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Blue biotechnology, in which aquatic environments provide the inspiration for various products such as food additives, aquaculture, biosensors, green chemistry, bioenergy, and pharmaceuticals, holds enormous promise. Large-scale efforts to sequence aquatic genomes and metagenomes, as well as campaigns to isolate new organisms and culture-based screenings, are helping to push the boundaries of known organisms. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics can complement 16S gene sequencing in the effort to discover new organisms of potential relevance to blue biotechnology by facilitating the rapid screening of microbial isolates and by providing in depth profiles of the proteomes and metaproteomes of marine organisms, both model cultivable isolates and, more recently, exotic non-cultivable species and communities. Proteomics has already contributed to blue biotechnology by identifying aquatic proteins with potential applications to food fermentation, the textile industry, and biomedical drug development. In this review, we discuss historical developments in blue biotechnology, the current limitations to the known marine biosphere, and the ways in which mass spectrometry can expand that knowledge. We further speculate about directions that research in blue biotechnology will take given current and near-future technological advancements in mass spectrometry.

  16. Blood oxyhemoglobin saturation measurements by blue-green spectral shift.

    PubMed

    Denninghoff, Kurt R; Chipman, Russell A; Hillman, Lloyd W

    2007-01-01

    Previous work describing a resilient method for measuring oxyhemoglobin saturation using the blue-green spectral shift was performed using cell free hemoglobin solutions. Hemoglobin solution and whole blood sample spectra measured under similar conditions in a spectrophotometer are used here to begin evaluating the impact of cellular scattering on this method. The blue-green spectral shift with changing oxyhemoglobin saturation was preserved in these blood samples and the blue-green spectral shift was relatively unaffected by physiological changes in blood pH (6.6, 7.1, and 7.4), path length through blood (100 and 200 microm), and blood hematocrit (19 to 48%). The packaging of hemoglobin in red blood cells leads to a decreased apparent path length through hemoglobin, and an overall decrease in scattering loss with increasing wavelength from 450 to 850 nm. The negative slope of the scattering loss in the 476 to 516-nm range leads to a +3.0 nm shift in the oxyhemoglobin saturation calibration line when the blue-green spectral minimum in these blood samples was compared to cell free hemoglobin. Further research is needed to fully evaluate the blue green spectral shift method in cellular systems including in vivo testing.

  17. Census of Blue Stars in SDSS DR8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2014-12-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g - r)0 < -0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  18. Blue whale habitat and prey in the California Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Reilly, Stephen B.; Hewitt, Roger P.; Demer, David; Philbrick, Valerie A.; Smith, Susan; Armstrong, Wesley; Croll, Donald A.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Mate, Bruce R.

    1998-08-01

    Whale Habitat and Prey Studies were conducted off southern California during August 1995 (WHAPS95) and July 1996 (WHAPS96) to (1) study the distribution and activities of blue whales and other large whales, (2) survey the distribution of prey organisms (krill), and (3) measure physical and biological habitat variables that influence the distribution of whales and prey. A total of 1307 cetacean sightings included 460 blue whale, 78 fin whale and 101 humpback whale sightings. Most blue whales were found in cold, well-mixed and productive water that had upwelled along the coast north of Point Conception and then advected south. They were aggregated in this water near San Miguel and Santa Rosa Islands, where they fed on dense, subsurface layers of euphausiids both on the shelf and extending off the shelf edge. Two species of euphausiids were consumed by blue whales, Thysanoessa spinifera and Euphausia pacifica, with evidence of preference for the former, a larger and more coastal species. These krill patches on the Channel Island feeding grounds are a resource exploited during summer-fall by the world's largest stock of blue whales.

  19. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  20. Development of a Blue Emitting Calcium-Aluminate Phosphor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doory; Kim, Han-Eol; Kim, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report methodological advances that enhance the phosphorescence efficiency of a blue-emitting calcium aluminate phosphor (CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Nd3+). The investigation of long-persistence blue-emitting phosphors is highly desirable due to their promising applications, such as white LEDs; however, the development of highly efficient blue-emitting phosphors is still challenging. Here, we have quantitatively characterized the phosphorescence properties of the blue-emitting phosphor CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+ with various compositions and directly related these properties to the quality of its luminescence. We optimized the composition of the activator Eu2+ and the co-activator Nd3+, the doping conditions with alkaline earth metals, alkali metals, and Si to create crystallographic distortions and, finally, the flux conditions to find the best parameters for bright and persistent blue-emitting phosphors. Our research has identified several doping compositions with good to excellent performance, with which we have demonstrated bright and persistent phosphors with afterglow characteristics superior to those of conventional phosphors. PMID:27648560

  1. Effects of blue light on pigment biosynthesis of Monascus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Xue, Chunmao; Chen, Mianhua; Wu, Shufen; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Changlu

    2016-04-01

    The influence of different illumination levels of blue light on the growth and intracellular pigment yields of Monascus strain M9 was investigated. Compared with darkness, constant exposure to blue light of 100 lux reduced the yields of six pigments, namely, rubropunctatamine (RUM), monascorubramine (MOM), rubropunctatin (RUN), monascorubrin (MON), monascin (MS), and ankaflavin (AK). However, exposure to varying levels of blue light had different effects on pigment production. Exposure to 100 lux of blue light once for 30 min/day and to 100 lux of blue light once and twice for 15 min/day could enhance RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production and reduce RUN and MON compared with non-exposure. Exposure to 100 lux twice for 30 min/day and to 200 lux once for 45 min/day decreased the RUM, MOM, MS, and AK yields and increased the RUN and MON. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pigment biosynthetic genes were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated that gene MpPKS5, mppR1, mppA, mppB, mmpC, mppD, MpFasA, MpFasB, and mppF were positively correlated with the yields of RUN and MON, whereas mppE and mppR2 were associated with RUM, MOM, MS, and AK production.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate using phosphomolybdenum blue complex.

    PubMed

    Zatar, N A; Abu-Eid, M A; Eid, A F

    1999-11-15

    A method for spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate is described. This method is based on the reduction of phosphomolybdic acid to phosphomolybdenum blue complex by sodium sulfide. The obtained phosphomolybdenum blue complex is oxidized by the addition of nitrite and this causes a reduction in intensity of the blue color. The absolute decrease in the absorbance of the blue color or the rate of its decrease is found to be directly proportional to the amount of nitrite added. The absorbance of the phosphomolybdenum blue complex is monitored spectrophotometrically at 814 nm and related to the concentration of nitrite present. The effect of different factors such as acidity, stability of the complex, time, temperature, phosphate concentration, molybdenum concentration, sodium sulfide concentration and the tolerance amount of other ions have been reported. Maximum absorbance is at 814 nm. The range of linearity using the conventional method is 0.5-2.0 ppm with molar absorptivity of 1.1 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1). and a relative standard deviation of 2.6% for five measurements. The range of linearity using the reaction rate method is 0.2-3.6 ppm with a relative standard deviation of 2.4% for five measurements. The method is applied for determination of nitrite and nitrate in water, meat products and vegetables.

  3. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    SciTech Connect

    Scibelli, Samantha; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Yanny, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  4. Blue Dravite from the Szklary Pegmatite (Lower Silesia, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczka, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Blue-coloured tourmaline occurring in the Szklary pegmatite forms the outermost zone in some zoned tourmaline crystals. This tourmaline is an Al-bearing dravite poor in Ti, Mn and F, whereas the crystal core is, in contrast, an Al-bearing schorl with significantly higher Ti. The visible blue tint is the result of a reduction in the quantity of Fe2↔Ti4+ electron transitions, probably also responsible for the yellowish tint of the core. In the Fe-Mg-Altotal system, the compositions of tourmaline varieties showing blue tints are shifted along the border of the miscibility gap into the field of tourmalines occurring in Al-rich metapelites and metapsammites. The formation of the blue dravite within the Szklary dike can be explained in a similar way to that of blue dravites from Li-poor granitic pegmatites in the Moldanubicum (the Czech Republic). Both minerals originated by direct replacement of cordierite (found also in the border zone of the Szklary dike) reacting with pegmatite-derived, acidic, B-rich fluids.

  5. Velocidad radial de Blue Stragglers en cúmulos abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    Se presentan observaciones espectroscópicas de 32 blue stragglers en 6 cúmulos abiertos. Un mínimo de 4 espectros por objeto fueron obtenidos en base a los cuales se determina tipo espectral, velocidad radial y velocidad de rotación proyectada. La comparación con la velocidad media de los cúmulos aseguraría una alta probabilidad de pertenencia para la mayoría de los objetos estudiados. Un análisis de variabilidad conduce a la detección de un nuevo blue straggler binario en el cúmulo NGC 6530 además de otras probables binarias. En base a la frecuencia de binaridad y a la distribución de velocidades rotacionales se discuten los probables mecanismos de formación de los blue stragglers.

  6. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tonghao; Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Sun, Jiankun; Jiao, Yuqin; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Dehai

    2012-02-01

    Graphene was prepared using a modified Hummers' method. The physico-chemical properties of graphene were characterized by TEM, BET specific surface area, FTIR, Raman and XRD measurements. The effect factors including pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto graphene were investigated. The experimental data of isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm model better than the Freundlich model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation at 293 K was 153.85 mg/g, indicating graphene is a good adsorbent for the adsorption of MB. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene fit the pseudo second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption of methylene blue onto graphene was an endothermic and spontaneous process.

  7. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  8. Platinum blue staining of cells grown in electrospun scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammed; Millas, Ana Luiza G; Estandarte, Ana Katrina C; Bhella, Gurdeep K; McKean, Robert; Bittencourt, Edison; Robinson, Ian K

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast cells grown in electrospun polymer scaffolds were stained with platinum blue, a heavy metal stain, and imaged using scanning electron microscopy. Good contrast on the cells was achieved compared with samples that were gold sputter coated. The cell morphology could be clearly observed, and the cells could be distinguished from the scaffold fibers. Here we optimized the required concentration of platinum blue for imaging cells grown in scaffolds and show that a higher concentration causes platinum aggregation. Overall, platinum blue is a useful stain for imaging cells because of its enhanced contrast using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the future it would be useful to investigate cell growth and morphology using three-dimensional imaging methods.

  9. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon; Moldovan, Mihai

    2008-06-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first-person-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome of sports and virtual contests alike.

  10. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru.

    PubMed

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C; Dillehay, Tom D; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans).

  11. Early pre-Hispanic use of indigo blue in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Splitstoser, Jeffrey C.; Dillehay, Tom D.; Wouters, Jan; Claro, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological research has identified the use of cultivated cotton (Gossypium barbadense) in the ancient Andes dating back to at least 7800 years ago. Because of unusual circumstances of preservation, 6000-year-old cotton fabrics from the Preceramic site of Huaca Prieta on the north coast of Peru retained traces of a blue pigment that was analyzed and positively identified as an indigoid dye (indigotin), making it the earliest known use of indigo in the world, derived most likely from Indigofera spp. native to South America. This predates by ~1500 years the earliest reported use of indigo in the Old World, from Fifth Dynasty Egypt [ca. 4400 BP (before present)]. Indigo is one of the most valued and most globally widespread dyes of antiquity and of the present era (it being the blue of blue jeans). PMID:27652337

  12. Localization of methylene blue paramolybdate in vitally stained nerves.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D M

    1982-01-01

    Methylene blue taken up by living neurons can be preserved for electron microscopy in a fixative containing osmium tetroxide and ammonium paramolybdate at pH 5.2. Paramolybdate is the buffer, precipitating agent and main osmotic ingredient; it does not function as an electron stain unless methylene blue is present. The low pH keeps the dye/paramolybdate complex from dissolving. Neither the low pH nor drastic dehydration from water to absolute ethanol harm the tissue. The staining mechanism involves cationic methylene blue associating with anionic structures such as microtubules and neurofilaments in the living cell; during fixation paramolybdate forms a precipitate with the dye at the staining sites. This fixative does not preserve microtubules unless they are first vitally stained.

  13. Split-second escape decisions in blue tits (Parus caeruleus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Johan; Kaby, Ulrika; Jakobsson, Sven

    2002-07-01

    Bird mortality is heavily affected by birds of prey. Under attack, take-off is crucial for survival and even minor mistakes in initial escape response can have devastating consequences. Birds may respond differently depending on the character of the predator's attack and these split-second decisions were studied using a model merlin (Falco columbarius) that attacked feeding blue tits (Parus caeruleus) from two different attack angles in two different speeds. When attacked from a low attack angle they took off more steeply than when attacked from a high angle. This is the first study to show that escape behaviour also depends on predator attack speed. The blue tits responded to a high-speed attack by dodging sideways more often than when attacked at a low speed. Escape speed was not significantly affected by the different treatments. Although they have only a split-second before escaping an attack, blue tits do adjust their escape strategy to the prevailing attack conditions.

  14. Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2003-10-15

    Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  15. Bedazzled: A Blue and Black Ship, Dressed to Deceive

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The blue and black dress that “melted the Internet” is thought to have done so because its perceived color depended on people using different prior assumptions about discounting the illuminant. However, this is not the first monochromatic object to have confused the public. For a brief period during WWI, RMS Mauretania was dressed in (dazzle) camouflage shades of blue and black/grey, yet she is sometimes depicted by artists, modelers, and historians in a much showier dress of red, blue, yellow, green, and black. I raise the possibility that this originates from a case of public deception deriving from the momentary misperception of a playful artist who neglected to discount the illuminant, propagating the most (perhaps only) successful application of dazzle camouflage known. PMID:28299171

  16. High efficiency deep-blue and white phosphorescent OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiangeng; Eom, Sang-Hyun; Zheng, Ying; Wrzesniewski, Edward; Chopra, Neetu; Lee, Jaewon; So, Franky

    2009-08-01

    We report studies on blue and white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on the deep-blue electrophosphorescent dye iridium(III) bis(4',6'-difluorophenylpyridinato)tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate (FIr6). Using high triplet energy charge transport layers and a dual-emissive-layer structure as well as the p-i-n device structure, we have achieved external quantum efficiencies of 20% and maximum power efficiency of 36 lm/W in these deep-blue OLEDs. White OLEDs with a CRI of 79 and a maximum power efficiency of 40 lm/W were also demonstrated by incorporating red and green phosphorescent dopants together with FIr6.

  17. Kinetics of Methylene Blue Reduction by Ascorbic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowry, Sarah; Ogren, Paul J.

    1999-07-01

    The redox reactions of methylene blue (MB+) often occur on a time scale of a few seconds to minutes. They may be followed visually for qualitative interpretations and spectrophotometrically for quantitative determinations. The experimental simplicity of MB+ reaction systems has also occasionally led to erroneous conclusions based upon oversimplified data treatment and assumptions. This paper compares spectrophotometric studies of MB+ reduction by ascorbic acid at low pH with previous conclusions based upon visual determinations of color loss. Spectrophotometric studies of the temporal decay of MB+ absorbance at 665 nm show that the reaction is first order in MB+, ascorbic acid, and HCl. A slower reaction occurs with only MB+ and ascorbic acid present. Regeneration of MB+ color by reaction with dissolved oxygen, the "blue bottle" reaction, is particularly significant when the reaction with ascorbic acid is slow. Methylene blue chemistry continues to provide a wealth of examples suitable for undergraduate kinetics studies.

  18. Reduction of methylene blue by thiocyanate: kinetic and thermodynamic aspects.

    PubMed

    Pande, Surojit; Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Nath, Sudip; Praharaj, Snigdhamayee; Jana, Subhra; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Basu, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2006-07-01

    This article reports the reduction of methylene blue (MB) by thiocyanate ions (SCN(-)) in aqueous and micellar solutions. Thiocyanate ions are found to be an effective reducing agent for the decolorization of methylene blue under ambient condition. Effects of salting-in and salting-out agents have been investigated for real-time application in the reduction process. The salting-in agent urea has been found to uniquely enhance the rate of the reduction of MB by thiocyanate ion in the presence of micelles. Again, the catalytic activity of nanoparticles in the reduction of MB has also been studied. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic aspects have been considered to realize the interaction between methylene blue and thiocyanate. Kinetic studies revealed that the reaction is reversible and follows first-order reaction kinetics.

  19. Circadian Rhythms in Stomatal Responsiveness to Red and Blue Light.

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, H. L.; Williams, W. E.; Assmann, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Stomata of many plants have circadian rhythms in responsiveness to environmental cues as well as circadian rhythms in aperture. Stomatal responses to red light and blue light are mediated by photosynthetic photoreceptors; responses to blue light are additionally controlled by a specific blue-light photoreceptor. This paper describes circadian rhythmic aspects of stomatal responsiveness to red and blue light in Vicia faba. Plants were exposed to a repeated light:dark regime of 1.5:2.5 h for a total of 48 h, and because the plants could not entrain to this short light:dark cycle, circadian rhythms were able to "free run" as if in continuous light. The rhythm in the stomatal conductance established during the 1.5-h light periods was caused both by a rhythm in sensitivity to light and by a rhythm in the stomatal conductance established during the preceding 2.5-h dark periods. Both rhythms peaked during the middle of the subjective day. Although the stomatal response to blue light is greater than the response to red light at all times of day, there was no discernible difference in period, phase, or amplitude of the rhythm in sensitivity to the two light qualities. We observed no circadian rhythmicity in net carbon assimilation with the 1.5:2.5 h light regime for either red or blue light. In continuous white light, small rhythmic changes in photosynthetic assimilation were observed, but at relatively high light levels, and these appeared to be attributable largely to changes in internal CO2 availability governed by stomatal conductance. PMID:12231947

  20. Water security assessment using blue and green water footprint concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2016-11-01

    The quantitative assessment of water security using the concept of blue and green water footprints can improve water resources management at local to regional scale. We developed an integrated modeling framework by considering both climatic and anthropogenic factors to investigate spatio-temporal variability of blue and green water availability and to quantify the water security in a river basin. The proposed modeling framework can be useful for providing an overview of the water security within the watershed and to identify water stress (hot spots) regions within the river basin. We applied Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to quantify the availability of fresh water (blue water and green water) in Savannah River Basin (SRB), USA. The anthropogenic factors (e.g., water demand) and Environmental Flow Requirement (EFR) information are incorporated to quantify the water security in terms of scarcity and vulnerability indices. A higher amount of blue water was observed for counties located in the upper part of SRB and higher green water flow was observed for counties that has the presence of intensive agriculture and large water bodies (e.g., reservoir). A time lag exists between the maximum rainfall during June-September and the maximum blue water observed in December-March. The study also analyzed the monthly variation of blue and green water flow for counties located in SRB. We expect that the water security assessment can provide useful information for understanding the emerging hot spots within a river basin (eco-system) due to the abstraction of water for human activities, such as irrigation, industrial use, energy production and domestic use.

  1. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON RED AND BLUE HELIUM BURNING SEQUENCES

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Holtzman, Jon

    2011-10-10

    We derive the optical luminosity, colors, and ratios of the blue and red helium burning (HeB) stellar populations from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of nineteen starburst dwarf galaxies and compare them with theoretical isochrones from Padova stellar evolution models across metallicities from Z = 0.001 to 0.009. We find that the observational data and the theoretical isochrones for both blue and red HeB populations overlap in optical luminosities and colors and the observed and predicted blue to red HeB ratios agree for stars older than 50 Myr over the time bins studied. These findings confirm the usefulness of applying isochrones to interpret observations of HeB populations. However, there are significant differences, especially for the red HeB population. Specifically, we find (1) offsets in color between the observations and theoretical isochrones of order 0.15 mag (0.5 mag) for the blue (red) HeB populations brighter than M{sub V} {approx} -4 mag, which cannot be solely due to differential extinction; (2) blue HeB stars fainter than M{sub V} {approx} -3 mag are bluer than predicted; (3) the slope of the red HeB sequence is shallower than predicted by a factor of {approx}3; and (4) the models overpredict the ratio of the most luminous blue to red HeB stars corresponding to ages {approx}< 50 Myr. Additionally, we find that for the more metal-rich galaxies in our sample (Z {approx}> 0.5 Z{sub sun}), the red HeB stars overlap with the red giant branch stars in the color-magnitude diagrams, thus reducing their usefulness as indicators of star formation for ages {approx}> 100 Myr.

  2. The "Deep Blue" Aerosol Project at NASA GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, Andrew; Hsu, N. C.; Lee, J.; Bettenhausen, C.; Carletta, N.; Chen, S.; Esmaili, R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols such as mineral dust, wildfire smoke, sea spray, and volcanic ash are of interest for a variety of reasons including public health, climate change, hazard avoidance, and more. Deep Blue is a project which uses satellite observations of the Earth from sensors such as SeaWiFS, MODIS, and VIIRS to monitor the global aerosol burden. This talk will cover some basics about aerosols and the principles of aerosol remote sensing, as well as discussing specific results and future directions for the Deep Blue project.

  3. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  4. Diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Huang, Shuaijia; Su, Yikai

    2016-09-01

    Blue phase liquid crystal (BPLC) has been attractive for display and photonic applications for its sub-millisecond response time, no need for surface alignment, and an optically isotropic dark state. Because of these advantages, diffractive devices based on blue phase liquid crystals have great potential for wide applications. In this work, we present several BPLC diffractive devices. The operation principles, fabrication and experimental measurements will be discussed in details for two BPLC gratings realized by holographic method and a BPLC Fresnel lens using a spatial light modulator projector. All of these devices exhibit several attractive features such as sub-millisecond response, relatively high spatial resolution and polarization-independence.

  5. Observation of blue satellite bands and photoassociation at ultracold temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Pichler, Marin; Qi Jianbing; Stwalley, William C.; Beuc, Robert; Pichler, Goran

    2006-02-15

    We have observed atomic line self-broadening of Cs near 7P{sub 3/2} and 7P{sub 1/2} atomic lines at ultracold temperatures using a magneto-optical trap and resonant ionization detection. We have observed blue satellite band features at detunings of 560 and 800 MHz, respectively, as well as sharp hyperfine-split photoassociative spectra on the red wings of each line and also on the blue wings. Possible explanations of these features are discussed.

  6. Aromatic herbs in Corsican blue tit nests: The 'Potpourri' hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Marcel M.; Dos Santos, Anabelle

    2000-05-01

    This study reports that Corsican blue tit ( Parus caeruleus ogliastrae) nests contain between one to five aromatic herb species between the onset of egg laying till the chicks' finished growth 13 d after hatching. An herb removal experiment during the chick stage shows that blue tits bring fresh aromatic material 1-5 d after herb removal. Nests with a series of distinct odour classes easily perceived by humans have never been reported in birds. A new 'Potpourri' hypothesis is proposed that may explain the functional significance of this behaviour.

  7. Blue-shift photoluminescence from porous InAlAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y. C.; Liu, F. Q.; Wang, L. J.; Yin, W.; Wang, Z. G.

    2010-11-01

    A porous InAlAs structure was first obtained by electrochemical etching. Nano-pore arrays were formed when the In0.52Al0.48As membrane was anodized at constant voltages in an HF aqueous solution. These self-assembled structures showed evident blue-shift photoluminescence emissions. While a quantum size effect alone underestimates the blue-shift energy for a sample with a relatively large average pore wall thickness, a novel effect caused by the asymmetric etching is proposed to account for this phenomenon. The results inferred from the x-ray double crystal diffraction are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. How the ``Blues'' reveals the intimacy of music and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2013-03-01

    Little do most people know when they hear blues piano - and you'll hear some live in this talk - that physics permeates the style, as it does all of music. Why should you care? By deconstructing blues piano the intimacy of physics, mathematics and music will be revealed in its glory.[1] The exercise says something about how the brains of the music composer and of the listener must be intimately linked to the physical principles of acoustics. And it provides a great vehicle to explain physical phenomena to non-scientists - everything from quantum mechanics to protein structure.

  9. Rapid Suppression of Growth by Blue Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Green, Paul B.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of the rapid inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by blue light was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings by measuring the changes in turgor during the response. A special device, based on the resonance frequency principle, was built which permitted simultaneous and continuous measurements of both tissue rigidity (turgor) and growth rate on a single intact hypocotyl. The large decrease in growth rate following blue irradiation was consistently accompanied by a small increase in resonance frequency. This result indicates that blue light inhibits growth by decreasing the yielding properties of the cell walls, resulting in a slight rise in turgor because of the coupling between growth rate and turgor. The nature of the blue-light inhibition was further studied by measuring the influence of light dose and temperature on the time course of inhibition (lag-time, half-time of inhibition, and amount of inhibition) with the aid of a microcomputer-based system for measuring growth rate and for controlling light duration and energy. The light dose has no influence on either the lag-time or the half-time of inhibition, but strongly affects the amount of inhibition. In contrast, a 10°C drop in temperature (from 30 to 20°C) lengthened the lag-time of the blue-light response, but did not significantly affect the half-time or the per cent inhibition by blue light. The half-time for changes in hypocotyl length (induced by applying a hydrostatic pressure to the roots or to the cut end of seedlings with roots excised) was found to be the same as the half-time of the blue-light inhibition (15 to 25 seconds in cucumber; 90 to 150 seconds in sunflower). These results support the idea that blue light, after a fixed lag period, induces an immediate decrease in the yielding properties of the cell walls. The growth rate subsequently decreases with a half-time that depends on the time required for cell turgor pressures to

  10. Prussian blues as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-22

    Prussian blues (or iron cyanides) and their analogues are attractive in both fundamental studies and industrial applications owing to their chemical and structural diversity. The large open space in their framework provides tunnels and space for the transport and storage of lithium ions. Two Prussian blues were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The nanosized Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 and cubic FeFe(CN)6 deliver reversible capacities of 95 mAh g(-1) and 138 mAh g(-1) , respectively. In comparison, FeFe(CN)6 shows cycling and rate performances superior to Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 .

  11. A Second Luminous Blue Variable in the Quintuplet Cluster.

    PubMed

    Geballe; Najarro; Figer

    2000-02-20

    H- and K-band moderate-resolution and 4 µm high-resolution spectra have been obtained for FMM 362, a bright star in the Quintuplet Cluster near the Galactic center. The spectral features in these bands closely match those of the Pistol Star, a luminous blue variable and one of the most luminous stars known. The new spectra and previously obtained photometry imply a very high luminosity for FMM 362, L>/=106 L middle dot in circle, and a temperature of 10,000-13,000 K. Based on its luminosity, temperature, photometric variability, and similarities to the Pistol Star, we conclude that FMM 362 is a luminous blue variable.

  12. Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Fitzpatrick, Brian D. Fairbank

    2005-04-01

    The report documents the drilling of well Deep Blue No.2, the second deep geothermal test hole at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The well was drilled by Noramex Corp, a Nevada company, with funding support from the US Department of Energy, under the DOE’s GRED II Program. Deep Blue No.2 was drilled as a ‘step-out’ hole from Deep Blue No.1, to further evaluate the commercial potential of the geothermal resource. Deep Blue No.2 was designed as a vertical, slim observation test hole to a nominal target depth of 1000 meters (nominal 3400 feet). The well tests an area of projected high temperatures at depth, from temperature gradients measured in a group of shallow drill holes located approximately one kilometer to the northeast of observation hole Deep Blue No.1. The well is not intended for, or designed as, a commercial well or a production well. Deep Blue No.2 was spudded on March 25, 2004 and completed to a total depth of 1127.76m (3700 ft) on April 28, 2004. The well was drilled using conventional rotary drilling techniques to a depth of 201.17 m (660 ft), and continuously cored from 201.17m (660 ft) to 1127.76m (3700 ft). A brief rig-on flow-test was conducted at completion to determine basic reservoir parameters and obtain fluid samples. A permeable fracture zone with measured temperatures of 150 to 167°C (302 to 333°F) occurs between 500 to 750m (1640 to 2461ft). The well was left un-lined in anticipation of the Phase III - Flow and Injection Testing. A further Kuster temperature survey was attempted after the well had been shut in for almost 3 weeks. The well appears to have bridged off at 439m (1440ft) as the Kuster tool was unable to descend past this point. Several attempts to dislodge the obstruction using tube jars were unsuccessful. Deep Blue No.2 encountered variably fractured and veined, fine-grained rocks of the Singas Formation, and intruded by minor strongly altered fine-grained felsic dikes, and less altered

  13. Spinning like a blue straggler: the population of fast rotating blue straggler stars in ω Centauri

    SciTech Connect

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2014-12-10

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ω Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ∼40 km s{sup –1} (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ∼200 km s{sup –1}. About 40% of the sample has v{sub e} sin i > 40 km s{sup –1} and about 20% has v{sub e} sin i > 70 km s{sup –1}. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ω Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ω Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments.

  14. Blue light dose–responses of leaf photosynthesis, morphology, and chemical composition of Cucumis sativus grown under different combinations of red and blue light

    PubMed Central

    Hogewoning, Sander W.; Trouwborst, Govert; Maljaars, Hans; Poorter, Hendrik; van Ieperen, Wim; Harbinson, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The blue part of the light spectrum has been associated with leaf characteristics which also develop under high irradiances. In this study blue light dose–response curves were made for the photosynthetic properties and related developmental characteristics of cucumber leaves that were grown at an equal irradiance under seven different combinations of red and blue light provided by light-emitting diodes. Only the leaves developed under red light alone (0% blue) displayed dysfunctional photosynthetic operation, characterized by a suboptimal and heterogeneously distributed dark-adapted Fv/Fm, a stomatal conductance unresponsive to irradiance, and a relatively low light-limited quantum yield for CO2 fixation. Only 7% blue light was sufficient to prevent any overt dysfunctional photosynthesis, which can be considered a qualitatively blue light effect. The photosynthetic capacity (Amax) was twice as high for leaves grown at 7% blue compared with 0% blue, and continued to increase with increasing blue percentage during growth measured up to 50% blue. At 100% blue, Amax was lower but photosynthetic functioning was normal. The increase in Amax with blue percentage (0–50%) was associated with an increase in leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA), nitrogen (N) content per area, chlorophyll (Chl) content per area, and stomatal conductance. Above 15% blue, the parameters Amax, LMA, Chl content, photosynthetic N use efficiency, and the Chl:N ratio had a comparable relationship as reported for leaf responses to irradiance intensity. It is concluded that blue light during growth is qualitatively required for normal photosynthetic functioning and quantitatively mediates leaf responses resembling those to irradiance intensity. PMID:20504875

  15. 76 FR 49408 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered, and Proposed Listing of the Cassius Blue, Ceraunus Blue, and Nickerbean Blue Butterflies as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance to the Miami Blue Butterfly AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for...

  16. Interfused semiconductor nanocrystals: brilliant blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo

    2005-09-28

    We describe a method for producing blue light-emitting interfused CdSe//ZnS (QE up to 60%) nanocrystals and report the good performance of an electroluminescent device which uses them (external quantum efficiency approximately 1.5 cd A(-1)).

  17. Blue-green and green phosphors for lighting applications

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Henderson, Claire Susan; Nammalwar, Pransanth Kumar; Radkov, Emil

    2012-12-11

    Embodiments of the present techniques provide a related family of phosphors that may be used in lighting systems to generate blue or blue-green light. The phosphors include systems having a general formula of: ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.s- ub.y)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) (I), wherein 0blue and blue/green light. Further, the phosphors may be used in blends with other phosphors, or in combined lighting systems, to produce white light suitable for illumination.

  18. The Blue Ridge Dinner Theatre: A Recipe for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Nellie

    2002-01-01

    Describes an example of intergenerational theatre--the annual production at the Blue Ridge Dinner Theatre, Ferrum College, Virginia. Notes that in addition to four plays for adults, one play is for family audiences and includes area children. Suggests the program offers patrons quality entertainment, gives unique experience to area children, and…

  19. Frustration and curvature - Glasses and the cholesteric blue phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analogy is drawn between continuum elastic theories of the blue phase of cholesteric liquid crystals and recent theories of frustration in configurational glasses. Both involve the introduction of a lattice of disclination lines to relieve frustration; the frustration is due to an intrinsic curvature in the natural form of parallel transport. A continuum theory of configurational glasses is proposed.

  20. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  1. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  2. IUE observations of luminous blue star associations in irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, S. A.; Hunter, D. A.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    1987-01-01

    Two regions of recent star formation in blue irregular galaxies were observed with the IUE in the short wavelength, low dispersion mode. The spectra indicate that the massive star content is similar in these regions and is best fit by massive stars formed in a burst and now approximately 2.5 to 3.0 million years old.

  3. Analysis of methylene blue in human urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Borwitzky, Holger; Haefeli, Walter E; Burhenne, Jürgen

    2005-11-05

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of the dye methylene blue (tetramethylthionine, MB) in human urine depending on liquid/liquid-extraction and diode array detection has been developed, validated, and applied to samples of healthy individuals, who had been dosed with methylene blue within clinical studies. After extraction with dichloromethane and sodium hexanesulfonate, sample extracts were measured on an extended light path capillary. The dye was detected simultaneously at 292 and 592 nm using methylene violet 3 RAX as internal standard. The limit of quantification was 1.0 microg/ml. The accuracy of the method varied between -15.2 and +0.8% and the precision ranged from 2.0 to 12.0%. The method was linear at least within 1.0 and 60 microg/ml. In contrast to earlier indirect determinations no leuco methylene blue (LMB) was directly detected in urine, whereas in aqueous test solutions containing surplus amounts of ascorbic acid leuco methylene blue was well separated from MB in a single run.

  4. 75 FR 67958 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Doc No: 2010-27902] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice... (202) 586-4243 or facsimile (202) 586- 0544; e-mail CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov ....

  5. 75 FR 13757 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy.... Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington DC 20585, or e-mail...

  6. Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: a rare multisystem affliction.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Ankita; Kaur, Sarbjit; Jain, V K; Dayal, Surabhi

    2015-07-15

    About 200 cases of blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) have been reported in the literature. The disorder affects both sexes equally and the occurrence is mostly sporadic except for a few reports of cases with autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Herein we report an 11-year-old girl with progressive BRBNS and onset at 5 years of age.

  7. The Educational Potential of Blue-Collar Workers in Udmurtia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    A strategically essential area for Russia's economy in the transition to market relations and the unequal development of the sectorial structure is the development of the sphere of production, which is now in a state of instability. The forecasted decline of manpower resources, the aging of blue-collar cadres, and the slump in the number of those…

  8. Prototypical colors of skin, green plant, and blue sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2013-02-01

    Colors of skin, green plant, and blue sky of digital photographic images were studied for modeling and detection of these three important memory color regions. The color modeling of these three regions in CIELAB and CAM02-UCS was presented, and the properties of these three color groups were investigated.

  9. A House Divided? The Psychology of Red and Blue America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyle, D. Conor; Newman, Matthew L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently it has become commonplace in America for commentators and the public to use the terms "red" and "blue" to refer to perceived cultural differences in America and American politics. Although a political divide may exist in America today, these particular terms are inaccurate and reductive. This article presents research from social…

  10. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  11. 33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island... Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the Calumet Sag Channel from the South Halstead Street Bridge at 41°39′27″ N, 087°38′29″ W; to the Crawford Avenue...

  12. 33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island... Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the Calumet Sag Channel from the South Halstead Street Bridge at 41°39′27″ N, 087°38′29″ W; to the Crawford Avenue...

  13. 33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island... Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the Calumet Sag Channel from the South Halstead Street Bridge at 41°39′27″ N, 087°38′29″ W; to the Crawford Avenue...

  14. Blue reflectance in tarantulas is evolutionarily conserved despite nanostructural diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Deheyn, Dimitri D.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Blackledge, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Slight shifts in arrangement within biological photonic nanostructures can produce large color differences, and sexual selection often leads to high color diversity in clades with structural colors. We use phylogenetic reconstruction, electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and optical modeling to show an opposing pattern of nanostructural diversification accompanied by unusual conservation of blue color in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae). In contrast to other clades, blue coloration in phylogenetically distant tarantulas peaks within a narrow 20-nm region around 450 nm. Both quasi-ordered and multilayer nanostructures found in different tarantulas produce this blue color. Thus, even within monophyletic lineages, tarantulas have evolved strikingly similar blue coloration through divergent mechanisms. The poor color perception and lack of conspicuous display during courtship of tarantulas argue that these colors are not sexually selected. Therefore, our data contrast with sexual selection that typically produces a diverse array of colors with a single structural mechanism by showing that natural selection on structural color in tarantulas resulted in convergence on similar color through diverse structural mechanisms. PMID:26702433

  15. The Effects of Blue Light on Ocular Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchel, Elaine

    2000-01-01

    This review of the literature examines the effects of blue light (or near UV - ultraviolet), especially that given off by black-light tubes, often used with children with visual impairments. It finds a long-term danger of retinal and lens damage and offers six practical suggestions which emphasize using proper filters and limiting exposure to…

  16. Blue reflectance in tarantulas is evolutionarily conserved despite nanostructural diversity.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Shawkey, Matthew D; Blackledge, Todd A

    2015-11-01

    Slight shifts in arrangement within biological photonic nanostructures can produce large color differences, and sexual selection often leads to high color diversity in clades with structural colors. We use phylogenetic reconstruction, electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and optical modeling to show an opposing pattern of nanostructural diversification accompanied by unusual conservation of blue color in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae). In contrast to other clades, blue coloration in phylogenetically distant tarantulas peaks within a narrow 20-nm region around 450 nm. Both quasi-ordered and multilayer nanostructures found in different tarantulas produce this blue color. Thus, even within monophyletic lineages, tarantulas have evolved strikingly similar blue coloration through divergent mechanisms. The poor color perception and lack of conspicuous display during courtship of tarantulas argue that these colors are not sexually selected. Therefore, our data contrast with sexual selection that typically produces a diverse array of colors with a single structural mechanism by showing that natural selection on structural color in tarantulas resulted in convergence on similar color through diverse structural mechanisms.

  17. There's More to Color than Red, Yellow, and Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goobich, Joel

    2009-01-01

    From an early age, so much emphasis goes into teaching children the fundamentals of color theory, in particular the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue. Toys, building blocks, furniture, and so many other items used in a preschool environment are manufactured in these three colors. Yet, recent research has uncovered that babies as young as…

  18. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs

    PubMed Central

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or ‘gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts. PMID:26754355

  19. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lo, Shin-Yi; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Chromoproteins (CPs) have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax) at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP). In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε) of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development. PMID:26218063

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of tilidine using bromocresol green and bromophenol blue.

    PubMed

    Dobrila, Z S; Ljiljana, S; Ljiljana, Z

    1990-11-01

    A spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of tilidine in its dosage forms (injection, drops, suppositories). The method is based on ion-pair extraction with chloroform at pH 3.5 using bromocresol green or bromophenol blue as the ion-pairing reagents. The spectrophotometric measurements are carried out at the absorption maxima at 415 and 411 nm, respectively.

  1. Coat protein expression strategy of oat blue dwarf virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat blue dwarf virus (OBDV) was the first marafivirus (family Tymoviridae) to be sequenced and for which an infectious clone has been reported. Although sequence data are now available for multiple marafiviruses, precise details of the expression strategy of these viruses remain undocumented. Tran...

  2. Coat protein expression strategy of oat blue dwarf virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat blue dwarf virus (OBDV) was the first marafivirus (family Tymoviridae) to be sequenced and for which an infectious clone has been reported. Sequence data are now available for multiple marafiviruses, yet the expression strategy of these viruses remains uncharacterized. Translation experiments ...

  3. Maize as a New Host for Oat Blue Dwarf Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat blue dwarf virus (OBDV) is distributed throughout the North American Great Plains and is found at low incidence levels in barley, oats, and flax in the upper Midwestern U.S. Cropping patterns in this region have changed considerably in recent years, with much greater acreages devoted to maize i...

  4. Coat protein expression strategy of oat blue dwarf virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequence data are available for multiple members of the genus Marafivirus, yet the expression strategy of these viruses remains uncharacterized. The oat blue dwarf virus (OBDV) genome encodes a 227 kDa polyprotein (p227) thought to be post-translationally processed into its functional components. ...

  5. Using SPEEDES to simulate the blue gene interconnect network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, P.; Upchurch, E.

    2003-01-01

    JPL and the Center for Advanced Computer Architecture (CACR) is conducting application and simulation analyses of BG/L in order to establish a range of effectiveness for the Blue Gene/L MPP architecture in performing important classes of computations and to determine the design sensitivity of the global interconnect network in support of real world ASCI application execution.

  6. C.I. Disperse Blue; Testing Consent Order

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice announces that EPA has signed an enforceable Testing Consent Order with eight companies who have agreed to perform certain health and environmental effects tests with C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1(1)8-79:1)(CAS No. 3618-72-2.

  7. 33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. 100.910 Section 100.910 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the Calumet...

  8. 33 CFR 100.910 - Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southland Regatta; Blue Island, IL. 100.910 Section 100.910 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, IL. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all waters of the Calumet...

  9. Hexavalent molybdenum reduction to Mo-blue by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed

    Shukor, M Y; Rahman, M F; Suhaili, Z; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2010-03-01

    A local molybdenum-reducing bacterium was isolated and tentatively identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain Dr.Y12 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and 16S rDNA comparative analysis. Molybdate reduction was optimized under conditions of low dissolved oxygen (37 degrees C and pH 6.5). Of the electron donors tested, glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose supported molybdate reduction after 1 d of incubation, glucose and fructose supporting the highest Mo-blue production. Optimum Mo-blue production was reached at 20 mmol/L molybdate and 5 mmol/L phosphate; increasing the phosphate concentrations inhibited the production. An increase in an overall absorption profiles, especially at peak maximum at 865 nm and the shoulder at 700 nm, was observed in direct correlation with the increased in Mo-blue amounts. Metal ions, such as chromium, cadmium, copper, mercury and lead (2 mmol/L final concentration) caused approximately 88, 53, 80, 100, and 20 % inhibition, respectively. Respiratory inhibitors, such as antimycin A, rotenone, sodium azide and cyanide showed in this bacterium no inhibition of the Mo-blue production, suggesting that the electron transport system is not a site of molybdate reduction.

  10. Experiencing Cultural Geography in the Birthplace of the Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John

    2014-01-01

    Over time, fewer and fewer geography scholars have the opportunity to actually engage in fieldwork. This article summarizes a field experience shared by a group of geography faculty and students who traveled through the Mississippi Delta endeavoring to study the dynamic nature of the region's blues music and culture. This endeavor entailed the…

  11. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 41. PHOTOGRAPHY OF BLUE PRINT (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) END AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PHOTOGRAPHY OF BLUE PRINT (MINNEAPOLIS CITY ENGINEER) END AND CENTRE CASTING OF CAST STEEL, MASONRY CASTING OF CAST IRON CASTING, FOR MINNEAPOLIS STEEL ARCH (4 x 5 negative) - Steel Arch Bridge, Hennepin Avenue spanning west channel of Mississippi River, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  13. Taos Pueblo and the Struggle for Blue Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the efforts of Taos Pueblo to regain control of Blue Lake--the center of its religious life--from 1904, when the pueblo first petitioned the federal government for exclusive use of the area, to 1970, when federal legislation returned 48,000 acres. Contains 49 references. (SV)

  14. 5. Photocopy of blue line drawing (on file at La ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of blue line drawing (on file at La Grande District Office, La Grande, Oregon) USDA Forest Service, 1939 TREE PLANTING MASTER PLAN - Union Ranger District Compound, Fronting State Highway 203, at West edge of Union, Union, Union County, OR

  15. Using Blues in the Classroom: Giving Form to Feeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szustak, Susan

    The blues, having been fundamental to the history and heritage of African Americans, can help kids find themselves and their cultures in the language-based activities that are part of the writing program at School #74 in Buffalo, New York. One of the chapters in the student anthology which resulted from the university/school cooperative program…

  16. Out of the blue: the spectral sensitivity of hummingbird hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Telles, Francismeire Jane; Lind, Olle; Henze, Miriam Judith; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel Angel; Goyret, Joaquin; Kelber, Almut

    2014-06-01

    The European hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum is a diurnal nectar forager like the honeybee, and we expect similarities in their sensory ecology. Using behavioural tests and electroretinograms (ERGs), we studied the spectral sensitivity of M. stellatarum. By measuring ERGs in the dark-adapted eye and after adaptation to green light, we determined that M. stellatarum has ultraviolet (UV), blue and green receptors maximally sensitive at 349, 440 and 521 nm, and confirmed that green receptors are most frequent in the retina. To determine the behavioural spectral sensitivity (action spectrum) of foraging moths, we trained animals to associate a disk illuminated with spectral light, with a food reward, and a dark disk with no reward. While the spectral positions of sensitivity maxima found in behavioural tests agree with model predictions based on the ERG data, the sensitivity to blue light was 30 times higher than expected. This is different from the honeybee but similar to earlier findings in the crepuscular hawkmoth Manduca sexta. It may indicate that the action spectrum of foraging hawkmoths does not represent their general sensory capacity. We suggest that the elevated sensitivity to blue light is related to the innate preference of hawkmoths for blue flowers.

  17. STS-73 Liftoff - Across water with Blue Heron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Great Blue Heron seems oblivious to the trememdous spectacle of light and sound generated by a Shuttle liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Columbia soars skyward from Launch Pad 39B. Columbia lifted off at 9:53:00 a.m. EDT, October 20. On board are a crew of seven and the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-2

  18. 7. Photo copy of blue print sheet, (original in Forest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photo copy of blue print sheet, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV), George W. Root, draftsman, July, 1931. MAIN FLOOR PLAN SHOWING JOIST FRAMING, FOUNDATION PLAN, MAIN FLOOR PLAN, SECOND FLOOR PLAN, END ELEVATION AT SLOUGH. - Parsons Nursery, Packing Building, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  19. 75 FR 36647 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ...This notice announces an open meeting of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (the Commission). The Commission was organized pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) (the Act). This notice is provided in accordance with the...

  20. Ladder-type BN-embedded heteroacenes with blue emission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyang; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Jun; Tang, Ruizhi; Fu, Yubin; Wu, Dongqing; Xu, Qing; Zhuang, Xiaodong; He, Gufeng; Feng, Xinliang

    2013-11-15

    Using a concise synthetic strategy, a series of novel ladder-type BN-embedded heteroacenes were successfully synthesized. Their molecular skeletons render the versatile modification which is desirable for achieving unique physical properties. Organic light-emitting diode devices based on BN-embedded heteroacenes were subsequently fabricated, demonstrating their promising application as blue emitters.