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Sample records for cibacron blue 3ga

  1. Adsorption of papain with Cibacron Blue F3GA carrying chitosan-coated nylon affinity membranes.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hua-Li; Zhu, Li-Min

    2007-02-20

    Covalent coupling of chitosan (CS) to activated nylon membrane was performed after the reaction of the microporous nylon membrane with formaldehyde. Non-specific adsorption on the CS-coated nylon membrane decreased greatly, compared with plain nylon membrane. The dye Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB F3GA) as a ligand was then covalently immobilized on the CS-coated membranes. Physical properties of the composite membrane and its applications in affinity membrane chromatography were examined. The contents of CS and CB F3GA-attached membranes were 89.6 mg/g nylon membrane and 146.1 micromol/g nylon membrane, respectively. These CB F3GA-attached composite membranes were used in the papain adsorption studies. Higher papain adsorption capacity, up to 235.3mg/g affinity membrane, was obtained. The adsorption isotherm fitted the Freundlich model well. Significant amount of the adsorbed papain (about 94.3%) was eluted by 1.0M NaSCN at pH 9.0. Experiments on regeneration and dynamic adsorption were also performed. It appears that CB F3GA-CS nylon membranes can be applied for papain separation without causing any denaturation.

  2. Non-linear slow-binding inhibition of Aerococcus viridans lactate oxidase by Cibacron Blue 3GA.

    PubMed

    Streitenberger, S A; López-Mas, J A; Sánchez-Ferrer, A; García-Carmona, F

    2001-10-01

    Lactate oxidase (LOD) was purified from cells of Aerococcus viridans by phase partitioning in Triton X-114 (TX-114), ammonium sulphate fractionation and FPLC ion exchange chromatography. The purification achieved from a crude extract of A. viridans was 32-fold with a 60% recovery of activity. The isolated enzyme was a true FMN-containing LOD in tetrameric form with a subunit molecular weight of 48,000. The KM for L-lactate was 175 microM, a 6-fold less value than described in the literature. Among the inhibitors tested, Cibacron Blue 3GA showed the lowest Ki. At low concentrations, Cibacron Blue 3GA behaved as a dye-, pH- and time-dependent inhibitor. A Dixon plot of the steady-state rate showed the time-dependent inhibition to be non-linear, contrary to that described for other slow-binding inhibitors. A model to explain this phenomenon was proposed. The model implies the binding of Cibacron Blue 3GA to the isomerised form of the initial enzyme-inhibition complex (E'I).

  3. Affinity adsorption of lysozyme on a macroligand prepared with Cibacron Blue 3GA attached to yeast cells.

    PubMed

    del Pilar Ferraris, María; Barrera, Guillermo I; Padilla, A Pérez; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2011-09-15

    The objective of this study was the development of affinity adsorbent particles with the appropriate characteristics to be applied in protein purification using the affinity ultrafiltration method. To prepare affinity macroligands Cibacron Blue 3GA, as a ligand molecule, was immobilized by covalent bonding onto yeast cell walls, the support material or matrix. The maximum attachment of the ligand to the matrix was 212 μmol/g (ligand dry weight/yeast dry weight). Lysozyme was selected as the protein model for the adsorption studies. Its adsorption onto the matrix without ligand and matrix with attached ligand were investigated batch-wise. The adsorption equilibrium isotherms appeared to follow a typical Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) of the Cell-Cibacron macroligand for lysozyme was 110 mg/ml of wet macroligand. The adsorbent was also employed for the separation of lysozyme from hen egg white. High purity lysozyme was obtained.

  4. A general method for fractionation of plasma proteins. Dye-ligand affinity chromatography on immobilized Cibacron blue F3-GA.

    PubMed

    Gianazza, E; Arnaud, P

    1982-01-01

    The chromatographic behaviour of 27 different plasma proteins on fractionation of human plasma on immobilized Cibacron Blue F3-GA was studied. The column was eluted by using a three-step procedure. First, a low-molarity buffer (30 mM-H3PO4/Na3PO4, pH 7.0, I0.053) was used, then a linear salt gradient (0-1 M-NaCl in the buffer above) was applied, followed by a wash with two bed volumes of 1.0 M-NaCl. Finally, bound proteins were 'stripped' with 0.5 M-NaSCN. Up to 1 ml of whole plasma could be loaded per 5 ml bed volume. No denaturation of proteinase inhibitors or complement fractions was observed. The recovery of individual proteins ranged between 52 and greater than 95%. Enrichment of four individual plasma components (alpha 1-antitrypsin, caeruloplasmin, antithrombin III and haemopexin) was between 10-fold and 75-fold. These results indicate that chromatography on immobilized Cibacron Blue F3-GA can be a useful initial step in the purification of plasma proteins.

  5. Coomassie Brilliant Blue G is a more potent antagonist of P2 purinergic responses than Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) in rat parotid acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soltoff, S.P.; McMillian, M.K.; Talamo, B.R. )

    1989-12-29

    The ability of Brilliant Blue G (Coomassie Brilliant Blue G) and Reactive Blue 2 (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to block the effects of extracellular ATP on rat parotid acinar cells was examined by evaluating their effects on ATP-stimulated 45Ca{sup 2+} entry and the elevation of (Ca{sup 2+})i (Fura 2 fluorescence). ATP (300 microM) increased the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry to more than 25-times the basal rate and elevated (Ca{sup 2+})i to levels more than three times the basal value. Brilliant Blue G and Reactive Blue 2 greatly reduced the entry of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} into parotid cells, but the potency of Brilliant Blue G (IC50 approximately 0.4 microM) was about 100-times that of Reactive Blue 2. Fura 2 studies demonstrated that inhibitory concentrations of these compounds did not block the cholinergic response of these cells, thus demonstrating the selectivity of the dye compounds for purinergic receptors. Unlike Reactive Blue 2, effective concentrations of Brilliant Blue G did not substantially quench Fura 2 fluorescence. The greater potency of Brilliant Blue G suggests that it may be very useful in identifying P2-type purinergic receptors, especially in studies which utilize fluorescent probes.

  6. Protein separation with surfactant-coated polystyrene involving Cibacron Blue 3GA-conjugated triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Tohru; Hattori, Naoto; Hiraide, Masataka

    2004-02-27

    Through mixing of porous polystyrene particles (Amberlite XAD-4), non-ionic surfactants, and surfactant-conjugated substrates (affinity ligand) in an aqueous solution led to the formation of a novel medium (affinity admicelle) for protein separation. The ligand (CB-Triton) was synthesized by mixing a triazine dye (Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB)) and a polyoxyethylene-type non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100) in weakly alkaline solutions. Triton X-100 and CB-Triton were competitively sorbed onto XAD-4. Albumin (bovine serum), alcohol dehydrogenase (yeast), and lysozyme (chicken egg) having specific interaction to CB were collected onto the affinity admicelle. On the other hand, the collection of ovalubmin (chicken egg white), having no binding ability to CB, was negligibly small. Lysozyme in 100 microl of chicken egg white, diluted with 900 microl of 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), was successfully collected on 18 mg of CB-Triton admicelles and, then, it was eluted with 1 ml of aqueous solution of 100 mM phosphate (pH 7.4). The recovery based on the activity for the lysis of micrococcus and the concentration factor were 60% and 40 (n = 3), respectively.

  7. Cibacron Blue F3GA modified disposable pencil graphite electrode for the investigation of affinity binding to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kuralay, Filiz; Yılmaz, Erkut; Uzun, Lokman; Denizli, Adil

    2013-10-01

    In this work, Cibacron Blue F3GA (CB) modified pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) were prepared and their affinities to bovine serum albumin were investigated. Preparation of the PGEs was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and passive adsorption techniques. Improved electrochemical results were obtained with the PGEs prepared by CV technique compared to the PGEs prepared by passive adsorption technique. In order to obtain more sensitive results number of scans used in CV technique and the effect of concentration of CB were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the characterization of modified electrodes. The modified PGEs were then used for the electrochemical monitoring of affinity interaction between CB and bovine serum albumin. The effect of BSA concentration and interfering species (tryptophan, glucose and immunoglobulin G) on the response of the electrode were examined. The aim of this study was to prepare an easy, fast, stable and cheap modified electrode for the investigation of the well-known affinity of CB to serum albumin. The electrochemistry can provide alternative routes for dye-protein interaction instead of using classical time-consuming methods. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Interaction of Cibacron Blue F3GA with glutamine synthetase: use of the dye as a conformational probe. 1. Studies using unfractionated dye samples.

    PubMed

    Federici, M M; Chock, P B; Stadtman, E R

    1985-01-29

    Cibacron Blue F3GA dye has been used to probe subtle conformational changes in protein structure associated with the conversion of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (GS) between relaxed, taut, oxidized, and dissociated forms. Binding of the dye to each form of the enzyme elicits a different spectral perturbation of the dye which can be detected by difference spectroscopy. By following time-dependent changes in the difference spectrum associated with the binding of dye to the enzyme, it was demonstrated that dissociation of subunits provoked either by urea or by relaxation of the enzyme at pH 8.5 is a multiphasic process. In the presence of 3-4 M urea, dissociation of taut GS is associated with an almost instantaneous, transient increase in absorbancy of the difference spectrum at 638 nm and, after a lag, by a progressive decrease in absorbancy at 585 nm and an increase at 700 nm. The kinetics of these changes vary as a function of temperature, pH, and the concentrations of KCl, MnCl2, and urea, probably reflecting differences in the rates of GS relaxation and in the formation of aggregates of intermediate sizes. Results of direct binding measurements show that the taut and relaxed forms of GS can bind only 1-1.3 equiv of dye per subunit, whereas dissociated subunits bind up to 3.0 equiv per subunit. The Kd of the dye-taut GS complex as calculated from binding data was 0.55 microM. The binding of dye to taut GS was inhibited by its substrate, ADP, and by the allosteric effectors AMP and tryptophan. On the basis of the abilities of ADP, AMP, and tryptophan to inhibit the binding of dye to GS, dissociation constants of the respective GS-ligand complexes were 2.4, 121, and 1170 microM, respectively, in good agreement with previously determined values. From the difference spectra obtained between a given concentration of dye in a 5.0-cm cell and 10 times that concentration in a 0.5-cm cell, it was established that at concentrations greater than 5 microM a

  9. An experimental model of affinity filtration for the isolation of egg white Lysozyme using Cibacron Blue immobilized to yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, María del Pilar; Gonzalez, Ulises A; Aguilar, Carlos F; Rodríguez, Jorge A

    2016-05-01

    An experimental model of affinity filtration process was designed using a macroligand composed by Cibacron Blue F3GA immobilized to yeast cells. Its performance was evaluated, at bench scale, through the recovery of egg white Lysozyme. The selective and reversible binding between the Cibacron ligand molecule and the enzyme is described. The separation of Lysozyme from the protein mixture included the application of stages such as affinity adsorption, concentration, diafiltration and elution. A tangential microfiltration system with an inorganic membrane was designed. The main finding was the development of the diafiltration operation, key stage in the enzyme isolation. The macroligand particle kept its integrity along the whole process and the degree of purity of the isolated Lysozyme was significant.

  10. Catalytic thermolysis in treating Cibacron Blue in aqueous solution: Kinetics and degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Claire Xin-Hui; Teng, Tjoon-Tow; Wong, Yee-Shian; Morad, Norhashimah; Rafatullah, Mohd

    2016-03-01

    A thermal degradation pathway of the decolourisation of Reactive Cibacron Blue F3GA (RCB) in aqueous solution through catalytic thermolysis is established. Catalytic thermolysis is suitable for the removal of dyes from wastewater as it breaks down the complex dye molecules instead of only transferring them into another phase. RCB is a reactive dye that consists of three main groups, namely anthraquinone, benzene and triazine groups. Through catalytic thermolysis, the bonds that hold the three groups together were effectively broken and at the same time, the complex molecules degraded to form simple molecules of lower molecular weight. The degradation pathway and products were characterized and determined through UV-Vis, FT-IR and GCMS analysis. RCB dye molecule was successfully broken down into simpler molecules, namely, benzene derivatives, amines and triazine. The addition of copper sulphate, CuSO4, as a catalyst, hastens the thermal degradation of RCB by aiding in the breakdown of large, complex molecules. At pH 2 and catalyst mass loading of 5 g/L, an optimum colour removal of 66.14% was observed. The degradation rate of RCB is well explained by first order kinetics model.

  11. Effect of Cibacron blue on tubulin assembly in the absence and presence of microtubule-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Deinum, J; Sörskog, L; Wallin, M

    1982-11-24

    Cibacron blue was found to inhibit assembly and increase the critical concentration of microtubule proteins. In the presence of 4 mol Cibacron blue/mol tubulin, assembly was completely inhibited and pre-formed microtubules disassembled. Addition of 8% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide to Cibacron blue-inhibited samples induced assembly of normal microtubules in addition to sheets of protofilaments. Disassembly was induced upon addition of 1 mM colchicine or 2 mM Ca2+. No obvious difference was seen in the protein composition of these microtubules compared with controls. GTP exchange was not affected by the presence of Cibacron blue nor was GTP able to counteract its effect. This indicates that the exchangeable GTP site is not involved. The extent of assembly of phosphocellulose purified tubulin in the presence of 8% (v/v) dimethylsulfoxide was only slightly less in the presence of Cibacron blue, although the assembly rate was decreased. These results suggest that Cibacron blue might alter the binding of one or more of the associated proteins stimulating assembly.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of hydrogel particles containing Cibacron Blue F3G-A

    PubMed Central

    Patanarut, Alexis; Luchini, Alessandra; Botterell, Palma J.; Mohan, Anirudh; Longo, Caterina; Vorster, Paul; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Bishop, Barney

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of low abundance and low molecular weight biomolecules is challenging due to their labile nature and the presence of high abundance, high molecular weight species such as serum albumin, which can hinder their detection. Functionalized hydrogel particles have proven to be ideally suited for this application. We here report the synthesis of hydrogel core and core-shell particles with incorporated Cibacron Blue F3G-A, and analysis of their harvesting properties. Hydrogel particle scaffolds consisting of cross-linked N-isopropylacrylamide and allylamine copolymers were synthesized via surfactant-free precipitation polymerization, with the blue dye subsequently affixed via a nucleophilic substitution reaction. The dye-functionalized core and core-shell particles were found to efficiently harvest and sequester dilute low molecular weight peptides and proteins from solution, with the core-shell particles more effectively excluding larger proteins. Moreover, proteins bound by core and core-shell particles containing blue dye were protected from tryptic degradation. These findings suggest that core and core-shell hydrogel particles containing Cibacron Blue F3G-A constitute promising new tools for peptide/protein biomarker harvesting applications. PMID:20871782

  13. Cibacron Blue and proteomics: the mystery of the platoon missing in action.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Chung, Maxey C M

    2011-11-18

    The use of Cibacron Blue columns (HiTrapBlue) in proteome analysis for removal of plasma albumin, for facilitating biomarker discovery, has not borne any fruit. In fact, the visibility of low-abundance proteins was obscured. It is here reported that, upon albumin sequestering from plasma, there is adsorption, via hydrophobic interaction, of a substantial number of plasma proteins, which are lost for subsequent analysis if the blue resin is eluted via an ion shock (2 M NaCl) or with a somewhat more robust eluant (5 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% CHAPS, 2% sulphobetain 3-10) as recommended by manufacturers. Such treatments, in fact, release at most 25 to 30 unique gene products, including albumin. If, however, the Affigel-Blue resin, after elution with either of the two above eluants, is further eluted with boiling 4% SDS in 25 mM DTT, all the missing proteins (amounting to at least 112 unique species) are desorbed and biomarker analysis can be conducted in a correct way. It is also suggested that such blue-resin treatment could be coupled to ProteoMiner adsorption, this coupled treatment further enhancing the chances of success for discovery of low-abundance proteins.

  14. Activation of the skeletal muscle Ca2+ release channel by the triazine dyes cibacron blue F3A-G and reactive red 120

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Jones, R.V.; Meissner, G. )

    1989-11-01

    Vesicle-{sup 45}Ca2+ ion flux and planar lipid bilayer single-channel measurements have shown that the Ca2+ release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is activated by micromolar concentrations of Cibacron Blue F3A-G (Reactive Blue 2) and Reactive Red 120. Cibacron Blue increased the {sup 45}Ca2+ efflux rate from heavy SR vesicles by apparently interacting with both the adenine nucleotide and caffeine activating sites of the channel. Dye-induced {sup 45}Ca2+ release was inhibited by Mg2+ and ruthenium red. In single channel recordings with the purified channel protein complex, Cibacron Blue increased the open time of the Ca2+ release channel without an apparent change in the conductance of the main and subconductance states of the channel.

  15. Inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase from Plasmodium yoelii by protoporphyrin IX, cibacron blue and menadione: implications and therapeutic benefits.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rumana; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2008-03-01

    The rapidly developing resistance to drugs used for prophylaxis and treatment of malaria makes the identification of novel drug targets necessary. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST, E.C. 2.5.1.18), an important enzyme of the glutathione (GSH) cycle, is considered to be an essential detoxification enzyme in malarial parasites. Selective inhibition of this enzyme from malarial parasites by various classes of inhibitors may be viewed as a potential chemotherapeutic strategy to combat malaria. Purified GST from Plasmodium yoelii was inhibited by compounds like protoporphyrin IX, cibacron blue, as well as by the GSH depletor menadione. Cytosolic GST was inhibited to varying degrees by each compound. A characteristic inhibitor constant (Ki) was obtained for each inhibitor. The possible consequences of selective inhibition of parasitic GST to that of the host are discussed in relation to the chemotherapy of malaria.

  16. Strong ionic interactions in noncovalent complexes between poly(ethylene imine), a cationic electrolyte, and Cibacron Blue, a nucleotide mimic--implications for oligonucleotide vectors.

    PubMed

    Çelikbıçak, Ömür; Salih, Bekir; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2014-07-01

    Cationic polymers can bind DNA to form polyplexes, which are noncovalent complexes used for gene delivery into the targeted cells. For more insight on such biologically relevant systems, the noncovalent complexes between the cationic polymer poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and the nucleotide mimicking dye Cibacron Blue F3G-A (CB) were investigated using mass spectrometry methods. Two PEIs of low molecular weight were utilized (Mn  ≈ 423 and 600 Da). The different types of CB anions produced by Na(+)/H(+) exchanges on the three sulfonic acid groups of CB and their dehydrated counterparts were responsible for complex formation with PEI. The CB anions underwent noncovalent complex formation with protonated, but not with sodiated PEI. A higher proportion of cyclic oligomers were detected in PEI423 than PEI600, but both architectures formed association products with CB. Tandem mass spectrometry studies revealed a significantly stronger noncovalent interaction between PEI and dehydrated CB than between PEI and intact CB.

  17. Rapid purification of mitochondrial hexokinase from rat brain by a single affinity chromatography step on Affi-Gel blue.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E

    1989-01-01

    The mitochondrial hexokinase from rat brain, selectively released from mitochondria by the action of glucose 6-phosphate, can be purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by a single affinity chromatography step on Affi-Gel Blue; the Cibacron Blue F3GA ligand bound to this matrix serves as an analog of ATP, the normal substrate for the enzyme, and selective elution is accomplished using glucose 6-phosphate which is a competitive ligand vs. ATP. With this and other modifications to the previously described procedure highly purified enzyme is readily obtained in good yield and with retention of the ability to rebind to mitochondria.

  18. Preparation of highly selective solid-phase extractants for Cibacron reactive dyes using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Al-Degs, Yahya S; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S; Ibrahim, Khalid A

    2009-02-01

    Selective polymeric extractants were prepared for preconcentration of Cibacron reactive red dye, a dye that is often applied with Cibacron reactive blue and Cibacron reactive yellow for dyeing of fabrics. The best extractant was fabricated (in chloroform) using methacrylic acid (as monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (as crosslinker), AIBN (as initiator for polymerization), and red dye as template molecule, with a molar stoichiometric ratio of 8.0:40.0:2.5:0.63, respectively. The structure of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was robust, and resisted dissolution up to 260 degrees C. Compared with the un-imprinted polymer, the imprinted product has a large specific surface area which improved its adsorption capacity. The effect of imprinting was obvious from the adsorption capacity measured at pH 4 for red dye (the imprinted molecule), which was increased from 24.0 to 79.3 mg g(-1) after imprinting. Equilibrium adsorption studies revealed that the dye-imprinted-polymer enables efficient extraction of red dye even in the presence of blue and yellow dyes which have similar chemical natures to the red dye. The selectivity coefficients S (red dye/dye), were 13.9 and 17.1 relative to the yellow and blue dyes, respectively. The MIP was found to be effective for red dye preconcentration, with a preconcentration factor of 100, from tap water and treated textile wastewater. The factors affecting extraction of red dye by the MIP were studied and optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, red dye was selectively quantified in the presence of other competing dyes at a concentration of 20 microg L(-1) from different water systems with satisfactory recoveries (91-95%) and RSD values (approximately 5.0%).

  19. Affinity Chromatographic Purification of Endogenous Pyrogen with Cibacron Blue.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-14

    exudate cells (5). The final concentration was 108 cell equivalents/ml. Human EP was obtained from the hystiocyte cell line U-937, as described by Bodel ...and Sobocinski, P. Z. (1977) Prostaglandins 13:73-85. 6. Bodel , P., Ralph, P., Wenc, K., and Long, J. C. (1980) J. Clin. Invest. 65:514-518. 7. Bailey

  20. Photocatalytic oxidation of Cibacron Yellow LS-R.

    PubMed

    Kositzi, Maria; Poulios, Ioannis; Samara, Konstantini; Tsatsaroni, Euthimia; Darakas, Efthymios

    2007-07-31

    The photocatalytic degradation of Cibacron Yellow LS-R (CIY), an azo dye, has been investigated in aqueous heterogeneous solutions containing semiconductor oxides as photocatalysts. The disappearance of the organic molecule follows approximately a pseudo-first kinetic order according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Various commercial photocatalysts are compared with respect to their decolorization efficiency, the COD, as well as the toxicity reduction. The effect of the temperature on the reaction rate is ascertained.

  1. Dynamics of Pre-3 Ga Crust-Mantle Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchett, P. J.; Chase, C. G.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2004-05-01

    During 3.0 to 2.7 Ga, the Earth's crust underwent a non-uniformitarian change from a pre-3.0 Ga environment where long-term preservation of cratons was rare and difficult, to post-2.7 Ga conditions where cratons were established and new continental crust generation took place largely at craton margins. Many models view the Earth's surface during pre-3 Ga time as broadly equivalent to the post 2.7 Ga regime. Any such uniformitarian or gradual evolution cannot explain the conundrum that only a tiny amount of pre-3 Ga crust is preserved today coupled with the fact that very little pre-3 Ga crust was incorporated into the large amount of new craton that came into existence during 3.0-2.7 Ga. If large volumes of pre-3 Ga continental crust existed, it disappeared either just prior to 3 Ga, or during 3.0-2.7 Ga. To explain sudden appearance of surviving but dominantly juvenile continental crust in a model where continents were large prior to 3 Ga, it would be necessary either that pre-3 Ga continent was recycled into the mantle at sites systematically different from those where new 3.0-2.7 Ga crust was made, or that widespread continent destruction preceded the 3.0-2.7 Ga crustal genesis. From expected mantle overturn in response to the heat budget, it is likely that most pre-3 Ga crust was both more mafic and shorter-lived than after 3 Ga. Although Nd and Hf ratios for pre-3 Ga rocks are uncertain due to polymetamorphism, it appears that depleted upper mantle was widespread by 2.7 Ga, even pre-3 Ga. Depletion may have been largely achieved by formation, subduction and storage of mafic crust for periods of 200-500 m.y. The rapid change to large surviving continents during 3.0-2.7 Ga was due to declining mantle overturn, and particularly to development of the ability to maintain subduction in one zone of the earth's surface for the time needed to allow evolution to felsic igneous rock compositions. In as much as storage of subducted slabs is probably occurring today, and

  2. Nanocrystalline lanthanide-doped Lu3Ga5O12 garnets: interesting materials for light-emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Venkatramu, V; Giarola, M; Mariotto, G; Enzo, S; Polizzi, S; Jayasankar, C K; Piccinelli, F; Bettinelli, M; Speghini, A

    2010-04-30

    Nanocrystalline Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12), with average particle sizes of 40 nm, doped with a wide variety of luminescent trivalent lanthanide ions have been prepared using a sol-gel technique. The structural and morphological properties of the powders have been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Structural data have been refined and are presented for Pr(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+) and Tm(3+) dopants, while room temperature excited luminescence spectra and emission decay curves of Eu(3+)-, Tm(3+)- and Ho(3+)-doped Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) nanocrystals have been measured and are discussed. The Eu(3+) emission spectrum shows typical bands due to 5D(0)-->7F(J) (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) transitions and the broadening of these emission bands with the non-exponential behaviour of the decay curves indicates the presence of structural disorder around the lanthanide ions. Lanthanide-doped nanocrystalline Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) materials show better luminescence intensities compared to Y(2)O(3), Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) and Y(3)Al(5)O(12) nanocrystalline hosts. Moreover, the upconversion emission intensity in the blue-green region for the Tm(3+)- and Ho(3+)-doped samples shows a significant increase upon 647.5 nm excitation with respect to other common oxide hosts doped with the same lanthanide ions.

  3. Europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12) and Eu3GaO6: Synthesis and material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Kenji; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were synthesized from a mixture of cubic (c-) Eu2O3 and monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-Ga2O3) raw powders using the solid-state reaction method by calcination at Tc = 1200 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Eu-Ga-O ternary compounds were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. Stoichiometric compounds such as cubic Eu3Ga5O12 (EGG) and orthorhombic Eu3GaO6 were synthesized using molar ratios of x = 0.375 and 0.75 [x≡Eu2O3/(Eu2O3 + Ga2O3)], respectively, together with the end-point binary compounds β-Ga2O3 (x = 0) and monoclinic (m-) Eu2O3 (x = 1.0). The structural change from "cubic" to "monoclinic" in Eu2O3 is due to the structural phase transition occurring at Tc ≥ 1050 °C. In principle, the perovskite-type EuGaO3 and monoclinic Eu4Ga2O9 can also be synthesized at x = 0.5 and 0.667, respectively; however, such stoichiometric compounds could not be synthesized in this study. The PL and PLE properties of EGG and Eu3GaO6 were studied in detail. The temperature dependence of the PL spectra was observed through measurements carried out between T = 20 and 300 K and explained using a newly developed model. Raman scattering measurements were also performed on the Eu-Ga-O ternary systems over the entire composition range from x = 0 (β-Ga2O3) to 1.0 (m-Eu2O3).

  4. The testing of several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R azo dye removal.

    PubMed

    García-Montaño, Julia; Domènech, Xavier; García-Hortal, José A; Torrades, Francesc; Peral, José

    2008-06-15

    Several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R reactive azo dye degradation have been evaluated. Initially, a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biotreatment has been assessed for different dye concentrations (250, 1250 and 3135 mg l(-1)). 92-97% decolourisation was attained during the anaerobic digestion operating in batch mode. However, no dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal neither biogas production was observed during the process, indicating that no methanogenesis occurred. Additionally, according to Biotox and Zahn-Wellens assays, the anaerobically generated colourless solutions (presumably containing the resulting aromatic amines from azo bond cleavage) were found to be more toxic than the initial dye as well as aerobically non-biodegradable, thus impeding the anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment. In a second part, the use of an advanced oxidation process (AOP) like photo-Fenton or ozonation as a chemical post-treatments of the anaerobic process has been considered for the complete dye by-products mineralisation. The best results were obtained by means of ozonation at pH 10.5, achieving a global 83% mineralisation and giving place to a final harmless effluent. On the contrary, the tested photo-Fenton conditions were not efficient enough to complete oxidation.

  5. Method of making V.sub.3 Ga superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Dew-Hughes, David

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for producing a vanadium-gallium superconductor wire having aluminum as a component thereof is disclosed, said wire being encased in a gallium bearing copper sheath. The superconductors disclosed herein may be fabricated under normal atmospheres and room temperatures by forming a tubular shaped billet having a core composed of an alloy of vanadium and aluminum and an outer sheath composed of an alloy of copper, gallium and aluminum. Thereafter the entire billet is swage reduced to form a wire therefrom and heat treated to form a layer of V.sub.3 Ga in the interior of the wire.

  6. Density functional theory study of Fe{sub 3}Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Paduani, C.; Bormio-Nunes, C.

    2011-02-01

    First-principles scalar relativistic calculations in supercells of 16 atoms are used to represent disordered B2 ordering of Fe{sub 3}Ga in order to observe the effect of Ga-Ga pairs on the electronic structure of this alloy. From a comparison with pure bcc Fe it is observed that the energy position and occupation of e{sub g} and t{sub 2g} states are largely affected by the Ga-Ga pairs and strengthened intraplane interactions takes place. The results show that a larger hybridization of the conduction band is in the source of the magnetostriction enhancement experimentally observed in Galfenol.

  7. Treatment of Terasil Red R and Cibacron Red R wastewater using extracted aluminum from red earth: factorial design.

    PubMed

    Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Lim, Han Khim; Yusup, Yusri; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Abu Bakar, Mohd Azri; Cheah, Khai Siean

    2013-06-15

    The ability of aluminum coagulant extracted from red earth to treat Terasil Red R (disperse) and Cibacron Red R (reactive) synthetic dye wastewater was studied. The effects of extractant concentration, soil-to-volume of extractant ratio, and the types of extracting agents (NaOH vs. KCl) on the concentration of aluminum extracted were also investigated. In addition, the efficiency of extracted aluminum was compared with aluminum sulfate, in terms of its capability to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and to remove synthetic color. Factorial design was applied to determine the effect of selected factors on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth (i.e., pH, dose of coagulant, type of coagulant on COD reduction, and color removal). It was found that only selected factors exhibited a significant effect on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth. It was also determined that all factors and their interactions exhibited a significant effect on COD reduction and color removal when applying the extracted aluminum in a standard coagulation process. The results were also compared to aluminum sulfate. Furthermore, NaOH was found to be a better extractant of aluminum in red earth than KCl. Therefore, the best extracting conditions for both extractants were as follows: 2 M NaOH and in a 1:5 (soil/volume of extractant) ratio; 1 M KCl and 1:5 ratio. In treating synthetic dye wastewater, the extracted coagulant showed comparable treatment efficiency to the commercial coagulant. The extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the dispersed dye by 85% and to remove 99% of the color of the dispersed dye, whereas the commercial coagulant reduced 90% of the COD and removed 99% of the color of the dispersed dye. Additionally, the extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 73% and to remove 99% of the color of the reactive dye. However, the commercial coagulant managed to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 94% and to remove 96% of

  8. Irregular Mare Patches (IMPs): 100 Ma or 3 Ga?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopar, J.; Robinson, M. S.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Giguere, T.; Lawrence, S. J.; Ostrach, L. R.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.

    2016-12-01

    IMPs exhibit a perplexing combination of characteristics that are consistent with either a 100 Ma or 3 Ga formation. Dozens of small-area IMPs have crisp morphologies and crater size-frequency distributions (SFDs) that denote relatively recent geologic activity (<100 Ma); however, the apparently well-developed regolith on portions of the IMPs are in conflict with such a young age [1]. To test possible formation hypotheses (e.g., [1-5]), which range from ancient volcanism to contemporary outgassing, we examined IMP morphology at the meter-scale with LROC NAC images and derived elevation models. We focused on the largest IMPs (Ina, Sosigenes, Cauchy, Maskelyne, and Nubium), where contacts between deposits are best developed. Most of our observations are consistent with multiple generations of inflation and breakouts (or squeeze-ups) of basaltic lavas that were affected by local slopes. Some of the extrusions coalesced into larger mounds or filled pre-existing craters. We did not observe evidence of large-scale void space (e.g., fissures, fractures, linear depressions, or pits) within or beneath the mounds or rougher deposits (e.g., [5]). But, small-scale voids may be signified by isolated pitted textures. We also did not detect evidence of the cooling fractures or lava plates expected in young lava flows and observed in lunar impact melt deposits. The smooth texture of the mounds is enigmatic. Block-less craters suggest at least 5 m of friable or poorly-cohesive material (such as regolith), yet mound margins exhibit slopes > 30° requiring significant material strength. Blocks are not common on the mounds, but are sometimes excavated by impacts (usually excavated from beneath the mounds). The uneven deposits are equally enigmatic and texturally varied (blocky, pitted, and crenulated). They are deficient in superposed craters compared to the mounds. If the mounds are indeed of similar age to the rougher units, then their different superposed crater morphologies and

  9. Irregular Mare Patches (IMPs): 100 Ma or 3 Ga?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stopar, Julie; Robinson, Mark Southwick; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Giguere, Thomas; Lawrence, Samuel J.; Ostrach, Lillian Rose; Clegg-Watkins, Ryan N.

    2016-01-01

    IMPs exhibit a perplexing combination of characteristics that are consistent with either an approximately 100 Ma or 3 Ga formation. Dozens of small-area IMPs have crisp morphologies and crater size-frequency distributions (SFDs) that denote relatively recent geologic activity (less than 100 Ma); however, the apparently well-developed regolith on portions of the IMPs are in conflict with such a young age [1]. To test possible formation hypotheses (e.g., [1-5]), which range from ancient volcanism to contemporary outgassing, we examined IMP morphology at the meter-scale with LROC NAC images and derived elevation models. We focused on the largest IMPs (Ina, Sosigenes, Cauchy, Maskelyne, and Nubium), where contacts between deposits are best developed. Most of our observations are consistent with multiple generations of inflation and breakouts (or squeeze-ups) of basaltic lavas that were affected by local slopes. Some of the extrusions coalesced into larger mounds or filled pre-existing craters. We did not observe evidence of large-scale void space (e.g., fissures, fractures, linear depressions, or pits) within or beneath the mounds or rougher deposits (e.g., [5]). But, small-scale voids may be signified by isolated pitted textures. We also did not detect evidence of the cooling fractures or lava plates expected in young lava flows and observed in lunar impact melt deposits. The smooth texture of the mounds is enigmatic. Block-less craters suggest at least 5 m of friable or poorly-cohesive material (such as regolith), yet mound margins exhibit slopes greater than 30 deg requiring significant material strength. Blocks are not common on the mounds, but are sometimes excavated by impacts (usually excavated from beneath the mounds). The uneven deposits are equally enigmatic and texturally varied (blocky, pitted, and crenulated). They are deficient in superposed craters compared to the mounds. If the mounds are indeed of similar age to the rougher units, then their different

  10. Development of a Multifilament PIT V3Ga Conductor for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Distin, J.S.; Ghosh, A.; Motowidlo, L.R.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Lu, X.F.; Cheggour, N.; Stauffer, T.C.; Goodrich, L.F.

    2011-08-03

    Previous studies on V{sub 3}Ga assert its suitability for use in proposed fusion reactors. V{sub 3}Ga may outperform Nb{sub 3}Sn in a fusion reactor environment based on its relatively flat critical-current profile in the 15 T-20 T range, resilience to applied strain, and reduced risk of induced radioactivity. A multifilament powder-in-tube V{sub 3}Ga conductor was designed, fabricated and tested with a focus on evaluating critical current versus applied field and applied strain performance, wire drawing difficulties, heat-treatment optimization, and overall feasibility of the concept.

  11. Anisotropic intermediate valence in Yb2M3Ga9 (M = Rh, Ir)

    SciTech Connect

    Christianson, A.D.; Lawrence, J.M.; Lobos, A.M.; Aligia, A.A.; Bauer, E.D.; Moreno, N.O.; Booth, C.H.; Goremychkin, E.A.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.; Batista, C.D.; Trouw, F.R.; Hehlen, M.P.

    2005-04-26

    The intermediate valence compounds Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9} (M = Rh, Ir) exhibit an anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the 4f occupation number, n{sub f}(T), for Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9} as well as the magnetic inelastic neutron scattering spectrum S{sub mag}({Delta}E) at 12 and 300 K for Yb{sub 2}Rh{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}. Both n{sub f}(T) and S{sub mag}({Delta}E) were calculated for the Anderson impurity model with crystal field terms within an approach based on the non-crossing approximation. These results corroborate the importance of crystal field effects in these materials; they also suggest that Anderson lattice effects are important to the physics of Yb{sub 2}M{sub 3}Ga{sub 9}.

  12. [Maternity blues].

    PubMed

    Gonidakis, F

    2007-04-01

    Maternity blues is a transient change of mood that occurs mainly between the 1st and 10th day of puerpartum and is characterized by bursts of tears, mild depressive mood, anxiety and liability of mood. The frequency of maternity blues varies in different studies form 4% to 80%. A number of biological and psychosocial parameters have been studied in order to determine their correlation with maternity blues. The most well studied biological parameters are progesterone and cortizol although their relation with maternity blues has not yet been clearly defined. Stress and the emotional state of the woman during pregnancy as well as history of mood disorders or maternity blues in a previous birth are the psychosocial parameters that are more likely to correlate with the occurrence of maternity blues. Most of the authors suggest that information on maternity blues and reassurance of the woman are the best way to deal with maternity blues both on preventive and therapeutical basis.

  13. High pressure transport and structural studies on Nb3Ga superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Mkrtcheyan, Vahe; Kumar, Ravhi; Baker, Jason; ...

    2014-11-24

    We investigated the crystal structure of A-15 superconductor Nb3Ga with a critical temperature Tc = 16.5 K by high pressure x-ray diffraction (HPXRD) using synchrotron x-rays and a diamond anvil cell under Ne pressure medium. Furthermore, the high pressure structural results indicate that Nb3Ga is stable up to 41 GPa. The P-V plot shows an anomaly around 15 GPa even though there are no pressure induced structural transitions are observed. High pressure resistance measurements were performed up to 0.5 GPa to understand the variation of Tc under pressure. Finally, our results show a positive pressure effect on Tc.

  14. Dimensionality tuning of the electronic structure in Fe3Ga4 magnetic materials

    PubMed Central

    Moura, K. O.; de Oliveira, L. A. S.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Saleta, M. E.; Granado, E.; Béron, F.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Pirota, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on the dimensionality effects on the magnetic behavior of Fe3Ga4 compounds by means of magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and specific heat measurements. Our results show that reducing the Fe3Ga4 dimensionality, via nanowire shape, intriguingly modifies its electronic structure. In particular, the bulk system exhibits two transitions, a ferromagnetic (FM) transition temperature at T1 = 50 K and an antiferromagnetic (AFM) one at T2 = 390 K. On the other hand, nanowires shift these transition temperatures, towards higher and lower temperature for T1 and T2, respectively. Moreover, the dimensionality reduction seems to also modify the microscopic nature of the T1 transition. Instead of a FM to AFM transition, as observed in the 3D system, a transition from FM to ferrimagnetic (FERRI) or to coexistence of FM and AFM phases is found for the nanowires. Our results allowed us to propose the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram for Fe3Ga4 in both bulk and nanostructured forms. The interesting microscopic tuning of the magnetic interactions induced by dimensionality in Fe3Ga4 opens a new route to optimize the use of such materials in nanostructured devices. PMID:27329581

  15. Magnetism and the defect state in the magnetocaloric antiperovskite Mn3GaC1-δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, L. H.; Yoder, D.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Fischer, D. A.; Yu, M.-H.

    2006-02-01

    Magnetic and spectroscopic techniques were used to study the intermetallic antiperovskite Mn3GaC. An antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic magnetostructural transition at 160 K underlies a remarkable magnetocaloric effect; these phenomena are suppressed in the substoichiometric composition Mn3GaC1-δ. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data reported for three compositions Mn3GaC1-δ, δ = 0, 0.10, 0.22, are the basis for drawing inferences concerning the mechanism controlling magnetic order as a function of carbon stoichiometry. While the temperature dependence of the Mn3GaC carbon K edge reveals no observable change across the first-order magnetic transition, a clear splitting of the carbon absorption bands is observed that increases with increasing carbon deficiency. The room temperature Mn and Ga K edges indicate no significant variation with C content. FEFF 8.2 code calculations are in good qualitative agreement with data for the stoichiometric sample, but do not predict the changes in XAS observed in C-deficient samples. These results and the Goodenough-Anderson-Kanamori rules are the basis for a phenomenological model that attributes the carbon content dependence of the low temperature transition to the promotion of weak near-neighbour 90° Mn-Mn pairs in the carbon-deficient compound over the stronger 180° Mn-C-Mn interaction, locking in dominant ferromagnetism at low temperatures.

  16. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  17. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  18. Upconversion luminescence in La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 codoped with Er3+ and Yb3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, S.; Voiculescu, A. M.; Matei, C.; Stefan, A. G.; Toma, O.

    2013-06-01

    Green (525, 550 nm, Er3+ transition (2H11/2, 4S3/2) → 4I15/2), red (660 nm, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2), blue (440 - 490 nm, 4F3/2,5/2,7/2 → 4I15/2), violet (410 nm, 2H9/2 → 4I15/2), and near ultraviolet (380 nm, 4G11/2 → 4I15/2) upconversion luminescence in langatate (La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) doped with erbium and ytterbium ceramic sample, synthesized by solid state reaction in air, was obtained by pumping at 973 nm. Yb3+ - Er3+ energy transfer processes accounting for population of the emitting levels are discussed. The measured lifetimes of the emitting and intermediate Er3+ levels are compared with the radiative lifetimes estimated with the Judd-Ofelt theory.

  19. Triazine dyes as inhibitors and affinity ligands of glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, J; Dziecioł, J; Kościelak, J

    1999-11-01

    The triazine dyes: Cibacron Blue 3GA, Reactive Red 120, Reactive Yellow 86, Reactive Green 19, Reactive Blue 4, Reactive Brown 10 inhibited the activity of a purified preparation of alpha1,6fucosyltransferase (GDP-L-fucose: N-acetyl beta-glucosaminide 6-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.68) from human blood platelets. Cibacron Blue 3GA and Reactive Red 120 were examined for the nature of the inhibition and both were found to be competitive inhibitors of the enzyme, with Ki = 11 microM and 2 microM, respectively. The two dyes inhibited also serum glycosyltransferases: alpha1,2fucosyltransferase (GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactosyl-R2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.69), beta1,4galactosyltransferase (UDP-galactose: N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 4-beta-D-galactosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.90) and beta1,3N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (UDP-GlcNAc: 4-beta-D-galactosyl-D-glucose). Cibacron Blue 3GA was a more effective inhibitor of the glycosyltransferases that use UDP-linked sugar donors than Reactive Red 120 while the latter was a stronger inhibitor of the fucosyltransferases that use GDP-linked donor. All four glycosyltransferases could be affinity purified on Cibacron Blue 3GA-Agarose columns. The order of elution of glycosyltransferases from the columns with solutions of 0.25-1.0 M potassium iodide also depended upon the structure of nucleotide sugar donor, i.e. whether it contained UDP or GDP. Thus, triazine dyes should interact with the sugar donor binding sites of glycosyltransferases. The main advantages of the use of triazine dyes as affinity ligands for isolation of glycosyltransferases are their universal applicability regardless of enzyme specificity, low cost, and insensitivity to high concentration of other proteins present in the solution.

  20. Phase structure and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 3}Ga{sub 2} alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q. M. Yu, F.; Yue, M.; Zhang, H. G.; Li, Y. Q.; Liu, Y. Q.; Zhang, J. X.; Yan, X. L.

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, Mn{sub 3}Ga{sub 2} alloys with high saturation magnetization and high Curie temperatures were prepared by levitation melting high pure Mn and Ga elements followed by annealing. The effect of annealing temperature on phase structure and magnetic properties was investigated by means of x-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. A single phase alloy Mn{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}, which has tetragonal P4/mmm structure, was obtained with an annealing temperature of 773 K and annealing time of 24 h. The hysteresis curve of its easy axis for this single phase alloy shows that the room temperature coercivity and saturation magnetization are 4.18 kOe and 50.81 emu/g, respectively. The thermomagnetic curves indicate that the Curie temperature is about 650 K and a phase transformation occurs above 823 K.

  1. Mechanism of magnetostructural transformation in multifunctional Mn3GaC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, E. T.; Priolkar, K. R.; Ranjan, Rajeev; Nigam, A. K.; Emura, S.

    2017-09-01

    Mn3GaC undergoes a ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic, volume discontinuous cubic-cubic phase transition as a function of temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Through a series of temperature dependent x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy experiments at the Mn K and Ga K edge, it is shown that the first order magnetic transformation in Mn3GaC is entirely due to distortions in the Mn sub-lattice and with a very little role for Mn-C interactions. The distortion in the Mn sub-lattice results in long and short Mn-Mn bonds with the longer Mn-Mn bonds favoring ferromagnetic interactions and the shorter Mn-Mn bonds favoring antiferromagnetic interactions. At the first order transition, the shorter Mn-Mn bonds exhibit an abrupt decrease in their length resulting in an antiferromagnetic ground state and a strained lattice.

  2. Effect of composition on properties of In2O3-Ga2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, I. E.; Kozlov, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The In2O3-Ga2O3 mixed oxide polycrystalline thin films with various ratios of components were obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of films composition on surface morphology, electrophysical and gas sensing properties and energies of adsorption and desorption of combustible gases was studied. The films with50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 composition showed maximum gas response (˜25 times) combined with minimum optimal working temperature (˜530 °C) as compared with the other films. The optical transmittance of the films in visible range was investigated. For 50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 films, the transmittance is higher in comparison with the other films. The explanation of the dependency of films behaviors on their composition was presented.The In2O3-Ga2O3 films were assumed to have perspectives as gas sensing material for semiconducting gas sensors.

  3. Growth and characterization of piezoelectric Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 crystals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anhua; Xu, Jiayue; Zhou, Juan; Lu, Baoliang; Wu, Xianjun; Li, Xinhua; Qian, Guoxing

    2006-12-22

    Langasite (La3Ga5SiO14, LGS) and its isomorphs, have attracted much attention for their potential for surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) applications. Among these homologous compounds, Sr3Ga2Ge4O14 (SGG) attracted our attention due to its superior piezoelectric properties and lower growth temperature. In this work, SGG single crystal has been grown successfully by the vertical Bridgman method with crucible-sealing technique. SGG wafers of 2 in. have been fabricated. The basic physical properties of SGG crystals were measured. The results demonstrate that piezoelectric and mechanical properties of SGG crystals are better than that of LGS crystal and it is expected to be a potential substrate material for SAW and BAW applications.

  4. Blue Laser.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  5. Strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk and the (001) surface of DO22Mn3Ga: a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Won Seok; Cha, Gi-Beom; Kim, In Gee; Rhim, S H; Hong, Soon Cheol

    2012-10-17

    Strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) and low saturation magnetization are found in DO22Mn(3)Ga using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. The ferrimagnetism in the bulk is well preserved in the surfaces of Mn(3)Ga for two possible terminations, where the perpendicular MCA in the (001) direction is greatly enhanced over the bulk, consistent with experiments. Furthermore, the robustness of MCA with respect to lattice strain and a good lattice match with popular substrates suggest that Mn(3)Ga can be a good candidate for strain-resistance spintronics applications.

  6. Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rathaiah, Mamilla; Haritha, Pamuluri; Lozano-Gorrín, Antonio Diego; Babu, Palamandala; Jayasankar, Chalicheemalapalli Kulala; Rodríguez-Mendoza, Ulises Ruyman; Lavín, Victor; Venkatramu, Vemula

    2016-06-07

    Nanocrystalline Lu3Ga5O12 garnets doped with Tm(3+)/Yb(3+) ions have been synthesized by a low cost and environmentally benign sol-gel technique and characterized for their structural, Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence properties. The diffuse reflectance spectra of doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets have been measured to derive the partial energy level structure of Tm(3+) and Yb(3+) ions and possible energy transfer channels between them. Upon laser excitation at 473 nm, weak red and intense near-infrared Stokes emissions have been observed in the nano-garnets. The decay curves of (3)H4 and (1)G4 levels of Tm(3+) ions and the (2)F5/2 level of Yb(3+) ions have been measured upon resonant laser excitation and are found to be non-exponential in nature due to multipolar interactions. In order to know the kind of multipolar interaction among optically active ions, the decay curves are analyzed through the generalized Yokota-Tanimoto model. Moreover, under 970 nm laser excitation, intense blue anti-Stokes emission is observed by the naked eye in Tm(3+)-Yb(3+) co-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets. The results show that as-synthesized nano-garnets may be useful in the field of phosphors and photonics.

  7. Evaluation of the role of oxygen vacancies in La3GaGe5O16:Tb3+ persistent phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, He; Lin, Ze Jia; Dong, You Zhong; Huang, Yan

    2017-05-01

    The persistent luminescence performance of a novel color-tunable Tb3+-doped La3GaGe5O16 phosphor has been modified by oxygen-deficiency control with an aim to explore the strategy to improve the persistent luminescence property. First-principles calculations were combined with thermoluminescence (TL) measurements to evaluate the role of oxygen vacancies in persistent luminescence of La3GaGe5O16:Tb3+ persistent phosphor. Our results show that the oxygen vacancies that act as an electron trap center have a limited contribution to the persistent luminescence. The formation of the ring structure of La3GaGe5O16 crystal and the resulting localized trap levels are very different from that of other outstanding persistent phosphors, like Sr2MgSi2O7, etc. Such differences are closely related to the inferior performance of La3GaGe5O16:Tb3+ persistent phosphor.

  8. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Fe3Ga/Ga1-xAlxAs Heterostructures: Growth, Properties and Spin Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmstrøm, C. J.; Adelmann, C.; Lou, X.; Srivastava, S. K.; Crowell, P. A.

    2006-03-01

    Single crystal Fe3Ga thin films have been grown on Ga1-xAlxAs (001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The films are found to be pseudomorphic on Ga1-xAlxAs and grow in a tetragonally-distorted Heusler-like D03 crystal structure. The Fe3Ga films are ferromagnetic above room temperature with a saturation magnetization of 1200 emu/cm^3. They exhibit a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to the strain-induced tetragonal distortion. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry finds no interfacial reactions of Fe3Ga/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting that Fe3Ga is thermally stable on GaAs. Spin injection from Fe3Ga into GaAs has been assessed by using Fe3Ga/Ga1-xAlxAs spin light-emitting diode (LED) structures. A steady-state spin polarization of 20% is obtained at 2K. The bias dependence of spin injection is found to be very similar to that of Fe/Ga1-xAlxAs spin LEDs [1]. This work was supported in part by ONR and NSF-MRSEC. [1] C. Adelmann et al., Phys. Rev. B 71, 121301 (2005).

  9. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today.

  10. Chemical disorder as an engineering tool for spin polarization in Mn3Ga -based Heusler systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadov, S.; D'Souza, S. W.; Wollmann, L.; Kiss, J.; Fecher, G. H.; Felser, C.

    2015-03-01

    Our study highlights spin-polarization mechanisms in metals by focusing on the mobilities of conducting electrons with different spins instead of their quantities. Here, we engineer electron mobility by applying chemical disorder induced by nonstoichiometric variations. As a practical example, we discuss the scheme that establishes such variations in tetragonal Mn3Ga Heusler material. We justify this approach using first-principles calculations of the spin-projected conductivity components based on the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. It follows that, in the majority of cases, even a small substitution of some other transition element instead of Mn may lead to a substantial increase in spin polarization along the tetragonal axis.

  11. Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Yb:Y3Ga5O12 laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongdong; Wei, Zhiyi; Zhou, Binbin; Xu, Changwen; Zou, Yuwan; Li, Dehua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang; Yu, Haohai; Wu, Kui; Yao, Bin; Wang, Junli

    2009-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrated femtosecond operation in a diode-pumped Yb:Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) laser for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. By using Gires-Tournois interferometer mirrors for dispersion compensation and a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for passive mode locking, pulses with a duration as short as 245 fs at the central wavelength of 1045 nm have been produced at a repetition rate of 64.3 MHz. Under the full pump power of 7 W, the maximum output power was 570 mW, with an average slope efficiency of 14.1%.

  12. The disordered cubic structure of Ca 7Co 3Ga 5O 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grins, J.; Istomin, S. Ya.; Svensson, G.; Attfield, J. P.; Antipov, E. V.

    2005-07-01

    The new mixed oxide having composition close to Ca 7Co 3Ga 5O 18 was synthesized from CaCO 3, Co 3O 4 and Ga 2O 3 at 1150 °C in air and studied by neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure was refined, using time-of-flight (TOF) neutron powder diffraction data, in space group F432, with a=15.0487(4) Å and Z=8, to R=0.7%. It is considerably disordered, with four different tetrahedral sites randomly occupied by Co and Ga atoms at a ratio of 1:2. The tetrahedra form a disordered (Co 1/3Ga 2/3)O 2 3D-framework inside which isolated CoO 6 octahedra, surrounded by 8 Ca atoms, are located. The structure is related to the ordered structure of Ca 14Al 10Zn 6O 35. Electron diffraction patterns confirmed the symmetry and unit cell and revealed no diffuse scattering. High-resolution electron microscopy images showed the absence of extended structural defects.

  13. Incommensurate Spin Density Wave state in metamagnetic Fe3Ga4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Cao, Huibo; Dos Santos, António; McCandless, Greg; Chan, Julia; Karki, Amar; Jin, Rongying; Ditusa, John

    Fe3Ga4 displays a rich competition between magnetic states without structural transitions: a ferromagnetic(FM) ground state transitions to an antiferromagnetic(AFM) intermediate state above 68 K followed by a reemergence of the FM state above room temprature(T). The reentrance of the FM state hints of a coupling of the magnetic degrees of freedom to other modes. To explore the nature of the magnetic states, we have performed extensive single crystal neutron diffraction measurements over a wide range of T and pressure. These measurements revealed two very different magnetic states with the low T FM state having magnetic moments along the c-axis while we discovered that the AFM state is in an incommensurate spin density wave(SDW) order with moments mostly along the a-axis. However, there is still considerable non-collinear and non-coplanar contributions along the b- and c-axial directions. This non-coplanar moment is likely to be the origin of the very large anomalous Hall effect(HE) including a substantial topological HE that we discovered in Fe3Ga4. Study of the effect of hydrostatic pressure indicates a reduction of the Tc and a destabilization of the SDW phase.

  14. Low-field magnetocaloric effect in antiperovskite Mn3Ga1-xGexC compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qiang; Lv, Qun; Yang, Xiaozhi; Han, Zhida; Dong, Shiyuan; Qian, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Changliang; Fang, Yong; Jiang, Xuefan

    2015-12-01

    A series of Mn3Ga1-xGexC (x=0, 0.1, 0.2) compounds were prepared by solid state reaction, and their magnetic properties, phase transitions, and magnetocaloric effect were investigated. All samples, after becoming ferromagnetic below Curie temperature Tc, undergo a first-order ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at Tt at low temperature, giving rise to conventional and inverse magnetocaloric effect. Tt increases while Tc shows a decrease with the increase of Ge content. Isothermal magnetization curves around Tt are strongly history-dependent, which may result in spurious peak in the magnetic field induced entropy change (ΔSM). The magnetothermal properties near Tt, compared with those near Tc, are of larger ΔSM , but have larger magnetic hysteresis and smaller refrigerant capacity.

  15. Potential of Gibberellic Acid 3 (GA3) for Enhancing the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ji, Puhui; Tang, Xiwang; Jiang, Yongji; Tong, Yan'an; Gao, Pengcheng; Han, Wenshe

    2015-12-01

    A microcosm experiment with artificially contaminated soils was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) on phytoremediation efficiency of Solanum nigrum L. The GA3 was applied at three different concentrations (10, 100, 1000 mg L(-1)) to S. nigrum. Results indicated that GA3 can significantly (p < 0.05) increase the biomass of S. nigrum by 56 % at 1000 mg L(-1). Concurrently, GA3 application increased Cd concentrations in the shoot of S. nigrum by 16 %. The combined effects resulted in an increase in the amount of Cd extracted by a single plant by up to 124 %. Therefore, it is possible to use GA3 to promote the Cd phytoremediation efficiency of S. nigrum.

  16. Efficient passively Q-switched miniature Yb:Lu3Ga5O12 crystal laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wenjuan; Chen, Xiaowen; Xia, Linhua; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Shiwu; Liu, Junhai

    2015-08-01

    A passively Q-switched miniature Yb:Lu3Ga5O12 crystal laser is demonstrated under 935-nm diode pumping, producing an average output power of 3.21 W at 1035 nm at a pulse repetition frequency of 26.3 kHz, with optical-to-optical and slope efficiencies being 36.5% and 60%, respectively. With the output coupling being increased and the initial transmission of the saturable absorber being lowered, an output power of 1.61 W at 1026 nm is generated at 8.3 kHz, the resulting pulse energy, duration and peak power were respectively 194 μJ, 2.5 ns and 77.6 kW.

  17. Coaxial metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) Au/Ga2O3/GaN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chin-Hua; Chang, Mu-Tung; Chien, Yu-Jen; Chou, Li-Jen; Chen, Lih-Juann; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2008-10-01

    Coaxial metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) Au-Ga2O3-GaN heterostructure nanowires were successfully fabricated by an in situ two-step process. The Au-Ga2O3 core-shell nanowires were first synthesized by the reaction of Ga powder, a mediated Au thin layer, and a SiO2 substrate at 800 degrees C. Subsequently, these core-shell nanowires were nitridized in ambient ammonia to form a GaN coating layer at 600 degrees C. The GaN shell is a single crystal, an atomic flat interface between the oxide and semiconductor that ensures that the high quality of the MOS device is achieved. These novel 1D nitride-based MOS nanowires may have promise as building blocks to the future nitride-based vertical nanodevices.

  18. Crystal structure of Li3Ga(BO3)2

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert W.; Holman, Darien; Villa, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structure of trilithium gallium bis­(orthoborate), Li3Ga(BO3)2, is isotypic with Li3Al(BO3)2 in a triclinic cell in space-group type P-1. The three Li and the unique Ga atom are coordinated by four O atoms each in tetra­hedra, and the two B atoms are coordinated by three O atoms in orthoborate triangles. Chains with composition [Ga2(BO3)4]6− extend along the a axis. The Li atoms inter­leave these chains in tetra­hedral inter­stices. A comparison is made between the structure model of the title compound and that of a previously reported model for a compound with the same composition [Abdullaev & Mamedov (1972 ▸). Zh. Strukt. Khim. 13, 943–946.] PMID:28316831

  19. Crystal structure of Li3Ga(BO3)2.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert W; Holman, Darien; Villa, Eric M

    2017-03-01

    The crystal structure of trilithium gallium bis-(orthoborate), Li3Ga(BO3)2, is isotypic with Li3Al(BO3)2 in a triclinic cell in space-group type P-1. The three Li and the unique Ga atom are coordinated by four O atoms each in tetra-hedra, and the two B atoms are coordinated by three O atoms in orthoborate triangles. Chains with composition [Ga2(BO3)4](6-) extend along the a axis. The Li atoms inter-leave these chains in tetra-hedral inter-stices. A comparison is made between the structure model of the title compound and that of a previously reported model for a compound with the same composition [Abdullaev & Mamedov (1972 ▸). Zh. Strukt. Khim. 13, 943-946.].

  20. Blue Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-19

    Bands and spots in Saturn's atmosphere, including a dark band south of the equator with a scalloped border, are visible in this image from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft. The narrow angle camera took the image in blue light on Feb. 29, 2004. The distance to Saturn was 59.9 million kilometers (37.2 million miles). The image scale is 359 kilometers (223 miles) per pixel. Three of Saturn's moons are seen in the image: Enceladus (499 kilometers, or 310 miles across) at left; Mimas (398 kilometers, or 247 miles across) left of Saturn's south pole; and Rhea (1,528 kilometers, or 949 miles across) at lower right. The imaging team enhanced the brightness of the moons to aid visibility. The BL1 broadband spectral filter (centered at 451 nanometers) allows Cassini to "see" light in a part of the spectrum visible as the color blue to human eyes. Scientist can combine images made with this filter with those taken with red and green filters to create full-color composites. Scientists can also assess cloud heights by combining images from the blue filter with images taken in other spectral regions. For example, the bright clouds that form the equatorial zone are the highest in altitude and have pressures at their tops of about one quarter of Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level. The cloud tops at middle latitudes are lower in altitude and have higher pressures of about half that found at sea level. Analysis of Saturn images like this one will be extremely useful to researchers assessing cloud altitudes during the Cassini-Huygens mission. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA05383

  1. Photoelectric characteristics of metal-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kalygina, V. M. Vishnikina, V. V.; Petrova, Yu. S.; Prudaev, I. A.; Yaskevich, T. M.

    2015-03-15

    We investigate the effect of thermal annealing in argon and of oxygen plasma processing on the photoelectric properties of GaAs-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Me structures. Gallium-oxide films are fabricated by photostimulated electrochemical oxidation of epitaxial gallium-arsenide layers with n-type conductivity. The as-deposited films were amorphous, but their processing in oxygen plasma led to the nucleation of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites. The unannealed films are nontransparent in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) ranges and there is no photocurrent in structures based on them. After annealing at 900°C for 30 min, the gallium-oxide films contain only β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallites and become transparent. Under illumination of the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs structures with visible light, the photocurrent appears. This effect can be attributed to radiation absorption in GaAs. The photocurrent and its voltage dependence are determined by the time of exposure to the oxygen plasma. In the UV range, the sensitivity of the structures increases with decreasing radiation wavelength, starting at λ ≤ 230 nm. This is due to absorption in the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. Reduction in the structure sensitivity with an increase in the time of exposure to oxygen plasma can be caused by the incorporation of defects both at the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-GaAs interface and in the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} film.

  2. Studies on structure and properties of in-situ V/sub 3/Ga superconducting composite tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumakura, H.; Tachikawa, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Togano, K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent scaling-up development of the in-situ processed V/sub 3/Ga composite superconductor at NRIM is reported. Cu-V binary ingots were prepared by consumable arc-melting, and cold-worked into tapes of 100-300m in length. Inspection of the uniformity was carried out for the in-situ Cu-V tapes by measuring the electrical resistivity change at room temperature along the tape length, and the results were compared with the critical current density J /SUB c/ distribution of the final in-situ V/sub 3/Ga tapes. The structure of the in-situ tapes, obtained by continuous Ga-dipping and diffusion heat treatment, were studied. The reacted layer is divided into two layers with different V/sub 3/Ga morphology. The outer layer composed of globular V/sub 3/Ga has a T /SUB c/ of 15.2K, while the inner layer composed of ribbon-like filamentary V/sub 3/Ga has somewhat lower T /SUB c/ of 15-13.5K. Therefore, the observed J /SUB c/ characteristic is a combined contribution from both layers having a different magnetic field dependence of J /SUB c/ . The ribbon-like morphology in the inner layer is responsible for the J /SUB c/ anisotropy of the tapes. The J /SUB c/ -H characteristics of the in-situ V/sub 3/Ga tape revealed by the present study are advantageous in constructing 15-17 Tesla class superconducting magnet.

  3. Anomalous Hall effect in epitaxially grown ferromagnetic FeGa/Fe3Ga hybrid structure: Evidence of spin carrier polarized by clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc Dung, Dang; Cho, Sunglae

    2013-05-01

    The anomalous Hall resistance relative with magnetic anisotropy of clusters Fe3Ga in Fe3Ga/Fe-Ga hybrid structural epitaxial was reported. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy was obtained for Fe3Ga/Fe-Ga hybrid structure, while in-plane magnetic anisotropy is shown in the single Fe-Ga phase epitaxial on GaAs(001). The observation of trend of saturation Hall resistance in Fe3Ga/Fe-Ga hybrid structural is compared with the Fe-Ga single crystal, which is solid evidence for spin polarization by local magnetic clusters.

  4. The temperature dependence of intersubband absorption in a barrier-doped GaAs/Al 0.3Ga 0.7As quantum well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmulowicz, F.; Manasreh, M. O.; Fischer, D. W.; Madarasz, F.; Evans, K. R.; Stutz, E.; Vaughan, T.

    We compare the results of an envelope function (EFA) calculation of absorption spectra as a function of temperature of a barrier-doped GaAs/Al 0.3Ga 0.7As multiple quantum well (MQW) with experimental results. The linewidth, total integrated area, and peak positions of the intersubband transition (IT) in the MQW were measured as a function of temperature with the infrared absorption technique. We infer the density of electrons σ in the well from the total integrated intensity of the IT. Using the temperature dependence of σ we find that the Fermi energy in our MQW is also temperature dependent. The peak position of the IT is found to exhibit a nonlinear blue shift as the temperature is lowered. We calculate a one-electron energy band structure of the MQW versus the in-plane wave vector as a function of temperature using Ekenberg's nonparabolic-anisotropic EFA formalism. In our calculation we employ temperature dependent effective masses in both the well and barrier materials and temperature dependent conduction band offset and nonparabolicity parameter. Using the calculated bands and Fermi distribution functions to reflect the occupancies of both the ground and excited states with temperature dependent Fermi levels, we also obtain the optical absorption spectra as a function of temperature. These "raw" calculated spectra are then convoluted with a Lorentzian broadening function using the broadening parameters obtained from the measured lineshapes. The peak of the broadened spectra shows hardly any shift as a function of temperature. We conclude that the exchange interaction for the ground state electrons, which is temperature dependent owing to the temperature dependence of σ, is responsible for the observed peak positions as well as for their blue shift.

  5. First principles calculations of La2O3/GaAs interface properties under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li-Bin; Li, Ming-Biao; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Xu-Yang; Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Chun-Ran; Dong, Hai-Kuan

    2017-04-01

    La2O3 is a potential dielectric material with high permittivity (high-κ) for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. However, band offsets and oxide defects should still be concerned. Smaller band offsets and carrier traps increase leakage current, and degenerate performance of the devices. In this paper, the interface behaviors of La2O3/GaAs under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure are investigated, which is performed by first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Strain engineering is attempted to improve performance of the metal/La2O3/GaAs devices. First of all, we creatively realize band alignment of La2O3/GaAs interface under biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure. The proper biaxial tensile strain can effectively increase valence band offsets (VBO) and conduction band offsets (CBO), which can be used to suppress leakage current. However, the VBO will decrease with the increase of hydrostatic pressure, indicating that performance of the devices is degenerated. Then, a direct tunneling leakage current model is used to investigate current and voltage characteristics of the metal/La2O3/GaAs. The impact of biaxial strain and hydrostatic pressure on leakage current is discussed. At last, formation energies and transition levels of oxygen interstitial (Oi) and oxygen vacancy (VO) in La2O3 are assessed. We investigate how they will affect performance of the devices.

  6. Phase-separated magnetic ground state in Mn3Ga0.45Sn0.55C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, E. T.; Priolkar, K. R.; Nigam, A. K.; Singh, R.; Das, A.; Aquilanti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The existence of nonergodic ground states is considered as a precursor to a first-order long-range magnetostructural transformation. Mn3Ga0.45Sn0.55C lies compositionally between two compounds, Mn3GaC and Mn3SnC , undergoing first-order magnetic transformation. However, Mn3Ga0.45Sn0.55C , which crystallizes in a single-phase cubic structure, exhibits more than one long-range magnetic transition. Using a combination of magnetization, ac susceptibility, neutron diffraction, and x-ray-absorption fine-structure techniques, it is shown that, although Mn3Ga0.45Sn0.55C exhibits long-range magnetic order, it presents a cluster glassy ground state due to formation of magnetically ordered Ga-rich and Sn-rich clusters. The clusters are big enough to present signatures of long-range magnetic order but are distributed in a way that limits interactions between two clusters of the same type, leading to a frozen magnetic state at low temperatures. The main reason for such a cluster-glass state is the difference in the local structure of Mn atoms that find themselves in Ga-rich and Sn-rich clusters.

  7. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  8. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  9. Green-Emitting Gd3Ga5O12: Tb3+ Nanoparticles Phosphor: Synthesis, Structure, and Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchechko, A.; Kostyk, L.; Varvarenko, S.; Tsvetkova, O.; Kravets, O.

    2017-04-01

    Nano- and microceramics of Gd3Ga5O12 garnet doped with 1 mol % Tb3+ ions were synthesized via co-precipitation and high-temperature solid-state reaction methods. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the formation of the garnet structure with Ia3d space group in all investigated samples. Atomic force microscopy surface images and grain-size distribution diagrams of Gd3Ga5O12: 1 mol % Tb3+ nanoceramics with 300 and 400 g/mol of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were obtained. The relationship between the content of polyethylene glycol and the particle size of Gd3Ga5O12: Tb3+ phosphors was revealed. An intense broad band ( λ m = 266 nm) related to spin-allowed 4 f 8-4 f 75 d 1 transitions of Tb3+ ions was found in photoluminescence excitation spectra of Gd3Ga5O12: Tb3+ nanocrystalline ceramics with PEG-300 and PEG-400 at 300 K. The broad excitation band caused by spin-forbidden ( λ m = 295 nm) 4 f-5 d transitions in Tb3+ ions was additionally observed in the photoluminescence excitation spectra of Gd3Ga5O12: Tb3+ microceramics. Emission of Tb3+ ions under X-ray and UV excitations is presented by two groups of sharp lines which correspond to 5D3 and 5D4 → 7Fj transitions of Tb3+ ions with the most intense line at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5). It was established that the increasing of PEG content leads to the decreasing of the X-ray and photoluminescence emission intensities.

  10. Magnetooptics of the luminescent transitions in Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, Uygun V.; Gruber, John B.; Ivanov, Igor'A.; Burdick, Gary W.; Liang, Hongbin; Zhou, Lei; Fu, Dejun; Pelenovich, Oleg V.; Pelenovich, Vasiliy O.; Lin, Zhou

    2015-08-01

    The spectra of the luminescence and magnetic circular polarization of luminescence in terbium-gadolinium gallium garnet Tb3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Tb3+:GGG) were studied within the visible spectral range at temperatures T = 90 and 300 K in an external magnetic field of 0.45 T. The Zeeman effect in the luminescence "green" band associated with 4f → 4f transition 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+:GGG was also studied at T = 90 K in an external field of 0.55 T. Measurement of the Zeeman effect in Tb3+:GGG carried out for some doublet lines of the luminescence band 5D4 → 7F5 at T = 90 K shows that a magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the emitted light is observed on these lines, in contrast to pure Zeeman splitting of the emission lines measured in the luminescence band 5D4 → 7F6. For the systems we have studied, the maximal value of the magnetooptical effect of the intensity change of the luminescence line at low temperatures has been achieved in paramagnetic garnet Tb0.2Y2.8Al5O12 at comparatively low magnetic fields.

  11. Optical decoherence studies of Tm3 +:Y3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, C. W.; Sinclair, N.; Tittel, W.; Cone, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Decoherence of the 795 nm 3H6 to 3H4 transition in 1 %Tm3 +:Y3Ga5O12 (Tm:YGG) is studied at temperatures as low as 1.2 K. The temperature, magnetic field, frequency, and time scale (spectral diffusion) dependence of the optical coherence lifetime is measured. Our results show that the coherence lifetime is impacted less by spectral diffusion than other known thulium-doped materials. Photon echo excitation and spectral hole burning methods reveal uniform decoherence properties and the possibility to produce full transparency for persistent spectral holes across the entire 56 GHz inhomogeneous bandwidth of the optical transition. Temperature-dependent decoherence is well described by elastic Raman scattering of phonons with an additional weaker component that may arise from a low density of glass-like dynamic disorder modes (two-level systems). Analysis of the observed behavior suggests that an optical coherence lifetime approaching 1 ms may be possible in this system at temperatures below 1 K for crystals grown with optimized properties. Overall, we find that Tm:YGG has superior decoherence properties compared to other Tm-doped crystals and is a promising candidate for applications that rely on long coherence lifetimes, such as optical quantum memories and photonic signal processing.

  12. Thermodynamic stability of Ga2O3(Gd2O3)/GaAs interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Yang, Z. K.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Liu, H. J.; Kwo, J.; Mannaerts, J. P.; Hong, M.

    2005-05-01

    Ga2O3(Gd2O3)/GaAs heterostructures have been annealed up to ˜780°C. Studies using x-ray reflectivity and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the samples annealed under ultrahigh vacuum have maintained smooth and abrupt interfaces with the interfacial roughness being less than 0.2nm. The oxide remains amorphous, an important parameter for device consideration. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements have shown low leakage currents (10-8-10-9A/cm2), a high dielectric constant of 15, and a low interfacial density of states (Dit) between gate dielectrics and GaAs. The attainment of a smooth interface between the gate dielectric and GaAs, even after high temperature annealing for activating implanted dopant, is a must to ensure the low (Dit) and to maintain a high carrier mobility in the channel of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor.

  13. Pressure-induced structural evolution and amorphization in Eu3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. L.; Li, Y. C.; Li, X. D.; Li, R.; Lin, J. F.; Liu, J.

    2013-10-01

    Crystal structural evolution of europium gallium garnet (Eu3Ga5O12; EGG) has been investigated by a combination of synchrotron x-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy in a high-pressure diamond anvil cell. The cubic garnet EGG mostly collapses into an amorphous state upon compression to 85 GPa at room temperature. High-pressure Raman and photoluminescence spectra indicate that the amorphization process is related to the interaction and deformation of the tetrahedra GaO4 and octahedra GaO6 under compression, leading to the increase of the asymmetry of the local oxygen environment around the Eu3+ site with increasing pressures. The amorphization of EGG is associated with the overlapping of the tetrahedra and octahedra and the increase of the average coordination numbers of the Ga3+ ions in the amorphous state. X-ray diffraction spectra of EGG taken from a laser-heated diamond anvil cell demonstrate that the pressure-induced garnet-to-amorphous transition could result from the kinetic hindrance of a crystal-to-crystal phase transition at room temperature, rather than the decomposition reported earlier.

  14. Al00.3Ga0.7N PN diode with breakdown voltage >1600 V

    DOE PAGES

    Allerman, A. A.; Armstrong, A. M.; Fischer, A. J.; ...

    2016-07-21

    Demonstration of Al00.3Ga0.7N PN diodes grown with breakdown voltages in excess of 1600 V is reported. The total epilayer thickness is 9.1 μm and was grown by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy on 1.3-mm-thick sapphire in order to achieve crack-free structures. A junction termination edge structure was employed to control the lateral electric fields. A current density of 3.5 kA/cm2 was achieved under DC forward bias and a reverse leakage current <3 nA was measured for voltages <1200 V. The differential on-resistance of 16 mΩ cm2 is limited by the lateral conductivity of the n-type contact layer required by the front-surface contactmore » geometry of the device. An effective critical electric field of 5.9 MV/cm was determined from the epilayer properties and the reverse current–voltage characteristics. To our knowledge, this is the first aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN)-based PN diode exhibiting a breakdown voltage in excess of 1 kV. Finally, we note that a Baliga figure of merit (Vbr2/Rspec,on) of 150 MW/cm2 found is the highest reported for an AlGaN PN diode and illustrates the potential of larger-bandgap AlGaN alloys for high-voltage devices.« less

  15. Magma source transition of lunar mare volcanism at 2.3 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Shinsuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Watanabe, Sei-Ichiro; Otake, Hisashi; Ohtake, Makiko

    2017-09-01

    Mare basalts provide insights into the composition and thermal history of the lunar mantle. The ages of mare basalts suggest a first peak of magma activity at 3.2-3.8 Ga and a second peak at 2 Ga. In this study, we reassess the correlation between the titanium contents and the eruption ages of mare basalt units using the compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE (Kaguya). Using morphological and geological criteria, we calculated the titanium content of 261 mare units across a representative area of each mare unit. In the Procellarum KREEP Terrane, where the latest eruptions are located, an increase in the mean titanium content is observed during the Eratosthenian period, as reported by previous studies. We found that the increase in the mean titanium content occurred within a relatively short period near approximately 2.3 Ga, suggesting that the magma source of the mare basalts changed at this particular age. Moreover, the high-titanium basaltic eruptions are correlated with a second peak in volcanic activity near 2 Ga. The high-titanium basaltic eruptions occurring during the last volcanic activity period can be explained by the three possible scenarios (1) the ilmenite-bearing cumulate rich layer in the core-mantle boundary formed after the mantle overturn, (2) the basaltic material layers beneath the lunar crust formed through upwelling magmas, and (3) ilmenite-bearing cumulate blocks remained in the upper mantle after the mantle overturn.

  16. Magma source transition of lunar mare volcanism at 2.3 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Morota, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Otake, H.; Ohtake, M.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar mare basalts, the most common volcanic feature on the Moon, provide insights into compositions and thermal history of lunar mantle. According to the model ages of mare basalt units determined by crater counting with remote sensing data indicate that magma activity has a second peak at the end of mare volcanism (~2 Ga), and the latest eruptions were limited in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), which is characterized by high abundances of heat-producing elements. In order to understand the magma source of the latest volcanism and mechanism for causing the second peak, we examined the correlation between the titanium contents and eruption ages of mare basalt units using compositional and chronological data updated by SELENE/Kaguya. Although the systematic relationship is not observed globally, a rapid increase in mean titanium (Ti) content occurred at 2.3 Ga in the PKT, suggesting that the magma source of mare basalts changed at that time. The high-Ti basaltic eruptions can be correlated with the second peak of volcanic activity at ~2 Ga. The latest volcanic activity can be induced by a high-Ti hot plume originated from the core-mantle boundary. If the hot plume was occurred, the topographic features formed by the hot plume may be remained. Then, we calculated the difference between topography and selenoid and found the circular feature like a plateau in the center of the PKT, which scale is ~1000 km horizontal and ~500 m vertical. Moreover, mare ridges in this region seem to connect with the plateau. Using detailed models of the flexural response of the lunar elastic lithosphere, we estimated the elastic thickness at the time of occurrence of the hot plume. From our results, the effective elastic thickness at the period of latest volcanism is estimated 20-30 km, which is thinner than that of the period before ~2 Ga. These results may suggest that the up lift of lithosphere caused by the hot plume.

  17. Fundamental Bulk/Surface Structure Photoactivity Relationships of Supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Roberts, Charles; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst was examined as a model nitride photocatalyst system to assist in the development of fundamental structure photoactivity relationships for UV activated water splitting. Surface characterization of the outermost surface layers by High Sensitivity-LEIS and High Resolution-XPS revealed for the first time that the GaN support consists of a GaOx outermost surface layer and a thin film of GaOxNy in the surface region. HR-XPS also demonstrates that the supported (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide nanoparticles (NPs) exclusively consist of Cr+3 and Rh+3 cations and are surface enriched for the supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst. Bulk analysis by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy show that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of the GaN support are not perturbed by the deposition of the (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide NPs. The function of the GaN bulk lattice is to generate photoexcited electrons/holes, with the electrons harnessed by the surface Rh+3 sites for evolution of H2 and the holes trapped at the Ga oxide/oxynitride surface sites for splitting of water and evolving O2. These new structure-photoactivity relationships for supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN also extend to the best performing visible light activated supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/(Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) photocatalyst.

  18. Optical spectroscopy of La3Ga5SiO14 disordered crystals doped with Fe3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyabyeva, L.; Burkov, V.; Mill, B.

    2015-05-01

    The circular dichroism, absorption and luminescence spectra of langasite (La3Ga5SiO14) doped with iron ions (Fe) are investigated at temperatures T of 300 and 8 K. Analysis of the data obtained reveals the Fe ions are trivalent. The Fe3+ impurity ions substitute Ga3+ ions and occupy 3f tetrahedral sites. Luminescence from the 4T1 excited state of the dopant was detected at 8 K.

  19. Enantiomorphism of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} compound and comparison of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} and Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mill, B. V. Klimenkova, A. A.; Maximov, B. A.; Molchanov, V. N.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2007-09-15

    The absolute crystal structures of two enantiomorphic forms of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} crystals (a = 8.075(1) A, c = 4.9723(6) A, space group P321) with the positive and negative senses of the optical activity are determined using X-ray diffraction analysis. The final R factors are as follows: R = 1.75% and R{sub w} = 2.57% for the crystal with the positive sense of the optical activity and R = 1.86% and R{sub w} = 2.78% for the crystal with the negative sense of the optical activity. The replacement of the Ca{sup 2+} ions by larger Sr{sup 2+} ions (with the formation of the Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} compound) leads to an anisotropic expansion of the crystal lattice (with a more considerable increase in the lattice parameter a as compared to the lattice parameter c), a change in the occupation of the 1a and 3f positions by the Ga{sup 3+} and Ge{sup 4+} ions, and symmetrization of the octahedra and tetrahedra forming the structural framework. The shape of the dodecahedron changes so that its size along the polar electric axis 2 increases significantly. This change is the main factor responsible for the increase in the piezoelectric activity of the Sr{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} compound as compared to the piezoelectric activity of the Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} compound.

  20. Methylene blue test

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine the type or to treat methemoglobinemia , a blood disorder. ... Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... Normally, methylene blue quickly lowers the level of ... Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. ...

  1. The Blue Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, J. Joel

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the advantages of an elementary science activity in which students discover that blowing through a straw into a bromthymol blue solution changes the color to yellow. Directions are provided for preparing the bromthymol blue solution. (JR)

  2. Liquid Water at the Base of a 3 Ga Old Ice Sheet: A Glacial Interpretation of the Thumbprint Terrain in Isidis Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, O.; Souček, O.; Pochat, S.; Guidat, T.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical modeling and geomorphological mapping indicate the existence of a 3 km-thick polythermal ice sheet in Isidis Planitia, Mars, ca. 3 Ga ago. Liquid water was produced by melting of the base of this ice sheet.

  3. Magnetic properties and anisotropic magnetoresistance of antiperovskite nitride Mn{sub 3}GaN/Co{sub 3}FeN exchange-coupled bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, H. Ando, H.; Kuroki, Y.; Kawai, S.; Ueda, K.; Asano, H.

    2015-05-07

    Epitaxial bilayers of antiferromagnetic Mn{sub 3}GaN/ferromagnetic Co{sub 3}FeN with an antiperovskite structure were grown by reactive magnetron sputtering, and their structural, magnetic, and electrical properties were investigated. Exchange coupling with an exchange field H{sub ex} of 0.4 kOe at 4 K was observed for Mn{sub 3}GaN (20 nm)/Co{sub 3}FeN (5 nm) bilayers. Negative anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect in Co{sub 3}FeN was observed and utilized to detect magnetization reversal in exchange-coupled Mn{sub 3}GaN/Co{sub 3}FeN bilayers. The AMR results showed evidence for current-induced spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic Mn{sub 3}GaN.

  4. Blue Origin testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-20

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (r) discusses the upcoming testing of Blue Origin's BE-3 engine thrust chamber assembly with Steve Knowles, Blue Origin project manager, at the E-1 Test Stand during an April 20, 2012, visit to Stennis Space Center. Blue Origin is one of NASA's partners developing innovative systems to reach low-Earth orbit.

  5. Oxidation of the GaAs semiconductor at the Al2O3/GaAs junction.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Marjukka; Yasir, Muhammad; Lång, Jouko; Dahl, Johnny; Kuzmin, Mikhail; Mäkelä, Jaakko; Punkkinen, Marko; Laukkanen, Pekka; Kokko, Kalevi; Schulte, Karina; Punkkinen, Risto; Korpijärvi, Ville-Markus; Polojärvi, Ville; Guina, Mircea

    2015-03-14

    Atomic-scale understanding and processing of the oxidation of III-V compound-semiconductor surfaces are essential for developing materials for various devices (e.g., transistors, solar cells, and light emitting diodes). The oxidation-induced defect-rich phases at the interfaces of oxide/III-V junctions significantly affect the electrical performance of devices. In this study, a method to control the GaAs oxidation and interfacial defect density at the prototypical Al2O3/GaAs junction grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated. Namely, pre-oxidation of GaAs(100) with an In-induced c(8 × 2) surface reconstruction, leading to a crystalline c(4 × 2)-O interface oxide before ALD of Al2O3, decreases band-gap defect density at the Al2O3/GaAs interface. Concomitantly, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) from these Al2O3/GaAs interfaces shows that the high oxidation state of Ga (Ga2O3 type) decreases, and the corresponding In2O3 type phase forms when employing the c(4 × 2)-O interface layer. Detailed synchrotron-radiation XPS of the counterpart c(4 × 2)-O oxide of InAs(100) has been utilized to elucidate the atomic structure of the useful c(4 × 2)-O interface layer and its oxidation process. The spectral analysis reveals that three different oxygen sites, five oxidation-induced group-III atomic sites with core-level shifts between -0.2 eV and +1.0 eV, and hardly any oxygen-induced changes at the As sites form during the oxidation. These results, discussed within the current atomic model of the c(4 × 2)-O interface, provide insight into the atomic structures of oxide/III-V interfaces and a way to control the semiconductor oxidation.

  6. Simultaneous dual-wavelength laser operation at 937 and 1062 nm in Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Sun, G. C.; Li, Y. D.; Dong, Y.; Li, S. T.

    2013-08-01

    Diode-end-pumped continuous-wave (cw) simultaneous dual-wavelength laser operation at 937 and 1062 nm in a single Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd:GGG) crystal was demonstrated. A total output power of 1.12 W at the two fundamental wavelengths was achieved at incident pump power of 17.6 W. The optical-to-optical conversion was up to 6.4% with respect to the incident pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is first work on cw simultaneous dual-wavelength operation at 937 and 1062 nm in Nd:GGG crystal.

  7. Preparation and morphology, magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet nanodot arrays on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwang; Zheng, Hui; Han, Mangui

    2017-07-01

    In this work, yttrium iron garnet nanodot array has been deposited on Gd3Ga5O12 substrate by pulsed laser deposition through an ultrathin alumina mask. The morphology and magnetic properties of YIG nanodot array have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy displays the prepared nanodot array has a sharp distribution in diameter centered at 330 nm with standard deviation of 20 nm. X-ray diffraction θ-2θ and pole figure analysis show the yttrium iron garnet nanodot array has oriented growth. Moreover, typical hysteresis loops and ferromagnetic resonance spectra display larger coercivity and multi-resonance peaks which are ascribed to this unique structure.

  8. Optical Study of Filled Tetrahedral Compounds Li3AlN2 and Li3GaN2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadsetani, M.; Namjoo, S.; Nejati, H.

    2010-08-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical properties of filled tetrahedral semiconductors Li3AlN2 and Li3GaN2 has been performed, using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the density functional theory. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function ɛ( ω), the optical absorption coefficient I( ω), the reflectivity R( ω), and the electron energy loss function are calculated within the random phase approximation. The interband transitions responsible for the structures in the spectra are specified. Looking at optical matrix element, we note that the major peaks are dominated by transition from metal s, N 2 p states to N 2 p, Ga 3 d states. The theoretical calculated optical properties and electron energy loss spectrum yield a static dielectric constant of 5.34 and a plasmon energy of 19.47 eV for Li3GaN2. In the Li3AlN2 compound, the static dielectric constant decreases to 4.75 and yields a plasmon energy of 18.5 eV. The effect of spin-orbit coupling on the optical properties is also investigated and found to be quite small, especially in the low-energy region. In order to check the reliability of our calculations, analogous results obtained for Be3N2 in the same structure [space group Ia3(206)] are included in this work.

  9. Investigation on the structural and magnetic properties of sputtered TbFe{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}Ga heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ranchal, R.; Gonzalez-Martin, V.

    2011-09-01

    We have analyzed the structural and magnetic properties of as-grown and annealed [TbFe{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}Ga]{sub n} heterostructures grown by sputtering. Evidence of the bcc structure in the Fe{sub 3}Ga layers has been found. The diffraction peak related to this structure shifts to high angles with the annealing temperature. Also, we have observed a change in the microstructure of the Tb-Fe layers when the thickness layer is reduced in the as-grown heterostructures. Moreover, the Tb content is lower than 33% of the TbFe{sub 2} Laves phase and it depends on the layer thickness. The thermal treatments promote the increase of the Tb content, but only in the heterostructures with thick layers. The strong lattice mismatch between the Tb-Fe and Fe-Ga layers seems to prevent a complete Tb diffusion upon the annealing process. Thus, the crystallization of the TbFe{sub 2} Laves phase is inhibited in the heterostructures with thin layers, although our experimental results indicate the presence of potential magnetostrictive TbFeGa alloys.

  10. Role of Ce4+ in the scintillation mechanism of codoped Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yuntao; Meng, Fang; Li, Qi; ...

    2014-10-17

    To control the time-response performance of widely used cerium-activated scintillators in cutting-edge medical-imaging devices, such as time-of-flight positron-emission tomography, a comprehensive understanding of the role of Ce valence states, especially stable Ce4+, in the scintillation mechanism is essential. However, despite some progress made recently, an understanding of the physical processes involving Ce4+ is still lacking. The aim of this work is to clarify the role of Ce4+ in scintillators by studying Ca2+ codoped Gd3Ga3Al2O12∶Ce (GGAG∶Ce). By using a combination of optical absorption spectra and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopies, the correlation between Ca2+codoping content and the Ce4+ fraction is seen. The energy-levelmore » diagrams of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the Gd3Ga3Al2O12 host are established by using theoretical and experimental methods, which indicate a higher position of the 5d1 state of Ce4+ in the forbidden gap in comparison to that of Ce3+. Underlying reasons for the decay-time acceleration resulting from Ca2+ codoping are revealed, and the physical processes of the Ce4+-emission model are proposed and further demonstrated by temperature-dependent radioluminescence spectra under x-ray excitation.« less

  11. Luminescence and luminescence quenching in Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 scintillators doped with Ce3+.

    PubMed

    Ogiegło, Joanna M; Katelnikovas, Arturas; Zych, Aleksander; Jüstel, Thomas; Meijerink, Andries; Ronda, Cees R

    2013-03-28

    The optical properties of gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet, Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12, doped with Ce(3+) are investigated as a function of the Ga/Al ratio, aimed at an improved understanding of the energy flow and luminescence quenching in these materials. A decrease of both the crystal field strength and band gap with increasing content of Ga(3+) is observed and explained by the geometrical influence of Ga(3+) on the crystal field splitting of the 5d level in line with theoretical work of Muñoz-García et al. ( uñoz-García, A. B.; Seijo, L. Phys. Rev. B 2010, 82, 184118 ). Thermal quenching results in shorter decay times as well as reduced emission intensities for all samples in the temperature range from 100 to 500 K. An activation energy for emission quenching is calculated from the data. The band gap of the host is measured upon Ga substitution and the decrease in band gap is related to Ga(3+) substitution into tetrahedral sites after all octahedral sites are occupied in the garnet material. Based on the change in band gap and crystal field splitting, band diagrams can be constructed explaining the low thermal quenching temperatures in the samples with high Ga content. The highest luminescence intensity is found for Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 with 40% of Al(3+) replaced by Ga(3+).

  12. Ln3GaS6 (Ln = Dy, Y): new infrared nonlinear optical materials with high laser induced damage thresholds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Li, Bing-Xuan; Liu, Bin-Wen; Fan, Yu-Hang; Li, Xiao-Guo; Zeng, Hi-Yi; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2013-10-21

    Two new ternary rare earth chalcogenides, Dy3GaS6 (1) and Y3GaS6 (2), are reported here. They both crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmc21 (no. 36). Both are synthesized in pure phase and show phase-matchable second harmonic generation (SHG) of about 0.2 and 0.5 times, respectively for 1 and 2, as strong as that of KTiOPO4 (KTP) based on the powder SHG measurement at the wavelength of 1910 nm. They possess high powder laser induced damage thresholds (LIDTs), respectively, about 14 and 18 times that of AgGaS2 (AGS) based on the powder LIDT measurements under 1064 nm laser irradiation. They both exhibit wide transparency in the IR region (2.5–25 μm). It is believed that the title compounds are new candidates for nonlinear optical (NLO) materials in the IR region. To gain further insights into the NLO and LIDT properties of 1 and 2, the calculations of second-order NLO susceptibility and lattice energy density (LED) were also performed to explain their SHG efficiencies and high LIDTs.

  13. Giant barocaloric effect enhanced by the frustration of the antiferromagnetic phase in Mn3GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Daichi; Fujita, Asaya; Takenaka, Koshi; Kano, Mika

    2015-01-01

    First-order phase transitions are accompanied by a latent heat. Consequently, manipulating them by means of an external field causes a caloric effect. Although transitions from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic states are not controlled by a magnetic field, a large barocaloric effect is expected when strong cross-correlations between the volume and magnetic order occur. Here we examine how geometric frustration in itinerant antiferromagnetic compounds can enhance the barocaloric effect. We study the thermodynamic behaviour of the frustrated antiferromagnet Mn3GaN, and report an entropy change of 22.3 J kg-1 K-1 that is concomitant with a hydrostatic pressure change of 139 MPa. Furthermore, the calculated value of the adiabatic temperature change reaches 5 K by depressurization of 93 MPa. The giant barocaloric effect in Mn3GaN is caused by a frustration-driven enhancement of the ratio of volume change against the pressure coefficient of the Néel temperature. This mechanism for enhancing the barocaloric effect can form the basis for a new class of materials for solid-state refrigerants.

  14. Process intensification of fluidized bed dye-ligand adsorption of G3PDH from unclarified disrupted yeast: a case study of the performance of a high-density steel-agarose pellicular adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Ling, Tau Chuan; Lyddiatt, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The development of a process intensified primary capture step for the direct selective recovery of intracellular proteins from very dense particulate-containing yeast extract has been explored. The purification of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from bakers' yeast was chosen as a potential demonstration of this approach. A high throughput (50%, w/v, yeast extracts at a superficial linear velocity of 450 cm h(-1)) was achieved by adoption of a high-density adsorbent (UpFront steel-agarose; rho = 2.65 g ml(-1)) derivatized with selective ligand chemistries (Cibacron Blue 3GA). This should ultimately minimize adsorption time and maximize process efficiency of fluidized bed adsorption.

  15. Synthesis and luminescent properties of Gd3Ga2Al3O12 phosphors doped with Eu3+ or Ce3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, M. J.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    Eu3+-or Ce3+-doped gadolinium gallium aluminum garnet (GGAG), Gd3Ga2Al3O12, phosphors are fabricated using solid-state reactions with Gd2O3, Ga2O3, Al2O3, CeO2 and Eu2O3 powders. The Eu3+-or Ce3+-doped Gd3Ga2Al3O12 phosphors are sintered at 1300 °C or 1600 °C for 5 hours by using an electric furnace under normal atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy studies are carried out in order to analyze the physical properties of these materials, and their luminescence properties are also measured by using UV and X-ray sources. The Eu3+-or Ce3+-doped Gd3Ga2Al3O12 phosphors show higher light yields in comparison to commercial phosphors such as Gd2O2S:Tb (gadox). This indicates that Gd3Ga2Al3O12:Eu3+ phosphors are promising materials for use in X-ray imaging and dose monitoring at proton beamlines.

  16. Oceanic mantle rocks reveal evidence for an ancient, 1.2-1.3 Ga global melting event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, A. H.; Sergeev, D.; McTaminey, L.; Dale, C. W.; Meisel, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    It is now increasingly being recognized that many oceanic peridotites are refertilized harzburgites, and that the refertilization often masks an extremely refractory character of the original mantle rock 'protolith'. Oceanic peridotites are, when the effects of melt refertilization are undone, often too refractory to be simple mantle melting residues after the extraction of mid-ocean ridge basalts at a spreading center. Rhenium-osmium isotope analysis is a powerful method to look through the effects of refertilization and to obtain constraints on the age of the melting that produced the refractory mantle protolith. Rhenium-depletion model ages of such anomalously refractory oceanic mantle rocks - found as abyssal peridotites or as mantle xenoliths on ocean islands - are typically >1 Ga, i.e., much older than the ridge system at which they were emplaced. In my contribution I will show results from two case studies of refertilized anciently depleted mantle rocks (Macquarie Island 'abyssal' peridotites and Lanzarote mantle xenoliths). Interestingly, very refractory oceanic mantle rocks from sites all around the world show recurring evidence for a Mesoproterozoic (~1.2-1.3 Ga) melting event [1]. Therefore, oceanic mantle rocks seem to preserve evidence for ancient melting events of global significance. Alternatively, such mantle rocks may be samples of rafts of ancient continental lithospheric mantle. Laser-ablation osmium isotope 'dating' of large populations of individual osmium-bearing alloys from mantle rocks is the key to better constrain the nature and significance of these ancient depletion events. Osmium-bearing alloys form when mantle rocks are melted to high-degrees. We have now extracted over >250 detrital osmium alloys from placer gold occurrences in the river Rhine. These alloys are derived from outcrops of ophiolitic mantle rocks in the Alps, which include blocks of mantle rocks emplaced within the Tethys Ocean, and ultramafic lenses of unknown

  17. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic-field-induced transition in Mn{sub 3}GaC

    SciTech Connect

    Çakir, Ö.; Acet, M.; Farle, M.; Senyshyn, A.

    2014-01-28

    The antiperovskite Mn{sub 3}GaC undergoes an isostructural cubic–cubic first order transition from a low-temperature, large-cell-volume antiferromagnetic state to a high-temperature, small-cell-volume ferromagnetic state at around 160 K. The transition can also be induced by applying a magnetic field. We study here the isothermal magnetic-field-evolution of the transition as ferromagnetism is stabilized at the expense of antiferromagnetism. We make use of the presence of the two distinct cell volumes of the two magnetic states as a probe to observe by neutron diffraction the evolution of the transition, as the external magnetic field carries the system from the antiferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic state. We show that the large-volume antiferromagnetic and the small-volume ferromagnetic states coexist in the temperature range of the transition. The ferromagnetic state is progressively stabilized as the field increases.

  18. Ground state of the easy-axis rare-earth kagome langasite Pr3Ga5SiO14.

    PubMed

    Zorko, A; Bert, F; Mendels, P; Marty, K; Bordet, P

    2010-02-05

    We report muon spin relaxation and {69,71}Ga nuclear quadrupolar resonance local-probe investigations of the kagome compound Pr3Ga5SiO14. Small quasistatic random internal fields develop below 40 K and persist down to our base temperature of 21 mK. They originate from hyperfine-enhanced 141Pr nuclear magnetism which requires a nonmagnetic Pr3+ crystal-field (CF) ground state. In addition, we observe a broad maximum of the relaxation rate at approximately 10 K which we attribute to the population of the first excited magnetic CF level. Our results yield a Van Vleck paramagnet picture, at variance with the formerly proposed spin-liquid ground state.

  19. X-ray spectra and electronic structure of the Ca3Ga2Ge3О12 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherba, I. D.; Kostyk, L. V.; Noga, H.; Bekenov, L. V.; Uskokovich, D.; Jatsyk, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    The band structure of Ca3Ga2Ge3О12 with the garnet structure has been determined for the first time by X-ray emission and photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been established that the bottom of the valence band is formed by Ge d states, which are not dominant in the chemical bonding. Strong hybridization of oxygen 2s states with 4p states of Ga and Ge revealed by the presence of an extra structure in the X-ray emission spectra has been found. The middle of the valence band has been demonstrated to be occupied by d states of Ga, while Ga and Ge 4рstates with a considerable admixture of oxygen 2p states form the top of the valence band.

  20. Continuous-wave laser operation of diode-pumped Tm-doped Gd3Ga5O12 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Lan, Jinglong; Zhou, Zhiyong; Guan, Xiaofeng; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Wang, Yan; Tu, Chaoyang

    2017-04-01

    We report on a diode-pumped Tm:Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) laser at 2004 nm operated in continuous-wave mode with two-mirror linear cavity configuration. The maximum output power reaches 0.58 W with laser threshold absorbed pump power of about 0.39 W and overall slope efficiency of about 18.4%, which is believed to be the highest output power for Tm:GGG laser up to now. The Tm:GGG laser shows obvious thermally induced saturation of the output power, which indicated that power and efficiency scaling could be furtherly realized by more efficient thermal removal of the laser crystal.

  1. Fabrication of Ce3+ doped Gd3Ga3Al2O12 ceramics by reactive sintering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yong; Liu, Peng; Yan, Dongyue; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Ce3+ doped Gd3Ga3Al2O12 (Ce:GGAG) ceramics were fabricated by solid state reactive sintering method in this study. The ceramics were pre-sintered in normal muffle furnace in air at various temperature range from 1410 °C to 1550 °C for 10 h and post-treated by hot isostatic press at 1400 °C/2 h in 200 MPa Ar. The phase and microstructure evolution of Ce: GGAG samples during the densification process were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. Pure GGAG phase appeared with the temperature increased to 1200 °C. The fully dense and translucent GGAG ceramics were fabricated by pre-sintering at 1450 °C and followed by HIP treatment.

  2. Er1.33Pt3Ga8: A modulated variant of the Er4Pt9Al24-structure type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Iain W. H.; Gourdon, Olivier; Bekins, Amy; Evans, Jess; Treadwell, LaRico J.; Chan, Julia Y.; Macaluso, Robin T.

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of Er1.33Pt3Ga8 were synthesized in a molten Ga flux. Er1.33Pt3Ga8 can be considered to be a modulated variant of the Er4Pt9Al24-structure type, where the partial occupancies are ordered. Indeed, the presence of weak satellite reflections indicates a complex organization and distribution of the Er and Ga atoms within the [ErGa] slabs. The structure has been solved based on single crystal X-ray diffraction data in the monoclinic superspace group X2/m(0β0)00 with a commensurate modulated vector q=1/3b*. Precession images also indicate diffusion in the perpendicular direction indicating a partial disorder of this arrangement from layer to layer. In addition, Er1.33Pt3Ga8 shows antiferromagnetic ordering at TN~5 K.

  3. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  4. Introducing the Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of the blues and presents a list of resources that are designed to introduce the blues, both as a feeling and as an influential part of American music and culture. Includes picture books and nonfiction for young readers, nonfiction for older readers, Web sites, and compact disks. (LRW)

  5. Blue Ocean Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  6. Templated blue phases.

    PubMed

    Ravnik, Miha; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-21

    Cholesteric blue phases of a chiral liquid crystal are interesting examples of self-organised three-dimensional nanostructures formed by soft matter. Recently it was demonstrated that a polymer matrix introduced by photopolymerization inside a bulk blue phase not only stabilises the host blue phase significantly, but also serves as a template for blue phase ordering. We show with numerical modelling that the transfer of the orientational order of the blue phase to the surfaces of the polymer matrix, together with the resulting surface anchoring, can account for the templating behaviour of the polymer matrix inducing the blue phase ordering of an achiral nematic liquid crystal. Furthermore, tailoring the anchoring conditions of the polymer matrix surfaces can bring about orientational ordering different from those of bulk blue phases, including an intertwined complex of the polymer matrix and topological line defects of orientational order. Optical Kerr response of templated blue phases is explored, finding large Kerr constants in the range of K = 2-10 × 10(-9) m V(-2) and notable dependence on the surface anchoring strength. More generally, the presented numerical approach is aimed to clarify the role and actions of templating polymer matrices in complex chiral nematic fluids, and further to help design novel template-based materials from chiral liquid crystals.

  7. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  8. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  9. List 47: blue honeysuckle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This summary presents the descriptions of a newly released blue honeysuckle (Lonicera cerulea L.) cultivar for the List of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars. This blue honeysuckle cultivar was released in Canada in 2012 and has pending Plant Breeder’s Rights Certification with Agriculture Canada. The cult...

  10. After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Light May Help Beat the Blues Akin to sunlight, it could ward off depression during rehab, study ... facility used "blue" light in its lighting system. Sunlight is humans' largest source of blue-spectrum light, ...

  11. High temperature mass spectrometric studies on Usbnd Ga system: Thermodynamic properties over (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and (UGa2 + UGa3) phase regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, P.; Trinadh, V. V.; Bera, Suranjan; Narasimhan, T. S. Lakshmi; Joseph, M.

    2016-07-01

    Vaporisation studies over gallium rich biphasic regions (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and (UGa2 + UGa3) in the Usbnd Ga system were carried out by Knusen effusion mass spectrometry in the temperature ranges of 1208-1366 K and 1133-1338 K, respectively. Ga(g) was the species observed in the mass spectra of the equilibrium vapour over both phase regions. From temperature dependence measurements, pressure-temperature relations were deduced as: log (pGa/Pa) = (-18216 ± 239)/(T/K) + (12.88 ± 0.18) over (U3Ga5 + UGa2) and log (pGa/Pa) = (-16225 ± 124)/(T/K) + (11.78 ± 0.10) over (UGa2 + UGa3). From these data, Gibbs free energy changes for the reactions 3UGa2(s) = U3Ga5(s) + Ga(g) and UGa3(s) = UGa2(s) + Ga(g) were computed and subsequently Gibbs free energies of formation of U3Ga5(s) and UGa3(s) were deduced as ΔfGTo U3Ga5(s) (±5.5) = -352.4 + 0.133 T(K) (kJ mol-1) (1208-1366 K) and ΔfGTo UGa3(s) (±3.8) = -191.9 + 0.082 T(K) (kJ mol-1) (1133-1338 K). The Gibbs free energy of formation of U3Ga5(s) is being reported for the first time.

  12. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    PubMed

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  13. FROM BLUE JEANS TO BLUE GENES

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. Dr Mulliken envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of two young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for-gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in the field of vascular anomalies. Two blue genes’ mutations were discovered, which account for the majority, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved thanks to Dr Mulliken, who inspired two young investigators in blue jeans to find two blue genes. PMID:19190503

  14. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  15. Faraday rotation and photoluminescence in heavily Tb3+-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses for fiber-integrated magneto-optics

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A.; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-01-01

    We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb3+-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb3+ ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 1021 cm−3, the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400–1500 nm is found for a Tb3+ concentration of ~6.5 × 1021 cm−3. For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb3+ photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10−21 cm2 for ~ 5.0 × 1021 cm−3 Tb3+. This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10−24 cm2s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb3+ fiber laser. PMID:25754819

  16. Faraday rotation and photoluminescence in heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses for fiber-integrated magneto-optics.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guojun; Winterstein-Beckmann, Anja; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Dubs, Carsten; Dellith, Jan; Schmidt, Markus A; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2015-03-10

    We report on the magneto-optical (MO) properties of heavily Tb(3+)-doped GeO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Ga2O3 glasses towards fiber-integrated paramagnetic MO devices. For a Tb(3+) ion concentration of up to 9.7 × 10(21) cm(-3), the reported glass exhibits an absolute negative Faraday rotation of ~120 rad/T/m at 632.8 nm. The optimum spectral ratio between Verdet constant and light transmittance over the spectral window of 400-1500 nm is found for a Tb(3+) concentration of ~6.5 × 10(21) cm(-3). For this glass, the crystallization stability, expressed as the difference between glass transition temperature and onset temperature of melt crystallization exceeds 100 K, which is a prerequisite for fiber drawing. In addition, a high activation energy of crystallization is achieved at this composition. Optical absorption occurs in the NUV and blue spectral region, accompanied by Tb(3+) photoluminescence. In the heavily doped materials, a UV/blue-to-green photo-conversion gain of ~43% is achieved. The lifetime of photoluminescence is ~2.2 ms at a stimulated emission cross-section σem of ~1.1 × 10(-21) cm(2) for ~ 5.0 × 10(21) cm(-3) Tb(3+). This results in an optical gain parameter σem*τ of ~2.5 × 10(-24) cm(2)s, what could be of interest for implementation of a Tb(3+) fiber laser.

  17. Mongolian blue spots

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises. This can raise a question about possible child abuse. It is important to recognize that Mongolian blue ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 11. Read More Benign Child abuse - physical Rashes Review Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  18. Pale Blue Orb

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-19

    NASA Cassini casts powerful eyes on our home planet, and captures Earth, a pale blue orb, and a faint suggestion of our moon, among the glories of the Saturn system in this image taken Sept. 15, 2006.

  19. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  20. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions, cancer, fatty liver disease, hepatitis C, and arsenic poisoning. Blue-green algae are applied inside the mouth ... people with insulin resistance due to HIV medication. Arsenic poisoning. Early research shows that taking 250 mg of ...

  1. Village Blue Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Village Blue research project provides real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay.

  2. Mongolian blue spots (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian blue spots are flat bluish- to bluish-gray skin markings commonly appearing at birth or shortly ... back and also can appear on the shoulders. Mongolian spots are benign and are not associated with ...

  3. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties and Carrier Transport Mechanisms of TMAH-Treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Puneetha, Peddathimula; Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Lee, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Park, Chinho

    2016-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electrical properties and carrier transport mechanisms of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes have been investigated by current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements. The experimental results reveal that the barrier height ( I- V) increases whereas the ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature. The TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode showed nonideal behaviors which indicate the presence of a nonuniform distribution of interface states ( N SS) and effect of series resistance ( R S). The obtained R S and N SS were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Furthermore, it was found that different transport mechanisms dominated in the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode. At 150 K to 250 K, Poole-Frenkel emission (PFE) was found to be responsible for the reverse leakage, while Schottky emission (SE) was the dominant mechanism at high electric fields in the temperature range from 300 K to 400 K. Feasible energy band diagrams and possible carrier transport mechanisms for the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode are discussed based on PFE and SE.

  4. The Czochralski Growth of Large Diameter La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 Crystals Along Different Orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Luo,J.; Shah, D.; Klemenz, C.; Dudley, M.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    La3Ga5SiO14, La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 and La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 crystals exhibit outstanding piezoelectric properties. They are of considerable interest for high-precision resonators. Although the synthesis of these crystals has been actively pursued over the past years, there are still some setbacks slowing down industrial applications. We report on the growth of La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT) crystals by the Czochralski growth along left angle bracket0 0 1right-pointing angle bracket, left angle bracket1 0 0right-pointing angle bracket and left angle bracket1 2 0right-pointing angle bracket. These crystals were characterized by different techniques, including X-ray synchrotron topography. LGT crystals show a facet structure which determines the overall 3D distribution of other defects and strain. The relationship between faceting and crystal imperfections such as striations, dislocations, and inclusions will be discussed. After optimization of growth conditions, inclusions-free, colorless transparent single crystals with a diameter of 2' were obtained. These crystals were processed into Y-cut plano-convex resonators, and the Qf product measured from fundamental to ninth overtone. Values exceeding the limit of AT- and SC-cut quartz were obtained.

  5. Polarization-induced interfacial coupling modulations in BaTiO3/GaN heterojunction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Pandey, B. K.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the ferroelectric polarization-induced switchable interfacial coupling modulations in BaTiO3/GaN heterojunction transport behaviour. The ferroelectric barium titanate, BaTiO3 (BTO) was integrated with polar semiconductor gallium nitride (GaN). BTO with a tetragonal structure was deposited on a wurtzite (0 0 0 1) epitaxial GaN/c-Al2O3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition, which was further confirmed by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. BTO/GaN heterojunctions with resistive switching behaviour exhibited modulations in transport characteristics due to the interfacial coupling. The ferroelectric nature and interfacial coupling effect of this heterojunction was confirmed with the help of piezo-response force microscopy. A valence band offset of 0.82 eV and conduction band offset of 0.62 eV were obtained for BTO/GaN heterojunctions by x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. This interfacial coupling phenomenon was analysed and its effect on the carrier conduction in the heterojunction was investigated by band alignment studies.

  6. Carotenoid genes transcriptional regulation for astaxanthin accumulation in fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis by gibberellin A3 (GA3).

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengquan; Meng, Chunxiao; Gao, Hongzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Zhou, Shitan; Liu, Banghui; Su, Yuanfeng; Ye, Naihao

    2013-12-01

    The fresh water unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis is a promising natural source of astaxanthin. The present study investigated the transcriptional expression of carotenoid genes for astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). With treatments of 20 and 40 mg/L of gibberllin A3 (GA3), five genes ipi-1, ipi-2, psy, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated with different expression profiles. GA20 (20 mg/L of GA3) treatment had a greater effect on transcriptional expression of bkt2 than on ipi-1 ipi-2, psy and pds (> 4-fold up-regulation). However, GA40 (40 mg/L of GA3) induced more transcriptional expression of ipi-2, psy and bkt2 than both ipi-1 and pds. The expression of lyc, crtR-B and crtO for astaxanthin biosynthesis was not affected by GA3 in H. piuvialis. In the presence of GA3, astaxanthin biosynthesis genes of ipi-1, pds and bkt2 were up-regulated at transcriptional level, psy at post-transcriptional level, whereas ipi-2 was up-regulated at both levels. The study could potentially lead to a scale application of exogenous GA3 in astaxanthin production with H. pluvialis just like GAs perform in increasing crops production and it would provide new insight about the multifunctional roles of carotenogenesis in response to GA3.

  7. Crystal field effects in the intermetallic R Ni3Ga9 (R =Tb , Dy, Ho, and Er) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, L. S.; Mercena, S. G.; Garcia, D. J.; Bittar, E. M.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Lora-Serrano, R.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity experiments in the family of intermetallic compounds R Ni3Ga9 (R = Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er). Single-crystalline samples were grown using Ga self-flux method. These materials crystallize in a trigonal ErNi3Al9 -type structure with space group R 32 . They all order antiferromagnetically with TN<20 K . The anisotropic magnetic susceptibility presents large values of the ratio χeasy/χhard indicating strong crystalline electric-field (CEF) effects. The evolution of the crystal-field scheme for each R was analyzed in detail by using a spin model including anisotropic nearest-neighbor Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction and the trigonal CEF Hamiltonian. Our analysis allows one to understand the distinct direction of the ordered moments along the series—the Tb-, Dy-, and Ho-based compounds have the ordered magnetic moments in the easy ab plane and the Er sample magnetization easy axis is along the c ̂ direction.

  8. Infrared-to-Visible Light Conversion in Er(3+) -Yb(3+) :Lu3 Ga5 O12 Nanogarnets.

    PubMed

    Rathaiah, Mamilla; Haritha, Pamuluri; Linganna, Kadathala; Monteseguro, Virginia; Martín, Inocencio Rafael; Lozano-Gorrín, Antonio Diego; Babu, Palamandala; Jayasankar, Chalicheemalapalli Kulala; Lavín, Victor; Venkatramu, Vemula

    2015-12-21

    Er(3+) -Yb(3+) co-doped Lu3 Ga5 O12 nanogarnets were prepared and characterized; their structural and luminescence properties were determined as a function of the Yb(3+) concentration. The morphology of the nanogarnets was studied by HRTEM. Under 488 nm excitation, the nanogarnets emit green, red, and near-infrared light. The decay curves for the ((4) S3/2 , (2) H11/2 ) and (4) F9/2 levels of the Er(3+) ions exhibit a non-exponential nature under resonant laser excitation and their effective lifetimes are found to decrease with an increase in the Yb(3+) concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mol %. The non-exponential decay curves are well fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama model for S=8, indicating that the mechanism of interaction for energy transfer between the optically active ions is of dipole-quadrupole type. Upon 976 nm laser excitation, an intense green upconverted emission is clearly observed by the naked eyes. A significant enhancement of the red-to-green intensity ratio of Er(3+) ions was observed with an increase in Yb(3+) concentration. The power dependence and the dynamics of the upconverted emission confirm the existence of two-photon upconversion processes for the green and red emissions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Temperature and pressure dependence of the optical properties of Cr3+-doped Gd3Ga5O12 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, R; Valiente, R; Rodríguez, F; Bettinelli, M

    2011-07-01

    Since the crystal-field strength at the Cr(3+) site is very close to the excited-state crossover (ESCO), this work investigates the optical properties of Cr(3+)-doped Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) (GGG) nanoparticles as a function of temperature and pressure in order to establish the effect of the ESCO on the optical behaviour of nanocrystalline GGG. Luminescence, time-resolved emission and lifetime measurements have been performed on GGG:0.5% Cr(3+) nanoparticles in the 25-300 K temperature range, as well as under hydrostatic pressure up to 20 GPa. We show how low temperature and high pressure progressively transforms Cr(3+)(4)T(2) --> (4)A(2) broadband emission into a ruby-like (2)E --> (4)A(2) luminescence. This behaviour together with the lifetime dependence on pressure and temperature are explained on the basis of the spin-orbit interaction between the (4)T(2) and (2)E states of Cr(3+).

  10. Temperature and pressure dependence of the optical properties of Cr3 + -doped Gd3Ga5O12 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Rodríguez, R.; Valiente, R.; Rodríguez, F.; Bettinelli, M.

    2011-07-01

    Since the crystal-field strength at the Cr3 + site is very close to the excited-state crossover (ESCO), this work investigates the optical properties of Cr3 + -doped Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) nanoparticles as a function of temperature and pressure in order to establish the effect of the ESCO on the optical behaviour of nanocrystalline GGG. Luminescence, time-resolved emission and lifetime measurements have been performed on GGG:0.5% Cr3 + nanoparticles in the 25-300 K temperature range, as well as under hydrostatic pressure up to 20 GPa. We show how low temperature and high pressure progressively transforms {Cr}^{3+}~^{4} {T}_{2} \\to {}^{4} {A}_{2} broadband emission into a ruby-like ^{2} {E} \\to {}^{4} {A}_{2} luminescence. This behaviour together with the lifetime dependence on pressure and temperature are explained on the basis of the spin-orbit interaction between the 4T2 and 2E states of Cr3 + .

  11. On trapping mechanisms at oxide-traps in Al2O3/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, D.; Chan, S. H.; Liu, X.; Yeluri, R.; Keller, S.; Meneghini, M.; Meneghesso, G.; Zanoni, E.; Mishra, U. K.

    2016-03-01

    By means of combined current-voltage and capacitance-voltage sweep and transient measurements, we present the effects of forward-bias stress and charge trapping mechanisms at oxide traps in Al2O3/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors grown in-situ by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Two main current-voltage regimes have been identified: a low-field regime characterized by low gate-current and low flat-band voltage instabilities, and a high-field regime triggered for oxide field greater than 3.3 MV/cm and characterized by the onset of parasitic leakage current and positive flat-band shift. In the low-voltage regime, gate current transients convey stress/relaxation kinetics based on a power-law, suggesting that tunneling trapping mechanisms occur at near-interface traps aligned with the GaN conduction-band minimum. In the high-voltage regime, devices experience parasitic conduction mechanisms and enhanced charge-trapping at oxide-traps revealed by very slow recovery transients.

  12. Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?*

    PubMed Central

    Daltro, Luise Ribeiro; Yaegashi, Lygia Bertalha; Freitas, Rodrigo Abdalah; Fantini, Bruno de Carvalho; Souza, Cacilda da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. After surgical excision, histopathological examination revealed atypical cellular blue nevus. Presence of mitoses, ulceration, infiltration, cytological atypia or necrosis may occur in atypical cellular blue nevus, making it difficult to differentiate it from melanoma. The growth of blue nevus is unusual and considered of high-risk for malignancy, being an indicator for complete resection and periodic follow-up of these patients. PMID:28225968

  13. Interface traps contribution to capacitance of Al2O3/(GaN)AlGaN/GaN heterostructures at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osvald, J.

    2017-09-01

    Influence of interface traps at Al2O3/(GaN)/AlGaN interface on low and high frequency capacitance of Al2O3/(GaN)/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure capacitor was studied. New features were observed in the capacitance curves. Obtained experimental results were modeled and simulated and accordance with the experiment has been obtained. For lower frequencies a new capacitance peak in the depletion and increase of the capacitance in a plateau region were measured. The capacitance peak in the depletion region was successfully explained by a capacitance response of the interface traps with U-shape density distribution. On the other hand the increase of the capacitance plateau was modeled by the homogeneous interface trap distribution. We assume that the traps located near the band edges having the highest density are able to respond to the low frequency measuring.

  14. Weak arrest-like and field-driven first order magnetic phase transitions of itinerant Fe3Ga4 revealed by magnetization and magnetoresistance isotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samatham, S. Shanmukharao; Suresh, K. G.

    2017-01-01

    The detailed magnetic study of complex 3d-electron based Fe3Ga4 is reported. It undergoes paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic (TN) and antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (TC) transitions respectively around 380 and 70 K. The thermal hysteresis of field-cooled cooling (FCC) and field-cooled warming (FCW) hints at first order phase transition below Curie temperature. A weak phase coexistence of ferro and antiferromagnetic phases is suggested by exploring the arrest-like first-order phenomenon. In the intermediate temperature range, field-driven metamagnetic transition from antiferro to ferromagnetic phase is confirmed. Further bringing the system very near to TN, field-induced transitions disappear and above TN predominant paramagnetic contribution is evident. The magnetic H-T phase diagram distinguishing different magnetic phases of Fe3Ga4 is obtained.

  15. Low-temperature synthesis and characterization of yttrium-gallium garnet Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YGG)

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Sanjay; Shen Hao; Leleckaite, Asta; Beganskiene, Aldona; Kareiva, Aivaras . E-mail: aivaras.kareiva@chf.vu.lt

    2005-03-08

    To obtain yttrium-gallium garnet (Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}, YGG) a simple 'chimie douce' method has been developed. This sol-gel method yielded excellent starting gel precursor for the fabrication of YGG phase, which could be used as host material for optical applications. The pattern of X-ray diffraction analysis of the ceramic sample sintered for 10 h at 1000 deg. C showed the formation of monophasic Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase. The phase transformations, composition and micro-structural features in the gels and polycrystalline sample were studied by thermoanalytical methods (TGA/DTA), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The quality of the resulting products (homogeneity, crystallisation temperature, grain size, grain size distribution, etc.) is discussed.

  16. Electronic Structure of Bi3Gay^- Semiconductor Clusters and the Special Stability of Bi3Ga2^- - A Gas Phase Zintl Analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulises Reveles, Jose; Gupta, Ujjwal; Melko, Joshua J.; Khanna, Shiv N.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Here we present evidence that the gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO gap) can be tuned (1.12eV-1.89eV) by changing the Ga composition of Bi3Gay neutral and anionic clusters, some of which display special stability. Collaboratively, mass spectrometry, photoelectron spectroscopy and computational results show that Bi3Ga2^- is a very stable cluster with a large calculated HOMO-LUMO gap of 1.89 eV, and can be viewed as a gas phase Zintl analogue of Sn5^2-, already synthesized in the solution phase. The stability of Bi3Ga2^- is further attributed to the fact that it has 12 valence electrons and possesses a closo structure in agreement with Wade's rules.

  17. Modulation-doped β-(Al0.2Ga0.8)2O3/Ga2O3 field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Xia, Zhanbo; Joishi, Chandan; Zhang, Yuewei; McGlone, Joe; Johnson, Jared; Brenner, Mark; Arehart, Aaron R.; Hwang, Jinwoo; Lodha, Saurabh; Rajan, Siddharth

    2017-07-01

    Modulation-doped heterostructures are a key enabler for realizing high mobility and better scaling properties for high performance transistors. We report the realization of a modulation-doped two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the β-(Al0.2Ga0.8)2O3/Ga2O3 heterojunction by silicon delta doping. The formation of a 2DEG was confirmed using capacitance voltage measurements. A modulation-doped 2DEG channel was used to realize a modulation-doped field-effect transistor. The demonstration of modulation doping in the β-(Al0.2Ga0.8)2O3/Ga2O3 material system could enable heterojunction devices for high performance electronics.

  18. Faraday effect in Gd sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 12 and Gd sub 3 Ga sub 5 O sub 12 rare earth garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Valiev, U.V.; Klochkov, A.A.; Popov, A.I.; Sokolov, Y.B.

    1989-03-01

    The dispersion of the Faraday rotation of the garnets Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Gd{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} in the 440--700-nm region in the 85--295-K temperature interval and the spectral dependence of the Faraday effect in the garnets Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} for wavelengths from 250 to 700 nm are investigated. The contributions to the Faraday rotation caused by the Gd{sup 3+} ions and the diamagnetic lattice of the garnets are separated.

  19. Structure and magnetic properties of new Be-substituted langasites A3Ga3Ge2BeO14 (A=Pr, Nd, and Sm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. Z.; Silverstein, H. J.; Hallas, A. M.; Luke, G. M.; Wiebe, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Langasites have been studied extensively in past for their functional properties and use in telecommunication. A thorough understanding of their ground state is limited by the difficulty in synthesizing new members belonging to this series due to the formation of competing phases such as the garnets. Three magnetic langasites A3Ga3Ge2BeO14 (A=Pr, Nd, and Sm) and a non-magnetic lattice standard La3Ga3Ge2BeO14 were synthesized using the ceramic method. These were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. All three langasites exhibit net antiferromagnetic interactions at low temperatures and no evidence of long range magnetic ordering was observed down to 0.350 K.

  20. Effects of doping concentration and co-doping with cerium on the luminescence properties of Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ for thermometry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareja, Jhon; Litterscheid, Christian; Molina, Alejandro; Albert, Barbara; Kaiser, Bernhard; Dreizler, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    The accuracy of surface temperature measurements using thermographic phosphors relies on an extensive knowledge of the temperature-dependent properties of the phosphor. This paper addresses the effects of doping concentration and co-doping with cerium on the luminescence properties of the Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+ phosphor. High-crystallinity Gd3Ga5O12:Cr3+,Ce3+ powder samples (GGG:Cr,Ce) with different Cr3+ and Ce3+ concentrations were synthesized, and their luminescence spectra as well as their decay lifetime properties were characterized after UV laser excitation. Results revealed that the concentration quenching decreases the luminescence lifetime at concentrations above 0.5 mol% Cr3+ while the emission spectrum remains independent of the Cr3+ concentration. Co-doping with small amounts of Ce3+ improves the temperature-dependent luminescence characteristics by reducing the afterglow and producing fairly mono-exponential luminescence decays without changing the lifetime.

  1. LGT (La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) langatate bulk crystal grown from the melt by Czochralski technique and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutahraoui, B.; Nehari, A.; Boy, J.; Vacheret, X.; Allani, M.; Cabane, H.; Dumortier, M.; Derbal, M.; Lebbou, K.

    2017-03-01

    La3Ga5,5Ta0,5O14 (LGT) langatate crystals were grown along Z-axis by Czochralski technique in argon and mixed argon with 0.1%O2 atmosphere. The coloration and the performance of langatate crystals were strongly connected to the starting chemical composition, the gas atmosphere and the growth parameters. Any deviation from the optimal LGT generate macroscopic defects such cracks and grains boundary causing a deterioration of the crystals performance.

  2. Pulse shape discrimination properties of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B single crystal in comparison with CsI:Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, S.; Tyagi, Mohit; Netrakanti, P. K.; Kashyap, V. K. S.; Mitra, A.; Singh, A. K.; Desai, D. G.; Kumar, G. Anil; Gadkari, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Single crystals of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B and CsI:Tl were grown by Czochralski and Bridgman techniques, respectively. While both the crystals exhibited similar emission at about 550 nm, their scintillation decay times showed significantly different characteristics. The average scintillation decay time of Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B crystal was found to be about 284 ns for alpha excitation compared to 108 ns measured for a gamma source. On the other hand in CsI:Tl crystals, the alpha excitation resulted in a lower average decay time of 600 ns compared to 1200 ns with gamma excitation. Their pulse shape discrimination (PSD) for gamma and alpha radiations were studied by coupling the scintillators with photomultiplier tube or SiPM and employing an advanced digitizer as well as a conventional zero-crossing setup. In spite of having a poor α/γ light yield ratio, the PSD figure of merit and the difference of zero-crossing time in Gd3Ga3Al2O12:Ce,B crystals were found to be superior in comparison to CsI:Tl crystals.

  3. Sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions in a Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zharikov, E.V.; Il'ichev, N.N.; Laptev, V.V.; Malyutin, A.A.; Ostroumov, V.G.; Pashinin, P.P.; Shcherbakov, I.A.

    1982-03-01

    An investigation is reported of the spectral, luminescence, and lasing properties of a Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystal activated with chromium and neodymium ions. The high efficiency of the energy transfer process from chromium to neodymium ions is demonstrated. For example, the probability of an elementary Cr/sup 3 +/--Nd/sup 3 +/ interaction event in a Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystal was 12 times higher than that in a Y/sub 3/Al/sub 5/O/sub 12/ crystal. It was found that sensitization of neodymium ion luminescence by chromium ions can increase severalfold the energy characteristics of cw and pulsed neodymium lasers. An investigation of the free-lasing parameters shows that the ultimate differential lasing efficiency of neodymium in a Gd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/:Cr:Nd crystal is 3.6 times higher than that for a YAG:Nd crystal under comparable conditions.

  4. Calculations of the optical and EPR spectral data for Cr3+ ion in Y3Ga5O12 crystal from the complete diagonalisation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yang; Peng, Ren-Ming; Wei, Cheng-Fu; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2015-06-01

    The complete diagonalisation (of energy matrix) method is applied in this paper to calculate together the optical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral data for Cr3+ ion at the trigonal Ga3+ site of Y3Ga5O12 crystal. The method is founded on the two-spin-orbit-parameter model where in addition to the contributions from the spin-orbit parameter of central dn ion (i.e., one-spin-orbit-parameter model) in the traditional crystal field theory, those from the spin-orbit parameter of ligand ion via covalence effect is also considered. The calculated results propose that by using only four adjustable parameters, the 12 observed spectral data (nine optical band positions and three EPR parameters g//, g⊥ and D) in Y3Ga5O12: Cr3+ are reasonably explained. The impurity-induced local lattice distortion of Cr3+ in Y3Ga5O12 crystal is also estimated through the calculations. The results are discussed.

  5. Subcontinental mantle evidence for the onset of plate tectonics at 3 Ga in relation to Earth's thermal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, S. H.; Shirey, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    Recent insights regarding the temporal distribution of components in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), coupled with tectonic aspects of the crust, provide a window into the thermal evolution of the Earth. Mantle evolution, crustal growth, and geochemical cycles of heat-producing elements may be linked to profound geodynamic changes. Substantial differences exist globally between >3.2 Ga versus <3.0 Ga old crust and SCLM. This age has been proposed as a boundary between different geodynamic regimes, marking the onset of plate tectonics and decline of pre-plate tectonic styles [1,2]. Geochemical studies of silicate and sulfide inclusions in cratonic macrodiamonds have been used to characterize the SCLM through time. Diamonds formed at >3.2 Ga contain exclusively peridotitic (harzburgitic) silicate and sulfide inclusions whereas diamonds formed at <3.0 Ga contain inclusions that are predominantly eclogitic and to a lesser extent lherzolitic. Similarly, >3.0 Ga old kimberlite-borne eclogite xenoliths are largely absent in the SCLM rock record, whereas they are common thereafter [1]. The lack of early eclogite implies an absence of steep slab subduction. Archean crust also records major differences across the 3.0-3.2 Ga interval. Prior to 3.2 Ga, crust grew by vertical accretion over upwelling mantle in long-lived plateaux floored by extremely depleted residual harzburgitic SCLM or via slab melting and crustal imbrication over shallow subduction zones, whereas lateral accretion, allochthonous greenstone belt growth and calcalkaline magmatic products of mantle wedge melting emerge only after 3.2 Ga [2]. A step-wise shift in tectonic style is evident from rapid mantle convection, small plates, shallow subduction, and localized recycling at >3.2 Ga, followed by large plates, steep subduction, and full upper mantle recycling at <3.0 Ga. These changes occur around the time (3 Ga) when the convecting mantle temperature reaches a maximum as heat-producing elements

  6. [Blue light and eye health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Leilei; Dai, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Blue light, with the wavelength between 400 nm and 500 nm, has caused public concern because of the injury to the retinal cells. Meanwhile, it is important in circadian rhythm regulation, scotopic vision and ocular growth. Is the blue light safe? Should it be eliminated from the daily life? Here we review the effect and safety of the blue light.

  7. Learning the Blues. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This lesson introduces students to the "blues," one of the most distinctive and influential elements of African-American musical tradition. With this lesson plan, students can take a virtual field trip to Memphis, Tennessee, one of the prominent centers of blues activities, and explore the history of the blues in the work of W. C. Handy…

  8. The Blue Emu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  9. Pluto Blue Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-08

    Pluto's haze layer shows its blue color in this picture taken by the New Horizons Ralph/Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC). The high-altitude haze is thought to be similar in nature to that seen at Saturn's moon Titan. The source of both hazes likely involves sunlight-initiated chemical reactions of nitrogen and methane, leading to relatively small, soot-like particles (called tholins) that grow as they settle toward the surface. This image was generated by software that combines information from blue, red and near-infrared images to replicate the color a human eye would perceive as closely as possible. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19964

  10. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  11. Blue metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    We review the discovery of blue metal-poor (BMP) stars and the resolution of this population into blue stragglers and intermediate-age Main-Sequence stars by use of binary fractions. We show that the specific frequencies of blue stragglers in the halo field and in globular clusters differ by an order of magnitude. We attribute this difference to the different modes of production of these two populations. We report carbon and s-process enrichment among very metal-poor field blue stragglers and discuss how this result can be used to further resolve field blue stragglers into groups formed during RGB and AGB evolution of their erstwhile primary companions.

  12. P2-receptor modulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission in rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bohmann, Christine; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Christian Rump, L

    1997-01-01

    ATP has previously been shown to act as a sympathetic cotransmitter in the rat kidney. The present study analyses the question of whether postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings in the kidney possess P2-receptors which modulate noradrenaline release. Rat kidneys were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing the noradrenaline uptake blockers cocaine and corticosterone and the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist rauwolscine. The renal nerves were electrically stimulated, in most experiments by 30 pulses applied at 1 Hz. The outflow of endogenous noradrenaline (or, in some experiments, of ATP and lactate dehydrogenase) as well as the perfusion pressure were measured simultaneously. The P2-receptor agonist adenosine-5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS, 3–30 μM) reduced the renal nerve stimulation (RNS)-induced outflow of noradrenaline (estimated EC50=8 μM). The P2-receptor antagonist cibacron blue 3GA (30 μM) shifted the concentration-inhibition curve for ATPγS to the right (apparent pKB value 4.7). Cibacron blue 3GA (3–30 μM) and its isomer reactive blue 2 (3–30 μM) significantly increased RNS-induced outflow of noradrenaline in the presence of the P1-receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulphophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 100 μM) by about 70% and 90%, respectively. The P2-receptor antagonist suramin (30–300 μM) only tended to enhance RNS-induced outflow of noradrenaline. When the nerves were stimulated by short pulse trains consisting of 6 pulses applied at 100 Hz (conditions under which autoinhibition is inoperative), reactive blue 2 did not affect the RNS-induced outflow of noradrenaline. RNS (120 pulses applied at 4 Hz) induced the outflow of ATP but not of the cytoplasmatic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. ATPγS (3–30 μM) concentration-dependently reduced pressor responses to RNS at 1 Hz. Cibacron blue 3GA, reactive blue 2 as well as suramin also reduced pressor responses to RNS (maximally by 50 to 70%). This study in rat isolated

  13. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  14. The Blue Marble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  15. Magnetic ordering and exchange interactions in structural modifications of M n3Ga alloys: Interplay of frustration, atomic order, and off-stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelevskyi, Sergii; Ruban, Andrei V.; Mohn, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Mn-Ga alloys close to the M n3Ga stoichiometry can be synthesized in three different crystal modifications: hexagonal, tetragonal, and face-centered cubic, both in bulk and in thin-film forms. The magnetic ordering of these modifications is varying from noncollinear antiferromagnetic in the hexagonal case to ferrimagnetic order in the tetragonal one, whereas it is still unknown for the atomically disordered fcc structure. Here we study the onset of magnetic order at finite temperatures in these systems on a first-principles basis calculating the interatomic magnetic exchange interactions in the high-temperature paramagnetic regime. We employ the disordered local moment formalism and the magnetic force theorem within the framework of the local spin-density approximation and Monte Carlo simulations taking also the effects of atomic disorder in fcc alloys into account. In particular we find the origin of the stabilization of the noncollinear 3 k structure in competition between antiferromagnetic inter- and in-plane couplings of frustrated kagome planes in hexagonal M n3Ga and predict the antiferromagnetic-1 collinear order due to frustration in fcc alloys. Special attention is paid to the effects of the off-stoichiometry and the consequences of atomic disorder. We calculate the site-preference energy of Ga antisite atoms in the tetragonal structures in the range of the compositions from M n3Ga to M n2Ga and slightly beyond and confirm the earlier explanation of the effect of magnetization increase due to Ga preferentially occupying one of the Mn sites.

  16. The Spanish Blue Division

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    the German North Army Group. WORD COUNT=5933 20 ENDNOTES 1 Torres, Francisco. La Divisi6n Azul50 AFos Despu6s. Madrid: Editorial Fuerza Nueva , 1991,31...osDespu6s. Madrid: Editorial Fuerza Nueva , 1991,47. ’ Kleinfield, Gerald R. and Tambs, Lewis A. La Divisi6n espatjola de Hitler. Madrid: Editorial San Martin...1983, 25. ’ Torres, Francisco. La Divisi6n Azu150AiosDespu6s. Madrid: Editorial Fuerza Nueva , 1991,53 6 The Division was popularly known as the Blue

  17. Keratoglobus and blue sclera.

    PubMed

    Biglan, A W; Brown, S I; Johnson, B L

    1977-02-01

    Five patients from two families had similar features including keratoglobus, blue scleras, hyperextensibility of the hand, wrist, and ankle joints, sensorineural conduction hearing alterations, and mottling of the teeth. Keratoglobus had been observed in all patients at, or shortly after, birth. Corneal perforations developed in seven of the ten eyes after minimal trauma. Repair of these perforations was complicated by the extremely thin corneas and six eyes had to be either enucleated or eviscerated. Histopathological examination of two of the enucleated eyes showed the corneal stromas of both eyes to be estremely thin, Bowman's membrane was absent, and Descemet's membrane was unusually thick. This condition has an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern.

  18. Blue upconversion thulium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.; Weber, Michael E.; Dulick, Michael

    1990-04-01

    We report a blue emission upconversion solid-state laser based on Tm3+:YLF. Under double resonance excitation at 780.8 nm (near-ir) and 648.8 nm (red), the Tm3+ ion is sequentially excited from the 3H6 ground state to the 1D2 excited state through the 3H4 intermediate level. The laser output at 450 and 453 nm corresponds to the 1D2 -> 3F4 transitions of Tm3+ ions in YLF.

  19. Temperature dependence of circular photogalvanic effect in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Jiang, Chongyun; Liu, Yu; Yu, Jinling; Chen, Yonghai

    2012-12-01

    Structure inversion asymmetry (SIA) related circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) has been investigated under near-infrared radiation at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 290 K in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures. The result shows nonmonotonic changes of CPGE with temperature variation; obviously larger signal at low temperature and sign inversions in the temperature range between 140 K and 170 K are observed. We suggest this result is not only related to the photoconductivity and Rashba spin splitting, but other factors superpose on them.

  20. Diode-pumped efficient continuous-wave Yb:Y3Ga5O12 laser at 1035 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongdong; Wei, Zhiyi; Wang, Qing; Li, Dehua; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang; Lv, Liang

    2011-02-15

    An efficient diode-pumped Yb:Y3Ga5O12 (Yb:YGG) laser was demonstrated by using a high-quality Yb:YGG crystal grown by the optical floating zone method. Continuous-wave laser power up to 2.65 W had been obtained under an incident pump power of 6.71 W at 970 nm, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 39.5% and maximum slope efficiency of 84.5%. A modeling calculation of the Yb:YGG laser was also performed, and the theoretical results were consistent with the experimental results.

  1. Blue ocean leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  2. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What’s more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1−xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3. PMID:27121446

  3. Ti{sub 3}GaC{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}InC{sub 2}: First bulk synthesis, DFT stability calculations and structural systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Cuskelly, Dylan T.; Richards, Erin R.; Kisi, Erich H.; Keast, Vicki J.

    2015-10-15

    A simple methodology for identifying possible higher order M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} phases (n≥2) from the chemical characteristics of known phases was developed. The method was used to identify two potential M{sub 3}AC{sub 2} phases Ti{sub 3}GaC{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}InC{sub 2}. After verifying that the n=1 MAX phases in these systems could be synthesised in bulk using a simple pressureless reactive sintering process, the new phases were synthesised using the same method. DFT calculations were used to test the thermodynamic stability of the new phases against the known competing phases within the same ternary systems. Both were found to be stable although Ti{sub 3}InC{sub 2} only marginally so. Crystal structure refinements and comparison to other MAX phases revealed a linear increase in the c-axis length as a function of the atomic radius of the A element. - Highlights: • Chemical systematics were used to highlight a search window for new MAX phases. • Two new higher order MAX phases, Ti{sub 3}InC{sub 2} and Ti{sub 3}GaC{sub 2}, were synthesised. • Pressureless reactive sintering was effective in producing bulk material. • DFT calculations indicate that the new phases are stable.

  4. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-04-28

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What's more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3.

  5. 5 7 Fe Emission Mössbauer Study on Gd 3 Ga 5 O 1 2 implanted with dilute 5 7 Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastev, P. B.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Nomura, K.; Adoons, V.; Gerami, A. M.; Johnston, K.; Ncube, M.; Mantovan, R.; Masenda, H.; Matveyev, Y. A.; Mølholt, T. E.; Unzueta, I.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Gislason, H.; Langouche, G.; Naidoo, D.; Ólafsson, S.

    2016-12-01

    57Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy has been applied to study the lattice location and properties of Fe in gadolinium gallium garnet Gd3Ga5 O 12 (GGG) single crystals in the temperature interval 300 - 563 K within the extremely dilute (<10-4 at.%) regime following the implantation of57Mn ( T 1 / 2= 1.5 min.) at ISOLDE/CERN. These results are compared with earlier Mössbauer spectroscopy study of Fe-doped gadolinium gallium garnet Gd3Ga5 O 12(GGG), with implantation fluences between 8×1015 and 6×1016 atoms cm-2. Three Fe components are observed in the emission Mössbauer spectra: (i) high spin Fe2+ located at damage sites due to the implantation process, (ii) high spin Fe3+ at substitutional tetrahedral Ga sites, and (iii) interstitial Fe, probably due to the recoil imparted on the daughter57∗Fe nucleus in the β - decay of57Mn. In contrast to high fluence57Fe implantation studies the Fe3+ ions are found to prefer the tetrahedral Ga site over the octahedral Ga site. No annealing stages are evident in the temperature range investigated. Despite the very low concentration, high-spin Fe3+ shows fast spin relaxation, presumably due to an indirect interaction between nearby gadolinium atoms.

  6. Role of Ce4+ in the Scintillation Mechanism of Codoped Gd3Ga3Al2O12∶Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Meng, Fang; Li, Qi; Koschan, Merry; Melcher, Charles L.

    2014-10-01

    To control the time-response performance of widely used cerium-activated scintillators in cutting-edge medical-imaging devices, such as time-of-flight positron-emission tomography, a comprehensive understanding of the role of Ce valence states, especially stable Ce44, in the scintillation mechanism is essential. However, despite some progress made recently, an understanding of the physical processes involving Ce4+ is still lacking. The aim of this work is to clarify the role of Ce4+ in scintillators by studying Ca2+ codoped Gd3Ga3Al2O12∶Ce (GGAG ∶Ce). By using a combination of optical absorption spectra and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopies, the correlation between Ca2+ codoping content and the Ce4+ fraction is seen. The energy-level diagrams of Ce3+ and Ce4+ in the Gd3Ga3Al2O12 host are established by using theoretical and experimental methods, which indicate a higher position of the 5d1 state of Ce4+ in the forbidden gap in comparison to that of Ce3+. Underlying reasons for the decay-time acceleration resulting from Ca2+ codoping are revealed, and the physical processes of the Ce4+-emission model are proposed and further demonstrated by temperature-dependent radioluminescence spectra under x-ray excitation.

  7. Convection effects on crystallinity in the growth of In0.3Ga0.7 as crystals by the traveling liquidus zone method.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kyoichi; Ogata, Yasuyuki; Adachi, Satoshi; Yoda, Shinichi; Tsuru, Tetsuya; Miyata, Hiroaki; Muramatsu, Yuji

    2006-09-01

    The influence of convection in a melt on the crystallinity of the TLZ-grown In(0.3)Ga(0.7)As crystals has been investigated by growing crystals with various shapes and dimensions on the ground. No single crystals have been grown when the crystal diameter was 10 mm, but we were successful in growing single crystals by reducing crystal diameter to 2 mm. These results suggested the importance of suppressing convection in the melt during alloy crystal growth because constitutional supercooling tends to occur at the freezing interface or ahead of the interface by the segregation effect. Large area is required for substrate use in various applications. This requirement can be fulfilled by the crystal growth in microgravity because density difference-induced convection is suppressed in microgravity. Another means for suppressing convection without deteriorating area is plate-shape crystal growth with reduced thickness. The latter can be applied on the ground and we succeeded in growing single crystals of plate-shaped In(0.3)Ga(0.7)As by the traveling liquidus zone (TLZ) method. Dimensions of obtained single crystals were 10 mm in width and 2 mm in thickness and lengths ranged from 20 to 40 mm. Compositional uniformity was good and 0.3 +/- 0.02 in InAs mole fraction was achieved.

  8. Improved crystal quality of semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN on Si(001) substrates using AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Bae, Si-Young; Lekhal, Kaddour; Mitsunari, Tadashi; Tamura, Akira; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    The planar epitaxial growth of semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN on a Si(001) substrate was performed on a directionally sputtered AlN buffer layer. Three types of interlayers, i.e., single AlN, double AlN, and a stack of AlN/GaN layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) to achieve high quality GaN films. The results for the stack of AlN/GaN layers provide highest crystal quality and optical properties for GaN. Comparing the top (Ga face) and bottom (N face) surfaces of grown semipolar (10 1 bar 3) GaN confirms the defect density reduction that is due to the application of interlayers. Moreover, reduced inversion domain density on the bottom surface is attributed with the insertion of interlayers. Improving the quality of semipolar GaN on Si(001) substrates is expected to be useful for GaN/Si(001) integrated optoelectronics.

  9. Epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of ultraviolet transparent Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daoyou; An, Yuehua; Cui, Wei; Zhi, Yusong; Zhao, Xiaolong; Lei, Ming; Li, Linghong; Li, Peigang; Wu, Zhenping; Tang, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Multilayer thin films based on the ferromagnetic and ultraviolet transparent semiconductors may be interesting because their magnetic/electronic/photonic properties can be manipulated by the high energy photons. Herein, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films were obtained by alternating depositing of wide band gap Ga2O3 layer and Fe ultrathin layer due to inter diffusion between two layers at high temperature using the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. The multilayer films exhibits a preferred growth orientation of crystal plane, and the crystal lattice expands as Fe replaces Ga site. Fe ions with a mixed valence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ are stratified distributed in the film and exhibit obvious agglomerated areas. The multilayer films only show a sharp absorption edge at about 250 nm, indicating a high transparency for ultraviolet light. What’s more, the Ga2O3/(Ga1-xFex)2O3 multilayer epitaxial thin films also exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism deriving from the Fe doping Ga2O3.

  10. Three-dimensional modeling of blue jets and blue starters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.; George, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    Blue jets are narrow cones of blue light propagating upward from the apparent cloud tops at speeds of the order of 100 km/s to a terminal altitude of about 40 km [Wescott et al., GRL, 22, 1209, 1995]. Blue starters are distinguished from blue jets by a much lower terminal altitude. They protrude upward from the cloud top (17-18 km) to a maximum 25.5 km in altitude [Wescott et al., GRL, 23, 2153, 1996]. It has recently been suggested that blue jets correspond qualitatively to the development of the streamer zone of a positive leader and therefore should be filled with a branching structure of streamer channels [Petrov and Petrova, Tech. Phys., 44, 472, 1999]. In our talk we will discuss the physical concept proposed by Petrov and Petrova [1999] as well as will demonstrate a role of blue jets and blue starters in the large-scale atmospheric electric circuit. We will also discuss specific physical reasons and required circumstances for occurrence of blue jets and starters above thundercloud tops and will support our arguments with results from a new three-dimensional model. The model simulates the propagation of branching streamer channels constituting blue jets and starters as a three dimensional growth of fractal trees in a self-consistent electric field created by thundercloud charges. The model is based on a phenomenological probabilistic approach proposed in [Niemeyer et al., IEEE Trans. Electr. Insul., 24, 309, 1989] and is a straightforward expansion of the previously developed two-dimensional version [Pasko et al., GRL, 27, 497, 2000]. The model results indicate that blue jets and starters can be formed by a fast ( ~1 sec) accumulation of 110-150 C of positive thundercloud charge distributed in a volume with effective radius 3 km near the cloud top at 15 km. The obtained results closely resemble characteristics of blue jets and blue starters observed by Wescott et al. [1995; 1996] in terms of their altitude extents, transverse dimensions and conical structure

  11. Pluto’s Blue Haze

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The sky on Pluto is blue! Kind of. This is Pluto in an Minute. So it’s not exactly the case that the sky on Pluto is blue, rather, what the New Horizons science team has found in recent images do...

  12. Blue Origin Facility - Construction Progress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-21

    Construction is progressing on Blue Origin's 750,000-square-foot facility being built at Exploration Park on NASA Kennedy Space Center property in Florida. Blue Origin will use the factory to manufacture its two-stage super-heavy-lift New Glenn launch vehicle and launch the vehicles from Space Launch Complex 46 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  13. Purification of NAD(+) glycohydrolase from human serum.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Ozlem; Nurten, Rüstem

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, NAD(+) glycohydrolase was purified from serum samples collected from healthy individuals using ammonium sulfate fractionation, Affi-Gel blue (Cibacron Blue F3GA) affinity chromatography, Sephadex G-100 column chromatography and isoelectric focusing. The final step was followed by a second Sephadex G-100 column chromatography assay in order to remove the ampholytes from the isoelectric focusing step. In terms of enhancement of specific activity, the NAD(+) glycohydrolase protein was purified ∼480-fold, with a yield of 1% compared with the initial serum fraction. The purified fraction appeared to be homogeneous, with a molecular weight of 39 kDa, as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis, and also corresponded to the soluble (monomeric) form of surface antigen CD38.

  14. Enhancement of two dimensional electron gas concentrations due to Si3N4 passivation on Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN heterostructure: strain and interface capacitance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinara, Syed Mukulika; Jana, Sanjay Kr.; Ghosh, Saptarsi; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kumar, Rahul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Bhattacharya, Sekhar; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2015-04-01

    Enhancement of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentrations at Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN hetero interface after a-Si3N4 (SiN) passivation has been investigated from non-destructive High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) analysis, depletion depth and capacitance-voltage (C-V) profile measurement. The crystalline quality and strained in-plane lattice parameters of Al0.3Ga0.7N and GaN were evaluated from double axis (002) symmetric (ω-2θ) diffraction scan and double axis (105) asymmetric reciprocal space mapping (DA RSM) which revealed that the tensile strain of the Al0.3Ga0.7N layer increased by 15.6% after SiN passivation. In accordance with the predictions from theoretical solution of Schrödinger-Poisson's equations, both electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV) depletion depth profile and C-V characteristics analyses were performed which implied effective 9.5% increase in 2DEG carrier density after passivation. The enhancement of polarization charges results from increased tensile strain in the Al0.3Ga0.7N layer and also due to the decreased surface states at the interface of SiN/Al0.3Ga0.7N layer, effectively improving the carrier confinement at the interface.

  15. Electrical and structural characterizations of crystallized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN interfaces formed by in situ metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. Yeluri, R.; Kim, J.; Keller, S.; Mishra, U. K.; Jackson, C. M.; Arehart, A. R.; Ringel, S. A.; Wu, F.; Mazumder, B.; Speck, J. S.

    2016-01-07

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown in situ by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 900 °C on GaN of both Ga- and N-face polarities. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were crystalline and primarily γ-phase. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ga-GaN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/N-GaN interfaces were both atomically sharp, and the latter further exhibited a biatomic step feature. The corresponding current-voltage (J-V) characteristics were measured on a metal-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) structure. The leakage current was very high when the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness was comparable with the size of the crystalline defects, but was suppressed to the order of 1 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2} with larger Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses. The interface states densities (D{sub it}) were measured on the same MOSCAPs by using combined ultraviolet (UV)-assisted capacitance-voltage (C-V), constant capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy (CC-DLTS), and constant capacitance deep level optical spectroscopy (CC-DLOS) techniques. The average D{sub it} measured by CC-DLTS and CC-DLOS were 6.6 × 10{sup 12} and 8.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ga-GaN and 8.6 × 10{sup 12} and 8.6 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/N-GaN, respectively. The possible origins of the positive (negative) polarization compensation charges in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ga-GaN (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/N-GaN), including the filling of interface states and the existence of structure defects and impurities in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer, were discussed in accordance with the experimental results and relevant studies in the literature.

  16. Blue bubble in Carina

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-22

    Sparkling at the centre of this beautiful NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is a Wolf–Rayet star known as WR 31a, located about 30 000 light-years away in the constellation of Carina (The Keel). The distinctive blue bubble appearing to encircle WR 31a, and its uncatalogued stellar sidekick, is a Wolf–Rayet nebula — an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other gases. Created when speedy stellar winds interact with the outer layers of hydrogen ejected by Wolf–Rayet stars, these nebulae are frequently ring-shaped or spherical. The bubble — estimated to have formed around 20 000 years ago — is expanding at a rate of around 220 000 kilometres per hour! Unfortunately, the lifecycle of a Wolf–Rayet star is only a few hundred thousand years — the blink of an eye in cosmic terms. Despite beginning life with a mass at least 20 times that of the Sun, Wolf–Rayet stars typically lose half their mass in less than 100 000 years. And WR 31a is no exception to this case. It will, therefore, eventually end its life as a spectacular supernova, and the stellar material expelled from its explosion will later nourish a new generation of stars and planets.

  17. A spattering of blue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-08

    Far beyond the stars in the constellation of Leo (The Lion) is irregular galaxy IC 559. IC 559 is not your everyday galaxy. With its irregular shape and bright blue spattering of stars, it is a fascinating galactic anomaly. It may look like sparse cloud, but it is in fact full of gas and dust which is spawning new stars. Discovered in 1893, IC 559 lacks the symmetrical spiral appearance of some of its galactic peers and not does not conform to a regular shape. It is actually classified as a “type Sm” galaxy — an irregular galaxy with some evidence for a spiral structure. Irregular galaxies make up about a quarter of all known galaxies and do not fall into any of the regular classes of the Hubble sequence. Most of these uniquely shaped galaxies were not always so — IC 559 may have once been a conventional spiral galaxy that was then distorted and twisted by the gravity of a nearby cosmic companion. This image, captured by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3, combines a wide range of wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared parts of the spectrum.

  18. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  19. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-05-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, "why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?" This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment.

  20. Bias current dependence of the spin lifetime in insulating Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As

    SciTech Connect

    Misuraca, Jennifer Kim, Joon-Il; Xiong, Peng; Molnár, Stephan von; Lu, Jun; Meng, Kangkang; Chen, Lin; Yu, Xuezhe; Zhao, Jianhua

    2014-02-24

    The spin lifetime and Hanle signal amplitude dependence on bias current has been investigated in insulating Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As:Si using a three-terminal Hanle effect geometry. The amplitudes of the Hanle signals are much larger for forward bias than for reverse bias, although the spin lifetimes found are statistically equivalent. The spin resistance-area product shows a strong increase with bias current for reverse bias and small forward bias until 150 μA, beyond which a weak dependence is observed. The spin lifetimes diminish substantially with increasing bias current. The dependence of the spin accumulation and lifetime diminish only moderately with temperature from 5 K to 30 K.

  1. Helicity dependent photocurrent enabled by unpolarized radiation in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Jiang, Chongyun; Liu, Yu; Yu, Jinling; Chen, Yonghai

    2013-05-01

    We report the experimental observation of photo-assisted generation of helicity dependent photocurrents (PA-HDPC) in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two-dimensional electron gas, which is distinct from the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE). The PA-HDPC is generated under suppressed configuration of CPGE with the illumination of an obliquely incident unpolarized radiation in the system of C2v point group symmetry. We suggest that the PA-HDPC originates from spin-orbit coupling as well as the CPGE. The unpolarized assisted radiation, instead of the circularly polarized radiation, imposes an asymmetric distribution of the spin-polarized carriers in the system and results in a helicity dependent photocurrent.

  2. A spectroscopic comparison of IGZO thin films and the parent In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberle, J.; Brizzi, S.; Gaspar, D.; Barquinha, P.; Galazka, Z.; Schulz, D.; Schmeißer, D.

    2016-10-01

    We use resonant photoelectron spectroscopy at the Zn 2p, Ga 2p, In 3d, and O 1s absorption edges to report on the electronic properties of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin films. We also compare the data with the respective data of the corresponding single crystals In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO. We focus on the elemental composition and, in particular, find no evidence for oxygen deficiency. The In, Ga, and Zn absorption data at resonance can be used to analyze the conduction band states in detail. We deduce that a configuration interaction between d10s0 and d9s1states is of importance. We provided a novel mechanism in which configuration interaction induced gap states create both, extended unoccupied states around E F as well as localized occupied states within the gap.

  3. A resistive-gate Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs 2DEG CCD with high charge-transfer efficiency at 1 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, J.-I.; Rossi, D. V.; Xin, S.; Wang, W. I.; Fossum, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The fabrication and performance of an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs modulation-doped resistive-gate CCD are reported. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) CCD, implemented as a 32-stage four-phase delay line, was tested at both low (1-13 MHz) and high (0.6-1.0 GHz) frequency. It exhibits a room-temperature charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) of better than 0.999 at clock frequencies from 10 MHz up to 1 GHz without a fat-zero signal and is limited by dark current below 10 MHz. The high-frequency test showed no CTE degradation up to 1-GHz operation. The CTE degraded at frequencies lower than approximately 5 MHz due to dark current. The charge-handling capability and minimum clock swing of the resistive-gate 2DEG CCD are calculated.

  4. A resistive-gate Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs 2DEG CCD with high charge-transfer efficiency at 1 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, J.-I.; Rossi, D. V.; Xin, S.; Wang, W. I.; Fossum, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The fabrication and performance of an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs modulation-doped resistive-gate CCD are reported. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) CCD, implemented as a 32-stage four-phase delay line, was tested at both low (1-13 MHz) and high (0.6-1.0 GHz) frequency. It exhibits a room-temperature charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) of better than 0.999 at clock frequencies from 10 MHz up to 1 GHz without a fat-zero signal and is limited by dark current below 10 MHz. The high-frequency test showed no CTE degradation up to 1-GHz operation. The CTE degraded at frequencies lower than approximately 5 MHz due to dark current. The charge-handling capability and minimum clock swing of the resistive-gate 2DEG CCD are calculated.

  5. HABIT CHANGES OF Y3Al5O12 AND Y3Ga5O12 GROWN FROM A PbO-PbF2 FLUX,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Al2O3 or - Ga2O3 ratio in the melt. Y3Ga5O12 crystals have a pure (211) habit when grown from either a Y2O3- or PbO-rich melt. The crystals develop...small (110) faces when grown from a Ga2O3 - or PbF2-rich melt. Y3Al5O12 crystals have a pure (110) when grown from either a PbF2- or Al2O3-rich melt... Ga2O3 -rich melts. It is believed that the habit variations are caused by changes in either the surface diffusion or step propagation, due to Pb

  6. Carrier confinement observed at modulation-doped β-(Al x Ga1- x )2O3/Ga2O3 heterojunction interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Takayoshi; Kato, Yuji; Kawano, Naoto; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Fujita, Shizuo; Oishi, Toshiyuki; Kasu, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    A β-(Al x Ga1- x )2O3:Si/Ga2O3 modulation-doped structure was fabricated by direct β-(Al x Ga1- x )2O3 epitaxial growth on a (010) β-Ga2O3 substrate. Si on the order of 1018 cm-3 from adsorbed contaminants on the substrate surface was doped into the β-(Al x Ga1- x )2O3 layer. The heterojunction interface exhibited a confined sheet carrier density of ˜3 × 1012 cm-2, which is on the same order as that of AlGaAs/GaAs. The successful modulation doping for the β-(Al x Ga1- x )2O3/Ga2O3 heterostructure encourages the development of β-Ga2O3-based heterojunction field-effect transistors.

  7. Independent dynamic acousto-mechanical and electrostatic control of individual quantum dots in a LiNbO{sub 3}-GaAs hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Pustiowski, Jens; Müller, Kai; Bichler, Max; Koblmüller, Gregor; Finley, Jonathan J.; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2015-01-05

    We demonstrate tuning of single quantum dot emission lines by the combined action of the dynamic acoustic field of a radio frequency surface acoustic wave and a static electric field. Both tuning parameters are set all-electrically in a LiNbO{sub 3}-GaAs hybrid device. The surface acoustic wave is excited directly on the strong piezoelectric LiNbO{sub 3} onto which a GaAs-based p-i-n photodiode containing a single layer of quantum dots was epitaxially transferred. We demonstrate dynamic spectral tuning with bandwidths exceeding 3 meV of single quantum dot emission lines due to deformation potential coupling. The center energy of the dynamic spectral oscillation can be independently programmed simply by setting the bias voltage applied to the diode.

  8. Single-crystal growth of langasite (La 3Ga 5SiO 14) by the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in air and in an Ar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taishi, Toshinori; Hayashi, Takayuki; Fukami, Tatsuo; Hoshikawa, Keigo; Yonenaga, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    Piezoelectric langasite (La 3Ga 5SiO 14, LGS) single crystals were grown by the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in air and in an Ar atmosphere. In the Ar atmosphere, a colorless-transparent crack-free LGS single crystal, 1 in. in diameter, was grown using raw material with a slightly Ga-rich composition, while in air an orange-colored transparent LGS crystal was grown. Any other phases could not be detected in the crystals, which may suggest that only a few Ga atoms evaporated from the melt during the growth in an Ar atmosphere. The resistivity of an LGS crystal grown in an Ar atmosphere was higher than that grown in air.

  9. Optical quality and structural perfection in La/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/SiO/sub 14/ single crystals grown by Czochralski's method

    SciTech Connect

    Dubovik, M.F.; Ivanova, G.M.; Lebedev, S.A.; Nazarenko, B.P.; Tkachenko, V.F.

    1988-08-01

    Single crystals of La/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/SiO/sub 14/ (LGS, langasite) can act as laser media and are also highly effective piezoelectrics having zero temperature coefficient of frequency. We have grown large langasite single crystals, diameter up to 50 mm and mass up to 600 g, by a modified form of Czochralski's method with automatic control, where we found that the main inhomogeneities are bulk defects, which are localized in the axial section no matter what the orientation for the seed, and inclusions, which include bubbles and microcracks, transverse growth banding, and block structure. These inhomogeneities are related to the growth conditions and make themselves felt in different ways. The optical quality was evaluated from the anomalous birefringence.

  10. Effects of Mg-codoping on luminescence and scintillation properties of Ce doped Lu3(Ga,Al)5O12 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Kamada, Kei; Pejchal, Jan; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2017-03-01

    Effects of Mg co-doping on scintillation properties of Ce:Lu3(Ga,Al)5O12 (LGAG) were investigated. Mg 200 ppm co-doped Ce:LGAG single crystals were prepared by micro pulling down method. Absorption and radioluminescence spectra were measured together with several other scintillation characteristics, namely the scintillation decay and light yield to reveal the effect of Mg co-doping. Ce4+ charge transfer absorption was observed below 340 nm in Mg,Ce:LGAG which is in good agreement with previous reports for other garnet-based crystals. The scintillation decay time showed the tendency to be accelerated and the light yield was enhanced by Mg co-doping.

  11. Upconversion excitation of Cr 3+2E emission in Y 3Ga 5O 12 codoped with Cr 3+ and Yb 3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heer, S.; Wermuth, M.; Krämer, K.; Güdel, H. U.

    2001-02-01

    The 2E→ 4A2 emission of Cr 3+ in crystals and glasses is of great importance in science and technology. We report a new excitation mode for this emission in Y 3Ga 5O 12 (YGG) codoped with Cr 3+ and Yb 3+. It is based on an upconversion mechanism using 2F5/2 of Yb 3+ as an intermediate state. Excitation in the near-IR at 969.6 nm leads to visible luminescence around 700 nm at low temperature. In YGG:2%Cr 3+,1%Yb 3+ at 15 K and for a laser power of 150 mW the efficiency of the process is 5.5%. From its time dependence the upconversion mechanism is found to be dominated by an energy transfer step: Two excited Yb 3+ ions simultaneously transfer their 2F5/2 excitation to Cr 3+.

  12. Effect of interface state trap density on the performance of scaled surface channel In0.3Ga0.7 As MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbakhti, B.; Ayubi-Moak, J. S.; Kalna, K.; Asenov, A.

    2009-11-01

    The effect of interface state trap density, Dit, on the ID-VG characteristics of scaled surface channel MOSFETs based on In0.3 Ga0.7 As channel has been investigated using drift-diffusion simulations. We have developed a methodology to include arbitrary energy distributions of interface states into the input simulation decks and analysed their impact on subthreshold characteristics and drive current when these devices are scaled from a gate length of 65 nm to 35 nm, 25 nm and 18 nm. The distributions of interface states having high density tails that extend into the conduction band can significantly impact the subthreshold performance of the larger gate length device. Furthermore, the same distributions have smaller impact on the performance of shorter channel devices which were designed with smaller high-κ thickness.

  13. Growth and characterization of BiGd garnet thick films on 2-inch-diameter Nd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, T.; Hibiya, T.; Ono, K.; Shiroki, K.

    1987-02-01

    This paper reports on the crystal quality and magneto-optical properties of 300 ..mu..m thick bismuth-substituted garnet film grown on a 2-inch diameter Nd/sub 3/Ga/sub 5/O/sub 12/ substrate. The crystal surface of the (BiGd)/sub 3/(FeGaAl)/sub 5/O/sub 12/ film was specular, but one swirled section was found corresponding to a section of pits in the substrate. A correspondence of almost 1 to 1 was found between the positions of the substrate pit section and the film swirl section. Measurements of the extinction ratio showed that a uniform distribution was maintained within the specimen. Extinction ratio deterioration was found at the front of the swirls caused by the substrate pits, but no clear variation was found behind that (in the tails trailing from the pits).

  14. Anisotropic phase diagram and spin fluctuations of the hyperkagome magnet Gd3Ga5O12 as revealed by sound velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Alexandre; Parent, Jean-Michel; Quilliam, Jeffrey A.

    2017-08-01

    Sound velocity and attenuation measurements on the frustrated garnet material Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) are presented as a function of field and temperature, with two different magnetic field orientations: [100 ] and [110 ] . We demonstrate that the phase diagram is highly anisotropic, with two distinct field-induced ordered phases for H ||[110 ] and only one for H ||[100 ] . Extensive lattice softening is found to occur at low fields, which can be associated with spin fluctuations. However, deep within the spin liquid phase a low-temperature stiffening of the lattice and reduced attenuation provide evidence for a spin gap which may be related to short-range antiferromagnetic correlations over minimal ten-spin loops.

  15. Luminescence and Raman studies of YNbO{sub 4} phosphors doped by Eu{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+}, and Al{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, Mihail; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Eun Young; Min, Kyoung-In; Jeong, Mun Seok; Lee, Su Woong; Noh, Do Young

    2010-05-15

    Efficient phosphors based on YNbO{sub 4} and doped by Eu{sup 3+}, Ga{sup 3+}, and Al{sup 3+} were synthesized with different fluxes under different thermal conditions and investigated under x-ray excitation and Raman spectroscopy. The samples codoped by Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+} show higher intensity under x-ray excitation in comparison with YNbO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors. The model of redistribution energy transfer from {sup 5}D{sub 1} level to {sup 7}F{sub J} is proposed. Monoclinic fergusonite crystal structure and excellent luminescent properties under x-ray excitation allow recommend these phosphors as good candidates for different applications.

  16. Optimizing white light luminescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haritha, P.; Linganna, K.; Venkatramu, V.; Martín, I. R.; Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Babu, P.; León-Luis, S. F.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavín, V.

    2014-11-07

    Trivalent dysprosium-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and laser excited spectroscopy. Under a cw 457 nm laser excitation, the white luminescence properties of Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been studied as a function of the optically active Dy{sup 3+} ion concentration and at low temperature. Decay curves for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ion exhibit non-exponential nature for all the Dy{sup 3+} concentrations, which have been well-fitted to a generalized energy transfer model for a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between Dy{sup 3+} ions without diffusion. From these data, a simple rate-equations model can be applied to predict that intense white luminescence could be obtained from 1.8 mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions-doped nano-garnets, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Chromaticity color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been determined as a function of temperature and are found to be within the white light region for all Dy{sup 3+} concentrations. These results indicate that 2.0 mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions doped nano-garnet could be useful for white light emitting device applications.

  17. Dawn Blue Glow Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-02

    This artist concept shows NASA Dawn spacecraft arriving at the dwarf planet Ceres. Dawn travels through space using a technology called ion propulsion, with ions glowing with blue light are accelerated out of an engine, giving the spacecraft thrust.

  18. Hazards of solar blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Tsutomu

    2008-06-01

    Short-wavelength visible light (blue light) of the Sun has caused retinal damage in people who have stared fixedly at the Sun without adequate protection. The author quantified the blue-light hazard of the Sun according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines by measuring the spectral radiance of the Sun. The results showed that the exposure limit for blue light can be easily exceeded when people view the Sun and that the solar blue-light hazard generally increases with solar elevation, which is in accordance with a model of the atmospheric extinction of sunlight. Viewing the Sun can be very hazardous and therefore should be avoided except at very low solar elevations.

  19. [Acute blue urticaria following subcutaneous injection of patent blue dye].

    PubMed

    Hamelin, A; Vial-Dupuy, A; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Francès, C; Soria, A; Barete, S

    2015-11-01

    Patent blue (PB) is a lymphatic vessel dye commonly used in France for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer, and less frequently in melanoma, and which may induce hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of acute blue urticaria occurring within minutes of PB injection. Ten minutes after PB injection for sentinel lymph node detection during breast cancer surgery, a 49-year-old woman developed generalised acute blue urticaria and eyelid angioedema without bronchospasm or haemodynamic disturbance, but requiring discontinuation of surgery. Skin testing using PB and the anaesthetics given were run 6 weeks after the episode and confirmed PB allergy. PB was formally contra-indicated. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to PB have been reported for between 0.24 and 2.2% of procedures. Such reactions are on occasion severe, chiefly involving anaphylactic shock. Two mechanisms are probably associated: non-specific histamine release and/or an IgE-mediated mechanism. Skin tests are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of PB allergy. Blue acute urticaria is one of the clinical manifestations of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to patent blue dye. Skin tests must be performed 6 weeks after the reaction in order to confirm the diagnosis and formally contra-indicate this substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  1. Molecular alterations in malignant blue nevi and related blue lesions.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ismail; Gamsizkan, Mehmet; Sari, Sule Ozturk; Yaman, Banu; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Heper, Aylin; Calli, Aylin Orgen; Narli, Gizem; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Berber, Ufuk; Demirel, Dilaver; Akalin, Taner; Demiriz, Murat; Buyukbabani, Nesimi

    2015-12-01

    Malignant blue nevi (MBN) are extremely rare dermal melanocytic tumors that arise in association with atypical cellular blue nevi (ACBN), cellular blue nevi (CBN), common blue nevi (BN), or de novo. The frequency of BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations in malignant melanoma varies according to histological subtype and localization. These mutations are rarely observed in blue nevi, which have recently been shown to carry activating mutations in GNAQ/GNA11 genes. Only few small molecular studies of MBN have been published. The aim of the present study was to analyze in MBN and related blue lesions such as ACBN, CBN, and BN the prevalence of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11 gene mutations and their association with clinicopathological features. We included in our study 12 MBN, 6 ACBN, 29 CBN, and 35 common BN diagnosed between 1996 and 2014. Sanger sequencing method was used for mutation analysis. Overall, GNAQ exon 5 mutation was the most frequent alteration (46 %), in 2 of 12 (17 %) MBN, 1 of 6 (17 %) ACBN, 22 of 29 (76 %) CBN, and 13 of 35 (37 %) common BN. BRAF V600E and GNA11 exon 5 mutations were respectively detected in 3 of 12 (25 %) and in 2 of 12 (17 %) MBN while none in ACBN, CBN, and common BN. None of the cases harbored NRAS exon 2/3, KIT exon 9/11/13/17/18, or GNAQ/GNA11 exon 4 mutations. GNAQ gene exon 5 mutations are rare in MBN and ACBN but frequent in CBN and common BN. Remarkably, BRAF V600E and GNA11 exon 5 mutations were only detected in MBN, whereas none were found in ACBN, CBN, or common BN. Our data contribute new elements to the limited data on molecular alterations in MBN.

  2. Blue-noise multitone dithering.

    PubMed

    Bacca Rodriguez, J; Arce, G R; Lau, D L

    2008-08-01

    The introduction of the blue-noise spectra-high-frequency white noise with minimal energy at low frequencies-has had a profound impact on digital halftoning for binary display devices, such as inkjet printers, because it represents an optimal distribution of black and white pixels producing the illusion of a given shade of gray. The blue-noise model, however, does not directly translate to printing with multiple ink intensities. New multilevel printing and display technologies require the development of corresponding quantization algorithms for continuous tone images, namely multitoning. In order to define an optimal distribution of multitone pixels, this paper develops the theory and design of multitone, blue-noise dithering. Here, arbitrary multitone dot patterns are modeled as a layered superposition of stack-constrained binary patterns. Multitone blue-noise exhibits minimum energy at low frequencies and a staircase-like, ascending, spectral pattern at higher frequencies. The optimum spectral profile is described by a set of principal frequencies and amplitudes whose calculation requires the definition of a spectral coherence structure governing the interaction between patterns of dots of different intensities. Efficient algorithms for the generation of multitone, blue-noise dither patterns are also introduced.

  3. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  4. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  5. Blue-green upconversion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  6. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  7. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  8. Atomic-scale structural and electronic properties of SrTiO3/GaAs interfaces: A combined STEM-EELS and first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liang; Bhatnagar, Kunal; Droopad, Ravi; Klie, Robert F.; Öǧüt, Serdar

    2017-07-01

    The electronic properties of epitaxial oxide thin films grown on compound semiconductors are largely determined by the interfacial atomic structure, as well as the thermodynamic conditions during synthesis. Ferroelectric polarization and Fermi-level pinning in SrTiO3 films have been attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies at the oxide/semiconductor interface. Here, we present scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy analyses of GaAs films grown on SrTiO3 combined with first-principles calculations to determine the atomic and electronic structures of the SrTiO3/GaAs interfaces. An atomically abrupt SrO/As interface is observed and the interfacial SrO layer is found to be O-deficient. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations show SrO/Ga and Sr/As interfaces are favorable under O-rich and O-poor conditions, respectively. The SrO/Ga interface is reconstructed via the formation of Ga-Ga dimers while the Sr/As interface is abrupt and consistent with the experiment. DFT calculations further reveal that intrinsic two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) forms in both SrO/Ga and Sr/As interfaces, and the Fermi level is pinned to the localized 2DEG states. Interfacial O vacancies can enhance the 2DEG density while it is possible for Ga/As vacancies to unpin the Fermi level from the 2DEG states.

  9. Dynamic compression of dense oxide (Gd3Ga5O12) from 0.4 to 2.6 TPa: Universal Hugoniot of fluid metals

    DOE PAGES

    Ozaki, N.; Nellis, W. J.; Mashimo, T.; ...

    2016-05-19

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great current interest for warm dense matter physics, planetary sciences, and inertial fusion energy research. Shock-compression equation-of-state data and optical reflectivities of the fluid dense oxide, Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), were measured at extremely high pressures up to 2.6 TPa (26 Mbar) generated by high-power laser irradiation and magnetically-driven hypervelocity impacts. Above 0.75 TPa, the GGG Hugoniot data approach/reach a universal linear line of fluid metals, and the optical reflectivity most likely reaches a constant value indicating that GGG undergoes a crossover from fluid semiconductor to poor metal with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC). Thesemore » results suggest that most fluid compounds, e.g., strong planetary oxides, reach a common state on the universal Hugoniot of fluid metals (UHFM) with MMC at sufficiently extreme pressures and temperatures. Lastly, the systematic behaviors of warm dense fluid would be useful benchmarks for developing theoretical equation-of-state and transport models in the warm dense matter regime in determining computational predictions.« less

  10. Low phonon energies and wideband optical windows of La2O3-Ga2O3 glasses prepared using an aerodynamic levitation technique

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Kohei; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ueda, Motoi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tastunori

    2017-01-01

    xLa2O3-(100 − x)Ga2O3 binary glasses were synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique. The glass-forming region was found to be 20 ≤ x ≤ 57. The refractive indices were greater than 1.92 and increased linearly with increasing x. The polarizabilities of oxide ions were estimated to be 2.16–2.41 Å3, indicating that the glasses were highly ionic. The glasses were transparent over a very wide range from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region. The widest transparent window among the oxide glasses was from 270 nm to 10 μm at x = 55. From the Raman scattering spectra, a decrease in bridging oxide ions and an increase in non-bridging oxide ions were confirmed to occur with increasing La2O3 content. The maximum phonon energy was found to be approximately 650 cm−1, being one of the lowest among oxide glasses. These results show that La2O3-Ga2O3 binary glasses should be promising host materials for optical applications such as lenses, windows, and filters over a very wide wavelength range. PMID:28358112

  11. Coercivity enhancement in anisotropic Pr13Fe79.4B7Nb0.3Ga0.3 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhong; Han, Jingzhi; Liu, Shunquan; Xing, Meiying; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Changsheng; Yang, Jinbo; Yang, Yingchang

    2012-04-01

    Highly anisotropic Pr13Fe79.4B7Nb0.3Ga0.3 powders with a residual magnetization of 1.4 T, an intrinsic coercivity of 10 kOe, and a maximum energy product of 32 MGOe were obtained by a modified hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) process. It was found that self-organized rod-like disproprotionation microstructure is helpful for the formation of anisotropy (the crystal texture). To further improve the coercivity, the HDDR treated powders were mixed with Pr68Cu32 powders and then were heated in vacuum. As a result, the coercivity of the HDDR powders was enhanced from 10 kOe to 14 kOe. Microstructure investigations show that after heat treatment, the grain-boundary phase becomes thicker and is rich in Pr and Cu elements. The modified grain-boundary layer may cause a stronger magnetic decoupling effect among Pr2Fe14B grains and is helpful for the enhancement of coercivity.

  12. 3T and nonlocal 4T Hanle measurements of spin accumulation in the persistent photoconductor Al0.3Ga0.7As:Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joon-Il; Kountouriotis, K.; Liu, T.; von Molnar, S.; Xiong, P.; Lu, J.; Yu, X. Z.; Zhao, J. H.

    3-terminal (3T) and nonlocal 4-terminal (4T) Hanle measurements have been performed on a spin injection/detection device with patterned Fe electrodes and Al0.3Ga0.7As:Si, a persistent photoconductor, as the channel. The persistent photoconductivity facilitates in situ incremental photo-doping of the AlGaAs channel, which enables direct comparisons of the 3T and 4T Hanle results on the same device over a broad range of carrier densities across the insulator-metal transition. Although their magnitudes differ by about an order of magnitude, the 3T and 4T Hanle signals exhibit broad similarities in their dependencies on the injection current and carrier density, as well as the resulting spin lifetimes. Specifically, at each bias current, the magnitudes of both the 3T and 4T Hanle signals are observed to decrease exponentially with increasing carrier density of the AlGaAs deep into the metallic state. The spin lifetimes extracted from the 3T and 4T Hanle curves, both via the FWHM of the Lorentzian fit and the 1D spin drift-diffusion model analysis, show similar values and evolution with the carrier density. Work supported by NSF Grant DMR-1308613.

  13. Growth and characterization of the La3Ga4.85Fe0.15SiO14 piezoelectric single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Renqin; Liu, Wenpeng; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Qingli; Ding, Shoujun; Shi, Zibin; Sun, Dunlu; Wang, Jiyang

    2017-01-01

    A new piezoelectric single crystal La3Ga4.85Fe0.15SiO14 (LGFS) was grown by the Czochralski method firstly. Its structural parameters were obtained by Rietveld refinement to the X-ray diffraction. The effective segregation coefficient k eff of Fe in the LGFS was determined to be 0.6. The cost of LGFS is reduced due to the doping of cheap Fe. The crystal density was measured to be 5.7 g cm-3 by the buoyancy method. The defect structure of LGFS crystal was investigated by the chemical etching with 85% H2SO4 etchant. Dislocation etching pit patterns of LGFS crystal are consistent with the corresponding atomic arrangement schematics. Compared with LGS, LGN, LGT, and LGAS crystal, the LGFS crystal exhibits outstanding dielectric and piezoelectric properties, and ɛ 11, ɛ 33, d 11, and d 14 are 20.86, 51.99, 6.5 pC/N, and -5.10 pC/N, respectively. Therefore, LGFS may be a new potential piezoelectric crystal with high performance and low expense.

  14. Angular dependence of light trapping in In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. H.; Li, P. C.; Yu, E. T.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.

    2014-01-28

    The dependence of light trapping effects in In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells on wavelength and incident angle is experimentally characterized and analyzed. Separation of active device layers from their epitaxial growth substrate enables integration of thin-film semiconductor device layers with nanostructured metal/dielectric rear contacts to increase optical absorption via coupling to both Fabry-Perot resonances and guided lateral propagation modes in the semiconductor. The roles of Fabry-Perot resonances and coupling to guided modes are analyzed via photocurrent response measurements and numerical modeling for light incident at angles of 0° (normal incidence) to 30° off normal. Light trapping enables external quantum efficiency at long wavelengths as high as 2.9% per quantum well to be achieved experimentally, substantially exceeding the ∼1% per quantum well level typically observed. Increased long wavelength quantum efficiency is shown in experimental measurements to persist with increasing angle of incidence and is explained as a consequence of the large number of guided modes available in the device structure.

  15. Angular dependence of light trapping in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. H.; Li, P. C.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.; Yu, E. T.

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of light trapping effects in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells on wavelength and incident angle is experimentally characterized and analyzed. Separation of active device layers from their epitaxial growth substrate enables integration of thin-film semiconductor device layers with nanostructured metal/dielectric rear contacts to increase optical absorption via coupling to both Fabry-Perot resonances and guided lateral propagation modes in the semiconductor. The roles of Fabry-Perot resonances and coupling to guided modes are analyzed via photocurrent response measurements and numerical modeling for light incident at angles of 0° (normal incidence) to 30° off normal. Light trapping enables external quantum efficiency at long wavelengths as high as 2.9% per quantum well to be achieved experimentally, substantially exceeding the ˜1% per quantum well level typically observed. Increased long wavelength quantum efficiency is shown in experimental measurements to persist with increasing angle of incidence and is explained as a consequence of the large number of guided modes available in the device structure.

  16. Characterization of atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs interface improved by NH{sub 3} plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Hongliang; Sun Liang; Ding Shijin; Xu Min; Zhang, David Wei; Wang Likang

    2006-10-09

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition on HF-cleaned and NH{sub 3} plasma-treated GaAs surfaces, respectively. The precursors used for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are trimethylaluminum and water. Effects of NH{sub 3} plasma pretreatment on the electrical and structural properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs interface were investigated by C-V measurements, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The C-V measurements showed that the electrical property is improved after NH{sub 3} plasma pretreatment. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy analyses confirmed that GaAs oxides and elemental As are greatly decreased and the GaAs surface can be efficiently protected during NH{sub 3} plasma pretreatment and atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  17. Low phonon energies and wideband optical windows of La2O3-Ga2O3 glasses prepared using an aerodynamic levitation technique.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kohei; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ueda, Motoi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tastunori

    2017-03-30

    xLa2O3-(100 - x)Ga2O3 binary glasses were synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique. The glass-forming region was found to be 20 ≤ x ≤ 57. The refractive indices were greater than 1.92 and increased linearly with increasing x. The polarizabilities of oxide ions were estimated to be 2.16-2.41 Å(3), indicating that the glasses were highly ionic. The glasses were transparent over a very wide range from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region. The widest transparent window among the oxide glasses was from 270 nm to 10 μm at x = 55. From the Raman scattering spectra, a decrease in bridging oxide ions and an increase in non-bridging oxide ions were confirmed to occur with increasing La2O3 content. The maximum phonon energy was found to be approximately 650 cm(-1), being one of the lowest among oxide glasses. These results show that La2O3-Ga2O3 binary glasses should be promising host materials for optical applications such as lenses, windows, and filters over a very wide wavelength range.

  18. Effect of Mg2+ ions co-doping on luminescence and defects formation processes in Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12:Ce single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, V.; Bohacek, P.; Grigorjeva, L.; Kučera, M.; Nikl, M.; Zazubovich, S.; Zolotarjovs, A.

    2017-04-01

    Photo- and radioluminescence and thermally stimulated luminescence characteristics of Ce3+ - doped and Ce3+, Mg2+ co-doped Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 (GAGG) single crystals of similar composition are investigated in the 9-500 K temperature range. The Ce3+ - related luminescence spectra and the photoluminescence decay kinetics in these crystals are found to be similar. Under photoexcitation in the Ce3+ - and Gd3+ - related absorption bands, no prominent rise of the photoluminescence intensity in time is observed neither in GAGG:Ce,Mg nor in GAGG:Ce crystals. The afterglow is strongly reduced in GAGG:Ce,Mg as compared to GAGG:Ce, and the afterglow decay kinetics is much faster. Co-doping with Mg2+ results in a drastic decrease of the thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) intensity in the whole investigated temperature range and in the appearance of a new complex Mg2+ - related TSL glow curve peak around 285 K. After irradiation in the Ce3+ - related 3.6 eV absorption band, the TSL intensity in GAGG:Ce,Mg is found to be comparable with that in the GAGG:Ce epitaxial film of similar composition. The Mg2+ - induced changes in the concentration, origin and structure of the crystal lattice defects and their influence on the scintillation characteristics of GAGG:Ce,Mg are discussed.

  19. Quantum electronic properties of the Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Caird, J.A.; Payne, S.A.; Staver, P.R.; Ramponi, A.J.; Chase, L.L.; Krupke, W.F.

    1988-06-01

    Few of the existing Cr/sup 3+/ vibronic lasers have achieved the slope efficiency and tuning range expected based on their known spectroscopic properties. In order to discover the causes of this behavior, the performance of chromium doped gallium fluoride garnet, Na/sub 3/Ga/sub 2/Li/sub 3/F/sub 12/:Cr/sup 3+/, as a laser material has been investigated experimentally. The data reported here include absorption and emission spectra, emission rates, quantum efficiency, laser wavelength tuning range, laser output slope efficiencies, and excited state absorption spectra. Similar properties of the alexandrite laser material were studied for comparison. The results indicate that the performance of the gallium fluoride garnet laser is severely limited by Cr/sup 3+/ excited state absorption (ESA). A model is presented to account for the unexpected nature of the ESA, which appears to be a common problem for all Cr/sup 3+/ vibronic lasers. Criteria are suggested for choosing Cr/sup 3+/ hosts for which the effects of ESA will be minimized.

  20. Analysis of Ce luminescence quenching in solid solutions between Y(3)Al(5)O(12) and Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) by temperature dependence of photoconductivity measurement.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa; Nakanishi, Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Photocurrent excitation spectra were measured to investigate the quenching in the garnet solid solutions. Intense photocurrent excitation bands attributed to the lowest 5d(1) and the second lowest 5d(2) levels were observed in the Ce-doped Y(3)Al(2)Ga(3)O(12) (Ce:YAGG) and Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) (Ce:YGG). Based on the results of temperature dependence of photoconductivity, the 5d(1) and 5d(2) levels in the Ce:YAGG are found to be located below and within the conduction band, respectively, while both levels in the Ce:YGG are found to be located within its conduction band located at lower energy levels. In addition, the threshold of photoionization from the 4f level of Ce(3+) to the conduction band in the Ce:YAGG and Ce:YGG were estimated to be 3.2, and 2.8 eV, respectively. We conclude that the main quenching process in the Ce:YAGG is caused by the thermally stimulated ionization process with activation energy of 90 meV from the 5d(1) to the conduction band, and that in the Ce:YGG is caused by the direct ionization process from the 5d levels to the conduction band.

  1. Time-resolved spectroscopy of intrinsic luminescence of Y 3Ga 5O 12 and (LaLu) 3Lu 2Ga 3O 12 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Vistovskyy, V.; Grinberg, M.; Łukasiewicz, T.

    2009-10-01

    The nature of intrinsic luminescence of Y 3Ga 5O 12 (YGG) and (LaLu) 3Lu 2Ga 3O 12 (LLGG) single crystals grown from a melt was determined. In the case of a YGG single crystal containing Y Ga antisite defects with a concentration of 0.25-0.275 at.% the intrinsic luminescence was considered as a superposition of luminescence of self-trapped excitons (STE), luminescence of excitons localized near antisite defects (LE(AD) centers) and luminescence caused by a recombination of an electron with a hole captured at Y Ga antisite defects. Due to a large (2-3%) concentration of Lu La antisite defects in LLGG single crystals the intrinsic luminescence was a superposition mainly of the LE(AD) center emission and the recombination luminescence of Lu La antisite defects. The energy structure of the mentioned centers in YGG and LGGG hosts was determined from the excitation spectra of their luminescence under excitation by synchrotron radiation in the range of the fundamental absorption edge of these garnets.

  2. 71Ga Chemical Shielding and Quadrupole Coupling Tensors of the Garnet Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) from Single-Crystal (71)Ga NMR.

    PubMed

    Vosegaard, Thomas; Massiot, Dominique; Gautier, Nathalie; Jakobsen, Hans J.

    1997-05-21

    A single-crystal (71)Ga NMR study of the garnet Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) (YGG) has resulted in the determination of the first chemical shielding tensors reported for the (71)Ga quadrupole. The single-crystal spectra are analyzed in terms of the combined effect of quadrupole coupling and chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA). (71)Ga quadrupole coupling and CSA parameters for the two (tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated) gallium sites with axial symmetry in YGG (Ga(IV), C(Q) = 13.1 +/- 0.2 MHz and delta(sigma) = 54 +/- 50 ppm; Ga(VI), C(Q) = 4.10 +/- 0.06 MHz and delta(sigma) = 24 +/- 3 ppm) are fully consistent with its cubic crystal structure which supports the reliability of the experimental data. In addition, the (71)Ga and (27)Al isotropic chemical shifts for YGG and YAG give further support to the linear correlation observed earlier between (71)Ga and (27)Al isotropic chemical shifts.

  3. Control of Nd and Cr concentrations in Nd,Cr : Gd 3Ga 5O 12 single crystals grown by Czochralski method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keszei, B.; Paitz, J.; Vandlik, J.; Süveges, A.

    2001-06-01

    During the growth process of the Nd,Cr : Gd 3Ga 5O 12 (Nd,Cr : GGG) laser crystals the optimum concentrations of the dopants cannot be realized in axial direction of the crystal at a constant pulling (growth) rate as the effective segregation coefficients ( k) of Nd 3+ and Cr 3+ are not unity and not uniform ( k<1 and k>1, respectively). To solve this problem the dopant concentrations were measured in the crystals grown at different pulling rates by atomic absorption to determine the effective and equilibrium segregation coefficients and the ratio of the boundary layer thickness and diffusion coefficients. In the light of these parameters we suggest a pulling (growth) rate program as a function of the fraction of the crystallized melt leading to the smallest concentration variation of the dopants along the length axis of the crystals. The variation of Nd 3+ concentration in the crystal reduced from 35% to 19% while the laser efficiency increased by 15-20% by this method.

  4. Low phonon energies and wideband optical windows of La2O3-Ga2O3 glasses prepared using an aerodynamic levitation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kohei; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ueda, Motoi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Tastunori

    2017-03-01

    xLa2O3-(100 - x)Ga2O3 binary glasses were synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique. The glass-forming region was found to be 20 ≤ x ≤ 57. The refractive indices were greater than 1.92 and increased linearly with increasing x. The polarizabilities of oxide ions were estimated to be 2.16-2.41 Å3, indicating that the glasses were highly ionic. The glasses were transparent over a very wide range from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared region. The widest transparent window among the oxide glasses was from 270 nm to 10 μm at x = 55. From the Raman scattering spectra, a decrease in bridging oxide ions and an increase in non-bridging oxide ions were confirmed to occur with increasing La2O3 content. The maximum phonon energy was found to be approximately 650 cm-1, being one of the lowest among oxide glasses. These results show that La2O3-Ga2O3 binary glasses should be promising host materials for optical applications such as lenses, windows, and filters over a very wide wavelength range.

  5. Dynamic compression of dense oxide (Gd3Ga5O12) from 0.4 to 2.6 TPa: Universal Hugoniot of fluid metals

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, N.; Nellis, W. J.; Mashimo, T.; Ramzan, M.; Ahuja, R.; Kaewmaraya, T.; Kimura, T.; Knudson, M.; Miyanishi, K.; Sakawa, Y.; Sano, T.; Kodama, R.

    2016-01-01

    Materials at high pressures and temperatures are of great current interest for warm dense matter physics, planetary sciences, and inertial fusion energy research. Shock-compression equation-of-state data and optical reflectivities of the fluid dense oxide, Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG), were measured at extremely high pressures up to 2.6 TPa (26 Mbar) generated by high-power laser irradiation and magnetically-driven hypervelocity impacts. Above 0.75 TPa, the GGG Hugoniot data approach/reach a universal linear line of fluid metals, and the optical reflectivity most likely reaches a constant value indicating that GGG undergoes a crossover from fluid semiconductor to poor metal with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC). These results suggest that most fluid compounds, e.g., strong planetary oxides, reach a common state on the universal Hugoniot of fluid metals (UHFM) with MMC at sufficiently extreme pressures and temperatures. The systematic behaviors of warm dense fluid would be useful benchmarks for developing theoretical equation-of-state and transport models in the warm dense matter regime in determining computational predictions. PMID:27193942

  6. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  7. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  8. Singing' the Black and Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Diane

    2004-01-01

    It is so obvious that the sky is blue in the daytime and black at night, but it took the smartest humans thousands of years of observation, thought, discussion, conjecture, and analysis to finally come up with answers that make scientific sense as to why the sky is these colors. This article discusses light and the scientific research…

  9. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  10. Blue dextran-mediated hemagglutination.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, K; Suzuki, I

    1982-01-01

    Blue dextran at low concentrations (0.1-1 ng/ml) agglutinated human, mouse, rabbit and rat erythrocytes. This agglutination was inhibited by 10% calf serum, 0.5 mg/ml bovine albumin and 0.2 M sodium thiocyanate, and less effectively by 1.5 M potassium chloride, but not by 30-50 mM magnesium sulfate.

  11. Teaching Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    A college teacher discusses his experiences of departing from the established literary canon to teach Sherman Alexie's "Reservation Blues" as part of an upper-level American literature survey class. Students reacted to the novel and its characters, evaluated Alexie's writing techniques, and discussed their personal experiences with Native…

  12. Methyl blue and aniline blue versus patent blue and trypan blue as vital dyes in cataract surgery: capsule staining properties and cytotoxicity to human cultured corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Sebastian; Hofmann, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Schuettauf, Frank; Haritoglou, Christos; Yoeruek, Efdal

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate capsule-staining properties and biocompatibility of the triarylmethane dyes methyl blue and aniline blue compared with patent blue and trypan blue on cultured human corneal endothelial cells. Centre for Ophthalmology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany. Experimental study. Human corneal endothelial cell cultures were harvested from human donor cells and exposed to various concentrations (0.025 to 5.0 mg/mL) of methyl blue, aniline blue, patent blue, and trypan blue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test after 24 hours of incubation. Calcein live cell staining was performed at the same time point. The dyes were also used to stain pig lens capsules in vitro by incubating the lenses for 1 minute with 3 concentrations (0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/mL) of dye, after which the staining properties were evaluated. No significant cytotoxicity was detected for patent blue and methyl blue at any tested concentration. However, aniline blue exerted significant cytotoxicity at concentrations of 1.5 mg/mL or higher and trypan blue at 2.5 mg/mL or higher. Capsule staining of the tested triarylmethane dyes was suitable for performing capsulorhexis, but only at higher concentrations than with trypan blue. High concentrations and long incubation times of trypan blue and aniline blue showed significant cytotoxicity to human cultured endothelial cells in contrast to patent blue and methyl blue. All tested dyes were able to stain lens capsules sufficiently for capsulorhexis creation. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacteriophage T4 deoxynucleotide kinase: gene cloning and enzyme purification.

    PubMed Central

    Brush, G S; Bhatnagar, S K; Bessman, M J

    1990-01-01

    Gene 1 of bacteriophage T4 has been cloned into a lambda pL expression vector, resulting in the overproduction of deoxynucleotide kinase. A procedure that includes affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue F3GA-agarose has been used to purify milligram quantities of enzymes from a 2-liter culture. The enzyme has been partially characterized in vitro and in vivo, and it appears to be identical to the deoxynucleotide kinase isolated from T4-infected Escherichia coli. These results prove the earlier contention that the phosphorylation of three dissimilar deoxynucleotides (5-hydroxymethyldeoxycytidylate, dTMP, and dGMP), to the exclusion of most others, is catalyzed by a single protein. Images PMID:2160930

  14. Affinity Chromatography in Nonionic Detergent Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Jack B.; Strottmann, James M.; Wick, Donald G.; Stellwagen, Earle

    1980-10-01

    Anionic dye affinity chromatography is commonly unproductive in the presence of nonionic detergents used to extract particulate proteins. Using lactate dehydrogenase as a model protein, Cibacron blue F3GA as a model dye, and Triton X-100 as a model detergent, we find that the dye is encapsulated in nonionic detergent micelles, rendering the dye incapable of ligation with the enzyme. However, the dye can be liberated from the micelles without altering the nonionic detergent concentration by addition of an anionic detergent, such as deoxycholate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, forming mixed anionic/nonionic micelles that displace the anionic dye. Encapsulation of the anionic detergents prevents their activity as protein denaturants. These observations have been successfully translated to the dye affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of brain particulate cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase.

  15. Development of a plate technique for screening of polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms by using a mixture of insoluble chromogenic substrates.

    PubMed

    Ten, Leonid N; Im, Wan-Taek; Kim, Myung-Kyum; Kang, Myung Suk; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2004-03-01

    A plate assay based on the visible solubilization of small substrate particles and the formation of haloes on Petri dishes, containing a mixture of different dye-labelled polysaccharides as substrates, provides a specific, reliable and rapid simultaneous detection of corresponding polysaccharide-degrading microorganisms. It has potential for increasing the efficacy of screening of microorganisms, utilizing different polysaccharides, in large numbers of natural samples. Diversely colored insoluble forms of amylose, xylan and hydroxyethyl-cellulose (HE-cellulose) were prepared as chromogenic substrates by using the cross-linking reagent 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether and the dyes Brilliant Red 3B-A, Cibacron Blue 3GA and Reactive Orange 14. Using the method, the bacteria with amylase or xylanase or cellulase or a combination of these activities were screened from soil and sludge samples, selected and identified according to 16S rDNA sequencing.

  16. Affinity chromatography in nonionic detergent solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J B; Strottmann, J M; Wick, D G; Stellwagen, E

    1980-01-01

    Anionic dye affinity chromatography is commonly unproductive in the presence of nonionic detergents used to extract particulate proteins. Using lactate dehydrogenase as a model protein, Cibacron blue F3GA as a model dye, and Triton X-100 as a model detergent, we find that the dye is encapsulated in nonionic detergent micelles, rendering the dye incapable of ligation with the enzyme. However, the dye can be liberatd from the micelles without altering the nonionic detergent concentration by addition of an anionic detergent, such as deoxycholate or sodium dodecyl sulfate, forming mixed anionic/nonionic micelles that displace the anionic dye. Encapsulation of the anionic detergents prevents their activity as protein denaturants. These observations have been successfuly translated to the dye affinity chromatography of a detergent extract of brain particulate cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. PMID:6934517

  17. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be pasteurized. Blue cheese is at least 60... ingredients. (i) Blue or green color in an amount to neutralize the natural yellow color of the curd....

  18. The Blues Poetry of Langston Hughes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Edward E.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the criteria of the blues as an American art form. He then shows how Langston Hughes captures the mood, the feeling, the rhythm and the impact of the blues in his poetry. (Author/LF)

  19. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  1. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  2. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  3. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained by calcining a mixture of kaolin, sulfur, sodium carbonate, and... order to vary the shade. The pigment is a complex sodium aluminum sulfo-silicate having the...

  4. Practical utility of the blue spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some aspects of multispectral photography in the blue region are discussed briefly, and sample images are submitted to demonstrate the potential utility of the blue multispectral record for oceanography.

  5. [Postpartum blues - a Czech adaptation of the Maternity Blues Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Takács, L; Smolík, F; Mlíková Seidlerová, J; Čepický, P; Hoskovcová, S

    To validate the Kennerley and Gaths Maternity Blues Questionnaire (MBQ) for the Czech postpartum population, to present the psychometric properties of the Czech version of that screening method, and to assess its predictive power for the risk of postpartum depression. Original study. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Philosophy, Charles University, Prague. The Czech version of the MBQ was validated on a sample of 1093 women. The data were collected from October 2013 to September 2014 at all maternity hospitals in Vysočina region. The MBQ was administered on a one-time basis during womens postpartal stay at maternity hospital. After six weeks post partum, a screening for postpartum depression was performed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The cut-off point was set at 10/11 for MBQ and 12/13 for EPDS as such were the respective levels achieved by the 90th percentile in the MBQ and EPDS scores. The sociodemografic data were collected at the time of completing the MBQ. A logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of severe blues. Cronbachs alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of the MBQ as a whole and its component scales. In order to assess the validity of the MBQ, a logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the MBQ and EPDS scores. The norms for the Czech version of MBQ are presented as percentiles. The MBQ scores showed a gradual rise over the days following the delivery (day 0 to day 4). The percentage of women with severe blues (MBQ score > 10) increased from 7.3% to 14.55% between day 0 and day 4. The most frequent feelings and mood states experienced by women in the first postpartum days included tiredness (61%), decreased self-confidence (30%), over-sensitivity (26%) and tension (19%), while 6,5% of women felt low spirited and 7% felt depressed. The women suffering from severe blues reported most frequently the same states of mood as did the women in the whole sample

  6. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  7. A new rhythm for the Blues.

    PubMed

    Tokarski, C

    1995-03-05

    If 1994 was the year the nation's Blue Cross and Blue Shield plans surpassed their managed care competitors in enrollment, 1995 is shaping up to be the year the Blues lead the stampede to form integrated delivery systems. Plus, a look at the new BC/BS chief, Patrick Hays.

  8. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  9. Characterization of the ligandin site of maize glutathione S-transferase I

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Cytosolic GSTs (glutathione S-transferases) are a major reserve of high-capacity binding proteins and exhibit ligand-binding properties for a large variety of compounds. In the present study, the binding of two non-substrate anthraquinone dyes VBAR (Vilmafix Blue A-R) and CB3GA (Cibacron Blue 3GA) to maize (Zea mays) GST I was investigated. The results showed that the enzyme was specifically and irreversible inactivated by VBAR with a Kd of 35.5±2.2 μM and a k3 of 0.47 min−1. Proteolytic cleavage of the VBAR-modified enzyme and subsequent separation of peptides gave only one modified peptide. Sequencing of the modified peptide revealed the target site of VBAR reaction to be Lys41. CB3GA binds reversibly to GST I and behaves as a competitive inhibitor towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and glutathione. CB3GA binding to GST I is accompanied by a characteristic spectral change in the absorption at positive maximum (670 nm) which exhibited a hyperbolic dependence on dye concentration with a Kd of 12.1±0.5 μM. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues (Trp12, Phe35, Lys41, Asn49, Gln53, Ser67 and Ile118) was employed, and the mutated enzymes were assessed for CB3GA binding. These results, together with molecular-modelling studies, established that the ligandin-binding site of GST I is located mainly in the hydrophobic binding site. The ability of VBAR to specifically inactivate GST I was exploited further to demonstrate the specific binding of several plant hormones and flavonoids to GST I. The inactivation of other GST isoenzymes by VBAR was also investigated, and it was concluded that VBAR may have wide applicability as an affinity label for probing structure–function relationships of GST isoenzymes. PMID:15196053

  10. Mixed tetrahedral anionic framework in the K{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yakubovich, O. V.; Steele, I.; Kireev, V. V.

    2008-11-15

    The crystal structure of a new synthetic potassium gallophosphate K{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} grown from a solution in the melt of a mixture of GaPO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} is determined using X-ray diffraction (Bruker Smart diffractometer, 2{theta}{sub max}= 56.6{sup o}, R = 0.044 for 2931 reflections, T = 100 K). The main crystal data are as follows: a = 8.661(2) A, b = 17.002(4) A, c = 8.386(2) A, space group Pna2{sub 1}, Z= 4, and {rho}{sub calcd} = 2.91 g/cm{sup 3}. The synthesized crystals represent the third phase in the structure type previously established for the K{sub 3}Al{sub 2}[(As,P)O{sub 4}]{sub 3} compound. It is shown that the structure consists of a three-dimensional anionic microporous tetrahedral framework of the mixed type, which is formed by PO{sub 4} and GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra shared by vertices. Large-sized cations K{sup +} occupy channels of the zeolite-like framework. The crystal chemical features of the formation of structure types of compounds with mixed frameworks described by the general formula A{sub 3}{sup +}M{sub 2}{sup 3+}(TO{sub 4}){sub 3} (where A = K, Rb, (NH{sub 4}), Tl; M = Al, Ga, Fe, Sc, Yb; T = P, As) are analyzed.

  11. Energy levels and symmetry assignments for Stark components of Ho3+(4f10) in yttrium gallium garnet (Y3Ga5O12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, John B.; Burdick, Gary W.; Valiev, Uygun V.; Nash, Kelly L.; Rakhimov, Sharof A.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2009-12-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra observed between 1950 and 320 nm at sample temperatures of 8, 78, and 293 K, representing more than 900 transitions between 24 multiplets L2S+1J of Ho3+(4f10) split by the crystal field, have been analyzed in Czochralski-grown single crystals of Ho3+ doped-yttrium gallium garnet (Y3Ga5O12 or YGG). The Ho3+ ions replace Y3+ ions in sites of D2 symmetry during crystal growth. Associated with each multiplet manifold are 2J+1 nondegenerate crystal-field split sublevels (Stark levels) characterized by one of four different irreducible representations (irreps) associated with D2 symmetry. The energy and irrep assignments for individual experimental Stark levels were established by an algorithm that makes use of the selection rules for electric-dipole (ED) and magnetic-dipole (MD) transitions between Stark levels. Nearly degenerate Stark levels (quasidoublets) in several manifolds have been observed and investigated by magneto-optical methods reported in a separate study. Of the 252 predicted Stark levels associated with the 24 multiplet manifolds, 241 were experimentally determined of which 161 had symmetry irreps unambiguously identified by the algorithm method and confirmed by crystal-field modeling studies. A final least-squares fitting between 241 calculated-to-experimental Stark levels was obtained with a standard deviation of 4.86 cm-1 (rms error of 4.60 cm-1). The algorithm works best for identifying irreps when neighboring excited Stark levels are sufficiently separated so that a pattern of temperature-dependent ("hot band") transitions can be unambiguously associated with each excited Stark level.

  12. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Blue phases of cholesteryl nonanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiboom, S.; Sammon, M.

    1981-07-01

    The transformation on heating of an ordinary (helical) cholesteric liquid crystal (CHOL) into the isotropic phase (ISO) often occurs via a number of intermediate "blue" phases. We find the following scheme of phase transitions in cholesteryl nonanoate: CHOL-->91.35BPI-->91.76BPII-->91.84BPIII-->91.95ISO. Here BPI, BPII, and BPIII indicate three distinct, thermodynamically stable phases; transition temperatures are in °C. From observations of supercooling and coexistence, we conclude that all these transformations are first order, except possibly the BPIII-->ISO, the character of which remains in doubt. A similar behavior is found in cholesteryl myristate and in a mixture of cholesteryl nonanoate and cholesteryl chloride. A few observations having a bearing on the structure of the blue phases are reported.

  14. Food habits of blue grouse

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, R.E.

    1944-01-01

    The food habits of Blue Grouse vary from a simple winter diet that is made up predominantly of coniferous needles to a complex diet during the summer months, characterized by great variety of foods including green leaves, fruits and seeds, flowers, animal matter and coniferous needles. The spring and fall, which represent the transition periods between these two, are characterized by feeding habits that are generally intermediate. The diets of the two species of Blue Grouse, Dendrugapus obscurus and Dendragapus juliginosus, are quite similar as far as major types of food are concerned, but they differ considerably in the species that are taken. Such differences reflect differences in the vegetation within the ecologic and geographic ranges occupied by the two species.

  15. The Physics of the Blues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  16. Ol' Blue Eyes, in Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Scholarly books with "identity" and "culture" in the title have loomed large on academic publishing lists for several years. Scholarly books with "Sinatra" in the title are a more recent phenomenon. Despite his six-decade career as the Voice (the 1940s), the Chairman of the Board (the 50s and 60s), and Ol' Blue Eyes (the 70s through his death, in…

  17. Blue Orb on the Horizon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-01

    This view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft features a blue planet, imaged by Cassini for the first time. Uranus is a pale blue in this natural color image because its visible atmosphere contains methane gas and few aerosols or clouds. Methane on Uranus -- and its sapphire-colored sibling, Neptune -- absorbs red wavelengths of incoming sunlight, but allows blue wavelengths to escape back into space, resulting in the predominantly bluish color seen here. Cassini imaging scientists combined red, green and blue spectral filter images to create a final image that represents what human eyes might see from the vantage point of the spacecraft. Uranus has been brightened by a factor of 4.5 to make it more easily visible. The outer portion of Saturn's A ring, seen at bottom right, has been brightened by a factor of two. The bright ring cutting across the image center is Saturn's narrow F ring. Uranus was approximately 28.6 astronomical units from Cassini and Saturn when this view was obtained. An astronomical unit is the average distance from Earth to the sun, equal to 93,000,000 miles (150,000,000 kilometers). This view was acquired by the Cassini narrow-angle camera at a distance of approximately 614,300 miles (988,600 kilometers) from Saturn on April 11, 2014. Image scale at Uranus is approximately 16,000 miles (25,700 kilometers) per pixel. Image scale at Saturn's rings is approximately 4 miles (6 kilometers) per pixel. In the image, the disk of Uranus is just barely resolved. The solar phase angle at Uranus, seen from Cassini, is 11.9 degrees. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA17178

  18. Ferns of the Blue Ridge

    Treesearch

    Arnold Krochmal; Connie Krochmal

    1979-01-01

    The forests and open fields of the Blue Ridge provide ideal growing conditions for a number of ferns. Since some of these are evergreen, ferns can be seen in the area during every month of the year. Ferns are old members of the plant kingdom, and fossil ancestors are common in slate, shale, and coal. All ferns belong to the Pteridophytes, a group that also includes...

  19. [Spectral properties of broad emission bands of Cr3+ in A3M2Ge3O12 (A = Cd2+, Ca2+; M = AI3+, Ga3+, Sc3+) garnets].

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Zhang, X; Huang, L; Yuan, J

    1999-08-01

    The spectral properties of the Cr3+ broad emission band in A3M2Ge3O2 : Cr(A = Cd2+ ,Ca3+; M = Al3+,Ga3+,Sc3+) germanate garnets at room temperature are reported for the first time. In the order of Al3+ --> Ga3+ --> Sc3+ and Cd2+ --> C2z+ ions which occupy the octahedral and duodeahedral sites, respectively, R-NIR broad emission band of 4T2 --> 4A2 level transition, emission peak, and the spectral long wavelength and short wavelength sides of Cr3+ shift to long wavelengths having lower energy. The reason is that the crystal field strengths in the octahedral decrease, while the cation ionic radii in the A3M2Ge3O12 system garnets increase gradually. The R-NIR emission intensity of Cr3+ is increased with some Sc3+ ions substitution for Al3+ or Ga3+ ions in octahedral sites.

  20. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-09-23

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants.

  1. The Cryptochrome Blue Light Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Hongtao; Klejnot, John; Lin, Chentao

    2010-01-01

    Cryptochromes are photolyase-like blue light receptors originally discovered in Arabidopsis but later found in other plants, microbes, and animals. Arabidopsis has two cryptochromes, CRY1 and CRY2, which mediate primarily blue light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and photoperiodic control of floral initiation, respectively. In addition, cryptochromes also regulate over a dozen other light responses, including circadian rhythms, tropic growth, stomata opening, guard cell development, root development, bacterial and viral pathogen responses, abiotic stress responses, cell cycles, programmed cell death, apical dominance, fruit and ovule development, seed dormancy, and magnetoreception. Cryptochromes have two domains, the N-terminal PHR (Photolyase-Homologous Region) domain that bind the chromophore FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), and the CCE (CRY C-terminal Extension) domain that appears intrinsically unstructured but critical to the function and regulation of cryptochromes. Most cryptochromes accumulate in the nucleus, and they undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation or ubiquitination. It is hypothesized that photons excite electrons of the flavin molecule, resulting in redox reaction or circular electron shuttle and conformational changes of the photoreceptors. The photoexcited cryptochrome are phosphorylated to adopt an open conformation, which interacts with signaling partner proteins to alter gene expression at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels and consequently the metabolic and developmental programs of plants. PMID:21841916

  2. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  3. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  4. Blue straggler stars: lessons from open clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.

    Open clusters enable a deep dive into blue straggler characteristics. Recent work shows that the binary properties (frequency, orbital elements and companion masses and evolutionary states) of the blue stragglers are the most important diagnostic for determining their origins. To date the multi-epoch radial-velocity observations necessary for characterizing these blue straggler binaries have only been carried out in open clusters. In this paper, I highlight recent results in the open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2682 (M67) and NGC 6819. The characteristics of many of the blue stragglers in these open clusters point directly to origins through mass transfer from an evolved donor star. Additionally, a handful of blue stragglers show clear signatures of past dynamical encounters. These comprehensive, diverse and detailed observations also reveal important challenges for blue straggler formation models (and particularly the mass-transfer channel), which we must overcome to fully understand the origins of blue straggler stars and other mass-transfer products.

  5. Crystal field energy levels, spin-Hamiltonian parameters and local structures for the Cr3+ and Mn4+ centers in La3Ga5SiO14 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Yang; Chen, Bo-Wei; Zheng, Wen-Chen; Li, Bang-Xing

    2017-02-01

    The crystal field energy levels (obtained from optical spectra) together with the spin-Hamiltonian parameters g//, g⊥ and D (obtained from EPR spectra) for 3d3 ions Cr3+ and Mn4+ at the trigonal octahedral Ga3+ sites in La3Ga5SiO14 crystals are computed from the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method based on the two-spin-orbit-parameter model. The model takes into account the contributions due to the spin-orbit parameter of central dn ion (in the traditional crystal field theory) and that of ligand ions via covalence effect. The calculated results are in rational accord with the experimental values. The calculations also imply that the covalence of (MnO6)8- center in La3Ga5SiO14 crystals is stronger than that of (CrO6)9- center, and the impurity-induced local lattice relaxation for (MnO6)8- center is larger than that for (CrO6)9- cluster because of the larger size and charge mismatch for Mn4+ replacing Ga3+ in La3Ga5SiO14 crystals.

  6. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  7. Polish Terms for "Blue" in the Perspective of Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanulewicz, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The Polish set of terms for blue includes, inter alia, the following adjectives: "niebieski" "blue", "blekitny" "(sky) blue", "granatowy" "navy blue", "lazurowy" "azure", "modry" "(intense) blue" and "siny" "(grey) violet-blue". The adjective "niebieski" is the basic term; however, it shares some of its functions with "blekitny", which is…

  8. Properties of Open Clusters Containing Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Chang, Heon-Young

    2017-06-01

    The presence of blue stragglers pose challenges to standard stellar evolution theory, in the sense that explaining their presence demands a complex interplay between stellar evolution and cluster dynamics. In the meantime, mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions are widely studied as a blue straggler formation channel. We explore properties of the Galactic open clusters where blue stragglers are found, in attempting to estimate the relative importance of these two favored processes, by comparing them with those resulting from open clusters in which blue stragglers are absent as of now. Unlike previous studies which require a sophisticated process in understanding the implication of the results, this approach is straightforward and has resulted in a supplementary supporting evidence for the current view on the blue straggler formation mechanism. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Open clusters in which blue stragglers are present have a broader distribution with respect to the Z-axis pointing towards the North Galactic Pole than those in which blue stragglers are absent. The probability that two distributions with respect to the Z-axis are drawn from the same distribution is 0.2%. (2) Average values of log_{10}(t) of the clusters with blue stragglers and those without blue stragglers are 8.58 ± 0.232 and 7.52 ± 0.285, respectively. (3) The clusters with blue stragglers tend to be relatively redder than the others, and are distributed broader in colors. (4) The clusters with blue stragglers are likely brighter than those without blue stragglers. (5) Finally, blue stragglers seem to form in condensed clusters rather than simply dense clusters. Hence, we conclude that mass transfer in binaries seems to be a relatively important physical mechanism of the generation of blue stragglers in open clusters, provided they are sufficiently old.

  9. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents. PMID:26843977

  10. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhananasekaran, Solairaj; Palanivel, Rameshthangam; Pappu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB), Bromophenol Blue (BPB) and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)) by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP) prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798) shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R (2) values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes) and pseudo second order kinetics (R (2) values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB) more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  11. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael

    2016-11-01

    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  12. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

  13. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae is home to many blue stragglers, rejuvenated stars that glow with the blue light of young stars. A ground-based telescope image (on the left) shows the entire crowded core of 47 Tucanae, located 15,000 light-years away in the constellation Tucana. Peering into the heart of the globular cluster's bright core, the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 separated the dense clump of stars into many individual stars (image on right). Some of these stars shine with the light of old stars; others with the blue light of blue stragglers. The yellow circles in the Hubble telescope image highlight several of the cluster's blue stragglers. Analysis for this observation centered on one massive blue straggler. Astronomers theorize that blue stragglers are formed either by the slow merger of stars in a double-star system or by the collision of two unrelated stars. For the blue straggler in 47 Tucanae, astronomers favor the slow merger scenario. This image is a 3-color composite of archival Hubble Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in the ultraviolet (blue), blue (green), and violet (red) filters. Color tables were assigned and scaled so that the red giant stars appear orange, main-sequence stars are white/green, and blue stragglers are appropriately blue. The ultraviolet images were taken on Oct. 25, 1995, and the blue and violet images were taken on Sept. 1, 1995. Credit: Rex Saffer (Villanova University) and Dave Zurek (STScI), and NASA

  14. Uncovering blue diffuse dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2015-04-01

    Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies are known to be very rare, despite the large numbers of low-mass galaxies predicted by the local galaxy luminosity function. This paper presents a subsample of galaxies that were selected via a morphology-based search on Sloan Digital Sky Survey images with the aim of finding these elusive XMP galaxies. By using the recently discovered XMP galaxy, Leo P, as a guide, we obtained a collection of faint, blue systems, each with isolated H II regions embedded in a diffuse continuum, that have remained optically undetected until now. Here we show the first results from optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of 12 of ˜100 of these blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies yielded by our search algorithm. Oxygen abundances were obtained via the direct method for eight galaxies, and found to be in the range 7.45 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.0, with two galaxies being classified as XMPs. All BDDs were found to currently have a young star-forming population (<10 Myr) and relatively high ionization parameters of their H II regions. Despite their low luminosities (-11 ≲ MB ≲ -18) and low surface brightnesses (˜23-25 mag arcsec-2), the galaxies were found to be actively star forming, with current star formation rates between 0.0003 and 0.078 M⊙ yr-1. From our current subsample, BDD galaxies appear to be a population of non-quiescent dwarf irregular galaxies, or the diffuse counterparts to blue compact galaxies and as such may bridge the gap between these two populations. Our search algorithm demonstrates that morphology-based searches are successful in uncovering more diffuse metal-poor star-forming galaxies, which traditional emission-line-based searches overlook.

  15. Hydrophobic blue pigment formation from phosphatidylgenipin.

    PubMed

    Takami, M; Suzuki, Y

    1994-10-01

    Phosphatidylgenipin, synthesized via the transphosphatidylation reaction of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine to genipin by phospholipase D, was found to react with L-phenylalanine in chloroform and gave a clear blue solution. This blue solution was also formed in following organic solvents: ethanol, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, benzene, and hexane. However, genipin and L-phenylalanine did not give any colored product under the same conditions. The blue pigment resulted from phosphatidylgenipin and L-phenylalanine showed lambda max at 615 nm in chloroform, and had a similar blue color to an aqueous solution of the natural blue pigment "gardenia blue." This is an example for the preparation of a hydrophobic pigment from a phosphatidyl derivative of a water-soluble compound.

  16. Electronic properties of blue phosphorene/graphene and blue phosphorene/graphene-like gallium nitride heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Minglei; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Yu, Jin; Tang, Wencheng

    2017-07-05

    Blue phosphorene (BlueP) is a graphene-like phosphorus nanosheet which was synthesized very recently for the first time [Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 4903-4908]. The combination of electronic properties of two different two-dimensional materials in an ultrathin van der Waals (vdW) vertical heterostructure has been proved to be an effective approach to the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Therefore, we used density functional theory to investigate the structural and electronic properties of two BlueP-based heterostructures - BlueP/graphene (BlueP/G) and BlueP/graphene-like gallium nitride (BlueP/g-GaN). Our results showed that the semiconducting nature of BlueP and the Dirac cone of G are well preserved in the BlueP/G vdW heterostructure. Moreover, by applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to tune the position of the Dirac cone of G with respect to the band edge of BlueP, resulting in the ability to control the Schottky barrier height. For the BlueP/g-GaN vdW heterostructure, BlueP forms an interface with g-GaN with a type-II band alignment, which is a promising feature for unipolar electronic device applications. Furthermore, we discovered that both G and g-GaN can be used as an active layer for BlueP to facilitate charge injection and enhance the device performance.

  17. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  19. NASA Blue Marble 2007 East

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Meteorological Satellite Program mission between 1994–1995. The topography layer is based on radar data collected by the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. Topography over Antarctica comes from the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project, version 2. Most of the data layers in this visualization are available as monthly composites as part of NASA’s Blue Marble Next Generation image collection. The images in the collection appear in cylindrical projection (rectangular maps), and they are available at 500-meter resolution. The large images provided above are the full-size versions of these globes. In their hope that these images will inspire people to appreciate the beauty of our home planet and to learn about the Earth system, the developers of these images encourage readers to re-use and re-publish the images freely. NASA images by Reto Stöckli, based on data from NASA and NOAA. To learn the history of the Blue Marble go here: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/BlueMarble/BlueMarble_... To learn more about the Blue Marble go here: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8108 To learn more about NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center go here: www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/home/index.html NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  20. NASA Blue Marble 2007 West

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Meteorological Satellite Program mission between 1994–1995. The topography layer is based on radar data collected by the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. Topography over Antarctica comes from the Radarsat Antarctic Mapping Project, version 2. Most of the data layers in this visualization are available as monthly composites as part of NASA’s Blue Marble Next Generation image collection. The images in the collection appear in cylindrical projection (rectangular maps), and they are available at 500-meter resolution. The large images provided above are the full-size versions of these globes. In their hope that these images will inspire people to appreciate the beauty of our home planet and to learn about the Earth system, the developers of these images encourage readers to re-use and re-publish the images freely. NASA images by Reto Stöckli, based on data from NASA and NOAA. To learn the history of the Blue Marble go here: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/BlueMarble/BlueMarble_... To learn more about the Blue Marble go here: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=8108 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  1. Optically tuneable blue phase photonic band gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, C.-T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Lin, T.-H.; Liu, J.-H.

    2010-03-22

    This study investigates an optically switchable band gap of photonic crystal that is based on an azobenzene-doped liquid crystal blue phase. The trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene deforms the cubic unit cell of the blue phase and shifts the photonic band gap. The fast back-isomerization of azobenzene was induced by irradiation with different wavelengths light. The crystal structure is verified using Kossel diffraction diagram. An optically addressable blue phase display, based on Bragg reflection from the photonic band gap, is also demonstrated. The tunable ranges are around red, green, and blue wavelengths and exhibit a bright saturated color.

  2. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  3. Morphological responses of wheat to blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, C.; Bugbee, B.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light significantly increased tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown at the same photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Plants were grown under two levels of blue light (400-500 nm) in a controlled environment with continuous irradiation. Plants received either 50 micromoles m-2 s-1 of blue light or 2 micromoles m-2 s-1 blue light from filtered metal halide lamps at a total irradiance of 200 micromoles m-2 s-1 PPF (400-700 nm). Plants tillered an average of 25% more under the higher level of blue light. Blue light also caused a small, but consistent, increase in main culm development, measured as Haun stage. Leaf length was reduced by higher levels of blue light, while plant dry-mass was not significantly affected by blue light. Applying the principle of equivalent light action, the results suggest that tillering and leaf elongation are mediated by the blue-UV light receptor(s) because phytochrome photoequilibrium for each treatment were nearly identical.

  4. A blue dive: from 'blue fingers' to 'blue silver'. A comparative overview of staining methods for in-gel proteomics.

    PubMed

    Panfoli, Isabella; Calzia, Daniela; Santucci, Laura; Ravera, Silvia; Bruschi, Maurizio; Candiano, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    Gel-based proteomics are the most useful method for protein separation, even when compared with gel-free proteomics. Proteomic analysis by 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with immobilized pH gradients is in turn the best approach to large-scale protein-expression screening. Spots visualization is pivotal for protein identification by mass spectrometry. Commonly used staining methods with excellent mass spectrometry compatibility are coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) or fluorescent dyes. In this study, an implementation of 'blue silver' colloidal CBB staining, characterized by high sensitivity and immediate low background, is discussed. The sensitivity of classical, colloidal and 'blue silver' CBB staining methods was compared on monodimensional and 2-DE gels. The implementation of the 'blue silver' method performs better, provided the physical state of the micelles is respected. An example of a 2-DE of human urine treated with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries demonstrates that implemented 'blue silver' can evidence the complexity of the sample.

  5. Wispy Blue Clouds Over Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These are more wispy blue clouds from Sol 39 as seen by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The bright clouds near the bottom are about 10 degrees above the horizon. The clouds are believed to be at an altitude of 10 to 15 km, and are thought to be made of small water ice particles. The picture was taken about 40 minutes before sunrise.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  6. Long-persistence blue phosphors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, William M. (Inventor); Jia, Weiyi (Inventor); Lu, Lizhu (Inventor); Yuan, Huabiao (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to phosphors including long-persistence blue phosphors. Phosphors of the invention are represented by the general formula: MO . mAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 :Eu.sup.2+,R.sup.3+ wherein m is a number ranging from about 1.6 to about 2.2, M is Sr or a combination of Sr with Ca and Ba or both, R.sup.3+ is a trivalent metal ion or trivalent Bi or a mixture of these trivalent ions, Eu.sup.2+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M, and R.sup.3+ is present at a level up to about 5 mol % of M. Phosphors of this invention include powders, ceramics, single crystals and single crystal fibers. A method of manufacturing improved phosphors and a method of manufacturing single crystal phosphors are also provided.

  7. Structure and magnetic properties of new Be-substituted langasites A{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Ge{sub 2}BeO{sub 14} (A=Pr, Nd, and Sm)

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.Z.; Silverstein, H.J.; Hallas, A.M.; Luke, G.M.; Wiebe, C.R.

    2016-01-15

    Langasites have been studied extensively in past for their functional properties and use in telecommunication. A thorough understanding of their ground state is limited by the difficulty in synthesizing new members belonging to this series due to the formation of competing phases such as the garnets. Three magnetic langasites A{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Ge{sub 2}BeO{sub 14} (A=Pr, Nd, and Sm) and a non-magnetic lattice standard La{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Ge{sub 2}BeO{sub 14} were synthesized using the ceramic method. These were further characterized by X-ray diffraction, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. All three langasites exhibit net antiferromagnetic interactions at low temperatures and no evidence of long range magnetic ordering was observed down to 0.350 K. - Graphical abstract: Kagome network formed by the magnetic ions in the new Be-langasites. The ground states of three new members were explored using different physical property measurements such as X-ray diffraction, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity (a–d show refinement patterns for the langasites). These can be added to the list of candidate spin liquid materials. - Highlights: • Four new langasites A{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Ge{sub 2}BeO{sub 14} (A=La, Pr, Nd, and Sm) were synthesized. • These were characterized using physical and magnetic property measurements. • These langasites exhibit net antiferromagnetic interactions at low temperatures. • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering was observed down to 0.350 K. • Can be potential Spin liquid candidates.

  8. The compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of a Fe3O4/Ga2O3/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Huang, Shimin; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Zhu, Shunming; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Mingxiang; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the authors have designed and fabricated a Fe3O4/Ga2O3/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of the hetero-structure have been characterized and discussed. From the characterizations, the hetero-structure has been successfully grown generally. However, due to the unintentional diffusion of Ga ions from Ga2O3/GaN layers, the most part of the nominal Fe3O4 layer is actually in the form of GaxFe3-xO4 with gradually decreased x values from the Fe3O4/Ga2O3 interface to the Fe3O4 surface. Post-annealing process can further aggravate the diffusion. Due to the similar ionic radius of Ga and Fe, the structural configuration of the GaxFe3-xO4 does not differ from that of pure Fe3O4. However, the ferromagnetism has been reduced with the incorporation of Ga into Fe3O4, which has been explained by the increased Yafet-Kittel angles in presence of considerable amount of Ga incorporation. A different behavior of the magnetoresistance has been found on the as-grown and annealed samples, which could be modelled and explained by the competition between the spin-dependent and spin-independent conduction channels. This work has provided detailed information on the interfacial properties of the Fe3O4/Ga2O3/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure, which is the solid basis for further improvement and application of the structure.

  9. Blue jay attacks and consumes cedar waxwing

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Joshua B. Pierce

    2009-01-01

    Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata) are known to be common predators on bird nests (Wilcove 1985, Picman and Schriml 1994). In addition to predation on eggs and nestlings, Blue Jays occasionally prey on fledgling and adult birds (Johnson and Johnson 1976, Dubowy 1985). A majority of reports involve predation on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) and other small birds (...

  10. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  11. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  12. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2014-02-01

    The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name.

  13. The secret of the blue fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, Oliver; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Why certain liquids turn blue when cooled was a mystery that stumped scientists for more than a century. As Oliver Henrich and Davide Marenduzzo explain, solving the secret of the “blue fog” proved to be an intellectual tour de force - and one that could lead to new types of display devices

  14. Blue collection bag after ileal diversion.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, T A; Cass, A S

    1978-02-01

    Five children with ileal diversions have shown asymptomatic blue staining of the urine collection bags. A tryptophan derivative (indican) in the urine that oxidizes to indigo blue on exposure to air is thought to be the cause of this benign transient phenomenon.

  15. Identifying different mechanisms of circular photogalvanic effect in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two dimensional electron gas by photo-modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Jiang, Chongyun; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Chen, Yonghai

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) excited by sub-bandgap radiation in a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As two dimensional electron gas and tune its amplitude by synchronously imposing an above-bandgap unpolarized light at normal incidence. With this photo-modulation technique, we identify two microscopic mechanisms of CPGE according to the dramatic change of apparent Rashba and Dresselhaus effects. We suggest the optical transitions to be Franz-Keldysh and intraband regime, respectively. Both regimes coexist in conventional CPGE and the intraband regime dominates at sufficient modulation power.

  16. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  17. Featured Molecules: Ascorbic Acid and Methylene Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-05-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for May are featured in several articles in this issue. "Arsenic: Not So Evil After All?" discusses the pharmaceutical uses of methylene blue and its development as the first synthetic drug used against a specific disease. The JCE Classroom Activity "Out of the Blue" and the article "Greening the Blue Bottle" feature methylene blue and ascorbic acid as two key ingredients in the formulation of the blue bottle. You can also see a colorful example of these two molecules in action on the cover. "Sailing on the 'C': A Vitamin Titration with a Twist" describes an experiment to determine the vitamin C (ascorbic acid) content of citrus fruits and challenges students, as eighteenth-century sea captains, to decide the best fruit to take on a long voyage. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  18. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BLUE RIDGE TUNNEL (LEFT) FROM SOUTHEAST. ORIGINAL BLUE RIDGE R.R. (CROZET) TUNNEL IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Blue Ridge Tunnel, Highway 250 at Rockfish Gap, Afton, Nelson County, VA

  19. Spectra of circular and linear photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in In0.15Ga0.85As/Al0.3Ga0.7As multiple quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinling; Chen, Yonghai; Cheng, Shuying; Lai, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Spectra of circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) and linear photogalvanic effect (LPGE) for inter-band transition have been experimentally investigated in In0.15Ga0.85As/Al0.3Ga0.7As multiple quantum wells (QWs) at room temperature. The CPGE and LPGE spectra are quite similar during the spectral region corresponding to the transitions 1e1hh (the first valence subband of heavy hole to the first conduction band) and 1e2hh, which is also similar to that of the photoconductivity. Comparing the photocurrent induced by LPGE and CPGE along [1 1 0] and [1 1bar 0] directions, we obtain the anisotropic ratio of the linear photogalvanic tensor χ and circular photogalvanic tensor γ to be χxxz/χyyz=3.6 and γxy/γyx=1.3 (x∥[1 1 0] and y∥[1 1bar 0]), which indicate that the symmetry of the structure belongs to C2v point group and the Rashba spin splitting is the dominant mechanism to induce the k-linear spin splitting of the subband in the In0.15Ga0.85As/Al0.3Ga0.7As QWs. The magnitude of the LPGE is nearly at the same order with that of the CPGE for the investigated spectral region at room temperature.

  20. Highly-stable and low-state-density Al2O3/GaN interfaces using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneki, Shota; Ohira, Joji; Toiya, Shota; Yatabe, Zenji; Asubar, Joel T.; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2016-10-01

    Interface characterization was carried out on Al2O3/GaN structures using epitaxial n-GaN layers grown on free-standing GaN substrates with relatively low dislocation density (<3 × 106 cm-2). The Al2O3 layer was prepared by atomic layer deposition. The as-deposited metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) sample showed a significant frequency dispersion and a bump-like feature in capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves at reverse bias, showing high-density interface states in the range of 1012 cm-1 eV-1. On the other hand, excellent C-V characteristics with negligible frequency dispersion were observed from the MOS sample after annealing under a reverse bias at 300 °C in air for 3 h. The reverse-bias-annealed sample showed state densities less than 1 × 1011 cm-1 eV-1 and small shifts of flat-band voltage. In addition, the C-V curve measured at 200 °C remained essentially similar compared with the room-temperature C-V curves. These results indicate that the present process realizes a stable Al2O3/GaN interface with low interface state densities.

  1. Comparative study on hydrostatic strain, stress and dislocation density of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN heterostructure before and after a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation

    SciTech Connect

    Dinara, Syed Mukulika Jana, Sanjay Kr.; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ghosh, Saptarsi; Bhattacharya, Sekhar; Biswas, Dhrubes

    2015-08-28

    The hydrostatic strain, stress and dislocation densities were comparatively analyzed before and after passivation of amorphous silicon nitride (a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) layer on Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN heterostructure by nondestructive high resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) technique. The crystalline quality, in-plane and out-of plane strain were evaluated from triple-axis (TA) (ω-2θ) diffraction profile across the (002) reflection plane and double-axis (DA) (ω-2θ) glancing incidence (GI) diffraction profile across (105) reflection plane. The hydrostatic strain and stress of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N barrier layer were increased significantly after passivation and both are tensile in nature. The dislocation density of GaN was also analyzed and no significant change was observed after passivation of the heterostructure. The crystalline quality was not degraded after passivation on the heterostructure confirmed by the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) analysis.

  2. Asymmetrical In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum rings and their optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tangmettajittakul, O. Changmoung, P. Thainoi, S. Ratanathammaphan, S. Panyakeow, S.

    2013-12-04

    In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum rings were fabricated by droplet epitaxy technique using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). 7.5 ML In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As droplets are deposited on Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epitaxial layer at 350°C and 250°C. After that, they were crystallized under As{sub 4} pressure of 8×10{sup −6} torr at 250°C. The surface morphology of quantum rings is studied by atomic force microscopy. It is found that quantum rings are not symmetrical due to anisotropic behavior of In and Ga atom migration during crystallization process. The quantum ring density of the sample deposition at 350°C and 250°C are 1×10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} and 2.6×10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}, respectively. Consequently, the asymmetric quantum rings with deposition at 350°C give two photoluminescence (PL) peaks at 1.27 and 1.38 eV at 20K. However, the PL peak of quantum rings with deposition at 350°C is merged with GaAs peak due to the poor size distribution.

  3. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Influence of Ni Schottky contact thickness on two-dimensional electron-gas sheet carrier concentration of strained Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianzhi, Zhao; Zhaojun, Lin; Yuanjie, Lu; D, Corrigan Timothy; Lingguo, Meng; Yu, Zhang; Zhanguo, Wang; Hong, Chen

    2010-08-01

    Ni/Au Schottky contacts with thicknesses of either 50 Å/50 Å or 600 Å/2000 Å were deposited on strained Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN heterostructures. Using the measured C-V curves and I-V characteristics at room temperature, the calculated density of the two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) of the 600 Å/2000 Å thick Ni/Au Schottky contact is about 9.13 × 1012 cm-2 and that of the 50 Å/50 Å. thick Ni/Au Schottky contact is only about 4.77 × 1012 cm-2. The saturated current increases from 60.88 to 86.34 mA at a bias of 20 V as the thickness of the Ni/Au Schottky contact increases from 50 Å/50 Å to 600 Å/2000 Å. By self-consistently solving Schrodinger's and Poisson's equations, the polarization charge sheet density of the two samples was calculated, and the calculated results show that the polarization in the AlGaN barrier layer for the thick Ni/Au Schottky contact is stronger than the thin one. Thus, we attribute the results to the increased biaxial tensile stress in the Al0.3 Ga0.7N barrier layer induced by the 600 Å/2000 Å thick Ni/Au Schottky contact.

  4. Chicago`s new blue period

    SciTech Connect

    Petrush, L.; White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    After about six years of testing in a handful of various-sized cities, the jury is apparently still out on blue-bag recycling programs. Out of six major trial programs tracked since 1990, three are still in existence, two have been phased out, and the other will be phased out this year--blue bags 3, rigid bins 3. Several smaller pilot programs have also come and gone with equally mixed results. Chicago, the nation`s third-largest city, launched a multi-million-dollar blue-bag program for all single-family residents last fall, after five years of disagreement and delay. After a full year of collecting commercial and multi-family residential recyclables with blue bags--reaching a 27% recycling rate for the commercial waste stream--the program was spread to 750,000 households in Chicago. Even before it began, however, the Chicago program ignited long-smoldering arguments over blue bags. Program critics began questioning the veracity of the city`s recycling figures, and complained of high levels of contamination and high costs associated with the program. At the same time, blue-bag supporters promoted the long-term cost savings over providing rigid bins, and noted that commingling materials in one blue bag would be easier for residents than separating recyclables in bins, thus potentially increasing participation.

  5. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nesar; Bunting, Stuart W; Glaser, Marion; Flaherty, Mark S; Diana, James S

    2016-11-15

    Globally, blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions have been seriously augmented due to the devastating effects of anthropogenic pressures on coastal ecosystems including mangrove swamps, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows. The greening of aquaculture, however, including an ecosystem approach to Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture (IAA) and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) could play a significant role in reversing this trend, enhancing coastal ecosystems, and sequestering blue carbon. Ponds within IAA farming systems sequester more carbon per unit area than conventional fish ponds, natural lakes, and inland seas. The translocation of shrimp culture from mangrove swamps to offshore IMTA could reduce mangrove loss, reverse blue carbon emissions, and in turn increase storage of blue carbon through restoration of mangroves. Moreover, offshore IMTA may create a barrier to trawl fishing which in turn could help restore seagrasses and further enhance blue carbon sequestration. Seaweed and shellfish culture within IMTA could also help to sequester more blue carbon. The greening of aquaculture could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from enhanced blue carbon sequestration and eventually contribute to global climate change mitigation.

  6. Skin discoloration with blue food coloring.

    PubMed

    Zillich, A J; Kuhn, R J; Petersen, T J

    2000-01-01

    To describe a pediatric patient who developed a clinical cyanotic appearance after receiving an excessive amount of blue food coloring. An 11-year-old white girl with cerebral palsy was admitted for unresolving aspiration pneumonia and dehydration. Antibiotics and intravenous fluids were administered. During the hospital course, enteral nutrition containing blue food coloring was also administered. Twelve hours after the start of enteral nutrition, the patient appeared cyanotic despite a regular respiratory rate and normal oxygen saturation. The pediatric code response team was called. Enteral nutrition was stopped and then restarted without blue food coloring. Over the next 24 hours, the cyanotic appearance resolved and no further complications developed. At our institution, blue food coloring is used with enteral nutrition for detecting aspiration of stomach contents. The dietary department supplies food coloring to each nursing unit in pint-sized medicine bottles. Nurses place an unstandardized amount of blue food coloring into each enteral nutrition bag. This child received an unspecified amount of FD&C Blue No. 1 food coloring. No toxicity studies exist for acute or human ingestion, but the National Academy of Sciences lists 363 mg/d of FD&C Blue No. 1 as a safe level for humans. We estimated this child ingested 780-3,940 mg of dye over a 12-hour period. This is the first known report of an adverse effect from blue food coloring. To prevent similar occurrences within our institution, the blue food coloring for tube feedings will be dispensed by the pharmacy department in standardized units.

  7. Neptune Blue-green Atmosphere

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-16

    Neptune's blue-green atmosphere is shown in greater detail than ever before by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it rapidly approaches its encounter with the giant planet. This color image, produced from a distance of about 16 million kilometers, shows several complex and puzzling atmospheric features. The Great Dark Spot (GDS) seen at the center is about 13,000 km by 6,600 km in size -- as large along its longer dimension as the Earth. The bright, wispy "cirrus-type" clouds seen hovering in the vicinity of the GDS are higher in altitude than the dark material of unknown origin which defines its boundaries. A thin veil often fills part of the GDS interior, as seen on the image. The bright cloud at the southern (lower) edge of the GDS measures about 1,000 km in its north-south extent. The small, bright cloud below the GDS, dubbed the "scooter," rotates faster than the GDS, gaining about 30 degrees eastward (toward the right) in longitude every rotation. Bright streaks of cloud at the latitude of the GDS, the small clouds overlying it, and a dimly visible dark protrusion at its western end are examples of dynamic weather patterns on Neptune, which can change significantly on time scales of one rotation (about 18 hours). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02245

  8. [Biodegradation of reactive turquoise blue].

    PubMed

    Fu, L; Wen, X; Xu, L; Qian, Y

    2001-07-01

    In this study, the anaerobic degradation and the aerobic degradation of a kind of reactive dye--Reactive Turquoise Blue(RTB) were compared. The results proved that anaerobic sludge could only decompose RTB in the presence of glucose while aerobic sludge decomposed RTB with or without the presence of glucose (RTB of 20 mg/L was reduced by 37.4% through 24 hours' aerobic treatment with RTB as sole carbon source). The enhancement of glucose concentration was beneficial for both anaerobic and aerobic degradation of RTB: the anaerobic and the aerobic removal efficiencies were respectively 81.5% and 73.6% with RTB of 20 mg/L and glucose of 1200 mg/L. In the influent RTB concentration also had influence on the activity of anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. When glucose concentration was 800 mg/L or 1200 mg/L and RTB concentration was 20 mg/L to 100 mg/L, anaerobic removal efficiency of RTB was higher than aerobic removal efficiency by 4.9%-27.2%, which meant that anaerobic bacteria is more powerful than aerobic bacteria in terms of RTB removal.

  9. Blue jays nest in an unusual structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin L.; Lyons, Curtis P.; Sedgwick, James A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a successful Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata) nest in an unusual structure on the side of a building.  The nest was located near the edge of the species' range along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.  The nest was completely obvious, suggesting that the structure itself provided adequate cover and sercurity for the jays.  Blue Jays appear to be declining in some areas of the United States such as the Southeast.  Structures such as the one we describe may be more useful in attracting Blue Jays than the nesting platforms available commercially.

  10. Benign blue naevus of the lungs.

    PubMed

    Pigac, Biserka; Marić, Svjetlana; Mašić, Silvija

    2012-02-01

    Blue naevus is a dark blue, gray or black lesion consisted of dermal melanocytes and usually found on face, scalp, or on the dorsum of hands and feet. Two well defined histologic and clinical variants, designated as "common" and "cellular", have been recognised. An unusual case of accidentally detected common blue naevus of the lungs has been reported. The specimen of lung tissue was taken during autopsy of a 62-year old woman who died of myocardial infarction. Microscopic analysis revealed the area containing melanocytes filled with melanin pigment.

  11. Sleep deprivation and the postnatal blues.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, G; Shapiro, C M

    1992-05-01

    This prospective study of 63 women was designed to investigate the relationship between sleep disruption prior to the birth, during labour and in the early postpartum period and the subsequent development of the postnatal blues. The results from this preliminary study suggest that two factors: (a) a night-time labour; and (b) a history of sleep disruption in the latter stages of pregnancy, may have aetiological importance in the development of postnatal blues. There was little evidence from this study to suggest that sleep disruption on the nights following the birth, the third sleep factor investigated, had any impact on the expression of the blues.

  12. Quality-enhanced In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film grown on GaAs substrate with an ultrathin amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fangliang; Li, Guoqiang

    2014-01-27

    Using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As layers have been grown on GaAs substrates to act as buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxial growth of In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As films. It is revealed that the crystallinity of as-grown In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As films is strongly affected by the thickness of the large-mismatched amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer. Given an optimized thickness of 2 nm, this amorphous In{sub 0.6}Ga{sub 0.4}As buffer layer can efficiently release the misfit strain between the In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epi-layer and the GaAs substrate, trap the threading and misfit dislocations from propagating to the following In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As epi-layer, and reduce the surface fluctuation of the as-grown In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As, leading to a high-quality In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film with competitive crystallinity to that grown on GaAs substrate using compositionally graded In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As metamorphic buffer layers. Considering the complexity of the application of the conventional In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As graded buffer layers, this work demonstrates a much simpler approach to achieve high-quality In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As film on GaAs substrate and, therefore, is of huge potential for the InGaAs-based high-efficiency photovoltaic industry.

  13. High-Luminosity Blue and Blue-Green Gallium Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morkoc, H.; Mohammad, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Compact and efficient sources of blue light for full color display applications and lighting eluded and tantalized researchers for many years. Semiconductor light sources are attractive owing to their reliability and amenability to mass manufacture. However, large band gaps are required to achieve blue color. A class of compound semiconductors formed by metal nitrides, GaN and its allied compounds AlGaN and InGaN, exhibits properties well suited for not only blue and blue-green emitters, but also for ultraviolet emitters and detectors. What thwarted engineers and scientists from fabricating useful devices from these materials in the past was the poor quality of material and lack of p-type doping. Both of these obstacles have recently been overcome to the point where high-luminosity blue and blue-green light-emitting diodes are now available in the marketplace.

  14. Photomorphogenesis: Plants Feel Blue in the Shade.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Keara A

    2016-12-19

    Plants integrate multiple environmental signals to detect and avoid shading from neighbouring vegetation. Two new studies highlight the importance of blue light in the regulation of stem elongation and bending during shade escape.

  15. Blue Ribbon Panel 2016 Video Playlist

    Cancer.gov

    Blue Ribbon Panel members discuss recommendations from the panel report that was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board. The playlist includes an overview video and 10 videos on the specific recommendations.

  16. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  17. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2016-07-12

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  18. Blue Ribbon Panel Report Cover Letter

    Cancer.gov

    The letter from NCI Acting Director Douglas R. Lowy, M.D., to Vice President Biden that accompanied the Blue Ribbon Panel final report, thanking the Vice President for his commitment to and leadership of the Cancer Moonshot.

  19. Blue Origin Tests BE-3 Engine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Blue Origin successfully fires the thrust chamber assembly for its new 100,000 pound thrust BE-3 liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen rocket engine. As part of the company's Reusable Booster System (RBS)...

  20. Pulmonary involvement in sea-blue histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Günay, Ersin; Fırat Güven, Selma; Aktaş, Zafer; Sipit, Tuğrul; Ağaçkıran, Yetkin; Ertürk, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Sea-blue histiocytosis is one of the six types of Niemann-Pick disease. It is characterized by childhood onset of hepatosplenomegaly, lack of neurological involvement and diminished sphingomyelinase activity. Pulmonary system is rarely involved sea-blue histiocytosis. In this paper, we present a 39-years-old male who had previously diagnosed as sea-blue histiocytosis at the age of 15. He was admitted to our clinic due to productive cough, hemoptysis, fever and weight loss. His symptoms did not resolve with the antibiotic treatment and further investigations revealed pulmonary involvement of sea-blue histiocytosis. After diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage, his symptoms were improved, interestingly. This rare entity was discussed with literature survey.

  1. Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

    2003-01-01

    Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp. PMID:12937051

  2. Blue Origin Conducts Pad Escape Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Blue Origin conducted a successful pad escape test Oct. 19 at the company's West Texas launch site, firing its pusher escape motor and launching a full-scale suborbital crew capsule from a simulate...

  3. Phototherapy with turquoise versus blue light.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, F; Agati, G; Pratesi, R

    2003-09-01

    Preterm jaundiced infants were treated by phototherapy with a new turquoise fluorescent lamp. This was more effective in reducing plasma total bilirubin in relation to light irradiance than the ubiquitously used blue fluorescent lamp.

  4. STRIATAL NEUROPROTECTION WITH METHYLENE BLUE

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Julio C.; Simola, Nicola; Kermath, Bailey A.; Kane, Jacqueline R.; Schallert, Timothy; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature indicates that low-dose methylene blue (MB), an autoxidizable dye with powerful antioxidant and metabolic enhancing properties, might prevent neurotoxin-induced neural damage and associated functional deficits. This study evaluated whether local MB may counteract the anatomical and functional effects of the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin rotenone in the rat. To this end, stereological analyses of striatal lesion volumes were performed and changes in oxidative energy metabolism in the striatum and related motor regions were mapped using cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. The influence of MB on striatal levels of oxidative stress induced by rotenone was determined, and behavioral tests were used to investigate the effect of unilateral MB co-administration on motor asymmetry. Rotenone induced large anatomical lesions resembling “metabolic strokes”, whose size was greatly reduced in MB-treated rats. Moreover, MB prevented the decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity and the perilesional increase in oxidative stress associated with rotenone infusion in the striatum. MB also prevented the indirect effects of the rotenone-induced lesion on cytochrome oxidase activity in related motor regions, such as the striatal regions rostral and caudal to the lesion, the substantia nigra compacta and reticulata, and the pedunculopontine nucleus. At a network level, MB maintained a global strengthening of functional connectivity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuits, as opposed to the functional decoupling observed in rotenone-alone subjects. Finally, MB partially prevented the behavioral sensorimotor asymmetries elicited by rotenone. These results are consistent with protective effects of MB against neurotoxic damage in the brain parenchyma. This study provides the first demonstration of the anatomical, metabolic and behavioral neuroprotective effects of MB in the striatum in vivo, and supports the notion that MB could be a valuable

  5. Orange Is the New Blue

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    Measurements from NASA MESSENGER MLA instrument during the spacecraft greater than four-year orbital mission have mapped the topography of Mercury northern hemisphere in great detail. This enhanced color mosaic shows (from left to right) Munch (61 km/38 mi.), Sander (52 km/32 mi.), and Poe (81 km/50 mi.) craters, which lie in the northwest portion of the Caloris basin. The smooth volcanic plains that fill the Caloris basin appear orange in this image. All three craters are superposed on these volcanic plains and have excavated low-reflectance material, which appears blue in this image, from the subsurface. Hollows, typically associated with low-reflectance material, dot the rims of Munch and Poe and cover the floor of Sander. These images were acquired as high-resolution targeted color observations. Targeted color observations are images of a small area on Mercury's surface at resolutions higher than the 1-kilometer/pixel 8-color base map. During MESSENGER's one-year primary mission, hundreds of targeted color observations were obtained. During MESSENGER's extended mission, high-resolution targeted color observations are more rare, as the 3-color base map is covering Mercury's northern hemisphere with the highest-resolution color images that are possible. Date acquired: July 03, 2011, July 04, 2011 Image Mission Elapsed Time (MET): 218204186, 218204190, 218204194, 218246487, 218246491, 218246495 Image ID: 458397, 458398, 458399, 460433, 460434, 460435 Instrument: Wide Angle Camera (WAC) of the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Center Latitude: 42° N Center Longitude: 154° E Projection: Equirectangular Resolution: 239 meters/pixel Scale: Munch crater is approximately 61 km (38 mi.) in diameter Incidence Angle: 43°, 42° Emission Angle: 35°, 13° Phase Angle: 79°, 55° http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19421

  6. Syphilis presenting as the 'blue toe syndrome'.

    PubMed

    Federman, D G; Valdivia, M; Kirsner, R S

    1994-05-09

    The abrupt development of cyanotic and painful toes, "the blue toe syndrome," has been attributed to a number of medical conditions. We describe a patient in which the workup for this condition failed to elucidate a typical cause. Skin biopsy, serologic findings, and response to treatment led to the diagnosis of secondary syphilis. Our experience indicates that secondary syphilis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with the blue toe syndrome.

  7. Si-based blue light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namavar, Fereydoon

    1994-05-01

    Phase 1 results demonstrated for the first time a strong, stable blue-green emission from C-implanted red-emitting porous silicon. The objective of Phase 1 was to obtain blue-green emission from porous Si structure either by increasing the bandgap of the substrate by growth of Si-C random alloys prior to forming nanostructures with quantum confined properties, or by increasing the confinement energy of red-emitting Si nanostructures. Porous structures fabricated from group 4 alloys epitaxially grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulted in an enhancement in light emission of about one order of magnitude after incorporation of a very small amount of carbon in the epitaxial grown films. Strong blue-green light emission was observed by the naked eye from C-implanted and annealed porous Si. Using AlGaAs as a reference, we observed that the intensity of blue-green emission was one order of magnitude higher than that of the original red-emitting porous Si. Catholuminescence measurements of our samples performed at the University of Colorado show blue emission at 1.80 eV and 2.80 eV. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of a blue-green emitting porous structure shows an IR absorption line identical to that of SiC and electron diffraction studies clearly show reflections corresponding to beta-SiC. Phase 1 results indicate that blue-green light is from SiC nanostructures with quantum confined properties. This material may be used to fabricate blue light-emitting Si-based devices which can be easily integrated into Si technology.

  8. Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Masaaki; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Takeda, Kosaku

    2005-08-11

    The same anthocyanin pigment makes roses red but cornflowers blue, a phenomenon that has so far not been entirely explained. Here we describe the X-ray crystal structure of the cornflower pigment, which reveals that its blue colour arises from a complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions. We believe that this tetrametal complex may represent a previously undiscovered type of supermolecular pigment.

  9. Blue-white screening liquid can eliminate false positives in blue-white colony screening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y S

    2016-06-10

    Although blue-white screening based on α-complementation has been widely used in the screening of genetically modified bacteria, only a single blue-white screening is typically not enough to eliminate false positives. Sometimes, a secondary blue-white screening for the target colonies is required. In this study, two methods were used to investigate the feasibility of secondary blue-white screening for target colonies on lysogeny broth (LB)-ampicillin agar plates. The first method consisted of covering the target colonies grown on LB-ampicillin plate medium with a sterilized filter paper soaked in a solution of 60 μL 20 mg/mL X-gal and 8 μL 20% IPTG. The second method was that blue and white colonies were randomly selected from the blue-white screening plate medium and then re-streaked onto the blue-white screening medium. The colonies were then treated by two methods and incubated at 37°C for 12 h. The results showed that some of the white colonies treated by the two methods showed results similar to the colonies grown on the blue-white screening medium. These results indicate that the target colonies grown on blue-white screening medium can still be used to carry out a secondary blue-white screening. Thus, a blue-white screening liquid was successfully developed. Using the blue-white screening liquid, false positives can be eliminated directly based on the color of the target colonies. This will greatly improve the screening efficiency of positive clones and has important practical implications.

  10. Eye damage control by reduced blue illumination.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Toshihiko; Nakanishi-Ueda, Takako; Yasuhara, Hajime; Koide, Ryohei; Dawson, William W

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a blue light and ultraviolet cut-off filter (blue filter) could reduce short-wavelength retina/RPE damage threshold by a continuous spectrum source. Sixteen normal eyes of two rhesus monkeys and six cynomolgus monkeys were subjected to macular irradiation of 20, 24, 27.4, 30, 35, 45, 50 and 60 J/cm(2) energy densities. The values of energy density were measured before the blue filter. Lesions were measured before and at 2 and 30 days after irradiation of a 2.8 mm diameter region within the macular arcade. Measures were fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and long wavelength scanning by the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT) unit. The lesions, which were produced, were scored and compared to irradiant energy density of the blue LED (NSPB500S, Nichia, Tokushima, Japan). The exposure at the 20 J/cm(2) produced no detectable result at 2 or 30 days. Exposure at 35 J/cm(2) showed definite lesion production without blue filter. With the filter added there was one indication of minor change. At 60 J/cm(2) there was extensive heavy, enduring damage without the filter and with the filter damage was present but was significantly attenuated. These results strongly support the conclusion that the blue filter attenuation reduces the frequency of damage by exposure. This experimental system is a useful model for normal human eye aging and continuous spectrum environment irradiance.

  11. Vibrio azureus emits blue-shifted light via an accessory blue fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Karatani, Hajime; Wada, Minoru; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2012-04-01

    Luminous marine bacteria usually emit bluish-green light with a peak emission wavelength (λ(max) ) at about 490 nm. Some species belonging to the genus Photobacterium are exceptions, producing an accessory blue fluorescent protein (lumazine protein: LumP) that causes a blue shift, from λ(max)  ≈ 490 to λ(max)  ≈ 476 nm. However, the incidence of blue-shifted light emission or the presence of accessory fluorescent proteins in bacteria of the genus Vibrio has never been reported. From our spectral analysis of light emitted by 16 luminous strains of the genus Vibrio, it was revealed that most strains of Vibrio azureus emit a blue-shifted light with a peak at approximately 472 nm, whereas other Vibrio strains emit light with a peak at around 482 nm. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this blue shift in V. azureus NBRC 104587(T) . Here, we describe the blue-shifted light emission spectra and the isolation of a blue fluorescent protein. Intracellular protein analyses showed that this strain had a blue fluorescent protein (that we termed VA-BFP), the fluorescent spectrum of which was almost identical to that of the in vivo light emission spectrum of the strain. This result strongly suggested that VA-BFP was responsible for the blue-shifted light emission of V. azureus.

  12. The behavior of the I-V-T characteristics of inhomogeneous (Ni /Au)-Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN/GaN heterostructures at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekeli, Z.; Altındal, Ş.; ćakmak, M.; Özçelik, S.; ćalışkan, D.; Özbay, E.

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the behavior of the forward bias current-voltage-temperature (I-V-T) characteristics of inhomogeneous (Ni/Au)-Al0.3Ga0.7N/AlN/GaN heterostructures in the temperature range of 295-415K. The experimental results show that all forward bias semilogarithmic I-V curves for the different temperatures have a nearly common cross point at a certain bias voltage, even with finite series resistance. At this cross point, the sample current is temperature independent. We also found that the values of series resistance (Rs) that were obtained from Cheung's method are strongly dependent on temperature and the values abnormally increased with increasing temperature. Moreover, the ideality factor (n ), zero-bias barrier height (ΦB0) obtained from I-V curves, and Rs were found to be strongly temperature dependent and while ΦB0 increases, n decreases with increasing temperature. Such behavior of ΦB0 and n is attributed to Schottky barrier inhomogeneities by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights (BHs) at the metal/semiconductor interface. We attempted to draw a ΦB0 versus q /2kT plot in order to obtain evidence of the GD of BHs, and the values of Φ¯B0=1.63eV and σ0=0.217V for the mean barrier height and standard deviation at a zero bias, respectively, were obtained from this plot. Therefore, a modified ln(I0/T2)-q2σ02/2(kT)2 versus q /kT plot gives ΦB0 and Richardson constant A* as 1.64eV and 34.25A/cm2K2, respectively, without using the temperature coefficient of the barrier height. The Richardson constant value of 34.25A/cm2K2 is very close to the theoretical value of 33.74A/cm2K2 for undoped Al0,3Ga0,7N. Therefore, it has been concluded that the temperature dependence of the forward I-V characteristics of the (Ni /Au)-Al0.3Ga0.7/AlN/GaN heterostructures can be successfully explained based on the thermionic emission mechanism with the GD of BHs.

  13. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall. PMID:26379749

  14. Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Un; Han, Jae Won; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Cha, Richard; Chang, Byung-Soo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves.

  16. Spectroscopic properties and location of the Ce(3+) energy levels in Y3Al2Ga3O12 and Y3Ga5O12 at ambient and high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Mahlik, S; Lazarowska, A; Ueda, J; Tanabe, S; Grinberg, M

    2016-03-07

    In this study, we present the high pressure spectroscopy of Y3Al2Ga3O12 (YAGG) and Y3Ga5O12 (YGG) ceramics doped with Ce(3+) and Cr(3+). We have found that high hydrostatic pressure recovers the Ce(3+) luminescence in YGG. The pressure-induced shifts of the ground state and the 5d1 excited state of Ce(3+) with respect to the conduction band edge were estimated. Our experimental data allowed us to also obtain the shifts of the conduction and valence band edges, and the ground state and the 5d1 state of Ce(3+) ions have been estimated with respect to the vacuum level. It has been shown that simple equivalence between the external hydrostatic pressure and intrinsic chemical pressure related to different compositions of the isostructural matrices does not exist in garnet lattices.

  17. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  18. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  19. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  20. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  1. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  2. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  3. REMGa3Ge and RE3Ni3Ga8Ge3 (M = Ni, Co; RE = rare-earth element): new intermetallics synthesized in liquid gallium. X-ray, electron, and neutron structure determination and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Zhuravleva, Marina A; Pcionek, Robert J; Wang, Xiaoping; Schultz, Arthur J; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2003-10-06

    New quaternary intermetallic phases REMGa(3)Ge (1) (RE = Y, Sm, Tb, Gd, Er, Tm; M = Ni, Co) and RE(3)Ni(3)Ga(8)Ge(3) (2) (RE = Sm, Gd) were obtained from exploratory reactions involving rare-earth elements (RE), transition metal (M), Ge, and excess liquid Ga the reactive solvent. The crystal structures were solved with single-crystal X-ray and electron diffraction. The crystals of 1 and 2 are tetragonal. Single-crystal X-ray data: YNiGa(3)Ge, a = 4.1748(10) A, c = 23.710(8) A, V = 413.24(2) A(3), I4/mmm, Z = 4; Gd(3)Ni(3)Ga(8)Ge(3), a = 4.1809(18) A, c = 17.035(11) A, V = 297.8(3) A(3), P4/mmm, Z = 1. Both compounds feature square nets of Ga atoms. The distribution of Ga and Ge atoms in the REMGa(3)Ge was determined with neutron diffraction. The neutron experiments revealed that in 1 the Ge atoms are specifically located at the 4e crystallographic site, while Ga atoms are at 4d and 8g. The crystal structures of these compounds are related and could be derived from the consecutive stacking of disordered [MGa](2) puckered layers, monatomic RE-Ge planes and [MGa(4)Ge(2)] slabs. Complex superstructures with modulations occurring in the ab-plane and believed to be associated with the square nets of Ga atoms were found by electron diffraction. The magnetic measurements show antiferromagnetic ordering of the moments located on the RE atoms at low temperature, and Curie-Weiss behavior at higher temperatures with the values of mu(eff) close to those expected for RE(3+) free ions.

  4. Preparation and characterization of (Ba,Cs)(M,Ti) 8O 16 (M = Al 3+, Fe 3+, Ga 3+, Cr 3+, Sc 3+, Mg 2+) hollandite ceramics developed for radioactive cesium immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin-Chevaldonnet, V.; Caurant, D.; Dannoux, A.; Gourier, D.; Charpentier, T.; Mazerolles, L.; Advocat, T.

    2007-06-01

    Among the different matrices proposed for selective and durable immobilization of radioactive cesium, (Ba x,Cs y)(M,Ti) 8O 16 hollandite ceramics, with x + y < 2 and M = divalent or trivalent cation appeared as the best candidates. In this study, hollandite ceramics were prepared using oxide route from oxide, carbonate and nitrate powders with and without Cs for different cations M (Al 3+, Cr 3+, Ga 3+, Fe 3+, Mg 2+, Sc 3+) of increasing size, in order to evaluate the effect of composition on ceramics microstructure and structure and on cesium incorporation. To reduce the risks of Cs vaporization during synthesis, calcined powders were sintered in air at moderate temperature (1200 °C). This oxide route appeared as an alternative to the alkoxide route generally proposed to prepare hollandite waste form. For y = 0, single phase Ba x(M,Ti) 8O 16 was obtained only for M 3+ = Al 3+, Cr 3+ and Fe 3+. For y ≠ 0 and Fe 3+, all cesium was incorporated in hollandite and ceramic was well densified. For Cr 3+ and Ga 3+, only 46% and 63%, respectively, of Cs were retained in hollandite phase. For these samples, a high fraction of Cs was either evaporated and/or concentrated in a Cs-rich parasitic phase. Mixed hollandite samples with M 3+ = Ga 3+ + Al 3+ and M 3+ = Fe 3+ + Al 3+ were also synthesized and the best results regarding Cs immobilization and ceramic density were obtained with iron + aluminum but the sample porosity was higher than that of the sample containing only iron. All results were discussed by considering cations size and refractory character of oxides and hollandite ceramics.

  5. Accurate crystal-structure refinement of Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} at 295 and 100 K and analysis of the disorder in the atomic positions

    SciTech Connect

    Dudka, A. P.; Mill', B. V.

    2013-07-15

    The accurate X-ray diffraction study of a Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} crystal (sp. gr. P321, Z = 1) has been performed using repeated X-ray diffraction data sets collected on a diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector at 295 and 100 K. The asymmetric disorder in the atomic positions in Ca{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}O{sub 14} is described in two alternative ways: with the use of anharmonic atomic displacements (at 295 K R/wR = 0.68/0.60%, 3754 reflections; at 100 K R/wR = 0.90/0.70%, 3632 reflections) and using a split model (SM) (at 295 K R/wR = 0.74/0.67%; at 100 K R/wR = 0.95/0.74%). An analysis of the probability density function that defines the probability of finding an atom at a particular point in space shows that, at 295 K, five of the seven independent atoms in the unit cell are asymmetrically disordered in the vicinity of their sites, whereas only three atoms are disordered at 100 K. At both temperatures the largest disorder is observed at the 3f site on a twofold axis, which is a prerequisite for the formation of helicoidal chains of atoms along the c axis of the crystal and can serve as a structural basis for multiferroic properties of this family of crystals with magnetic ions.

  6. Identifying blues: an interview with lesbian blues musician and lyricist Gaye Adegbalola. Interview by Carmen Phelps.

    PubMed

    Adegbalola, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, blues lyricist and musician Gaye Adegbalola shares with audiences how various political, social, and artistic influences have inspired her work since her activist years during the Black Arts Movement leading up to the present day. As a lesbian blues artist, Adegbalola's personal and artistic development implicates the often inextricable and intimate relationships between artistic production, political involvement, and individual fulfillment.

  7. Structure of anthocyanin from the blue petals of Phacelia campanularia and its blue flower color development.

    PubMed

    Mori, Mihoko; Kondo, Tadao; Toki, Kenjiro; Yoshida, Kumi

    2006-03-01

    The dicaffeoyl anthocyanin, phacelianin, was isolated from blue petals of Phacelia campanularia. Its structure was determined to be 3-O-(6-O-(4'-O-(6-O-(4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(E)-caffeoyl)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-(E)-caffeoyl)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-5-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)delphinidin. The CD of the blue petals of the phacelia showed a strong negative Cotton effect and that of the suspension of the colored protoplasts was the same, indicating that the chromophores of phacelianin may stack intermolecularly in an anti-clockwise stacking manner in the blue-colored vacuoles. In a weakly acidic aqueous solution, phacelianin displayed the same blue color and negative Cotton effect in CD as those of the petals. However, blue-black colored precipitates gradually formed without metal ions. A very small amount of Al(3+) or Fe(3+) may be required to stabilize the blue solution. Phacelianin may take both an inter- and intramolecular stacking form and shows the blue petal color by molecular association and the co-existence of a small amount of metal ions. We also isolated a major anthocyanin from the blue petals of Evolvulus pilosus and revised the structure identical to phacelianin.

  8. Use of big data by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Helm-Murtagh, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The health care industry is grappling with the challenges of working with and analyzing large, complex, diverse data sets. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina provides several promising examples of how big data can be used to reduce the cost of care, to predict and manage health risks, and to improve clinical outcomes.

  9. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, Wisconsin (the subject firm... Employment and Training Administration Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice of Negative Determination...

  10. Blue cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of heterocyclic aromatic amines--a review.

    PubMed

    Skog, Kerstin

    2004-03-25

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of compounds formed when protein-rich foods, such as meat or fish, are prepared under normal cooking conditions, such as frying, grilling, or broiling. To evaluate and estimate the risks associated with HCAs contained in the diet, it is important to determine the levels in cooked foods, and the levels of HCAs and metabolites in the body. HCAs are normally found at low amounts in a complex matrix, which necessitates a good purification method and a sensitive detection system. The objective of this review was to briefly present the current knowledge on the use of Blue Cotton, Blue Rayon and Blue Chitin in the analysis of HCAs.

  11. Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Blue Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-07-26

    Blue energy in the form of ocean waves offers an enormous energy resource. However, it has yet to be fully exploited in order to make it available for the use of mankind. Blue energy harvesting is a challenging task as the kinetic energy from ocean waves is irregular in amplitude and is at low frequencies. Though electromagnetic generators (EMGs) are well-known for harvesting mechanical kinetic energies, they have a crucial limitation for blue energy conversion. Indeed, the output voltage of EMGs can be impractically low at the low frequencies of ocean waves. In contrast, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are highly suitable for blue energy harvesting as they can effectively harvest mechanical energies from low frequencies (<1 Hz) to relatively high frequencies (∼kHz) and are also low-cost, lightweight, and easy to fabricate. Several important steps have been taken by Wang's group to develop TENG technology for blue energy harvesting. In this Perspective, we describe some of the recent progress and also address concerns related to durable packaging of TENGs in consideration of harsh marine environments and power management for an efficient power transfer and distribution for commercial applications.

  12. An electron transporting blue emitter for OLED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Boyuan; Luo, Jiaxiu; Li, Suyue; Xiao, Lixin; Sun, Wenfang; Chen, Zhijian; Qu, Bo; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-11-01

    After the premier commercialization of OLED in 1997, OLED has been considered as the candidate for the next generation of flat panel display. In comparison to liquid crystal display (LCD) and plasma display panel (PDP), OLED exhibits promising merits for display, e.g., flexible, printable, micro-buildable and multiple designable. Although many efforts have been made on electroluminescent (EL) materials and devices, obtaining highly efficient and pure blue light is still a great challenge. In order to improve the emission efficiency and purity of the blue emission, a new bipolar blue light emitter, 2,7-di(2,2':6',2"-terpyridine)- 2,7-diethynyl-9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene (TPEF), was designed and synthesized. A blue OLED was obtained with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT/PVK:CBP:TPEF/LiF/Al. The device exhibits a turn-on voltage of 9 V and a maximum brightness of 12 cd/m2 at 15 V. The device gives a deep blue emission located at 420 nm with the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.17, 0.10). We also use TPEF as electron transporting material in the device of ITO/PPV/TPEF/LiF/Al, the turn-on voltage is 3 V. It is proved the current in the device was enhanced indeed by using the new material.

  13. Removal of some textile dyes from aqueous solutions by poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, Hatice Kaplan; Kirci, Betül; Kavlak, Serap; Güner, Ali

    2003-12-01

    Poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/water and poly( N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)/K 2S 2O 8/water systems are hydrogels prepared by irradiation with γ-rays at ambient temperature. Both hydrogel systems were employed for diffusion and swelling experiments in various textile dyes aqueous solutions (textile dyes such as Cibacron Blue (CB) F3GA, Methyl Orange (MO), Congo Red (CR)). For these hydrogel systems, swelling studies indicated that swelling percentages increased in the following order: MO>CB F3GA>CR at fixed dose 96 kGy. Because of this reason MO dye solution has been chosen and all swelling properties are investigated for 26, 64, 96 and 124 kGy. The swelling capabilities of PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels in MO dye solution vary in the range of 400-1500%. The diffusion of dye solutions PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels was assumed to be Fickian character. The swelling behavior of PVP and PVP/K 2S 2O 8 hydrogels exhibits second-order kinetic in all dye solutions. Diffusion coefficient, initial swelling rate, swelling rate constant, maximum swelling and equilibrium water/dye content were found for all gel systems in dye solutions.

  14. Postpartum blues: salivary cortisol and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, U; Patalla, U; Kirschbaum, C; Piedmont, E; Hellhammer, D H

    1990-01-01

    The relationships between several psychological variables and salivary cortisol levels were investigated in 70 young mothers throughout the first five days following the delivery of a healthy baby. We hypothesized that postpartum blues is associated with ineffective coping strategies, high anxiety levels, and elevated salivary cortisol concentrations. Data analysis revealed that symptoms of postpartum blues occurred more frequently in women who reported high levels of trait-anxiety, passive coping strategies, marital dissatisfaction, or acceptance of their role as a mother. These women had elevated morning levels of cortisol on those days on which the symptoms appeared in contrast to those days without symptoms as well as in contrast to those women who did not experience postpartum blues.

  15. Bump in the blue axion isocurvature spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Upadhye, Amol

    2017-01-01

    Blue axion isocurvature perturbations are both theoretically well motivated and interesting from a detectability perspective. These power spectra generically have a break from the blue region to a flat region. Previous investigations of the power spectra were analytic, which left a gap in the predicted spectrum in the break region due to the nonapplicability of the used analytic techniques. We therefore compute the isocurvature spectrum numerically for an explicit supersymmetric axion model. We find a bump that enhances the isocurvature signal for this class of scenarios. A fitting function of three parameters is constructed that fits the spectrum well for the particular axion model we study. This fitting function should be useful for blue isocurvature signal hunting in data and making experimental sensitivity forecasts.

  16. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  17. Eastward migration of blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, B.

    1972-01-01

    Of 3,789 recoveries of blue-winged teal (Anas discors) banded prior to the hunting season in the prairie pothole region, 183 (4.8 percent) were recovered, due east in New England, Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces during the subsequent hunting season. Of 19 recoveries looked at in detail, all were banded as either hatching-year (flying young) or local (flightless young) birds. A blue-winged teal banded in Minnesota in September was retrapped in October in South Carolina, before being shot later that month in Colombia, South America.

  18. Balloon cell change in cellular blue nevus.

    PubMed

    Perez, M T; Suster, S

    1999-04-01

    Balloon cells are altered melanocytes with clear vacuolated cytoplasm caused by a defect in the process of melanogenesis. Although rare, balloon cell change has been observed in a variety of melanocytic proliferations, particularly intradermal melanocytic nevi and melanoma. When present, such features may lead to difficulties in diagnosis, particularly with other clear cell neoplasms. We report an unusual case of the development of balloon cell change in a cellular blue nevus, a phenomenon that has not been extensively addressed in the literature. The importance of recognizing this change in cellular blue nevus to avoid misinterpreting the lesion as malignant is discussed.

  19. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available.2-5 Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of classroom demonstrations have been described for showing the effects.6-11 This paper describes how these demonstrations can be enhanced by using a spectrometer to measure the preferential scattering of the shorter wavelength light.

  20. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  1. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Practices of Blue Ribbon Catholic Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    For almost 20 years, the U.S. Department of Education has invited schools to seek the Blue Ribbon School Award. A large number of Catholic schools have received this award. For this publication, the Department of Elementary Schools Executive Committee requested principals of awarded schools to write a short article on an exemplary school program…

  3. A Discography of the Real Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor, Dean

    1972-01-01

    A short account of the rise and decline of the Blues and a discussion of the artists who performed it is followed by an annotated bibliography of periodicals, books, records and tapes related to this form of Black" music. (184 references) (NH)

  4. Blue LED irradiation to hydration of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Requena, Michelle B.; Lizarelli, Rosane F., Z.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2015-06-01

    Blue LED system irradiation shows many important properties on skin as: bacterial decontamination, degradation of endogenous skin chromophores and biostimulation. In this clinical study we prove that the blue light improves the skin hydration. In the literature none authors reports this biological property on skin. Then this study aims to discuss the role of blue light in the skin hydration. Twenty patients were selected to this study with age between 25-35 years old and phototype I, II and III. A defined area from forearm was pre determined (A = 4.0 cm2). The study was randomized in two treatment groups using one blue light device (power of 5.3mW and irradiance of 10.8mW/cm2). The first treatment group was irradiated with 3J/cm2 (277seconds) and the second with 6J/cm2 (555 seconds). The skin hydration evaluations were done using a corneometer. The measurements were collected in 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, during the treatment. Statistical test of ANOVA, Tukey and T-Student were applied considering 5% of significance. In conclusion, both doses were able to improve the skin hydration; however, 6J/cm2 has kept this hydration for 30 days.

  5. Plant Guide: Blue penstemon (Penstemon cyaneus Pennell)

    Treesearch

    Derek Tilley; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Blue penstemon is suited for use in restoration and wildlife enhancement plantings. It is not noted for having value as forage for livestock, and forage use is limited by big game. The fibrous root system and wide canopy cover make it a good plant for low-water use landscaping (i.e. roadsides) and other ornamental plantings.

  6. African Retentions in Blues and Jazz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Eddie S.

    1979-01-01

    The perseverance of African musical characteristics among American Blacks is an historic reality. African retentions have been recorded in Black music of the antebellum period. Various African scales and rhythms permeate Black American music today as evidenced in the retentions found in blues and jazz. (RLV)

  7. Geographical Study of American Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Music is not often utilized in teaching geography, despite the fact that many scholars orient their research around analyzing both the historical and spatial dimensions of musical expression. This article reports on the use of a teaching module that utilizes blues culture as a lens to understand the geographical history of the United States. The…

  8. Microbiological influences in 'blue water' copper corrosion.

    PubMed

    Critchley, M M; Pasetto, R; O'Halloran, R J

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the influence of micro-organisms associated with copper corrosion on 'blue water' corrosion in drinking water. Laboratory rigs comprising of polycarbonate containers attached to annealed copper plumbing tubes were filled with Melbourne drinking water and sterilized by autoclaving. The copper tubes were inoculated with sterile or nonsterile extracts obtained from corroding copper and allowed to stand for 7 days. The extracts were drained and the tubes flushed and filled with sterile water from the rig. The water within the tubes was removed weekly for analysis and the tubes were refilled with freshly aerated water. The tube water sampled was analysed for pH, total copper and the presence of micro-organisms. Sterile rigs and rigs containing nonsterile water, both without tube inoculums, were used as controls. The results demonstrated that tubes inoculated with nonsterile corrosion extracts showed statistically higher copper release compared with the other rigs. Copper release as blue water was only observed after a lag period of 9 weeks. The internal surfaces of tubes releasing copper showed significant amounts of corrosion products and the presence of biofilm. Bacteria isolated from the corroding tubes included Acidovorax spp. and Sphingomonas sp. The results demonstrate a microbial role in blue water, as corrosion was induced in new copper tubes by exposure to nonsterile copper corrosion products. The potential for micro-organisms present in corrosion products to initiate blue water corrosion presents significant implications for the management of corrosion in distribution systems. Copyright 2004 The Society for Applied Microbiology

  9. Bdellovibrios in Callinectus sapidus, the Blue Crab

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Jacqueline I.; Williams, Henry N.

    1992-01-01

    Bdellovibrios were recovered from the gill tissue of all of 31 crabs sampled and from all samples of epibiota obtained from the ventral shell surface of 15 crabs. The results suggest that the blue crab is a reservoir for bdellovibrios. The association with crabs may be an important factor in the ecology of the bdellovibrios. PMID:16348706

  10. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  11. Blue nano titania made in diffusion flames.

    PubMed

    Teleki, Alexandra; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-05-21

    Blue titanium suboxide nanoparticles (including Magneli phases) were formed directly without any post-processing or addition of dopants by combustion of titanium-tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) vapor at atmospheric pressure. Particle size, phase composition, rutile and anatase crystal sizes as well as the blue coloration were controlled by rapid quenching of the flame with a critical flow nozzle placed at various heights above the burner. The particles showed a broad absorption in the near-infrared region and retained their blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere. A high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ centres was found in the substoichiometric particles by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Furthermore particles with controlled band gap energy from 3.2 to 3.6 eV were made by controlling the burner-nozzle-distance from 10 to 1 cm, respectively. The color robustness and extent of suboxidation could be further enhanced by co-oxidation of TTIP with hexamethyldisiloxane in the flame resulting in SiO2-coated titanium suboxide particles. The process is cost-effective and green while the particles produced can replace traditional blue colored, cobalt-containing pigments.

  12. Prussian blue type nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Long, J; Guari, Y; Guérin, C; Larionova, J

    2016-11-28

    Prussian blue type nanoparticles are exciting nano-objects that combine the advantages of molecule-based materials and nanochemistry. Here we provide a short overview focalizing on the recent advances of these nano-objects designed for biomedical applications and give an outlook on the future research orientations in this domain.

  13. Delta Blues Scholarship and Imperialist Nostalgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, William P.

    When Delta blues are considered to be "folk music," the genre is inextricably tied to the neocolonial, sharecropping system of cotton production characteristic of the Mississippi Delta region between the Civil War and World War II. "Imperialist nostalgia," then, arises in accounts which pay primary and positive tribute to blues…

  14. Staining proteins in gels with coomassie blue.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J

    2007-04-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe most commonly used dye for visualizing proteins in SDS-PAGE gels is Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 (CBR-250) because of its relatively high sensitivity. This protocol describes the standard CBR-250 staining method, along with a simple method for preparing stained gels for long-term storage.

  15. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  16. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  17. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  18. Visualising DNA in Classrooms Using Nile Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Christine; Roche, Scott; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Giving students the opportunity to extract, manipulate and visualise DNA molecules enhances a constructivist approach to learning about modern techniques in biology and biotechnology Visualisation usually requires agarose gel electrophoresis and staining. In this article, we report on an alternative DNA stain, Nile Blue A, that may be used in the…

  19. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  20. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Melcón, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  1. Heparin sensing: Blue-chip binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Zachary; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2013-08-01

    Heparin is an anionic polysaccharide that has tremendous clinical importance as an anticoagulant. Several dyes have been developed that can detect heparin, and the latest example -- named Mallard Blue -- has now been shown to have excellent sensing properties under biologically relevant conditions.

  2. Blue-hazard-free Candlelight OLED.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Singh, Meenu; Su, Yu-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hao; He, Zhe-Kai

    2017-03-19

    A candlelight-style organic light emitting diode (OLED) is a human-friendly type of lighting because it is blue-hazard-free and has a low correlated color temperature (CCT) illumination. The low CCT lighting is deprived of high-energy blue radiation, and it can be used for a longer duration before causing retinal damage. This work presents the comprehensive protocols for the fabrication of blue-hazard-free candlelight OLEDs. The emission spectrum of the OLED was characterized by the maximum exposure time limit of the retina and the melatonin suppression sensitivity. The devices can be fabricated using dry and wet processes. The dry-processed OLED resulted in a CCT of 1,940 K and exhibited a maximum retinal exposure limit of 1,287 s at a brightness of 500 lx. It showed 2.61% melatonin suppression sensitivity relative to 480 nm blue light. The wet-processed OLED, where the spin coating is used to deposit hole injection, hole transport, and emissive layers, making fabrication fast and economical, produced a CCT of 1,922 K and showed a maximum retinal exposure limit of 7,092 at a brightness of 500 lx. The achieved relative melatonin suppression sensitivity of 1.05% is 86% and 96% less than that of the light emitting diode (LED) and compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), respectively. Wet-processed blue-hazard-free candlelight OLED exhibited a power efficiency of 30 lm/W, which is 2 times that of the incandescent bulb and 300 times that of the candle.

  3. Chiral heteropoly blues and controllable switching of achiral polyoxometalate clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhan; Li, Haolong; Wu, Che; Yang, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wu, Lixin

    2013-04-22

    Managing the blues: Chiral heteropoly blues of achiral polyoxometalate clusters were created through an intermolecular interaction with a chiral organic compound. Controllable chiroptical switching of the cluster complexes was possible through reversible photochromism of the polyoxometalates (see picture).

  4. Developing the urban blue: Comparative health responses to blue and green urban open spaces in Germany.

    PubMed

    Völker, Sebastian; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Recently, new perspectives upon healthy urban open spaces propose that open spaces can be regarded as urban green or blue spaces. However, there has so far been very little research into blue environments and their benefits for mental well-being. Our article focuses on the effects of water in cities, "urban blue" (as compared to "urban green"), on human health and well-being. To assess the mental well-being of visitors, we conducted qualitative semi-standardised interviews (n=113), asking which differences in well-being occur when visiting urban green and blue spaces in high-density areas of the inner city in Dusseldorf and Cologne, Germany. Although we found many similarities, some health-enhancing effects for users turned out to be prominent for urban blue in the four conceptual therapeutic landscape dimensions: experienced, symbolic, social and activity space. These effects include enhanced contemplation, emotional bonding, participation, and physical activity. The results suggest that urban blue as a health-promoting factor needs more detailed and accurate determination and examination of its general and local health-enhancing effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The conformational characteristics of Congo red, Evans blue and Trypan blue.

    PubMed

    Skowronek, M; Roterman; Konieczny, L; Stopa, B; Rybarska, J; Piekarska, B; Górecki, A; Król, M

    2000-05-01

    The structures of the closely related bis-azo dyes Evans blue, Trypan blue and Congo red, which appeared to have different self-assembly properties and correspondingly different abilities to form complexes with amyloids and some other proteins, were compared in this work. Ab initio and semi-empirical methods were used to find the optimal structures and partial charge distributions of the dyes. The optimal structures were searched using different widely used programs. The structures of Congo red and evans blue were found to be planar, except for the torsion on the central diphenyl bond connecting the two halves of the dye. Both symmetrical parts of the molecules appeared very close to planarity. However, Trypan blue exhibits non planarity on the di-azo bonds, as well as on the central bond between the symmetrical parts of the dye. In a consequence, the non planarity of this molecule is higher than in the case of its isomer, Evans blue and Congo red as well. The extra rotation around the azo bonds extorted by the close proximity of the sulfonic groups may be the direct cause of its poor self-assembling and complexation properties versus Evans blue.

  7. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Kailash; Cheung, Felix; Lee, Wai; Thalappillil, Richard; Florence, F Barry; Kim, Jason

    2016-11-01

    Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  8. Enhancement of two dimensional electron gas concentrations due to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation on Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN heterostructure: strain and interface capacitance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dinara, Syed Mukulika Jana, Sanjay Kr.; Ghosh, Saptarsi; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Kumar, Rahul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Biswas, Dhrubes; Bhattacharya, Sekhar

    2015-04-15

    Enhancement of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentrations at Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN hetero interface after a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (SiN) passivation has been investigated from non-destructive High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) analysis, depletion depth and capacitance-voltage (C-V) profile measurement. The crystalline quality and strained in-plane lattice parameters of Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N and GaN were evaluated from double axis (002) symmetric (ω-2θ) diffraction scan and double axis (105) asymmetric reciprocal space mapping (DA RSM) which revealed that the tensile strain of the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer increased by 15.6% after SiN passivation. In accordance with the predictions from theoretical solution of Schrödinger-Poisson’s equations, both electrochemical capacitance voltage (ECV) depletion depth profile and C-V characteristics analyses were performed which implied effective 9.5% increase in 2DEG carrier density after passivation. The enhancement of polarization charges results from increased tensile strain in the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer and also due to the decreased surface states at the interface of SiN/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer, effectively improving the carrier confinement at the interface.

  9. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of...

  10. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  11. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Treesearch

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  12. Coomassie-Brilliant Blue staining of polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Claudia; Koristka, Stefanie; Feldmann, Anja; Bartsch, Holger; Bachmann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Over the past, a series of staining procedures for proteins were published. The most commonly used staining dye for proteins is still Coomassie-Brilliant Blue. The major reason is Coomassie-Brilliant Blue staining is simple, fast, and sensitive. As Coomassie-Brilliant Blue is almost insoluble in water, a series of procedures including colloidal aqueous procedures were described.

  13. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of...

  14. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of...

  15. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of...

  16. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section 173.216 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of...

  17. Is blue light good or bad for plants?

    PubMed

    Dougher, T A; Bugbee, B G

    1998-01-01

    Blue photons are energetically expensive so the most energy-efficient lamps contain the least blue light. Blue photons are not used efficiently in photosynthesis, but blue light has dramatic effects on plant development. We studied the growth and development of soybean, wheat, and lettuce plants under high-pressure sodium and metal halide lamps with yellow filters creating five fractions of blue light (0.5%, 3.5%, 6%, 1 8%, and 26% blue) at 500 micromoles m-2 s-1 and (< 0.1%, 1.7%, 6%, 12%, and 26%) at 200 mol m-2 s-1. The response was species dependent. Lettuce was highly sensitive to blue light fraction and had an optimum dry weight and leaf area at about 6% blue, but results were complicated by sensitivity to lamp type. Wheat and soybean were less sensitive to blue light, but dry mass and leaf area decreased steadily with increasing blue light. Blue light fraction significantly affected specific leaf area (SLA, m2 kg-1) and chlorophyll in lettuce, but had no significant effect on wheat and soybeans. The data suggest that lettuce benefits from some added blue light, but soybean and wheat may not.

  18. Terrestrial Biomarkers for Early Life on Earth as Analogs for Possible Martian Life Forms: Examples of Minerally Replaced Bacteria and Biofilms From the 3.5 - 3.3-Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; deWit, M. J.; Dann, J.; Gerneke, D.; deRonde, C. E. J.

    1998-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and especially martian life hinges on a variety of methods used to identify vestiges of what we could recognize as life, including chemical signatures, morphological fossils, and biogenic precipitates. Although the possibility of extant life on Mars (subsurface) is being considered, most exploration efforts may be directed toward the search for fossil life. Geomorphological evidence points to a warmer and wetter Mars early on in its history, a scenario that encourages comparison with the early Earth. For this reason, study of the early terrestrial life forms and environment in which they lived may provide clues as to how to search for extinct martian life. As a contribution to the early Archean database of terrestrial microfossils, we present new data on morphological fossils from the 3.5-3.3-Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. This study underlines the variety of fossil types already present in some of the oldest, best-preserved terrestrial sediments, ranging from minerally replaced bacteria and bacteria molds of vaRious morphologies (coccoid, coccobacillus, bacillus) to minerally replaced biofilm. Biofilm or extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is produced by bacteria and appears to be more readily fossilisable than bacteria themselves. The BGB fossils occur in shallow water to subaerial sediments interbedded with volcanic lavas, the whole being deposited on oceanic crust. Penecontemporaneous silicification of sediments and volcanics resulted in the chertification of the rocks, which were later subjected to low-grade metamorphism (lower greenschist).

  19. Continuous-wave and passively Q-switched laser performance of Nd:(LaxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 crystal at 1062 nm CW and PQS laser performance of Nd:LaGGG crystal at 1062 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Fu, X.-W.; Jia, Z.-T.; He, J.-L.; Yang, X.-Q.; Zhang, B.-T.; Wang, R.-H.; Liu, X.-M.; Hou, J.; Lou, F.; Wang, Z.-W.; Yang, Y.

    2012-10-01

    The performance of diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched (PQS) Nd:(LaxGd1-x)3Ga5O12 lasers at 1062 nm were demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. The highest CW output power of 9.9 W was obtained, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 42.9%. For the passive Q-switching operation, when the output coupler of Toc = 27% was adopted, the maximum output power of 3.97 W was obtained by a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber with the initial transmission of T0 = 89.9%.While at T0 = 81.4% and Toc = 27%, the output power of 2.83 W, with pulse width of 7.4 ns and the repetition rate of 13.87 kHz, was obtained, corresponding to the maximum peak power of 27.6 kW and single pulse energy of 0.2 mJ, respectively.

  20. Anisotropy and optical gain improvement in type-II In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs0.4Sb0.6 nano-scale heterostructure under external uniaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Riyaj, Md.; Anjum, S. G.; Yadav, Nisha; Rathi, Amit; Siddiqui, M. J.; Alvi, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Alterations in optical transitions and distortions in wave symmetry in nano-scale QW (quantum well) heterostructures are seen due to external uniaxial strain under different polarizations. This paper reports the anisotropy phenomena and optical gain improvement realized in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs0.4Sb0.6 type-II QW-heterostructure (well width = 20 Å) under uniaxial strain in the SWIR (short wave infra red) region. The detailed study of the band structure, wave functions associated with the charge carriers in the respective bands and optical gain under electromagnetic field perturbation is reported. The 6 × 6 diagonal k → ·p → Hamiltonian matrix is evaluated and Luttinger-Kohn model is used for the band structure calculation. Optical gain spectrum in the QW-heterostructure under uniaxial strain along [110] for different polarizations of light is calculated. For a charge carrier injection of 5 × 1012/cm2 the optical gain is ∼1600/cm under input z-polarization, ∼14500/cm under x-polarization and ∼15700/cm under y-polarization without external uniaxial strain applied. A significant improvement in optical gain is observed under uniaxial strain along [110] direction under different input polarizations. Keeping in views its utilization in optoelectronics due its very high optical gain in near-infra-red region in x- or y-polarization mode, such structure can be considered as a novel structure.

  1. Systematic investigation of effects of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering on photoluminescence rise times of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Masaaki Ohno, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-07

    We have systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells, focusing on the energy relaxation process due to exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering under non-resonant and weak excitation conditions as a function of GaAs-layer thickness from 3.6 to 12.0 nm and temperature from 30 to 50 K. The free exciton characteristics were confirmed by observation that the PL decay time has a linear dependence with temperature. We found that the free exciton PL rise rate, which is the reciprocal of the rise time, is inversely linear with the GaAs-layer thickness and linear with temperature. This is consistent with a reported theoretical study of the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate in the energy relaxation process in quantum wells. Consequently, it is conclusively verified that the PL rise rate is dominated by the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate. In addition, from quantitative analysis of the GaAs-layer thickness and temperature dependences, we suggest that the PL rise rate reflects the number of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering events.

  2. Terrestrial Biomarkers for Early Life on Earth as Analogs for Possible Martian Life Forms: Examples of Minerally Replaced Bacteria and Biofilms From the 3.5 - 3.3-Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; deWit, M. J.; Dann, J.; Gerneke, D.; deRonde, C. E. J.

    1998-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and especially martian life hinges on a variety of methods used to identify vestiges of what we could recognize as life, including chemical signatures, morphological fossils, and biogenic precipitates. Although the possibility of extant life on Mars (subsurface) is being considered, most exploration efforts may be directed toward the search for fossil life. Geomorphological evidence points to a warmer and wetter Mars early on in its history, a scenario that encourages comparison with the early Earth. For this reason, study of the early terrestrial life forms and environment in which they lived may provide clues as to how to search for extinct martian life. As a contribution to the early Archean database of terrestrial microfossils, we present new data on morphological fossils from the 3.5-3.3-Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. This study underlines the variety of fossil types already present in some of the oldest, best-preserved terrestrial sediments, ranging from minerally replaced bacteria and bacteria molds of vaRious morphologies (coccoid, coccobacillus, bacillus) to minerally replaced biofilm. Biofilm or extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is produced by bacteria and appears to be more readily fossilisable than bacteria themselves. The BGB fossils occur in shallow water to subaerial sediments interbedded with volcanic lavas, the whole being deposited on oceanic crust. Penecontemporaneous silicification of sediments and volcanics resulted in the chertification of the rocks, which were later subjected to low-grade metamorphism (lower greenschist).

  3. 3.3 Ga SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of a felsic metavolcanic rock from the Mundo Novo greenstone belt in the São Francisco craton, Bahia (NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peucat, J. J.; Mascarenhas, J. F.; Barbosa, J. S. F.; de Souza, S. L.; Marinho, M. M.; Fanning, C. M.; Leite, C. M. M.

    2002-07-01

    Felsic metavolcanics associated with supracrustal rocks provide U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd TDM ages of approximately 3.3 Ga, which establish an Archean age of the Mundo Novo greenstone belt. A granodioritic gneiss from the Mairi complex, located on the eastern boundary of the Mundo Novo greenstone belt, exhibits a zircon evaporation minimum age of 3.04 Ga and a Nd model age of 3.2 Ga. These results constrain the occurrence of at least three major geological units in this area: the Archean Mundo Novo greenstone belt, the Archean Mairi gneisses, and the adjoining Paleoproterozoic (<2.1 Ga) Jacobina sedimentary basin. The Jacobina basin follows the same trend as the Archean structure, extending southward to the Contendas-Mirante belt, in which a similar Archean-Paleoproterozoic association appears. We postulate that during the Paleoproterozoic in the eastern margin of the Gavião block, these Archean greenstone belts constituted a zone of weakness along which a late-stage orogenic sedimentary basin developed.

  4. Analysis of Ce3+ luminescence quenching in solid solutions between Y3Al5O12 and Y3Ga5O12 by temperature dependence of photoconductivity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa; Nakanishi, Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Photocurrent excitation spectra were measured to investigate the quenching in the garnet solid solutions. Intense photocurrent excitation bands attributed to the lowest 5d1 and the second lowest 5d2 levels were observed in the Ce-doped Y3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:YAGG) and Y3Ga5O12 (Ce:YGG). Based on the results of temperature dependence of photoconductivity, the 5d1 and 5d2 levels in the Ce:YAGG are found to be located below and within the conduction band, respectively, while both levels in the Ce:YGG are found to be located within its conduction band located at lower energy levels. In addition, the threshold of photoionization from the 4f level of Ce3+ to the conduction band in the Ce:YAGG and Ce:YGG were estimated to be 3.2, and 2.8 eV, respectively. We conclude that the main quenching process in the Ce:YAGG is caused by the thermally stimulated ionization process with activation energy of 90 meV from the 5d1 to the conduction band, and that in the Ce:YGG is caused by the direct ionization process from the 5d levels to the conduction band.

  5. Analysis of Ce3+ luminescence quenching in solid solutions between Y3Al5O12 and Y3Ga5O12 by temperature dependence of photoconductivity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa; Nakanishi, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Photocurrent excitation spectra were measured to investigate the quenching in the garnet solid solutions. Intense photocurrent excitation bands attributed to the lowest 5d1 and the second lowest 5d2 levels were observed in the Ce-doped Y3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:YAGG) and Y3Ga5O12 (Ce:YGG). Based on the results of temperature dependence of photoconductivity, the 5d1 and 5d2 levels in the Ce:YAGG are found to be located below and within the conduction band, respectively, while both levels in the Ce:YGG are found to be located within its conduction band located at lower energy levels. In addition, the threshold of photoionization from the 4f level of Ce3+ to the conduction band in the Ce:YAGG and Ce:YGG were estimated to be 3.2, and 2.8 eV, respectively. We conclude that the main quenching process in the Ce:YAGG is caused by the thermally stimulated ionization process with activation energy of 90 meV from the 5d1 to the conduction band, and that in the Ce:YGG is caused by the direct ionization process from the 5d levels to the conduction band. PMID:21990945

  6. Depletion-mode In 0.2Ga 0.8As/GaAs MOSFET with molecular beam epitaxy grown Al 2O 3/Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) as gate dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. A.; Lin, T. D.; Chiang, T. H.; Chiu, H. C.; Chang, P.; Hong, M.; Kwo, J.

    2009-03-01

    Depletion-mode In 0.2Ga 0.8As/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown Al 2O 3/Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) as the gate dielectric in two comparable processes. In the "metal-gate-last" process, a 12 μm gate-length depletion-mode n-channel InGaAs/GaAs MOSFET with a Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3) gate oxide 6 nm thick shows an accumulated drain current density of 135 mA/mm at Vg=2 V. In the other process of "metal-gate-first" process, the device with same gate dielectric, channel, and gate length exhibits a larger drain current density of 175 mA/mm at the same gate bias. In addition, there is a broader transfer characteristics and higher extrinsic peak transconductance of 48 mS/mm in the metal-gate-first process. MOS capacitors from both processes have exhibited excellent capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics with minor dispersion, negligible hysteresis, and κ values of 13.7-13.9 in Ga 2O 3(Gd 2O 3).

  7. Nitride passivation reduces interfacial traps in atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs (001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T. Fukuhara, N.; Osada, T.; Sazawa, H.; Hata, M.; Inoue, T.

    2014-07-21

    Using an atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system, we passivated GaAs with AlN prior to atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This AlN passivation incorporated nitrogen at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs interface, improving the capacitance-voltage (C–V) characteristics of the resultant metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs). The C–V curves of these devices showed a remarkable reduction in the frequency dispersion of the accumulation capacitance. Using the conductance method at various temperatures, we extracted the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}). The D{sub it} was reduced over the entire GaAs band gap. In particular, these devices exhibited D{sub it} around the midgap of less than 4 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1}, showing that AlN passivation effectively reduced interfacial traps in the MOS structure.

  8. Acute blue finger: a diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed; Elmasry, Mohamed; Mabote, Thato; Elsayed, Ayman; Sunthareswaran, Rame

    2014-01-01

    The management of the acute blue finger is controversial with many regarding it as a benign condition. However, we would argue that it should always be considered as an emergency. We present a challenging case of a 43-year-old woman who presented with a 1-week history of sudden onset blue discolouration of the left fifth digit, and a 6-week history of episodic joint problems. Examination showed bilateral normal radial and ulnar pulses. Following blood investigations, an initial working diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis with associated Raynaud's phenomenon was made. Also, infective endocarditis was considered due to temporary misleading physical signs. Later, CT angiography of the left upper limb arteries showed a significant proximal left subclavian stenosis. Subsequently, a diagnosis of the left subclavian arteritis associated with digit ischaemia from embolic debris was made and the patient underwent a left subclavian angioplasty. However, delayed management resulted in a necrotic digit, which was left to autoamputate. PMID:24429047

  9. Epikeratoplasty for keratoglobus associated with blue sclera.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J A; Cotter, J B; Risco, J M; Alvarez, H

    1991-04-01

    Patients with keratoglobus and blue sclera as part of a generalized connective tissue disorder are at a high risk of developing corneal perforations either spontaneously or after mild trauma. Six patients (6 eyes) between the ages of 2 and 16 years of age (mean, 7.5 years) with keratoglobus, blue sclera, hypermobile joints, and consanguineous parents were treated by epikeratoplasty, using commercially prepared 12.5-mm lenticules. Surgery was performed for tectonic support and/or visual improvement and was successful in five of six patients with a follow-up period of 11 to 27 months (mean, 21 months). One lenticule was removed because the epithelium did not heal. Peripheral interface opacities occurred in three patients.

  10. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and 'Blue Recreation' in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Amber L; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-05-26

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image (n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults.

  11. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  12. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and ‘Blue Recreation’ in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Amber L.; Bottomley, Ross; Chambers, Tim; Thornton, Lukar; Stanley, James; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Signal, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image (n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults. PMID:28587134

  13. Experiencing Blues at the Crossroads: A Place-Based Method for Teaching the Geography of Blues Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a pedagogical module that explores the geography of blues culture across the Mississippi Delta. By focusing on blues culture, rather than simply blues music itself, this project provides a forum for understanding the broader geographical conditions from which this musical form emerged. This module utilizes place-based…

  14. Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    very helpful. W. Krupke of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory contributed useful discussions on high power solid-state lasers . Financial support was...Blue-Green Lasers and Electrodeless Flashlamps F. W. Perkins CIAM * Accesion For7 DTIC TAB [] Urnannouriced lI Justification By...combining the technology of moderate pressure electrodeless discharge lamps with the efficiency of a resonantly pumped solid-state laser to achieve an

  15. Indicator characteristics of bromothymol blue derivatives.

    PubMed

    Puschett, J B; Rao, B S; Karandikar, B M; Matyjaszewski, K

    1991-03-01

    Some Bromothymol Blue derivatives with a nitro, amino, isothiocyanato or sulfonamide group substituted on the sulfonated ring of the dibromothymolsulfonephthalein have been studied spectrometrically. All the dyes have two characteristic absorption peaks which can be used to measure pH in the physiological range. The molar absorptivities, wavelengths of maximum absorption and pK(a) values have been determined from the absorbances, and are similar for all four dyes.

  16. Genetic heterogeneity among blue-cone monochromats

    SciTech Connect

    Nathans, J.; Maumenee, I.H.; Zrenner, E.; Sadowski, B.; Sharpe, L.T.; Lewis, R.A.; Hansen, E.; Rosenberg, T.; Schwartz, M.; Heckenlively, J.R.; Traboulsi, E.; Klingaman, R.; Bech-Hansen, N.T.; LaRoche, G.R.; Pagon, R.A.; Murphey, W.H.; Weleber, R.G.

    1993-11-01

    Thirty-three unrelated subjects with blue-cone monochromacy or closely related variants of blue-cone monochromacy were examined for rearrangements in the tandem array of genes encoding the red- and green-cone pigments. In 24 subjects, eight genotypes were found that would be predicted to eliminate the function of all of the genes within the array. As observed in an earlier study, the rearrangements involve either deletion of a locus control region adjacent to the gene array or loss of function via homologous recombination and point mutation. One inactivating mutation, Cy[sup 203]-to-Arg, was found in 15 probands who carry single genes and in both visual pigment genes in one subject whose array has two genes. This mutation was also found in at least one of the visual pigment genes in one subject whose array has multiple genes and in 2 of 321 control subjects, suggesting that preexisting Cys[sup 203]-to-Arg mutations constitute a reservoir of chromosomes that are predisposed to generate blue-cone-monochromat genotypes by unequal homologous recombination and/or gene conversion. Two other point mutations were identified: (a) Arg[sup 247]-to-Ter in one subject with a single red-pigment gene and (b) Pro[sup 307]-to-Leu in one subject with a single 5[prime] red-3[prime] green hybrid gene. The observed heterogeneity of genotypes points to the existence of multiple one- and two-step mutational pathways to blue-cone monochromacy. 28 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlotter, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schneider, J.

    Using blue-emitting GaN/6HSiC chips as primary light sources, we have fabricated green, yellow, red and white emitting LEDs. The generation of mixed colors, as turquoise and magenta is also demonstrated. The underlying physical principle is that of luminescence down-conversion (Stokes shift), as typical for organic luminescent dye molecules. A white emitting LED, using an inorganic converter, Y3Al5O12:Ce3+( ), has also been realized.

  18. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  19. Spectral Effects of Pulsations in Blue Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomić, S.; Kraus, M.; Oksala, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have been spectroscopically monitoring a number of blue supergiants, focusing on several strategic photospheric and wind lines. Our aim is to detect line profile variability, and to determine its origin. Here, we present preliminary results for ρ Leo and ɛ Ori. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of Hei λ6678. We find in each star multiple periods raging from hours to several days. In addition, we observe strong, night to night variability in Hα.

  20. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  1. Blue Fermi flat spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Sbarrato, T.; Ghirlanda, G.; Maraschi, L.

    2012-09-01

    Many blazars detected by the Fermi satellite, observed spectroscopically in the optical, are line-less, and have been classified as BL Lac objects. Optical-ultraviolet (UV) photometry of nearly 100 of them allowed us to determine the redshift for a handful of objects and redshift upper limits in the great majority. A few of these are candidates to be 'blue quasars', namely flat spectrum radio quasars whose broad emission lines are hidden by an overwhelming synchrotron emission peaking in the UV. This implies that the emitting electrons have high energies. In turn, this requires relatively weak radiative cooling, a condition that can be met if the main radiative dissipation of the jet power occurs outside the broad-line region. We confirm this hypothesis by studying and modelling the spectral energy distributions of the four 'blue quasars' recently discovered. Furthermore, we discuss the distribution of Fermi blazars in the γ-ray spectral index-γ-ray luminosity plane, and argue that 'blue quasars' objects are a minority within the blazar populations.

  2. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  3. Red, Green, and Blue Astro-combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David; Glenday, Alex; Li, Chih-Hao; Korzennik, Sylvain; Noah Chang, Guoqing; Chen, Li-Jin; Benedick, Andrew; Kaertner, Franz; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    Searches for extrasolar planets using the periodic Doppler shift of stellar lines are approaching Earth-like planet sensitivity. Astro-combs, a combination of an octave spanning femtosecond laser and a mode-filtering cavity provide a likely route to increased calibration precision and accuracy. We present results from three astro-combs operating in the red/near-IR, green and blue spectral ranges. Light from a 1-GHz, octave-spanning Ti:Sapphire laser is filtered by a Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC) constructed from Doubly-Chirped Mirrors to produce a red astro-comb with 100 nm of optical bandwidth. This astro-comb has calibrated an astrophysical spectrograph at the 1 m/s level. In the blue astro-comb, Ti:Sapphire comb light, doubled in a BBO crystal is filtered to 50 GHz mode spacing with an FPC. The blue astro-comb has performed 50 cm/s calibrations. In the ``green'' astro-comb, light from the 1 GHz Ti:Sapphire comb laser is broadened in a photonic crystal fiber optimized to produce light in the green. This 1-GHz spaced green light is then filtered to roughly 40 GHz via an FPC with zero group delay dispersion mirrors, providing approximately 50 nm of astro-comb light centered near 550 nm.

  4. Blue Rose perimeter defense and security system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, F.; Pollock, J.

    2006-05-01

    An in-ground perimeter security system has been developed by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport based upon fiber optic sensor technology. The system, called Blue Rose, exploits the physical phenomenon of Rayleigh optical scattering, which occurs naturally in optical fibers used traditionally for Optical Time Domain Reflectometry techniques to detect sound and vibration transmitted by intruders such as people walking or running and moving vehicles near the sensor. The actual sensor is a single-mode optical fiber with an elastomeric coating that is buried in the ground. A long coherence length laser is used to transmit encoded light down the fiber. Minute changes in the fiber in response to the intrusion produce phase changes to the returning backscattered light signal. The return light signal contains both the actual intrusion sound and the location information of where along the fiber the intrusion has occurred. A digital, in-ground, Blue Rose system has been built and is now operational at NUWC. Due to the low cost of the optical fiber sensor and unique benefits of the system, the Blue Rose system provides an advantage in long perimeter or border security applications and also reduces security manning requirements and therefore overall cost for security.

  5. QCD and the BlueGene

    SciTech Connect

    Vranas, P

    2007-06-18

    Quantum Chromodynamics is the theory of nuclear and sub-nuclear physics. It is a celebrated theory and one of its inventors, F. Wilczek, has termed it as '... our most perfect physical theory'. Part of this is related to the fact that QCD can be numerically simulated from first principles using the methods of lattice gauge theory. The computational demands of QCD are enormous and have not only played a role in the history of supercomputers but are also helping define their future. Here I will discuss the intimate relation of QCD and massively parallel supercomputers with focus on the Blue Gene supercomputer and QCD thermodynamics. I will present results on the performance of QCD on the Blue Gene as well as physics simulation results of QCD at temperatures high enough that sub-nuclear matter transitions to a plasma state of elementary particles, the quark gluon plasma. This state of matter is thought to have existed at around 10 microseconds after the big bang. Current heavy ion experiments are in the quest of reproducing it for the first time since then. And numerical simulations of QCD on the Blue Gene systems are calculating the theoretical values of fundamental parameters so that comparisons of experiment and theory can be made.

  6. Blue light does not inhibit nodulation in Sesbania rostrata.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hayashi, Makoto; Maymon, Maskit; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2017-01-02

    Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A. caulinodans proliferation was not affected by blue light irradiation, bacterial survival was decreased. Therefore, blue light appears to impose different responses depending on the legume-rhizobial symbiosis.

  7. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  8. Postnatal blues: a risk factor for postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, C; Foreman, D; Cox, J

    2004-01-01

    Postnatal blues have been regarded as brief, benign and without clinical significance. However, several studies have proposed a link between blues and subsequent depression but have methodological problems. We report a prospective, controlled study of postpartum women with severe blues which uses systematically devised and validated instruments for that purpose which tests the hypothesis that severe blues increases the risk of depression in the six months following childbirth. 206 first-time mothers were recruited in late pregnancy. Blues status was defined using the Blues Questionnaire and those with severe blues and their controls who had no blues (matched for age, marital status and social class) were followed for 6 months with postal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. RDC diagnoses were made following SADS-L interview at the end of the protocol. Backwards stepwise Cox regression analysis found severe blues and past history of depression to be independent predictors each raising the risk by almost 3 times. Depression in those with severe blues onset sooner after delivery and lasted longer. The difference was largely accounted for by major depression. Severe postpartum blues are identified as an independent risk factor for subsequent postpartum depression. Screening and intervention programs could be devised.

  9. Jagua blue derived from Genipa americana L. fruit: A natural alternative to commonly used blue food colorants?

    PubMed

    Brauch, J E; Zapata-Porras, S P; Buchweitz, M; Aschoff, J K; Carle, R

    2016-11-01

    Due to consumers' increasing health awareness, food industry aims at replacing synthetic dyes by natural counterparts. The substitution of blue synthetic dyes is particularly challenging since current natural alternatives such as phycocyanin (Spirulina) suffer from poor stability. Jagua blue (produced from Genipa americana L. fruit) might represent a potential novel blue pigment source. However, only little is known about its color properties, and application in food systems. Therefore, the blue color and the stability of Jagua blue were assessed for the first time and compared to commonly used colorants, namely, Spirulina, brilliant blue FCF (Blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (Blue no. 2). The reaction rate of Jagua blue was independent of its concentration, confirming thermal degradation to follow first-order kinetics. Between pH 3.6 and 5.0, the color hue of Jagua blue solutions was similar to that of Blue no. 2. However, Jagua blue revealed markedly higher storage stabilities (t1/2=86-105days) than Blue no. 2 (t1/2≤9days) and was less susceptible to acidic pH of 3.6 (t1/2=86days) than Spirulina (t1/2=70days). High negative b* values (blueness) of colored gelatin gels were only obtained for Jagua blue and Spirulina, and the former exhibited higher light stabilities (t1/2=15days) than Spirulina gels (t1/2=4days). Our findings indicate Jagua blue to be a most promising alternative to synthetic dyes, providing relevant information regarding potential food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of carrageenan by means of photometric titration with Methylene Blue and Toluidine Blue dyes.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Dorota; Kaniewska, Agnieszka; Lamkiewicz, Jan; Shyichuk, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A new approach to carrageenan quantitation was described. The method consists in titration of carrageenan solution by Methylene Blue dye or Toluidine Blue dye solution until a certain absorbance value. The optimal wavelengths are 660nm and 640nm when titrating with Methylene Blue dye and Toluidine Blue dye, respectively. Rectilinear calibration plots (R(2)>0.996) provide carrageenan determination in the concentration range from 2 to 60mg/L with relative standard deviation from 1 to 5%. The proposed method is simple and feasible in use due to optical dip probe providing in situ absorbance measurements. The proposed way of end-point recognition as pre-set voltage is applicable with any automatic titrator. The method was tested on model jelly dessert sachet. No interference was registered from typical ingredients of jellies such as sucrose, citric acid, sodium citrate, malic acid, potassium sorbate as well as blue colorant. The neutral polysaccharides such as guar gum and locust bean gum have insignificant interference when their content is fivefold as compared to that of carrageenan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Blue-Green Solutions in Urban Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing urbanisation and increasing pressure for new housing and infrastructure, the nexus of developing compact, energy-efficient and yet liveable and sustainable cities is urgent to address. In this context, blue-green spaces and related ecosystem services (ES) are critical resources that need to be integrated in policy and planning of urban. Among the ES provided by blue-green spaces, regulating ES such as water retention and purification are particularly important in urban areas, affecting water supply and quality, related cultural ES and biodiversity, as well as cities potential to adapt to climate change. Blue-green infrastructure management is considered a sustainable way to reducing negative effects of urbanisation, such as decreasing flood risks, as well as adapting to climate change for example by controlling increasing flood and drought risks. Blue-green infrastructure management can for example create multifunctional surfaces with valuable environmental and social functions and generally handle greenways and ecological networks as important ecosystem service components, for example for stormwater regulation in a sustainable urban drainage system. The Norrström drainage basin (22,000 km2) is a large demonstrator for Blue-green infrastructure management. Both urbanisation and agriculture are extensive within this basin, which includes the Swedish capital Stockholm and is part of the fertile Swedish belt. Together, the relatively high population density combined with agricultural and industrial activities in this region imply large eutrophication and pollution pressures, not least transferred through storm runoff to both inland surface waters and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The ecosystems of this basin provide highly valued but also threatened services. For example, Lake Mälaren is the single main freshwater supply for the Swedish capital Stockholm, as well as a key nutrient retention system that strongly mitigates waterborne nutrient

  12. Quality issues in blue noise halftoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing; Parker, Kevin J.

    1998-01-01

    The blue noise mask (BNM) is a halftone screen that produces unstructured visually pleasing dot patterns. The BNM combines the blue-noise characteristics of error diffusion and the simplicity of ordered dither. A BNM is constructed by designing a set of interdependent binary patterns for individual gray levels. In this paper, we investigate the quality issues in blue-noise binary pattern design and mask generation as well as in application to color reproduction. Using a global filtering technique and a local 'force' process for rearranging black and white pixels, we are able to generate a series of binary patterns, all representing a certain gray level, ranging from white-noise pattern to highly structured pattern. The quality of these individual patterns are studied in terms of low-frequency structure and graininess. Typically, the low-frequency structure (LF) is identified with a measurement of the energy around dc in the spatial frequency domain, while the graininess is quantified by a measurement of the average minimum distance (AMD) between minority dots as well as the kurtosis of the local kurtosis distribution (KLK) for minority pixels of the binary pattern. A set of partial BNMs are generated by using the different patterns as unique starting 'seeds.' In this way, we are able to study the quality of binary patterns over a range of gray levels. We observe that the optimality of a binary pattern for mask generation is related to its own quality mertirc values as well as the transition smoothness of those quality metric values over neighboring levels. Several schemes have been developed to apply blue-noise halftoning to color reproduction. Different schemes generate halftone patterns with different textures. In a previous paper, a human visual system (HVS) model was used to study the color halftone quality in terms of luminance and chrominance error in CIELAB color space. In this paper, a new series of psycho-visual experiments address the 'preferred' color

  13. For-profit conversion and merger trends among Blue Cross Blue Shield health plans.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Joy M; Strunk, Bradley C

    2004-01-01

    Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) health plans, which insure nearly one in three Americans, historically have operated as local, nonprofit or mutual organizations. However, since the mid-1990s, BCBS plans increasingly have converted to for-profit companies and merged with Blue plans in other states. State insurance regulators, charged with weighing the costs and benefits of conversions and mergers to consumers, often wrestle with the legal complexities of these deals, according to Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. Although state regulatory scrutiny has slowed the pace of conversions recently, conversion activity is likely to accelerate again as the political and regulatory landscapes shift and plans adapt conversion strategies. The limited evidence available from HSC site visits and conversion proceedings suggests that conversions and mergers have had neither significant negative nor positive effects on consumers.

  14. Decolourization and biodegradation of Navy blue HER (Reactive Blue 171) dye from Marasmius sp. BBKAV79.

    PubMed

    Vantamuri, Adiveppa B; Kaliwal, Basappa B

    2017-05-01

    White rot fungus Marasmius sp. BBKAV79 (GenBank accession number-KP455496, KP455497) exhibited decolourization and degradation of Navy blue HER dye (concentration 50 mg l(-l)) within 24 h under shaking condition. In the present study, various investigated parameters like initial dye concentration, pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized to develop a faster decolourization process by Marasmius sp. BBKAV79. High-performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy analysis of the extracted product confirmed the biodegradation of Navy blue HER. The microbial toxicity and phytotoxicity assay revealed that the degradation of Navy blue HER produced nontoxic metabolites.

  15. Raman analysis of cobalt blue pigment in blue and white porcelain: A reassessment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaochenyang; Ma, Yanying; Chen, Yue; Li, Yuanqiu; Ma, Qinglin; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Changsui; Yang, Yimin

    2017-09-05

    Cobalt blue is a famous pigment in human history. In the past decade it is widely reported that the cobalt aluminate has been detected in ancient ceramics as blue colorant in glaze, yet the acquired Raman spectra are incredibly different from that of synthesised references, necessitating a reassessment of such contradictory scenario with more accurate analytic strategies. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in association with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were performed on under-glaze cobalt pigments from one submerged blue and white porcelain shard dated from Wanli reign (1573-1620CE) of Ming dynasty (1365-1644CE) excavated at Nan'ao I shipwreck off the southern coast of China. The micro-structural inspection reveals that the pigment particles have characteristics of small account, tiny size, heterogeneously distribution, and more importantly, been completely enwrapped by well-developed anorthite crystals in the glaze, indicating that the signals recorded in previous publications are probably not from cobalt pigments themselves but from outside thickset anorthite shell. The further spectromicroscopic analyses confirm this presumption when the accurate spectra of cobalt aluminate pigment and surrounding anorthite were obtained separately with precise optical positioning. Accordingly, we reassess and clarify the previous Raman studies dedicated to cobalt blue pigment in ancient ceramics, e.g. cobalt blue in celadon glaze, and in turn demonstrate the superiority and necessity of coupling spectroscopic analysis with corresponding structure observation, especially in the characterization of pigments from complicated physico-chemical environment like antiquities. Thus, this study promotes a better understanding of Raman spectroscopy study of cobalt blue pigments in art and archaeology field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Why are blue zhamanshinites blue? Liquid immiscibility in an impact melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Koeberl, Christian

    1991-01-01

    A study of the cause of the coloration of blue zhamanshinites, which are glassy impact melt rocks from the Zhamanshin crater in the USSR are reported. It is found that the blue color results from Rayleigh scattering from spherical, 100 nm-diameter inclusions of a separate Ca-Fe-Mg-P-rich silicate glass. These observations can best be explained by the operation of liquid immiscibility in the zhamanshinite melt, and suggest that liquid immiscibility may have a more general role in impactite evolution.

  17. Design, synthesis and application of benzyl-sulfonate biomimetic affinity adsorbents for monoclonal antibody purification from transgenic corn.

    PubMed

    Maltezos, Anastasios; Platis, Dimitris; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Marinou, Marigianna; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2014-01-01

    The human anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody 2G12 (mAb 2G12) is one of the most broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV that recognizes a unique epitope on the surface glycoprotein gp120. In the present work, a limited affinity-ligand library was synthesized and evaluated for its ability to bind and purify recombinant mAb 2G12 expressed in transgenic corn. The affinity ligands were structural fragments of polysulfonate triazine dye Cibacron Blue 3GA (CB3GA) and represent novel lead scaffolds for designing synthetic affinity ligands. Solid phase chemistry was used to synthesize variants of CB3GA lead ligand. One immobilized ligand, bearing 4-aminobenzyl sulfonic acid (4ABS) linked on two chlorine atoms of the triazine ring (4ABS-Trz-4ABS), displayed high affinity for mAb 2G12. Absorption equilibrium, 3D molecular modelling and molecular dynamics simulation studies were carried out to provide a detailed picture of the 4ABS-Trz-4ABS interaction with mAb 2G12. This biomimetic affinity ligand was exploited for the development of a facile two-step purification protocol for mAb 2G12. In the first step of the procedure, mAb 2G12 was purified on an S-Sepharose FF cation exchanger, and in the second step, mAb 2G12 was purified using affinity chromatography on 4ABS-Trz-4ABS affinity adsorbent. Analysis of the antibody preparation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the mAb 2G12 was fully active and of sufficient purity suitable for analytical applications.

  18. Metal ion displacements in noncentrosymmetric chalcogenides La3Ga1.67S7, La3Ag0.6GaCh7 (Ch=S, Se), and La3MGaSe7 (M=Zn, Cd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Yin, Wenlong; Rudyk, Brent W.; Lin, Xinsong; Nilges, Tom; Mar, Arthur

    2016-11-01

    The quaternary Ga-containing chalcogenides La3Ag0.6GaS7, La3Ag0.6GaSe7, La3ZnGaSe7, and La3CdGaSe7, as well as the related ternary chalcogenide La3Ga1.67S7, were prepared by reactions of the elements at 950 °C. They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (space group P63, Z=2) with cell parameters (a=10.2 Å, c=6.1 Å for the sulfides; a=10.6 Å, c=6.4 Å for the selenides) that are largely controlled by the geometrical requirements of one-dimensional stacks of Ga-centered tetrahedra separated by the La atoms. Among these compounds, which share the common formulation La3M1-xGaCh7 (M=Ga, Ag, Zn, Cd; Ch=S, Se), the M atoms occupy sites within a stacking of trigonal antiprisms formed by Ch atoms. The location of the M site varies between extremes with trigonal antiprismatic (CN6) and trigonal planar (CN3) geometry. Partial occupation of these sites and intermediate ones accounts for the considerable versatility of these structures and the occurrence of large metal displacement parameters. The site occupations can be understood in a simple way as being driven by the need to satisfy appropriate bond valence sums for both the M and Ch atoms. Band structure calculations rationalize the substoichiometry observed in the Ag-containing compounds (La3Ag0.6GaS7, La3Ag0.6GaSe7) as a response to overbonding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy supports the presence of monovalent Ag atoms in these compounds, which are not charge-balanced.

  19. Preparation and crystal structure of ternary rare-earth platinum metal aluminides R2T3Al 9 ( T=Rh, Ir, Pd) with Y 2Co 3Ga 9-type structure and magnetic properties of the iridium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niermann, Jens; Fehrmann, Birgit; Wolff, Michael W.; Jeitschko, Wolfgang

    2004-07-01

    The ternary aluminides R2Rh 3Al 9 ( R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu), R2Ir 3Al 9 ( R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu), and R2Pd 3Al 9 ( R=Y, Gd-Tm) have been prepared by arc melting of the elemental components with an excess of aluminum and dissolving the aluminum-rich matrix in hydrochloric acid. They crystallize with Y 2Co 3Ga 9-type structure: Cmcm, Z=4. The crystal structures of Ho 2Rh 3Al 9 and Er 2Ir 3Al 9 have been refined from single-crystal X-ray data; Ho 2Rh 3Al 9: a=1316.8(3) pm, b=760.2(2) pm, c=933.7(2) pm, R=0.044 for 255 structure factors and 27 variables; Er 2Ir 3Al 9: a=1313.8(2) pm, b=758.5(1) pm, c=933.8(2) pm, R=0.057 (392 F values, 27 variables). The structure may be viewed as consisting of atomic layers of the compositions A= R2Al 3 and B= T3Al 6 which alternate in the sequence ABAB along the z direction. Approximately 33% and 27% of the A layers were found to be misplaced in the crystals investigated for Ho 2Rh 3Al 9 and Er 2Ir 3Al 9, respectively. The magnetic properties of most iridium-containing compounds have been determined with a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The yttrium and the lanthanum compounds show Pauli paramagnetism, others reflect the magnetic behavior of the rare-earth components. The magnetic ordering temperatures are all lower than 20 K.

  20. MOCK OBSERVATIONS OF BLUE STRAGGLERS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, Alison; Glebbeek, Evert; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A. E-mail: e.glebbeek@astro.ru.nl E-mail: rasio@northwestern.edu

    2013-11-10

    We created artificial color-magnitude diagrams of Monte Carlo dynamical models of globular clusters and then used observational methods to determine the number of blue stragglers in those clusters. We compared these blue stragglers to various cluster properties, mimicking work that has been done for blue stragglers in Milky Way globular clusters to determine the dominant formation mechanism(s) of this unusual stellar population. We find that a mass-based prescription for selecting blue stragglers will select approximately twice as many blue stragglers than a selection criterion that was developed for observations of real clusters. However, the two numbers of blue stragglers are well-correlated, so either selection criterion can be used to characterize the blue straggler population of a cluster. We confirm previous results that the simplified prescription for the evolution of a collision or merger product in the BSE code overestimates their lifetimes. We show that our model blue stragglers follow similar trends with cluster properties (core mass, binary fraction, total mass, collision rate) as the true Milky Way blue stragglers as long as we restrict ourselves to model clusters with an initial binary fraction higher than 5%. We also show that, in contrast to earlier work, the number of blue stragglers in the cluster core does have a weak dependence on the collisional parameter Γ in both our models and in Milky Way globular clusters.

  1. Nile Blue derivatives as lysosomotropic photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Wei; Shulok, Janine R.; Kirley, S. D.; Cincotta, Louis; Foley, James W.

    1991-06-01

    The benzophenoxazines, including several Nile blue analogues, are a unique group of dyes that localize selectively in animal tumors. Chemical modifications of Nile blue A can yield derivatives with high 1O2 quantum yields. These derivatives represent a group of potentially effective photosensitizers for selective phototherapy of malignant tumors. In vitro evaluation of these derivatives has indicated that those with high 1O2 yields are very effective in mediating the photocytotoxicity of tumor cells. This photodynamic effect is most likely mediated through the action of 1O2, since photoirradiation under D2O enhanced and under hypoxic conditions diminished the photocytotoxic action. The subcellular localization of these photosensitizers in bladder tumor cells in culture was examined by light and fluorescence microscopies as well as by histochemical and biochemical studies. The results indicate that these dyes are localized primarily in the lysosome. The cellular uptake and retention of these dyes is energy- and pH-dependent. Agents such as nigericin, which alter the transmembrane pH gradient, reduced uptake and enhanced efflux of the dyes, while agents such as valinomycin, which reduce cellular membrane potential, had no effect on the uptake. These findings are consistent with having ion-trapping as the mechanism for the uptake of these dyes. Photoirradiation of sensitizer-treated cells obliterated lysosomes in a light-dose and drug-dose dependent fashion. Release of the hydrolytic enzymes may be the main cause for subsequent cell death since the cytolytic effect was reduced by a specific inhibitor of lysosomal proteolytic enzyme. A lysosomotropic photosensitization mechanism is therefore proposed for the photocytotoxic action of the Nile blue derivatives. This mechanism may provide an approach to the development of new photosensitizers for the effective and selective destruction of malignant tumors.

  2. The curious conversion of Empire Blue Cross.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The for-profit conversion of Empire Blue Cross in New York challenges the case law and conventional policy wisdom that financial assets from formerly nonprofit organizations should be used to endow independent charitable foundations. The appropriation of Empire's assets by state government itself, and their subsequent deployment to subsidize health care institutions and repay political obligations, changes the conversion process from one that pits nonprofits against for-profits to one that pits private, nonprofit organizations against public-sector programs in the competition for new financial resources.

  3. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  4. Blue twilight in a simple atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    2002-09-01

    Assuming a curved exponential atmosphere with beam attenuation and isotropic scattering both proportional to density, we model three regimes that each become dominant in turn as the sun sets. This drastic simplification of the earth's real atmosphere both provides insight to guide system design and is able to fit over an irradiance range exceeding nine decades a set of narrowband measurements of blue light intensity made in the natural environment on clear days. The single-scattering regime involves only overall illumination (or cloudiness) as an adjustable parameter and appears especially relevant to animal geolocation based on measurement of diffuse irradiance.

  5. Blue running of the primordial tensor spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2014-07-01

    We examine the possibility of positive spectral index of the power spectrum of the primordial tensor perturbation produced during inflation in the light of the detection of the B-mode polarization by the BICEP2 collaboration. We find a blue tilt is in general possible when the slow-roll parameter decays rapidly. We present two known examples in which a positive spectral index for the tensor power spectrum can be obtained. We also briefly discuss other consistency tests for further studies on inflationary dynamics.

  6. Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

  7. Conjugated Triphenylene Polymers for Blue OLED Devices.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Moussa; Park, Young-Seo; Baumgarten, Martin; Kim, Jang-Joo; Müllen, Klaus

    2009-07-16

    Three polytriphenylene derivatives with phenyl and alkyl groups as side chains have been tested as blue light emitters. The best performance in terms of turn-on voltage and luminance efficiencies was obtained for poly(2-heptyl-3-(4-octylphenyl)-1,4-diphenyl-6,11-triphenylenyl-1,4-benzene) (1), which was additionally blended with an electron-transporting and a hole-injection material in the device, and had an onset of 4.6 V and reached 0.73 cd · A(-1) . Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Maya Blue Paint: An Ancient Nanostructured Material

    PubMed

    Jose-Yacaman; Rendon; Arenas; Serra Puche MC

    1996-07-12

    Maya blue paint was often used in Mesoamerica. The origin of its color and its resistance to acids and biocorrosion have not been fully understood. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray microanalysis studies of authentic samples show that palygorskite crystals in the paint form a superlattice that probably occurs as a result of mixing with indigo molecules. An amorphous silicate substrate contains inclusions of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in the substrate and oxide nanoparticles on the surface. The beautiful tone of the color is obtained only when both the particles and the superlattice are present.

  9. Photometric monitoring of Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, Carla; Distefano, Elisa; Leto, Paolo; Schillirò, Francesco; Trigilio, Corrado; Umana, Grazia; Bernabei, Stefano; Cutispoto, Giuseppe; Messina, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from our program of intensive near-infrared photometric monitoring of a sample of confirmed and candidate Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Clear long-term variability has been observed for Wray 17-96 and V481 Sct, with overall brightness variation greater than 1 mag in the J band. Other sources, such as LBV 1806-20 showed detectable variability with amplitudes of few tenths of a magnitude with a time-scale of about 60 days.

  10. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  11. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Ping; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1998-01-01

    A laser for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr.sup.3+ ions and Yb.sup.3+ ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output.

  12. Mutagenicity studies on two triphenylmethane dyes, bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue.

    PubMed

    Lin, G H; Brusick, D J

    1992-08-01

    Bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue are two triphenylmethane dyes. Triphenylmethane derivatives and their structurally related compounds, such as fluoresceins and xathenes, are widely used as industrial dyes for foods, drugs, cosmetics, textiles, printing inks or laboratory indicators. Since a number of these types of dyes have been reported to be genotoxic, safety concerns on these two dyes of interest have been raised. Consequently, a battery of genetic toxicology assays, including the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay, L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma assay, mouse micronucleus test and mitotic recombination assay with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5, has been performed on each of the two dyes. The results of the evaluations indicate that both bromophenol blue and tetrabromophenol blue were not active and can be considered non-genotoxic for the three genetic endpoints assessed (gene mutation, chromosome aberrations and primary DNA damage). Genetic activities in some structurally related compounds of these dyes have been reported but may be attributed to the presence of mutagenic impurities rather than the compound itself.

  13. Sustaining the land, people, and economy of the Blue Mountains: The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute

    Treesearch

    Lynn Starr; James McIver; Thomas M. Quigley

    2000-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Natural Resources Institute approaches issues by deciding if a critical issue is one of information needs or of differing values. If a values issue, we arrange local forums for discussion; if an information issue, we disseminate available information, or undertake research projects as appropriate. One issue we have researched involving both values...

  14. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images

    PubMed Central

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R. Joe; Rader, Ryan K.; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9–80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. PMID:24786720

  15. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades.

  16. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  17. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    PubMed

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  18. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  19. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, M H; Spalding, E P

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition. PMID:8755616

  20. The blue anthocyanin pigments from the blue flowers of Heliophila coronopifolia L. (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Toki, Kenjiro; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2011-12-01

    Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1-6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1-8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of pigments 1, 2, 5, and 6 were determined to be: delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(β-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(acyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties were, respectively, cis-p-coumaric acid for pigment 1, trans-caffeic acid for pigment 2, trans-p-coumaric acid for pigment 5 (a main pigment) and trans-ferulic acid for pigment 6, respectively. Moreover, the structure of pigments 3 and 4 were elucidated, respectively, as a demalonyl pigment 5 and a demalonyl pigment 6. Two known anthocyanins (pigments 7 and 8) were identified to be cyanidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 7 and cyanidin 3-(6-feruloyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl-glucoside) for pigment 8 as minor anthocyanin pigments. A flavonol pigment (pigment 9) was isolated from its flowers and determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[6-O-(trans-feruloyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-7-O-cellobioside-4'-O-glucopyranoside as the main flavonol pigment. On the visible absorption spectral curve of the fresh blue petals of this plant and its petal pressed juice in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, three characteristic absorption maxima were observed at 546, 583 and 635 nm. However, the absorption curve of pigment 5 (a main anthocyanin in its flower) exhibited only one maximum at 569 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, and violet color. The color of pigment 5 was observed to be very unstable in the pH 5.0 solution and soon decayed. In the pH 5.0 solution, the violet color of pigment 5 was restored as pure

  1. A new interpretation of luminous blue stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.

    1976-01-01

    A major revision of current theoretical ideas about the brightest blue stars must be made if Carson's (1976) radiative opacities are adopted in stellar models. Unlike earlier opacities, these exhibit a large 'bump' due to CNO ionization, which leads to very strong central condensation, convective instability, and pulsational instability in hot diffuse stellar envelopes. Despite a number of theoretical uncertainties, the new picture of the structure of very luminous stars is reasonably successful in accounting for a variety of previously unexplained observations. The stellar models for the phase of core hydrogen burning predict large radii and rather cool effective temperatures for O stars and a spreading out of the main-sequence band in the H-R diagram toward luminous cool supergiants for masses higher than about 20 solar masses. In massive X-ray binary systems, circular orbits and supergiant-like visual companions are expected to be quite common. Long-period variability is predicted to exist for massive blue supergiants of luminosity class Ia. The models for helium stars predict large radii and rather cool effective temperatures for Wolf-Rayet stars, as well as multimodal pulsational instability and, possibly, surface turbulence for these stars.

  2. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications. PMID:27666663

  3. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  4. Pulsations and outbursts of luminous blue variables

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.; Guzik, J.A.; Soukup, M.S.; Despain, K.M.

    1997-06-01

    We propose an outburst mechanism for the most luminous stars in our and other galaxies. These million solar luminosity stars, with masses (after earlier mass loss) of between 20 and maybe 70 solar masses, are pulsationally unstable for both radial and low-degree nonradial modes. Some of these modes are ``strange,`` meaning mostly that the pulsations are concentrated near the stellar surface and have very rapid growth rates in linear theory. The pulsation driving is by both the high iron line opacity (near 150,000 K) and the helium opacity (near 30,000 K) kappa effects. Periods range from 5 to 40 days. Depending on the composition, pulsations periodically produce luminosities above the Eddington limit for deep layers. The radiative luminosity creates an outward push that readily eases the very low gamma envelope to very large outburst radii. A key point is that a super-Eddington luminosity cannot be taken up by the sluggish convection rapidly enough to prevent an outward acceleration of much of the envelope. As the helium abundance in the envelope stellar material increases by ordinary wind mass loss and the luminous blue variable outbursts, the opacity in the deep pulsation driving layers decreases. This makes the current Eddington luminosity even higher so that pulsations can then no longer give radiative luminosities exceeding the limit. For the lower mass and luminosity luminous blue variables there is considerably less iron line opacity driving, and pulsations are almost all caused by the helium ionization kappa effect.

  5. Blue toe syndrome: treatment with percutaneous atherectomy.

    PubMed

    Dolmatch, B L; Rholl, K S; Moskowitz, L B; Dake, M D; van Breda, A; Kaplan, J O; Katzen, B T

    1989-12-01

    "Blue toe syndrome" refers to digital ischemia of the foot in the presence of palpable or Doppler audible pedal pulses. This clinical syndrome is caused by microembolization to small vessels from a proximal source. The use of percutaneous transluminal atherectomy is described in the treatment of embologenic superficial femoral artery lesions in seven patients. All seven had prompt healing of the ischemic toes, and none required surgical revascularization or amputation. One patient developed a recurrent stenosis at the atherectomy site and had a second episode of digital ischemia, which was treated by means of atherectomy with a larger device. Histologic study of atherectomy specimens suggests that emboli arise from adherent fibrinoplatelet aggregates or thrombus and less often from cholesterol-rich atheromatous plaque. Although either percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or atherectomy can be used to treat the underlying stenosis, percutaneous atherectomy offers the advantage of nonsurgical removal of embologenic material and provides material for histologic study. Percutaneous atherectomy is an effective method of treating embologenic superficial femoral stenoses in patients with ipsilateral blue toe syndrome.

  6. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  7. Differential migration of Blue Grouse in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Hoffman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    We examined migration of adult Blue Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) in north-central Colorado by radio tracking 13 males and 19 females. Elevational changes associated with movements to winter areas were greater for males (median = 488 m, range = 183-671 m) than females (median = 122 m, range = -61-760 m). Males (median = 10.5 km, range = 1.0-29.4 km) also moved farther than females (median = 1.0 km, range = 0.1-28.0 km), resulting in partial segregation of sexes during winter. Directional orientation of movements to wintering areas was nonrandom for long-distance (>3 km) migrants. Median elevational change (122 m) and distance (0.6 km) between the first-winter and first-breeding areas for seven juvenile females were similar to movements of adult females. Males (median = 7 July) departed breeding areas earlier than females (median = 11 August), but arrived (median = 14 October) on winter areas about the same time as females (median = 23 October). Both sexes exhibited fidelity to winter areas. The average distance between winter locations ranged from 94 to 312 m (median = 135 m) for 11 radio-marked adults, suggesting Blue Grouse were sedentary on their winter ranges.

  8. Blue LEDs feasibility for tissue fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Denisov, Nikolay A.

    2000-04-01

    We considered the limited number of light-induced fluorescence applications for marketed ultra-bright blue LEDs where they can compete with versatile laser sources. Satisfactory optical output and miniature size as well as low power consumption of blue LEDs emitting at 470 nm allow to consider them as a promising alternatives to metal vapor or gas lasers used in many expires LIF applications. Available to authors LEDs form Hewlett-Packard, Micro Electronics Corp., Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd. and Toyoda Gosei Co. were tested to comply with demands to a tissue excitation source for portable spectroscopes. The optical performance of LEDs has shown that selected group of InGaN LEDs could be successfully used for that. The miniature illuminator that includes LED, focusing condenser, filter set and distal fiberoptic light concentrator was designed and tested in conjunction with portable CCD- equipped spectroscope. Operating in dark condition the proposed LED illuminator provides the level of fluorescence signal sufficient to detect spectral abnormalities in human Caucasian skin and excised gastrointestinal samples. All tissue autofluorescence data taken under LED illumination were compared with readings under He-Cd laser excitation and showed a good match. A new diagnostic designs based on LEDs were considered for clinical use.

  9. Federal Blue-Collar Employees: A Workforce in Transistion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    should include example, a GAO study of the Mare Island explicit consideration of the needs of the blue-collar downsizing in 1990 noted that the layoff ...setting personnel policies. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES Federal Government, blue-collar workforce, downsizing , performance managem pg...Federal BIW-Colar Emp£lo .: A Workforn in Transition v contents Downsizing in the Blue-Collar W orkforce

  10. Transesophageal echocardiographic findings in blue toe syndrome exacerbated by anticoagulation.

    PubMed

    Willens, H J; Kramer, H J; Kessler, K M

    1996-01-01

    The role of anticoagulation in the blue toe syndrome is unresolved. We describe the sonographic appearance of atherosclerotic plaques in the thoracic aorta imaged by transesophageal echocardiography in 2 patients with blue toe syndrome who had reembolization while taking therapeutic levels of anticoagulants. The findings of complex atheromas associated with mobile highly echodense linear structures by transesophageal echocardiography may be predictive of reembolization in patients with blue toe syndrome who are taking anticoagulants.

  11. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae cr cyanobacteria . Although cyanobacteria are found in almost any environment ranging from hot...p ecst Available Copy ~’ COPy Ni AD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS:’ I ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION < DTIC ANNUAL/FINAL...AA I 78 11. TITLE (In•.ju . ’,curry Ci.si fication) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolatior and CharacteriZation 12. PERSONAL

  12. Freshwater Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) Toxins: Isolation and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-15

    exclusively caused by strains of species that are members of the L division Cyanophyta , commonly called blue -green algae or cyanobacteria . Although...0 0 Lfl (NAD FRESHWATER CYANOBACTERIA ( BLUE -GREEN ALGAE ) TOXINS: ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION ANNCUAL REPORT Wayne W. Carmichael Sarojini Bose...Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012 62770A 6277GA871 AA 378 11 TITLE &who* Secwn~y C11mrfaon) Freshwater Cyanobacteria ( blue -green algae ) Toxins: Isolation

  13. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales (LSD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales ...estimating blue and fin whale density that is effective over large spatial scales and is designed to cope with spatial variation in animal density utilizing...a density estimation methodology for quantifying blue and fin whale abundance from passive acoustic data recorded on sparse hydrophone arrays in the

  14. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  15. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  16. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.

    The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.

    The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.

    Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.

    All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.

    The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is

  17. Atypical cellular blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with atypical features): lack of consensus for diagnosis and distinction from cellular blue nevi and malignant melanoma ("malignant blue nevus").

    PubMed

    Barnhill, Raymond L; Argenyi, Zsolt; Berwick, Marianne; Duray, Paul H; Erickson, Lori; Guitart, Joan; Horenstein, Marcello G; Lowe, Lori; Messina, Jane; Paine, Susan; Piepkorn, Michael W; Prieto, Victor; Rabkin, Michael S; Schmidt, Birgitta; Selim, Angelica; Shea, Chris R; Trotter, Martin J

    2008-01-01

    The distinction of cellular blue nevi (CBN) with atypical features ["atypical" CBN (ACBN)] from conventional CBN and malignant melanomas related to or derived from CBN remains a difficult problem. Here, we report on the diagnosis of various cellular blue melanocytic neoplasms by 14 dermatopathologists who routinely examine melanocytic lesions. Three parameters were assessed: (1) for between rater analyses, we calculated interobserver agreement by the kappa statistic (regardless of whether the diagnosis was correct). (2) For each individual lesion, we reported whether a majority agreement (>50%) was reached and, if so, whether the majority agreed with the gold standard diagnosis, derived from standardized histopathologic criteria for melanoma, definitive outcome such as metastatic event or death of disease, or disease-free follow-up for > or =4 years. (3) For the individual pathologists, we calculated sensitivity and specificity for each type of lesion. The study set included 26 melanocytic lesions: (1) 6 malignant melanomas developing in or with attributes of CBN; (2) 11 CBN with atypical features and indeterminate biologic potential (ACBN); (3) 8 conventional CBN; and (4) 1 common BN. The kappa values for interrater agreement varied from 0.52 (95% confidence interval 0.45, 0.58) for melanoma to 0.02 (0.05, 0.08) for ACBN and 0.20 (0.13, 0.28) for CBN. The kappa for all lesions was 0.25 (0.22, 0.28). The pathologists' sensitivities were 68.6% (61.0%, 76.1%) for melanoma, 33.1% (21.0%, 45.2%) for ACBN, and 44.6% (29.0%, 60.3%) for CBN. The specificities were 65.7% (55.8%, 75.6%) for melanoma, 84.7% (77.3%, 92.2%) for ACBN, and 89.9% (82.7%, 97.1%) for CBN. Overall, greater than 50% of the pathologists agreed and were correct in their diagnosis 38.5% (10 lesions) of the time. There was a majority agreement, but with an incorrect diagnosis, another 26.9% (7 lesions) of the time. Six of the 7 majority agreements with an incorrect diagnosis were for ACBN lesions. In

  18. Violet and blue light blocking intraocular lenses: photoprotection versus photoreception.

    PubMed

    Mainster, M A

    2006-06-01

    To analyse how intraocular lens (IOL) chromophores affect retinal photoprotection and the sensitivity of scotopic vision, melanopsin photoreception, and melatonin suppression. Transmittance spectra of IOLs, high pass spectral filters, human crystalline lenses, and sunglasses are used with spectral data for acute ultraviolet (UV)-blue photic retinopathy ("blue light hazard" phototoxicity), aphakic scotopic luminous efficiency, melanopsin sensitivity, and melatonin suppression to compute the effect of spectral filters on retinal photoprotection, scotopic sensitivity, and circadian photoentrainment. Retinal photoprotection increases and photoreception decreases as high pass filters progressively attenuate additional short wavelength light. Violet blocking IOLs reduce retinal exposure to UV (200-400 nm) radiation and violet (400-440 nm) light. Blue blocking IOLs attenuate blue (440-500 nm) and shorter wavelength optical radiation. Blue blocking IOLs theoretically provide better photoprotection but worse photoreception than conventional UV only blocking IOLs. Violet blocking IOLs offer similar UV-blue photoprotection but better scotopic and melanopsin photoreception than blue blocking IOLs. Sunglasses provide roughly 50% more UV-blue photoprotection than either violet or blue blocking IOLs. Action spectra for most retinal photosensitisers increase or peak in the violet part of the spectrum. Melanopsin, melatonin suppression, and rhodopsin sensitivities are all maximal in the blue part of the spectrum. Scotopic sensitivity and circadian photoentrainment decline with ageing. UV blocking IOLs provide older adults with the best possible rhodopsin and melanopsin sensitivity. Blue and violet blocking IOLs provide less photoprotection than middle aged crystalline lenses, which do not prevent age related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, pseudophakes should wear sunglasses in bright environments if the unproved phototoxicity-AMD hypothesis is valid.

  19. Blue Light Protects Against Temporal Frequency Sensitive Refractive Changes

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Frances; Britton, Stephanie; Spatcher, Molly; Hanowsky, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. The outdoors allows exposure to short-wavelength (blue light) rich sunlight, while indoor illuminants can be deficient at short-wavelengths. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of blue light, and temporal sensitivity, in the emmetropization response. Methods Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal luminance modulation of white light (with blue; N = 82) or yellow light (without blue; N = 83) at 80% contrast, at one of six temporal frequencies: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10 Hz daily for 3 days. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components and corneal curvature were measured. Results Refraction, eye length, and choroidal changes were dependent on the presence of blue light (P < 0.03, all) and on temporal frequency (P < 0.03, all). In the presence of blue light, refraction did not change across frequencies (mean change −0.24 [diopters] D), while in the absence of blue light, we observed a hyperopic shift (>1 D) at high frequencies, and a myopic shift (>−0.6 D) at low frequencies. With blue light there was little difference in eye growth across frequencies (77 μm), while in the absence of blue light, eyes grew more at low temporal frequencies and less at high temporal frequencies (10 vs. 0.2 Hz: 145 μm; P < 0.003). Overall, neonatal astigmatism was reduced with blue light. Conclusions Illuminants rich in blue light can protect against myopic eye growth when the eye is exposed to slow changes in luminance contrast as might occur with near work. PMID:26393671

  20. Blue Light Protects Against Temporal Frequency Sensitive Refractive Changes.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Frances; Britton, Stephanie; Spatcher, Molly; Hanowsky, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Time spent outdoors is protective against myopia. The outdoors allows exposure to short-wavelength (blue light) rich sunlight, while indoor illuminants can be deficient at short-wavelengths. In the current experiment, we investigate the role of blue light, and temporal sensitivity, in the emmetropization response. Five-day-old chicks were exposed to sinusoidal luminance modulation of white light (with blue; N = 82) or yellow light (without blue; N = 83) at 80% contrast, at one of six temporal frequencies: 0, 0.2, 1, 2, 5, 10 Hz daily for 3 days. Mean illumination was 680 lux. Changes in ocular components and corneal curvature were measured. Refraction, eye length, and choroidal changes were dependent on the presence of blue light (P < 0.03, all) and on temporal frequency (P < 0.03, all). In the presence of blue light, refraction did not change across frequencies (mean change -0.24 [diopters] D), while in the absence of blue light, we observed a hyperopic shift (>1 D) at high frequencies, and a myopic shift (>-0.6 D) at low frequencies. With blue light there was little difference in eye growth across frequencies (77 μm), while in the absence of blue light, eyes grew more at low temporal frequencies and less at high temporal frequencies (10 vs. 0.2 Hz: 145 μm; P < 0.003). Overall, neonatal astigmatism was reduced with blue light. Illuminants rich in blue light can protect against myopic eye growth when the eye is exposed to slow changes in luminance contrast as might occur with near work.

  1. Approaches toward a blue semiconductor laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladany, I.

    1989-01-01

    Possible approaches for obtaining semiconductor diode laser action in the blue region of the spectrum are surveyed. A discussion of diode lasers is included along with a review of the current status of visible emitters, presently limited to 670 nm. Methods are discussed for shifting laser emission toward shorter wavelengths, including the use of II-IV materials, the increase in the bandgap of III-V materials by addition of nitrogen, and changing the bandstructure from indirect to direct by incorporating interstitial atoms or by constructing superlattices. Non-pn-junction injection methods are surveyed, including avalanche breakdown, Langmuir-Blodgett diodes, heterostructures, carrier accumulation, and Berglund diodes. Prospects of inventing new multinary semiconducting materials are discussed, and a number of novel materials described in the literature are tabulated. New approaches available through the development of quantum wells and superlattices are described, including resonant tunneling and the synthesis of arbitrary bandgap materials through multiple quantum wells.

  2. Red spectra from white and blue noise

    PubMed Central

    Balmforth, N. J.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E. A.; Martens, M.; Tresser, C.; Wu, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The value of maps of the interval in modelling population dynamics has recently been called into question because temporal variations from such maps have blue or white power spectra, whereas many observations of real populations show time-series with red spectra. One way to deal with this discrepancy is to introduce chaotic or stochastic fluctuations in the parameters of the map. This leads to on–off intermittency and can markedly redden the spectrum produced by a model that does not by itself have a red spectrum. The parameter fluctuations need not themselves have a red spectrum in order to achieve this effect. Because the power spectrum is not invariant under a change of variable, another way to redden the spectrum is by a suitable transformation of the variables used. The question this poses is whether spectra are the best means of characterizing a fluctuating variable.

  3. Blue electroluminescence from AlN nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.; Chaikin, D. V.; Fedorov, M. D.; Afonin, Yu. D.

    2015-04-01

    AlN nanowhiskers with an average diameter of 68 nm, for which a chemical analysis showed an Al: N ratio of about 1: 0.8 and a high content of oxygen and carbon impurities, have been synthesized. The electroluminescent properties of the nanostructures have been studied at room temperature in the spectral range of 4.0-1.77 eV (310-700 nm) at varied voltage (75-200 V) and frequency (0.5-10.0 kHz) of the exciting harmonic signal. It is shown that the electroluminescence recorded in the blue spectral range is constituted by bands peaked at E max ≈ 2.53 and 2.75 eV and half-widths ω ≈ 0.39 and 0.30 eV, respectively, which may be associated with electron-optical transitions involving impurity-vacancy centers in the anion and cation sublattices of AlN.

  4. Blue Skies Research and the global economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2002-11-01

    Robert Solow's seminal work of the 1950s showed that science and technology are major sources of long-term global economic growth. But we have recently changed the ways that science and technology are managed. Industrial and academic research once thrived on individual freedom and flair. Progressively for the past three decades or so, however, research has been focused on short-term objectives selected by consensus. Global per-capita growth has steadily declined. Scientific enterprise is losing diversity. Blue Skies Research can help to restore diversity and to create the new technologies that can stimulate growth, but funding agencies nowadays rarely allow total freedom. A new coefficient of adventurousness is described. Its use, or other means, may help restore economic growth to its former levels.

  5. Ultrasound promoted synthesis of Nile Blue derivatives.

    PubMed

    Raju, B Rama; Sampaio, Diogo M F; Silva, M M; Coutinho, Paulo J G; Gonçalves, M Sameiro T

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound irradiation was used for the first time towards the synthesis of new Nile Blue related benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides possessing isopentylamino, (2-cyclohexylethyl)amino and phenethylamino groups at 5-position of the heterocyclic system. The efficacy of sonochemistry was investigated with some of our earlier reported synthesis of benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides. This newer protocol proved competent in terms of reaction times and enhanced yields. Photophysical studies carried out in ethanol, water and simulated physiological conditions, revealed that emission maxima occurred in the range 644-656 nm, with high fluorescent quantum yields. Other attractive feature exhibited by these materials includes good thermal stability. These properties might be useful in the development of fluorescent probes for biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  7. Sunspot temperatures from red and blue photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.; Preminger, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Photometric images are used to measure the temperature of sunspots at different wavelengths. Images at 672.3 nm and 472.3 nm are obtained at the San Fernando Observatory using the CFDT2 (2.5'' x 2.5'' pixels). Images at 607.1 nm and 409.4 nm are obtained by the PSPT at Mauna Loa Observatory. Monochromatic intensities are converted to temperatures as in Steinegger et al (1990). The pixel by pixel temperature for a sunspot is converted into a bolometric contrast for that sunspot according to Chapman et al (1994). Sunspot temperatures, i.e., their bolometric contrasts, are calculated from both red (672.3 nm) and blue wavelengths (472.3 nm) and compared.

  8. Blue Dots Team Transits Working Group Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.; Afonso, C.; Alonso, R.; Blank, D. L.; Catala, C.; Deeg, H.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hellier, C.; Latham, D. W.; Minniti, D.; Pont, F.; Rauer, H.

    2010-10-01

    Transiting planet systems offer a unique opportunity to observationally constrain proposed models of the interiors (radius, composition) and atmospheres (chemistry, dynamics) of extrasolar planets. The spectacular successes of ground-based transit surveys (more than 60 transiting systems known to-date) and the host of multi-wavelength, spectro-photometric follow-up studies, carried out in particular by HST and Spitzer, have paved the way to the next generation of transit search projects, which are currently ongoing (CoRoT, Kepler), or planned. The possibility of detecting and characterizing transiting Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of their parent stars appears tantalizingly close. In this contribution we briefly review the power of the transit technique for characterization of extrasolar planets, summarize the state of the art of both ground-based and space-borne transit search programs, and illustrate how the science of planetary transits fits within the Blue Dots perspective.

  9. Rapid coomassie blue staining of protein gels.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J

    2010-04-01

    Coomassie brilliant blue R250 (CBR-250) and silver staining are the most widely used methods for the routine visualization of proteins separated by SDS-PAGE. CBR-250 is an organic dye that complexes with basic amino acids, such as arginine, lysine, and histidine, as well as tyrosine. Conventional CBR-250 staining is capable of detecting as little as 30-100 ng of protein, but sensitivity can be improved by performing the staining and destaining at elevated temperatures. The method described in this protocol, which is a modified version of the conventional Coomassie protocol, speeds up the destaining process for faster results with increased sensitivity and is compatible with mass-spectrometry-based methods for identifying proteins.

  10. A bolt out of the blue.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Joseph R

    2005-05-01

    Lightning is a particularly unsettling product of bad weather. It causes more deaths and injuries in the U.S. than either hurricanes or tornadoes do, and it strikes without warning, sometimes with nothing but blue sky overhead. In central Florida, where I live, thunderstorms are a daily occurrence during the summer, and so, ironically, people in the Sunshine State often spend their afternoons indoors to avoid the risk of death from the sky. Worldwide, lightning flashes about four million times a day, and bolts have even been observed on other planets. Yet despite its familiarity, we still do not know what causes lightning. It is a misconception that Benjamin Franklin solved the puzzle when he conducted his famous kite experiment in 1752.

  11. [Hit by lightning out of the blue].

    PubMed

    Duppel, H; Löbermann, M; Reisinger, E C

    2009-06-01

    A group of six hikers were hit by lightning out of the blue sky. The biggest harm was done to a 29-year-old man (size: 190 cm) while walking along a high spruce. He experienced a seizure with consecutive sinus tachycardia and hypertensive dysregulation. One year later he still complained about reduced physical strength. The other five hikers had less severe injuries. Burns were detectable in five of six patients. Elevated creatine kinase and myoglobin were indicative for myolysis. Renal parameters were normal. All patients were treated with intravenous fluid and electrolyte substitution during transport to hospital. Two patients were additionally treated with metroprolol. Cardiac arrhythmias, usually tachycardia, myolysis, and seizures require early treatment with beta blockers, sufficient fluid supply, and antiepileptics. In patients with cardiac arrest after a lightning injury immediate cardiac resuscitation is crucial.

  12. A clock reaction based on molybdenum blue.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Ulrich; Negron, Arnaldo; Jensen, Klavs F

    2013-05-30

    Clock reactions are rare kinetic phenomena, so far limited mostly to systems with ionic oxoacids and oxoanions in water. We report a new clock reaction in cyclohexanol that forms molybdenum blue from a noncharged, yellow molybdenum complex as precursor, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, the concomitant color change is reversible, enabling multiple clock cycles to be executed consecutively. The kinetics of the clock reaction were experimentally characterized, and by adding insights from quantum chemical calculations, a plausible reaction mechanism was postulated. Key elementary reaction steps comprise sigmatropic rearrangements with five-membered or bicyclo[3.1.0] transition states. Importantly, numerical kinetic modeling demonstrated the mechanism's ability to reproduce the experimental findings. It also revealed that clock behavior is intimately connected to the sudden exhaustion of hydrogen peroxide. Due to the stoichiometric coproduction of ketone, the reaction bears potential for application in alcohol oxidation catalysis.

  13. Blue diffuse dwarf galaxies: a clearer picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.

    2017-03-01

    The search for chemically unevolved galaxies remains prevalent in the nearby Universe, mostly because these systems provide excellent proxies for exploring in detail the physics of high-z systems. The most promising candidates are extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), i.e. galaxies with <1/10 solar metallicity. However, due to the bright emission-line-based search criteria traditionally used to find XMPs, we may not be sampling the full XMP population. In 2014, we reoriented this search using only morphological properties and uncovered a population of ∼150 'blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies', and published a sub-sample of 12 BDD spectra. Here, we present optical spectroscopic observations of a larger sample of 51 BDDs, along with their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric properties. With our improved statistics, we use direct-method abundances to confirm that BDDs are chemically unevolved (7.43 < 12 + log(O/H) < 8.01), with ∼20 per cent of our sample classified as being XMP galaxies, and find that they are actively forming stars at rates of ∼1-33 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1 in H II regions randomly embedded in a blue, low-surface-brightness continuum. Stellar masses are calculated from population synthesis models and estimated to be in the range log (M*/M⊙) ≃ 5-9. Unlike other low-metallicity star-forming galaxies, BDDs are in agreement with the mass-metallicity relation at low masses, suggesting that they are not accreting large amounts of pristine gas relative to their stellar mass. BDD galaxies appear to be a population of actively star-forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies which fall within the class of low-surface-brightness dIrr galaxies. Their ongoing star formation and irregular morphology make them excellent analogues for galaxies in the early Universe.

  14. Blue Marble: Remote Characterization of Habitable Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville; Lewis, Brian; Chartres, James; Genova, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The study of the nature and distribution of habitable environments beyond the Solar System is a key area for Astrobiology research. At the present time, our Earth is the only habitable planet that can be characterized in the same way that we might characterize planets beyond the Solar System. Due to limitations in our current and near-future technology, it is likely that extra-solar planets will be observed as single-pixel objects. To understand this data, we must develop skills in analyzing and interpreting the radiation obtained from a single pixel. These skills must include the study of the time variation of the radiation, and the range of its photometric, spectroscopic and polarimetric properties. In addition, to understand whether we are properly analyzing the single pixel data, we need to compare it with a ground truth of modest resolution images in key spectral bands. This paper discusses the concept for a mission called Blue Marble that would obtain data of the Earth using a combination of spectropolarimetry, spectrophotometry, and selected band imaging. To obtain imagery of the proper resolution, it is desirable to place the Blue Marble spacecraft no closer than the outer region of cis-lunar space. This paper explores a conceptual mission design that takes advantage of low-cost launchers, bus designs and mission elements to provide a cost effective observing platform located at one of the stable Earth-moon Lagrangian points (L4, L5). The mission design allows for the development and use of novel technologies, such as a spinning moon sensor for attitude control, and leverages lessons-learned from previous low-cost spacecraft such as Lunar Prospector to yield a low-risk mission concept.

  15. Recognizing the blue emission in artificial aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holma, H.; Kaila, K. U.; Kosch, M. J.; Rietveld, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    On 12th November 2001, during an EISCAT UK/GE artificial aurora campaign, the optical group from the University of Oulu performed optical measurements at the EISCAT site in Ramfjordmoen, including the first measurement of blue emissions in artificial aurora at high latitudes. Optical instruments, including a photometer, a real speed TV camera and a digital camera, were monitoring the emissions. The emissions that the photometer was designed to measure were 557.7 nm (OI), 630.0 nm (OI) and 427.8 nm (N2+). The energy thresholds of these emissions are approximately 2, 4 and 19 eV, respectively. In the natural aurora the blue emission at around 427.8 nm is always dominated by the N2+ 1NG(0, 1) band. However, there are two weak emission bands lying under this strong emission, namely, the N2 VK(4, 15) (threshold energy 6 eV) and N2 2P(1, 5) (threshold 11 eV). These excitation energies are lower than the energy needed to excite N2+ 1NG(0, 1) level and therefore could have a stronger intensity compared with N2+ 1NG(0, 1) in the spectrum of artificial aurora than in natural aurora. The auroral photometer of the University of Oulu has been designed for investigating natural aurora. The photometer was equipped with two channels measuring different wavelength bands around 427.8 nm. These channels were intended to be used to determine rotational temperature from the ratio of the intensities through the channels. However, here we estimate the intensities of the three overlapping emission bands instead.

  16. Recognizing blue emission in artificial aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holma, H.; Kaila, K.; Jussila, J.; Kosch, M.; Rietveld, M.

    On 12th November 2001, during the EISCAT UK/GE artificial aurora campaign, the optical group of University of Oulu performed the optical measurements at the EISCAT site in Ramfjordmoen. That campaign was the first successful attempt of inducing blue emission in artificial aurora at high latitudes. Optical instruments were monitoring emis-sions and they included a photometer, a real speed TV camera and a digital camera. The emissions measured by the photometer are 557.7 nm (OI), 630.0 nm (OI) and 427.8 nm (N2+). The threshold energies for these emissions to arise are 2 eV, 4 eV and 19 eV, re-spectively. In the natural aurora the blue emission at around 427 nm is always highly dominated by N2+ 1NG (0,1) rotational band. However, there are two weak emissions lying under this strong emission. These bands are N2 VK(4,15) (threshold energy 6 eV) and N2 2P(1,5) (threshold 11 eV). These energies are remarkably lower and could obviously have stronger intensity in the spectrum of artificial aurora than in natural aurora that is domi-nated by harder electron bombardment. The auroral photometer of the university of Oulu has been designed for investigating natural aurora, which results some limitations regarding the artificial aurora, to the data that has been obtained. The photometer was equipped with two channels measuring two close wavelength bands around 427 nm. These channels were aimed to be used to de-termine rotational temperature from the ratio of the intensities through the channels. Now they will be used to estimate the intensities of the three overlapping emission bands instead.

  17. Roquefortine C occurrence in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Finoli, C; Vecchio, A; Galli, A; Dragoni, I

    2001-02-01

    Several strains of Penicillium are used for the production of mold-ripened cheeses, and some of them are able to produce mycotoxins. The aims of the research were the determination of roquefortine C and PR toxin in domestic and imported blue cheeses, the identification of the penicillia used as starter, and the investigation of their capacity for producing toxins in culture media. Roquefortine C was always found in the cheeses at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 mg/kg, whereas the PR toxin was never found. The identification of the fungal strains present in the domestic cheeses included Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium roqueforti, and Penicillium cyclopium in the Gorgonzola "dolce" and Penicillium roqueforti in the Gorgonzola "naturale"; in one case, the presence of Penicillium crustosum was observed. The strains isolated from the foreign cheeses belonged to P. roqueforti. The strains were able to produce between 0.18 and 8.44 mg/liter of roquefortine in yeast extract sucrose medium and between 0.06 and 3.08 mg/liter and less than 0.05 mg/liter when inoculated in milk at 20 degrees C for 14 days and 4 degrees C for 24 days, respectively. Linear relations between production of roquefortine in culture media and cheeses did not emerge. PR toxin ranged from less than 0.05 to 60.30 mg/liter in yeast extract sucrose medium and was produced in milk at 20 degrees C from only one strain. The low levels and the relatively low toxicity of roquefortine make the consumption of blue cheese safe for the consumer.

  18. 77 FR 68117 - Blue Summit Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Summit Wind, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice... (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2), Blue Summit Wind, LLC (Blue Summit) filed a...) interconnection facilities that deliver power from the Blue Summit's wind energy generator (Blue Summit...

  19. Underwater Chaotic Lidar using Blue Laser Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaugh, Luke K.

    The thesis proposes and explores an underwater lidar system architecture based on chaotic modulation of recently introduced, commercially available, low cost blue laser diodes. This approach is experimentally shown to allow accurate underwater impulse response measurements while eliminating the need for several major components typically found in high-performance underwater lidar systems. The proposed approach is to: 1. Generate wideband, noise-like intensity modulation signals using optical chaotic modulation of blue-green laser diodes, and then 2. Use this signal source to develop an underwater chaotic lidar system that uses no electrical signal generator, no electro-optic modulator, no optical frequency doubler, and no large-aperture photodetector. The outcome of this thesis is the demonstration of a new underwater lidar system architecture that could allow high resolution ranging, imaging, and water profiling measurements in turbid water, at a reduced size, weight, power and cost relative to state-of-the-art high-performance underwater lidar sensors. This work also makes contributions to the state of the art in optics, nonlinear dynamics, and underwater sensing by demonstrating for the first time: 1. Wideband noise-like intensity modulation of a blue laser diode using no electrical signal generator or electro-optic modulator. Optical chaotic modulation of a 462 nm blue InGaN laser diode by self-feedback is explored for the first time. The usefulness of the signal to chaotic lidar is evaluated in terms of bandwidth, modulation depth, and autocorrelation peak-to-sidelobe-ratio (PSLR) using both computer and laboratory experiments. In laboratory experiments, the optical feedback technique is shown to be effective in generating wideband, noise-like chaotic signals with strong modulation depth when the diode is operated in an external-cavity dominated state. The modulation signal strength is shown to be limited by the onset of lasing within the diode's internal

  20. The Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Technology Evaluation Center: how we evaluate radiology technologies.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kathleen M; Flamm, Carole Redding; Aronson, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based technology assessment can help answer critical questions concerning the safety, effectiveness, and appropriate uses of medical technologies. This practice can be used to avoid the promotion of ineffective technologies and the premature diffusion of technologies that have not been demonstrated to improve patient-oriented health outcomes, both of which draw resources from effective and appropriate medical care. This article describes the process of such evaluation as undertaken by the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association Technology Evaluation Center. The key components of the assessment process are described, including the problem formulation and evaluation of study quality, as well as the process by which the available evidence is judged against the five Technology Evaluation Center criteria.