Science.gov

Sample records for ciemat anpa grs

  1. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  2. Mars Geological Province Designations for the Interpretation of GRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Kerry, K.; Keller, J.; Baker, V. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Maruyama, S.; Anderson, R. C.

    2005-03-01

    Based on a synthesis of published geologic, paleohydrologic, topographic, and geophysical information, we have defined geologic provinces that represent significant windows into the geologic evolution of Mars, consistent with the GEOMARS theory and supported by GRS data.

  3. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (< 0.1 eV) obtained by Lunar Prospector because the Kaguya orbiter did not carry a neutron detector. We used the relative change in thermal neutron flux as a function of topography measured by Lunar Prospector. Normalization of Si elemental abundance using the Kaguya data was accomplished using Apollo 11, 12, 16, and 17 archive data. The normalized Si elemental abundance of the Kaguya GRS data ranged from about 15 to 27% Si. The lowest and highest SiO _{2} abundance correspond to mineral groups like pyroxene group (PKT region) and feldspar group (Northern highlands), respectively. The Si abundance permits the quantification of the relative abundance and distribution of mafic or non-mafic lunar surfaces materials. Our KGRS data analysis shows that highland terrains are Si-enriched relative to lower basins and plains regions, which appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to

  4. Standardization of ¹³¹I: implementation of CIEMAT/NIST method at BARC, India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Reddy, P J; Joseph, Leena

    2011-10-01

    The CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method using ³H standard was implemented at Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for the standardization of ¹³¹I radioactive solution. Measurements were also carried out using the 4π β-γ coincidence counting system maintained as a primary standard at the laboratory. The implementation of the CIEMAT/NIST method was verified by comparing the activity concentration obtained in the laboratory with that of the average value of the APMP intercomparison (Yunoki et al., in progress, (APMP.RI(II)-K2.I-131)). The results obtained by the laboratory is linked to the CIPM Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV) through the equivalent activity value of National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) (Yunoki et al., in progress, (APMP.RI(II)-K2.I-131)), which was the pilot laboratory for the intercomparison. The procedure employed to standardize ¹³¹I by the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing technique is presented. The activity concentrations obtained have been normalized with the activity concentration measured by NMIJ to maintain confidentiality of results until the Draft-A report is accepted by all participants. The normalized activity concentrations obtained with the CIEMAT/NIST method was 0.9985 ± 0.0035 kBq/g and using 4π β-γ coincidence counting method was 0.9909 ± 0.0046 kBq/g as on 20 March 2009, 0 h UTC. The normalized activity concentration measured by the NMIJ was 1 ± 0.0024 kBq/g. The normalized average of the activity concentrations of all the participating laboratories was 1.004 ± 0.028 kBq/g. The results obtained in the laboratory are comparable with the other international standards within the uncertainty limits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of Additional Elements from the Mars Odyssey GRS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, L. G.; Reedy, R. C.; Starr, R. D.; Kerry, K. E.; Boynton, W. V.

    2008-03-01

    Analysis of data by the Odyssey GRS has produced compositional maps for six elements. Analysis has produced preliminary results for Al, Ca, S, and U that may be mapped at lower resolutions. Additional results for Na, Mn, and Cr are more difficult, but possible.

  6. Northern Low Albedo Regions of Mars: GRS Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunatillake, S.; Squyres, S.; Taylor, J.; Keller, J.; Gasnault, O.; Evans, L. G.; Reedy, R. C.; Starr, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K. E.; Dohm, J. M.; Sprague, A. L.; Hahn, B.; Hamara, D.; Mars Odyssey Team

    2006-03-01

    GRS results, showing significant enrichment of K and Th in northern low-albedo regions of Mars characterized by higher areal abundances of surface type 2, are more consistent with an igneous origin to surface type 2 than aqueous alteration of basalts

  7. Multi-Wavelength Monitoring of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, R.; Martini, P.; Gerard, E.; Charles, P. A.; Wagner, R. M.; Shrader, C.; Shahbaz, T.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1992, the superluminal X-ray transient GRS 1915+105 has been extensively observed in an attempt to understand its behaviour. We present here first results from a multi-wavelength campaign undertaken from July to September 1996. This study includes X-ray data from the RXTE All Sky Monitor and BATSE, two-frequency data from the Nancay radio telescope, and infrared photometry from the 1.8 m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. The first long-term well-sampled IR light curve of GRS 1915+105 is presented herein and is consistent with the interpretation of this source as a long-period binary. We compare the various light curves, searching for correlations in the behaviour of the source at differing wavelengths and for possible periodicities.

  8. Multi-Wavelength Monitoring of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, R.; Martini, P.; Gerard, E.; Charles, P. A.; Wagner, R. M.; Shrader, C.; Shahbaz, T.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1992, the superluminal X-ray transient GRS 1915+105 has been extensively observed in an attempt to understand its behaviour. We present here preliminary results from a multi-wavelength campaign undertaken from July to September 1996. This study includes X-ray data from the RXTE All Sky Monitor and BATSE, two-frequency data from the Nancay radio telescope, and infrared photometry from the 1.8m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. The K-band data presented herein provide the first long-term well-sampled IR light curve of GRS 1915+105. We compare the various light curves, searching for correlations in the behaviour of the source at differing wavelengths and for possible periodicities.

  9. Rosat and BATSE observations of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, J.; Snowden, S.; Harmon, B. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Paciesas, W.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of an accurate X-ray position of GRS 1915+1405, using a target of opportunity Rosat HRI (High Resolution Imager) observation in Oct. 1992, which allowed deep optical follow up studies, is reported. A spectral fit to Rosat PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) and BATSE (Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) instrument team for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory) observations in Oct. 1992 reveal a steep spectrum with power law index alpha = -3 between 0.5 and 300 keV. The soft X-rays are strongly absorbed (N(sub H) = 5 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm) suggesting a distance to GRS 1915+105 of the order of 8 kpc. Possible explanations of the source nature are discussed together with the peculiar light curve at hard X-rays.

  10. TDCR and CIEMAT/NIST Liquid Scintillation Methods applied to the Radionuclide Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, P. A. L.; da Silva, C. J.; Iwahara, A.; Loureiro, J. S.; De Oliveira, A. E.; Tauhata, L.; Lopes, R. T.

    2016-07-01

    This work presents TDCR and CIEMAT/NIST methods of liquid scintillation implemented in National Institutes of Metrology for activity standardization of radionuclides, which decay by beta emission and electron capture. The computer codes used to calculate the detection efficiency take into account: decay schemes, beta decay theory, quenching parameter evaluation, Poisson statistic model and Monte Carlo simulation for photon and particle interactions in the detection system. Measurements were performed for pure emitters 3H, 14C, 99Tc and for 68Ge/68Ga which decay by electron capture and positron emission, with uncertainties smaller than 1% (k = 1).

  11. GRS defective axonal distribution as a potential contributor to distal spinal muscular atrophy type V pathogenesis in a new model of GRS-associated neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ah Jung; Park, Byung Sun; Jung, Junyang

    2014-11-01

    Distal spinal muscular atrophy type V (dSMA-V), a hereditary axonal neuropathy, is a glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GRS)-associated neuropathy caused by a mutation in GRS. In this study, using an adenovirus vector system equipped with a neuron-specific promoter, we constructed a new GRS-associated neuropathy mouse model. We found that wild-type GRS (WT) is distributed in peripheral axons, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell bodies, central axon terminals and motor neuron cell bodies in the mouse model. In contrast, the L129P mutant GRS was localized in DRG and motor neuron cell bodies. Thus, we propose that the disease-causing L129P mutant is linked to a distribution defect in peripheral nerves in vivo.

  12. Mars Geological Province Designations for the Interpretation of GRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Kerry, K.; Baker, V. R.; Boynton, W.; Maruyama, Shige; Anderson, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An overarching geologic theory, GEOMARS, coherently explains many otherwise anomalous aspects of the geological history of Mars. Premises for a theory of martian geologic evolution include: (1) Mars is a water-rich terrestrial planet, (2) terrestrial planets should evolve through progressive stages of dynamical history (accretion, differentiation, tectonism) and mantle convection (magma ocean, plate tectonism, stagnant lid), and (3) the early history of Earth affords an analogue to the evolution of Mars. The theory describes the following major stages of evolution for Mars (from oldest to youngest): Stage 1 - shortly after accretion, Mars differentiates to a liquid metallic core, a mantle boundary (MBL) of high-pressure silicate mineral phases, upper mantle, magma ocean, thin komatiic crust, and convecting steam atmosphere; Stage 2- Mars cools to condense its steam atmosphere and transform its mode of mantle convection to plate tectonism; subduction of waterrich oceanic crust initiates arc volcanism and transfers water, carbonates and sulfates to the mantle; Stage 3 - the core dynamo initiates, and the associated magnetosphere leads to conditions conducive to the development of near-surface life and photosynthetic production of oxygen; Stage 4 - accretion of thickened, continental crust and subduction of hydrated oceanic crust to the mantle boundary layer and lower mantle of Mars occurs; Stage 5 - the core dynamo stops during Noachian heavy bombardment while plate tectonism continues; Stage 6 - initiation of the Tharsis superplume (approx. between 4.0 and 3.8Ga) occurs, and Stage 7 - the superlume phase (stagnant-lid regime) of martian planetary evolution with episodic phases of volcanism and water outflows continues into the present. The GEOMARS Theory is testable through a multidisciplinary approach, including utilizing GRS-based information. Based on a synthesis of published geologic, paleohydrologic, topographic, geophysical, spectral, and

  13. Design and verification of the shielding around the new Neutron Standards Laboratory (LPN) at CIEMAT.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Villafañe, R; Guerrero, J E; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Grandio, R; Pérez-Cejuela, P; Márquez, J L; Alvarez, F; Ortego, P

    2014-10-01

    The construction of the new Neutron Standards Laboratory at CIEMAT (Laboratorio de Patrones Neutrónicos) has been finalised and is ready to provide service. The facility is an ∼8 m×8 m×8 m irradiation vault, following the International Organization for Standardization 8529 recommendations. It relies on several neutron sources: a 5-GBq (5.8× 10(8) s(-1)) (252)Cf source and two (241)Am-Be neutron sources (185 and 11.1 GBq). The irradiation point is located 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical centre of the room. Each neutron source can be moved remotely from its storage position inside a water pool to the irradiation point. Prior to this, an important task to design the neutron shielding and to choose the most appropriate materials has been developed by the Radiological Security Unit and the Ionizing Radiations Metrology Laboratory. MCNPX was chosen to simulate the irradiation facility. With this information the walls were built with a thickness of 125 cm. Special attention was put on the weak points (main door, air conditioning system, etc.) so that the ambient dose outside the facility was below the regulatory limits. Finally, the Radiation Protection Unit carried out a set of measurements in specific points around the installation with an LB6411 neutron monitor and a Reuter-Stokes high-pressure ion chamber to verify experimentally the results of the simulation.

  14. Application of the CIEMAT-NIST method to plastic scintillation microspheres.

    PubMed

    Tarancón, A; Barrera, J; Santiago, L M; Bagán, H; García, J F

    2015-04-01

    An adaptation of the MICELLE2 code was used to apply the CIEMAT-NIST tracing method to the activity calculation for radioactive solutions of pure beta emitters of different energies using plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm) and (3)H as a tracing radionuclide. Particle quenching, very important in measurements with PSm, was computed with PENELOPE using geometries formed by a heterogeneous mixture of polystyrene microspheres and water. The results obtained with PENELOPE were adapted to be included in MICELLE2, which is capable of including the energy losses due to particle quenching in the computation of the detection efficiency. The activity calculation of (63)Ni, (14)C, (36)Cl and (90)Sr/(90)Y solutions was performed with deviations of 8.8%, 1.9%, 1.4% and 2.1%, respectively. Of the different parameters evaluated, those with the greatest impact on the activity calculation are, in order of importance, the energy of the radionuclide, the degree of quenching of the sample and the packing fraction of the geometry used in the computation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Educational Use and Effectiveness of an Auditory Display of Mars GRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. M.; Enos, H. L.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D.; Kerry, K.; Pompea, S. M.; Prather, E. E.; Quinn, M.; Slater, T. F.

    2003-03-01

    A unique and alternative education and public outreach product allows students to "see" and "hear" seasonal variations in hydrogen signal detected by Mars GRS. Plans to test the educational effectiveness of this auditory display will be described.

  16. The Distribution of Non-Volatile Elements on Mars: Mars Odyssey GRS Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, W.; Janes, D.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.; Reedy, R.; Evans, L.; Starr, R.; Drake, D.; Taylor, J.; Wänke, H.; D'Uston, C.

    2004-03-01

    Results of the Mars Odyssey GRS are presented for elements Si, Fe, Cl, K, and Th. We have used a new method of correcting the abundances of elements analyzed via thermal neutron capture reactions for changes in composition.

  17. GRS Measurements of Mars' Atmospheric Argon: Effects of Updated Mars Model Atmospheres on Concentration Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Colaprete, A.; Janes, D. M.; Metzger, A. E.; Kerry, K. E.; Forget, F.; Starr, R.; Haberle, R. M.

    2008-11-01

    Mars' atmospheric Ar concentrations for seasonal and geographically resolved measurements by the GRS on Mars Odyssey are discussed. No GCM has reproduced the Ar results - we will show new analyses using upgraded GCM model atmospheres from NASA and LMD.

  18. CIEMAT EXTERNAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE: ISO/IEC 17025 ACCREDITATION AND 3 Y OF OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE AS AN ACCREDITED LABORATORY.

    PubMed

    Romero, A M; Rodríguez, R; López, J L; Martín, R; Benavente, J F

    2016-09-01

    In 2008, the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service decided to implement a quality management system, in accordance with established requirements, in order to achieve ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. Although the Service comprises the approved individual monitoring services of both external and internal radiation, this paper is specific to the actions taken by the External Dosimetry Service, including personal and environmental dosimetry laboratories, to gain accreditation and the reflections of 3 y of operational experience as an accredited laboratory. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  20. EFFICIENCY STUDY OF A LEGe DETECTOR SYSTEM FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF 241Am IN SKULL AT CIEMAT WHOLE BODY COUNTER.

    PubMed

    Pérez López, B; Navarro, J F; López Ponte, M A; Nogueira, P

    2016-09-01

    (241)Am incorporation due to an incident or chronic exposure causes an internal dose, which can be evaluated from the total activity of this isotope in the skeleton several months after the intake. For this purpose, it is necessary to perform in vivo measurements of this bone-seeker radionuclide in appropriate counting bone geometries with very low attenuation of surrounded tissue and to extrapolate to total activity in the skeleton (ICRP 89, Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. 2001. 265). The work here presented refers to direct measurements of americium in the Cohen skull phantom at the CIEMAT Whole Body Counter (WBC) using low-energy germanium (LEGe) detectors inside a shielding room. The main goal was to determinate the most adequate head counting geometry for the in vivo detection of americium in the bone. The calibration of the in vivo LEGe system was performed with four detectors with 2 cm of distance to Cohen phantom. Two geometries were measured, on junction of frontal to parietal bones and frontal bone. The efficiencies are very similar in both geometries, the preferred counting geometry is the most comfortable for the person, with the LEGe detectors in the highest part of the frontal bone, near the junction with the parietal bone, CIEMAT WBC participated in a skull intercomparison exercise organised by WG7 of EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V.). Efficiencies using three different skull phantoms were obtained. Measurements were performed for different head counting positions, four of them in the plane of symmetry and others over the temporal bone. The detector was placed in parallel with the calibration phantom at a distance of 1 cm. The main gamma emission of (241)Am, 59.5 keV (36 %), was used for comparing efficiency values. The lower efficiency was obtained over the frontal and occipital bones. Measurement with one LEGe detector over the parietal bone is the most efficient. The

  1. GRS 1758-258: Into the thermal dominant state with Swift XRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, M.; Pottschmidt, K.; Krauss, F.; Eikmann, W.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kuehnel, M.; Rodrigues, B. H. G.; Soria, R.; Grinberg, V.; Smith, D. M.; Bel, M. Cadolle; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; Kuulkers, E.; INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge Monitoring Team; Kalemci, E.; Miller, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    A decline of the hard flux of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1758-258 was observed with Swift BAT and INTEGRAL ISGRI starting in 2016 mid-August, with the source having become undetectable above 20 keV around 2016 September 30 (ATEL #9625).

  2. Near-infrared observations of the black hole transient GRS 1716-249.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vishal; Vadwale, Santosh; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2017-03-01

    We report near-infrared photometric observations of GRS 1716-249 during the on-going outburst (ATel #9876, #9895, #10036, #10069). Observations were carried out on UT 20.99 March 2017 with the Mount Abu 1.2 meter telescope (+ PRL Near-Infrared Imager/Spectrograph).

  3. GRS 1915+105 AS A GALACTIC ANALOG OF A FANAROFF-RILEY II QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jerome E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2013-06-20

    We study the long-term time-averaged kinetic luminosity, Q-bar , of the major flares of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 and the relationship to the intrinsic X-ray (bolometric) luminosity, L{sub bol}, and scale it to that of a complete sample of SDSS/FIRST Fanaroff-Riley (FR) II quasars. If the scale invariance hypothesis for black holes (BHs) holds then we show that the expected distribution in the Q-bar -L{sub bol} scatter plane of GRS 1915+105 is consistent with FR II quasars for distances D = 10.7-11 kpc. We compare the specific values of kinetic luminosity and L{sub bol} during flares of GRS 1915+105 to that predicted by several three-dimensional MHD simulations of BH accretion flows with relativistic ejections. If FR II quasars are a scaled up version of GRS 1915+105, the data are consistent with numerical models when they contain an ergospheric disk jet and the BH spin is a/M = 0.99 or a/M = 0.998 (we estimate a/M > 0.984). In the framework of scale invariance of BHs, our results may imply that FR II quasars also hold rapidly rotating BHs.

  4. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number (301...

  5. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number (301...

  6. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number (301...

  7. INTEGRAL and ATCA observations of the black hole transient GRS 1716-249

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Santo, Melania; Ducci, Lorenzo; Miller-Jones, James; Ferrigno, Carlo; D'Ai', Antonino; Bassi, Tiziana; Migliari, Simone; Tomsick, John; Casella, Piergiorgio; Belloni, Tomaso; Sivakoff, Greg

    2017-02-01

    INTEGRAL performed a target of opportunity observation of the black-hole X-ray transient GRS 1716-249 during the on-going outburst (ATel #9876, #9895). The 90 ks observation started on 2017 February 8th at 22:37:54 and ended on February 10th at 00:52:56 (UTC).

  8. Standardisation of the (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho activity concentration using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method.

    PubMed

    Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Rožkov, Andrej

    2016-03-01

    The (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho standardisations using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method, that have been carried out in the frame of the European Metrology Research Program project "Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management" are described. The radionuclide beta counting efficiencies were calculated using two computer codes CN2005 and MICELLE2. The sensitivity analysis of the code input parameters (ionization quenching factor, beta shape factor) on the calculated efficiencies was performed, and the results are discussed. The combined relative standard uncertainty of the standardisations of the (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho solutions were 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively. The stated precision obtained using the CIEMAT/NIST method is better than that previously reported in the literature obtained by the TDCR ((129)I), the 4πγ-NaI ((166m)Ho) counting or the CIEMAT/NIST method ((151)Sm). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Topography Driven Variation In Argon Abundance As Measured by the GRS on Mars Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Kerry, K. E.; Boynton, W. V.; Hunten, D. M.; Janes, D. M.; Nelli, S. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.

    2007-07-01

    The GRS on Mars Odyssey measures the 1294 keV gamma ray line of Mars atmospheric argon. We present data from discrete longitudes centered over Hellas Basin, Tharsis Montes, and a sector of no particular topographic form other than the dichotomy between the southern highlands and northern lowlands. Some differences in the argon abundance as a function of season are seen between these longitude sectors.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Mars Odyssey GRS Chemical Abundances with Other Mission Global Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.; Odyssey GRS Science Team

    2006-12-01

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument package has returned chemical abundance maps of the Martian surface for a suite of elements (Fe, Si, Cl, H, K, Th). Due to a low resolution (>250 km footprint), smoothing effects inherent to the instruments, and the data processing methods, analysis of smaller geologic features can be statistically problematic. However, mean elemental abundances can be determined for larger geologic provinces and specifically defined regions with enough areal extent to produce sufficiently robust statistics. Here we compare GRS-derived element abundances to other Martian global datasets in order to evaluate statistically and geologically meaningful differences. Although outlier regions exist, GRS data reveal a Martian surface more chemically homogeneous than the surfaces of the Earth or moon. Chemical variations are often subtle and difficult to discern. However, even with muted variation and large uncertainties, comparing GRS elemental means and other datasets still reveal statistically robust differences using standard z-statistic tests at high confidence intervals. Note that "statistically significant" differences may not be geologically significant. This method has been employed to determine subtle but statistically significant variations in several element abundances with apparent surface age (e.g., Fe and Cl abundances increase with younger ages; K and Th decrease with younger ages) revealing possible constraints on crustal evolution and surficial processes. We also compared the variations in elemental abundances to variations in specific mineralogies and dust abundance as determined by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument. This allows an important link between chemistry and mineralogy and further helps constrain the effects of surface dust on remote sensing data.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of the microquasar GRS 1758-258: a possible intermediate mass system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Muñoz-Arjonilla, Álvaro J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. GRS 1758-258 is one of two prototypical microquasars towards the Galactic center direction discovered almost a quarter of a century ago. The system remains poorly studied in the optical domain due to its counterpart being a very faint and absorbed target in a crowded region of the sky. Aims: Our aim is to investigate GRS 1758-258 in order to shed light on the nature of the stellar binary components. In particular, the main physical parameters of the donor star, such as the mass or the spectral type, are not yet well constrained. Methods: GRS 1758-258 has remained so far elusive to optical spectroscopy owing to its observational difficulties. Here, we use this traditional tool of stellar astronomy at low spectral resolution with a 10 m class telescope and a long slit spectrograph. Results: An improved spectrum is obtained as compared to previous work. The quality of the data does not allow the detection of emission or absorption features but, nevertheless, we manage to partially achieve our aims comparing the de-reddened continuum with the spectral energy distribution expected from an irradiated disc model and different donor star templates. Conclusions: We tentatively propose that GRS 1758-258 does not host a giant star companion. Instead, a main sequence star with mid-A spectral type appears to better agree with our data. The main impacts of this finding are the possibility that we are dealing with an intermediate mass system and, in this case, the prediction of an orbital period significantly shorter than previously proposed.

  12. GRS 1915+105: The X-ray spectrum following a radio flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannikainen, D. C.; Vilhu, O.; Alha, L.; Hunstead, R. W.; Campbell-Wilson, D.

    2000-04-01

    We present simultaneous RXTE (PCA and HEXTE) and CGRO (OSSE) spectra of GRS1915+105 following a radio flaring episode. The outcome of the spectral fits, using both a thermal sombrero and a hybrid thermal/nonthermal model, imply a Kerr hole with a large population of relativistic electrons. The radio-infrared excess (over the disk model) may arise from this population, or it could be a relic from major plasmoid ejections or due to frequent ``baby'' blobs. .

  13. Swift broad band observations of the Black Hole transient GRS 1716-249

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Santo, Melania; D'Ai', Antonino; Bassi, Tiziana; Segreto, Alberto; Belloni, Tomaso; Cusumano, Giancarlo; La Parola, Valentina

    2017-02-01

    We report on Swift observations of the ongoing outburst of the Black Hole Transient (BHT) GRS 1716-249 (ATel #9876, #9895). We analyzed both XRT and BAT data of three Swift ToO pointings performed on 2017 January 28, 29 and 30 (Target ID 34924, segments 1, 2, 3). The XRT count rate is about 90 count/s and therefore the observations have been performed in window-timing mode.

  14. Comptonizing Efficiencies of IGR 17091-3624 and its similarity to GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Partha Sarathi; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2015-10-01

    Variability classes in the enigmatic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 are known to be correlated with the variation of the Comptonizing Efficiency (CE) which is defined to be the ratio between the number of power-law (hard) photons and seed (soft) photons injected into the Compton cloud. Similarities of light curves of several variability classes of GRS 1915+105 and IGR 17091-3624, some of which are already reported in the literature, motivated us to compute CE for IGR 17091-3624 as well. We find that they are similar to what were reported earlier for GRS 1915+105, even though masses of these objects could be different. The reason is that the both the sizes of the sources of the seed photons and of the Comptonizing corona scale in the same way as the mass of the black hole. This indicates that characterization of variability classes based on CE is likely to be black hole mass independent, in general.

  15. Equatorial and midlatitude distribution of chlorine measured by Mars Odyssey GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Karunatillake, S.; Baker, V. R.; Dohm, J. M.; Evans, L. G.; Finch, M. J.; Hahn, B. C.; Hamara, D. K.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K. E.; Newsom, H. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Sprague, A. L.; Squyres, S. W.; Starr, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Williams, R. M. S.

    2006-12-01

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has made the first measurement of the equatorial and midlatitude distribution of Cl at the near-surface of Mars. A mean concentration value of 0.49 wt% Cl has been determined from a grand sum of GRS spectra collected over the planet excluding high-latitude regions. Cl is significantly enriched within the upper few tens of centimeters of the surface relative to the Martian meteorites and estimates for the bulk composition of the planet. However, Cl is not homogeneously distributed and varies by a factor of ~4 even after smoothing of data with a 10°-arc-radius filter. Several contiguous, geographically large (>20°) regions of high and low Cl concentrations are present. In particular, a region centered over the Medusae Fossae Formation west of Tharsis shows significantly elevated Cl. A large region north of Syrtis Major extending into Utopia Planitia in the northern hemisphere shows the lowest Cl concentrations. On the basis of hierarchical multivariate correlations, Cl is positively associated with H while negatively associated with Si and thermal inertia. We discuss four possible geologic mechanisms (aeolian, volcanic, aqueous, and hydrothermal) that may have affected the Cl distribution seen by GRS. While some of the distribution may be due to Cl-rich dust deposits transported by aeolian processes, this mechanism does not appear to account for all of the observed variability. We propose that reactions with volcanic exhalations may have been important for enriching Cl in Medusae Fossae Formation material.

  16. The Distribution of Non-Volatile Elements on Mars: Mars Odyssey GRS Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W.; Janes, D.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.; Reedy, R.; Evans, L.; Starr, R.; Drake, D.; Taylor, J.; Waenke, H.

    2004-01-01

    The major scientific objective of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission is to determine the distribution of elements in the near-surface of Mars. Mars Odyssey has been in its mapping orbit since February, 2002, and the GRS boom, which removes the instrument from the gamma-ray background of the spacecraft, was erected in June, 2002. In the 580 days since boom erection, we have accumulated 453 days of mapping data. The difference is due mostly to two times when Odyssey went into safe mode and the instrument warmed up forcing us to anneal out radiation damage that manifests itself after warming. Other data losses are due to simple transmitter data gaps and to intense solar particle events. The data from the GRS is statistical in nature. We have a very low count rate and a very low signal-to-noise ratio. With the exception of K, the most easily mapped elements have a signal/noise ratio on the order of 0.1 (0.5 for K) and the counting rates are on the order of 0.3 to 0.7 counts/min (4 cpm for K). In order to map the distribution of an element, we have to divide the total signal from Mars up into many cells that define the map s spatial resolution (unless the statistics are good enough that the intrinsic spatial resolution of the instrument, about 550 km diameter, dominates). The data for several elements have now achieved a statistical precision that permits us to make meaningful maps.

  17. Mid-Infrared and multi-wavelength monitoring of the microquasar GRS 1915+105.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Yael; Chaty, Sylvain; Dhawan, Vivek; Diana, Hannikainen; Mirabel, Felix; Pooley, Guy; Ribo, Marc; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rupen, Michael

    2005-06-01

    We propose to continue mid-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 in the context of a campaign of multi-wavelength observations of the source. GRS 1915+105 is used as a laboratory to understand the accretion / ejection phenomena occurring in stellar-mass accreting black hole (microquasars) and by analogy in supermassive black holes (AGNs). A key question is the nature of the time-variable infrared emission in this system. Depending on the state of the source, we wish to know what is the contribution in the mid-infrared of the different possible emission mechanisms: the thermal emission from the K-M giant donor star, the synchrotron emission from the compact relativistic jets, X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disc and free-free emission from a possible disc-wind. The continuum in a wavelength range as large as possible and the possible emission lines observed thanks to the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) are important clues to achieve this study. These mid-infrared observations will be combined with observations with the RXTE and INTEGRAL satellites in the X-rays and gamma-rays, the ESO/NTT in near-infrared and the VLA/VLBA and Ryle Telescopes in radio. Thanks to these simultaneous multiwavelength observations we will identify the accretion state of the source and determine the contribution of each emission component of the system. As GRS 1915+105 had been rarely observed in the mid-infrared range in the past, the Spitzer Space Telescope brings the unique opportunity to do so, shedding light on the physical mechanisms occurring in this particular binary system and which could apply to the other black hole binaries.

  18. Accretion disc geometry evolution of GRS 1915+105 during its plataeu states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathi Pal, Partha; Gopal Dutta, Broja; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of Time-lags are correlated with the accretion geometry during Plateau states of GRS 1915+105. We find that the lag spectrum for the χ_3 class is different from that of χ_1, χ_2 and χ_4 classes. Hard lags occur only when Comptonizing efficiency (CE) is about 0.9% for different plateau states and its evolution follows the sequence of class transitions suggested on the basis of CE parameter. We conclude that the variation of time lags could be due to change of size of the CENBOL which is often triggered by Compton cooling process.

  19. Global mapping of the elemental composition of the Moon surface with SELENE GRS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Uston, C.; Hasebe, N.

    2007-08-01

    The major objectives of the SELENE mission are to obtain scientific data on lunar origins and evolution, and to develop the technology for future lunar exploration. The scientific data will be also used for exploring the possibility of future utilization of the Moon. The Moon has been observed and explored extensively as the most familiar body. Although the Moon is more thoroughly studied than any other planetary bodies in the solar system, its origin and evolution process are still controversial. The SELENE mission targets are the global characterization of lunar surface and detailed gravimetry. This mission will provide globally the high-quality and high-resolution data on element abundance, mineral assemblage, surface topography, sub-surface structure, magnetic and gravity field, and precession. It aims at better understanding the origin and evolution of the Moon by these observations. Determining the distribution of major and important trace elements in the lunar surface is essential in the lunar science. A lunar chemistry and the relative abundances of refractory and volatile elements provide clues to the conditions which prevailed during the formation of the Moon. Combining planetological studies with elemental study can help improve our understanding of the evolution of the Moon including the Earth. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is well suited for measuring elemental composition in the lunar surface. We present the high resolution Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) for the Japan's lunar explorer SELENE which will cover the whole lunar surface by its polar orbit at a nominal altitude of 100 km. A germanium semiconductor crystal cooled by a Stirling cryocooler to below -180°C, is used as a gamma-ray detector. This GRS has an excellent energy resolution 20 times superior to those used in past lunar missions. Thus, GRS can discriminate the incident gamma-ray energies with high precision and can determine abundances of materials (K, U, Th, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Fe, Ca, H etc

  20. X-ray spectral analysis of the steady states of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Dil Vrtilek, Saeqa; Varniere, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy G.

    2016-04-01

    Of the black hole binaries (BHBs) discovered thus far, GRS 1915+105 stands out as an exceptional source primarily due to its wild X-ray variability, the diversity of which has not been replicated in any other stellar-mass black hole. Although extreme variability is commonplace in its light-curve, about half of the observations of GRS1915+105 show fairly steady X-ray intensity. We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within these steady observations. Our work is based on a vast RXTE/PCA data set obtained on GRS 1915+105 during the course of its entire mission and 10 years of radio data from the Ryle Telescope, which overlap the X-ray data. We find that the steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separate into two regions in a color-color diagram, which we refer to as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS 1915+105 displays significant curvature in the Comptonization component within the PCA band pass suggesting significantly heating from a hot disk present in all states. A new Comptonization model 'simplcut' was developed in order to model this curvature to best effect. A majority of the steady-soft observations display a roughly constant inner disk radius, remarkably reminiscent of canonical soft state black hole binaries. In contrast, the steady-hard observations display a growing disk truncation that is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk, which suggests a magnetically truncated disk. A comparison of X-ray model parameters to the canonical state definitions show that almost all steady-soft observations match the criteria of either thermal or steep power law state, while the thermal state observations dominate the constant radius branch. A large portion 80 % of the steady-hard observations matches the hard state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected. These results combine to suggest that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states, which map to those observed in canonical BHBs.

  1. Mid-Infrared and multi-wavelength monitoring of the microquasar GRS 1915+105.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Yael; Chaty, Sylvain; Diana, Hannikainen; Mirabel, Felix; Rodriguez, Jerome

    2004-09-01

    We propose mid-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 in the context of a multi-wavelength follow-up campaign of the source. GRS 1915+105 is used as a laboratory to understand the accretion / ejection phenomena occurring in stellar-mass accreting black hole (microquasars) and by analogy in supermassive black holes (AGNs). A key question is the nature of the time-variable infrared emission in this system. Depending on the state of the source, we wish to know what is the contribution in the mid-infrared of the different possible emission mechanisms: the thermal emission from the K-M giant donor star, the synchrotron emission from the compact relativistic jets, X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disc and free-free emission from a dense wind. A particular contribution of the Spitzer Telescope will be the observation of this dense wind in GRS 1915+105, which is very difficult to detect in X-ray spectra due to pile-up phenomena in X-ray detectors. The continuum in a wavelength range as large as possible and the possible emission lines observed thanks to the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) are important clues to achieve this study. These mid-infrared observations will be combined with observations with the RXTE and INTEGRAL satellites in the X-rays and gamma-rays, the ESO/NTT in near-infrared and the Ryle Telescope in radio. Thanks to these simultaneous multiwavelength observations we will identify the accretion state of the source and determine the contribution of each emission component of the system. As GRS 1915+105 had been rarely observed in the mid-infrared range in the past, the Spitzer Space Telescope will bring the unique opportunity to do so, shedding light on the physical mechanisms occurring in this particular binary system and which could apply to the other black hole binaries.

  2. Revisiting Evidence of Chaos in X-Ray Light Curves: The Case of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannattil, Manu; Gupta, Himanshu; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear time series analysis has been widely used to search for signatures of low-dimensional chaos in light curves emanating from astrophysical bodies. A particularly popular example is the microquasar GRS 1915+105, whose irregular but systematic X-ray variability has been well studied using data acquired by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. With a view to building simpler models of X-ray variability, attempts have been made to classify the light curves of GRS 1915+105 as chaotic or stochastic. Contrary to some of the earlier suggestions, after careful analysis, we find no evidence for chaos or determinism in any of the GRS 1915+105 classes. The dearth of long and stationary data sets representing all the different variability classes of GRS 1915+105 makes it a poor candidate for analysis using nonlinear time series techniques. We conclude that either very exhaustive data analysis with sufficiently long and stationary light curves should be performed, keeping all the pitfalls of nonlinear time series analysis in mind, or alternative schemes of classifying the light curves should be adopted. The generic limitations of the techniques that we point out in the context of GRS 1915+105 affect all similar investigations of light curves from other astrophysical sources.

  3. THE VARIABLE NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPART OF THE MICROQUASAR GRS 1758–258

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.

    2014-12-10

    We present a new study of the microquasar system GRS 1758–258 in the near-infrared domain based on archival observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the NICMOS camera. In addition to confirming the near-infrared counterpart pointed out by Muñoz-Arjonilla et al., we show that this object displays significant photometric variability. From its average magnitudes, we also find that GRS 1758–258 fits well within the correlation between the optical/near-infrared and X-ray luminosity known to exist for low-mass, black-hole candidate X-ray binaries in a hard state. Moreover, the spectral energy distribution built using all radio, near-infrared, and X-ray data available closest in time to the NICMOS observations can be reasonably interpreted in terms of a self-absorbed radio jet and an irradiated accretion disk model around a stellar-mass black hole. All these facts match the expected behavior of a compact binary system and strengthen our confidence in the counterpart identification.

  4. Hard X-ray observations of GRS/KS 1730-312 with GRANAT/SIGMA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudolyubov, S.; Gilfanov, M.; Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Borozdin, K.; Alexandrovich, N.; Khavenson, N.; Novikov, B.; Vargas, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Paul, J.; Denis, M.; Mandrou, P.; Roques, J.-P.; Jourdain, E.; Borrel, V.

    1996-02-01

    The results of transient X-ray source KS/GRS 1730-312 observations with GRANAT/SIGMA are reported. The source was discovered on September 23, 1994 and at the maximum of the light curve was the brightest one in the Galactic Center region in the 35-200 keV energy domain. Within ≡5 d the hard X-ray flux from GRS/KS 1730-312 declined below the SIGMA sensitivity limit. The average 35-200 keV spectrum can be approximated by the power law spectrum with photon index ≡2.5 or by bremsstrahlung model with temperature ≡70 keV. Some steepening of the 35-200 keV spectrum with time was marginally detected. According to the TTM (Mir-KVANT) data the decline of hard X-ray flux was accompanied by notable increase of the flux in the standard X-ray band (2-10 keV). During 5 d the 2-10 keV band contribution to the 2-300 keV luminosity increased from ≡20-25% to ≡80-90%. Combined TTM and SIGMA data indicate that the broad band (2-300 keV) spectrum evolution may be described in terms of appearance and fast increase of the soft spectral component accompanied with decrease and possible steepening of the hard component.

  5. Studying Absorption Line Feature in the Relativistic Jet Source GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The galactic superluminal source GRS 1915+105 is among the most interesting objects in our Galaxy. It is subject to erratic accretion instabilities with energization of relativistic jets producing X-ray, optical and radio emission. This source was observed by ASCA on Sept. 27, 1994, April 20, 1995, October 23, 1996 and April 25, 1997 as part of a long timescale investigation. We detected strong variability of the source, and in particular the existence of burst/dip structure in October 1996 and April 1997. Clear evidence of transient absorption features at 6.7, 7.0 and 8.0 keV was obtained for the first time in September 1994 and April 1995. Given the phenomenology of plasmoid energization and ejection, these transient spectral features might be produced by material entrained in the radio jets or in other high-velocity outflows. Our contribution to the interpretation is to incorporate these observations into a overall theoretical picture for GRS 1915+105 also taking into account other observations by XTE and BSAX. The emerging picture is complex. The central source is subject to (most likely) super-Eddington instabilities mediated by magnetic field build-up, reconnection and dissipation in the form of blobs that eventually leads to the formation of transient spectral features from the surrounding of the plasmoid emitting region. A comprehensive theoretical investigation is in progress.

  6. Using machine learning to explore the long-term evolution of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Heil, Lucy M.; Hogg, David W.; Mueller, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Among the population of known Galactic black hole X-ray binaries, GRS 1915+105 stands out in multiple ways. It has been in continuous outburst since 1992, and has shown a wide range of different states that can be distinguished by their timing and spectral properties. These states, also observed in IGR J17091-3624, have in the past been linked to accretion dynamics. Here, we present the first comprehensive study into the long-term evolution of GRS 1915+105, using the entire data set observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer over its 16-yr lifetime. We develop a set of descriptive features allowing for automatic separation of states, and show that supervised machine learning in the form of logistic regression and random forests can be used to efficiently classify the entire data set. For the first time, we explore the duty cycle and time evolution of states over the entire 16-yr time span, and find that the temporal distribution of states has likely changed over the span of the observations. We connect the machine classification with physical interpretations of the phenomenology in terms of chaotic and stochastic processes.

  7. NuSTAR SPECTROSCOPY OF GRS 1915+105: DISK REFLECTION, SPIN, AND CONNECTIONS TO JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Barret, D.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Boggs, S. E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Chakrabarty, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the results of spectral fits made to a NuSTAR observation of the black hole GRS 1915+105 in a 'plateau' state. This state is of special interest because it is similar to the 'low/hard' state seen in other black holes, especially in that compact, steady jets are launched in this phase. The 3-79 keV bandpass of NuSTAR, and its ability to obtain moderate-resolution spectra free from distortions such as photon pile-up, are extremely well suited to studies of disk reflection in X-ray binaries. In only 15 ks of net exposure, an extraordinarily sensitive spectrum of GRS 1915+105 was measured across the full bandpass. Ionized reflection from a disk around a rapidly spinning black hole is clearly required to fit the spectra; even hybrid Comptonization models including ionized reflection from a disk around a Schwarzschild black hole proved inadequate. A spin parameter of a = 0.98 ± 0.01 (1σ statistical error) is measured via the best-fit model; low spins are ruled out at a high level of confidence. This result suggests that jets can be launched from a disk extending to the innermost stable circular orbit. A very steep inner disk emissivity profile is also measured, consistent with models of compact coronae above Kerr black holes. These results support an emerging association between the hard X-ray corona and the base of the relativistic jet.

  8. Identifying Gifted Preschoolers in Turkey: The Reliability and Validity of the Turkish-Translated Version of the GRS-Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Filiz; Karabey, Burak; Pfeiffer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the Turkish-translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales (GRS) were tested on 30 preschool teachers who provided ratings for a total of 390 preschoolers aged ranging from 4 years, 0 months to 6 years, 11 months. Results indicated that the reliability and validity of all five of the GRS-P subscales were high.…

  9. Compressive Creep Response of T1000G/RS-14 Graphite/Polycyanate Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The response of a T1000G/RS-14 graphite/polycyanate composite material system to transverse compressive loads is quantified via experimentation. The primary objective of the work was to quantify the effects of process environment and test environment on the T1000G/RS-14 compressive creep response. Tests were conducted on both the neat resin and the composite material system. In addition to the creep tests, static compressive strength tests were conducted to define the stress-strain response. The creep behavior for the RS-14 resin was quantified by conducting a series of tests to study the effects of different process environments (air and nitrogen), different cure temperatures, and different test environments (air and vacuum). The combined effect on the RS-14 resin compressive creep of processing in nitrogen and testing under vacuum versus processing in air and testing in air was a 47% decrease in the creep strain after 2177 hr. The test environment appeared to have a greater effect on the resin creep than the process environment. Following the conclusion of the resin creep tests, composite transverse compressive creep tests were conducted. The composite creep test cylinder was post-cured in a nitrogen environment prior to machining test specimens and all tests were conducted in a vacuum environment. The series of tests investigated the effects of initial stress level and test temperature on the creep behavior. At the end of the 2000-hr tests at 275{degrees}F on specimens stressed at 10,000 psi, the nitrogen-processed and vacuum-tested conditions reduced the composite transverse compressive creep strain by 19% compared to processing in air and testing in air. The effects of process and test environment on the creep behavior are not as great for the composite system as they were for the neat resin, primarily because of the low resin content in the composite material system. At the 275{degrees}F test temperature there was a significant increase in the composite

  10. DISCOVERY OF PHOTON INDEX SATURATION IN THE BLACK HOLE BINARY GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena E-mail: Lev.Titarchuk@nrl.navy.mi

    2009-12-01

    We present a study of the correlations between spectral, timing properties, and mass accretion rate observed in X-rays from the Galactic black hole (BH) binary GRS 1915+105 during the transition between hard and soft states. We analyze all transition episodes from this source observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, coordinated with Ryle Radio Telescope observations. We show that broadband energy spectra of GRS 1915+105 during all these spectral states can be adequately presented by two bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) components: a hard component (BMC1, photon index GAMMA{sub 1} = 1.7-3.0) with turnover at high energies and soft thermal component (BMC2, GAMMA{sub 2} = 2.7-4.2) with characteristic color temperature <=1 keV, and the redskewed iron-line (LAOR) component. We also present observable correlations between the index and the normalization of the disk 'seed' component. The use of 'seed' disk normalization, which is presumably proportional to mass accretion rate in the disk, is crucial to establish the index saturation effect during the transition to the soft state. We discovered the photon index saturation of the soft and hard spectral components at values of approx<4.2 and 3, respectively. We present a physical model which explains the index-seed photon normalization correlations. We argue that the index saturation effect of the hard component (BMC1) is due to the soft photon Comptonization in the converging inflow close to the BH and that of soft component is due to matter accumulation in the transition layer when mass accretion rate increases. Furthermore, we demonstrate a strong correlation between equivalent width of the iron line and radio flux in GRS 1915+105. In addition to our spectral model components we also find a strong feature of 'blackbody (BB)-like' bump whose color temperature is about 4.5 keV in eight observations of the intermediate and soft states. We discuss a possible origin of this 'BB-like' emission.

  11. Discovery of Photon Index Saturation in the Black Hole Binary GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the correlations between spectral, timing properties and mass accretion rate observed in X-rays from the Galactic Black Hole (BH) binary GRS 1915+105 during the transition between hard and soft states. We analyze all transition episodes from this source observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), coordinated with Ryle Radio Telescope (RT) observations. We show that broad-band energy spectra of GRS 1915+105 during all these spectral states can be adequately presented by two Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC) components: a hard component (BMC1, photon index Gamma(sub 1) = 1.7 -- 3.0) with turnover at high energies and soft thermal component (BMC2, Gamma(sub 2) = 2.7 -- 4.2) with characteristic color temperature < or = 1 keV, and the red-skewed iron line (LAOR) component. We also present observable correlations between the index and the normalization of the disk "seed" component. The use of "seed" disk normalization, which is presumably proportional to mass accretion rate in the disk, is crucial to establish the index saturation effect during the transition to the soft state. We discovered the photon index saturation of the soft and hard spectral components at values of < or approximately equal 4.2 and 3 respectively. We present a physical model which explains the index-seed photon normalization correlations. We argue that the index saturation effect of the hard component (BMC1) is due to the soft photon Comptonization in the converging inflow close to 1311 and that of soft component is due to matter accumulation in the transition layer when mass accretion rate increases. Furthermore we demonstrate a strong correlation between equivalent width of the iron line and radio flux in GRS 1915+105. In addition to our spectral model components we also find a strong feature of "blackbody-like" bump which color temperature is about 4.5 keV in eight observations of the intermediate and soft states. We discuss a possible origin of this "blackbody

  12. Accretion Disk Structure in Various Spectral States of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, Ronald

    2000-09-01

    GRS 1915+105 displays 9 types of light curves that fall in 3 categories. In the steady-hard states, the Fe line is strongest, and there is a steady type of jet. In the soft states, the accretion disk dominates the X-ray spectrum, and we often detect the 67 Hz QPO thought to arise from GR effects in the inner disk. The remaining states show a variety of instability oscillations, some producing violent mass ejections. Progress on all fronts requires high resolution spectra to help interpret the disk structure. We have particular interest in the profiles of broad Fe emission, intending to gain physical insights using theoretical models of Nayakshin et al. With monitoring timescales selected to randomize the 9 states, we request 3 obs likely to sample different conditions in the disk.

  13. The NUSTAR view of a QPO evolution of GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Liang; Chen, Li; Bu, Qing-cui; Qu, Jin-lu E-mail: chenli@bnu.edu.cn E-mail: qujl@ihep.ac.cn

    2015-02-01

    We report a timing analysis of the black hole binary GRS 1915+105 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array Observatory. A strong type-C quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) below 2 Hz appears in the power density spectrum during the whole observation, whose frequency is correlated with the 3–25 keV count rate. The QPO shows a sudden increase in frequency along with an increase in flux and a softening of the spectrum. We discuss the possible origin of the QPO and the reasons that lead to the QPO frequency variation. It is suggested that the reflection component has little influence on QPO frequency and the increase in QPO frequency could be associated with the inward motion of the outer part of the disk.

  14. Gemini H-band spectroscopy of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, O.; Callanan, P.; Reynolds, M.

    2014-07-01

    Since its discovery in 1994 (Castro-Tirado 1994) GRS 1915+105 has become one of the most intensely studied of all the X-ray binaries in the Galaxy. This Galactic microquasar system is unique in that it has remained in outburst for the past 20 years: furthermore, initial measurements suggested a relatively high black hole mass of 14 ± 4 M_{⊙} (Greiner et al. 2001), outside the predicted mass range for such transients (Ozel et al. 2010). Here we present new Gemini H-band observations, and discuss the degree to which they can be used to refine the black hole mass in comparison to more recent estimates (Hurley et al 2013, Steeghs et al 2013). In addition, previous work found phase dependent emission of the CO bandheads in the K-band, and we present evidence of double peaked emission lines, indicative of ongoing mass transfer via the accretion disk.

  15. GRS Method for Uncertainties Evaluation of Parameters in a Prospective Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudov, A.; Andrianova, O.; Raskach, K.; Tsibulya, A.

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies have been devoted to the uncertainty estimation of reactor calculation parameters by the GRS (Generation Random Sampled) method. This method is based on direct sampling input data resulting in formation of random sets of input parameters which are used for multiple calculations. Once these calculations are performed, statistical processing of the calculation results is carried out to determine the mean value and the variance of each calculation parameter of interest. In our study this method is used to estimate the uncertainty of calculation parameters (keff, power density, dose rate) of a prospective sodium-cooled fast reactor. Neutron transport calculations were performed by the nodal diffusion code TRIGEX and Monte Carlo code MMK.

  16. The X-ray nova GRS 1739-278 near the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borozdin, K. N.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Trudolyubov, S. P.; Aleksandrovich, N. L.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Skinner, G. K.

    1998-07-01

    The soft X-ray nova GRS 1739-278 flared up in 1996 near the Galactic center. We present the observations of this interesting source, a black-hole candidate, with the instruments on board the Mir-Kvant module and the RXTE satellite. The TTM data allow the spectrum of the X-ray nova to be studied during the rise in its brightness. The source's spectrum in this period is satisfactorily described by a power law with a gradually increasing index. The RXTE spectra after the source passed its maximum brightness have the appearance that is typical of the high and very high states of black-hole candidates; they are described by a two-component model. The broad-band spectra of the source are discussed in terms of the processes that proceed near an accreting black hole in a binary system.

  17. Immobilization of alpha-amylase from Bacillus circulans GRS 313 on coconut fiber.

    PubMed

    Dey, Gargi; Nagpal, Varima; Banerjee, Rintu

    2002-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for immobilizing alpha-amylase from Bacillus circulans GRS 313 on coconut fiber was developed. The immobilization conditions for highest efficiency were optimized with respect to immobilization pH of 5.5, 30 degrees C, contact time of 4 h, and enzyme to support a ratio of 1:1 containing 0.12 mg/mL of protein. The catalytic properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared with that of the free enzyme. The activity of amylase adsorbed on coconut fiber was 38.7 U/g of fiber at its optimum pH of 5.7 and 48 degrees C, compared with the maximum activity of 40.2 U/mL of free enzyme at the optimum pH of 4.9 and 48 degrees C. The reutilization capacity of the immobilized enzyme was up to three cycles.

  18. Accretion disc wind variability in the states of the microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Petschek, Andrew J.; Lee, Julia C.

    2012-03-01

    Continuing our study of the role and evolution of accretion disc winds in the microquasar GRS 1915+105, we present high-resolution spectral variability analysis of the β and γ states with the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. By tracking changes in the absorption lines from the accretion disc wind, we find new evidence that radiation links the inner and outer accretion discs on a range of time-scales. As the central X-ray flux rises during the high-luminosity γ state, we observe the progressive overionization of the wind. In the β state, we argue that changes in the inner disc leading to the ejection of a transient 'baby jet' also quench the highly ionized wind from the outer disc. Our analysis reveals how the state, structure and X-ray luminosity of the inner accretion disc all conspire to drive the formation and variability of highly ionized accretion disc winds.

  19. Detection of beta-class variability in Black Hole source GRS 1915+105 by Astrosat Scanning Sky Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadevi, M. C.; Ravishankar, B. T.; Nandi, Anuj; Girish, V.; Singh, Brajpal; Jain, Anand; Agrawal, Vivek Kumar; Agarwal, Anil; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Seetha, S.; Sharma, M. Ramakrishna; Sharan, Vaishali; Babu, V. C.; Yadav, Reena; Meena, G.; Murthy, N. Sitarama; Kumar; Ashoka, B. N.; Kulkarni, Ravi; Iyer, Nirmal; Radhika, D.; Kushwaha, Ankur; Balaji, K.; Nagesh, G.; Kumar, Manoj; Gaan, Dhruti Ranjan; Kulshresta, Prashanth; Agarwal, Pankaj; Sebastin, Matthew; Rajarajan, A.; Rao, S. V. S. Subba; Pandiyan; R.; Rao, K. Subba; Rao, Chaitra; Sarma, K. Suryanarayana

    2015-10-01

    The Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) on board ASTROSAT was made operational on October 12th, 2015, the 15th day after launch (September 28th, 2015). After initial observations of the Crab Nebula, on October 14th 2015, the SSM was maneuvered for a stare at the galactic Black Hole source GRS 1915+105.

  20. THE PHYSICS OF THE 'HEARTBEAT' STATE OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Joseph; Lee, Julia C.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2011-08-20

    We present the first detailed phase-resolved spectral analysis of a joint Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observation of the {rho} variability class in the microquasar GRS 1915+105. The {rho} cycle displays a high-amplitude, double-peaked flare that recurs roughly every 50 s and is sometimes referred to as the 'heartbeat' oscillation. The spectral and timing properties of the oscillation are consistent with the radiation pressure instability and the evolution of a local Eddington limit in the inner disk. We exploit strong variations in the X-ray continuum, iron emission lines, and the accretion disk wind to probe the accretion geometry over nearly six orders of magnitude in distance from the black hole. At small scales (1-10 R{sub g}), we detect a burst of bremsstrahlung emission that appears to occur when a portion of the inner accretion disk evaporates due to radiation pressure. Jet activity, as inferred from the appearance of a short X-ray hard state, seems to be limited to times near minimum luminosity, with a duty cycle of {approx}10%. On larger scales (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} R{sub g}), we use detailed photoionization arguments to track the relationship between the fast X-ray variability and the accretion disk wind. For the first time, we are able to show that changes in the broadband X-ray spectrum produce changes in the structure and density of the accretion disk wind on timescales as short as 5 s. These results clearly establish a causal link between the X-ray oscillations and the disk wind and therefore support the existence of a disk-jet-wind connection. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the mass-loss rate in the wind may be sufficient to cause long-term oscillations in the accretion rate, leading to state transitions in GRS 1915+105.

  1. A Temporal Analysis Indicates a Mildly Relativistic Compact Jet in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Most of our knowledge of the radio morphology and kinematics of X-ray binary partially synchrotron self-absorbed compact jets (hereafter, compact jets) is based on the observations of GRS 1915+105, which has the most prominent compact jet. Yet, the compact jet bulk velocity, v, is poorly constrained in the literature, 0.07\\lt v/c\\lt 0.98. In spite of this uncertainty, compact jets are often unified with relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. We estimated v as part of a temporal analysis of GRS 1915+105 jets in “high plateau states” (HPS). We define HPS as a state showing a hard X-ray spectrum and low level of long-term (\\gt 10 s) X-ray activity associated with 15 GHz flux density \\gt 70 mJy for \\gt 7 consecutive days. The radio emission is associated with compact jet emission. Two HPS were monitored at 15 GHz during their termination with e-folding times of 3.8 and 8.6 hr. We combine this timescale with the scale of the spatial variation of the linear source of a Very Large Baseline Array image preceding the fade of one of these HPS in order to estimate the jet speed. Our assumption that the reduction in radio emissivity propagates as an approximate discontinuity down the HPS jet (leaving a weak jet in its wake) indicates 0.17\\lt v/c\\lt 0.43. This agrees closely with the only other existing v estimates that are derived directly from radio images, jet asymmetry produced by Doppler enhancement.

  2. X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-05-01

    We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color-color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ˜ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ˜ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.

  3. THE NOT-SO-MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE MICROQUASAR GRS1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Steeghs, D.; Parsons, S. G.; McClintock, J. E.; Reid, M. J.; Littlefair, S.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2013-05-10

    We present a new dynamical study of the black hole X-ray transient GRS1915+105 making use of near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope. We detect a large number of donor star absorption features across a wide range of wavelengths spanning the H and K bands. Our 24 epochs covering a baseline of over 1 yr permit us to determine a new binary ephemeris including a refined orbital period of P = 33.85 {+-} 0.16 days. The donor star radial velocity curves deliver a significantly improved determination of the donor semi-amplitude which is both accurate (K{sub 2} = 126 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1}) and robust against choice of donor star template and spectral features used. We furthermore constrain the donor star's rotational broadening to vsin i = 21 {+-} 4 km s{sup -1}, delivering a binary mass ratio of q = 0.042 {+-} 0.024. If we combine these new constraints with distance and inclination estimates derived from modeling the radio emission, a black hole mass of M{sub BH} = 10.1 {+-} 0.6 M{sub Sun} is inferred, paired with an evolved mass donor of M{sub 2} = 0.47 {+-} 0.27 M{sub Sun }. Our analysis suggests a more typical black hole mass for GRS1915+105 rather than the unusually high values derived in the pioneering dynamical study by Greiner et al. Our data demonstrate that high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of obscured accreting binaries can deliver dynamical mass determinations with a precision on par with optical studies.

  4. Compositional provinces of Mars from statistical analyses of TES, GRS, OMEGA and CRISM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Hamilton, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    identified 10 distinct classes of mineral assemblage on Mars through statistical analyses of mineral abundances derived from Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data at a spatial resolution of 8 pixels per degree. Two classes are new regions in Sinus Meridiani and northern Hellas basin. Except for crystalline hematite abundance, Sinus Meridiani exhibits compositional characteristics similar to Meridiani Planum; these two regions may share part of a common history. The northern margin of Hellas basin lacks olivine and high-Ca pyroxene compared to terrains just outside the Hellas outer ring; this may reflect a difference in crustal compositions and/or aqueous alteration. Hesperian highland volcanic terrains are largely mapped into one class. These terrains exhibit low-to-intermediate potassium and thorium concentrations (from Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data) compared to older highland terrains, indicating differences in the complexity of processes affecting mantle melts between these different-aged terrains. A previously reported, locally observed trend toward decreasing proportions of low-calcium pyroxene relative to total pyroxene with time is also apparent over the larger scales of our study. Spatial trends in olivine and pyroxene abundance are consistent with those observed in near-infrared data sets. Generally, regions that are distinct in TES data also exhibit distinct elemental characteristics in GRS data, suggesting that surficial coatings are not the primary control on TES mineralogical variations, but rather reflect regional differences in igneous and large-scale sedimentary/glacial processes. Distinct compositions measured over large, low-dust regions from multiple data sets indicate that global homogenization of unconsolidated surface materials has not occurred.

  5. The Not-so-massive Black Hole in the Microquasar GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeghs, D.; McClintock, J. E.; Parsons, S. G.; Reid, M. J.; Littlefair, S.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    We present a new dynamical study of the black hole X-ray transient GRS1915+105 making use of near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope. We detect a large number of donor star absorption features across a wide range of wavelengths spanning the H and K bands. Our 24 epochs covering a baseline of over 1 yr permit us to determine a new binary ephemeris including a refined orbital period of P = 33.85 ± 0.16 days. The donor star radial velocity curves deliver a significantly improved determination of the donor semi-amplitude which is both accurate (K 2 = 126 ± 1 km s-1) and robust against choice of donor star template and spectral features used. We furthermore constrain the donor star's rotational broadening to vsin i = 21 ± 4 km s-1, delivering a binary mass ratio of q = 0.042 ± 0.024. If we combine these new constraints with distance and inclination estimates derived from modeling the radio emission, a black hole mass of M BH = 10.1 ± 0.6 M ⊙ is inferred, paired with an evolved mass donor of M 2 = 0.47 ± 0.27 M ⊙. Our analysis suggests a more typical black hole mass for GRS1915+105 rather than the unusually high values derived in the pioneering dynamical study by Greiner et al. Our data demonstrate that high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of obscured accreting binaries can deliver dynamical mass determinations with a precision on par with optical studies.

  6. Accretion States of the Galactic Micro Quasar GRS 1758-258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soria, Roberto; Mehdipour, Missagh; Broderick, Jess W.; Hao, JingFang; Hannikainen, Diana C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a radio and X-ray study of the Galactic micro quasar GRS 1758-258, using unpublished archival data and new observations. We focus in particular on the 2000-2002 state transitions, and on its more quiet behaviour in 2008-2009. Our spectral and timing analysis of the XMM-Newton data shows that the source was in the canonical intermediate, soft and hard states in 2000 September 19,2001 March 22 and 2002 September 28, respectively. We estimate the disk size, luminosity and temperature, which are consistent with a black hole mass approx.10 Solar Mass, There is much overlap between the range of total X-ray luminosities (on average approx. 0.02L(sub Edd)) in the hard and soft states, and probably between the corresponding mass accretion rates; in fact, the hard state is often more luminous. The extended radio lobes seen in 1992 and 1997 are still present in 2008-2009. The 5-GHz radio core flux density has shown variability between approx. 0.1-0.5 mJy over the last two decades. This firmly places GRS 1758-258 in the radio-quiet sequence of Galactic black holes, in the radio/X-ray plane. We note that this dichotomy is similar to the dichotomy between the radio/X-ray sequences of Seyfert and radio galaxies. We propose that the different radio efficiency of the two sequences is due to relativistic electron/positron jets in radio-loud black holes, and sub-relativistic, thermally dominated outflows in radio-quiet sources.

  7. A parallax distance to the microquasar GRS 1915+105 and a revised estimate of its black hole mass

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M. J.; McClintock, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Narayan, R.; Steeghs, D.; Remillard, R. A.; Dhawan, V.

    2014-11-20

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have measured a trigonometric parallax for the microquasar GRS 1915+105, which contains a black hole and a K-giant companion. This yields a direct distance estimate of 8.6{sub −1.6}{sup +2.0} kpc and a revised estimate for the mass of the black hole of 12.4{sub −1.8}{sup +2.0} M {sub ☉}. GRS 1915+105 is at about the same distance as some H II regions and water masers associated with high-mass star formation in the Sagittarius spiral arm of the Galaxy. The absolute proper motion of GRS 1915+105 is –3.19 ± 0.03 mas yr{sup –1} and –6.24 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} toward the east and north, respectively, which corresponds to a modest peculiar speed of 22 ± 24 km s{sup –1} at the parallax distance, suggesting that the binary did not receive a large velocity kick when the black hole formed. On one observational epoch, GRS 1915+105 displayed superluminal motion along the direction of its approaching jet. Considering previous observations of jet motions, the jet in GRS 1915+105 can be modeled with a jet inclination to the line of sight of 60° ± 5° and a variable flow speed between 0.65c and 0.81c, which possibly indicates deceleration of the jet at distances from the black hole ≳ 2000 AU. Finally, using our measurements of distance and estimates of black hole mass and inclination, we provisionally confirm our earlier result that the black hole is spinning very rapidly.

  8. Testing and performance evaluation of T1000G/RS-14 graphite/polycyanate composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a graphite fiber/polycyanate matrix composite material system, T1000G/RS-14, was evaluated by performing an extensive mechanical property test program. The test program included both static strength and long-term tests for creep, fatigue, and stress rupture. The system was evaluated at both ambient temperature and elevated temperatures. The specimens were machined from composite cylinders that had a unidirectional layup with all the fibers oriented in the hoop direction. The cylinders were fabricated using the wet-filament winding process. In general, the T1000G/RS-14 system demonstrated adequate static strengths for possible aerospace structural applications. The results from the static tests indicated that very high composite hoop tensile strengths can be achieved with this system at both ambient and elevated temperatures as high as 350{degree}F. However, in the long-term testing for compressive creep and tension-tension fatigue the results indicated a lower elevated temperature was required to minimize the risk of using this material system. Additional testing and analysis activities led to the selection of 275{degree}F as the desired temperature for future performance evaluation. Subsequent testing efforts for determining the resin and composite transverse compressive creep responses at 275{degrees}F indicated that excessive creep strain rates may still be a weakness of this system. In the long-term tests, sufficient data was generated from impregnated strand and composite ring stress-life testing, and composite ring tension-tension fatigue to determine failure probabilities for a given set of design requirements. The statistical analyses of the test data, in terms of determining failure probability curves, will be reported on in a separate report. However, it is expected that this material system will have a very low failure probability for stress rupture based on the collected stress-life data. Material responses that will require further

  9. Winds of Change: The Physics of Accretion, Ejection, and X-ray Variability in GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilsen, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    In the last twenty years, even as multiwavelength observations of black hole X-ray binaries have led to major advances, the microquasar GRS 1915+105 has continually challenged our understanding of the physics of accretion and ejection. With its relativistic jets, ionized winds, and myriad states of rapid, extreme variability, this remarkable black hole has been alternately seen as the black sheep of X-ray binaries and a Rosetta stone for black hole astrophysics. In this talk, I will present our efforts to use a decade of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of GRS 1915+105 to shed light on the processes that regulate its erratic behavior. I will highlight in particular the role of accretion disk winds on time scales ranging from seconds to years. Drawing on recent results, I will discuss the broader implications of these massive winds for the physics of inflows and outflows around black holes.

  10. STOCHASTIC VARIABILITY IN X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLACK HOLE BINARY GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Timashev, Serge F.

    2012-06-15

    We examine stochastic variability in the dynamics of X-ray emission from the black hole system GRS 1915+105, a strongly variable microquasar commonly used for studying relativistic jets and the physics of black hole accretion. The analysis of sample observations for 13 different states in both soft (low) and hard (high) energy bands is performed by flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a phenomenological time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates. We find the values of FNS parameters, including the Hurst exponent, flicker-noise parameter, and characteristic timescales, for each observation based on multiple 2500 s continuous data segments. We identify four modes of stochastic variability driven by dissipative processes that may be related to viscosity fluctuations in the accretion disk around the black hole: random (RN), power-law (1F), one-scale (1S), and two-scale (2S). The variability modes are generally the same in soft and hard energy bands of the same observation. We discuss the potential for future FNS studies of accreting black holes.

  11. Monitoring the Black Hole Binary GRS 1758-258 with INTEGRAL and RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, Katja; Chernyakova, Masha; Lubinski, Piotr; Migliari, Simone; Smith, David M.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bezayiff, N.; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kretschmar, Peter; hide

    2008-01-01

    The microquasar GRS 1758-258 is one of only three persistent black hole binaries that spend most of their time in the hard spectral state, the other two being Cyg X-l and 1E 1741.7-2942. It therefore provides the rare opportunity for an extensive long term study of this important black hole state which is associated with strong variability and radio jet emission. INTEGRAL has been monitoring the source since the first Galactic Center Deep Exposure season in spring 2003 during two 2-3 months long Galactic Center viewing epochs each year, amounting to 11 epochs including spring of 2008. With the exception of the last epoch quasi-simultaneous RXTE monitoring observations are available as well. Here we present an analysis of the epoch averaged broad band spectra which display considerable long term variability, most notably the occurrence of two soft/off states, extreme examples for the hysteretic behavior of black hole binaries. The hard source spectrum and long exposures allow us to extend the analysis for several epochs to approximately 800 keV using PICsIT data and address the question of the presence of a non-thermal Comptonization component.

  12. The Accretion Flow-Discrete Ejection Connection in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Trushkin, Sergei A.

    2016-07-01

    The microquasar GRS 1915+105 is known for its spectacular discrete ejections. They occur unexpectedly, thus their inception has escaped direct observation. It has been shown that the X-ray flux increases in the hours leading up to a major ejection. In this article, we consider the serendipitous interferometric monitoring of a modest version of a discrete ejection described in Reid et al. that would have otherwise escaped detection in daily radio light curves. The observation begins ˜1 hr after the onset of the ejection, providing unprecedented accuracy on the estimate of the ejection time. The astrometric measurements allow us to determine the time of ejection as {{MJD}} {56436.274}-0.013+0.016, i.e., within a precision of 41 minutes (95% confidence). Just like larger flares, we find that the X-ray luminosity increases in last 2-4 hr preceding ejection. Our finite temporal resolution indicates that this elevated X-ray flux persists within {21.8}-19.1+22.6 minutes of the ejection with 95% confidence, the highest temporal precision of the X-ray-superluminal ejection connection to date. This observation provides direct evidence that the physics that launches major flares occurs on smaller scales as well (lower radio flux and shorter ejection episodes). The observation of a X-ray spike prior to a discrete ejection, although of very modest amplitude, suggests that the process linking accretion behavior to ejection is general from the smallest scales to high luminosity major superluminal flares.

  13. Variable-Frequency QPOs from the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Taam, Ronald E.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 exhibits quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) whose frequency varies continuously from 1-15 Hz, during spectrally hard dips when the source is in a flaring state. NN'e report here analyses of simultaneous energy spectra and power density spectra at 4 s intervals. The energy spectrum is well fit at each time step by an optically thick accretion disk plus power law model, while the power density spectrum consists of a varying red noise component plus the variable frequency QPO. The features of both spectra are strongly correlated with one another. The 1-15 Hz QPOs appear when the power law component becomes hard and intense, and themselves have an energy spectrum consistent with the power law component (with root mean square amplitudes as high as 10%). The frequency of the oscillations, however, is most strikingly correlated with the parameters of the thermal disk component. The tightest correlation is between QPO frequency and the disk X-ray flux. This fact indicates that the properties of the QPO are not determined by solely a disk or solely a corona.

  14. Accretion disk winds as the jet suppression mechanism in the microquasar GRS 1915+105.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, Joseph; Lee, Julia C

    2009-03-26

    Stellar-mass black holes with relativistic jets, also known as microquasars, mimic the behaviour of quasars and active galactic nuclei. Because timescales around stellar-mass black holes are orders of magnitude smaller than those around more distant supermassive black holes, microquasars are ideal nearby 'laboratories' for studying the evolution of accretion disks and jet formation in black-hole systems. Whereas studies of black holes have revealed a complex array of accretion activity, the mechanisms that trigger and suppress jet formation remain a mystery. Here we report the presence of a broad emission line in the faint, hard states and narrow absorption lines in the bright, soft states of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. ('Hard' and 'soft' denote the character of the emitted X-rays.) Because the hard states exhibit prominent radio jets, we argue that the broad emission line arises when the jet illuminates the inner accretion disk. The jet is weak or absent during the soft states, and we show that the absorption lines originate when the powerful radiation field around the black hole drives a hot wind off the accretion disk. Our analysis shows that this wind carries enough mass away from the disk to halt the flow of matter into the radio jet.

  15. Disk-Jet Connection in the Microquasar GRS 1915+105 and Infrared and Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, J. S.

    2001-02-01

    We present evidence of a direct accretion disk-jet connection in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 based on our analysis of RXTE/PCA data with a ``spike'' in X-ray light curves. We find that the radio emission increases as the hardness ratio increases during the low hard state. We suggest that the ``spike,'' which separates the dips with hard and soft spectra, marks the beginning of the burst phase when the luminosity of the soft X-rays (5-15 keV) increases by a large factor (~10). This produces a major ejection episode of the synchrotron-emitting plasma termed as ``baby jets,'' which are associated with infrared (IR) and radio flares of about half an hour period widely reported in the literature. Subsequent short but frequent soft dips produce overlapping faint flares which result in an enhanced level of quasi-steady emission. We discuss the differences between ``baby jets'' and relativistic radio jets and especially investigate their signatures in X-rays.

  16. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  17. An atlas of exotic variability in IGR J17091-3624: a comparison with GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Court, J. M. C.; Altamirano, D.; Pereyra, M.; Boon, C. M.; Yamaoka, K.; Belloni, T.; Wijnands, R.; Pahari, M.

    2017-07-01

    We performed an analysis of all Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 during the 2011-2013 outburst of the source. By creating light curves, hardness-intensity diagrams and power density spectra of each observation, we have created a set of nine variability 'classes' that phenomenologically describe the range of types of variability seen in this object. We compare our set of variability classes to those established by Belloni et al. to describe the similar behaviour of the LMXB GRS 1915+105, finding that some types of variability seen in IGR J17091-3624 are not represented in data of GRS 1915+105. We also use all available X-ray data of the 2011-2013 outburst of IGR J17091-3624 to analyse its long-term evolution, presenting the first detection of IGR J17091-3624 above 150 keV as well as noting the presence of 're-flares' during the later stages of the outburst. Using our results, we place new constraints on the mass and distance of the object, and find that it accretes at ≲33 per cent of its Eddington limit. As such, we conclude that Eddington-limited accretion can no longer be considered a sufficient or necessary criterion for GRS 1915+105-like variability to occur in LMXBs.

  18. Revelations of X-ray spectral analysis of the enigmatic black hole binary GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James; Dil Vrtilek, Saeqa; Varniere, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Of the black hole binaries discovered thus far, GRS 1915+105 stands out as an exceptional source primarily due to its wild X-ray variability, the diversity of which has not been replicated in any other stellar-mass black hole. Although extreme variability is commonplace in its light-curve, about half of the observations of GRS1915+105 show fairly steady X-ray intensity. We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within these steady observations. Our work is based on a vast RXTE/PCA data set obtained on GRS 1915+105 during the course of its entire mission and 10 years of radio data from the Ryle Telescope, which overlap the X-ray data. We find that the steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separate into two regions in a color-color diagram, which we refer to as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS 1915+105 displays significant curvature in the Comptonization component within the PCA band pass suggesting significantly heating from a hot disk present in all states. A new Comptonization model 'simplcut' was developed in order to model this curvature to best effect. A majority of the steady-soft observations display a roughly constant inner radius; remarkably reminiscent of canonical soft state black hole binaries. In contrast, the steady-hard observations display a growing disk truncation that is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk, which suggests a magnetically truncated disk. A comparison of X-ray model parameters to the canonical state definitions show that almost all steady-soft observations match the criteria of either thermal or steep power law state, while the thermal state observations dominate the constant radius branch. A large portion (80%) of the steady-hard observations matches the hard state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected. These results suggest that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states, which map to those observed in canonical black hole binaries. When

  19. RADIATION PRESSURE AND MASS EJECTION IN {rho}-LIKE STATES OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Joseph; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lee, Julia C.

    2012-05-01

    We present a unifying scenario to address the physical origin of the diversity of X-ray light curves within the {rho} variability class of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. This 'heartbeat' state is characterized by a bright flare that recurs every {approx}50-100 s, but the profile and duration of the flares vary significantly from observation to observation. Based on a comprehensive, phase-resolved study of heartbeats in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive, we demonstrate that very different X-ray light curves do not require origins in different accretion processes. Indeed, our detailed comparison of the phase-resolved spectra of a double-peaked oscillation and a single-peaked oscillation shows that different cycles can have basically similar X-ray spectral evolution. We argue that all heartbeat oscillations can be understood as the result of a combination of a thermal-viscous radiation pressure instability, a local Eddington limit in the disk, and a sudden, radiation-pressure-driven evaporation or ejection event in the inner accretion disk. This ejection appears to be a universal, fundamental part of the {rho} state, and is largely responsible for a hard X-ray pulse seen in the light curve of all cycles. We suggest that the detailed shape of oscillations in the mass accretion rate through the disk is responsible for the phenomenological differences between different {rho}-type light curves, and we discuss how future time-dependent simulations of disk instabilities may provide new insights into the role of radiation pressure in the accretion flow.

  20. Disk-Wind Connection during the Heartbeats of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Miller, M. C.; Proga, D.; Kallman, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Harrison, F. A.; Kaastra, J.; Raymond, J.; Reynolds, C. S.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-12-01

    Disk and wind signatures are seen in the soft state of Galactic black holes, while the jet is seen in the hard state. Here we study the disk-wind connection in the ρ class of variability in GRS 1915+105 using a joint NuSTAR-Chandra observation. The source shows 50 s limit cycle oscillations. By including new information provided by the reflection spectrum and using phase-resolved spectroscopy, we find that the change in the inner disk inferred from the blackbody emission is not matched by reflection measurements. The latter is almost constant, independent of the continuum model. The two radii are comparable only if the disk temperature color correction factor changes, an effect that could be due to the changing opacity of the disk caused by changes in metal abundances. The disk inclination is similar to that inferred from the jet axis, and oscillates by ˜10°. The simultaneous Chandra data show the presence of two wind components with velocities between 500 and 5000 km s-1, and possibly two more with velocities reaching 20,000 km s-1 (˜0.06 c). The column densities are ˜5 × 1022 cm-2. An upper limit to the wind response time of 2 s is measured, implying a launch radius of <6 × 1010 cm. The changes in wind velocity and absorbed flux require the geometry of the wind to change during the oscillations, constraining the wind to be launched from a distance of 290-1300 r g from the black hole. Both data sets support fundamental model predictions in which a bulge originates in the inner disk and moves outward as the instability progresses.

  1. A Refined Black Hole Mass for the X-ray Transient GRS 1009-45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, Phillip; Orosz, J. A.; Bailyn, C. D.; Buxton, M. M.; Schechter, P. L.; Remillard, R. A.; McClintock, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    We have acquired new spectroscopic and photometric observations of the black hole binary GRS 1009-45. The source was observed using the MagE spectrograph on the 6.5m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in February, 2008. A total of 11 useful spectra with a resolving power of 4000 were obtained. The source was monitored by the 1.3m SMARTS telescope at Cerro Tololo Observatory between December, 2007 and June, 2010. In total we obtained 342 useful images in R and 119 images in J. Additional J- and Ks-band images were obtained using the PANIC camera on the Magellan Baade Telescope April, 2008. From the spectra we were able to measure (for the first time) the rotational velocity of the K-star companion. The projected rotational velocity of 86.8 +\\- 5.2 km/sec implies a mass ratio of M/M2 of about 17. The spectra also imply an R-band disk fraction of about 30%. The SMARTS light curves show evidence for a strong asymmetry that changes slowly with time. Previously published light curves obtained in runs of a few nights also show an asymmetry. This feature was modeled using a bright spot on the accretion disk. Using all of the available light curves we find an inclination near 50 degrees, and component masses of about 8.5 and 0.5 solar masses for the black hole and companion star, respectively. P. M. acknowledges support from the NSF REU program at San Diego State University that is supported by grant AST-0850564.

  2. The Accretion Disk Wind in the Black Hole GRS 1915 + 105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, E.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Reynolds, C. S.; Zoghbi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 120 kiloseconds Chandra/HETG spectrum of the black hole GRS 1915+105. The observation was made during an extended and bright soft state in 2015 June. An extremely rich disk wind absorption spectrum is detected, similar to that observed at lower sensitivity in 2007. The very high resolution of the third-order spectrum reveals four components to the disk wind in the Fe K band alone; the fastest has a blueshift of v = 0.03 c (velocity equals 0.03 the speed of light). Broadened reemission from the wind is also detected in the first-order spectrum, giving rise to clear accretion disk P Cygni profiles. Dynamical modeling of the re-emission spectrum gives wind launching radii of r approximately equal to 10 (sup 2-4) GM (Gravitational constant times Mass) divided by c (sup 2) (the speed of light squared). Wind density values of n approximately equal to 10 (sup 13-16) per cubic centimeter are then required by the ionization parameter formalism. The small launching radii, high density values, and inferred high mass outflow rates signal a role for magnetic driving. With simple, reasonable assumptions, the wind properties constrain the magnitude of the emergent magnetic field to be B approximately equal to 10 (sup 3-4) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven via magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure from within the disk and B approximately equal to 10 (sup 4-5) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. The MHD estimates are below upper limits predicted by the canonical alpha-disk model. We discuss these results in terms of fundamental disk physics and black hole accretion modes.

  3. Disk-Wind Connection During the Heartbeats of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Miller, M. C.; Proga, D.; Kallman, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Harrison, F. A.; Kaastra, J.; Raymond, J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Disk and wind signatures are seen in the soft state of Galactic black holes, while the jet is seen in the hard state. Here we study the disk-wind connection in the Rho class of variability in GRS 1915+105 using a joint NuSTAR-Chandra observation. The source shows 50 s limit cycle oscillations. By including new information provided by the reflection spectrum and using phase-resolved spectroscopy, we find that the change in the inner disk inferred from the blackbody emission is not matched by reflection measurements. The latter is almost constant, independent of the continuum model. The two radii are comparable only if the disk temperature color correction factor changes, an effect that could be due to the changing opacity of the disk caused by changes in metal abundances. The disk inclination is similar to that inferred from the jet axis, and oscillates by approx.10 deg. The simultaneous Chandra data show the presence of two wind components with velocities between 500 and 5000 km s(exp. -1), and possibly two more with velocities reaching 20,000 km s(exp. -1) (approx. 0.06 c). The column densities are approx. 5 × 10(exp. 22) cm(exp. -2). An upper limit to the wind response time of 2 s is measured, implying a launch radius of less than 6 × 10(exp. 10) cm. The changes in wind velocity and absorbed flux require the geometry of the wind to change during the oscillations, constraining the wind to be launched from a distance of 290-1300 r (sub g) from the black hole. Both data sets support fundamental model predictions in which a bulge originates in the inner disk and moves outward as the instability progresses.

  4. Rings in the RXTE/2-colour diagram of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhu, Osmi; Nevalainen, Jukka

    1998-05-01

    The Galactic superluminal source GRS 1915+105 was found to experience a very peculiar variability in a narrow PCA interval 9300 - 11300 cts/s. This can be seen as a ring-shaped pattern in the 2-colour diagram, where the hard hardness is plotted against the soft hardness. The system runs one cycle with quasi-periods ranging between 40 - 100 sec. We model this behaviour with the help of a self-consistent 2-phase model where soft seed photons from an optically thick classical disc are Comptonized in a hot spherical flow inside this disc (see Poutanen and Svensson, 1996, ApJ 470, 249; Vilhu et al. 1997, 4th Compton Symp., astro-ph 9707094). In the model, changes of two parameters regulate the paths in the 2-colour diagram: the black body temperature (Tin) at the inner disc and the optical depth of the hot phase (tau_e ). Both of these oscillate with the same period but with a small phase-shift between each other, causing the ring-shaped pattern. Since there is a strong correlation between tau_e and the hard tail photon index alpha (large tau_e - small alpha ), the model can be compared with other studies using other sets of observations and diskbb + power law modelling. We found that our model produced qualitatively the same behaviour of Tin and alpha as found by Belloni et al. (1997, ApJ, 479, L145) and by Craig Markwardt (1997, private comm.) for their particular observations. A more detailed spectral fitting is in progress, after which the reason for the ring behaviour can be better discussed in terms of the inner disc radius, mass transfer rate and the coronal (hot phase) temperature and density. 'What do they tell and what is the spell they cast? Some of them fall and seem to recall the past.' (Smoke Rings by Ned Washington and H. Eugene Gifford)

  5. A timing view of the heartbeat state of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shu-Ping; Ji, Li; Méndez, Mariano; Liu, Si-Ming; Wang, Na; Li, Xiang-Dong; Ge, Ming-Yu; Liao, Jin-Yuan; Niu, Shu; Qu, Jin-Lu; Ding, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Sun, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We present a timing analysis of two Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 during the heartbeat state. The phase-frequency-power maps show that the intermediate-frequency aperiodic X-ray variability weakens as the source softens in the slow rise phase, and when the quasi-periodic oscillation disappears in the rise phase of the pulse of the double-peaked class, its sub-harmonic is still present with a hard phase lag. In the slow rise phase, the energy-frequency-power maps show that most of the aperiodic variability is produced in the corona, and may also induce the aperiodic variability observed at low energies from an accretion disc, which is further supported by the soft phase lag especially in the intermediate-frequency range (with a time delay up to 20 ms). In the rise phase of the pulse, the low-frequency aperiodic variability is enhanced significantly and there is a prominent hard lag (with a time delay up to 50 ms), indicating that the variability is induced by extension of the disc towards small radii as implied by the increase in flux and propagates into the corona. However, during the hard pulse of the double-peaked class, the variability shows no significant lag, which may be attributed to an optically thick corona. These timing results are generally consistent with the spectral results presented by Neilsen, Remillard & Lee which indicated that the slow rise phase corresponds to a local Eddington limit and the rise phase of the pulse corresponds to a radiation pressure instability in the disc.

  6. The outburst of the X-ray nova GRS 1739-278 in September 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereminskiy, I. A.; Filippova, E. V.; Krivonos, R. A.; Grebenev, S. A.; Burenin, R. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2017-03-01

    During the scanning observations of the Galactic center region in late August-September 2016 we detected a new (third) outburst of the historical X-ray nova GRS 1739-278, a presumed black hole in a low-mass X-ray binary. This was reported in the Astronomer's Telegrams (Mereminskiy et al. 2016). In this paper we present the results of INTEGRAL and Swift observations of the outburst development. According to these observations, the flux from the source in the hard X-ray band (20-60 keV) rose from 11 (September 3) to 30 mCrab (September 14), was at the attained level for 8 days, and then returned to 15 mCrab. The spectrum of the source taken at its peak brightness in the energy range 0.5-150 keV could be fitted by a single power law with a photon index of 1.86 ± 0.07 distorted only by photoabsorption corresponding to the hydrogen column density log10 ( N H) = 22.37 under the assumption of a solar abundance. This means that the source at this time was in the low/hard state. Infrared observations with the RTT-150 telescope near the X-ray brightness peak of the source revealed no emission down to 22_ \\cdot ^m 0 (in the r' band) and 20_ \\cdot ^m 9 (in the i' band). At the time of writing the paper we do not yet know whether this outburst ended or only its initial stage was observed. If it ended, then based on the light curve and spectra, we can state that it was a "failed" outburst, i.e., the amount of accreted matter in this episode was insufficient to reach the high or very high state with a soft blackbody component in the spectrum characteristic of developed outbursts.

  7. Steady jets from radiatively efficient hard states in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.; Fender, R.; Pooley, G.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of different X-ray binaries (XRBs) have shown a clear correlation between the radio and X-ray emission. We present evidence of a close relationship found between the radio and X-ray emission at different epochs for GRS 1915+105, using observations from the Ryle Telescope and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite. The strongest correlation was found during the hard state (also known as the “plateau” state), where a steady AU-scale jet is known to exist. Both the radio and X-ray emission were found to decay from the start of most plateau states, with the radio emission decaying faster. An empirical relationship of Sradio ∝ SX-rayξ was then fitted to data taken only during the plateau state, resulting in a power-law index of ξ 1.7±0.3, which is significantly higher than in other black hole XRBs in a similar state. An advection-flow model was then fitted to this relationship and compared to the universal XRB relationship as described by Gallo et al. (2003, MNRAS, 344, 60). We conclude that either (I) the accretion disk in this source is radiatively efficient, even during the continuous outflow of a compact jet, which could also suggest a universal turn-over from radiatively inefficient to efficient for all stellar-mass black holes at a critical mass accretion rate (dot{m}{c} ≈ 1018.5 g/s); or (II) the X-rays in the plateau state are dominated by emission from the base of the jet and not the accretion disk (e.g. via inverse Compton scattering from the outflow).

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN X-RAY LUMINOSITY AND MAJOR FLARE LAUNCHING IN GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jerome E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2013-02-20

    We perform the most detailed analysis to date of the X-ray state of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 just prior to (0-4 hr) and during the brief (1-7 hr) ejection of major (superluminal) radio flares. A very strong model independent correlation is found between the 1.2 keV-12 keV X-ray flux 0-4 hr before flare ejections with the peak optically thin 2.3 GHz emission of the flares. This suggests a direct physical connection between the energy in the ejection and the luminosity of the accretion flow preceding the ejection. In order to quantify this concept, we develop techniques to estimate the intrinsic (unabsorbed) X-ray luminosity, L {sub intrinsic}, from RXTE All Sky Monitor data and to implement known methods to estimate the time-averaged power required to launch the radio emitting plasmoids, Q (sometimes called jet power). We find that the distribution of intrinsic luminosity from 1.2 keV-50 keV, L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50), is systematically elevated just before ejections compared to arbitrary times when there are no major ejections. The estimated Q is strongly correlated with L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) 0-4 hr before the ejection, the increase in L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) in the hours preceding the ejection and the time-averaged L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) during the flare rise. Furthermore, the total time-averaged power during the ejection (Q + the time average of L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) during ejection) is strongly correlated with L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) just before launch with near equality if the distance to the source is Almost-Equal-To 10.5 kpc.

  9. The Accretion Disk Wind in the Black Hole GRS 1915 + 105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, E.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Reynolds, C. S.; Zoghbi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 120 kiloseconds Chandra/HETG spectrum of the black hole GRS 1915+105. The observation was made during an extended and bright soft state in 2015 June. An extremely rich disk wind absorption spectrum is detected, similar to that observed at lower sensitivity in 2007. The very high resolution of the third-order spectrum reveals four components to the disk wind in the Fe K band alone; the fastest has a blueshift of v = 0.03 c (velocity equals 0.03 the speed of light). Broadened reemission from the wind is also detected in the first-order spectrum, giving rise to clear accretion disk P Cygni profiles. Dynamical modeling of the re-emission spectrum gives wind launching radii of r approximately equal to 10 (sup 2-4) GM (Gravitational constant times Mass) divided by c (sup 2) (the speed of light squared). Wind density values of n approximately equal to 10 (sup 13-16) per cubic centimeter are then required by the ionization parameter formalism. The small launching radii, high density values, and inferred high mass outflow rates signal a role for magnetic driving. With simple, reasonable assumptions, the wind properties constrain the magnitude of the emergent magnetic field to be B approximately equal to 10 (sup 3-4) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven via magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure from within the disk and B approximately equal to 10 (sup 4-5) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. The MHD estimates are below upper limits predicted by the canonical alpha-disk model. We discuss these results in terms of fundamental disk physics and black hole accretion modes.

  10. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the CIEMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; García-Toraño, E.; Los Arcos, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, five national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted five samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the CIEMAT (Spain). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopy of the GRS and NEB Hot Spots of Jupiter Following Galileo Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drossart, P.; Maillard, J.-P.; Bezard, B.; Roos-Serote, M.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.

    1996-09-01

    High resolution spectra of Jupiter at 5 mu m (resolving power of 10,000) have been obtained with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope during the nights of July 29--31, 1996. The following regions have been observed with a 2.5-arcsec aperture: the Great Red Spot and vicinity, three different 5-mu m hot spots of the North Equatorial Belt at 6.5deg N, and the Northern latitudes at 60deg N. The GRS and one of the hot spots were the targets of the Galileo/NIMS observations in the first orbit (Carlson et al., DPS-96), and the combination of the NIMS high spatial resolution spectral images with the FTS high spectral resolution observations will give important constraints on the tropospheric structure and composition of Jupiter. The 5-mu m spectrum of Jupiter is sensitive to the deep (2--8 bars) atmospheric structure, in particular to an intermediate cloud located between 1.5 and 2 bars, (Drossart et al., Icarus, 1982), probably the cloud observed by the Galileo Probe nephelometer at 1.55 bar (Ragent et al., Science, 1996). The domain from 4.59 to 4.81 mu m which has been covered, includes the spectral tropospheric absorption features of GeH_4, PH_3, AsH_3 and CH_3D. The atmospheric and cloud structures are both affecting the shape of the spectrum, and these observations give some constraints on the structure of the atmosphere in the observed atmospheric features. In the Northern latitudes, the absorption by AsH_3 is stongly enhanced, more than can be accounted for by emission angle dependence, which suggests an enhancement of AsH_3 in the high latitudes. A similar enhancement in phosphine had been observed in the Northern latitudes (Drossart et al., Icarus, 1990). Such variations could be due to deep convection latitudinal variability, or to a lower photochemical destruction of these compounds at high latitudes. (*) Visiting Astronomer at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, which is operated by the Canadian National Research Council, the

  12. Study of the time/phase lag of the peculiar 'heartbeat' variability in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Mubashir; Misra, Ranjeev; Iqbal, Naseer

    GRS 1905+105 exhibits a variety of variability patterns on various timescales. These variability patterns have been classified in various classes based on flares, jet activity and periodicities in light curve. The rho class consists of a slow rise followed by a short bright pulse, with a time period roughly about ~50s-resemebling an electrocardiogram, thus the name "heartbeat". The generic model for this variability class consists of 'limit-cycle' behavior which is due to "inner" thermal-viscous instability. The energy dependent Fourier domain analysis of this state produces interesting features. At the fundamental frequency of the oscillation, the phase or time lag is non-monotonic as a function of energy, the lag increases up to ~10 keV and then decreases, while as the first harmonic time lag dependence is monotonic. We undertake a detailed theoretical study from first principles, combining various models like diskbb+power-law, an possible explanation of this peculiar phenomena. Our approach is to 1) generate light-curves in various energy bands and study the cross-spectrum as a function of energy 2) calculate numerically the intensity as the function of energy, and a set of varying parameters like Inner disk radius and oscillatory accretion rate. We then ought to compare with the observational data, to constrain our model. Our work will pave the way to study the class of variability in GRS 1915+105, which we believe is due to disk+corona mass and energy connection.

  13. Distribution of Argon in Mars' Atmosphere As Measured by the GRS on Mars Odyssey: Aid to Understanding Martian Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Janes, D. M.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.

    2004-11-01

    Measurements made by the 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) of the flux of 1294 keV gamma rays resulting from the decay of 41Ar show significant variations with season and latitude. The atmosphere is enriched with Ar relative to CO2 over both the southern and northern polar regions during Winter with the greater enhancement observed in the south. While the Ar concentration increases until Winter solstice over the northern polar region, fluctuations in the relative amount of Ar in Autumn and Winter indicate periodic mixing of atmosphere from lower latitudes. In contrast, the rise in Ar concentration over the south polar region reaches a well-defined maximum at the beginning of Winter and then smoothly drops to a minimum in Spring. These differences in Ar behavior indicate differences in mixing characteristics between the northern and southern polar regions. Both polar regions exhibit a significant drop in Ar concentration in late Winter and Spring as the polar atmosphere is mixed with pure CO2 from the subliming perimeter of the CO2 ice caps. We acknowledge the contributions of the entire GRS team and support from NASA.

  14. Application of GRS method to evaluation of uncertainties of calculation parameters of perspective sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peregudov, A.; Andrianova, O.; Raskach, K.; Tsibulya, A.

    2012-07-01

    A number of recent studies have been devoted to the estimation of errors of reactor calculation parameters by the GRS (Generation Random Sampled) method. This method is based on direct sampling input data resulting in formation of random sets of input parameters which are used for multiple calculations. Once these calculations are performed, statistical processing of the calculation results is carried out to determine the mean value and the variance of each calculation parameter of interest. In our study this method is used for estimation of errors of calculation parameters (K{sub eff}, power density, dose rate) of a perspective sodium-cooled fast reactor. Neutron transport calculations were performed by the nodal diffusion code TRIGEX and Monte Carlo code MMK. (authors)

  15. Swift/BAT detects an outburst from the X-ray nova and black hole candidate GRS 1739-278

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimm, H. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2014-03-01

    The X-ray nova and black hole candidate GRS 1739-278 is currently in outburst as detected in the Swift/BAT hard X-ray transient monitor in the 15-50 keV band. The current outburst began on 2014 March 9 (MJD 56725) when it had a count rate of 0.0024 +/- 0.0009 ct/s/cm^2 (~10 mCrab). It has continued to brighten, reaching a rate of 0.019 +/- 0.002 ct/s/cm^2 (~85 mCrab) on 2014 March 17. This is the first outburst from this source yet observed in the BAT monitor or by Swift, and as far as we can determine, the first outburst since discovery by SIGMA/Granat in March 1996 (Vargas et al., 1997, MNRAS 476, L23).

  16. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Peculiar Off/Soft State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Wunands, R.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M.; Ferrando, P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goldwurm, A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Pooley, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observation of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258. The source entered a peculiar "off/soft" state in 2001 late February in which the spectrum softened while the X-ray flux-and the inferred mass accretion rate-steadily decreased. We find no clear evidence for emission or absorption lines in the dispersed spectra, indicating that most of the observed soft flux is likely from an accretion disk and not from a cool plasma. The accretion disk strongly dominates the spectrum in this lower luminosity state and is only mildly recessed from the marginally stable orbit. These findings may be di8licult to explain in terms of advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. We discuss these results within the context of ADAF models, simultaneous two-flow models, and observed correlations between hard X-ray flux and jet production.

  17. Low-Frequency Coherence Break in the Soft X-Ray State of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Shuang-nan; Qu, Jin-Lu; Li, Ti-Pei

    2003-01-01

    We present results from the analysis of X-ray power density spectra and coherence when GRS 1915+105 is in soft states. We use three data sets that belong to mu, phi, and delta classes as found in the work of Belloni et al. We find that the power density spectra appear t o be complex, with several features between 0.01 and 10 Hz. The coherence deviates from unity above a characteristic frequency. We discuss our results from different models. The corona size in the sphere-disk model implied by this break frequency is on the order of 10(exp 4) GM/c(exp 2), which is unphysical. Our results are more consistent with the prediction of the model of a planar corona sustained by magnetic flares, in which the characteristic frequency is associated with the longest timescale of an individual flare, which is about 8 s.

  18. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Peculiar Off/Soft State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Wunands, R.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M.; Ferrando, P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goldwurm, A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Pooley, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observation of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258. The source entered a peculiar "off/soft" state in 2001 late February in which the spectrum softened while the X-ray flux-and the inferred mass accretion rate-steadily decreased. We find no clear evidence for emission or absorption lines in the dispersed spectra, indicating that most of the observed soft flux is likely from an accretion disk and not from a cool plasma. The accretion disk strongly dominates the spectrum in this lower luminosity state and is only mildly recessed from the marginally stable orbit. These findings may be di8licult to explain in terms of advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. We discuss these results within the context of ADAF models, simultaneous two-flow models, and observed correlations between hard X-ray flux and jet production.

  19. Detection of a Relativistic Outflow from the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Hard State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Mark; Miller, Jon; Cackett, Edward; King, Ashley

    2016-07-01

    Outflows in the form of collimated jets and wider angle winds are observed ubiquitously from accreting systems. Herein, we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the persistent Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 at a luminosity of ˜1% L_{Edd}. Spectral analysis reveals the presence of an absorption feature at an energy of ˜7.5 keV, consistent with the presence of a relativistic outflow (v ˜0.1c). Photo-ionization modeling with XSTAR finds this wind to be highly ionized consistent with absorption by Fe XXVI at a distance of ˜2700 R_g from the black hole. This is the highest velocity wind detected from a stellar mass black hole accretion flow to date, and represents the first detection of a photo-ionized outflow in the hard spectral state, demonstrating the persistent of the wind outflow mechanism down to luminosities of at least 1% L_{Edd}.

  20. Deep and Monitoring Observations of the Black Hole Candidates 1E 1740.7-2942 and GRS 1758-258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindl, William A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to obtain detailed information on the long term variability of the power spectra and energy spectra of the two Black Hole Candidates (BHCs) and so-called "micro-quasars", 1E 1740.7-2942 and GRS 1758-258. Observations with the pointed instruments on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) were carried out on a weekly basis for an entire year, in order to observe the extent to which these sources changed on long timescales. The observations also served as a trigger for longer observations carried out under a sister proposal "Target of Opportunity Observations of the Black Hole Candidates 1E 1740.7-2942 and GRS 1758-258". The work done at UCSD by W. Heindl consisted first of monitoring the data from the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) to determine when the sources were bright enough to trigger our Target of Opportunity observations. He was then responsible for the reduction and interpretation of the HEXTE data and for contributing to the publication of results of this work. Historically, these objects have been highly variable on long timescales. Observations between 1988 and 1995 found that they tend to spend periods of several months in high and low flux states which differ in luminosity by more than an order of magnitude. In more than 2 years of RXTE observations to date, we have found variability only on the level of tens of percent. Both sources have remained near their historical maximum luminosities during this time. This is a significant change from previous behavior, and indicates that their accretion rates have stabilized in recent years. In addition, their observed spectra have been quite stable.

  1. Detection of X-ray spectral state transitions in mini-outbursts of black hole transient GRS 1739-278

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhen; Yu, Wenfei

    2017-10-01

    We report the detection of the state transitions and hysteresis effect in the two mini-outbursts of the black hole (BH) transient GRS 1739-278 following its 2014 major outburst. The X-ray spectral evolutions in these two mini-outbursts are similar to the major outburst in spite of their peak luminosities and the outburst durations are one order of magnitude lower. We found L_hard{-to-soft} and Lpeak,soft of the mini-outbursts also follow the correlation previously found in other X-ray binaries. L_hard{-to-soft} of the mini-outbursts is still higher than that of the persistent BH binary Cyg X-1, which supports that there is a link between the maximum luminosity a source can reach in the hard state and the corresponding non-stationary accretion represented by substantial rate of change in the mass accretion rate during flares/outbursts. The detected luminosity range of these two mini-outbursts is roughly in 3.5 × 10-5 to 0.015 (D/7.5 kpc)2(M/8M⊙) LEdd. The X-ray spectra of other BH transients at such low luminosities are usually dominated by a power-law component, and an anti-correlation is observed between the photon index and the X-ray luminosity below 1 per cent LEdd. So, the detection of X-ray spectral state transitions indicates that the accretion flow evolution in these two mini-outbursts of GRS 1739-278 are different from other BH systems at such low-luminosity regime.

  2. Swift Observations of the 2014 Outburst of the X-ray Nova/Black Hole Candidate GRS 1739-278

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimm, Hans A.; Kennea, Jamie A.; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Tomsick, John

    2014-08-01

    The bright X-ray transient and black hole candidate GRS 1739-278 is currently undergoing its second outburst since its discovery in 1996 (Vargas 1997). The 1996 outburst lasted nearly 300 days and showed rapid X-ray variability early in the outburst when the source was in the high and very high states (Borozdin 2000), and a strong 5-Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) was discovered in a single Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observation during the very high state (Borozdin 2000; Wijnands 2001). Based on these variations and spectral state changes, Borozdin (2000) proposed that GRS 1739-278 contains a black hole candidate. The current outburst began in early March 2014 and continues through mid-May, reaching a peak of ~300 mCrab in the 15-50 keV band, a factor of ~3 lower than the peak in 1996. The source has exhibited a complicated light curve in Swift observations, both in the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) where it shows flux variations of a factor of two on time scales as short as five days, and in the X-Ray Telescope (XRT), which is more sparsely sampled, but shows strong variability in intensity and hardness ratio both on long (multi-day) and short minute) time scales. This is suggestive of an outburst that has remained in the hard state. The long series of Swift observations enables us to track the evolution of spectral parameters with fine temporal resolution through a series of spectral states. We also search the XRT data for evidence of QPOs or other timing features. These spectral and timing studies and the 18-year gap between outbursts give new insight into the nature of this system and its evolution, and will help to confirm the black hole nature of the compact source. We will also compare this system to other X-ray novae black-hole binary systems in outburst like V404 Cyg.

  3. FAST X-RAY/IR CROSS-CORRELATIONS AND RELATIVISTIC JET FORMATION IN GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2013-10-01

    We present cross-correlation analyses of simultaneous X-ray and near-infrared (near-IR) observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 during relativistic jet-producing epochs (X-ray class α and β). While previous studies have linked the large amplitude IR flares and X-ray behaviors to jet formation in these states, our new analyses are sensitive to much lower amplitude IR variability, providing more sensitive probes of the jet formation process. The X-ray to IR cross-correlation function (CCF) shows significant correlations that vary in form between the different X-ray states. During low/hard dips in both classes, we find no significant X-ray/IR correlation. During high-variability epochs, we find consistently significant correlations in both α and β classes, but with strong differences in the CCF structure. The high variability α CCF shows strong anti-correlation between X-ray/IR, with the X-ray preceding the IR by ∼13 ± 2 s. The high variability β state shows a time-variable CCF structure, which is statistically significant but without a clearly consistent lag. Our simulated IR light curves, designed to match the observed CCFs, show variably flickering IR emission during the class β high-variability epoch, while class α can be fit by IR flickering with frequencies in the range 0.1-0.3 Hz, strengthening ∼10 s after every X-ray subflare. We interpret these features in the context of the X-ray-emitting accretion disk and IR emission from relativistic jet formation in GRS 1915+105, concluding that the CCF analysis places the origin in a synchrotron-emitting relativistic compact jet at a distance from the compact object of ∼0.02 AU.

  4. NuSTAR OBSERVATION OF A TYPE I X-RAY BURST FROM GRS 1741.9-2853

    SciTech Connect

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bachetti, Matteo; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-02-01

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1} in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H mass fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M {sub ☉}, we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M {sub ☉}.

  5. Sulfur concentrations of the Martian surface derived from orbital Mars Odyssey GRS and in-situ MER APXS measurements: implications on the selection of future landing sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueckner, J.; Karunatillake, S.; Hamara, D.; Boynton, W. V.

    2009-12-01

    Since the year 2002, the NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft (MO) has mapped continuously the entire surface of Mars with its Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument suite to obtain global concentration maps of different elements. Since January 2004, the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit and Opportunity have driven several kilometers at two different landing sites, Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum (180 degrees apart). Each rover made chemical measurements of a range of samples using its Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). Distinctive differences between the two instruments are that APXS has a penetration depth of micrometers and a field of view of centimeters vs. tens of centimeters and 500 km for the GRS, respectively. We compare the sulfur concentration determined by the APXS with its GRS counterpart at each MER site. In-situ APXS measurements of soils in Gusev and Meridiani show similar mean S mass fractions, 2.6 and 2.2 % respectively. Abraded rocks in Gusev have a mean S concentration of 1 %. Large enrichments of S were discovered in some subsurface soils in Gusev, which may be confined to smaller areas. In Meridiani, the abraded sedimentary rocks show high S concentrations (up to 12 wt-%). Chemical provinces were delineated - without a priori assumptions on their nature and extent - using GRS datasets. The GRS footprint at Gusev belongs to a chemical province defined by a striking enrichment of Cl and H. Meridiani is remarkable for Ca depletion and H enrichment. Renormalizing to a volatile-free basis, Meridiani is within a distinct province. At the MER landing sites, the large GRS footprint measures comparable S concentrations. The high S contents of the Meridiani sediments are not seen by the GRS. This may be due in part to the negligible area of crater walls relative to soil cover when projected vertically. When orbital data show regional deviation of S (or other elements) relative to the global average, in-situ inspection should reveal a

  6. The 2:3:6 quasi-periodic oscillation structure in GRS 1915+105 and cubic subharmonics in the context of relativistic discoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Rodríguez, M.; Solís-Sánchez, H.; López-Barquero, V.; Matamoros-Alvarado, B.; Venegas-Li, A.

    2014-06-01

    We propose a simple toy model to explain the 2:3:6 quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) structure in GRS 1915+105 and, more generally, the 2:3 QPO structure in XTE J1550-564, GRO J1655-40 and H1743-322. The model exploits the onset of subharmonics in the context of discoseismology. We suggest that the observed frequencies may be the consequence of a resonance between a fundamental g mode and an unobservable p wave. The results include the prediction that, as better data become available, a QPO with a frequency of twice the higher twin frequency and a large quality factor will be observed in twin peak sources, as it might already have been observed in the especially active GRS 1915+105.

  7. The 67 Hz Feature in the Black Hole Candidate GRS 1915+105 as a Possible Diskoseismic Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wagoner, Robert V.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Lehr, Dana E.

    1997-01-01

    The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer has made feasible for the first time the search for high-frequency (greater than or equal to 100 Hz) periodic features in Black Hole Candidate (BHC) systems. Such a feature, with a 67 Hz frequency, recently has been discovered in the BHC GRS 1915+105 (Morgan, Remillard, & Greiner). This feature is weak (rms variability approx. 0.3%-1.6%), stable in frequency (to within approx. 2 Hz) despite appreciable luminosity fluctuations, and narrow (quality factor Q approx. 20). Several of these properties are what one expects for a 'diskoseismic' g-mode in an accretion disk about a 10.6 M(solar mass) (nonrotating) to 36.3 M(solar mass) (maximally rotating) black hole (if we are observing the fundamental-mode frequency). We explore this possibility by considering the expected luminosity modulation, as well as possible excitation and growth mechanisms-including turbulent excitation, damping, and 'negative' radiation damping. We conclude that a diskoseismic interpretation of the observations is viable.

  8. Evidence of elevated X-ray absorption before and during major flare ejections in GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jérôme

    2014-03-10

    We present time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the MAXI observatory in order to study the accretion state just before and during the ejections associated with its major flares. Radio monitoring with the RATAN-600 radio telescope from 4.8-11.2 GHz has revealed two large, steep-spectrum major flares in the first eight months of 2013. Since the RATAN has received one measurement per day, we cannot determine the jet-forming time without more information. Fortunately, this is possible since a distinct X-ray light curve signature that occurs preceding and during major ejections has been determined in an earlier study. The X-ray luminosity spikes to very high levels in the hours before ejection, then becomes variable (with a nearly equal X-ray luminosity when averaged over the duration of the ejection) during a brief 3-8 hr ejection process. By comparing this X-ray behavior with MAXI light curves, we can estimate the beginning and end of the ejection episode of the strong 2013 flares to within ∼3 hr. Using this estimate in conjunction with time-resolved spectroscopy from the data in the MAXI archives allows us to deduce that the X-ray absorbing hydrogen column density increases significantly in the hours preceding the ejections and remains elevated during the ejections responsible for the major flares. This finding is consistent with an outflowing wind or enhanced accretion at high latitudes.

  9. Involving International Student Teams in GPS and GRS Surveys to Study Cryospheric Change in Greenland and the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzfeld, U. C.; Mayer, H.

    2009-12-01

    In the course of research programs to develop a methodology for the study of microtopography of ice and snow surfaces, we placed a strong emphasis on the involvement of students. This project provided the opportunity to engage students in every step from building the instrument through development of the data processing, the actual field measurements, processing of the resultant data, their evaluation and interpretation to the final publication in scientific journals. The development of the Glacier Roughness Sensor (GRS) incorporating Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and the fieldwork on the Greenland Inland Ice were particularly fascinating and instructive for students. In a related snow-hydrological research project on Niwot Ridge in the Colorado Front Range, we involved students in two season-long measurement campaigns in a high alpine environment. Students from the Universität Trier, Germany, and the University of Colorado Boulder participated in this project to learn about the value of international collaboration in science. Funding was provided by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Antarctic and Arctic Program) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (Hydrological Sciences Program). Students participated in preparatory classes and field camps, selected their own research projects and received university credit towards their degrees in geography or environmental sciences. All student participants in the MICROTOP projects have gone on to higher university education and become professionally exceptionally successful. Students setting up camp on the Greenland Ice Sheet during expedition MICROTOP 99.

  10. GRS 1739-278 Observed at Very Low Luminosity with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürst, F.; Tomsick, J. A.; Yamaoka, K.; Dauser, T.; Miller, J. M.; Clavel, M.; Corbel, S.; Fabian, A.; García, J.; Harrison, F. A.; Loh, A.; Kaaret, P.; Kalemci, E.; Migliari, S.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rahoui, F.; Rodriguez, J.; Stern, D.; Stuhlinger, M.; Walton, D. J.; Wilms, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the accreting transient black hole GRS 1739-278 during a very faint low hard state at ˜0.02% of the Eddington luminosity (for a distance of 8.5 kpc and a mass of 10 {M}⊙ ). The broadband X-ray spectrum between 0.5 and 60 keV can be well-described by a power-law continuum with an exponential cutoff. The continuum is unusually hard for such a low luminosity, with a photon index of Γ = 1.39 ± 0.04. We find evidence for an additional reflection component from an optically thick accretion disk at the 98% likelihood level. The reflection fraction is low, with {{ R }}{refl}={0.043}-0.023+0.033. In combination with measurements of the spin and inclination parameters made with NuSTAR during a brighter hard state by Miller et al., we seek to constrain the accretion disk geometry. Depending on the assumed emissivity profile of the accretion disk, we find a truncation radius of 15-35 {R}{{g}} (5-12 {R}{ISCO}) at the 90% confidence limit. These values depend strongly on the assumptions and we discuss possible systematic uncertainties.

  11. Economic and Thermodynamic Analysis for Preliminary Design of Dry Steam Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) with Multifarious Gas Removal System (GRS) in Kamojang, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damar Pranadi, Aloysius; Sihana; Suryopratomo, Kutut; Rahmatika Salis, Fiki

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has great number of geothermal potential separated by two kind of potential, 16.13 GW for high enthalpy and 7.88 GW for low enthalpy speculative resources [4]. In the end of 2013, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources stated that Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) in Indonesia have been built about 1.34 GW in capacity and wanted to seriously develop geothermal potential up to 6.64 GW by 2025 [8]. Cost is one of famous obstacle in Indonesia's GPP Development. To reduce grand total cost of GPP, this paper will present the relation between thermodynamic and economic analysis in purpose to find the most economical gas removal system in GPP. By gleaning data at Kamojang Steam Field on behalf of PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy, this study will thermodynamically analyze and calculate a GPP preliminary design with software, named as Cycle Tempo 5.0. In additional, writers create motive steam calculator (based on C++ language) to enhance thermodynamic analysis for gas removal system (GRS) and adapted the results in Cycle Tempo 5.0. After thermodynamic analysis has been done, economic study will be undertaken by Net Present Value Analysis to compare the utilization cost of three different GRS and find which kind of GRS is more economical for nearly 30 years operation. For the result, Dual LRVP has higher performance than the others, spend less utilization cost and more economical for nearly 30 years operation. Moreover, the economic analysis for replacement of gas removal system shown in this paper too. In conclusion, GPP with Dual LRVP is proper to be developed in the future Geothermal Power Plant or to replace the existing GRS in some existing GPP in Indonesia.

  12. PRIMED: PRIMEr database for deleting and tagging all fission and budding yeast genes developed using the open-source genome retrieval script (GRS).

    PubMed

    Cummings, Michael T; Joh, Richard I; Motamedi, Mo

    2015-01-01

    The fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) yeasts have served as excellent models for many seminal discoveries in eukaryotic biology. In these organisms, genes are deleted or tagged easily by transforming cells with PCR-generated DNA inserts, flanked by short (50-100 bp) regions of gene homology. These PCR reactions use especially designed long primers, which, in addition to the priming sites, carry homology for gene targeting. Primer design follows a fixed method but is tedious and time-consuming especially when done for a large number of genes. To automate this process, we developed the Python-based Genome Retrieval Script (GRS), an easily customizable open-source script for genome analysis. Using GRS, we created PRIMED, the complete PRIMEr D atabase for deleting and C-terminal tagging genes in the main S. pombe and five of the most commonly used S. cerevisiae strains. Because of the importance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in many biological processes, we also included the deletion primer set for these features in each genome. PRIMED are accurate and comprehensive and are provided as downloadable Excel files, removing the need for future primer design, especially for large-scale functional analyses. Furthermore, the open-source GRS can be used broadly to retrieve genome information from custom or other annotated genomes, thus providing a suitable platform for building other genomic tools by the yeast or other research communities.

  13. PRIMED: PRIMEr Database for Deleting and Tagging All Fission and Budding Yeast Genes Developed Using the Open-Source Genome Retrieval Script (GRS)

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Michael T.; Joh, Richard I.; Motamedi, Mo

    2015-01-01

    The fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) yeasts have served as excellent models for many seminal discoveries in eukaryotic biology. In these organisms, genes are deleted or tagged easily by transforming cells with PCR-generated DNA inserts, flanked by short (50-100bp) regions of gene homology. These PCR reactions use especially designed long primers, which, in addition to the priming sites, carry homology for gene targeting. Primer design follows a fixed method but is tedious and time-consuming especially when done for a large number of genes. To automate this process, we developed the Python-based Genome Retrieval Script (GRS), an easily customizable open-source script for genome analysis. Using GRS, we created PRIMED, the complete PRIMEr D atabase for deleting and C-terminal tagging genes in the main S. pombe and five of the most commonly used S. cerevisiae strains. Because of the importance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in many biological processes, we also included the deletion primer set for these features in each genome. PRIMED are accurate and comprehensive and are provided as downloadable Excel files, removing the need for future primer design, especially for large-scale functional analyses. Furthermore, the open-source GRS can be used broadly to retrieve genome information from custom or other annotated genomes, thus providing a suitable platform for building other genomic tools by the yeast or other research communities. PMID:25643023

  14. Similarilies in accretion dynamics in IGR J17091-3624 and GRS 1915+105 as revealed by the study of Comptonizing Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathi Pal, Partha; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Variability classes in the enigmatic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 are known to be correlated with the variation of the Comptonizing Efficiency (CE) which is defined to be the ratio between the number of power-law (hard) photons and seed (soft) photons injected into the Compton cloud. Similarities of light curves of several variability classes of GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, some of which are already reported in the literature, motivated us to compute CE for IGR J17091-3624 as well. We find that they are similar to what were reported earlier for GRS 1915+105, even though masses of these objects could be different. The reason is that the both the sizes of the sources of the seed photons and of the Comptonizing corona scale in the same way as the mass of the black hole. This indicates that characterization of variability classes based on CE is likely to be black hole mass independent, in general.

  15. THE CHALLENGE OF CIEMAT INTERNAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE FOR ACCREDITATION ACCORDING TO ISO/IEC 17025 STANDARD, FOR IN VIVO AND IN VITRO MONITORING AND DOSE ASSESSMENT OF INTERNAL EXPOSURES.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Martin, R; Hernandez, C; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T; Perez, B; Sierra, I

    2016-09-01

    The accreditation of an Internal Dosimetry Service (IDS) according to ISO/IEC 17025 Standard is a challenge. The aim of this process is to guarantee the technical competence for the monitoring of radionuclides incorporated in the body and for the evaluation of the associated committed effective dose E(50). This publication describes the main accreditation issues addressed by CIEMAT IDS regarding all the procedures involving good practice in internal dosimetry, focussing in the difficulties to ensure the traceability in the whole process, the appropriate calculation of detection limit of measurement techniques, the validation of methods (monitoring and dose assessments), the description of all the uncertainty sources and the interpretation of monitoring data to evaluate the intake and the committed effective dose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Astrosat/LAXPC Reveals the High-energy Variability of GRS 1915+105 in the X Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, J. S.; Misra, Ranjeev; Verdhan Chauhan, Jai; Agrawal, P. C.; Antia, H. M.; Pahari, Mayukh; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Katoch, Tilak; Madhwani, P.; Manchanda, R. K.; Paul, B.; Shah, Parag; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first quick look analysis of data from nine AstroSat's Large Area X-ray Proportional Counter (LAXPC) observations of GRS 1915+105 during 2016 March when the source had the characteristics of being in the Radio-quiet χ class. We find that a simple empirical model of a disk blackbody emission, with Comptonization and a broad Gaussian Iron line can fit the time-averaged 3-80 keV spectrum with a systematic uncertainty of 1.5% and a background flux uncertainty of 4%. A simple dead time corrected Poisson noise level spectrum matches well with the observed high-frequency power spectra till 50 kHz and as expected the data show no significant high-frequency (\\gt 20 {Hz}) features. Energy dependent power spectra reveal a strong low-frequency (2-8 Hz) quasi-periodic oscillation and its harmonic along with broadband noise. The QPO frequency changes rapidly with flux (nearly 4 Hz in ˜5 hr). With increasing QPO frequency, an excess noise component appears significantly in the high-energy regime (\\gt 8 keV). At the QPO frequencies, the time-lag as a function of energy has a non-monotonic behavior such that the lags decrease with energy till about 15-20 keV and then increase for higher energies. These first-look results benchmark the performance of LAXPC at high energies and confirms that its data can be used for more sophisticated analysis such as flux or frequency-resolved spectro-timing studies.

  17. Comparing the ρ and χ class spectra of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 observed with BeppoSAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineo, T.; Del Santo, M.; Massaro, E.; Massa, F.; D'Aì, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. BeppoSAX observed GRS 1915+105 during two variability classes at the same 2-10 keV flux level. The ρ class is characterized by quasi-periodic flares recurring on a time-scale of 1 to 2 min, namely heartbeat, while the χ class is characterized by no strong temporal variability. Aims: The aim of this work is to coherently analyze the source spectrum in these two classes and to gain insight into the source conditions that inset the heartbeats. Methods: A single χ spectrum was accumulated, while ρ data were split in runs where five phase-resolved spectra were selected. In addition to the multicolor disc black body, the fitting model includes a hybrid Comptonization plus a Compton reflection component. Results: Our results show that the emission in the ρ class is dominated by the multi-temperature disk, while in the χ class the Comptonised component is dominant. The disk temperature varies between a maximum of 1.95 ± 0.11 keV reached at the peak and a minimum of 0.95 keV in the χ class. In both classes we detect a significant contribution from a non-thermal electron population to the total Comptonized emission. A broadened iron emission line is detected in the χ spectrum. We interpret the line shape as being due to reflection from an accretion disk extremely close to the black-hole ( gravitational radii), with an equivalent width of 200 ± 20 eV. Concomitantly, upper limits of 150 eV can be derived from the ρ spectra. Conclusions: In the framework of coupled disc-corona models, these results point out that the source emission is strongly affected by the fractions of accretion energy distributed between the disk, the corona, and possibly the wind, with no indication on the conditions that inset the heartbeats.

  18. Properties of unique hard X-ray dips observed from GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091–3624 and their implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Pandey, S. K.

    2013-11-20

    We report a comprehensive study on spectral and timing properties of hard X-ray dips uniquely observed in some so-called variability classes of the micro-quasars GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091–3624. These dips are characterized by a sudden decline in the 2.0-60.0 keV X-ray intensity by a factor of 4-12 simultaneous with the increase in hardness ratio by a factor of 2-4. Using 31 observations of GRS 1915+105 with RXTE/PCA, we show that different behaviors are observed in different types of variability classes, and we find that a dichotomy is observed between classes with abrupt transitions versus those with smoother evolution. For example, both energy-lag spectra and frequency-lag spectra of hard X-ray dips in classes with abrupt transitions and shorter dip intervals show hard-lag (hard photons lag soft photons), while both lag spectra during hard dips in classes with smoother evolution and longer dip intervals show soft-lag. Both lag time-scales are of the order of 100-600 mS. We also show that timing and spectral properties of hard X-ray dips observed in light curves of IGR J17091–3624 during its 2011 outburst are consistent with the properties of the abrupt transitions in GRS 1915+105 rather than smooth evolutions. A global correlation between the X-ray intensity cycle time and hard dip time is observed for both abrupt and smooth transition which may be due to two distinct physical processes whose time-scales are eventually correlated. We discuss implications of our results in the light of some generic models.

  19. Activation of GRs-Akt-nNOs-NR2B signaling pathway by second dose GR agonist contributes to exacerbated hyperalgesia in a rat model of radicular pain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Yu'e; Liu, Yue; Song, Lihua; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2014-06-01

    Central Akt, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) play key roles in the development of neuropathic pain. Here we investigate the effects of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) on the expression and activation of spinal Akt, nNOS and NR2B after chronic compression of dorsal root ganglia (CCD). Thermal hyperalgesia test and mechanical allodynia test were used to measure rats after intrathecal injection of GR antagonist mifepristone or GR agonist dexamethasone for 21 days postoperatively. Expression of spinal Akt, nNOS, NR2B and their phosphorylation state after CCD was examined by western blot. The effects of intrathecal treatment with dexamethasone or mifepristone on nociceptive behaviors and the corresponding expression of Akt, nNOS and NR2B in spinal cord were also investigated. Intrathecal injection of mifepristone or dexamethasone inhibited PWMT and PWTL in CCD rats. However, hyperalgesia was induced by intrathecal injection of dexamethasone on days 12 to 14 after surgery. Treatment of dexamethasone increased the expression and phosphorylation levels of spinal Akt, nNOS, GR and NR2B time dependently, whereas administration of mifepristone downregulated the expression of these proteins significantly. GRs activated spinal Akt-nNOS/NR2B pathway play important roles in the development of neuropathic pain in a time-dependent manner.

  20. A broad spectral feature detected during the cooling phase of a type I X-ray burst from GRS 1747-312 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Masachika; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Mori, Hideyuki; Saji, Shigetaka

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the Suzaku archive data of a type I X-ray burst from GRS 1747-312, a low-mass X-ray binary located in the globular cluster Terzan 6. During the Galactic bulge mapping observations with Suzaku, which covered Terzan 6, an X-ray burst of long duration and with moderate photospheric-radius expansion was serendipitously detected and was considered to be most probably originating from GRS 1747-312. The time-divided burst spectra were reproduced well with an absorbed blackbody over the majority of the time, but significant deviation was detected late in the cooling phase. The deviation was due to a rolled-off feature, which gradually developed in the cooling phase of the burst, in the energy spectra above ∼7 keV. We tested various models to reproduce the spectral feature and found three types of models (reflection by cold matter, partial-covering absorption, and Doppler-smeared absorption edges due to the rapid spin of a neutron star) gave a statistically acceptable fit. We discussed the feasibility of these models, including a non-Planckian nature of the burst spectra.

  1. A low-order coupled chemistry meteorology model for testing online and offline data assimilation schemes: L95-GRS (v1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussaire, J.-M.; Bocquet, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bocquet and Sakov (2013) introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of the chaotic Lorenz-95 (L95) model, which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with the transport of a tracer species advected by this zonal wind field. This model, named L95-T, can serve as a playground for testing data assimilation schemes with an online model. Here, the tracer part of the model is extended to a reduced photochemistry module. This coupled chemistry meteorology model (CCMM), the L95-GRS (generic reaction set) model, mimics continental and transcontinental transport and the photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. Its numerical implementation is described. The model is shown to reproduce the major physical and chemical processes being considered. L95-T and L95-GRS are specifically designed and useful for testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS), which combines the best of ensemble and variational methods. These models provide useful insights prior to the implementation of data assimilation methods into larger models. We illustrate their use with data assimilation schemes on preliminary yet instructive numerical experiments. In particular, online and offline data assimilation strategies can be conveniently tested and discussed with this low-order CCMM. The impact of observed chemical species concentrations on the wind field estimate can be quantitatively assessed. The impacts of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical species non-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the data assimilation strategies are illustrated.

  2. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE MICROQUASARS CYGNUS X-1, CYGNUS X-3, GRS 1915+105, AND GX 339–4 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Pooley, Guy G.

    2013-10-01

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but worthwhile endeavor for understanding particle acceleration and the jet mechanism and for constraining leptonic/hadronic emission models. We present results from a likelihood analysis on timescales of 1 day and 10 days of ∼4 yr worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1-10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339–4. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE, plus five new days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ∼5σ that are not reported in the literature. In addition, Cyg X-3 is significantly detected on 10 day timescales outside of known gamma-ray flaring epochs, which suggests that persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 has been detected for the first time. For Cyg X-1 we find three low-significance excesses (∼3-4σ) on daily timescales that are contemporaneous with gamma-ray flares reported (also at low significance) by AGILE. Two other microquasars, GRS 1915+105 and GX 339–4, are not detected, and we derive 3σ upper limits of 2.3 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} and 1.6 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, respectively, on the persistent flux in the 0.1-10 GeV range. These results enable us to define a list of the general conditions that are necessary for the detection of gamma-rays from microquasars.

  3. On the optical counterparts, long-term variabilities, radio jets, and accretion sources in 1E 1740.7-2942 and GRS 1758-258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wan; Gehrels, Neil; Leventhal, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a variety of issues concerning the exciting and mysterious Galactic center gamma-ray sources 1E 1740.7-2942 and GRS 1758-258. We discuss the problem associated with the highly uncertain X-ray absorption column toward 1E 1740.7-2942 and use the recent Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) results to narrow its range to 0.5-1 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm. Then the current upper limits from deep optical and near-IR searches of stellar objects at these source locations are plotted on an H-R diagram, from which we find the mass of a potential companion star of the (supposed) black hole in GRS 1758-258 to be less than 4 solar mass and in 1E 1740.7-2942 to be less than 9 solar mass. The observed well-collimated radio jets in 1E 1740.7-2942 require the existence of a stable accretion disk (presumably from binary accretion). The apparent association of 1E 1740.7-2942 with a high-density molecular cloud, on the other hand, points to possible accretion directly from the interstellar medium (ISM). We present an analysis of the energetics and kinematics of the radio jets in 1E 1740.7-2942. We present the long-term X-ray light curves of the two sources which include both the Granat/SIGMA's 3 yr monitoring data and all the data from previous imaging balloon and satellite observations over the last decade. The possible physical mechanisms responsible for producing both the long-term X-ray variations and the radio jets are postulated. We also consider Roche lobe-overflowing, low-mass X-ray binaries and Bondi-Hoyle accretion directly from a high-density surrounding medium. We propose a plausible scenario in which both sources are binary systems with a black hole primary and a low-mass companion and they are accreting mainly from the ISM at a rate self-regulated by the interaction between the accretion flow and the emerging hard X-ray flux.

  4. Performance Modeling of Orbital Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Asteroids: Monte-Carlo Modeling of the HPGe Mars Odyssey GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, R. D.; Lim, L. F.; Evans, L. G.; Parsons, A. M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Boynton, W. V.

    2014-12-01

    Orbital gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) experiments with high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors have successfully measured elemental abundances in the top ~50 cm of the surfaces of Mars and Mercury. GRS is sensitive to bulk concentrations of H, C, O, S, Fe, and Si among other elements. As these elements are also diagnostic of major carbonaceous and ordinary chondritic meteorite classes, we have simulated the science performance of a HPGe experiment in orbit around asteroids with model compositions corresponding to those of volatile-rich CI and CO carbonaceous chondritic meteorites. A circular orbit around a spherical asteroid was considered, with the altitude of the orbit equal to the radius of the asteroid (similar to the Dawn low-altitude mapping orbit "LAMO"). We simulated the gamma-ray and neutron emission from CI-like (~17 wt%structural H2O) and CO-like (<2 wt% structural H2O) asteroids usingthe MCNPX Monte-Carlo radiation transport code. The spacecraftbackground (based on a Dawn-like spacecraft model) was also modeledusing MCNPX: this included background due to direct GCR/spacecraftinteractions and also background due to asteroidal neutron flux on thespacecraft. The detector model was based on the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer ("MOGRS"; Boynton et al. 2004, 2007), the largest HPGe detector flown to date. The spectra from the MCNPX output were broadened to a resolution based on the in-flight performance of MOGRS, FWHM = 4.1 keV at 1332 keV (Evans et al. 2006). Doppler broadening was also modeled where applicable. Line fluxes were then extracted from the combined background + asteroid spectrum and statistical uncertainties evaluated. Our simulations show that asteroids can be identified as havingCI-like vs. CO-like compositions in H/Si, O/Si, S/Si, and C/Si withMOGRS within 4.5 months in a Dawn LAMO-like orbit. In addition, theFe/Si and S/Si sensitivity are sufficient to distinguish CO and otherlow-hydrogen carbonaceous chondritic

  5. The mass, luminosity and mass-loss rate of the donor of the V1487 Aql/GRS 1915+105 binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Janusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    2017-08-01

    The donor in the microquasar GRS 1915+105 is a low-mass giant. Such a star consists of a degenerate helium core and a hydrogen-rich envelope. Both components are separated by a hydrogen-burning shell. The structure of such an object is relatively simple and easy to model. Making use of the observational constraints on the luminosity and the radius of the donor, we constrain the mass of this star with evolutionary models. We find a very good agreement between the constraints from those models and from the observed rotational broadening and the near-infrared magnitude. Combining the constraints, we find solutions with stripped giants of mass ≥0.28 M⊙ and of the spectral class K5 III, independent of the distance to the system, and a distance-dependent upper limit, ≲1 M⊙. We also calculate the average mass transfer rate and the duty cycle of the system as a function of the donor mass. This rate is much below the critical rate (at which the system would become persistent), and the duty cycle is less than 20 per cent.

  6. The discovery and modeling of energy dependent time-lags and fractional RMS of heartbeat state in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Mubashir; Iqbal, Naseer; Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    We report the discovery and modeling of enigmatic Energy dependent time-lags and fractional RMS of the heartbeat state in GRS 1915+105. The time-lags reveal the crucial information related to geometry of accretion flow, the emission regions and the relation between various spectral parameters. The lag and frms at the fundamental frequency show non-monotonic behavior with energy. The lag increases up to typically ˜10 keV and later shows a reversal and in some observations becomes hard(negative). However, the lags at the harmonic increase with energy and don't show any turn around at least till ˜20 keV. The frms at harmonic has similar non-monotonic behavior as at fundamental, however the variability amplitude is lesser as expected. The lag seen here can have magnitude of the order of seconds, and thus can't be accounted by light travel time effects or comptonization delays. The continuum X-ray spectra can roughly be described by a disk blackbody and a hard X-ray power-law component and from phase resolved spectroscopy it has been shown that the inner disk radius varies during the oscillation We propose the model based on the delayed response of inner disc (DRIOD) radius to the outer accretion rate i;e r_{in}(t)∝ dot{m}^β (t-τ_d). The fluctuating accretion rate varies the inner disk after a certain time delay t_d which could be of the order of the viscous propagation delays. The model very well explains the observed shape and nature of lags and frms at fundamental and harmonic frequencies. We present here the series of observations that constrain the four free parameters of our model. These parameters contain the vital information related to the nature of accretion flow in a highly periodic state like a heartbeat state.

  7. INVESTIGATING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS AND SPECTRAL COMPONENTS WITH NuSTAR DATA OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Jassal, Anjali Rao; Vadawale, Santosh V.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-01-20

    Low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are commonly observed during the hard states of black hole binaries. Several studies have established various observational/empirical correlations between spectral parameters and QPO properties, indicating a close link between the two. However, the exact mechanism of generation of QPOs is not yet well understood. In this paper, we present our attempts to comprehend the connection between the spectral components and the low-frequency QPO (LFQPO) observed in GRS 1915+105 using the data from NuSTAR. Detailed spectral modeling as well as the presence of the LFQPO and its energy dependence during this observation have been reported by Miller et al. and Zhang et al., respectively. We investigate the compatibility of the spectral model and the energy dependence of the QPO by simulating light curves in various energy bands for small variation of the spectral parameters. The basic concept here is to establish the connection, if any, between the QPO and the variation of either a spectral component or a specific parameter, which in turn can shed some light on the origin of the QPO. We begin with the best-fit spectral model of Miller et al. and simulate the light curve by varying the spectral parameters at frequencies close to the observed QPO frequency in order to generate the simulated QPO. Furthermore we simulate similar light curves in various energy bands in order to reproduce the observed energy dependence of the rms amplitude of the QPO. We find that the observed trend of increasing rms amplitude with energy can be reproduced qualitatively if the spectral index is assumed to be varying with the phases of the QPO. Variation of any other spectral parameter does not reproduce the observed energy dependence.

  8. Estimation of changes in the composition of the Martian atmosphere caused by CO2 condensation from GRS Ar measurements and its application to the rederivation of MGS radio occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Ikeda, S.; Kuroda, T.; Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a method to estimate seasonal changes in the composition of the Martian atmosphere, which is influenced by CO2 condensation due to the polar nights at southern high latitudes. The method relies on measurements of the Ar concentration obtained by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) onboard Mars Odyssey. We assume that the Martian atmosphere is composed of CO2, N2, and Ar, and is vertically well mixed. Since N2 and Ar do not condense even during the polar nights, the ratio of N2 and Ar remains constant, and the concentrations of N2 and CO2 can be estimated from Ar measurements. Estimates of the atmospheric composition were utilized for the rederivation of temperature and pressure profiles in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation measurements (˜70 profiles of ˜20,000 profiles in the whole data set) at southern polar latitudes (90°S-75°S) during the autumn, winter, and spring seasons (Ls = 0°-240°). The rederived profiles indicated that use of the standard global composition overestimated the temperature by at least approximately 5 K at Ls = ˜120° (midwinter), when the largest CO2 depletion occurred and the CO2 volume mixing ratio fell to 78%. The occurrence and degree of CO2 supersaturation were several times higher and larger, respectively, in the rederived temperature profiles than in the original MGS profiles. This suggests that consideration of CO2 depletion during southern polar nights is needed when studying CO2 supersaturation using radio occultation profiles.

  9. 2016 Microbial Stress Response GRC/GRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-13

    Biosynthesis to Promote Translation" 8:15 pm - 8:20 pm Discussion 8:20 pm - 8:45 pm Christine Jacobs- Wagner (Yale University, USA) "DNA Replication...Speaker Registered Jacobs- Wagner , Christine Yale University Speaker Registered Jakob, Ursula University of Michigan Speaker Registered Jemielita...Poster Presenter Registered Vollmer, Amy Cheng Swarthmore College Attendee Registered Vulin, Clement ETH Zurich Poster Presenter Registered Wagner

  10. GRS Measurements of Ar in Mars' Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Janes, D. M.; Kelly, N. J.; Crombie, M. K.; Hunten, D. M.; Nelli, S. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.

    2005-08-01

    One and one half Mars years of atmospheric argon (Ar) measurements are described in the context of understanding how Ar, a minor constituent of Mars atmosphere that does not condense at Mars temperatures, can be used to study martian circulation and dynamics. There is a repeated factor of 6 enhancement of Ar measured over south polar latitudes. The maximum in Ar abundance occurs near the onset of southern winter. There is no similar strong enhancement of Ar over north-polar regions during northern winter; only modest evidence for an enhancement peak is present. Part of this difference is explained by the global topographic dichotomy and the fact that the duration of northern autumn and winter is shorter than southern autumn and winter. Rapid seasonal fluctuations in Ar abundance may indicate evidence for wave activity at the perimeter of the southern seasonal polar cap. The apparent lack of coincidence of Ar enhancement with the relatively cold, cryptic terrain or relatively warm, bright albedo regions, indirectly supports the conclusion that the low temperatures measured over the south polar region by IRTM are probably caused by the combination of low CO2 abundance over south polar night and low emissivity regions on the surface associated with small grain size.

  11. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Nathan; Gray, Nancy Ryan

    2010-02-26

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  12. Newspaper Readership and Community Ties; Precision Journalism: Coming of Age. ANPA News Research Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ismach, Arnold H.

    The first of two articles in this report offers a survey of how community ties lead to various psychological needs that are the motivation for newspaper reading. It identifies three distinct audience segments: the traditional audience, with permanent bonds to the community, whose need for information, guidance, and community surveillance leads to…

  13. Accuracy in News Reporting: A Review of the Research. ANPA News Research Report No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Michael

    This report provides a review of literature exploring accuracy in newspaper stories. The findings discussed do not reveal definite reasons for inaccuracy, but several possible error sources are delineated: amount of reporter involvement, type of news, psychological factors (stress, news reporters' fantasies, open/closed-mindedness, tendency to…

  14. Newspaper Readership and Community Ties; Precision Journalism: Coming of Age. ANPA News Research Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Ismach, Arnold H.

    The first of two articles in this report offers a survey of how community ties lead to various psychological needs that are the motivation for newspaper reading. It identifies three distinct audience segments: the traditional audience, with permanent bonds to the community, whose need for information, guidance, and community surveillance leads to…

  15. The Newspaper Editor As Graphic Strategist. ANPA News Research Report No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Mario R.

    This report discusses the graphic strategies available to editors for positioning the day's news. The purposes of the report are: (1) to introduce those in charge of designing the newspaper page to the structural approach to design (the structural approach is defined as incorporating horizontal and vertical structures in the available spaces,…

  16. Putting Research Findings to Work. ANPA News Research Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauro, John B.; Bonney, Christopher F.

    Twenty-six American Newspaper Publishers Association research reports published since 1978 are reviewed in this paper. The paper analyzes each of the reports in order to provide an overview of what their findings really say and what newspapers can do in their own market areas to use the findings to improve their product. Among the topics covered…

  17. Cloaked Attribution--What Does It Mean to News Readers? ANPA News Research Bulletin. No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Hugh M.; Somerick, Nancy

    A study was conducted to determine how people react to unnamed or veiled news sources in newspaper articles. A group of 283 persons, chosen at random from three contrasting communities, was asked to read two articles dealing with different topics, one with sources quoted by name and one with euphemisms ("a White House spokesman,""a…

  18. The Newspaper Editor As Graphic Strategist. ANPA News Research Report No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Mario R.

    This report discusses the graphic strategies available to editors for positioning the day's news. The purposes of the report are: (1) to introduce those in charge of designing the newspaper page to the structural approach to design (the structural approach is defined as incorporating horizontal and vertical structures in the available spaces,…

  19. Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) AN/PAS-13 diffractive optics designed for producibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. Steven; Chen, Chungte W.; Spande, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program is a manportable 3-5 micrometer forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) rifle sight. The manportable nature requires that the optics modules be lightweight, low cost and compact while maximizing performance. These objectives were met with diffractive optics. TWS promises to be the first FLIR sensor to incorporate kinoform surfaces in full scale production.

  20. Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) AN/PAS-13 diffractive optics designed for producibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. Steven; Chen, Chungte W.; Spande, Robert A.

    1993-08-01

    The Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program is a manportable 3-5 micrometer forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) rifle sight. The manportable nature requires that the optics modules be lightweight, low cost and compact while maximizing performance. These objectives were met with diffractive optics. TWS promises to be the first FLIR sensor to incorporate kinoform surfaces in full scale production.

  1. Newspaper Readership Among Public School Children Grades 7-12. ANPA News Research Report, Number 23, October 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauro, John B.

    A sample of 1,048 seventh through twelfth grade students in Richmond, Virginia, was surveyed to determine whether they read the local morning newspaper, what features or types of news interested them, and what exposure they had to other daily newspapers and to television. Survey results are as follows: nine out of ten students were exposed to…

  2. Grating Fabrication for Gravitational-Wave Interferometers and LISA GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Patrick; Sun, Ke-Xun; Byer, Robert L.

    2006-11-01

    Future LISA and LIGO projects may require gratings for interferometry and angular sensing to accurately monitor test mass positions. This paper summarizes some techniques used to create gratings on materials that will make up the test masses of next generation gravitational-wave detectors. As grating tip/tilt sensing will require two-dimensional grating structures with duty cycles and unit cell shapes that are as of yet undetermined, we concentrate on approaches that allow us to readily generate complex patterns. This paper discusses e-beam lithography for dielectric surfaces, and mechanical trans-imprinting and focused ion-beam writing for gold. These methods are more flexible than traditional techniques, such as the holographic exposure of photoresist with multiple laser beams. Grating patterns suitable for optical sensing have been successfully demonstrated on the surfaces of dielectric materials and gold. Their diffraction efficiencies have been measured to be sufficiently high for tip/tilt sensing.

  3. GRS evidence and the possibility of paleooceans on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.; Finch, M.; Furfaro, R.; Hare, T.M.; Janes, D.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Karunatillake, S.; Keller, J.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.J.; Komatsu, G.; Mahaney, W.C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Marinangeli, L.; Ori, G.G.; Ruiz, J.; Wheelock, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (Mars Odyssey spacecraft) has revealed elemental distributions of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and iron (Fe) on Mars that require fractionation of K (and possibly Th and Fe) consistent with aqueous activity. This includes weathering, evolution of soils, and transport, sorting, and deposition, as well as with the location of first-order geomorphological demarcations identified as possible paleoocean boundaries. The element abundances occur in patterns consistent with weathering in situ and possible presence of relict or exhumed paleosols, deposition of weathered materials (salts and clastic minerals), and weathering/transport under neutral to acidic brines. The abundances are explained by hydrogeology consistent with the possibly overlapping alternatives of paleooceans and/or heterogeneous rock compositions from diverse provenances (e.g., differing igneous compositions). ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Smart timber bridge on geosynthetic reinforced soil (GRS) abutments

    Treesearch

    Adam Senalik; James P. Wacker; Travis K. Hosteng; John Hermanson

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Buchanan County, Iowa, has cooperated with the U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), and Iowa State University’s Bridge Engineering Center (ISU–BEC) to initiate a project involving the construction and monitoring of a glued-laminated (glulam) timber superstructure on geosynthetic reinforced soil (...

  5. GRS vs. OMS Calibration in LISA Pathfinder Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; ten Pierick, Jan; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; ">LISA Pathfinder colaboration, GRS evidence and the possibility of paleooceans on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Boynton, William V.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Finch, Michael; Furfaro, Roberto; Hare, Trent M.; Janes, Daniel M.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Karunatillake, Suniti; Keller, John; Kerry, Kris; Kim, Kyeong J.; Komatsu, Goro; Mahaney, William C.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Marinangeli, Lucia; Ori, Gian G.; Ruiz, Javier; Wheelock, Shawn J.

    2009-05-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (Mars Odyssey spacecraft) has revealed elemental distributions of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and iron (Fe) on Mars that require fractionation of K (and possibly Th and Fe) consistent with aqueous activity. This includes weathering, evolution of soils, and transport, sorting, and deposition, as well as with the location of first-order geomorphological demarcations identified as possible paleoocean boundaries. The element abundances occur in patterns consistent with weathering in situ and possible presence of relict or exhumed paleosols, deposition of weathered materials (salts and clastic minerals), and weathering/transport under neutral to acidic brines. The abundances are explained by hydrogeology consistent with the possibly overlapping alternatives of paleooceans and/or heterogeneous rock compositions from diverse provenances (e.g., differing igneous compositions).

  6. Comparisons of Subscribers and Non-Subscribers. An NRC Mining Company Report. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsiedel, Edna

    Market data in 34 different markets around the country provided the background for a comparison of newspaper subscribers and nonsubscribers. Essentially the market reports provided information on what kinds of people subscribe to a newspaper and why. Among the findings are the following: (1) subscribers tend to be older, to have higher incomes,…

  7. Morning and Evening Daily Newspaper Readers. An NRC Mining Company Report. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohn, Elsa

    Data collected from 36 different markets and 82 research reports were used to compare the readers of morning and evening newspapers. Patterns across markets revealed morning newspaper readers are more likely than evening newspaper readers to have white-collar occupations, to be better educated, and to have no children under 18 years of age present…

  8. Psychographics Made Simple [and] Newspaper Readership and Proximity to Metropolitan Markets. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Philip; Lynn, Jerry R.

    The first article in this report discusses how psychographic measures can be used to describe newspaper readers' life styles and to distinguish readers of different newspapers in a market. It reports the findings of a study revealing that in three markets, different psychographic profiles emerged for readers of morning and afternoon newspapers.…

  9. Morning and Evening Daily Newspaper Readers. An NRC Mining Company Report. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohn, Elsa

    Data collected from 36 different markets and 82 research reports were used to compare the readers of morning and evening newspapers. Patterns across markets revealed morning newspaper readers are more likely than evening newspaper readers to have white-collar occupations, to be better educated, and to have no children under 18 years of age present…

  10. Comparisons of Subscribers and Non-Subscribers. An NRC Mining Company Report. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsiedel, Edna

    Market data in 34 different markets around the country provided the background for a comparison of newspaper subscribers and nonsubscribers. Essentially the market reports provided information on what kinds of people subscribe to a newspaper and why. Among the findings are the following: (1) subscribers tend to be older, to have higher incomes,…

  11. Schematic Illustration of the Operation of MESSENGER's Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Galactic cosmic rays interact with Mercury's surface to a depth of tens of centimeters, producing high-energy neutrons. These neutrons interact with surface material, resulting in the emission of g...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRS/BGPS sources in Galactic Plane (Eden+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, D. J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Morgan, L. K.; Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2014-06-01

    The line of sight through the Galactic plane between longitudes l=37.83° and 42.50° allows for the separation of Galactic Ring Survey molecular clouds into those that fall within the spiral arms and those located in the interarm regions. By matching these clouds in both position and velocity with dense clumps detected in the mm continuum by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey, we are able to look for changes in the clump formation efficiency (CFE), the ratio of clump to cloud mass, with Galactic environment. We find no evidence of any difference in the CFE between the interarm and spiral-arm regions along this line of sight. This is further evidence that, outside the Galactic Centre region, the large-scale structures of the Galaxy play little part in changing the dense, potentially star-forming structures within molecular clouds. (2 data files).

  13. 2015 Soft Condensed Matter Physics: Self-Assembly and Active Matter GRC/GRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-20

    and students. Of the 177 attendees, 74 voluntarily responded to a general inquiry regarding ethnicity which appears on our registration forms. Of...investigators, and students. Of the 177 attendees, 74 voluntarily responded to a general inquiry regarding ethnicity which appears on our registration...attendees, 74 voluntarily responded to a general inquiry regarding ethnicity which appears on our registration forms. Of the 74 respondents, 14

  14. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  15. 2012 CORRELATED ELECTRON SYSTEMS GRC AND GRS, JUNE 23-29, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kivelson, Steven

    2012-06-29

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Correlated Electron Systems will present cutting-edge research on emergent properties arising from strong electronic correlations. While we expect the discussion at the meeting to be wide-ranging, given the breadth of the title subject matter, we have chosen several topics to be the particular focus of the talks. These are New Developments in Single and Bilayer Graphene, Topological States of Matter, including Topological Insulators and Spin Liquids, the Interplay Between Magnetism and Unconventional Superconductivity, and Quantum Critical Phenomena in Metallic Systems. We also plan to have shorter sessions on Systems Far From Equilibrium, Low Dimensional Electron Fluids, and New Directions (which will primarily focus on new experimental methodologies and their interpretation).

  16. Investigation of seasonal Be-7 variation near the Martian Poles using Mars Odyssey GRS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Boynton, William; Hamara, Dave

    (7) Be variation near the Martian Poles using Mars Odyssey has been investigated for about two Martian years. (7) Be is a cosmogenic nuclide produced via nuclear spallation interaction with carbon and oxygen in the atmosphere of the Mars. Because CO _{2} is main constituent of the atmosphere of the Mars and it condenses during winter season and sublimes in spring, and also it is transferred from the northern hemisphere to southern hemisphere. We assumed that the pattern of air movement could be monitored by the (7) Be production in the atmosphere. Since (7) Be peak is superimposed with (10) B which has a wide peak area and is from the background material of HPGe crystal. For this study, (7) Be peak area is defined using the thick target experiment and the influenced region due to (10) B is eliminated for (7) Be peak analysis. Our results show that the variation of (7) Be activity at 15 degree gives a lot of noise except the time associated with (7) Be spike due to solar particle event. However, the variations of (7) Be activity for 30 degree show that there is a peak rise at L _{s}100 for North Pole and L _{s}180 for South Pole. In the case of (7) Be activities at mid latitudes for L _{s}125 and L _{s}190 are distinctively higher than the rest of the seasonal zones. This implies that (7) Be activity was higher at the summer of northern hemisphere and fall season of southern hemisphere. This could be a significant and real effect associated with air density increase; therefore, the production of (7) Be increases for these seasons. Our results also show that there were two (7) Be spikes due to solar particle events observed. These spikes are distinctively high compared to the effect from the Martian atmospheric density changes. Our result of (7) Be activity of Mars could be less significant in understanding air circulation. However, this result indicated that a possible study where atmospheric density is high could be investigated with this technique including the earth.

  17. Newspaper Association of America Foundation: Report for 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 1991-92 annual report of the Newspaper Association of America (NAA) Foundation. The group previously was known as the American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) Foundation. Throughout the report, the foundation is referred to as ANPA when referring to past activities, and NAA when referring to the present and…

  18. Reader Response to Front Pages with Modular Format and Color [and] Newspaper Errors: Source Perception, Reporter Response and Some Causes. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Click, J. W.; And Others

    Two studies were conducted, the first to determine reader response to newspaper front pages with modular format and color, and the second to examine source perception and reporter response to errors in news stories. Results of the first study revealed that respondents in three cities preferred modular front pages to other modern format pages and…

  19. Reader Response to Front Pages with Modular Format and Color [and] Newspaper Errors: Source Perception, Reporter Response and Some Causes. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Click, J. W.; And Others

    Two studies were conducted, the first to determine reader response to newspaper front pages with modular format and color, and the second to examine source perception and reporter response to errors in news stories. Results of the first study revealed that respondents in three cities preferred modular front pages to other modern format pages and…

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID PROCEDURE TO ANALYSE Pu, Am AND 90Sr IN EMERGENCY URINE BIOASSAY IN CIEMAT BIOELIMINATION LABORATORY: METHOD VALIDATION BY EMERGENCY BIOASSAY INTERCOMPARISON EXERCISES.

    PubMed

    Sierra, I; Hernández, C

    2016-09-01

    After a radiological or nuclear incident, it is necessary to give a prompt response and to know the number of persons exposed to internal contamination, to evaluate the contamination levels in each person and even and to identify the radionuclides involved. In vitro laboratories routine monitoring measurements employed to quantify (90)Sr and actinides in urine require radiochemical separation and long counting time, which implies a minimum of 1 or 2 weeks to obtain the results, respectively. In this work, rapid radiochemical separation method applied directly to urine samples is presented. It is based on minimal sample preparation, without co-precipitation phase, using extraction resin columns and vacuum box technology. Pu isotopes and (241)Am are isolated, electrodeposited and measured by alpha spectrometry, whereas (90)Sr is measured by liquid scintillation counting. Finally, results of the participation in European Radiation Dosimetry Group intercomparison on Emergency Bioassay exercise and Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz exercise validate the accuracy of this procedure.

  2. A Global Risk Score (GRS) to Simultaneously Predict Early and Late Tumor Recurrence Risk after Resection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Dekervel, Jeroen; Popovic, Dusan; van Malenstein, Hannah; Windmolders, Petra; Heylen, Line; Libbrecht, Louis; Bulle, Ashenafi; De Moor, Bart; Van Cutsem, Eric; Nevens, Frederik; Verslype, Chris; van Pelt, Jos

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma can arise from the primary tumor (“early recurrence”) or de novo from tumor formation in a cirrhotic environment (“late recurrence”). We aimed to develop one simple gene expression score applicable in both the tumor and the surrounding liver that can predict the recurrence risk. METHODS: We determined differentially expressed genes in a cell model of cancer aggressiveness. These genes were first validated in three large published data sets of hepatocellular carcinoma from which we developed a seven-gene risk score. RESULTS: The gene score was applied on two independent large patient cohorts. In the first cohort, with only tumor data available, it could predict the recurrence risk at 3 years after resection (68 ± 10% vs 35 ± 7%, P = .03). In the second cohort, when applied on the tumor, this gene score predicted early recurrence (62 ± 5% vs 37 ± 4%, P < .001), and when applied on the surrounding liver tissue, the same genes also correlated with late recurrence. Four patient classes with each different time patterns and rates of recurrence could be identified based on combining tumor and liver scores. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, our gene score remained significantly associated with recurrence, independent from other important cofactors such as disease stage (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a Global Risk Score that is able to simultaneously predict the risk of early recurrence when applied on the tumor itself, as well as the risk of late recurrence when applied on the surrounding liver tissue. PMID:27084430

  3. Measurements by the GRS on Mars ODYSSEY of Argon in Mars' Atmosphere: Two Full Mars Years and More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Janes, D. M.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.; Nelli, S. M.; Murphy, J. R.

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric argon measurements made by the gamma sensor (one part of the gamma ray spectrometer) on Mars Odyssey are presented. The measurements span slightly more than two Mars years. Seasonal and latitudinal variations are described with some discussion

  4. Further MAXI/GSC observations show that GRS 1716-249/GRO J1719-24 is in outburst and currently in the hard state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masumitsu, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kawase, T.; Negoro, H.; Serino, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Nakahira, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Shidatsu, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Isobe, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Harita, S.; Muraki, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Shomura, R.; Nakajima, M.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Oda, S.; Tanimoto, A.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Furuya, K.; Yamaoka, K.

    2016-12-01

    We report further observational results of the X-ray nova MAXI J1719-254 currently in outburst (Negoro et al. ATel #9876). The source has been slightly far ( > = 8 deg) from the sun, which enables us to determine the source position statistically.

  5. Is a pediatrician performed gray scale ultrasonography with power Doppler study safe and effective for triaging acute non-perforated appendicitis for conservative management?

    PubMed

    Jimbo, Keisuke; Takeda, Masahiro; Miyata, Eri; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kyodo, Reiko; Orikasa, Hideki; Lane, Geoffrey J; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamataka, Atsuyuki

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether acute non-perforated appendicitis (ANPA) can be safely triaged by a pediatrician for conservative management (CM) using gray-scale ultrasonography with power Doppler (GSPD). Seventy five cases of ANPA assessed by a pediatrician with GSPD (2013-2015) were reviewed. GSPD grading for ANPA was: I: slightly irregular wall/normal blood flow; II: irregular wall/increased blood flow; III: irregular wall/decreased blood flow; and IV: absence of wall/blood flow. Grades I/II were managed conservatively with intravenous antibiotics then encouraged to book for interval appendectomy (IA). Grades III/IV were reviewed for emergency appendectomy (EA) by a pediatric surgeon. GSPD grading was I (n=26), II (n=36), III (n=9), and IV (n=4). EA was required for 5 cases, one grade III, and four grade IV cases. One grade IV case was treated conservatively after surgical review but EA was unavoidable. Of the remaining 70 cases discharged well after a mean of 5.7days hospitalization, 25/70 had IA with chronic inflammation on histology, 6/70 had recurrence of ANPA treated successfully by EA, and 39/70 remain asymptomatic at least 10months after declining IA. Overall, GSPD triaging with CM was cheaper than surgery. GSPD performed by pediatricians appears to be safe/effective for triaging ANPA. Level III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Internet Administration of the Paper-and-Pencil Gifted Rating Scale: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnell, Jordy B.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric equivalence of administering a computer-based version of the Gifted Rating Scale (GRS) compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil GRS-School Form (GRS-S). The GRS-S is a teacher-completed rating scale used in gifted assessment. The GRS-Electronic Form provides an alternative method of administering…

  7. Internet Administration of the Paper-and-Pencil Gifted Rating Scale: Assessing Psychometric Equivalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnell, Jordy B.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric equivalence of administering a computer-based version of the Gifted Rating Scale (GRS) compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil GRS-School Form (GRS-S). The GRS-S is a teacher-completed rating scale used in gifted assessment. The GRS-Electronic Form provides an alternative method of administering…

  8. Queen of the giant storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Reta F.

    1990-10-01

    The observational history and present understanding of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) are reviewed. Analogies are drawn between earth's hurricanes and hot spots and the GRS. The results of computer modeling of the GRS are addressed.

  9. IET. Control and equipment building (TAN620) floor plan. Schedule of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Control and equipment building (TAN-620) floor plan. Schedule of furniture and equipment. Ralph M. Parsons 902-4-ANP-A 320. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0620-00-693-106905 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. News Research for Better Newspapers. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Chilton R., Ed.

    This volume contains all of the material published in American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Bulletins during 1968. The 49 studies included are arranged under the following chapter titles: "Some Audience Characteristics,""Headlines and Makeup,""Content,""Some Communication Behavior,""Readership,""Readership by…

  11. MAXI/GSC detection of a new outburst from GRS 1716-249/GRO J1719-24 or a new X-ray transient MAXI J1719-254

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoro, H.; Masumitsu, T.; Kawase, T.; Tanaka, K.; Serino, M.; Tanimoto, A.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Nakahira, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Shidatsu, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Isobe, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Harita, S.; Muraki, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Shomura, R.; Nakajima, M.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Oda, S.; Tsuboi, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Yamauchi, M.; Furuya, K.; Yamaoka, K.

    2016-12-01

    At 13:37 UT on 2016 December 18, the MAXI/GSC nova-alert system triggered on X-ray enhancement at the position (R.A., Dec) = (259.9, -25.4). The source position could not be determined by the automatic fitting procedure due to the detection at the edge of the FOV. Instead, we obtained the position from a smoothed 4-10 keV X-ray image.

  12. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 113Sn to include the 2010 results of the PTB (Germany) and the LNE-LNHB (France), and the 2011 result of the CIEMAT (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Bobin, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Moune, M.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Roteta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1975, seven national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted eleven samples of known activity of 113Sn to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.7 MBq and 22 MBq. The present primary standardization results for the PTB, Germany and the LNE-LNHB, France, replace their earlier results of 1989 and 1992, respectively. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 113Sn. There are only three results remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 comparison, all the previously published ones being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each of these three equivalent activities measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Race-specific genetic risk score is more accurate than nonrace-specific genetic risk score for predicting prostate cancer and high-grade diseases.

    PubMed

    Na, Rong; Ye, Dingwei; Qi, Jun; Liu, Fang; Lin, Xiaoling; Helfand, Brian T; Brendler, Charles B; Conran, Carly; Gong, Jian; Wu, Yishuo; Gao, Xu; Chen, Yaqing; Zheng, S Lilly; Mo, Zengnan; Ding, Qiang; Sun, Yinghao; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk score (GRS) based on disease risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is an informative tool that can be used to provide inherited information for specific diseases in addition to family history. However, it is still unknown whether only SNPs that are implicated in a specific racial group should be used when calculating GRSs. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of race-specific GRS and nonrace-specific GRS for predicting prostate cancer (PCa) among 1338 patients underwent prostate biopsy in Shanghai, China. A race-specific GRS was calculated with seven PCa risk-associated SNPs implicated in East Asians (GRS7), and a nonrace-specific GRS was calculated based on 76 PCa risk-associated SNPs implicated in at least one racial group (GRS76). The means of GRS7 and GRS76 were 1.19 and 1.85, respectively, in the study population. Higher GRS7 and GRS76 were independent predictors for PCa and high-grade PCa in univariate and multivariate analyses. GRS7 had a better area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) than GRS76 for discriminating PCa (0.602 vs 0.573) and high-grade PCa (0.603 vs 0.575) but did not reach statistical significance. GRS7 had a better (up to 13% at different cutoffs) positive predictive value (PPV) than GRS76. In conclusion, a race-specific GRS is more robust and has a better performance when predicting PCa in East Asian men than a GRS calculated using SNPs that are not shown to be associated with East Asians.

  14. Analysis techniques for diagnosing runaway ion distributions in the reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Sears, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) on the Madison Symmetric Torus measures deuterium ions of energy ranges 8-45 keV with an energy resolution of 2-4 keV and time resolution of 10 μs. Three different experimental configurations measure distinct portions of the naturally occurring fast ion distributions: fast ions moving parallel, anti-parallel, or perpendicular to the plasma current. On a radial-facing port, fast ions moving perpendicular to the current have the necessary pitch to be measured by the ANPA. With the diagnostic positioned on a tangent line through the plasma core, a chord integration over fast ion density, background neutral density, and local appropriate pitch defines the measured sample. The plasma current can be reversed to measure anti-parallel fast ions in the same configuration. Comparisons of energy distributions for the three configurations show an anisotropic fast ion distribution favoring high pitch ions.

  15. Analysis techniques for diagnosing runaway ion distributions in the reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Sears, S. H.

    2016-11-15

    An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) on the Madison Symmetric Torus measures deuterium ions of energy ranges 8-45 keV with an energy resolution of 2-4 keV and time resolution of 10 μs. Three different experimental configurations measure distinct portions of the naturally occurring fast ion distributions: fast ions moving parallel, anti-parallel, or perpendicular to the plasma current. On a radial-facing port, fast ions moving perpendicular to the current have the necessary pitch to be measured by the ANPA. With the diagnostic positioned on a tangent line through the plasma core, a chord integration over fast ion density, background neutral density, and local appropriate pitch defines the measured sample. The plasma current can be reversed to measure anti-parallel fast ions in the same configuration. Comparisons of energy distributions for the three configurations show an anisotropic fast ion distribution favoring high pitch ions.

  16. Regulation of renal glomerular and papillary ANP receptors in rats with experimental heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yechieli, H; Kahana, L; Haramati, A; Hoffman, A; Winaver, J

    1993-07-01

    Rats with aortocaval (A-V) fistula, an experimental model of congestive heart failure (CHF), display high circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) levels and a markedly blunted natriuretic response to ANP infusion. The present study was designed to evaluate whether alterations in renal ANP receptors may contribute to renal hyporesponsiveness to ANP in experimental CHF. Densities (Bmax) and dissociation constants (Kd) of both the biologically active (ANPA) and clearance receptors (ANPC) were evaluated in glomerular and papillary membranes from A-V fistula rats (n = 18) and sham-operated controls (n = 20). ANPA and ANPC receptor subtypes were assayed by displacement of 125I-ANP-(99-126) bound to glomerular or papillary membranes by increasing concentrations of unlabeled ANP-(99-126) or des-(18-22)-ANP-(4-23), an analogue which binds only to ANPC. Seven days after the operation, rats with A-V fistula displayed avid sodium retention, elevated plasma renin activity, and approximately a 10-fold increase in plasma ANP levels. Bmax of total ANP binding sites was significantly decreased in rats with A-V fistula compared with controls (220 +/- 61 vs. 399 +/- 88 fmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). The decrease was mainly due to a reduction in ANPA receptor density (51 +/- 10 vs. 110 +/- 15 fmol/mg protein, P < 0.05) with no change in receptor affinity. Likewise, a significant reduction in the density of ANPA (23 +/- 5 vs. 64 +/- 10 fmol/mg protein, P < 0.05) with no change in receptor affinity was observed in papillary membranes of rats with A-V fistula.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Great Red Spot Mosaic - Near-infrared Filter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    The Great Red Spot GRS of Jupiter as seen by NASA Galileo imaging system. The image is a mosaic of six images taken over an 80 second interval during the first GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996.

  18. Features of Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter Great Red Spot GRS. Four sets of images of the GRS were taken by NASA Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996.

  19. The 'Heartbeats' of Flaring Black Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation compares the X-ray 'heartbeats' of GRS 1915 and IGR J17091, two black holes that ingest gas from companion stars. GRS 1915 has nearly five times the mass of IGR J17091, which at thre...

  20. Design of a retarding potential grid system for a neutral particle analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Anderson, J. K.; Reusch, J. A.

    2014-11-15

    The ion energy distribution in a magnetically confined plasma can be inferred from charge exchange neutral particles. On the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST), deuterium neutrals are measured by the Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA) and the advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA). The CNPA energy range covers the bulk deuterium ions to the beginning of the fast ion tail (0.34–5.2 keV) with high-energy resolution (25 channels) while the ANPA covers the vast majority of the fast ion tail distribution (∼10–45 keV) with low energy resolution (10 channels). Though the ANPA has provided insight into fast ion energization in MST plasma, more can be gained by increasing the energy resolution in that energy range. To utilize the energy resolution of the CNPA, fast ions can be retarded by an electric potential well, enabling their detection by the diagnostic. The ion energy distribution can be measured with arbitrary resolution by combining data from many similar MST discharges with different energy ranges on the CNPA, providing further insight into ion energization and fast ion dynamics on MST.

  1. Transformation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons on Synthetic Green Rusts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green rusts (GRs) are layered double hydroxides that contain both ferrous and ferric ions in their structure. GRs can potentially serve as a chemical reductant for degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. GRs are found in zerovalent iron based permeable reactive barriers and in c...

  2. Transformation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons on Synthetic Green Rusts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green rusts (GRs) are layered double hydroxides that contain both ferrous and ferric ions in their structure. GRs can potentially serve as a chemical reductant for degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. GRs are found in zerovalent iron based permeable reactive barriers and in c...

  3. Polyacrylonitrile Fibers Anchored Cobalt/Graphene Sheet Nanocomposite: A Low-Cost, High-Performance and Reusable Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Huang, Guoji; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt and its composites are known to be active and inexpensive catalysts in sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis to generate clean and renewable hydrogen energy. A novel fiber catalyst, cobalt/graphene sheet nanocomposite anchored on polyacrylonitrile fibers (Co/GRs-PANFs), which can be easily recycled and used in any reactor with different shapes, were synthesized by anchoring cobalt/graphene (Co/GRs) on polyacrylonitrile fibers coated with graphene (GRs-PANFs) at low temperature. The unique structure design effectively prevents the inter-sheet restacking of Co/GRs and fully exploits the large surface area of novel hybrid material for generate hydrogen. And the extra electron transfer path supplied by GRs on the surface of GRs-PANFs can also enhance their catalysis performances. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was investigated by the hydrolysis of NaBH4 in aqueous solution with GRs-PANFs. GRs powders and Co powders were used as control groups. It was found that both GRs and fiber contributed to the hydrogen generation rate of Co/GRs-PANFs (3222 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)), which is much higher than that of cobalt powders (915 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)) and Co/GRs (995 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)). The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling make the Co/GRs-PANFs promising candidate as catalysts for hydrogen generation.

  4. General Revenue Sharing in St. Louis City and County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Etta Lou; Barnett, Malcolm Joel

    Unlike typical Federal catergorical grants which are highly specific, General Revenue Sharing grants (GRS) are free of restrictions or conditions. The Missouri Advisory Committee, in viewing the impact of GRS on St. Louis City and County, received evidence regarding: (1) the nature of GRS-funded expenditures; (2) the limits of citizen…

  5. Measurement Invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form across Five Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Kamata, Akihito; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Rosado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) across the United States, Puerto Rico, China, South Korea, and Turkey, using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 1,817 students were rated by 287 teachers using either translated versions of GRS-S or the original English GRS-S. Results…

  6. Suggestions for Improving the IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey Data Collection and Reporting. NPEC 2010-832

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) at the U.S. Department of Education developed the Graduation Rate Survey (GRS) to help institutions comply with the "Student Right-to-Know (SRTK) Act" requirements. NCES uses GRS data to calculate graduation rates within 150 percent of normal time for all students in the GRS cohort, as…

  7. Measurement Invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form across Five Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Kamata, Akihito; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Rosado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) across the United States, Puerto Rico, China, South Korea, and Turkey, using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 1,817 students were rated by 287 teachers using either translated versions of GRS-S or the original English GRS-S. Results…

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a stress-inducible glycyl-tRNA synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Jia; Wu, Yi-Hua; Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Chien-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a large family of housekeeping enzymes that are pivotal in protein translation and other vital cellular processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two distinct nuclear glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) genes, GRS1 and GRS2. GRS1 encodes both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial activities, while GRS2 is essentially silent and dispensable under normal conditions. We herein present evidence that expression of GRS2 was drastically induced upon heat shock, ethanol or hydrogen peroxide addition, and high pH, while expression of GRS1 was somewhat repressed under those conditions. In addition, GlyRS2 (the enzyme encoded by GRS2) had a higher protein stability and a lower K(M) value for yeast tRNA(Gly) under heat shock conditions than under normal conditions. Moreover, GRS2 rescued the growth defect of a GRS1 knockout strain when highly expressed by a strong promoter at 37 °C, but not at the optimal temperature of 30 °C. These results suggest that GRS2 is actually an inducible gene that may function to rescue the activity of GRS1 under stress conditions.

  9. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students (N = 499). The Chinese GRSS was found to have high internal consistency. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the six-factor solution of the original GRS-S. Comparison of the GRS-S scores and measures of academic performance provide preliminary support for the criterion validity of the Chinese-translated GRS-S. Significant age and gender differences on the Chinese GRS-S were found. Results provide preliminary support for the Chinese version of the GRS-S as a reliable and valid measure of giftedness for Chinese students.

  10. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales–School Form in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Mo, Guofang

    2015-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales–School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students (N = 499). The Chinese GRSS was found to have high internal consistency. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the six-factor solution of the original GRS-S. Comparison of the GRS-S scores and measures of academic performance provide preliminary support for the criterion validity of the Chinese-translated GRS-S. Significant age and gender differences on the Chinese GRS-S were found. Results provide preliminary support for the Chinese version of the GRS-S as a reliable and valid measure of giftedness for Chinese students. PMID:26346730

  11. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    PubMed Central

    El Ouali, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK) measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C), endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG). Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93%) were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P < 0.001) in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care. PMID:27840810

  12. The tropospheric abundances of NH3 and PH3 in Jupiter's Great Red Spot, from Voyager IRIS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Bezard, Bruno; Owen, Tobias; Gautier, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric abundances of NH3 and PH3 in Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) are presently determined on the basis of a group of Voyager IRIS spectra, and compared with those of the surrounding South Tropical Zone (STZ) obtained from another two groups of IRIS spectra, in order to characterize the GRS's chemistry and dynamics. Although the GRS is believed to be a region of strong vertical transport, NH3 depletion is surprisingly found to occur below the tropopause within the GRS. Since one of the STZ's selections has a temperature-pressure profile similar to that of the GRS below the 300 mbar level, condensation cannot explain the low NH3 abundance in the GRS.

  13. Aspiration and Evaluation of Gastric Residuals in the NICU: State of the Science

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Leslie; Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; Li, Yuefeng; Talaga, Elizabeth; Shuster, Jonathan; Neu, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The routine aspiration of gastric residuals (GR) is considered standard care for critically ill infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Unfortunately, scant information exists regarding the risks and benefits associated with this common procedure. This article provides the state of the science regarding what is known about the routine aspiration and evaluation of GRs in the NICU focusing on the following issues: (1) The use of GRs for verification of feeding tube placement, (2) GRs as an indicator of gastric contents, (3) GRs as an indicator of feeding intolerance or necrotizing enterocolitis, (4) the association between GR volume and ventilator associated pneumonia, (5) whether GRs should be discarded or re-fed, (6) the definition of an abnormal GR, and (7) the potential risks associated with aspiration and evaluation of GRs. Recommendations for further research and practice guidelines are also provided. PMID:25633400

  14. Association between reduced expression of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and cognitive dysfunction in a rat model of traumatic brain injury due to lateral head acceleration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Xu, Hongyu; Liang, Ming; Huang, Jason H; He, Xiaosheng

    2013-01-15

    Expression of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and spatial learning and memory were observed in rat model of diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to lateral head acceleration with an aim at investigating the relation between GRs expression and cognitive deficits. Immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting, and RT-PCR indicated that down-regulation of GRs expression occurred in the hippocampus among TBI-rats which demonstrated reduced performance of learning and memory in Morris water maze. As the GRs expression bounced up, the cognitive function approached to normal. It is concluded that reduced expression of hippocampal GRs was closely associated with learning and memory deficits in TBI-rats. Hippocampal GRs was involved in the biochemical mechanisms of cognitive deficits after TBI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of gelatinized-retrograded and extruded starches on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Narpinder; Katyal, Mehak

    2016-05-01

    The effect of substitution of wheat flour with gelatinized-retrograded starch (GRS) and extruded starch (ES) at 10 and 20 % levels on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles was evaluated. Cookies made by substitution of flour with GRS or ES were lighter in color, showed higher spread ratio and resistant starch (RS) content. Muffins made by substitution of flour with GRS or ES were lighter in color, showed less height, specific volume and gas cells and higher RS content. Muffins containing GRS were less firm while those made by incorporating ES showed higher firmness than those made without substitution. Noodles made with substitution of flour with GRS or ES showed higher RS content and reduced water uptake, gruel solid loss, hardness and adhesiveness. Cookies and noodles prepared with and without substitution of flour with GRS or ES did not show any significant differences in terms of overall acceptability scores.

  16. Validation of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper T.; Mo, Guofang

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S), a teacher-completed rating scale, is designed to identify five types of giftedness and motivation. This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the GRS-S with a sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students (N = 499). The Chinese GRS-S was found to have…

  17. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Experiment on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Observations by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) are examined. This detector system is sensitive to high-energy X-rays, gamma-rays, and energetic neutrons. These neutral quanta provide a probe of the highest energy processes in a flare. The GRS has recorded over 150 flares since launch. In addition to the solar discoveries, the SMM GRS has made important discoveries about cosmic gamma-ray sources. These discoveries are summarized.

  18. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  19. Integration and evaluation of a position sensor with continuous read-out for use with the Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling Gamma Ray Spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, R.A.; Lockwood, G.J.; Williams, C.V.; Selph, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled waste retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling were compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples. The results show general agreement between the soil sampling and EMWD-GRS techniques for Cs-137. The EMWD-GRS system has been improved by the integration of an orientation sensor package for position sensing (PS) (EMWD-GRS/PS). This added feature gives the capability of calculating position, which is tied directly to EMWD-GRS sensor data obtained while drilling. The EMWD-GRS/PS system is described and the results of the field tests are presented.

  20. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-based earthquakes instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits designed to teach the 'Principles of Earthquakes.' Each subunit consisted of three modules: evaluation of prior knowledge with/without in-time feedback; animation-based instruction; and evaluation of learning outcomes with feedback. The 153 participants consisted of 10th grade high-school students. Seventy-eight students participated in the animation-based instruction, involving assessment of prior knowledge and appropriate feedback mechanism (APA group). A total of 75 students participated in animation-based learning that did not take into account their prior knowledge (ANPA group). The effectiveness of the instruction was then evaluated by using a Science Conception Test (SCT), a self-rating cognitive load questionnaire (CLQ), as well as a structured interview. The results indicated that: (1) Students' perceived cognitive load was reduced effectively through improving their prior knowledge by providing appropriate feedback. (2) When students perceived lower levels of cognitive load, they showed better learning outcome. The result of this study revealed that students of the APA group showed better performance than those of the ANPA group in an open-ended question. Furthermore, students' perceived cognitive load was negatively associated with their learning outcomes.

  1. Detectors/Dosemeters of galactic and solar cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Tommasino, L

    2004-01-01

    Different passive multidetector stacks have been developed at the Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA-stack), which makes it possible to measure directly ionising radiations, low-energy and high-energy neutrons, and high-energy charged (HZE) particles. The stack consists of several types of passive devices, namely recoil-track and fission-track detectors, bubble detectors, thermoluminescence dosemeters and an electronic personal dosemeter. Most of these detectors have been used on earth for the assessment of the occupational exposure, or in outer space for cosmic ray physics and/or for the assessment of the dose received by astronauts. A great deal of efforts and new developments have been required to make these detectors useful for in-flight measurements. As outcome of these extensive efforts, different new detectors have been developed, which exploit some of the most successful principles of radiation detection, such as the use of avalanche processes to facilitate the registration of nuclear tracks and the use of coincidence-counting to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. On the basis of these new detectors, different systems (generally referred to as ANPA-stack) have been obtained, which have been successfully applied for a variety of different measurements of cosmic ray radiation fields and doses.

  2. Student Graduation in Spain: To What Extent Does University Expenditure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Estevez, Javier; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Graduation rates (GRs) remain one of the most frequently applied measures of institutional performance. This paper analyzes the relationship between university characteristics and GRs in Spain, using a dataset for the entire public university system over the period 1998-2008. Since we observe the same university over several years, we address the…

  3. Vanderwaltozyma polyspora possesses two glycyl-tRNA synthetase genes: one constitutive and one inducible.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chin-I; Chen, Yueh-Lin; Chen, Shun-Jia; Chou, Chi-Mao; Chen, Chin-Yu; Wang, Chien-Chia

    2015-03-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are housekeeping enzymes essential for protein synthesis. We herein present evidence that the yeast Vanderwaltozyma polyspora possesses two paralogous glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GlyRS) genes-GRS1 and GRS2. Paradoxically, GRS1 provided functions in both the cytoplasm and mitochondria, while GRS2 was essentially silent under normal growth conditions. Expression of GRS2 could be activated by stresses such as high pH or ethanol and most effectively by high temperature. The expressed GlyRS2 protein was exclusively found in the cytoplasm and more stable under heat-shock conditions (37°C) than under normal growth conditions (30°C) in vivo. In addition, GRS2 effectively rescued the cytoplasmic defect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae GRS1 knockout strain when expressed from a constitutive promoter. Moreover, the purified GlyRS2 enzyme was fairly active at both 30°C and 37°C in glycylation of yeast tRNA in vitro. However, unexpectedly, the purified GlyRS2 enzyme was practically inactive at temperature above 40°C in vitro. Our study suggests that GRS2 is an inducible gene that acts under stress conditions where GlyRS1 may be insufficient, unavailable, or rendered inactive.

  4. Analysis of the Effects of a gerP Mutation on the Germination of Spores of Bacillus subtilis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    coat, the outer membrane, and the peptidoglycan cortex and germ cell wall to access the GRs. While the outer mem- brane may or may not be a significant... peptidoglycan FIG 5 Effects of overexpression of the GerA or GerB* GRs on the germination of wild-type and gerP spores. Spores of strains PS533 (wild

  5. Extensive Reading for Second Language Learners of Japanese in Higher Education: Graded Readers and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Teiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of Japanese extensive reading with international students studying at a Japanese university using graded readers (GRs). GRs chosen for the present study were simplified versions of original Japanese literature and were used to support students in acquiring a top-down reading strategy, a wide range of…

  6. How to Schedule Multiple Graphical Representations? A Classroom Experiment with an Intelligent Tutoring System for Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, M. A.; Aleven, V.; Rummel, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical representations (GRs) of the learning content are often used for instruction (Ainsworth, 2006). When used in learning technology, GRs can be especially useful since they allow for interactions across representations that are physically impossible, for instance by dragging and dropping symbolic statements into a chart that automatically…

  7. Muscle Dysmorphia, Gender Role Stress, and Sociocultural Influences: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Readdy, Tucker; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the contribution of gender role stress (GRS) and sociocultural appearance demands to symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) in a college sample of 219 women and 154 men. For women, five GRS subscales, sociocultural appearance demands, age, and frequency of aerobic exercise predicted MD symptoms (model R[superscript 2] = 0.33;…

  8. Extensive Reading for Second Language Learners of Japanese in Higher Education: Graded Readers and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Teiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of Japanese extensive reading with international students studying at a Japanese university using graded readers (GRs). GRs chosen for the present study were simplified versions of original Japanese literature and were used to support students in acquiring a top-down reading strategy, a wide range of…

  9. Muscle Dysmorphia, Gender Role Stress, and Sociocultural Influences: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Readdy, Tucker; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the contribution of gender role stress (GRS) and sociocultural appearance demands to symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) in a college sample of 219 women and 154 men. For women, five GRS subscales, sociocultural appearance demands, age, and frequency of aerobic exercise predicted MD symptoms (model R[superscript 2] = 0.33;…

  10. Measurement Invariance of the Chinese Gifted Rating Scales: Teacher and Parent Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Li, Huijun

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) has been validated in several countries; however, no study has examined the rater invariance of this measure. The present study built on previous validity studies and examined configural and metric invariance between parent and teacher raters using the Chinese version of the GRS-S Teacher and Parent…

  11. The Reader-Text-Writer Interaction: L2 Japanese Learners' Response toward Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabata-Sandom, Mitsue

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on two projects which investigated graded readers (GRs) as meaningful input for learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). Project One examined the intentions of six writers of Japanese GRs. A focus group interview demonstrated that the writers had a genuine communicative intent in the writing process. Project Two…

  12. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S)". Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the "GRS-S" Spanish…

  13. Student Graduation in Spain: To What Extent Does University Expenditure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Estevez, Javier; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Graduation rates (GRs) remain one of the most frequently applied measures of institutional performance. This paper analyzes the relationship between university characteristics and GRs in Spain, using a dataset for the entire public university system over the period 1998-2008. Since we observe the same university over several years, we address the…

  14. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  15. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry. PMID:27537844

  16. 63 FR 39196 - Electronic Records Work Group Draft Report; Appendix E

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-07-21

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Electronic Records Work Group Draft Report; Appendix E AGENCY: National Archives... Electronic Records Work Group's proposed general records schedule (GRS) to cover information technology records common to many or all Federal agencies. The proposed GRS would implement the Work Group's...

  17. Assessment of the value of a genetic risk score in improving the estimation of coronary risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The American Heart Association has established criteria for the evaluation of novel markers of cardiovascular risk. In accordance with these criteria, we assessed the association between a multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), and evaluated whether this GRS ...

  18. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  19. Geometric radiating surfaces for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    Various geometric radiating surface (GRS) configurations are evaluated analytically and experimentally for potential use in spacecraft thermal control systems. Egg-crate, honeycomb, flat-parallel, curved-parallel, chevron-shape, and composite fin radiator panel designs were evaluated in terms of mass, apparent emissivity, meteoroid protection, and ease of fabrication; the parallel-finned GRS in composite form was chosen as the most efficient design. The performance of the composite-finned GRS was compared with that of a silver-backed Teflon radiator. The emissivity and dissipative power capabilities of the GRS and radiator are measured. It is observed that the composite-finned GRS has 34 percent less surface area, 34 percent higher heat flux capability, greater meteoroid protection, and 2.8 times higher mass than the Teflon radiator. Future developments and applications for GRCs are discussed.

  20. The 2008 Passage of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Oval BA as Observed from Hubble/WFPC2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Orton, G. S.; Tsavaris, I.

    2008-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope data of the passage of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and Oval BA were acquired on May 15, June 28 (near closest approach), and July 8. Wind fields were measured from Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) data with 10-hour separations before and after closest approach, and within the GRS with 40-minute separations on all three dates. Color information was also derived using 8 narrowband WFPC2 filters from 343 to 673-nm on all three dates. We will present the results of principal components and wind analyses and discuss unique features seen in this data set. In addition, we will highlight any changes observed in the GRS, Oval BA and their surroundings as a result of the passage, including the movement of a smaller red anticyclone from west of the GRS, around its southern periphery, and to the east of the GRS.

  1. The 2008 Passage of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Oval BA as Observed from Hubble/WFPC2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Orton, G. S.; Tsavaris, I.

    2008-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope data of the passage of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and Oval BA were acquired on May 15, June 28 (near closest approach), and July 8. Wind fields were measured from Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) data with 10-hour separations before and after closest approach, and within the GRS with 40-minute separations on all three dates. Color information was also derived using 8 narrowband WFPC2 filters from 343 to 673-nm on all three dates. We will present the results of principal components and wind analyses and discuss unique features seen in this data set. In addition, we will highlight any changes observed in the GRS, Oval BA and their surroundings as a result of the passage, including the movement of a smaller red anticyclone from west of the GRS, around its southern periphery, and to the east of the GRS.

  2. Inhibition of gelatinized rice starch retrogradation by rice bran protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liya; Wu, Leiyan; Xiao, Jianhui

    2017-11-01

    The retrogradation of gelatinized rice starch (GRS) during the shelf life of a product is the biggest barrier related to starch-containing foods. The objective of this study was to produce rice bran protein hydrolysate (RBPH) using proteolytic enzymes (alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex, neutrase, bromelain, papain and trypsin) to suppress the retrogradation of GRS and understand the physical phenomena underlying the reduced retrogradation of GRS by RBPH during short- and long-term storage. Mixtures of GRS incorporated with Protamex-hydrolyzed rice bran protein at 1h (PRBPH-1) at a degree of hydrolysis of 15.1% were still fresh after storage at 4°C for 14 d. The dynamic time sweep results obtained at 4°C for 180min showed that PRBPH-1 reduced the storage modulus to a greater extent, indicating that PRBPH-1 suppressed the short-term retrogradation of GRS. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) clearly showed that PRBPH-1 significantly decreased the retrogradation enthalpy during the 28-d storage at 4°C, and the retrogradation kinetics were analyzed by the Avrami model. In addition, the recrystallization of GRS based on X-ray diffraction spectroscopy was reduced from 15.41% to 4.86% when the GRS: PRBPH-1mass ratio increased from 100:0 to 100:12. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that PRBPH-1 dispersed between GRS molecules to block the formation of hydrogen bonds to inhibit the recrystallization of GRS. These findings suggested that PRBPH-1 inhibited the short- and long-term retrogradation of GRS, and can be potently employed as a natural alternatives for improving the quality and nutrition of starch-containing foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growing Slowly 1 locus encodes a PLS-type PPR protein required for RNA editing and plant development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tingting; Chen, Dan; Wu, Jian; Huang, Xiaorong; Wang, Yifan; Tang, Keli; Li, Jiayang; Sun, Mengxiang; Peng, Xiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Most pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are involved in organelle post-transcriptional processes, including RNA editing. The PPR proteins include the PLS subfamily, containing characteristic triplets of P, L, and S motifs; however, their editing mechanisms and roles in developmental processes are not fully understood. In this study, we isolated the Arabidopsis thaliana Growing slowly 1 (AtGRS1) gene and showed that it functions in RNA editing and plant development. Arabidopsis null mutants of grs1 exhibit slow growth and sterility. Further analysis showed that cell division activity was reduced dramatically in the roots of grs1 plants. We determined that GRS1 is a nuclear-encoded mitochondria-localized PPR protein, and is a member of the PLS subfamily. GRS1 is responsible for the RNA editing at four specific sites of four mitochondrial mRNAs: nad1-265, nad4L-55, nad6-103, and rps4-377. The first three of these mRNAs encode for the subunits of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Thus, the activity of complex I is strongly reduced in grs1. Changes in RPS4 editing in grs1 plants affect mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis. Expression of the alternative respiratory pathway and the abscisic acid response gene ABI5 were up-regulated in grs1 mutant plants. Genetic analysis revealed that ABI5 is involved in the short root phenotype of grs1. Taken together, our results indicate that AtGRS1 regulates plant development by controlling RNA editing in Arabidopsis. PMID:27670716

  4. Airway distensibility and volume recruitment with lung inflation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Simonetta; Dellacà, Raffaele; Govoni, Leonardo; Torchio, Roberto; Aliverti, Andrea; Pompilio, Pasquale; Corda, Luciano; Tantucci, Claudio; Gulotta, Carlo; Brusasco, Vito; Pellegrino, Riccardo

    2010-10-01

    The effects of full lung inflation on respiratory conductance (Grs) and reactance (Xrs) were measured in 15 subjects with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Airway distensibility was estimated from the ratio of the difference of Grs between functional residual capacity and total lung capacity to the relevant changes in lung volume (ΔGrs/ΔVl) or transpulmonary pressure (ΔGrs/ΔPtp). Similar analysis was applied to Xrs to estimate lung volume recruitment (ΔXrs/ΔVl or ΔXrs/ΔPtp). The extent of emphysema in COPD subjects was estimated from the percentage of low attenuation area (LAA) at high-resolution computed tomography. At baseline, ΔGrs/ΔVl and ΔXrs/ΔVl were significantly less in COPD than control subjects, indicating less distensibility and volume recruitment in the former. In COPD, ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔPtp were uncorrelated with LAA but correlated with 1-s forced expiratory volume and with each other. After albuterol, both ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔGrs/ΔVl became significantly and negatively correlated with LAA, while ΔXrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔVl decreased significantly independently of LAA. Moreover, ΔGrs/ΔPtp and ΔXrs/ΔPtp with lung inflation were no longer correlated with each other, suggesting that airway distensibility and volume recruitment were affected differently by airway smooth muscle tone. Assuming that Grs mainly reflects airway caliber and Xrs the number of ventilated lung units, we conclude that airway smooth muscle contributes to airway stiffness and ventilation inhomogeneities in COPD subjects with prevailing bronchitis but only to the latter in those with more emphysema. We suggest that changes of airway distensibility and volume recruitment with a bronchodilator may be useful for disease phenotyping.

  5. Effects of a Magnetic Field on Hydrogen Evolution Reaction and its Diffusion in Iron and Steel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-10

    ELtCTRO" rLCTROMKEM STRnP CHART 2 he Raee CiruioDagam -0 KNOWN 49106TAN¢| - NYO ~l|N "CCNTAINIPIC PART Figur ". ciematic of the Barnacle C:ell and the...1 NWC, China Lake , CA (Code 3665) ................ * .............. McDonnell-Douglas, St. Louis, MO (A. W. Morris

  6. Genetic risk scores and family history as predictors of schizophrenia in Nordic registers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Pouget, J G; Andreassen, O A; Djurovic, S; Esko, T; Hultman, C M; Metspalu, A; Milani, L; Werge, T; Sullivan, P F

    2017-09-25

    Family history is a long-standing and readily obtainable risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ). Low-cost genotyping technologies have enabled large genetic studies of SCZ, and the results suggest the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS, direct assessments of inherited common variant risk). Few studies have evaluated family history and GRS simultaneously to ask whether one can explain away the other. We studied 5959 SCZ cases and 8717 controls from four Nordic countries. All subjects had family history data from national registers and genome-wide genotypes that were processed through the quality control procedures used by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Using external training data, GRS were estimated for SCZ, bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression, autism, educational attainment, and body mass index. Multivariable modeling was used to estimate effect sizes. Using harmonized genomic and national register data from Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden, we confirmed that family history of SCZ and GRS for SCZ and BIP were risk factors for SCZ. In a joint model, the effects of GRS for SCZ and BIP were essentially unchanged, and the effect of family history was attenuated but remained significant. The predictive capacity of a model including GRS and family history neared the minimum for clinical utility. Combining national register data with measured genetic risk factors represents an important investigative approach for psychotic disorders. Our findings suggest the potential clinical utility of combining GRS and family history for early prediction and diagnostic improvements.

  7. Disclosing genetic risk for coronary heart disease: effects on perceived personal control and genetic counseling satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C L; Jouni, H; Kruisselbrink, T M; Austin, E E; Christensen, K D; Green, R C; Kullo, I J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether disclosure of coronary heart disease (CHD) genetic risk influences perceived personal control (PPC) and genetic counseling satisfaction (GCS). Participants (n = 207, age: 45-65 years) were randomized to receive estimated 10-year risk of CHD based on a conventional risk score (CRS) with or without a genetic risk score (GRS). Risk estimates were disclosed by a genetic counselor who also reviewed how GRS altered risk in those randomized to CRS+GRS. Each participant subsequently met with a physician and then completed surveys to assess PPC and GCS. Participants who received CRS+GRS had higher PPC than those who received CRS alone although the absolute difference was small (25.2 ± 2.7 vs 24.1 ± 3.8, p = 0.04). A greater proportion of CRS+GRS participants had higher GCS scores (17.3 ± 5.3 vs 15.9 ± 6.3, p = 0.06). In the CRS+GRS group, PPC and GCS scores were not correlated with GRS. Within both groups, PPC and GCS scores were similar in patients with or without family history (p = NS). In conclusion, patients who received their genetic risk of CHD had higher PPC and tended to have higher GCS. Our findings suggest that disclosure of genetic risk of CHD together with conventional risk estimates is appreciated by patients. Whether this results in improved outcomes needs additional investigation.

  8. Thermal structure and dynamics of the Jovian Atmosphere. 1: The Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Cunrath, B. J.; Pirraglia, J. A.; Clark, P. C.; French, R. G.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Temperatures and thermal winds, derived from Voyager infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) data over the Great Red Spot (GRS) and its environs, are presented. The atmosphere over the GRS is characterized by a tropopause which is cold relative to its environment and an upper stratosphere which is relatively warm. The cold tropopause implies a decrease in anticyclonic vorticity with height above 500 mb through the lower stratosphere. IRIS observations at 5 microns indicate little emission from the GRS itself, but enhanced emission in a ring about it, in agreement with recent ground based results. The behavior of the tropopause and 5 micron temperatures can be consistently interpreted as resulting from a circulation which rises within the GRS and subsides in the area around it. The explanation of the upper stratospheric temperatures is not so straightforward. A previous suggestion that they may be a manifestation of the linear vertical propagation of Rossby waves appears inconsistent with the gross east-west symmetry in the stratospheric temperatures over the GRS. The implications of the present results for various theoretical models of the GRS are examined, and the possibility that latent heat release drives the GRS is discussed.

  9. Cardioprotection by combination of three compounds from ShengMai preparations in mice with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through AMPK activation-mediated mitochondrial fission

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Fan, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Yu; Pang, Lizhi; Ma, Xiaonan; Song, Meijia; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    GRS is a drug combination of three active components including ginsenoside Rb1, ruscogenin and schisandrin. It derived from the well-known TCM formula ShengMai preparations, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in clinic. The present study explores the cardioprotective effects of GRS on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury compared with ShengMai preparations and investigates the underlying mechanisms. GRS treatment significantly attenuated MI/R injury and exhibited similar efficacy as Shengmai preparations, as evidenced by decreased myocardium infarct size, ameliorated histological features, the decrease of LDH production and improved cardiac function, and also produced a significant decrease of apoptotic index. Mechanistically, GRS alleviated myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis pathway as reflected by inhibition of caspase-3 activity, normalization of Bcl-2/Bax levels and improved mitochondrial function. Moreover, GRS prevented cardiomyocytes mitochondrial fission and upregulated AMPKα phosphorylation. Interestingly, AMPK activation prevented hypoxia and reoxygenation induced mitochondrial fission in cardiomyocytes and GRS actions were significantly attenuated by knockdown of AMPKα. Collectively, these data show that GRS is effective in mitigating MI/R injury by suppressing mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and modulating AMPK activation-mediated mitochondrial fission, thereby providing a rationale for future clinical applications and potential therapeutic strategy for MI/R injury. PMID:27869201

  10. Limited Clinical Utility of a Genetic Risk Score for the Prediction of Fracture Risk in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Joel; Evans, Daniel S.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Shen, Jian; Srikanth, Priya; Hochberg, Marc; McWeeney, Shannon; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Wilmot, Beth; Zmuda, Joseph; Tranah, Greg; Mirel, Daniel B; Challa, Sashi; Mooney, Michael; Crenshaw, Andrew; Karlsson, Magnus; Mellström, Dan; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Orwoll, Eric; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Context It is important to identify the patients at highest risk of fractures. A recent large-scale meta-analysis identified 63 autosomal SNPs associated with bone mineral density (BMD), of which 16 were also associated with fracture risk. Based on these findings two genetic risk scores (GRS63 and GRS16) were developed. Objective To determine the clinical usefulness of these GRS for the prediction of BMD, BMD change and fracture risk in elderly subjects. Design, Settings and Participants Two male (MrOS US, MrOS Sweden) and one female (SOF) large prospective cohorts of older subjects. Main Outcome Measures BMD, BMD change and radiographically and/or medically confirmed incident fractures (8,067 subjects, 2,185 incident non-vertebral or vertebral fractures). Results GRS63 was associated with BMD (≅3% of the variation explained), but not with BMD change. Both GRS63 and GRS16 were associated with fractures. After BMD-adjustment, the effect sizes for these associations were substantially reduced. Similar results were found using an unweighted GRS63 and an unweighted GRS16 compared to those found using the corresponding weighted risk scores. Only minor improvements in C-statistics (AUC) for fractures were seen when the GRSs were added to a base model (age, weight and height) and no significant improvements in C-statistics were seen when they were added to a model further adjusted for BMD. Net reclassification improvements with the addition of the GRSs to a base model were modest and substantially attenuated in BMD-adjusted models. Conclusions and Relevance GRS63 is associated with BMD, but not BMD change, suggesting that the genetic determinants of BMD differ from those of BMD change. When BMD is known, the clinical utility of the two GRSs for fracture prediction is limited in elderly subjects. PMID:25043339

  11. Fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the rat granular retrosplenial cortex.

    PubMed

    Nixima, Ken'ichi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Ichinohe, Noritaka; Kurotani, Tohru

    2017-09-01

    Rodent granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) has dense connections between the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) and hippocampal formation. GRS superficial pyramidal neurons exhibit distinctive late spiking (LS) firing property and form patchy clusters with prominent apical dendritic bundles. The aim of this study was to investigate spatiotemporal dynamics of signal transduction in the GRS induced by ATN afferent stimulation by using fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging in rat brain slices. In coronal slices, layer 1a stimulation, which presumably activated thalamic fibers, evoked propagation of excitatory synaptic signals from layers 2-4 to layers 5-6 in a direction perpendicular to the layer axis, followed by transverse signal propagation within each layer. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, inhibitory responses were observed in superficial layers, induced by direct activation of inhibitory interneurons in layer 1. In horizontal slices, excitatory signals in deep layers propagated transversely mainly from posterior to anterior via superficial layers. Cortical inhibitory responses upon layer 1a stimulation in horizontal slices were weaker than those in the coronal slices. Observed differences between coronal and horizontal planes suggest anisotropy of the intracortical circuitry. In conclusion, ATN inputs are processed differently in coronal and horizontal planes of the GRS and then conveyed to other cortical areas. In both planes, GRS superficial layers play an important role in signal propagation, which suggests that superficial neuronal cascade is crucial in the integration of multiple information sources.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Superficial neurons in the rat granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) show distinctive late-spiking (LS) firing property. However, little is known about spatiotemporal dynamics of signal transduction in the GRS. We demonstrated LS neuron network relaying thalamic inputs to deep layers and anisotropic distribution of inhibition

  12. A 45-SNP genetic risk score is increased in early-onset coronary artery disease but independent of familial disease clustering.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten K; Nyegaard, Mette; Pedersen, Lisbeth N; Larsen, Sanne B; Würtz, Morten; Hjort, Jakob; Kristensen, Steen D; Jensen, Henrik K

    2017-02-01

    Common genetic risk variants may contribute to the heritability of early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to investigate the association of a genetic risk score (GRS) with age upon CAD-onset and to test the association between the GRS, familial clustering, and CAD severity in early-onset CAD. 134 early-onset CAD patients (<40 years), 446 late-onset CAD patients (male >55 years/female >65 years), and 89 healthy controls were genotyped for 45 CAD-associated SNPs and a GRS was created. In early-onset CAD patients, family pedigrees with information on 1585 1st and 2nd degree relatives were used to calculate a stratified log-rank family score (SLFS) as a measure of familial clustering. Early-onset patients had a higher mean GRS than late-onset CAD patients (p = 0.02) and healthy controls (p < 0.0001). In the adjusted model, a GRS increase of one SD was associated with 1.2 years (95% CI 0.1-2.2) earlier onset. The GRS was not associated with the SLFS in the regression model (p = 0.41) and did not differ between SLFS tertiles (p = 0.98). The SLFS predicted the number of affected coronary vessels (OR [95% CI] per SD increase in SLFS: 2.0 [1.4-3.0]), whereas the association between the GRS and CAD severity was not statistically significant (OR [95% CI] per SD increase in GRS: 1.3 [0.9-1.9]). The GRS was increased in early-onset CAD patients, but not associated with the SLFS, suggesting that these common genetic variants are of minor importance in familial clustering of early-onset CAD. Furthermore, family pedigree analysis may predict CAD severity more precisely than common variants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two gamma-ray spectral classes of black hole transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, J. E.; Kroeger, R. A.; Strickman, M. S.

    1997-01-01

    The observation of seven transient black hole candidates by the oriented scintillation spectrometer experiment (OSSE) is reviewed: GRO J0422+32; GX 339-4; GRS 1716-249; GRS 1009-45; 4U 1543-47; GRO J1655-40, and GRS 1915+105. Two gamma ray spectral classes are apparent. The former three objects show Comptonized spectra with exponential cutoff at approximately 100 keV, while the latter four have fairly soft power law spectra. The Comptonized spectra appear to be associated with the X-ray low state, while the power law spectra appear to be associated with the X-ray high state.

  14. Gamma-ray/neutron spectroscopy from the Mars observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englert, P.; Reedy, R. C.; Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Squyres, S. W.; Evans, L. G.; Boynton, W. V.

    1987-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) experiment on Mars Observer will measure gamma rays and neutrons that escape from Mars. The intensities of gamma-ray lines and of the thermal and epithermal neutrons can be used to study many problems related to Martian volcanism and volatiles. The results of theoretical calculations for the production and transport of gamma rays and neutrons indicate that the GRS should be able to determine the abundances of many elements and the amounts and stratigraphy of H2O and CO2 on and in the top meter of the Martian surface. Design considerations of the GRS are discussed.

  15. Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey`s quaternions, and RRQM

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-02-01

    The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive`s {open_quotes}Menshevik{close_quotes} position); (2) the author`s bit-string {open_quotes}Theory of Everything{close_quotes} (which Clive has dubbed {open_quotes}Bolshevik{close_quotes}); (3) Manthey`s cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence.

  16. American Geriatrics Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... to expand and update your knowledge of the field. An indispensable tool for those who are preparing for certification and recertification exams, the GRS includes 350 self-assessment ... Social Media Bar Right ...

  17. KSC01pp0194

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) is installed by technicians on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility 2 (SAEF 2).; The orbiter will carry three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment with regards to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  18. KSC01pp0192

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Technicians guide The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS)into place to be installed on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility 2 (SAEF 2).The orbiter will carry three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment with regards to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  19. KSC01pp0193

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Technicians guide The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS); into place to be installed on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility 2 (SAEF 2).; The orbiter will carry three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment with regards to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  20. KSC01pp0188

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Technicians check out the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) before it is installed on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II (SAEF II) .; The orbiter will carry three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment with regards to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  1. Gravitational Reference Sensor Front-End Electronics Simulator for LISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; ten Pierick, Jan; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; ">LISA Pathfinder colaboration, GRS). It is based on the GRS FEE-simulator already implemented for LISA Pathfinder. It considers, in particular, the non-linearity and the critical details of hardware, such as the non-linear multiplicative noise caused by voltage reference instability, test mass charging and detailed actuation and sensing algorithms. We present the simulation modules, considering the above-mentioned features. Based on the ETH GRS FEE-simulator for LISA Pathfinder we aim to develop a modular simulator that provides a realistic simulation of GRS FEE for LISA.

  2. Geochemistry of Martian Surficial Materials with Gamma Ray Data from Mars Odyssey: Initial Observations for Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Reedy, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Petersen, M. T.; Evans, L. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Keller, J. M.; Janes, D. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Karunatillake, S.; GRS Team

    2007-03-01

    The distribution of calcium on Mars observed by the Mars Odyssey GRS confirms the variable composition of surficial materials on Mars, which may reflect bedrock variations and/or chemical mobilization due to aqueous processes.

  3. 36 CFR 1226.26 - How do agencies donate temporary records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the records, (iii) The SF 115 or GRS and item numbers that authorize destruction of the records; (4) A... donation will be made without cost to the U.S. Government; (5) A certification that: (i) The...

  4. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-07

    False color representation of Jupiter Great Red Spot GRS taken by NASA Galileo imaging system. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation.

  5. Conjecture about a hurricane system in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Maeda, K.; Harris, I.

    1985-01-01

    Arguments are presented in support of the hypothesis that the Great Red Spot (GRS) of Jupiter is a giant hurricane, and that the same decription might apply to the smaller vortices such as the white and brown ovals (barges) on the surface of Jupiter. Estimates of the spin-down times constants for the white and brown oval vortices, indicate that the motions must be sustained by the continued release of internal energy. In analogy with the CISK mechanism for terrestrial hurricanes, transport of water vapor is identified as a possible latent energy source. On the basis of the large size and long life time of the GRS, (indicating extreme depth), it is suggested that the hurricane GRS hurricane may have been induced by meteor impact. Voyager 1 images of the GRS are provided.

  6. Current Status of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on SELENE (Kaguya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Hasebe, N.; Shibamura, E.; Miyachi, T.; Takashima, T.; Okudaira, O.; Yamashita, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Karouji, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Ebihara, M.; Arai, T.; Sugihara, T.; Takeda, H.; Iwabuchi, K.; Hayatsu, K.; Nemoto, S.; Hihara, T.; D

    2008-03-01

    The Japanese lunar polar orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) was launched last summer and carries a gamma ray spectrometer. In this presentation, the current status of the GRS observation and early observation data are shown.

  7. 77 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Amendment 80 cooperatives from undue compliance costs stemming from the mandatory GRS rates, but continue... source of the variation in the retention estimates may stem from differences in the data used in the...

  8. 36 CFR 1226.12 - How do agencies disseminate approved schedules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... system within six months of approval of the SF 115 or GRS to ensure proper distribution and application... distributed. (c) The submission must include the name, title, agency, address, and phone number of...

  9. Final report of the environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer system technology demonstration at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Williams, C.V.

    1997-08-01

    The environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRs system during drilling are compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  10. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the GRS-S Spanish Form. Results indicated strong internal consistency for teacher ratings with alphas ranging from .98 to .99. Intercorrelations between scales are moderate to strong, ranging from .88 to .97. Factor testing of two separate models supported a six factor model proposed by authors of the GRS-S. Results provided initial support for the GRS-S Spanish translated version as a reliable and potentially useful screening measure to assist in the identification of island Puerto Rican gifted students. PMID:26388705

  11. Bitter taste receptors confer diverse functions to neurons

    PubMed Central

    Delventhal, Rebecca; Carlson, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bitter compounds elicit an aversive response. In Drosophila, bitter-sensitive taste neurons coexpress many members of the Gr family of taste receptors. However, the molecular logic of bitter signaling is unknown. We used an in vivo expression approach to analyze the logic of bitter taste signaling. Ectopic or overexpression of bitter Grs increased endogenous responses or conferred novel responses. Surprisingly, expression of Grs also suppressed many endogenous bitter responses. Conversely, deletion of an endogenous Gr led to novel responses. Expression of individual Grs conferred strikingly different effects in different neurons. The results support a model in which bitter Grs interact, exhibiting competition, inhibition, or activation. The results have broad implications for the problem of how taste systems evolve to detect new environmental dangers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11181.001 PMID:26880560

  12. The tropospheric abundances of NH3 and PH3 in Jupiter's Great Red Spot, from Voyager IRIS observations.

    PubMed

    Griffith, C A; Bezard, B; Owen, T; Gautier, D

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the chemistry and dynamics of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS), the tropospheric abundances of NH3 and PH3 in the GRS are determined and compared to those of the surrounding region, the South Tropical Zone (STZ). These gases well up from deep in the atmosphere, and, in the upper troposphere, are depleted by condensation (in the case of NH3), chemical reactions, and UV photolysis. At Jupiter's tropopause, the chemical lifetimes of NH3 and PH3 are comparable to the time constant for vertical transport over the atmospheric scale height. The distributions of these gases are therefore diagnostic of the rate of vertical transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Three groups of Voyager IRIS spectra are analyzed, two of the STZ and one of the GRS. The two groups of STZ spectra are defined on the basis of their radiances at 602 and 226 cm-1, which reflect, respectively, the temperature near 150 mbar and the cloud opacity in the 300-600 mbar region. One selection of STZ spectra is chosen to have the same radiance as does the GRS at 226 cm-1. The other STZ selection has a significantly greater radiance, indicative of reduced cloudiness. Variations in the abundances of NH3 and PH3 are determined within the STZ, as a background for our studies of the GRS. Within the uncertainty of our measurements (-55% and +75%), the PH3 mixing ratio at 600 mbar is 3 x 10(-7), the same for all three selections. The NH3 mixing ratio profile in the pressure region between 300 and 600 mbar is the same within error (-25% and +50% at 300 mbar) for both STZ selections. In the GRS, however, NH3 is significantly depleted at 300 mbar, with an abundance of 25% that derived for the STZ selections. Since the GRS is believed to be a region of strong vertical transport, our finding of a depletion of NH3 below the tropopause within the GRS is particularly unexpected. One of the STZ selections has a temperature-pressure profile similar to that of the GRS below the 300-mbar level

  13. Velocity and vorticity measurements of Jupiter's Great Red Spot using automated cloud feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, David S.; Banfield, Don; Gierasch, Peter; Showman, Adam P.

    2007-05-01

    We have produced mosaics of the Great Red Spot (GRS) using images taken by the Galileo spacecraft in May 2000, and have measured the winds of the GRS using an automated algorithm that does not require manual cloud tracking. Our technique yields a high-density, regular grid of wind velocity vectors that is advantageous over a limited number of scattered wind vectors that result from manual cloud tracking. The high-velocity collar of the GRS is clearly seen from our velocity vector map, and highest wind velocities are measured to be around 170 m s -1. The high resolution of the mosaics has also enabled us to map turbulent eddies inside the chaotic central region of the GRS, similar to those mapped by Sada et al. [Sada, P.V., Beebe, R.F., Conrath, B.J., 1996. Icarus 119, 311-335]. Using the wind velocity measurements, we computed particle trajectories around the GRS as well as maps of relative and absolute vorticities. We have discovered a narrow ring of cyclonic vorticity that surrounds the main anti-cyclonic high-velocity collar. This narrow ring appears to correspond to a ring surrounding the GRS that is bright in 5 μm [Terrile, R.J., Beebe, R.F., 1979. Science 204, 948-951]. It appears that this cyclonic ring is not a transient feature of the GRS, as we have discovered it in a re-analysis of Galileo data taken in 1996 first analyzed by Vasavada et al. [Vasavada, A.R., and 13 colleagues, 1998. Icarus 135, 265-275]. We also calculate how absolute vorticity changes as a function of latitude along a trajectory around the GRS and compare these measurements to similar ones performed by Dowling and Ingersoll [Dowling, T.E., Ingersoll, A.P., 1988. J. Atmos. Sci. 45, 1380-1396] using Voyager data. We show no dramatic evolution in the structure of the GRS since the Voyager era except for additional evidence for a counter-rotating GRS core, an increase in velocity in the main velocity collar, and an overall decrease in the length of the GRS.

  14. Moving Target Detection with Along-Track SAR Interferometry. A Theoretical Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    1994). Intensity and Phase Statistics of Multilook Polarimetric and Interfer- ometric SAR Imagery. IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GRS-32(5... Multilook Polarimetric Signatures. IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GRS-32(3), 562-574. 4. Gierull, C.H. (July 2001). Statistics of SAR ...Along-Track SAR Interferometry A Theoretical Analysis Christoph H. Gierull DISTRIBUTION STATEMENTA Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited

  15. Spectral feature of 31 December 1981 gamma-ray burst not confirmed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Share, G. H.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Matz, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of a gamma ray burst at 01:37 UT on December 31, 1981 using the SMM gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) are compared with those made by the Konus instruments on Veneras 11-14. Burst time profiles, photon spectra, and detector energy loss spectra for three time intervals are compared for the GRS and the Konus instruments. It is concluded that the SMM spectra exhibit no evidence for the presence of emission features reported by the Konus group.

  16. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two US populations.

    PubMed

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K; Smith, Caren E; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M

    2014-12-01

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and body mass index (BMI) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, and to replicate findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 white US participants from GOLDN and 2,035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and <0.001 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). SFA intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although determining the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs.

  17. Highly Strong and Elastic Graphene Fibres Prepared from Universal Graphene Oxide Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoji; Hou, Chengyi; Shao, Yuanlong; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Zhu, Meifang

    2014-02-01

    Graphene fibres are continuously prepared from universal graphene oxide precursors by a novel hydrogel-assisted spinning method. With assistance of a rolling process, meters of ribbon-like GFs, or GRs with improved conductivity, tensile strength, and a long-range ordered compact layer structure are successfully obtained. Furthermore, we refined our spinning process to obtained elastic GRs with a mixing microstructure and exceptional elasticity, which may provide a platform for electronic skins and wearable electronics, sensors, and energy devices.

  18. Highly Strong and Elastic Graphene Fibres Prepared from Universal Graphene Oxide Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoji; Hou, Chengyi; Shao, Yuanlong; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Zhu, Meifang

    2014-01-01

    Graphene fibres are continuously prepared from universal graphene oxide precursors by a novel hydrogel-assisted spinning method. With assistance of a rolling process, meters of ribbon-like GFs, or GRs with improved conductivity, tensile strength, and a long-range ordered compact layer structure are successfully obtained. Furthermore, we refined our spinning process to obtained elastic GRs with a mixing microstructure and exceptional elasticity, which may provide a platform for electronic skins and wearable electronics, sensors, and energy devices. PMID:24576869

  19. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

    2011-06-08

    In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage.

  20. AAPSilver System Performance Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    chosen for the four BPPs (Table 1) mirrored those of an earlier RDC study, to provide calculations that were comparable with earlier versions of...Public December 2012 APPENDIX A. NATIONAL GEODETIC SURVEY FORWARD OUTPUT FOR BPP ALPHA Output from FORWARD Ellipsoid : GRS80 / WGS84 (NAD83...Back azimuth BAZ = 210 0 1.2835 From North Ellipsoidal distance S = 91.4400 m Output from FORWARD Ellipsoid : GRS80

  1. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between a genetic risk score of obesity and BMI in two US populations

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K.; Smith, Caren E.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and BMI in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and to replicate findings in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 US Caucasian participants from GOLDN and 2035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and <0.001 in GOLDN, MESA and meta-analysis, respectively). SFA intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although to determine the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs. PMID:24794412

  2. Velocity and Vorticity Measurements of Jupiter's Great Red Spot Using Automated Cloud Feature Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, David S.; Banfield, D.; Gierasch, P. J.; Showman, A. P.

    2006-09-01

    We have produced mosaics of the Great Red Spot (GRS) using images taken by Galileo in May 2000, and have measured the winds of the GRS using an automated algorithm that does not require manual cloud tracking. Our technique yields a high-density, regular grid of wind velocity vectors that is advantageous over a limited number of scattered wind vectors that result from manual cloud tracking. The high-velocity collar of the GRS is clearly seen in our velocity vector map, and highest wind velocities are measured to be 166.4 m/s. The high resolution of the mosaics have also enabled us to map turbulent eddies inside the chaotic central region of the GRS, similar to those mapped by Sada et al. (1996) and Vasavada et al. (1998). We have also discovered a narrow ring of cyclonic vorticity that surrounds the main anti-cyclonic high-velocity collar. This narrow ring appears to correspond to a ring surrounding the GRS that is bright in 5-um (Terrile et al. 1979). It appears that this cyclonic ring is not a transient feature of the GRS, as we have discovered it in a re-analysis of Galileo images from 1996, first analyzed by Vasavada et al. (1998). Cyclonic rings around Jovian anti-cyclones have also appeared in numerical modeling studies by Showman (2006). We also calculate how absolute vorticity changes as a function of latitude along particle trajectories around the GRS and compare these measurements to similar ones performed by Dowling & Ingersoll (1988) using Voyager data. From this comparison, we show no dramatic evolution in the structure of the GRS since the Voyager era. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grants to APS and PJG, along with support from Cornell Presidential Research Scholars.

  3. Integration and Evaluation of a Position Sensor with Continuous Read-Out for use with the Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling Gamma Ray Spectrometer System

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled waste retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling were compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples. The demonstration of the EMWD-GRS was a complete success. The results show general agreement between the soil sampling and EMWD-GRS techniques for CS-137. It was recognized that the EMWD-GRS tool would better satisfy our customers' needs if the instrument location could be continuously monitored. During the demonstration at SRS, an electromagnetic beacon with a walkover monitor (Subsite{reg_sign}) was used to measure bit location at depth. To use a beacon locator drilling must be stopped, thus it is normally only used when a new section of pipe was added. The location of contamination could only be estimated based on the position of the EMED-GRS package and the distance between locator beacon readings. A continuous location system that would allow us to know the location of each spectrum as it is obtained is needed.

  4. A genetic risk tool for obesity predisposition assessment and personalized nutrition implementation based on macronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    There is little evidence about genetic risk score (GRS)-diet interactions in order to provide personalized nutrition based on the genotype. The aim of the study was to assess the value of a GRS on obesity prediction and to further evaluate the interactions between the GRS and dietary intake on obesity. A total of 711 seekers of a Nutrigenetic Service were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements and also for dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of 16 SNPs (related with obesity or lipid metabolism) using DNA zip-coded beads. Genotypes were coded as 0, 1 or 2 according to the number of risk alleles, and the GRS was calculated by adding risk alleles with such a criterion. After being adjusted for gender, age, physical activity and energy intake, the GRS demonstrated that individuals carrying >7 risk alleles had in average 0.93 kg/m(2) of BMI, 1.69 % of body fat mass, 1.94 cm of waist circumference and 0.01 waist-to-height ratio more than the individuals with ≤7 risk alleles. Significant interactions for GRS and the consumption of energy, total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates and fiber intake on adiposity traits were found after adjusted for confounders variables. The GRS confirmed that the high genetic risk group showed greater values of adiposity than the low risk group and demonstrated that macronutrient intake modifies the GRS association with adiposity traits.

  5. The Vertical and Dynamical Structure of Jupiter's Great Red SPOT and Environs as Determined by Galileo/NIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, K. H.; Carlson, R. W.; Newman, E. C.

    1998-09-01

    Multi-spectral imagery of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) acquired by the Galileo/NIMS are used to constrain the temporal and spatial variability of the vertical aerosol structure and the distribution of ammonia in and around this most-prominent anti-cyclonic feature. As previously noted (Baines et al., B. A. A. S. 28, 1136, 1996), the GRS exhibits a high-altitude core spanning about 3/4 of its visual size when viewed with moderate absorption wavelengths, indicating a bulk elliptical, "wedding cake" shape in it's overall three-dimensional cloud structure. A distinctive spiral pattern within the GRS core is seen in moderate methane and hydrogen absorption bandpasses. This pattern - which has been modelled to show a 2 km variation in cloudtop pressure within the GRS - is inconsistent with a different spiral-shaped pattern observed in ammonia-sensitive wavelengths, thus indicating spatial variability not only in the column abundance of ammonia within the GRS, but in its mixing ratio as well. An anomolous feature is observed to the northwest of the GRS in images obtained June 27, 1996. Located in the turbulent region to the northwest of the GRS, at 329.2 W, 11.8 S (System III, planetocentric), the feature exhibits (1) high reflectivity at continuum and moderate absorption wavelengths below 2.0 micron, (2) low thermal transmission at 5 micron, but (3) anomolously low reflectivity at the 2.73-micron continuum. Together, these measurements suggest an optically thick, far-red-absorbing cloud at moderately-high altitudes (above 1 bar), perhaps indicative of unusually vigorous vertical transport of large (several micron diameter) ammonia or water particles to the high troposphere induced by the turbulent flow associated with the GRS. If so, this turbulent region may be the best site yet found for mining the deep clouds of Jupiter.

  6. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Read, Emma K; Bell, Catriona; Rhind, Susan; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations) are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL) or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS) to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies [R(D)SVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school). All raters assessed all students (video recordings) during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing). Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(D)SVS) were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM). Generalizability theory (G theory), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater), and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study) showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  7. Genetic Obesity Risk and Attenuation Effect of Physical Fitness in Mexican-Mestizo Population: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Costa-Urrutia, Paula; Abud, Carolina; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Colistro, Valentina; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha Eunice; Vázquez-Pérez, Joel; Granados, Julio; Seelaender, Marilia

    2017-05-01

    We analyzed commonly reported European and Asian obesity-related gene variants in a Mexican-Mestizo population through each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 23 selected SNPs. Study subjects were physically active Mexican-Mestizo adults (n  =  608) with body mass index (BMI) values from 18 to 55 kg/m(2) . For each SNP and for the GRS, logistic models were performed to test for simple SNP associations with BMI, fat mass percentage (FMP), waist circumference (WC), and the interaction with VO2max and muscular endurance (ME). To further understand the SNP or GRS*physical fitness components, generalized linear models were performed. Obesity risk was significantly associated to 6 SNPs (ADRB2 rs1042713, APOB rs512535, PPARA rs1800206, TNFA rs361525, TRHR rs7832552 and rs16892496) after adjustment by gender, age, ancestry, VO2max , and ME. ME attenuated the influence of APOB rs512535 and TNFA rs361525 on obesity risk in FMP. WC was significantly associated to GRS. Both ME and VO2max attenuated GRS effect on WC. We report associations for 6 out of 23 SNPs and for the GRS, which confer obesity risk, a novel finding for Mexican-Mestizo physically active population. Also, the importance of including physical fitness components variables in obesity genetic risk studies is highlighted, with special regard to intervention purposes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  8. Graphene-Roll-Wrapped Prussian Blue Nanospheres as a High-Performance Binder-Free Cathode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiahuan; Sun, Shixiong; Peng, Jian; Liu, Bo; Huang, Yangyang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yuyu; Jin, Yu; Liu, Yi; Qiu, Yuegang; Li, Qing; Han, Jiantao; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-08-02

    Sodium iron hexacyanoferrate (Fe-HCF) has been proposed as a promising cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of its desirable advantages, including high theoretical capacity (∼170 mAh g(-1)), eco-friendliness, and low cost of worldwide rich sodium and iron resources. Nonetheless, its application faces a number of obstacles due to poor electronic conductivity and structural instability. In this work, Fe-HCF nanospheres (NSs) were first synthesized and fabricated by an in situ graphene rolls (GRs) wrapping method, forming a 1D tubular hierarchical structure of Fe-HCF NSs@GRs. GRs not only provide fast electronic conduction path for Fe-HCF NSs but also effectively prevent organic electrolyte from reaching active materials and inhibit the occurrence of side reactions. The Fe-HCF NSs@GRs composite has been used as a binder-free cathode with a capacity of ∼110 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 150 mA g(-1) (∼1C), the capacity retention of ∼90% after 500 cycles. Moreover, the Fe-HCF NSs@GRs cathode displays a super high rate capability with ∼95 mAh g(-1) at 1500 mA g(-1) (∼10C). The results suggest that the 1D tubular structure of 2D GRs-wrapped Fe-HCF NSs is promising as a high-performance cathode for SIBs.

  9. The effect of GWAS identified BMI loci on changes in body weight among middle-aged Danes during a five-year period.

    PubMed

    Sandholt, C H; Allin, K H; Toft, U; Borglykke, A; Ribel-Madsen, R; Sparso, T; Justesen, J M; Harder, M N; Jørgensen, T; Hansen, T; Pedersen, O

    2014-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associating with BMI, however, it is un-clarified whether the same variants also influence body weight fluctuations. Among 3,982 adult individuals that attended both a baseline and a five-year follow-up examination in the Danish Inter99 intervention study, a genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed based on 30 BMI variants to address whether it is associated with body weight changes. Moreover, it was examined whether the effect of lifestyle changes was modulated by the GRS. The GRS associated strongly with baseline body weight, with a per risk allele increase of 0.45 (0.33-0.58) kg (P = 2.7 × 10(-12) ), corresponding to a body weight difference of 3.41 (2.21-4.60) kg comparing the highest (≥ 30 risk alleles) and lowest (≤ 26 risk alleles) risk allele tertile. No association was observed with changes in body weight during the five years. Changes in lifestyle, including physical activity, diet and smoking habits associated strongly with body weight changes, however, no interactions with the GRS was observed. The GRS associated with body weight cross-sectionally, but not with changes over a five-year period. Body weight changes were influenced by lifestyle changes, however, independently of the GRS. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Using an Alzheimer Disease Polygenic Risk Score to Predict Memory Decline in Black and White Americans Over 14 Years of Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Marden, Jessica R; Mayeda, Elizabeth R; Walter, Stefan; Vivot, Alexandre; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, M Maria

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on whether genetic predictors of Alzheimer disease (AD) also predict memory decline is inconsistent, and limited data are available for African ancestry populations. For 8253 non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) Health and Retirement Study participants with memory scores measured 1 to 8 times between 1998 and 2012 (average baseline age=62), we calculated weighted polygenic risk scores [AD Genetic Risk Score (AD-GRS)] using the top 22 AD-associated loci, and an alternative score excluding apolipoprotein E (APOE) (AD-GRSexAPOE). We used generalized linear models with AD-GRS-by-age and AD-GRS-by-age interactions (age centered at 70) to predict memory decline. Average NHB decline was 26% faster than NHW decline (P<0.001). Among NHW, 10% higher AD-GRS predicted faster memory decline (linear β=-0.058 unit decrease over 10 y; 95% confidence interval,-0.074 to -0.043). AD-GRSexAPOE also predicted faster decline for NHW, although less strongly. Among NHB, AD-GRS predicted faster memory decline (linear β=-0.050; 95% confidence interval, -0.106 to 0.006), but AD-GRSexAPOE did not. Our nonsignificant estimate among NHB may reflect insufficient statistical power or a misspecified AD-GRS among NHB as an overwhelming majority of genome-wide association studies are conducted in NHW. A polygenic score based on previously identified AD loci predicts memory loss in US blacks and whites.

  11. Lifestyle and Metformin Ameliorate Insulin Sensitivity Independently of the Genetic Burden of Established Insulin Resistance Variants in Diabetes Prevention Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    Hivert, Marie-France; Christophi, Costas A.; Franks, Paul W.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Ehrmann, David A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Horton, Edward S.; Pollin, Toni I.; Mather, Kieren J.; Perreault, Leigh; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Knowler, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Large genome-wide association studies of glycemic traits have identified genetics variants that are associated with insulin resistance (IR) in the general population. It is unknown whether people with genetic enrichment for these IR variants respond differently to interventions that aim to improve insulin sensitivity. We built a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 17 established IR variants and effect sizes (weighted IR-GRS) in 2,713 participants of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) with genetic consent. We tested associations between the weighted IR-GRS and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) at baseline in all participants, and with change in ISI over 1 year of follow-up in the DPP intervention (metformin and lifestyle) and control (placebo) arms. All models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and waist circumference at baseline (plus baseline ISI for 1-year ISI change models). A higher IR-GRS was associated with lower baseline ISI (β = −0.754 [SE = 0.229] log-ISI per unit, P = 0.001 in fully adjusted models). There was no differential effect of treatment for the association between the IR-GRS on the change in ISI; higher IR-GRS was associated with an attenuation in ISI improvement over 1 year (β = −0.520 [SE = 0.233], P = 0.03 in fully adjusted models; all treatment arms). Lifestyle intervention and metformin treatment improved the ISI, regardless of the genetic burden of IR variants. PMID:26525880

  12. A Drosophila gustatory receptor required for the responses to sucrose, glucose, and maltose identified by mRNA tagging.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuchen; Moon, Seok Jun; Montell, Craig

    2007-08-28

    In Drosophila, detection of tastants is thought to be mediated by members of a family of 68 gustatory receptors (Grs). However, only one receptor, Gr5a, has been associated with a sugar, and it appears to be activated specifically by trehalose. It is unclear whether other sugar receptors are activated by single or multiple sugars. Currently, no Grs are known to colocalize with Gr5a. Such Grs would be candidate sugar receptors because Gr5a-expressing cells function in the responses to attractive tastants. Here we use an "mRNA tagging" approach to identify Gr RNAs that are coexpressed with Gr5a. We found that all seven Grs most related to Gr5a (Gr64a-f and Gr61a) were expressed in Gr5a-expressing cells, whereas none of the other Grs examined were enriched in these Gr neurons (GRNs). We characterized the role of one Gr5a-related receptor, Gr64a, and found that it was required for the behavioral responses to glucose, sucrose, and maltose. Gr64a was required for GRN function because action potentials induced by these sugars were dependent on expression of Gr64a in GRNs. These data demonstrate that multiple Grs are coexpressed with Gr5a and that Drosophila Gr64a is required for the responses to multiple sugars.

  13. Real-time detecting gelatinases activity in living cells by FRET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix by Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) not only enhances tumor invasion, but also affects tumor cell behaviour and leads to cancer progression. To monitor gelatinases (contain MMP2 and MMP9) activity in living cells, we constructed a vector that encoded a gelatinases recognition site (GRS) between citrine (mutation of EYFP Q69M) in N terminal and ECFP in C terminal. Because Gelatinases are secretory proteins and act outside of cell, an expressing vector displayed the fusion protein on cellular surface was used for this FRET gene probe. On expression of YFP-GRS-ECFP in MCF-7 cells that expressed no gelatinases, we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited ECFP to YFP within the YFP-GRS-ECFP molecule. However, the fusion protein YFP-GRS-ECFP was expressed in MDA-MB 453s cell line with high secretory gelatinases, so YFP-GRS-ECFP was cleaved by gelatinases, no such transfer of energy was detected and fluorescence signal disappeared in YFP channel since YFP protein was cut down. Moreover, Doxycycline, a MMP inhibitor, could make FRET signal increase and fluorescence signal appeared in YFP channel. Thus, the FRET probe YFP-GRS-ECFP can sensitively and reliably monitor gelatinases activation in living cells and can be used for screening MMP inhibitors.

  14. Influence of acid mine drainage on microbial communities in stream and groundwater samples at Guryong Mine, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaisoo; Koo, So-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Don; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ko, Dong-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2009-10-01

    The effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a stream and groundwater near an abandoned copper mine were characterized by physicochemical properties, bacterial community structure using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE), and microbial activity/diversity using Ecoplate technique. Based on DGGE fingerprints, the eubacterial community structures grouped into the stream water (GRS1, GRS2 and GRS3) and groundwater samples (GW1 and GW2), apparently based on differences in water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrate and sulfate. The most highly AMD-contaminated sample (GRS1) had additional α-Proteobacteria whereas the groundwater samples included additional β-Proteobacteria, suggesting the development of populations resistant to AMD toxicity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Community level physiological activities on the 31 Ecoplate substrates suggested that the activities decreased with increasing concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals derived from AMD. The Shannon index showed that microbial diversity was greatest in GRS2, and lowest in GRS1, and was probably related to the level of AMD.

  15. Emergency medicine resident crisis resource management ability: a simulation-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Samuel; Horeczko, Timothy; Carlisle, Matthew; Barton, Joseph D; Ng, Vivienne; Al-Somali, Sameerah; Bair, Aaron E

    2014-01-01

    Simulation has been identified as a means of assessing resident physicians' mastery of technical skills, but there is a lack of evidence for its utility in longitudinal assessments of residents' non-technical clinical abilities. We evaluated the growth of crisis resource management (CRM) skills in the simulation setting using a validated tool, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). We hypothesized that the Ottawa GRS would reflect progressive growth of CRM ability throughout residency. Forty-five emergency medicine residents were tracked with annual simulation assessments between 2006 and 2011. We used mixed-methods repeated-measures regression analyses to evaluate elements of the Ottawa GRS by level of training to predict performance growth throughout a 3-year residency. Ottawa GRS scores increased over time, and the domains of leadership, problem solving, and resource utilization, in particular, were predictive of overall performance. There was a significant gain in all Ottawa GRS components between postgraduate years 1 and 2, but no significant difference in GRS performance between years 2 and 3. In summary, CRM skills are progressive abilities, and simulation is a useful modality for tracking their development. Modification of this tool may be needed to assess advanced learners' gains in performance.

  16. The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI)

    PubMed

    Los Arcos JM; Bailador; Gonzalez; Gonzalez; Gorostiza; Ortiz; Sanchez; Shaw; Williart

    2000-03-01

    The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI) is being implemented by a reasearch team in the frame of a joint project between CIEMAT (Unidad de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes and Direccion de Informatica) and the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED, Departamento de Mecanica y Departamento de Fisica de Materiales). This paper presents the main objectives of BANDRRI, its dynamic and relational data base structure, interactive Web accessibility and its main radionuclide-related contents at this moment.

  17. A comparison of global rating scale and checklist scores in the validation of an evaluation tool to assess performance in the resuscitation of critically ill patients during simulated emergencies (abbreviated as "CRM simulator study IB").

    PubMed

    Kim, John; Neilipovitz, David; Cardinal, Pierre; Chiu, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Crisis resource management (CRM) skills are a set of nonmedical skills required to manage medical emergencies. There is currently no gold standard for evaluation of CRM performance. A prior study examined the use of a global rating scale (GRS) to evaluate CRM performance. This current study compared the use of a GRS and a checklist as formal rating instruments to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. First-year and third-year residents participated in two simulator scenarios each. Three raters then evaluated resident performance in CRM using edited video recordings using both a GRS and a checklist. The Ottawa GRS provides a seven-point anchored ordinal scale for performance in five categories of CRM, and an overall performance score. The Ottawa CRM checklist provides 12 items in the five categories of CRM, with a maximum cumulative score of 30 points. Construct validity was measured on the basis of content validity, response process, internal structure, and response to other variables. T-test analysis of Ottawa GRS scores was conducted to examine response to the variable of level of training. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) scores were used to measure inter-rater reliability for both scenarios. Thirty-two first-year and 28 third-year residents participated in the study. Third-year residents produced higher mean scores for overall CRM performance than first-year residents (P < 0.05), and in all individual categories within the Ottawa GRS (P < 0.05) and the Ottawa CRM checklist (P < 0.05). This difference was noted for both scenarios and for each individual rater (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in resident scores was observed between scenarios for both instruments. ICC scores of 0.59 and 0.61 were obtained for Scenarios 1 and 2 with the Ottawa GRS, whereas ICC scores of 0.63 and 0.55 were obtained with the Ottawa CRM checklist. Users indicated a strong preference for the Ottawa GRS given ease of scoring, presence of an

  18. A genetic risk score combining 32 SNPs is associated with body mass index and improves obesity prediction in people with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Fa; Breen, Gerome; Czamara, Darina; Corre, Tanguy; Wolf, Christiane; Kloiber, Stefan; Bergmann, Sven; Craddock, Nick; Gill, Michael; Holsboer, Florian; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Korszun, Ania; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lucae, Susanne; Maier, Wolfgang; Mors, Ole; Owen, Michael J; Rice, John; Rietschel, Marcella; Uher, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Craig, Ian W; Farmer, Anne E; Lewis, Cathryn M; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Preisig, Martin; McGuffin, Peter; Rivera, Margarita

    2015-04-17

    Obesity is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and various other diseases. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple risk loci robustly associated with body mass index (BMI). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a genetic risk score (GRS) combining multiple BMI risk loci might have utility in prediction of obesity in patients with MDD. Linear and logistic regression models were conducted to predict BMI and obesity, respectively, in three independent large case-control studies of major depression (Radiant, GSK-Munich, PsyCoLaus). The analyses were first performed in the whole sample and then separately in depressed cases and controls. An unweighted GRS was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles. A weighted GRS was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the discriminatory ability of predictors of obesity. In the discovery phase, a total of 2,521 participants (1,895 depressed patients and 626 controls) were included from the Radiant study. Both unweighted and weighted GRS were highly associated with BMI (P < 0.001) but explained only a modest amount of variance. Adding 'traditional' risk factors to GRS significantly improved the predictive ability with the area under the curve (AUC) in the ROC analysis, increasing from 0.58 to 0.66 (95% CI, 0.62-0.68; χ(2) = 27.68; P < 0.0001). Although there was no formal evidence of interaction between depression status and GRS, there was further improvement in AUC in the ROC analysis when depression status was added to the model (AUC = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68-0.73; χ(2) = 28.64; P <0.0001). We further found that the GRS accounted for more variance of BMI in depressed patients than in healthy controls. Again, GRS discriminated obesity better in depressed patients compared to healthy controls. We later replicated these analyses in two independent samples (GSK

  19. Incorporating a Genetic Risk Score Into Coronary Heart Disease Risk Estimates: Effect on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels (the MI-GENES Clinical Trial).

    PubMed

    Kullo, Iftikhar J; Jouni, Hayan; Austin, Erin E; Brown, Sherry-Ann; Kruisselbrink, Teresa M; Isseh, Iyad N; Haddad, Raad A; Marroush, Tariq S; Shameer, Khader; Olson, Janet E; Broeckel, Ulrich; Green, Robert C; Schaid, Daniel J; Montori, Victor M; Bailey, Kent R

    2016-03-22

    Whether knowledge of genetic risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) affects health-related outcomes is unknown. We investigated whether incorporating a genetic risk score (GRS) in CHD risk estimates lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Participants (n=203, 45-65 years of age, at intermediate risk for CHD, and not on statins) were randomly assigned to receive their 10-year probability of CHD based either on a conventional risk score (CRS) or CRS + GRS ((+)GRS). Participants in the (+)GRS group were stratified as having high or average/low GRS. Risk was disclosed by a genetic counselor followed by shared decision making regarding statin therapy with a physician. We compared the primary end point of LDL-C levels at 6 months and assessed whether any differences were attributable to changes in dietary fat intake, physical activity levels, or statin use. Participants (mean age, 59.4±5 years; 48% men; mean 10-year CHD risk, 8.5±4.1%) were allocated to receive either CRS (n=100) or (+)GRS (n=103). At the end of the study period, the (+)GRS group had a lower LDL-C than the CRS group (96.5±32.7 versus 105.9±33.3 mg/dL; P=0.04). Participants with high GRS had lower LDL-C levels (92.3±32.9 mg/dL) than CRS participants (P=0.02) but not participants with low GRS (100.9±32.2 mg/dL; P=0.18). Statins were initiated more often in the (+)GRS group than in the CRS group (39% versus 22%, P<0.01). No significant differences in dietary fat intake and physical activity levels were noted. Disclosure of CHD risk estimates that incorporated genetic risk information led to lower LDL-C levels than disclosure of CHD risk based on conventional risk factors alone. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01936675. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Grossular activity-composition relationships in ternary garnets determined by reversed displaced-equilibrium experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziol, Andrea M.; Newton, Robert C.

    1989-12-01

    Activity-composition relationships of Ca3Al2Si3O12 (grs) in ternary Ca-Mg-Fe garnets of various compositions have been determined by reversed displaced equilibrium experiments at 1000° C and 900° C and pressures of 8 to 17 kbar. The mixing of grs in garnet is nearly ideal at 30 mol% grs, with positive deviations from ideality at lower grs contents. Models of garnet mixing currently in the literature do not predict this trend. Analysis of the present reversals, in conjunction with a garnet mixing model based solely on calorimetry measurements on the binary joins, indicates that a ternary interaction constant for a ternary asymmetric Margules model (Wohl 1953) cannot be constrained. Apparently, some aspects of the garnet binary joins are still not well-known. An alternative asymmetric empirical model, based on analysis of pseudobinary joins of constant Mg/Mg + Fe(Mg #), reproduces the data well and is able to predict grs activity coefficients for garnets with grs contents between 3 and 40 mol% and Mg numbers between 0 and 0.60. The grossular activity coefficient, γ grs, is given by: 410_2005_Article_BF01041750_TeX2GIFE1.gif RTln γ _{grs} = (1 - X_{grs} )^2 [W_{Ca} + 2X_{grs} (W_{FM} - W_{Ca} )] where: 410_2005_Article_BF01041750_TeX2GIFE2.gif begin{gathered} W_{Ca} (J) = - 2060 + 3.57 × 10^4 (Mg# ) - 4.95 × 10^4 (Mg# )^2 \\ W_{FM} (J) = 3390 - 3.71 × 10^4 (Mg# ) + 6.49 × 10^4 (Mg# )^2 \\ These expressions are valid only over the composition range investigated. The formulation cannot be used to extract Fe and Mg activity coefficients. There appears to be no temperature or pressure dependence of the W-parameters over the P-T range investigated. The improved definition of the grossular activity coefficient which results from the present work contributes to an improved formulation of the garnet-Al2SiO5-quartz-plagioclase (GASP) geobarometer and other phase equilibria relevant to metamorphic petrology.

  1. Increasing insulin resistance accentuates the effect of triglyceride-associated loci on serum triglycerides during 5 years.

    PubMed

    Justesen, Johanne M; Andersson, Ehm A; Allin, Kristine H; Sandholt, Camilla H; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan; Jørgensen, Marit E; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Grarup, Niels

    2016-12-01

    Blood concentrations of triglycerides are influenced by genetic factors as well as a number of environmental factors, including adiposity and glucose homeostasis. The aim was to investigate the association between a serum triglyceride weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and changes in fasting serum triglyceride level over 5 years and to test whether the effect of the wGRS was modified by 5 year changes of adiposity, insulin resistance, and lifestyle factors. A total of 3,474 nondiabetic individuals from the Danish Inter99 cohort participated in both the baseline and 5 year follow-up physical examinations and had information on the wGRS comprising 39 genetic variants. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, and baseline serum triglyceride, the wGRS was associated with increased serum triglyceride levels over 5 years [per allele effect = 1.3% (1.0-1.6%); P = 1.0 × 10(-17)]. This triglyceride-increasing effect of the wGRS interacted with changes in insulin resistance (Pinteraction = 1.5 × 10(-6)). This interaction indicated that the effect of the wGRS was stronger in individuals who became more insulin resistant over 5 years. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased genetic risk load is associated with a larger increase in fasting serum triglyceride levels in nondiabetic individuals during 5 years of follow-up. This effect of the wGRS is accentuated by increasing insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Influence of External Resistance on Electrogenesis, Methanogenesis, and Anode Prokaryotic Communities in Microbial Fuel Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sokhee; Regan, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The external resistance (Rext) of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) regulates both the anode availability as an electron acceptor and the electron flux through the circuit. We evaluated the effects of Rext on MFCs using acetate or glucose. The average current densities (I) ranged from 40.5 mA/m2 (9,800 Ω) to 284.5 mA/m2 (150 Ω) for acetate-fed MFCs (acetate-fed reactors [ARs]), with a corresponding anode potential (Ean) range of −188 to −4 mV (versus a standard hydrogen electrode [SHE]). For glucose-fed MFCs (glucose-fed reactors [GRs]), I ranged from 40.0 mA/m2 (9,800 Ω) to 273.0 mA/m2 (150 Ω), with a corresponding Ean range of −189 to −7 mV. ARs produced higher Coulombic efficiencies and energy efficiencies than GRs over all tested Rext levels because of electron and potential losses from glucose fermentation. Biogas production accounted for 14 to 18% of electron flux in GRs but only 0 to 6% of that in ARs. GRs produced similar levels of methane, regardless of the Rext. However, total methane production in ARs increased as Rext increased, suggesting that Ean might influence the competition for substrates between exoelectrogens and methanogens in ARs. An increase of Rext to 9,800 Ω significantly changed the anode bacterial communities for both ARs and GRs, while operating at 970 Ω and 150 Ω had little effect. Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major groups found in anode communities in ARs and GRs. Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were found only in ARs. Bacilli were abundant only in GRs. The anode-methanogenic communities were dominated by Methanosaetaceae, with significantly lower numbers of Methanomicrobiales. These results show that Rext affects not only the Ean and current generation but also the anode biofilm community and methanogenesis. PMID:21075886

  3. Genetic predisposition to obesity and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Juan; Hong, Jie; Qi, Lu; Cui, Bin; Gu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Lijuan; Miao, Lin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2014-10-10

    Obesity has been associated with increased common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between genetic predisposition to obesity and CCA IMT. The study included 428 young Chinese adults with CCA IMT measured using a high-resolution B-mode tomographic ultrasound system. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) by summing the risk alleles of 6 obesity-associated genetic variants confirmed in our previous analyses. The GRS was significantly associated with greater CCA IMT (p<0.001) after adjustment for age and gender. Per 2 alleles of the GRS was related to 0.023 mm increment in IMT. The association was attenuated by one half with additional adjustment for obesity status, but remained significant (p=0.009). In addition, we found that blood pressure significantly modified the association between the GRS and CCA IMT (p for interaction=0.001). The associations between the GRS and CCA IMT were stronger in participants with systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg (per 2 allele increment of the GRS relating to 0.028 mm greater CCA IMT, p for trend<0.001) than those with SBP<120 mmHg and DBP<80 mmHg (per 2 allele increment of the GRS relating to 0.001 smaller CCA IMT, p for trend=0.930). Our data provides suggestive evidence supporting the potential causal relation between obesity and development of subclinical atherosclerosis. Elevated blood pressure might amplify the adverse effect of obesity on cardiovascular risk.

  4. The Faint "Heartbeats" of IGR J17091-3624: An Exceptional Black Hole Candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Linares, M.; VanDerKlis, M.; Wunands, R.; Curran, P. A.; Kalamkar, M.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Casella, P.; Krimm, H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR Jl7091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that JGR J17091-3624 shows the nu, rho, alpha, lambda, Beta, and mu classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the chi class, all occurring at 2-60 keY count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+\\05. The so-called rho class "heartbeats" occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as approx 100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+\\05. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR Jl7091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR Il7091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known( <3 solar M).

  5. Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Genetic Background Roles within a Web-Based Nutritional Intervention: The Food4Me Study.

    PubMed

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; O'Donovan, Clare B; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Manios, Yannis; Jarosz, Miroslaw; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Drevon, Christian A; Gundersen, Thomas E; Gibney, Mike; Saris, Wim H M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Grimaldi, Keith; Parnell, Laurence D; Bouwman, Jildau; Van Ommen, Ben; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2017-10-11

    Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic background throughout the Food4Me web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Several genetic variants related to metabolic risk features were also analysed. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was derived from risk alleles and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), based on validated food intake data, was estimated. At baseline, there were no interactions between GRS and MDS categories for metabolic traits. Linear mixed model repeated measures analyses showed a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol in participants with a low GRS after a 6-month period, compared to those with a high GRS. Meanwhile, a high baseline MDS was associated with greater decreases in Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference and glucose. There also was a significant interaction between GRS and the MedDiet after the follow-up period. Among subjects with a high GRS, those with a high MDS evidenced a highly significant reduction in total carotenoids, while among those with a low GRS, there was no difference associated with MDS levels. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic outcomes, which can be affected by the genetic background in some specific markers.

  6. Utility of a Genetic Risk Score to Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events 1 Year After an Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Pooled Analysis of the RISCA, PRAXY, and TRIUMPH Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Labos, Christopher; Martinez, Sara C.; Leo Wang, Rui Hao; Lenzini, Petra A.; Pilote, Louise; Bogaty, Peter; Brophy, James M.; Engert, James C.; Cresci, Sharon; Thanassoulis, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists regarding the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS) in predicting recurrent cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We sought to determine whether a GRS would predict early recurrent cardiovascular events within 1 year of ACS. Methods & Results Participants admitted with acute coronary syndromes from the RISCA, PRAXY, and TRIUMPH cohorts, were genotyped for 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) in prior genome wide association studies. A 30 SNP CAD/MI GRS was constructed. The primary endpoint was defined as all-cause mortality, recurrent ACS or cardiac re-hospitalization within 1 year of ACS admission. Results across all cohorts for the 30 SNP CAD/MI GRS were pooled using a random-effects model. There were 1040 patients from the RISCA cohort, 691 patients from the PRAXY cohort, and 1772 patients from the TRIUMPH cohort included in the analysis and 389 occurrences of the primary endpoint of recurrent events at 1-year post-ACS. In unadjusted and fully adjusted analyses, a 30 SNP GRS was not significantly associated with recurrent events (HR per allele 0.97 (95%CI 0.91–1.03) for RISCA, HR 0.99 (95%CI 0.93–1.05) for PRAXY, 0.98 (95%CI 0.94–1.02) for TRIUMPH, and 0.98 (95%CI 0.95–1.01) for the pooled analysis). Addition of this GRS to the GRACE risk model did not significantly improve risk prediction. Conclusion The 30 MI SNP GRS was not associated with recurrent events 1-year post ACS in pooled analyses across cohorts and did not improve risk discrimination or reclassification indices. Our results suggest that the genetic etiology of early events post-ACS may differ from later events. PMID:26232166

  7. A genetic risk score is associated with hepatic triglyceride content and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Mexicans with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    León-Mimila, Paola; Vega-Badillo, Joel; Gutiérrez-Vidal, Roxana; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villareal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; López-Contreras, Blanca E; Kauffer, Luis R Macías; Maldonado-Pintado, Diana G; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Tovar, Armando R; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Campos-Pérez, Francisco; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near/in PNPLA3, NCAN, LYPLAL1, PPP1R3B, and GCKR genes associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mainly in individuals of European ancestry. The aim of the study was to test whether these genetic variants and a genetic risk score (GRS) are associated with elevated liver fat content and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in Mexicans with morbid obesity. 130 morbidly obese Mexican individuals were genotyped for six SNPs in/near PNPLA3, NCAN, LYPLAL1, PPP1R3B, and GCKR genes. Hepatic fat content [triglyceride (HTG) and total cholesterol (HTC)] was quantified directly in liver biopsies and NASH was diagnosed by histology. A GRS was tested for association with liver fat content and NASH using logistic regression models. In addition, 95 ancestry-informative markers were genotyped to estimate population admixture proportions. After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, PNPLA3, LYPLAL1, GCKR and PPP1R3B polymorphisms were associated with higher HTG content (P < 0.05 for PNPLA3, LYPLAL1, GCKR polymorphisms and P = 0.086 for PPP1R3B). The GRS was significantly associated with higher HTG and HTC content (P = 1.0 × 10(-4) and 0.048, respectively), steatosis stage (P = 0.029), and higher ALT levels (P = 0.002). Subjects with GRS ≥ 6 showed a significantly increased risk of NASH (OR = 2.55, P = 0.045) compared to those with GRS ≤ 5. However, the GRS did not predict NASH status, as AUC of ROC curves was 0.56 (P = 0.219). NAFLD associated loci in Europeans and a GRS based on these loci contribute to the accumulation of hepatic lipids and NASH in morbidly obese Mexican individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations of genetic risk score with obesity and related traits and the modifying effect of physical activity in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingwen; Loos, Ruth J F; Lu, Ling; Zong, Geng; Gan, Wei; Ye, Xingwang; Sun, Liang; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with BMI, predominantly in European ancestry (EA) populations. However, associations of these loci with obesity and related traits have not been well described in Chinese Hans. This study aimed to investigate whether BMI-associated loci are, individually and collectively, associated with adiposity-related traits and obesity in Chinese Hans and whether these associations are modified by physical activity (PA). We genotyped 28 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a population-based cohort including 2,894 unrelated Han Chinese. Genetic risk score (GRS), EA and East Asian ancestry (EAA) GRSs were calculated by adding BMI-increasing alleles based on all, EA and EAA identified SNPs, respectively. Interactions of GRS and PA were examined by including the interaction-term in the regression model. Individually, 26 of 28 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI, and associations of four loci (TMEM18, PCSK1, BDNF and MAP2K5) reached nominal significance (P<0.05). The GRS was associated with increased BMI, trunk fat and body fat percentages; and increased risk of obesity and overweight (all P<0.05). Effect sizes (0.11 vs. 0.17 kg/m2) and explained variance (0.90% vs. 1.45%) of GRS for BMI tended to be lower in Chinese Hans than in Europeans. The EA GRS and EAA GRS were associated with 0.11 and 0.13 kg/m2 higher BMI, respectively. In addition, we found that PA attenuated the effect of the GRS on BMI (Pinteraction = 0.022). Our observations suggest that the combined effect of obesity-susceptibility loci on BMI tended to be lower in Han Chinese than in EA. The overall, EA and EAA GRSs exert similar effects on adiposity traits. Genetic predisposition to increased BMI is attenuated by PA in this population of Han Chinese.

  9. Assessment of the value of a genetic risk score in improving the estimation of coronary risk

    PubMed Central

    Lluis-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Lucas, Gavin; Tomás, Marta; Muñoz, Daniel; Sentí, Mariano; Salas, Eduardo; Sala, Joan; Ramos, Rafel; Ordovas, Jose M; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association has established criteria for the evaluation of novel markers of cardiovascular risk. In accordance with these criteria, we assessed the association between a multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), and evaluated whether this GRS improves the predictive capacity of the Framingham risk function. Methods and results Using eight genetic variants associated with CHD but not with classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), we generated a multi-locus GRS, and found it to be linearly associated with CHD in two population based cohorts: The REGICOR Study (n=2,351) and The Framingham Heart Study (n=3,537) (meta-analyzed HR [95%CI]: ~1.13 [1.01–1.27], per unit). Inclusion of the GRS in the Framingham risk function improved its discriminative capacity in the Framingham sample (c-statistic: 72.81 vs.72.37, p=0.042) but not in the REGICOR sample. According to both the net reclassification improvement (NRI) index and the integrated discrimination index (IDI), the GRS improved re-classification among individuals with intermediate coronary risk (meta-analysis NRI [95%CI]: 17.44 [8.04; 26.83]), but not overall. Conclusions A multi-locus GRS based on genetic variants unrelated to CVRFs was associated with a linear increase in risk of CHD events in two distinct populations. This GRS improves risk reclassification particularly in the population at intermediate coronary risk. These results indicate the potential value of the inclusion of genetic information in classical functions for risk assessment in the intermediate risk population group. PMID:22521901

  10. Distribution of glucocorticoid receptors and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms in the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Kumagami, Hidetaka; Terakado, Mariko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as a therapeutic modality for the inner ear disorders including Ménière's disease (MD). The concentration of GCs in the target cells is known to be regulated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD), an enzyme complex responsible for the conversion of hormonally active cortisol into inactive cortisone. There is no morphologic indication of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and 11β-HSD isoforms (11β-HSD1 and 2) in human inner ear. The objectives of this study are to determine whether GRs and the isoforms of 11β-HSD are present in human inner ear tissues and to reveal their precise distribution. This study investigated the expression of GRs and 11β-HSD isoforms (11β-HSD1 and 2) in the human inner ear. In humans, immunostaining of GRs, 11β-HSD1, and 11β-HSD2 was performed in the stria vascularis (SV) and the vestibular tissues, whereas in the cochlear tissues except for the SV, only GRs were investigated. Immunoreactivity of GRs was detected in the SV, outer hair cells, inner hair cell, spiral ligament, Reissner's membrane, vestibular hair cells, vestibular nerve, transitional cells, and dark cells of the crista ampullaris. 11β-HSD1 was observed in the SV, the apical area of the vestibular hair cells, the transitional cells, and the dark cells. However, no immunoreactivity of 11β-HSD2 was observed. Those data indicate that different local steroid regulation by GRs and the isoforms of 11β-HSD is present in various parts of the human inner ear tissues and that the tissues are a direct therapeutic target of glucocorticoids in the inner ear diseases.

  11. The Spatial Variation of Water and Ammonia near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Orton, G. S.; Collard, A. D.; Stromovsky, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    The CSHELL spectrometer at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility was used in August 1996 to observe Jupiter at 5.18 microns. This wavelength sounds the 3-8 bar region in Jupiter's deep troposphere. A 1-arcsec-wide slit was aligned east-west on Jupiter and stepped from north to south across the Great Red Spot (GRS). Within our spectral bandpass are absorption lines of NH3 and a hot band of CH4. Radiative transfer models indicate that the strength of the CH4 feature is anti-correlated with gaseous H2O between 3 and 6 bars. The CH4 feature is predicted to be very strong for H2O abundances less than 10ppm and it should vanish when H2O > 300ppm. The depths of the observed CH4 and NH3 absorption features varied dramatically near the GRS. The center and east side (planetocentric) of the GRS is dry in both volatiles as indicated by strong CH4 absorption and a weak NH3 line. The CH4 line vanishes and the NH3 feature grows stronger on the west side of the GRS. We interpret this as due to a real variation in both volatiles - H2O and NH3 - due to a common dynamical mechanism. Water clouds are expected to be accompanied by saturated gaseous H2O profiles between 3 and 5 bars. The Galileo imaging team (Banfield et al 1998 Icarus 135, p230) deduced the presence of a cloud near the 4-bar level northwest of the GRS. Our data indicate that this same region is volatile rich; thus the combination of the two datasets provides a compelling case for a water cloud at this location. The deep volatile abundance does not correlate with 5-micron continuum opacity near the GRS. This suggests that the spatial variation of the 5-micron flux near the GRS is due primarily to NH3 clouds, rather than H2O clouds.

  12. Design of a randomized controlled trial of disclosing genomic risk of coronary heart disease: the Myocardial Infarction Genes (MI-GENES) study.

    PubMed

    Kullo, Iftikhar J; Jouni, Hayan; Olson, Janet E; Montori, Victor M; Bailey, Kent R

    2015-08-15

    Whether disclosure of a genetic risk score (GRS) for a common disease influences relevant clinical outcomes is unknown. We describe design of the Myocardial Infarction Genes (MI-GENES) Study, a randomized clinical trial to assess whether disclosing a GRS for coronary heart disease (CHD) leads to lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. We performed an initial screening genotyping of 28 CHD susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are not associated with blood pressure or lipid levels, in 1000 individuals from Olmsted County, Minnesota who were participants in the Mayo Clinic BioBank and met eligibility criteria. We calculated GRS based on 28 SNPs and will enroll 110 patients each in two CHD genomic risk categories: high (GRS ≥1.1), and average/low (GRS <1.1). The study coordinator will obtain informed consent for the study that includes placing genetic testing results in the electronic health record. Participants will undergo a blood draw and return 6-10 weeks later (Visit 2) once genotyping is completed and a GRS calculated. At this visit, patients will be randomized (1:1) to receive CHD risk estimates from a genetic counselor based on a conventional risk score (CRS) vs. GRS, followed by shared decision making with a physician regarding statin use. Three and six months following the disclosure of CHD risk, participants will return for measurement of fasting lipid levels and assessment of changes in dietary fat intake and physical activity levels. Psychosocial measures will be assessed at baseline and after disclosure of CHD risk. The proposed trial will provide insights into the clinical utility of genetic testing for CHD risk assessment. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01936675 .

  13. Assessment of central venous catheterization in a simulated model using a motion-tracking device: an experimental validation study.

    PubMed

    Varas, Julián; Achurra, Pablo; León, Felipe; Castillo, Richard; De La Fuente, Natalia; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Clede, Leticia; Bravo, María P; Corvetto, Marcia; Montaña, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a basic requirement for many medical specialties. Simulated training in CVC may allow the acquisition of this competency but few reports have established a valid methodology for learning and acquiring procedural skills for CVC. This study aims to validate the use of a tracking motion device, the imperial college surgical assessment device (ICSAD), by comparing it with validated global rating scales (GRS) to measure CVC performance in a simulated torso. Senior year medical students, first and last year residents (PGY1, LYR), and expert anesthesiologists performed a jugular CVC assessment in a simulated model (Laerdal IV Torso). A validated GRS for objective assessment of technical skills and motion analysis by ICSAD was used. Statistical analysis was performed through Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests for construct validity and Spearman correlation coefficients between the ICSAD and GRS scores for concurrent validity between both. 32 subjects were recruited (10 medical students, 8 PGY1, 8 LYR and 8 experts). Total path length measured with ICSAD and GRS scores were significantly different between all groups, except for LYR compared to experts (p = 0.664 for GRS and p = 0.72 for ICSAD). Regarding jugular CVC procedural time, LYR and experts were faster than PGY1 and MS (p < 0.05). Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.684 (p < 0.001) between ICSAD and GRS scores. ICSAD is a valid tool for assessment of jugular CVC since it differentiates between expert and novice subjects, and correlates with a validated GRS for jugular CVC in a simulated torso.

  14. Genetic Susceptibility, Change in Physical Activity, and Long-term Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiange; Huang, Tao; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Zheng, Yan; Ma, Wenjie; Jensen, Majken K; Kang, Jae H; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R; Rimm, Eric B; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Qi, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Whether change in physical activity over time modifies the genetic susceptibility to long-term weight gain is unknown. We calculated a BMI-genetic risk score (GRS) based on 77 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a body fat percentage (BF%)-GRS based on 12 BF%-associated SNPs in 9,390 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 5,291 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). We analyzed the interactions between each GRS and change in physical activity on BMI/body weight change within five 4-year intervals from 1986 to 2006 using multivariable generalized linear models with repeated-measures analyses. Both the BMI-GRS and the BF%-GRS were associated with long-term increases in BMI/weight, and change in physical activity consistently interacted with the BF%-GRS on BMI change in the NHS (P for interaction = 0.025) and HPFS (P for interaction = 0.001). In the combined cohorts, 4-year BMI change per 10-risk allele increment was -0.02 kg/m(2) among participants with greatest increase in physical activity and 0.24 kg/m(2) among those with greatest decrease in physical activity (P for interaction < 0.001), corresponding to 0.01 kg versus 0.63 kg weight changes every 4 years (P for interaction = 0.001). Similar but marginal interactions were observed for the BMI-GRS (P for interaction = 0.045). Our data indicate that the genetic susceptibility to weight gain may be diminished by increasing physical activity. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. The Spatial Variation of Water and Ammonia near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Orton, G. S.; Collard, A. D.; Stromovsky, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    The CSHELL spectrometer at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility was used in August 1996 to observe Jupiter at 5.18 microns. This wavelength sounds the 3-8 bar region in Jupiter's deep troposphere. A 1-arcsec-wide slit was aligned east-west on Jupiter and stepped from north to south across the Great Red Spot (GRS). Within our spectral bandpass are absorption lines of NH3 and a hot band of CH4. Radiative transfer models indicate that the strength of the CH4 feature is anti-correlated with gaseous H2O between 3 and 6 bars. The CH4 feature is predicted to be very strong for H2O abundances less than 10ppm and it should vanish when H2O > 300ppm. The depths of the observed CH4 and NH3 absorption features varied dramatically near the GRS. The center and east side (planetocentric) of the GRS is dry in both volatiles as indicated by strong CH4 absorption and a weak NH3 line. The CH4 line vanishes and the NH3 feature grows stronger on the west side of the GRS. We interpret this as due to a real variation in both volatiles - H2O and NH3 - due to a common dynamical mechanism. Water clouds are expected to be accompanied by saturated gaseous H2O profiles between 3 and 5 bars. The Galileo imaging team (Banfield et al 1998 Icarus 135, p230) deduced the presence of a cloud near the 4-bar level northwest of the GRS. Our data indicate that this same region is volatile rich; thus the combination of the two datasets provides a compelling case for a water cloud at this location. The deep volatile abundance does not correlate with 5-micron continuum opacity near the GRS. This suggests that the spatial variation of the 5-micron flux near the GRS is due primarily to NH3 clouds, rather than H2O clouds.

  16. Impact of a Genetic Risk Score on Myocardial Infarction Risk Across Different Ethnic Populations.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Philip G; Pare, Guillaume; Asma, Senay; Engert, James C; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2016-12-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) risk varies by ethnicity, although the influence of genetic factors remains unclear. Using a genetic risk score (GRS), we examined the association between 25 coronary artery disease (CAD)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and MI across 6 ethnic groups. We studied 8556 participants in the INTERHEART case-control study from 6 ethnic groups: Europeans, South Asians, Southeast Asians, Arabs, Latin Americans, and Africans. Associations between the GRS and MI were tested in each group by logistic regression and overall by meta-analysis. Overall, the GRS increased the odds of MI by 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09) per risk allele in the unadjusted model, with little change (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09) after adjusting for demographic and modifiable factors. In Europeans, South Asians, Southeast Asians, and Arabs, the GRS was significantly associated with MI, with minimal heterogeneity observed. In these groups, a score > 23 risk alleles (highest 4 quintiles) was associated with only a 5% difference in population attributable risk (PAR) (36% to 41%) for MI. The GRS was not significant in Latin Americans or Africans. In the overall cohort, modest changes, beyond clinical factors, in PAR (88% to 91%), concordance statistic (0.73 to 0.74), and continuous net reclassification improvement (12%) were observed with the GRS. A CAD GRS is associated with MI across a multiethnic cohort, with significant and consistent effects across 4 distinct ethnicities. However, it only modestly improves MI risk prediction beyond clinical factors. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Utility of a genetic risk score to predict recurrent cardiovascular events 1 year after an acute coronary syndrome: A pooled analysis of the RISCA, PRAXY, and TRIUMPH cohorts.

    PubMed

    Labos, Christopher; Martinez, Sara C; Leo Wang, Rui Hao; Lenzini, Petra A; Pilote, Louise; Bogaty, Peter; Brophy, James M; Engert, James C; Cresci, Sharon; Thanassoulis, George

    2015-09-01

    Limited evidence exists regarding the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS) in predicting recurrent cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We sought to determine whether a GRS would predict early recurrent cardiovascular events within 1 year of ACS. Participants admitted with acute coronary syndromes from the RISCA, PRAXY, and TRIUMPH cohorts, were genotyped for 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) in prior genome wide association studies. A 30 SNP CAD/MI GRS was constructed. The primary endpoint was defined as all-cause mortality, recurrent ACS or cardiac re-hospitalization within 1 year of ACS admission. Results across all cohorts for the 30 SNP CAD/MI GRS were pooled using a random-effects model. There were 1040 patients from the RISCA cohort, 691 patients from the PRAXY cohort, and 1772 patients from the TRIUMPH cohort included in the analysis and 389 occurrences of the primary endpoint of recurrent events at 1-year post-ACS. In unadjusted and fully adjusted analyses, a 30 SNP GRS was not significantly associated with recurrent events (HR per allele 0.97 (95%CI 0.91-1.03) for RISCA, HR 0.99 (95%CI 0.93-1.05) for PRAXY, 0.98 (95%CI 0.94-1.02) for TRIUMPH, and 0.98 (95%CI 0.95-1.01) for the pooled analysis). Addition of this GRS to the GRACE risk model did not significantly improve risk prediction. The 30 MI SNP GRS was not associated with recurrent events 1-year post ACS in pooled analyses across cohorts and did not improve risk discrimination or reclassification indices. Our results suggest that the genetic etiology of early events post-ACS may differ from later events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermoelastic properties of grossular-andradite solid solution at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dawei; Kuang, Yunqian; Xu, Jingui; Li, Bo; Zhou, Wenge; Xie, Hongsen

    2017-02-01

    The pressure-volume-temperature ( P- V- T) equation of state (EoS) of synthetic grossular (Grs)-andradite (And) solid-solution garnet sample have been measured at high temperature up to 900 K and high pressures up to 22.75 GPa for Grs50And50, by using in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and diamond anvil cell. Analysis of room-temperature P- V data to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan (BM) EoS yields: V 0 = 1706.8 ± 0.2 Å3, K 0 = 164 ± 2 GPa and K' 0 = 4.7 ± 0.5. Fitting of our P- V- T data by means of the high-temperature third-order BM EoS gives the thermoelastic parameters: V 0 = 1706.9 ± 0.2 Å3, K 0 = 164 ± 2 GPa, K' 0 = 4.7 ± 0.2, (∂K/∂T) P = -0.018 ± 0.002 GPa K-1, and α 0 = (2.94 ± 0.07) × 10-5 K-1. The results also confirm that grossular content increases the bulk modulus of the Grs-And join following a nearly ideal mixing model. The relation between bulk modulus and Grs mole fraction ( X Grs) in this garnet join is derived to be K 0 (GPa) = (163.7 ± 0.7) + (0.14 ± 0.02) X Grs ( R 2 = 0.985). Present results are also compared to previously studies determined the thermoelastic properties of Grs-And garnets.

  19. Genomic prediction of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Gad; Havulinna, Aki S.; Bhalala, Oneil G.; Byars, Sean G.; De Livera, Alysha M.; Yetukuri, Laxman; Tikkanen, Emmi; Perola, Markus; Schunkert, Heribert; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Palotie, Aarno; Samani, Nilesh J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Inouye, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aims Genetics plays an important role in coronary heart disease (CHD) but the clinical utility of genomic risk scores (GRSs) relative to clinical risk scores, such as the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), is unclear. Our aim was to construct and externally validate a CHD GRS, in terms of lifetime CHD risk and relative to traditional clinical risk scores. Methods and results We generated a GRS of 49 310 SNPs based on a CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium meta-analysis of CHD, then independently tested it using five prospective population cohorts (three FINRISK cohorts, combined n = 12 676, 757 incident CHD events; two Framingham Heart Study cohorts (FHS), combined n = 3406, 587 incident CHD events). The GRS was associated with incident CHD (FINRISK HR = 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–1.86 per S.D. of GRS; Framingham HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18–1.38), and was largely unchanged by adjustment for known risk factors, including family history. Integration of the GRS with the FRS or ACC/AHA13 scores improved the 10 years risk prediction (meta-analysis C-index: +1.5–1.6%, P < 0.001), particularly for individuals ≥60 years old (meta-analysis C-index: +4.6–5.1%, P < 0.001). Importantly, the GRS captured substantially different trajectories of absolute risk, with men in the top 20% of attaining 10% cumulative CHD risk 12–18 y earlier than those in the bottom 20%. High genomic risk was partially compensated for by low systolic blood pressure, low cholesterol level, and non-smoking. Conclusions A GRS based on a large number of SNPs improves CHD risk prediction and encodes different trajectories of lifetime risk not captured by traditional clinical risk scores. PMID:27655226

  20. A weighted genetic risk score using all known susceptibility variants to estimate rheumatoid arthritis risk

    PubMed Central

    Yarwood, Annie; Han, Buhm; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Lunt, Mark; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Plenge, Robert; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne; Eyre, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background There is currently great interest in the incorporation of genetic susceptibility loci into screening models to identify individuals at high risk of disease. Here, we present the first risk prediction model including all 46 known genetic loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was created using 45 RA non-human leucocyte antigen (HLA) susceptibility loci, imputed amino acids at HLA-DRB1 (11, 71 and 74), HLA-DPB1 (position 9) HLA-B (position 9) and gender. The wGRS was tested in 11 366 RA cases and 15 489 healthy controls. The risk of developing RA was estimated using logistic regression by dividing the wGRS into quintiles. The ability of the wGRS to discriminate between cases and controls was assessed by receiver operator characteristic analysis and discrimination improvement tests. Results Individuals in the highest risk group showed significantly increased odds of developing anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive RA compared to the lowest risk group (OR 27.13, 95% CI 23.70 to 31.05). The wGRS was validated in an independent cohort that showed similar results (area under the curve 0.78, OR 18.00, 95% CI 13.67 to 23.71). Comparison of the full wGRS with a wGRS in which HLA amino acids were replaced by a HLA tag single-nucleotide polymorphism showed a significant loss of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Our study suggests that in RA, even when using all known genetic susceptibility variants, prediction performance remains modest; while this is insufficiently accurate for general population screening, it may prove of more use in targeted studies. Our study has also highlighted the importance of including HLA variation in risk prediction models. PMID:24092415

  1. Validity evidence of non-technical skills assessment instruments in simulated anaesthesia crisis management.

    PubMed

    Jirativanont, T; Raksamani, K; Aroonpruksakul, N; Apidechakul, P; Suraseranivongse, S

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the validity of two non-technical skills evaluation instruments, the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) behavioural marker system and the Ottawa Global Rating Scale (GRS), to apply them to anaesthesia training. The content validity, response process, internal structure, relations with other variables and consequences were described for validity evidence. Simulated crisis management sessions were initiated during which two trained raters evaluated the performance of postgraduate first-, second- and third-year (PGY-1, PGY-2 and PGY-3) anaesthesia residents. The study included 70 participants, composed of 24 PGY-1, 24 PGY-2 and 22 PGY-3 residents. Both instruments differentiated the non-technical skills of PGY-1 from PGY-3 residents (P <0.05). Inter-rater agreement was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). For the ANTS instrument, the intraclass correlation coefficients for task management, team-working, situation awareness and decision-making were 0.79, 0.34, 0.81 and 0.70, respectively. For the Ottawa GRS, the intraclass correlation coefficients for overall performance, leadership, problem-solving, situation awareness, resource utilisation and communication skills were 0.86, 0.83, 0.84, 0.87, 0.80 and 0.86, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of the ANTS instrument was 0.93, and was 0.96 for the Ottawa GRS. There was a high correlation between the ANTS and Ottawa GRS. The raters reported the ease of use of the Ottawa GRS compared to the ANTS. We found sufficient evidence of validity in the ANTS instrument and the Ottawa GRS for the evaluation of non-technical skills in a simulated anaesthesia setting, but the Ottawa GRS was more practical and had higher reliability.

  2. Evidence for a causal relationship between low vitamin D, high BMI, and pediatric-onset MS.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, Milena A; Stridh, Pernilla; Rhead, Brooke; Shao, Xiaorong; Xu, Edison; Graves, Jennifer S; Chitnis, Tanuja; Waldman, Amy; Lotze, Timothy; Schreiner, Teri; Belman, Anita; Greenberg, Benjamin; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Aaen, Gregory; Tillema, Jan M; Hart, Janace; Caillier, Stacy; Ness, Jayne; Harris, Yolanda; Rubin, Jennifer; Candee, Meghan; Krupp, Lauren; Gorman, Mark; Benson, Leslie; Rodriguez, Moses; Mar, Soe; Kahn, Ilana; Rose, John; Roalstad, Shelly; Casper, T Charles; Shen, Ling; Quach, Hong; Quach, Diana; Hillert, Jan; Bäärnhielm, Maria; Hedstrom, Anna; Olsson, Tomas; Kockum, Ingrid; Alfredsson, Lars; Metayer, Catherine; Schaefer, Catherine; Barcellos, Lisa F; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-25

    To utilize Mendelian randomization to estimate the causal association between low serum vitamin D concentrations, increased body mass index (BMI), and pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) using genetic risk scores (GRS). We constructed an instrumental variable for vitamin D (vitD GRS) by computing a GRS for 3 genetic variants associated with levels of 25(OH)D in serum using the estimated effect of each risk variant. A BMI GRS was also created that incorporates the cumulative effect of 97 variants associated with BMI. Participants included non-Hispanic white individuals recruited from over 15 sites across the United States (n = 394 cases, 10,875 controls) and Sweden (n = 175 cases, 5,376 controls; total n = 16,820). Meta-analysis findings demonstrated that a vitD GRS associated with increasing levels of 25(OH)D in serum decreased the odds of pediatric-onset MS (odds ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55, 0.94; p = 0.02) after controlling for sex, genetic ancestry, HLA-DRB1*15:01, and over 100 non-human leukocyte antigen MS risk variants. A significant association between BMI GRS and pediatric disease onset was also demonstrated (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.30; p = 0.01) after adjusting for covariates. Estimates for each GRS were unchanged when considered together in a multivariable model. We provide evidence supporting independent and causal effects of decreased vitamin D levels and increased BMI on susceptibility to pediatric-onset MS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Genetic Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke: A Polygenic Risk Score.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Hata, Jun; Furukawa, Ryohei; Shiwa, Yuh; Yamaji, Taiki; Hara, Megumi; Tanno, Kozo; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Takashima, Naoyuki; Matsuda, Koichi; Wakai, Kenji; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Ago, Tetsuro; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Fukushima, Akimune; Hozawa, Atsushi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Endo, Ryujin; Sasaki, Makoto; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Hitomi, Jiro; Kita, Yoshikuni; Tanaka, Keitaro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitazono, Takanari; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2017-02-01

    The prediction of genetic predispositions to ischemic stroke (IS) may allow the identification of individuals at elevated risk and thereby prevent IS in clinical practice. Previously developed weighted multilocus genetic risk scores showed limited predictive ability for IS. Here, we investigated the predictive ability of a newer method, polygenic risk score (polyGRS), based on the idea that a few strong signals, as well as several weaker signals, can be collectively informative to determine IS risk. We genotyped 13 214 Japanese individuals with IS and 26 470 controls (derivation samples) and generated both multilocus genetic risk scores and polyGRS, using the same derivation data set. The predictive abilities of each scoring system were then assessed using 2 independent sets of Japanese samples (KyushuU and JPJM data sets). In both validation data sets, polyGRS was shown to be significantly associated with IS, but weighted multilocus genetic risk scores was not. Comparing the highest with the lowest polyGRS quintile, the odds ratios for IS were 1.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.31) and 1.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.33) in the KyushuU and JPJM samples, respectively. Using the KyushuU samples, the addition of polyGRS to a nongenetic risk model resulted in a significant improvement of the predictive ability (net reclassification improvement=0.151; P<0.001). The polyGRS was shown to be superior to weighted multilocus genetic risk scores as an IS prediction model. Thus, together with the nongenetic risk factors, polyGRS will provide valuable information for individual risk assessment and management of modifiable risk factors. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Velocity and Vorticity Measurements of Jupiter's Great Red Spot Using Automated Cloud Feature Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. S.; Gierasch, P.; Banfield, D.; Showman, A.

    2005-12-01

    During the 28th orbit of Galileo in May 2000, the spacecraft imaged Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) with a remarkable level of detail. Three observations of the vortex were made over a span of about two hours. We have produced mosaics of the GRS at each observation, and have measured the winds of the GRS using an automated algorithm that does not require manual cloud tracking. The advantage of using this method is the production of a high-density, regular grid of wind velocity vectors as compared to a limited number of scattered wind vectors that result from manual cloud tracking [1]. Using the wind velocity measurements, we are able to compute particle trajectories around the GRS as well as relative and absolute vorticities. We have also mapped turbulent eddies inside the chaotic central region of the GRS, similar to those tracked by Sada et al [2]. We calculate how absolute vorticity changes as a function of latitude along a trajectory around the GRS and compare these measurements to similar ones performed by Dowling and Ingersoll using Voyager imaging data [3]. Future projects with the automated cloud feature trackers will analyze Voyager images of the GRS as well as other high-resolution images of Jovian vortices. We also hope to apply this method to other relevant datasets on planetary atmospheres. References: [1] Legarreta, J. and Sanchez-Lavega, A. (2005) Icarus 174: 178--191. [2] Sada, P. et al. (1996) Icarus 119: 311--335. [3] Dowling, T. and Ingersoll, A. (1988) J. Atm. Sci. 45: 1380--1396.

  5. Updated Genetic Score Based on 34 Confirmed Type 2 Diabetes Loci Is Associated With Diabetes Incidence and Regression to Normoglycemia in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Hivert, Marie-France; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Perreault, Leigh; Saxena, Richa; McAteer, Jarred B.; Franks, Paul W.; Hamman, Richard F.; Kahn, Steven E.; Haffner, Steven; Meigs, James B.; Altshuler, David; Knowler, William C.; Florez, Jose C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Over 30 loci have been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes at genome-wide statistical significance. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) developed from these loci predict diabetes in the general population. We tested if a GRS based on an updated list of 34 type 2 diabetes–associated loci predicted progression to diabetes or regression toward normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We genotyped 34 type 2 diabetes–associated variants in 2,843 DPP participants at high risk of type 2 diabetes from five ethnic groups representative of the U.S. population, who had been randomized to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle intervention. We built a GRS by weighting each risk allele by its reported effect size on type 2 diabetes risk and summing these values. We tested its ability to predict diabetes incidence or regression to NGR in models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, waist circumference, and treatment assignment. RESULTS In multivariate-adjusted models, the GRS was significantly associated with increased risk of progression to diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02 per risk allele [95% CI 1.00–1.05]; P = 0.03) and a lower probability of regression to NGR (HR = 0.95 per risk allele [95% CI 0.93–0.98]; P < 0.0001). At baseline, a higher GRS was associated with a lower insulinogenic index (P < 0.001), confirming an impairment in β-cell function. We detected no significant interaction between GRS and treatment, but the lifestyle intervention was effective in the highest quartile of GRS (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS A high GRS is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes and lower probability of returning to NGR in high-risk individuals, but a lifestyle intervention attenuates this risk. PMID:21378175

  6. The Faint "Heartbeats" of IGR J17091-3624: An Exceptional Black Hole Candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Linares, M.; VanDerKlis, M.; Wunands, R.; Curran, P. A.; Kalamkar, M.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR Jl7091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that JGR J17091-3624 shows the nu, rho, alpha, lambda, Beta, and mu classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the chi class, all occurring at 2-60 keY count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+\\05. The so-called rho class "heartbeats" occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as approx 100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+\\05. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR Jl7091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR Il7091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known( <3 solar M).

  7. Genetic Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kamatani, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Hata, Jun; Furukawa, Ryohei; Shiwa, Yuh; Yamaji, Taiki; Hara, Megumi; Tanno, Kozo; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Takashima, Naoyuki; Matsuda, Koichi; Wakai, Kenji; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Ago, Tetsuro; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Fukushima, Akimune; Hozawa, Atsushi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Endo, Ryujin; Sasaki, Makoto; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Hitomi, Jiro; Kita, Yoshikuni; Tanaka, Keitaro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitazono, Takanari; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose— The prediction of genetic predispositions to ischemic stroke (IS) may allow the identification of individuals at elevated risk and thereby prevent IS in clinical practice. Previously developed weighted multilocus genetic risk scores showed limited predictive ability for IS. Here, we investigated the predictive ability of a newer method, polygenic risk score (polyGRS), based on the idea that a few strong signals, as well as several weaker signals, can be collectively informative to determine IS risk. Methods— We genotyped 13 214 Japanese individuals with IS and 26 470 controls (derivation samples) and generated both multilocus genetic risk scores and polyGRS, using the same derivation data set. The predictive abilities of each scoring system were then assessed using 2 independent sets of Japanese samples (KyushuU and JPJM data sets). Results— In both validation data sets, polyGRS was shown to be significantly associated with IS, but weighted multilocus genetic risk scores was not. Comparing the highest with the lowest polyGRS quintile, the odds ratios for IS were 1.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.33–2.31) and 1.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–3.33) in the KyushuU and JPJM samples, respectively. Using the KyushuU samples, the addition of polyGRS to a nongenetic risk model resulted in a significant improvement of the predictive ability (net reclassification improvement=0.151; P<0.001). Conclusions— The polyGRS was shown to be superior to weighted multilocus genetic risk scores as an IS prediction model. Thus, together with the nongenetic risk factors, polyGRS will provide valuable information for individual risk assessment and management of modifiable risk factors. PMID:28034966

  8. An Italian version of the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale: a reliable and valid tool for assessment of simulation performance.

    PubMed

    Franc, Jeffrey Micheal; Verde, Manuela; Gallardo, Alba Ripoll; Carenzo, Luca; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi

    2016-06-16

    Objective measurement of simulation performance requires a validated and reliable tool. However, no published Italian language assessment tool is available. Translation of a published English language tool, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (GRS), may lead to a validated and reliable tool. After developing an Italian language translation of the English language tool, the study measured the reliability of the new tool by comparison with the English language tool used independently in the same simulation scenarios. In addition, the validity of the Italian language tool was measured by comparison to a skills score also applied independently. The correlation coefficient between the Italian language overall GRS and the English language overall GRS was 0.82 (adjusted 95 % confidence interval: 0.62-0.92). The correlation coefficient between the Italian language overall GRS and the skill score was 0.85 (adjusted 95 % confidence interval 0.68-0.94). This study demonstrated that the Italian language GRS has acceptable reliability when compared with the English language tool, suggesting that it can be used reliably to evaluate the performance during simulated emergencies. The study also suggests that the tool has acceptable validity for assessing the simulation performance. The study suggests that the Italian language GRS translation has reasonable reliability when compared with the English language GRS and reasonable validity when compared with the assessment of the skills scores. Data suggest that the instrument is adequately reliable for informal and formative type of examinations, but may require further confirmation before use for high-stake examinations such as licensing.

  9. A causal relationship between uric acid and diabetic macrovascular disease in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients: A Mendelian randomization analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dandan; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Feng; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shiyun; Peng, Danfeng; He, Zhen; Chen, Haibing; Bao, Yuqian; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    As the association between uric acid and macrovascular disease has been heavily debated, we aimed to confirm whether there is a causal relationship between uric acid and diabetic macrovascular disease through Mendelian randomization analysis. In 3207 type 2 diabetes patients, seventeen SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) related to uric acid were genotyped. A weighted GRS (genetic risk score) was calculated using selected SNPs and the strength of their effects on uric acid levels. Diabetic macrovascular disease was diagnosed through vascular ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging or other clinical evidence. Associations of diabetic macrovascular disease with uric acid and weighted GRS were evaluated separately. In total participants and among females, the prevalence of diabetic macrovascular disease was significantly higher in hyperuricemic group than in normouricemic group, and uric acid was associated with diabetic macrovascular disease (OR=1.068, p=0.0349; OR=1.122, p=0.0158). The prevalence of diabetic macrovascular disease increased with the weighted GRS in a J-shaped manner for the females. The weighted GRS was positively correlated with uric acid in total population, male patients and female patients (β=0.203, p<0.0001; β=0.255, p<0.0001; β=0.142, p<0.0001, respectively). The weighted GRS was significantly associated with diabetic macrovascular disease in female patients (OR=1.184, p=0.0039). Among females, the observed association between weighted GRS and diabetic macrovascular disease was greater than predicted. Using the uric acid-related weighted GRS as an instrumental variable for Mendelian randomization analysis, our study provided an evidence for causal relationship between uric acid and diabetic macrovascular disease in Chinese females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; McCarthy, Jeanette; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Background Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) represent a potential resource for etiological and treatment research. GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes have been especially successful. To translate this success into a research tool, we developed and tested a “genetic risk score” (GRS) that summarizes an individual’s genetic predisposition to obesity. Methods Different GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes report different sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the best genomic markers of obesity risk. Therefore, we applied a 3-stage approach that pooled results from multiple GWAS to select SNPs to include in our GRS: The 3 stages are (1) Extraction. SNPs with evidence of association are compiled from published GWAS; (2) Clustering. SNPs are grouped according to patterns of linkage disequilibrium; (3) Selection. Tag SNPs are selected from clusters that meet specific criteria. We applied this 3-stage approach to results from 16 GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes in European-descent samples to create a GRS. We then tested the GRS in the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities (ARIC) Study cohort (N=10,745, 55% female, 77% white, 23% African American). Results Our 32-locus GRS was a statistically significant predictor of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among ARIC whites (for BMI, r=0.13, p<1×10−30; for obesity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.57 [95% CI 0.55–0.58]). The GRS improved prediction of obesity (as measured by delta-AUC and integrated discrimination index) when added to models that included demographic and geographic information. FTO- and MC4R-linked SNPs, and a non-genetic risk assessment consisting of a socioeconomic index (p<0.01 for all comparisons). The GRS also predicted increased mortality risk over 17 years of follow-up. The GRS performed less well among African Americans. Conclusions The obesity GRS derived using our 3-stage approach is not useful for clinical risk prediction, but

  11. Increased Gustatory Response Score in Obesity and Association Levels with IL-6 and Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Remla, Nesrine; Hadjidj, Zeyneb; Ghezzaz, Kamel; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Aribi, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the circulating IL-6 and leptin levels with taste alteration in young obese patients. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in thirty obese patients and thirty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. Circulating levels of IL-6 and leptin were significantly increased in obese patients than in controls. However, catalase and ORAC levels were significantly decreased in obese patients compared to controls. Additionally, obese participants had high scores for the detection of fats (gustatory response scores [GRS]; p < 0.001). Moreover, IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with GRS alteration among patients with GRS 4 (resp., OR =17.5 [95% CI, 1.56–193.32; p = 0.007]; OR = 16 [95% CI, 1.69–151.11; p = 0.006]). For the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio estimate (MH OR), IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with obesity, in patients with either GRS 4 or GRS > 4 (resp., MH OR = 8.77 [95% CI, 2.06–37.44; p = 0.003]; MH OR = 5.76 [95% CI, 1.64–20.24; p = 0.006]). Conclusions. In a low grade inflammation linked to obesity, taste alteration is associated with high levels of IL-6 and leptin. PMID:27413547

  12. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiters Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Robert W.; Baines, Kevin H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.; Simon, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The high altitude of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) may enhance the upward flux of gaseous ammonia (NH3 ) into the high troposphere, where NH3 molecules can be photodissociated and initiate a chain of chemical reactions with downwelling acetylene molecules (C2H2 ). These reactions, experimentally studied earlier by (Ferris and Ishikawa [1987] Nature 326, 777-778) and (Ferris and Ishikawa [1988] J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312), produce chromophores that absorb in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In this work we photolyzed mixtures of NH3 and C2H2 using ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 214 nm and measured the spectral transmission of the deposited films in the visible region (400-740 nm). From these transmission data we estimated the imaginary indices of refraction. Assuming that ammonia grains at the top of the GRS clouds are coated with this material, we performed layered sphere and radiative transfer calculations to predict GRS reflection spectra. Comparison of those results with observed and previously unreported Cassini visible spectra and with true-color images of the GRS show that the unknown GRS chromophore is spectrally consistent with the coupled NH3-C2H2 photochemical products produced in our laboratory experiments. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy we infer that the chromophore-containing residue is composed of aliphatic azine, azo, and diazo compounds.

  13. Increased Gustatory Response Score in Obesity and Association Levels with IL-6 and Leptin.

    PubMed

    Remla, Nesrine; Hadjidj, Zeyneb; Ghezzaz, Kamel; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Aribi, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the circulating IL-6 and leptin levels with taste alteration in young obese patients. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in thirty obese patients and thirty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. Circulating levels of IL-6 and leptin were significantly increased in obese patients than in controls. However, catalase and ORAC levels were significantly decreased in obese patients compared to controls. Additionally, obese participants had high scores for the detection of fats (gustatory response scores [GRS]; p < 0.001). Moreover, IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with GRS alteration among patients with GRS 4 (resp., OR =17.5 [95% CI, 1.56-193.32; p = 0.007]; OR = 16 [95% CI, 1.69-151.11; p = 0.006]). For the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio estimate (MH OR), IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with obesity, in patients with either GRS 4 or GRS > 4 (resp., MH OR = 8.77 [95% CI, 2.06-37.44; p = 0.003]; MH OR = 5.76 [95% CI, 1.64-20.24; p = 0.006]). Conclusions. In a low grade inflammation linked to obesity, taste alteration is associated with high levels of IL-6 and leptin.

  14. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Baines, K. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.; Simon, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high altitude of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) may enhance the upward flux of gaseous ammonia (NH3) into the high troposphere, where NH3 molecules can be photodissociated and initiate a chain of chemical reactions with downwelling acetylene molecules (C2H2). These reactions, experimentally studied earlier by (Ferris and Ishikawa [1987] Nature 326, 777-778) and (Ferris and Ishikawa [1988] J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312), produce chromophores that absorb in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In this work we photolyzed mixtures of NH3 and C2H2 using ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 214 nm and measured the spectral transmission of the deposited films in the visible region (400-740 nm). From these transmission data we estimated the imaginary indices of refraction. Assuming that ammonia grains at the top of the GRS clouds are coated with this material, we performed layered sphere and radiative transfer calculations to predict GRS reflection spectra. Comparison of those results with observed and previously unreported Cassini visible spectra and with true-color images of the GRS show that the unknown GRS chromophore is spectrally consistent with the coupled NH3-C2H2 photochemical products produced in our laboratory experiments. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy we infer that the chromophore-containing residue is composed of aliphatic azine, azo, and diazo compounds.

  15. Constraints on the NH3 and PH3 distributions in the Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagener, R.; Caldwell, J.; Owen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Medium resolution (10 A) UV spectra were obtained for the Great Red Spot (GRS) and South Tropical Zone (STZ) of Jupiter using the low dispersion mode of the IUE spectrometers at wavelengths from 1900-2200 A. The scans were carried out to determine the coloring agent for the GRS to improve the database for developing photochemical models of the feature. The wavelengths were selected to cover the absorption features of NH3 and PH3. The resulting data were interpreted using a vertically inhomogeneous Rayleigh scattering radiative transfer model. Various NH3 concentrations were explored in an effort to fit the data, taking into account changes which would occur at different atmospheric pressure levels and due to the projected temperature fields. A forbidden NH3/forbidden H2 mixing ratio that was calculated at the 80-125 mbar pressure level in the GRS was enhanced by 3-10 percent relative to the STZ. An upper limit was obtained for the mixing ratio of PH3 in the GRS that is significantly lower than previously predicted concentrations, implying that vertical transport in the GRS is not much greater than in adjacent regions.

  16. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiters Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Robert W.; Baines, Kevin H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.; Simon, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The high altitude of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) may enhance the upward flux of gaseous ammonia (NH3 ) into the high troposphere, where NH3 molecules can be photodissociated and initiate a chain of chemical reactions with downwelling acetylene molecules (C2H2 ). These reactions, experimentally studied earlier by (Ferris and Ishikawa [1987] Nature 326, 777-778) and (Ferris and Ishikawa [1988] J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312), produce chromophores that absorb in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In this work we photolyzed mixtures of NH3 and C2H2 using ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 214 nm and measured the spectral transmission of the deposited films in the visible region (400-740 nm). From these transmission data we estimated the imaginary indices of refraction. Assuming that ammonia grains at the top of the GRS clouds are coated with this material, we performed layered sphere and radiative transfer calculations to predict GRS reflection spectra. Comparison of those results with observed and previously unreported Cassini visible spectra and with true-color images of the GRS show that the unknown GRS chromophore is spectrally consistent with the coupled NH3-C2H2 photochemical products produced in our laboratory experiments. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy we infer that the chromophore-containing residue is composed of aliphatic azine, azo, and diazo compounds.

  17. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools in the southeastern United States participated in the investigation. Results indicated high internal consistency for the six GRS-S scales: Intellectual Ability, Academic Ability, Creativity, Artistic Talent, Leadership, and Motivation. Results revealed no effect of race/ethnicity, age, or rater familiarity with the student. There was no significant effect for gender, although a trend was noted for girls rated slightly higher than boys across all scales. This trend was consistent with analyses of the standardization data and with cross-cultural findings using translated versions of the GRS-S. The present findings provided support for the GRS-S as a valid gifted screening instrument. PMID:26366036

  18. Multi-locus genetic risk score predicts risk for Crohn’s disease in Slovenian population

    PubMed Central

    Zupančič, Katarina; Skok, Kristijan; Repnik, Katja; Weersma, Rinse K; Potočnik, Uroš; Skok, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To develop a risk model for Crohn’s disease (CD) based on homogeneous population. METHODS: In our study were included 160 CD patients and 209 healthy individuals from Slovenia. The association study was performed for 112 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We generated genetic risk scores (GRS) based on the number of risk alleles using weighted additive model. Discriminatory accuracy was measured by area under ROC curve (AUC). For risk evaluation, we divided individuals according to positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) of a test, with LR > 5 for high risk group and LR < 0.20 for low risk group. RESULTS: The highest accuracy, AUC of 0.78 was achieved with GRS combining 33 SNPs with optimal sensitivity and specificity of 75.0% and 72.7%, respectively. Individuals with the highest risk (GRS > 5.54) showed significantly increased odds of developing CD (OR = 26.65, 95%CI: 11.25-63.15) compared to the individuals with the lowest risk (GRS < 4.57) which is a considerably greater risk captured than in one SNP with the highest effect size (OR = 3.24). When more than 33 SNPs were included in GRS, discriminatory ability was not improved significantly; AUC of all 74 SNPs was 0.76. CONCLUSION: The authors proved the possibility of building accurate genetic risk score based on 33 risk variants on Slovenian CD patients which may serve as a screening tool in the targeted population. PMID:27076762

  19. Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment on the thermal, pasting, and textural properties and microstructure characterization of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Fan, Mingcong; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the thermal, pasting and gel textural properties of japonica rice starch (JRS) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) fortified with Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment (VBTLP) were investigated. The results showed that VBTLP facilitated the gelatinization of JRS and GRS with earlier onsets of onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), conclusion temperature (Tc), and lower values of gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHg), and retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr), as the VBTLP level increased. For JRS, VBTLP increased the peak viscosity and breakdown, reduced the final viscosity and setback, but for GRS it increased the peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown and setback. VBTLP also reduced the hardness and adhesiveness of the JRS gel. The values of lightness (L(∗)) for JRS and GRS with VBTLP decreased by 47.60 and 49.56%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that VBTLP caused looser matrices in dried JRS and GRS gels which had lower crystallinities compared with the control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A genetic risk score is differentially associated with migraine with and without aura.

    PubMed

    Pisanu, Claudia; Preisig, Martin; Castelao, Enrique; Glaus, Jennifer; Pistis, Giorgio; Squassina, Alessio; Del Zompo, Maria; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Mwinyi, Jessica; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2017-08-01

    Although a number of migraine-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with small effect size have been identified, little is known about the additive impact of these variants on migraine risk, frequency and severity. We investigated to what extent a genetic risk score (GRS) based on recently published, novel migraine-associated SNPs is associated with migraine prevalence, subtypes and severity in a large population-based sample. The sample comprised 446 subjects with migraine and 2511 controls from the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study. Fifty-four SNPs earlier associated with migraine were selected. SNPs with a low impact on migraine prevalence in our sample were excluded using random forest. We combined the remaining 21 SNPs into a GRS and analyzed the association with migraine using logistic regression models. The GRS was significantly associated with migraine (OR = 1.56, p = 0.02) and migraine without aura (MWOA) (OR = 2.01, p = 0.003), but not with migraine with aura (MWA). The GRS was not associated with migraine frequency, intensity or interference with daily activities. We show that a GRS combining multiple genetic risk variants is associated with MWOA but not MWA, suggesting a different genetic susceptibility background underlying the two forms of migraine.

  1. Charged Particle Induced Radiation damage of Germanium Detectors in Space: Two Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruekner, J.; Koenen, M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Bailey, S. H.; Boynton W. V.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MO GRS) was designed to measure gamma-rays emitted by the Martian surface. This gamma-ray emission is induced by energetic cosmic-ray particles penetrating the Martian surface and producing many secondary particles and gamma rays. The MO GRS consisted of an high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a passive cooler. Since radiation damage due to permanent bombardment of energetic cosmic ray particles (with energies up to several GeV) was expected for the MO GRS HPGe crystal, studies on radiation damage effects of HPGe crystals were carried on earth. One of the HPGe crystals (paradoxically called FLIGHT) was similar to the MO GRS crystal. Both detectors, MO GRS and FLIGHT, contained closed-end coaxial n-type HPGe crystals and had the same geometrical dimensions (5.6 x 5.6 cm). Many other parameters, such as HV and operation temperature, differed in space and on earth, which made it somewhat difficult to directly compare the performance of both detector systems. But among other detectors, detector FLIGHT provided many useful data to better understand radiation damage effects.

  2. Multi-locus genetic risk score predicts risk for Crohn's disease in Slovenian population.

    PubMed

    Zupančič, Katarina; Skok, Kristijan; Repnik, Katja; Weersma, Rinse K; Potočnik, Uroš; Skok, Pavel

    2016-04-14

    To develop a risk model for Crohn's disease (CD) based on homogeneous population. In our study were included 160 CD patients and 209 healthy individuals from Slovenia. The association study was performed for 112 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We generated genetic risk scores (GRS) based on the number of risk alleles using weighted additive model. Discriminatory accuracy was measured by area under ROC curve (AUC). For risk evaluation, we divided individuals according to positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR) of a test, with LR > 5 for high risk group and LR < 0.20 for low risk group. The highest accuracy, AUC of 0.78 was achieved with GRS combining 33 SNPs with optimal sensitivity and specificity of 75.0% and 72.7%, respectively. Individuals with the highest risk (GRS > 5.54) showed significantly increased odds of developing CD (OR = 26.65, 95%CI: 11.25-63.15) compared to the individuals with the lowest risk (GRS < 4.57) which is a considerably greater risk captured than in one SNP with the highest effect size (OR = 3.24). When more than 33 SNPs were included in GRS, discriminatory ability was not improved significantly; AUC of all 74 SNPs was 0.76. The authors proved the possibility of building accurate genetic risk score based on 33 risk variants on Slovenian CD patients which may serve as a screening tool in the targeted population.

  3. Using an Alzheimer’s Disease polygenic risk score to predict memory decline in black and white Americans over 14 years of follow-up Running head: AD polygenic risk score predicting memory decline

    PubMed Central

    Marden, Jessica R.; Mayeda, Elizabeth Rose; Walter, Stefan; Vivot, Alexandre; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, M. Maria

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on whether genetic predictors of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) also predict memory decline is inconsistent and limited data are available for African ancestry populations. For 8,253 non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) Health and Retirement Study participants with memory scores measured one to eight times between 1998–2012 (average baseline age=62), we calculated weighted polygenic risk scores (AD-GRS) using the top 22 AD-associated loci, and an alternative score excluding APOE (AD-GRSexAPOE). We used generalized linear models with AD-GRS-by-age and -age2 interactions (age centered at 70) to predict memory decline. Average NHB decline was 26% faster than NHW decline (p<0.001). Among NHW, 10% higher AD-GRS predicted faster memory decline (linear β= −0.058 unit decrease over 10 years; 95% CI: −0.074, −0.043. AD-GRSexAPOE also predicted faster decline for NHW, although less strongly. Among NHB, AD-GRS predicted faster memory decline (linear β= −0.050; 95% CI: −0.106, 0.006), but AD-GRSexAPOE did not. Our non-significant estimate among NHB may reflect insufficient statistical power or a misspecified AD-GRS among NHB since an overwhelming major of GWAS studies are conducted in NHW. A polygenic score based on previously identified AD loci predicts memory loss in U.S. blacks and whites. PMID:26756387

  4. Deformation Behaviors of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Walls on Shallow Weak Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, You-Seong; Won, Myoung-Soo

    In this study, the fifteen-month behavior of two geosynthetic reinforced soil walls, which was constructed on the shallow weak ground, was measured and analyzed. The walls were backfilled with clayey soil obtained from the construction site nearby, and the safety factors obtained from general limit equilibrium analysis were less than 1.3 in both wall. To compare with the measured data from the real GRS walls and unreinforced soil mass, a series of finite element method (FEM) analyses on two field GRS walls and unreinforced soil mass were conducted. The FEM analysis results showed that failure plane of unreinforced soil mass was consistent with the Rankine active state, but failure plane did not occur in GRS walls. In addition, maximum horizontal displacements and shear strains in GRS walls were 50% smaller than those found in unreinforced soil mass. Modeling results such as the maximum horizontal displacements, horizontal pressure, and geosynthetic tensile strengths in GRS wall have a god agreement with the measured data. Based on this study, it could be concluded that geosynthetic reinforcement are effective to reduce the displacement of the wall face and/or the deformation of the backfill soil even if the mobilized tensile stress after construction is very small.

  5. Genetic variants determining body fat distribution and sex hormone-binding globulin among Chinese female young adults.

    PubMed

    Shi, Juan; Li, Lijuan; Hong, Jie; Qi, Lu; Cui, Bin; Gu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yifei; Miao, Lin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2014-11-01

    Measures of body fat distribution (i.e. waist : hip ratio [WHR]) are major risk factors for diabetes, independent of overall adiposity. The genetic variants related to body fat distribution show sexual dimorphism and particularly affect females. Substantial literature supports a role for sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of the genetic risk score of body fat distribution with SHBG levels and insulin resistance in young (14-30 years) Chinese females. In all, 675 young Chinese females were evaluated in the present study. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated on the basis of 12 established variants associated with body fat distribution. The main outcome variable was serum SHBG levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The GRS of body fat distribution was significantly associated with decreasing serum SHBG levels (P = 0.018), independent of body mass index and WHR. In addition, the GRS and SHBG showed additive effects on HOMA-IR (P = 0.004). The GRS of body fat distribution reflects serum SHBG levels, and the GRS and SHBG jointly influence the risk of insulin resistance. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Charged Particle Induced Radiation damage of Germanium Detectors in Space: Two Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruekner, J.; Koenen, M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Bailey, S. H.; Boynton W. V.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MO GRS) was designed to measure gamma-rays emitted by the Martian surface. This gamma-ray emission is induced by energetic cosmic-ray particles penetrating the Martian surface and producing many secondary particles and gamma rays. The MO GRS consisted of an high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a passive cooler. Since radiation damage due to permanent bombardment of energetic cosmic ray particles (with energies up to several GeV) was expected for the MO GRS HPGe crystal, studies on radiation damage effects of HPGe crystals were carried on earth. One of the HPGe crystals (paradoxically called FLIGHT) was similar to the MO GRS crystal. Both detectors, MO GRS and FLIGHT, contained closed-end coaxial n-type HPGe crystals and had the same geometrical dimensions (5.6 x 5.6 cm). Many other parameters, such as HV and operation temperature, differed in space and on earth, which made it somewhat difficult to directly compare the performance of both detector systems. But among other detectors, detector FLIGHT provided many useful data to better understand radiation damage effects.

  7. Muscular dystrophy in dogs: does the crossing of breeds influence disease phenotype?

    PubMed

    Miyazato, L G; Moraes, J R E; Beretta, D C; Kornegay, J N

    2011-05-01

    Golden Retriever (GR) muscular dystrophy is an inherited degenerative muscle disease that provides an excellent model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. This study defined the histopathologic lesions, including the distribution of type I and II muscle fibers (FTI and FTII), in 12 dystrophic and 3 nondystrophic dogs between 7 and 15 months of age. The authors were interested in studying the influence on disease phenotype from crossing the base GR breed with Yellow Labrador Retrievers. The dystrophic dogs were divided according to breed: GRs and Golden Labrador Retrievers (GLRs). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, histopathologic lesions were more severe in GRs than GLRs. Six of eight GR muscles (75%) had a severe lesion grade (grade 3). In contrast, seven GLR muscles (87.5%) had mild lesions (grade 2), and only one had severe lesions (grade 3). Changes in fiber-type distribution were more pronounced in GRs versus GLRs. FTI:FTII ratio inversion was observed in three dystrophic GRs but only one GLR. The mean diameter of FTI and FTII was smaller in GRs and GLRs than in nondystrophic dogs (P < .01). The FTI of five GR muscles (62.5%) were larger than those of GLRs, whereas only one GLR muscle was larger (P < .05). The differential was less pronounced for FTII, with four GR muscles being larger and three GLR being larger. Observations indicate that crossing the base GR breed with Labrador Retrievers lessened the severity of the GR muscular dystrophy phenotype.

  8. Testing new technologies for the LISA Gravitational Reference Senso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Apple, Stephen; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido

    2015-01-01

    LISA will directly observe low-frequency gravitational waves emitted by sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries. A laser interferometer will measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). The demanding acceleration noise requirement of < 3×10-15 m/sec2Hz1/2 for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in the summer of 2015. At the University of Florida we are developing a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing GRS technology enhancements and for understanding the dozens of acceleration noise sources that affect the performance of the GRS. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and consists of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. Some of the technologies that will be demonstrated by this facility include a novel TM charge control scheme based on ultraviolet LEDs, an all-optical TM position and attitude sensor, and drift mode operation. This presentation will describe the design of the torsion pendulum facility, its current acceleration noise performance, and the status of the GRS technologies under development.

  9. LISA technology development using the UF precision torsion pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, Stephen; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2015-04-01

    LISA will directly observe low-frequency gravitational waves emitted by sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries. A laser interferometer will measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). The demanding acceleration noise requirement for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in the fall of 2015. At the University of Florida we are developing a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing GRS technology enhancements that may improve the performance and/or reduce the cost of the LISA GRS. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and consists of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. Some of the technologies that will be demonstrated by this facility include a novel TM charge control scheme based on ultraviolet LEDs, an all-optical TM position and attitude sensor, and drift mode operation. This presentation will describe the design of the torsion pendulum facility, its current acceleration noise performance, and the status of the GRS technologies under development.

  10. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  11. Reconciling different observations of the CO2 ice mass loading of the Martian north polar cap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haberle, R.M.; Mattingly, B.; Titus, T.N.

    2004-01-01

    The GRS measurements of the peak mass loading of the north polar CO2 ice cap on Mars are about 60% lower than those calculated from MGS TES radiation data and those inferred from the MOLA cap thicknesses. However, the GRS data provide the most accurate measurement of the mass loading. We show that the TES and MOLA data can be reconciled with the GRS data if (1) subsurface heat conduction and atmospheric heat transport are included in the TES mass budget calculations, and (2) the density of the polar deposits is ???600 kg m-3. The latter is much less than that expected for slab ice (???1600 kg m-3) and suggests that processes unique to the north polar region are responsible for the low cap density. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. KSC01pp0099

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-05

    In the Spacecraft Assembly & Encapsulation Facility -2, workers help guide the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter to a workstand (left). The spacecraft carries three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment as related to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  13. KSC01pp0159

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-09

    Workers in the Spacecraft Assembly & Encapsulation Facility -2 make a visual check of the front side of the opened solar array panels from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. The Mars Odyssey carries three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment as related to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  14. KSC01pp0160

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-09

    Workers in the Spacecraft Assembly & Encapsulation Facility -2 take a close look at the back side of the opened solar array panels from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter. The Mars Odyssey carries three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment as related to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  15. KSC01pp0103

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-05

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter is safely placed on a workstand in the Spacecraft Assembly & Encapsulation Facility -2. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter carries three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment as related to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  16. KSC01pp0101

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-05

    In the Spacecraft Assembly & Encapsulation Facility -2, workers help guide the 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter as it is lowered to a workstand. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter carries three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment as related to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  17. KSC01pp0102

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-05

    The 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter comes to rest on a workstand in the Spacecraft Assembly & Encapsulation Facility -2. Workers check the spacecraft’s position. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter carries three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment as related to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  18. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales–Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales–Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using diagnostic efficiency statistics provides support for the diagnostic accuracy of the GRS-P Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability scales identifying intellectual giftedness, irrespective of the IQ cut score used to demarcate giftedness. The present findings extend the analysis of the standardization sample reported in the test manual and provide additional support for the GRS-P as a gifted screening tool. PMID:26347054

  19. Mapping the elemental composition of the moon: Current results of the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Elphic, R.C.; Binder, A.B.; Maurice, S.

    1998-12-01

    One of the instruments on board the recently launched Lunar Prospector spacecraft is a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) designed to map the surface elemental composition of the Moon. Specifically, the objectives of the GRS are to map abundances of Fe, Ti, U, Th, K, Si, O and if possible Mg, Al, and Ca. The GRS consists of a bismuth germanate (BGO) crystal placed within a well shaped borated plastic scintillator anti-coincidence (ACS) shield. Events triggering only the BGO are labeled as accepted events; events triggering both the BGO and ACS are labeled as rejected events. BGO spectra for both accepted and rejected events are telemetered to the ground for later analysis. Results of the study are given.

  20. Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aizura, Aren Z

    2010-10-01

    Every year, hundreds of transgendered people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia travel to Thailand to undergo cosmetic and gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women (people assigned a male sex at birth who later identify as female). This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.

  1. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Steven I; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using diagnostic efficiency statistics provides support for the diagnostic accuracy of the GRS-P Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability scales identifying intellectual giftedness, irrespective of the IQ cut score used to demarcate giftedness. The present findings extend the analysis of the standardization sample reported in the test manual and provide additional support for the GRS-P as a gifted screening tool.

  2. Flow fields within Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. L.; Garneau, G. W.; Beebe, R. F.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 1 high-resolution images of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC are used to map flow fields within these two areas. The relative vorticity is computed as a function of semi-major axis length and position angle in a coordinate system consisting of concentric ellipses of equal eccentricity. Wind speeds of 110-120 m/s are observed near the outer edge of both features, and along their minor axes relative vorticity profiles reach a maximum of 0.00006/s. Maximum Rossby numbers of 0.36 are computed for flows within both features, and are found to be low, indicating geostrophic constraints on the flow. The difference in streamline curvature within the GRS and the Oval BC is found to compensate for the difference in planetary vorticity at the respective latitudes of the features. Finally, motions within the central region of the GRS are slower and more random than around the spot's outer portion.

  3. YOHKOH/WBS Recalibration and a Comprehensive Catalogue of Solar Flares Observed by YOHKOH SXT, HXT and WBS Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Kubo, S.; Kotoku, J.; Masuda, S.; Sawa, M.; Suga, K.; Yoshimori, M.; Kosugi, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2006-07-01

    The flare catalogue of the Yohkoh mission is compiled and linked to this article as an electronic supplement. For showing flare characteristics over wide energy range concisely, we provide the images of Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) and the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), and the spectra of Hard X-ray Spectrometer (HXS) and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) with the Wide Band Spectrometer (WBS) time profiles. The energy versus pulse height (PH) data channels in HXS and GRS are re-calibrated by using the data of the whole mission period. Secular gain changes are recognized in HXS, and the characteristics of power-law flare spectra simultaneously observed by HXT and HXS confirms the trend. The GRS gains are different for the flare observations during the previous maximum and for the current maximum. The total of 33 γ -ray events are observed, and for 12 of them γ-ray flare spectra are obtained.

  4. A taste of the Drosophila gustatory receptors.

    PubMed

    Montell, Craig

    2009-08-01

    Insects such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, rely on contact chemosensation to detect nutrient-rich foods, to avoid consuming toxic chemicals, and to select mates and hospitable zones to deposit eggs. Flies sense tastants and nonvolatile pheromones through gustatory bristles and pegs distributed on multiple body parts including the proboscis, wing margins, legs, and ovipositor. The sensilla house gustatory receptor neurons, which express members of the family of 68 gustatory receptors (GRs). In contrast to mammalian chemosensation or Drosophila olfaction, which are initiated by receptors composed of dimers of one or two receptor types, the functional Drosophila GRs may include three or more subunits. Several GRs appear to be expressed in multiple cell types that are not associated with contact chemosensation raising the possibility that these proteins may have roles that extend beyond the detection of tastants and pheromones.

  5. Gustatory receptor expression in the labella and tarsi of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jackson T; Vinyard, Bryan T; Dickens, Joseph C

    2013-12-01

    The yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, infects a growing number of people every year with dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. Contact chemoreception in mosquitoes influences a number of behaviors including host-selection, oviposition and feeding. While these behaviors are in many instances well documented, the molecular mechanisms mediating them are not well understood. Here we report the results of sequencing total messenger RNA in the labella and tarsi of both male and female Ae. aegypti to reveal Gustatory Receptor (GR) gene expression profiles in these major gustatory appendages. Gene expression levels in each tissue were verified by RT-qPCR. We discuss potential functions for the GRs revealed here by considering homologous GRs in other insects. Specific GRs provide molecular targets for modification of gustatory-mediated behaviors in this important disease vector. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Meat and fat colour as a tool to trace grass-feeding systems in light lamb production.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, G; Joy, M; Muñoz, F; Albertí, P

    2008-10-01

    Ninety-five lambs were fed as follows: lambs and dams grazing alfalfa (Gr); As Gr but lambs had access to concentrate (Gr+S); ewes grazed and lambs received milk and concentrate until weaning and thereafter concentrate and straw (Rat-Gr); ewes and lambs were stall-fed (Ind). Lambs were slaughtered at 22-24 kg of live-weight and fat and M. rectus abdominis colour measured. Visual appraisal scores of Gr and Ind were significantly different. The absolute value of the integral of the translated spectrum (SUM) was greater in Gr and GR+S. A discriminate analysis was able to discriminate between grass-fed and indoor-fed lambs. A logistic regression including SUM and b(∗) classify correctly 99.1% of carcasses. A equation is proposed to calculate the probability of one carcass to do not belongs to Gr or Gr+S group (PNA): [Formula: see text] .

  7. Fatty acid profiles, meat quality, and sensory attributes of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic and conventional dairy steers were evaluated and compared for fatty acid profiles, meat quality, sensory attributes, and consumer acceptance. Bull calves (n=49) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups: conventional (CONV), organic (ORG, pasture + concentrate), or grass-fed organic (GRS) and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN) between March and May 2011. The CONV steers (n=16) were fed a diet that contained 80% concentrate and 20% forage, and ORG steers (n=16) were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and organic protein supplement. Furthermore, ORG steers consumed at least 30% of diet dry matter of high-quality organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers (n=17) consumed 100% forage from pasture during the grazing season and high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. The ORG steers had fat that was greater in oleic acid (C18:1) than the GRS and CONV steers (47.1, 36.1, and 39.9%, respectively). The GRS steers (21.9%) were lower for monounsaturated fat than the ORG (42.1%) and CONV (40.4%) steers. Furthermore, the GRS steers tended to have greater n-3 fat and had lower n-6 fat than the ORG and CONV steers. Consequently, the GRS (1.4%) steers had a lower n-6-to-n-3 fat ratio than the ORG (12.9%) and CONV (10.0%) steers. The GRS (2.6 kg) steers had steaks that were not different for Warner-Bratzler shear force than ORG (2.3 kg) steaks; however, the GRS steaks tended to have greater shear force than the CONV (2.0 kg) steaks. The 3 steer group had steaks that were not different for color brightness (L*; 0 = black and 100 = white) and yellowness/blueness (b*; positive values = yellow and negative values = blue) values; however, the GRS (10.5) steaks had lower redness/greenness (a*; positive values = red and negative values = green) values than CONV (14.5) steaks. For sensory attributes (0- to 120-point scale), no

  8. Gamma-ray spectrometry: a new tool for exploring archaeological sites; a case study from East Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Mohamed

    2001-10-01

    In geophysical literature the application of gamma-ray spectrometric (GRS) methods in archaeological exploration is not known. This paper demonstrates the applicability of the GRS technique to archaeological exploration. The study was conducted in the Tell Abu Seef area, which is located ˜6 km from El-Qantara city, Egypt where some buried walls (of possible archaeological interest) were detected in 1981. The recorded K% values as well as the readings of total gamma-ray intensities were related to two different radiometric areas that match the building remains and the surrounding sediments. The highest concentrations of K% coincide with the wall remains, which consist of muddy material. Lower values of K% were found in the surrounding media, which consists of Quaternary sediments. The contrast between the building remains and the surrounding sediments is so clear that it is obvious that GRS is capable of offering solutions to important archaeological problems.

  9. The Effects of Heat Activation on Bacillus Spore Germination, with Nutrients or under High Pressure, with or without Various Germination Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E.; Doona, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75°C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the l-asparagine–glucose–fructose–K+ mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation. PMID:25681191

  10. Gravitational Reference Sensor Technology Development at the University of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John; Chilton, Andrew; Chiani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Shelley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the most mature concept for detecting gravitational waves from space, consists of three Sun-orbiting spacecraft that form a million kilometer-scale equilateral triangle. Each spacecraft houses two free-floating test masses (TM), which are protected from disturbing forces so that they follow pure geodesics. A single TM together with its protective housing and associated components is referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). Laser interferometry is used to measure the minute variations in the distance, or light travel time, between these purely free-falling TMs, caused by gravitational waves. The demanding acceleration noise requirement of 3 x 10-15 m/sec^2Hz^1/2 for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in 2014. In order to increase U.S. competency in GRS technologies, various research activities at the University of Florida (UF) have been initiated. The first is the development of a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing the GRS and for understanding the dozens of acceleration noise sources that affect the performance of the LISA GRS. The team at UF also collaborates with Stanford and NASA Ames on a small satellite mission that will test the performance of UV LEDs for ac charge control in space. This presentation will describe the design of the GRS testing facility at UF, the status of the UV LED small satellite mission, and plans for UF participation in the LISA Pathfinder mission.

  11. Acute stress enhances heterodimerization and binding of corticosteroid receptors at glucocorticoid target genes in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, Karen R; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2016-10-04

    A stressful event results in secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which bind to mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive and affective responses to the challenge. MRs are already highly occupied by low glucocorticoid levels under baseline conditions, whereas GRs only become substantially occupied by stress- or circadian-driven glucocorticoid levels. Currently, however, the binding of MRs and GRs to glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GREs) within hippocampal glucocorticoid target genes under such physiological conditions in vivo is unknown. We found that forced swim (FS) stress evoked increased hippocampal RNA expression levels of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes FK506-binding protein 5 (Fkbp5), Period 1 (Per1), and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that this stressor caused substantial gene-dependent increases in GR binding and surprisingly, also MR binding to GREs within these genes. Different acute challenges, including novelty, restraint, and FS stress, produced distinct glucocorticoid responses but resulted in largely similar MR and GR binding to GREs. Sequential and tandem ChIP analyses showed that, after FS stress, MRs and GRs bind concomitantly to the same GRE sites within Fkbp5 and Per1 but not Sgk1 Thus, after stress, MRs and GRs seem to bind to GREs as homo- and/or heterodimers in a gene-dependent manner. MR binding to GREs at baseline seems to be restricted, whereas after stress, GR binding may facilitate cobinding of MR. This study reveals that the interaction of MRs and GRs with GREs within the genome constitutes an additional level of complexity in hippocampal glucocorticoid action beyond expectancies based on ligand-receptor interactions.

  12. Acute stress enhances heterodimerization and binding of corticosteroid receptors at glucocorticoid target genes in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A stressful event results in secretion of glucocorticoid hormones, which bind to mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive and affective responses to the challenge. MRs are already highly occupied by low glucocorticoid levels under baseline conditions, whereas GRs only become substantially occupied by stress- or circadian-driven glucocorticoid levels. Currently, however, the binding of MRs and GRs to glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GREs) within hippocampal glucocorticoid target genes under such physiological conditions in vivo is unknown. We found that forced swim (FS) stress evoked increased hippocampal RNA expression levels of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes FK506-binding protein 5 (Fkbp5), Period 1 (Per1), and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that this stressor caused substantial gene-dependent increases in GR binding and surprisingly, also MR binding to GREs within these genes. Different acute challenges, including novelty, restraint, and FS stress, produced distinct glucocorticoid responses but resulted in largely similar MR and GR binding to GREs. Sequential and tandem ChIP analyses showed that, after FS stress, MRs and GRs bind concomitantly to the same GRE sites within Fkbp5 and Per1 but not Sgk1. Thus, after stress, MRs and GRs seem to bind to GREs as homo- and/or heterodimers in a gene-dependent manner. MR binding to GREs at baseline seems to be restricted, whereas after stress, GR binding may facilitate cobinding of MR. This study reveals that the interaction of MRs and GRs with GREs within the genome constitutes an additional level of complexity in hippocampal glucocorticoid action beyond expectancies based on ligand–receptor interactions. PMID:27655894

  13. Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Genetic Predisposition to Obesity in US Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Moon, Jee-Young; Wang, Tao; Sofer, Tamar; North, Kari E; Isasi, Carmen R; Cai, Jianwen; Gellman, Marc D; Moncrieft, Ashley E; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Argos, Maria; Kaplan, Robert C; Qi, Qibin

    2017-10-06

    Studies using self-reported data suggest gene-physical activity interaction on obesity, yet the influence of sedentary behavior, distinct from lack of physical activity, on genetic associations with obesity remains unclear. We analyzed interactions of accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time with genetic variants on obesity among 9,645 US Hispanics/Latinos. An overall genetic risk score (GRS), central nervous system (CNS)-related GRS, and non-CNS GRS were calculated based on 97 BMI-associated SNPs. Genetic association with BMI was stronger in individuals with lower MVPA (1(st) tertile) versus higher MVPA (3(rd) tertile) (β=0.78 [0.10] vs 0.39 [0.10] kg/m(2) per standard deviation increment of GRS; Pinteraction=0.005), and in those with greater sedentary time (3(rd) tertile) versus less sedentary time (1(st) tertile) (β=0.73 [0.10] vs 0.44 [0.10] kg/m(2); Pinteraction=0.006). Similar significant interaction patterns were observed for obesity risk, body fat mass, fat percentage, fat mass index, and waist circumference, but not with fat free mass. The CNS GRS, but not the non-CNS GRS, showed significant interactions with MVPA and sedentary behavior on BMI and other adiposity traits. Our data suggest that both increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior may attenuate genetic associations with obesity, though the independence of these interaction effects needs further investigation. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Circadian Clock-Related Genetic Risk Scores and Risk of Placental Abruption

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Fernandez, Miguel Angel Luque; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Ananth, Cande V.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The circadian clock plays an important role in several aspects of female reproductive biology. Evidence linking circadian clock-related genes to pregnancy outcomes has been inconsistent. We sought to examine whether variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of circadian clock genes are associated with PA risk. Methods Maternal blood samples were collected from 470 PA case and 473 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip platform. We examined 119 SNPs in 13 candidate genes known to control circadian rhythms (e.g., CRY2, ARNTL, and RORA). Univariate and penalized logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs); and the combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS). Results A common SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 21% reduced odds of PA (P<0.05). The odds of PA increased with increasing wGRS (Ptrend< 0.001). The corresponding ORs were 1.00, 1.83, 2.81 and 5.13 across wGRS quartiles. Participants in the highest wGRS quartile had a 5.13-fold (95% confidence interval: 3.21–8.21) higher odds of PA compared to those in the lowest quartile. Although the test for interaction was not significant, the odds of PA was substantially elevated for preeclamptics with the highest wGRS quartile (OR=14.44, 95%CI: 6.62–31.53) compared to normotensive women in the lowest wGRS quartile. Discussion Genetic variants in circadian rhythm genes may be associated with PA risk. Larger studies are needed to corroborate these findings and to further elucidate the pathogenesis of this important obstetrical complication. PMID:26515929

  15. Female Behaviour Drives Expression and Evolution of Gustatory Receptors in Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Adriana D.; Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Kozak, Krzysztof M.; Walters, James R.; Yuan, Furong; Jamie, Gabriel A.; Martin, Simon H.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Mallet, James; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary plant compounds are strong deterrents of insect oviposition and feeding, but may also be attractants for specialist herbivores. These insect-plant interactions are mediated by insect gustatory receptors (Grs) and olfactory receptors (Ors). An analysis of the reference genome of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene, which feeds on passion-flower vines (Passiflora spp.), together with whole-genome sequencing within the species and across the Heliconius phylogeny has permitted an unprecedented opportunity to study the patterns of gene duplication and copy-number variation (CNV) among these key sensory genes. We report in silico gene predictions of 73 Gr genes in the H. melpomene reference genome, including putative CO2, sugar, sugar alcohol, fructose, and bitter receptors. The majority of these Grs are the result of gene duplications since Heliconius shared a common ancestor with the monarch butterfly or the silkmoth. Among Grs but not Ors, CNVs are more common within species in those gene lineages that have also duplicated over this evolutionary time-scale, suggesting ongoing rapid gene family evolution. Deep sequencing (∼1 billion reads) of transcriptomes from proboscis and labial palps, antennae, and legs of adult H. melpomene males and females indicates that 67 of the predicted 73 Gr genes and 67 of the 70 predicted Or genes are expressed in these three tissues. Intriguingly, we find that one-third of all Grs show female-biased gene expression (n = 26) and nearly all of these (n = 21) are Heliconius-specific Grs. In fact, a significant excess of Grs that are expressed in female legs but not male legs are the result of recent gene duplication. This difference in Gr gene expression diversity between the sexes is accompanied by a striking sexual dimorphism in the abundance of gustatory sensilla on the forelegs of H. melpomene, suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly genomes. PMID

  16. Genetic Variations of Circulating Adiponectin Levels Modulate Changes in Appetite in Response to Weight-Loss Diets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjie; Huang, Tao; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Sun, Dianjianyi; Tong, Jenny; Williamson, Donald A; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin plays key roles in regulating appetite and food intake. To investigate interactions between the genetic risk score (GRS) for adiponectin levels and weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient intake on long-term changes in appetite and adiponectin levels. A GRS was calculated based on 5 adiponectin-associated variants in 692 overweight adults from the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Repeated measurements of plasma adiponectin levels and appetite-related traits, including cravings, fullness, prospective consumption, and hunger. Dietary fat showed nominally significant interactions with the adiponectin GRS on changes in appetite score and prospective consumption from baseline to 6 months (P for interaction = 0.014 and 0.017, respectively) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, and baseline respective outcome values. The GRS for lower adiponectin levels was associated with a greater decrease in appetite (P < 0.001) and prospective consumption (P = 0.008) among participants consuming a high-fat diet, whereas no significant associations were observed in the low-fat group. Additionally, a significant interaction was observed between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in adiponectin levels (P for interaction = 0.021). The lower GRS was associated with a greater increase in adiponectin in the low-fat group (P = 0.02), but it was not associated with adiponectin changes in the high-fat group (P = 0.31). Our findings suggest that individuals with varying genetic architecture of circulating adiponectin may respond divergently in appetite and adiponectin levels to weight-loss diets varying in fat intake.

  17. Multilocus genetic risk score associates with ischemic stroke in case-control and prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rainer; Bevan, Steve; Nalls, Michael A; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Devan, William J; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Bis, Joshua C; Joon, Aron Y; de Stefano, Anita L; Fornage, Myriam; Psaty, Bruce M; Ikram, M Arfan; Launer, Lenore J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Sharma, Pankaj; Mitchell, Braxton D; Rosand, Jonathan; Meschia, James F; Levi, Christopher; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie; Markus, Hugh S; Seshadri, Sudha; Dichgans, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed multiple common variants associated with known risk factors for ischemic stroke (IS). However, their aggregate effect on risk is uncertain. We aimed to generate a multilocus genetic risk score (GRS) for IS based on genome-wide association studies data from clinical-based samples and to establish its external validity in prospective population-based cohorts. Three thousand five hundred forty-eight clinic-based IS cases and 6399 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 were used for derivation of the GRS. Subjects from the METASTROKE consortium served as a replication sample. The validation sample consisted of 22 751 participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium. We selected variants that had reached genome-wide significance in previous association studies on established risk factors for IS. A combined GRS for atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and systolic blood pressure significantly associated with IS both in the case-control samples and in the prospective population-based studies. Subjects in the top quintile of the combined GRS had >2-fold increased risk of IS compared with subjects in the lowest quintile. Addition of the combined GRS to a simple model based on sex significantly improved the prediction of IS in the combined clinic-based samples but not in the population-based studies, and there was no significant improvement in net reclassification. A multilocus GRS based on common variants for established cardiovascular risk factors was significantly associated with IS both in clinic-based samples and in the general population. However, the improvement in clinical risk prediction was found to be small.

  18. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit neighborhood health study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene–environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10−7) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ∼3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene–environment interaction, for

  19. Circadian clock-related genetic risk scores and risk of placental abruption.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Luque Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-12-01

    The circadian clock plays an important role in several aspects of female reproductive biology. Evidence linking circadian clock-related genes to pregnancy outcomes has been inconsistent. We sought to examine whether variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of circadian clock genes are associated with PA risk. Maternal blood samples were collected from 470 PA case and 473 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip platform. We examined 119 SNPs in 13 candidate genes known to control circadian rhythms (e.g., CRY2, ARNTL, and RORA). Univariate and penalized logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs); and the combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS). A common SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 21% reduced odds of PA (P < 0.05). The odds of PA increased with increasing wGRS (Ptrend < 0.001). The corresponding ORs were 1.00, 1.83, 2.81 and 5.13 across wGRS quartiles. Participants in the highest wGRS quartile had a 5.13-fold (95% confidence interval: 3.21-8.21) higher odds of PA compared to those in the lowest quartile. Although the test for interaction was not significant, the odds of PA was substantially elevated for preeclamptics with the highest wGRS quartile (OR = 14.44, 95%CI: 6.62-31.53) compared to normotensive women in the lowest wGRS quartile. Genetic variants in circadian rhythm genes may be associated with PA risk. Larger studies are needed to corroborate these findings and to further elucidate the pathogenesis of this important obstetrical complication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A genetic risk score based on direct associations with coronary heart disease improves coronary heart disease risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), but not in the Rotterdam and Framingham Offspring, Studies

    PubMed Central

    Brautbar, Ariel; Pompeii, Lisa A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Ngwa, Julius S.; Nambi, Vijay; Virani, Salim S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Pencina, Michael J.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multiple studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined whether SNPs selected based on predefined criteria will improve CHD risk prediction when added to traditional risk factors (TRFs). Methods SNPs were selected from the literature based on association with CHD, lack of association with a known CHD risk factor, and successful replication. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed based on these SNPs. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate CHD risk based on the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Framingham CHD risk scores with and without the GRS. Results The GRS was associated with risk for CHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.13). Addition of the GRS to the ARIC risk score significantly improved discrimination, reclassification, and calibration beyond that afforded by TRFs alone in non-Hispanic whites in the ARIC study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) increased from 0.742 to 0.749 (Δ= 0.007; 95% CI, 0.004–0.013), and the net reclassification index (NRI) was 6.3%. Although the risk estimates for CHD in the Framingham Offspring (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.10–1.14) and Rotterdam (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02–1.14) Studies were significantly improved by adding the GRS to TRFs, improvements in AUC and NRI were modest. Conclusion Addition of a GRS based on direct associations with CHD to TRFs significantly improved discrimination and reclassification in white participants of the ARIC Study, with no significant improvement in the Rotterdam and Framingham Offspring Studies. PMID:22789513

  1. A genetic risk score based on direct associations with coronary heart disease improves coronary heart disease risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), but not in the Rotterdam and Framingham Offspring, Studies.

    PubMed

    Brautbar, Ariel; Pompeii, Lisa A; Dehghan, Abbas; Ngwa, Julius S; Nambi, Vijay; Virani, Salim S; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Pencina, Michael J; Folsom, Aaron R; Cupples, L Adrienne; Ballantyne, Christie M; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2012-08-01

    Multiple studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined whether SNPs selected based on predefined criteria will improve CHD risk prediction when added to traditional risk factors (TRFs). SNPs were selected from the literature based on association with CHD, lack of association with a known CHD risk factor, and successful replication. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed based on these SNPs. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate CHD risk based on the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Framingham CHD risk scores with and without the GRS. The GRS was associated with risk for CHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.13). Addition of the GRS to the ARIC risk score significantly improved discrimination, reclassification, and calibration beyond that afforded by TRFs alone in non-Hispanic whites in the ARIC study. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) increased from 0.742 to 0.749 (Δ = 0.007; 95% CI, 0.004-0.013), and the net reclassification index (NRI) was 6.3%. Although the risk estimates for CHD in the Framingham Offspring (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.10-1.14) and Rotterdam (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.14) Studies were significantly improved by adding the GRS to TRFs, improvements in AUC and NRI were modest. Addition of a GRS based on direct associations with CHD to TRFs significantly improved discrimination and reclassification in white participants of the ARIC Study, with no significant improvement in the Rotterdam and Framingham Offspring Studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Adriana D; Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Walters, James R; Yuan, Furong; Jamie, Gabriel A; Martin, Simon H; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Ferguson, Laura C; Mallet, James; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Chris D

    2013-01-01

    Secondary plant compounds are strong deterrents of insect oviposition and feeding, but may also be attractants for specialist herbivores. These insect-plant interactions are mediated by insect gustatory receptors (Grs) and olfactory receptors (Ors). An analysis of the reference genome of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene, which feeds on passion-flower vines (Passiflora spp.), together with whole-genome sequencing within the species and across the Heliconius phylogeny has permitted an unprecedented opportunity to study the patterns of gene duplication and copy-number variation (CNV) among these key sensory genes. We report in silico gene predictions of 73 Gr genes in the H. melpomene reference genome, including putative CO2, sugar, sugar alcohol, fructose, and bitter receptors. The majority of these Grs are the result of gene duplications since Heliconius shared a common ancestor with the monarch butterfly or the silkmoth. Among Grs but not Ors, CNVs are more common within species in those gene lineages that have also duplicated over this evolutionary time-scale, suggesting ongoing rapid gene family evolution. Deep sequencing (∼1 billion reads) of transcriptomes from proboscis and labial palps, antennae, and legs of adult H. melpomene males and females indicates that 67 of the predicted 73 Gr genes and 67 of the 70 predicted Or genes are expressed in these three tissues. Intriguingly, we find that one-third of all Grs show female-biased gene expression (n = 26) and nearly all of these (n = 21) are Heliconius-specific Grs. In fact, a significant excess of Grs that are expressed in female legs but not male legs are the result of recent gene duplication. This difference in Gr gene expression diversity between the sexes is accompanied by a striking sexual dimorphism in the abundance of gustatory sensilla on the forelegs of H. melpomene, suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly genomes.

  3. Twelve-single nucleotide polymorphism genetic risk score identifies individuals at increased risk for future atrial fibrillation and stroke.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hayato; Shiffman, Dov; Smith, J Gustav; Sjögren, Marketa; Lubitz, Steven A; Ellinor, Patrick T; Louie, Judy Z; Catanese, Joseph J; Engström, Gunnar; Devlin, James J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle

    2014-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent and there is a clinical need for biomarkers to identify individuals at higher risk for AF. Fixed throughout a life course and assayable early in life, genetic biomarkers may meet this need. Here, we investigate whether multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms together as an AF genetic risk score (AF-GRS) can improve prediction of one's risk for AF. In 27 471 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective, community-based cohort, we used Cox models that adjusted for established AF risk factors to assess the association of AF-GRS with incident AF and ischemic stroke. Median follow-up was 14.4 years for incident AF and 14.5 years for ischemic stroke. The AF-GRS comprised 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously shown to be associated with AF at genome-wide significance. During follow-up, 2160 participants experienced a first AF event and 1495 had a first ischemic stroke event. Participants in the top AF-GRS quintile were at increased risk for incident AF (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-2.31; P=2.7×10(-21)) and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.46; P=0.02) when compared with the bottom quintile. Addition of the AF-GRS to established AF risk factors modestly improved both discrimination and reclassification (P<0.0001 for both). An AF-GRS can identify 20% of individuals who are at ≈2-fold increased risk for incident AF and at 23% increased risk for ischemic stroke. Targeting diagnostic or therapeutic interventions to this subset may prove clinically useful. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Multilocus genetic risk score associates with ischemic stroke in case-control and prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Malik, R; Bevan, S; Nalls, MA; Holliday, EG; Devan, WJ; Cheng, YC; Ibrahim-Verbaas, CA; Verhaaren, BF; Bis, JC; Joon, AY; de Stefano, AL; Fornage, M; Psaty, BM; Ikram, MA; Launer, LJ; van Duijn, CM; Sharma, P; Mitchell, BD; Rosand, J; Meschia, JF; Levi, C; Rothwell, PM; Sudlow, C; Markus, HS; Seshadri, S; Dichgans, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Genome-wide association studies have revealed multiple common variants associated with known risk factors for ischemic stroke (IS). However, their aggregate effect on risk is uncertain. We aimed to generate a multilocus genetic risk score (GRS) for IS based on genome-wide association studies data from clinical-based samples and to establish its external validity in prospective population-based cohorts. METHODS Three thousand five hundred forty-eight clinic-based IS cases and 6399 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 were used for derivation of the GRS. Subjects from the METASTROKE consortium served as a replication sample. The validation sample consisted of 22 751 participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium. We selected variants that had reached genome-wide significance in previous association studies on established risk factors for IS. RESULTS A combined GRS for atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and systolic blood pressure significantly associated with IS both in the case-control samples and in the prospective population-based studies. Subjects in the top quintile of the combined GRS had >2-fold increased risk of IS compared with subjects in the lowest quintile. Addition of the combined GRS to a simple model based on sex significantly improved the prediction of IS in the combined clinic-based samples but not in the population-based studies, and there was no significant improvement in net reclassification. CONCLUSIONS A multilocus GRS based on common variants for established cardiovascular risk factors was significantly associated with IS both in clinic-based samples and in the general population. However, the improvement in clinical risk prediction was found to be small. PMID:24436234

  5. Lifestyle and Metformin Ameliorate Insulin Sensitivity Independently of the Genetic Burden of Established Insulin Resistance Variants in Diabetes Prevention Program Participants.

    PubMed

    Hivert, Marie-France; Christophi, Costas A; Franks, Paul W; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Ehrmann, David A; Kahn, Steven E; Horton, Edward S; Pollin, Toni I; Mather, Kieren J; Perreault, Leigh; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Knowler, William C; Florez, Jose C

    2016-02-01

    Large genome-wide association studies of glycemic traits have identified genetics variants that are associated with insulin resistance (IR) in the general population. It is unknown whether people with genetic enrichment for these IR variants respond differently to interventions that aim to improve insulin sensitivity. We built a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 17 established IR variants and effect sizes (weighted IR-GRS) in 2,713 participants of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) with genetic consent. We tested associations between the weighted IR-GRS and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) at baseline in all participants, and with change in ISI over 1 year of follow-up in the DPP intervention (metformin and lifestyle) and control (placebo) arms. All models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and waist circumference at baseline (plus baseline ISI for 1-year ISI change models). A higher IR-GRS was associated with lower baseline ISI (β = -0.754 [SE = 0.229] log-ISI per unit, P = 0.001 in fully adjusted models). There was no differential effect of treatment for the association between the IR-GRS on the change in ISI; higher IR-GRS was associated with an attenuation in ISI improvement over 1 year (β = -0.520 [SE = 0.233], P = 0.03 in fully adjusted models; all treatment arms). Lifestyle intervention and metformin treatment improved the ISI, regardless of the genetic burden of IR variants. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Metabolite Traits and Genetic Risk Provide Complementary Information for the Prediction of Future Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Porneala, Bianca C.; Dauriz, Marco; Vassy, Jason L.; Cheng, Susan; Rhee, Eugene P.; Wang, Thomas J.; Meigs, James B.; Gerszten, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A genetic risk score (GRS) comprised of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and metabolite biomarkers have each been shown, separately, to predict incident type 2 diabetes. We tested whether genetic and metabolite markers provide complementary information for type 2 diabetes prediction and, together, improve the accuracy of prediction models containing clinical traits. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes risk was modeled with a 62-SNP GRS, nine metabolites, and clinical traits. We fit age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models to test the association of these sources of information, separately and jointly, with incident type 2 diabetes among 1,622 initially nondiabetic participants from the Framingham Offspring Study. The predictive capacity of each model was assessed by area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS Two hundred and six new diabetes cases were observed during 13.5 years of follow-up. The AUC was greater for the model containing the GRS and metabolite measurements together versus GRS or metabolites alone (0.820 vs. 0.641, P < 0.0001, or 0.820 vs. 0.803, P = 0.01, respectively). Odds ratios for association of GRS or metabolites with type 2 diabetes were not attenuated in the combined model. The AUC was greater for the model containing the GRS, metabolites, and clinical traits versus clinical traits only (0.880 vs. 0.856, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Metabolite and genetic traits provide complementary information to each other for the prediction of future type 2 diabetes. These novel markers of diabetes risk modestly improve the predictive accuracy of incident type 2 diabetes based only on traditional clinical risk factors. PMID:24947790

  7. Corneal graft curvature change after relaxing incisions for post-penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Sepehr; Javadi, Mohammad A

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate change in graft steepness after graft refractive surgery (GRS) consisting of relaxing incisions with or without counterquadrant compression sutures and discover the existing influential factors. In this retrospective study, 78 eyes of 76 patients who had received penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus underwent GRS because of high post-penetrating keratoplasty astigmatism. Any shift in graft curvature was calculated using the keratometric coupling ratio (CR; the ratio of flattening of the incised meridian to steepening of the opposite meridian). Multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the possible effect of age, graft curvature, number of incisions, use of compression sutures, achieved vector astigmatic correction, and total arc length on CR. Mean patient age was 30.1 ± 10.3 years and mean follow-up period after GRS was 40.1 ± 29.0 months. There was a significant increase in average keratometry from 44.79 ± 2.08 diopters (D) preoperatively to 45.65 ± 1.86 D postoperatively (P < 0.001). Mean keratometric CR was 0.62 ± 1.09. Keratometric CR was significantly associated with patient age (R = 0.53, P = 0.04) and preoperative average keratometry (R = 0.61, P = 0.02). However, keratometric CR failed to show any significant correlation with other variables. A significant increase in graft steepening occurred after GRS, averaging 0.86 D. When both GRS and cataract extraction or phakic intraocular lens implantation are indicated, a staged approach (first GRS followed by phacoemulsification, for example) is advocated to calculate intraocular lens power with accuracy.

  8. The effects of heat activation on Bacillus spore germination, with nutrients or under high pressure, with or without various germination proteins.

    PubMed

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E; Doona, Christopher J; Setlow, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75 °C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine-glucose-fructose-K(+) mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation.

  9. Predicting stroke through genetic risk functions: The CHARGE risk score project

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Fornage, Myriam; Bis, Joshua C; Choi, Seung Hoan; Psaty, Bruce M; Meigs, James B; Rao, Madhu; Nalls, Mike; Fontes, Joao D; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Ehret, Georg B.; Fox, Caroline S; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Schmidt, Helena; Lahti, Jari; Heckbert, Susan R; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Rotter, Jerome I; Taylor, Kent D; Folsom, Aaron R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rosamond, Wayne D; Shahar, Eyal; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Koudstaal, Peter J; Amin, Najaf; Wieberdink, Renske G.; Dehghan, Abbas; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; DeStefano, Anita L.; Debette, Stephanie; Xue, Luting; Beiser, Alexa; Wolf, Philip A.; DeCarli, Charles; Ikram, M. Arfan; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H; Longstreth, WT; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Beyond the Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS), prediction of future stroke may improve with a genetic risk score (GRS) based on Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with stroke and its risk factors. Methods The study includes four population-based cohorts with 2,047 first incident strokes from 22,720 initially stroke-free European origin participants aged 55 years and older, who were followed for up to 20 years. GRS were constructed with 324 SNPs implicated in stroke and 9 risk factors. The association of the GRS to first incident stroke was tested using Cox regression; the GRS predictive properties were assessed with Area under the curve (AUC) statistics comparing the GRS to age sex, and FSRS models, and with reclassification statistics. These analyses were performed per cohort and in a meta-analysis of pooled data. Replication was sought in a case-control study of ischemic stroke (IS). Results In the meta-analysis, adding the GRS to the FSRS, age and sex model resulted in a significant improvement in discrimination (All stroke: Δjoint AUC =0.016, p-value=2.3*10-6; IS: Δ joint AUC =0.021, p-value=3.7*10−7), although the overall AUC remained low. In all studies there was a highly significantly improved net reclassification index (p-values <10−4). Conclusions The SNPs associated with stroke and its risk factors result only in a small improvement in prediction of future stroke compared to the classical epidemiological risk factors for stroke. PMID:24436238

  10. The association between growth rate, body weight, backfat thickness and age at first observed oestrus in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire gilts.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, Padet; Tantasuparuk, Wichai; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Kunavongkrit, Annop

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the association between growth rate (GR), body weight (BW), backfat thickness (BF) and age at first observed oestrus in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) replacement gilts in the tropics. The study was carried out on five commercial swine herds in Thailand between 2004 and 2006. A total of 6946 LY gilts were included. The gilts entered the herd at about 163 days of age. The BW (kg) and BF (mm) of the gilts were measured when the gilts entered the gilt pools and again when the gilts were sent to the breeding house. The GR from birth to entry into the gilt pools (birth to 90 kg BW) (GRe), the GR from entry into to exit from the gilt pools (91-134 kg BW) (GRi) and the GR from birth until the gilts were sent to the breeding house (birth to 134 kg BW) (GRs) were calculated. The relationship between age at first observed oestrus and GRe, GRs, GRi, BW and BF were analyzed. Pearson's correlation and four general linear models (GLMs) were conducted. On average, the gilts showed first observed oestrus at 200+/-28 days of age. The means of age at first observed oestrus varied from 188 to 251 days (P<0.001) among the herds. The GRs of the gilts significantly correlated with the BW (r=0.55, P<0.001) of the gilts when they were sent to the breeding house and the age at first observed oestrus (r=-0.40, P<0.001). Gilts with a high GRe and GRs were younger at first observed oestrus compared to gilts with a low GRe and GRs. On average, the gilts with GRs of over 604 g/day showed first observed oestrus before 5 months of age. GRi was not correlated with the age at first observed oestrus (P>0.05). Neither the BF of the gilts at entry nor the BF that the gilts gained within the gilt pools significantly correlated with age at first observed oestrus (P=0.29 and P=0.69, respectively). But the gilts with a higher BF at entry tended to have a higher BW when they were sent to the breeding house (r=0.44, P<0.001). The present study indicates that

  11. A High-Resolution, Three-Dimensional Model of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, James Y.-K.; delaTorreJuarez, Manuel; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Dritschel, David G.

    2001-01-01

    The turbulent flow at the periphery of the Great Red Spot (GRS) contains many fine-scale filamentary structures, while the more quiescent core, bounded by a narrow high- velocity ring, exhibits organized, possibly counterrotating, motion. Past studies have neither been able to capture this complexity nor adequately study the effect of vertical stratification L(sub R)(zeta) on the GRS. We present results from a series of high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations that advect the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity. The detailed flow is successfully captured with a characteristic value of L(sub R) approx. equals 2000 km, independent of the precise vertical stratification profile.

  12. 2007 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference and Graduate Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Erich Grotewold

    2008-09-15

    Plant Metabolic Engineering is an emerging field that integrates a diverse range of disciplines including plant genetics, genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and cell biology. The Gordon-Kenan Graduate Research Seminar (GRS) in Plant Metabolic Engineering was initiated to provide a unique opportunity for future researcher leaders to present their work in this field. It also creates an environment allowing for peer-review and critical assessment of work without the intimidation usually associated with the presence of senior investigators. The GRS immediately precedes the Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Research Conference and will be for and by graduate students and post-docs, with the assistance of the organizers listed.

  13. Elemental Composition Variations for Large Dusty and Rocky Regions on Mars Using Gamma-Ray Data from the Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Reedy, R. C.; Boynton, W. V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft has been mapping the elemental composition of the surface materials since June 2002. To study elemental composition variations on the martian surface, seven large regions of Mars were selected: three very dusty ones and four mainly rocky ones. Large regions were used to get good counting statistics on as many gamma-ray peaks as possible from spectrum accumulated by the GRS experiment on Mars Odyssey, including elements with poor counting statistics. Data from TES were used to help select these regions. Gamma-ray peaks for several elements were analyzed. Some results and trends are reported.

  14. Prediction of Bone Mineral Density and Fragility Fracture by Genetic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ho-Le, Thao P; Center, Jacqueline R; Eisman, John A; Nguyen, Hung T; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2017-02-01

    Although the susceptibility to fracture is partly determined by genetic factors, the contribution of newly discovered genetic variants to fracture prediction is still unclear. This study sought to define the predictive value of a genetic profiling for fracture prediction. Sixty-two bone mineral density (BMD)-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 557 men and 902 women who had participated in the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. The incidence of fragility fracture was ascertained from X-ray reports between 1990 and 2015. Femoral neck BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A weighted polygenic risk score (genetic risk score [GRS]) was created as a function of the number of risk alleles and their BMD-associated regression coefficients for each SNP. The association between GRS and fracture risk was assessed by the Cox proportional hazards model. Individuals with greater GRS had lower femoral neck BMD (p < 0.01), but the variation in GRS accounted for less than 2% of total variance in BMD. Each unit increase in GRS was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.38) for fracture, and this association was independent of age, prior fracture, fall, and in a subset of 33 SNPs, independent of femoral neck BMD. The significant association between GRS and fracture was observed for the vertebral and wrist fractures, but not for hip fracture. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for the model with GRS and clinical risk factors was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.74). With GRS, the correct reclassification of fracture versus nonfracture ranged from 12% for hip fracture to 23% for wrist fracture. A genetic profiling of BMD- associated genetic variants could improve the accuracy of fracture prediction over and above that of clinical risk factors alone, and help stratify individuals by fracture status. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and

  15. A Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score Can Aid Discrimination Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Oram, Richard A; Patel, Kashyap; Hill, Anita; Shields, Beverley; McDonald, Timothy J; Jones, Angus; Hattersley, Andrew T; Weedon, Michael N

    2016-03-01

    With rising obesity, it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in young adults. There has been substantial recent progress in identifying the contribution of common genetic variants to T1D and T2D. We aimed to determine whether a score generated from common genetic variants could be used to discriminate between T1D and T2D and also to predict severe insulin deficiency in young adults with diabetes. We developed genetic risk scores (GRSs) from published T1D- and T2D-associated variants. We first tested whether the scores could distinguish clinically defined T1D and T2D from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) (n = 3,887). We then assessed whether the T1D GRS correctly classified young adults (diagnosed at 20-40 years of age, the age-group with the most diagnostic difficulty in clinical practice; n = 223) who progressed to severe insulin deficiency <3 years from diagnosis. In the WTCCC, the T1D GRS, based on 30 T1D-associated risk variants, was highly discriminative of T1D and T2D (area under the curve [AUC] 0.88 [95% CI 0.87-0.89]; P < 0.0001), and the T2D GRS added little discrimination (AUC 0.89). A T1D GRS >0.280 (>50th centile in those with T1D) is indicative of T1D (50% sensitivity, 95% specificity). A low T1D GRS (<0.234, <5th centile T1D) is indicative of T2D (53% sensitivity, 95% specificity). Most discriminative ability was obtained from just nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (AUC 0.87). In young adults with diabetes, T1D GRS alone predicted progression to insulin deficiency (AUC 0.87 [95% CI 0.82-0.92]; P < 0.0001). T1D GRS, autoantibody status, and clinical features were independent and additive predictors of severe insulin deficiency (combined AUC 0.96 [95% CI 0.94-0.99]; P < 0.0001). A T1D GRS can accurately identify young adults with diabetes who will require insulin treatment. This will be an important addition to correctly classifying individuals with diabetes when

  16. Accelerator measurement of NaI response to medium energy neutrons and application to a satellite-borne spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunphy, P. P.; Chupp, E. L.; Popecki, M.; Forrest, D. J.; Lopiano, D.; Shima, T.; Spinka, H.; Glass, G.; Burleson, G.; Beddo, M.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the response of a prototype detector to medium energy neutrons. The neutrons were produced by n-p scattering of a neutron beam on a hydrogen target. The measurements provide unique data on the efficiency and response of large NaI scintillators to neutrons in the energy range 36-709 MeV. We apply the results to the high-energy mode of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite by estimating its efficiency for neutron detection. This estimate is compared to earlier Monte Carlo calculations of the GRS efficiency.

  17. Potential vorticity and layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1988-01-01

    Using Voyager images, layer thickness variations in the flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and White Oval BC were investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Fluid trajectories around the GRS and the White Oval BC were calculated assuming the flow to be frictionless, adiabatic, hydrostatic, and steady in the reference frame of the vortex. The data obtained constitute a useful diagnostic which will help to differentiate between models of Jovian vortices. Implications of the observations were studied in the context of a one-layer quasi-geostrophic model in which a thin upper weather layer, which contains the vortex, is supported hydrostatically by a much deeper lower layer.

  18. Rossby autosoliton and stationary model of the Jovian Great Red SPOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, S. V.; Nezlin, M. V.; Snezhkin, E. N.; Trubnikov, A. S.

    1986-09-01

    A theory proposed about 10 years ago claimed that the jovian Great Red Spot (GRS) was a solitary wave vortex (Rossby soliton) kept stationary by counter-streaming zonal winds. The authors have attempted to verify this soliton theory experimentally. The jovian atmosphere is modelled by a rotating thin parabolic layer of fluid (shallow water) with a free surface in which counter-streaming (zonal) flows are excited mechanically. It is found that instability of these flows can generate a Rossby autosoliton, that is, an undamped stationary solitary vortex which is alone on the perimeter of the system. This result can be considered to support the soliton theory of the GRS.

  19. Long-term X-ray observations of galactic superluminal sources with GRANAT/WATCH.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonov, S. Yu.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Lund, N.

    1996-02-01

    The authors present X-ray time histories for the radio-jet sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40 observed by the GRANAT/WATCH all-sky monitor at 8-20 keV. GRS 1915+105 is extremely variable on the time scales of months to years. The analysis of a 3-year data set gives no evidence for periodicity in its X-ray intensity. The light curve of GRO J1655-40 consists of strong outbursts alternating with periods of low flux.

  20. A comparison of red spots in the atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, R. F.; Hockey, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager, Pioneer and ground-based astronomical and broadband photometric images of Jupiter are analyzed to compare the Great Red Spot (GRS) with the Little Red Spots (LRS) observed in the North Tropical Zone in 1976. Attention is given to the size and latitudinal positions and the color profiles. The red ovals are found to absorb strongly at blue and UV wavelengths, unlike red-brown belts. The movements of the GRS and the LRS coincided strongly with zonal wind profiles of the regions in which they are embedded. The meridional gradient of the zonal wind is the controlling factor in the lifetime of the red spots.

  1. Standardisation and precise determination of the half-life of (44)Sc.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Peyrés, V; Roteta, M; Sánchez-Cabezudo, A I; Romero, E; Martínez Ortega, A

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (44)Sc has been determined by following the decay rate with two measurement systems; an Ionisation Chamber and a HPGe detector. The combination of seven results gives a value of T1/2=4.042 (25)h, about 2% higher than the recommended value of T1/2=3.97 (4)h (Browne, 2011) and with a lower uncertainty. This radionuclide has also been standardised by coincidence counting, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. A (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator developed at CIEMAT was used to obtain the (44)Sc solutions used in all measurements.

  2. Frequency hopping millimeter wave reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cupido, L.; Sánchez, J.; Estrada, T.

    2004-10-01

    Reflectometry techniques are employed to study density fluctuations in fusion plasmas either using one channel or two channels with slightly different frequencies, to probe simultaneously closely spaced plasma layers (for radial correlation studies). The present article describes a novel system with increasing measuring capability utilizing only one single frequency that can be hopped during the discharge. This broadband fast hopping mm-wave reflectometer (BFHR) has been developed for both ASDEX upgrade (Max Plank Institute-Garching-Germany) and TJ-II stellarator (CIEMAT-Spain). The BFHR incorporates frequency synthesizers at microwave frequencies multiplied into the millimeter-wave range and uses heterodyne detection for sensitive phase and amplitude measurements.

  3. Control strategies in a thermal oil - Molten salt heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Lidia; Bonilla, Javier; Rodríguez-García, Margarita M.; Palenzuela, Patricia; de la Calle, Alberto; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary control scheme for a molten salt - thermal oil heat exchanger. This controller regulates the molten salt mass flow rate to reach and maintain the desired thermal oil temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger. The controller architecture has been tested using an object-oriented heat exchanger model that has been validated with data from a molten salt testing facility located at CIEMAT-PSA. Different simulations are presented with three different goals: i) to analyze the controller response in the presence of disturbances, ii) to demonstrate the benefits of designing a setpoint generator and iii) to show the controller potential against electricity price variations.

  4. Standardization of ²³⁷Np.

    PubMed

    Laureano-Perez, Lizbeth; Fitzgerald, R; Collé, R

    2014-05-01

    The standardization of (237)Np was investigated. The certified massic activity for (237)Np was obtained by 4παβ liquid scintillation (LS) counting with correction for the (233)Pa daughter using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method using a (3)H standard. Confirmatory measurements were also performed by high-resolution HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry, and by 4παβ(LS)-γ(NaI) anticoincidence counting. All results agree within the respective method's uncertainties. It was confirmed that the (237)Np/(233)Pa radioactive equilibrium is disturbed when making dilutions and/or removing aliquots.

  5. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two U.S. populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher pr...

  6. Mapping Potassium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    During the first year of NASA MESSENGER orbital mission, the spacecraft GRS instrument measured the elemental composition of Mercury surface materials. mong the most important discoveries from the GRS was the observation of higher abundances of the moderately volatile elements potassium, sodium, and chlorine than expected from previous scientific models and theories. Particularly high concentrations of these elements were observed at high northern latitudes, as illustrated in this potassium abundance map, which provides a view of the surface centered at 60° N latitude and 120° E longitude. This map was the first elemental map ever made of Mercury's surface and is to-date the only map to report absolute elemental concentrations, in comparison to element ratios. Prior to MESSENGER's arrival at Mercury, scientists expected that the planet would be depleted in moderately volatile elements, as is the case for our Moon. The unexpectedly high abundances observed with the GRS have forced a reevaluation of our understanding of the formation and evolution of Mercury. In addition, the K map provided the first evidence for distinct geochemical terranes on Mercury, as the high-potassium region was later found to also be distinct in its low Mg/Si, Ca/Si, S/Si, and high Na/Si and Cl/Si abundances. Instrument: Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19414

  7. Secreted human glycyl-tRNA synthetase implicated in defense against ERK-activated tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Chul; Kang, Taehee; Jin, Da; Han, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Yun Jung; Cho, Kiwon; Park, Young Woo; Guo, Min; He, Weiwei; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Schimmel, Paul; Kim, Sunghoon

    2012-03-13

    Although adaptive systems of immunity against tumor initiation and destruction are well investigated, less understood is the role, if any, of endogenous factors that have conventional functions. Here we show that glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GRS), an essential component of the translation apparatus, circulates in serum and can be secreted from macrophages in response to Fas ligand that is released from tumor cells. Through cadherin (CDH)6 (K-cadherin), GRS bound to different ERK-activated tumor cells, and released phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from CDH6. The activated PP2A then suppressed ERK signaling through dephosphorylation of ERK and induced apoptosis. These activities were inhibited by blocking GRS with a soluble fragment of CDH6. With in vivo administration of GRS, growth of tumors with a high level of CDH6 and ERK activation were strongly suppressed. Our results implicate a conventional cytoplasmic enzyme in translation as an intrinsic component of the defense against ERK-activated tumor formation.

  8. GH safety workshop position paper: A critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, t...

  9. Ammonium Hydrosulfide and Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R.; Chanover, N.; Simon, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The color and composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) has been debated for more than a century. While there are numerous hypotheses for the origin of Jupiter's GRS, recent work suggests that the GRS's color could originate from multiple components (Carlson et al., 2012; Simon et al., submitted). In light of this, we have recently begun conducting in situ laboratory experiments that test whether ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, or its radiation decomposition products contribute to the GRS spectrum. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our most recent results, where we have studied the stability of NH4SH samples as a function of temperature using infrared and mass spectrometry. Funding for this work has been provided by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Outer Planets Research programs. ReferencesCarlson, R. W., K. H. Baines, M. S. Anderson, G. Filacchione. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, DPS, 44, 2012. Simon, A. A., J. Legarreta, F. Sanz-Requena, S. Perez-Hoyos, E. Garcia-Melendo, R. W. Carlson. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, submitted.

  10. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  11. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of absolute color on Jupiter from Hubble Space Telescope imaging data shows that the Great Red Spot (GRS) is not the reddest region of the planet. Rather, a transient red cyclone visible in 1995 and the North Equatorial Belt both show redder spectra than the GRS (i.e., more absorption at blue and green wavelengths). This cyclone is unique among vortices in that it is intensely colored yet low altitude, unlike the GRS. Temporal analysis shows that the darkest regions of the NEB are relative constant in color from 1995 to 2008, while the slope of the GRS core may vary slightly. Principal component analysis shows several spectral components are needed, in agreement with past work, and further highlights the differences between regions. These color differences may be indicative of the same chromophore(s) under different conditions, such as mixing with white clouds, longer UV irradiation at higher altitude, and thermal processing, or may indicate abundance variations in colored compounds. A single compound does not fit the spectrum of any region well and mixes of multiple compounds including NH4SH, photolyzed NH3, hydrocarbons, and possibly P4, are likely needed to fully match each spectrum.

  12. 76 FR 73605 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Burden Hours: 38,764. Abstract: The Department of Education--Green Ribbon Schools (ED- GRS) is a recognition award that will recognize public and private elementary, middle and high schools that save energy... of Review: New. Title of Collection: Green Ribbon Schools Application Package. OMB Control Number...

  13. Trends in Nuclear Proliferation, 1975-1995. Projections, Problems, and Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-15

    But in the eyes of less developed countries and of regional" neighbGrs. the result might be the opposite: the perception of techno- logical triump ...isotope separation (LIS) has also been proven in laboratory tests. And, more importantly, as openly reported israeli ac - tivities indicate, the

  14. High Pressure Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in Levels and Types of Germination Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    it is present, as well as the spore coats, outer membrane, peptidoglycan cortex and germ cell wall to reach the GRs. There is evidence that there is...D.G. and Setlow, P. (2010) Superdormant spores of Bacillus species germinate normally with high pressure, peptidoglycan fragments and bryostatin. J

  15. Changing values of farm animal genomic resources. from historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of Animal genetic resources (AnGRs) and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA) and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of “in situ condition” has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions. PMID:26442098

  16. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  17. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  18. INVESTIGATION OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF URANIUM UNDER IRON-REDUCING CONDITIONS: REDUCTION OF UVI BY BIOGENIC FEII/FEIII HYDROXIDE (GREEN RUST)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Scherer, Michelle M.; Kemner, Kenneth M.

    2006-12-31

    The recent identification of green rusts (GRs) as products of the reduction of FeIII oxyhydroxides by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, coupled with the ability of synthetic (GR) to reduce UVI species to insoluble UO2, suggests that biogenic green rusts (BioGRs) may play an important role in the speciation (and thus mobility) of U in FeIII-reducing environments. The objective of our research was to examine the potential for BioGR to affect the speciation of U under FeIII-reducing conditions. To meet this objective, we designed and executed a hypothesis-driven experimental program to identify key factors leading to the formation of BioGRs as products of dissimilatory FeIII reduction, to determine the key factors controlling the reduction of UVI to UIV by GRs, and to identify the resulting U-bearing mineral phases. The results of this research significantly increase our understanding of the coupling of biotic and abiotic processes with respect to the speciation of U in iron-reducing environments. In particular, the reduction of UVI to UIV by BioGR with the subsequent formation of U-bearing mineral phases may be effective for immobilizing U in suboxic subsurface environments. This information has direct applications to contaminant transport modeling and bioremediation engineering for natural or enhanced in situ remediation of subsurface contamination.

  19. What's New in Facilities at the U.S. Department of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falken, Andrea Suarez

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (ED) has been hard at work developing criteria and award infrastructure for U.S. Department of Education Green Ribbon Schools (ED-GRS), the first comprehensive and coordinated federal policy in the three institutional roles of schools related to environment, health and education. The ground-breaking award…

  20. 75 FR 67366 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ..., 44 U.S.C. 3501-3520, AHRQ invites the public to comment on this proposed information collection. This... renew the Agency's Grants Reporting System (GRS), a systematic method for its grantees to report project... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection...

  1. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  2. KSC01pp0195

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Two technicians involved with the installation of the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter pose in front of the spacecraft in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility 2 (SAEF 2).; The orbiter will carry three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment with regards to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  3. KSC01pp0191

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    An overhead crane moves The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) into place to be installed on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility 2 (SAEF 2).; The orbiter will carry three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment with regards to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  4. KSC01pp0189

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    Technicians examine the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) before it is moved to be installed on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter in the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility II (SAEF II).; The orbiter will carry three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment with regards to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  5. KSC01pp0190

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-24

    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility 2 (SAEF 2), workers attach a crane to the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS); to move it into place to be installed on the Mars Odyssey Orbiter.; The orbiter will carry three science instruments: the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS), and the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE). THEMIS will map the mineralogy and morphology of the Martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. [The GRS is a rebuild of the instrument lost with the Mars Observer mission.] The MARIE will characterize aspects of the near-space radiation environment with regards to the radiation-related risk to human explorers. The Mars Odyssey Orbiter is scheduled for launch on April 7, 2001, aboard a Delta 7925 rocket from Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

  6. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  7. Functional Characterisation of Germinant Receptors in Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes Presents Novel Insights into Spore Germination Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Jason; Plowman, June; Gaskin, Duncan J. H.; Itchner, Manoa; Carter, Andrew T.; Peck, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a dangerous pathogen that forms the highly potent botulinum toxin, which when ingested causes a deadly neuroparalytic disease. The closely related Clostridium sporogenes is occasionally pathogenic, frequently associated with food spoilage and regarded as the non-toxigenic equivalent of Group I C. botulinum. Both species form highly resistant spores that are ubiquitous in the environment and which, under favourable growth conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is imperative to comprehend the mechanisms by which spores germinate. Germination is initiated following the recognition of small molecules (germinants) by a specific germinant receptor (GR) located in the spore inner membrane. The present study precisely defines clostridial GRs, germinants and co-germinants. Group I C. botulinum ATCC3502 contains two tricistronic and one pentacistronic GR operons, while C. sporogenes ATCC15579 has three tricistronic and one tetracistronic GR operons. Insertional knockout mutants, allied with characterisation of recombinant GRs shows for the first time that amino acid stimulated germination in C. botulinum requires two tri-cistronic encoded GRs which act in synergy and cannot function individually. Spore germination in C. sporogenes requires one tri-cistronic GR. Two other GRs form part of a complex involved in controlling the rate of amino-acid stimulated germination. The suitability of using C. sporogenes as a substitute for C. botulinum in germination studies and food challenge tests is discussed. PMID:25210747

  8. MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND CLUMPS IN THE BOSTON UNIVERSITY-FIVE COLLEGE RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Rathborne, J. M.; Johnson, A. M.; Jackson, J. M.; Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R. E-mail: alexj@bu.edu E-mail: ronak@bu.edu

    2009-05-15

    The Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (BU-FCRAO) Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) of {sup 13}CO J = 1 {yields} 0 emission covers Galactic longitudes 18{sup 0} < l < 55.{sup 0}7 and Galactic latitudes |b| {<=} 1{sup 0}. Using the SEQUOIA array on the FCRAO 14 m telescope, the GRS fully sampled the {sup 13}CO Galactic emission (46'' angular resolution on a 22'' grid) and achieved a spectral resolution of 0.21 km s{sup -1}. Because the GRS uses {sup 13}CO, an optically thin tracer, rather than {sup 12}CO, an optically thick tracer, the GRS allows a much better determination of column density and also a cleaner separation of velocity components along a line of sight. With this homogeneous, fully sampled survey of {sup 13}CO emission, we have identified 829 molecular clouds and 6124 clumps throughout the inner Galaxy using the CLUMPFIND algorithm. Here we present details of the catalog and a preliminary analysis of the properties of the molecular clouds and their clumps. Moreover, we compare clouds inside and outside of the 5 kpc ring and find that clouds within the ring typically have warmer temperatures, higher column densities, larger areas, and more clumps compared with clouds located outside the ring. This is expected if these clouds are actively forming stars. This catalog provides a useful tool for the study of molecular clouds and their embedded young stellar objects.

  9. The NtrY/NtrX system of Sinorhizobium meliloti GR4 regulates motility, EPS I production and nitrogen metabolism but is dispensable for symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Calatrava-Morales, Nieves; Nogales, Joaquina; Ameztoy, Kinia; van Steenbergen, Bart; Soto, María José

    2017-04-11

    Sinorhizobium meliloti can translocate over surfaces. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms that control this trait and its relevance for establishing symbiosis with alfalfa plants. To gain insights into this field, we isolated Tn5 mutants of S. meliloti GR4 with impaired surface motility. In mutant strain GRS577, the transposon interrupted the ntrY gene encoding the sensor kinase of the NtrY/NtrX two-component regulatory system. GRS577 is impaired in flagella synthesis, and overproduces succinoglycan which is responsible for increased biofilm formation. The mutant also shows altered cell morphology and higher susceptibility to salt stress. GRS577 induces nitrogen-fixing nodules in alfalfa but exhibits decreased competitive nodulation. Complementation experiments indicate that both, ntrY and ntrX, account for all the phenotypes displayed by the ntrY::Tn5 mutant. Ectopic overexpression of VisNR, the motility master regulator, was sufficient to rescue motility and competitive nodulation of the transposant. A transcriptome profiling of GRS577 confirmed differential expression of exo and flagellar genes, and led to the demonstration that NtrY/NtrX allows for optimal expression of denitrification and nifA genes under microoxic conditions in response to nitrogen compounds. This study extends our knowledge about the complex role played by NtrY/NtrX in S. meliloti.

  10. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  11. Grassroot Soccer Resiliency Pilot Program: Building Resiliency through Sport-Based Education in Zambia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock-Villada, Paola; DeCelles, Jeff; Banda, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Grassroot Soccer (GRS), a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, designed a curriculum and sport-based teaching model to build resiliency, targeting boys and girls in Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa, where most children are reminded daily of the devastation caused by AIDS and where many face chronic and acute hardship. Collaborating…

  12. "I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood": Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention.

  13. Genetic variation of habitual coffee consumption and glycemic changes in response to weight-loss diet intervention: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Liyuan; Ma, Wenjie; Sun, Dianjianyi; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Duan, Donghui; Bray, J George A; Champagne, Catherine M; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2017-09-20

    Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes.Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention.Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used general linear models to test changes in glycemic traits in groups randomly assigned to high- and low-fat diets according to tertiles of the GRS.Results: We observed significant interactions between the GRS and low compared with high dietary fat intake on 6-mo changes in fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P-interaction = 0.023 and 0.022, respectively), adjusting for age, sex, race, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, seasonal variation, and baseline values of the respective outcomes. Participants with a higher GRS of habitual coffee consumption showed a greater reduction in fasting insulin and a marginally greater decrease in HOMA-IR in the low-fat diet intervention group.Conclusions: Our data suggest that participants with genetically determined high coffee consumption may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet in improving fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in a short term. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995 and NCT03258203. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Predictive utility of a genetic risk score of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes in a black South African population.

    PubMed

    Chikowore, Tinashe; van Zyl, Tertia; Feskens, Edith J M; Conradie, Karin R

    2016-12-01

    To determine the predictive utility of polygenic risk scores of common variants associated with type 2 diabetes derived from the European and Asian ethnicities among a black South African population. Our study was a case-control study nested within the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study of 178 male and female cases, matched for age and gender with 178 controls. Four types of genetic risk scores (GRS) were developed from 66 selected SNPs. These comprised of beta cell related variants (GRSb), variants which had significant associations with T2D in our study (GRSn), variants from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis (GRStrans) and all the 66 selected SNPs (GRSt). Of the GRS's, only GRSn was associated with increased risk of T2D as indicated by an OR (95CI) of 1.21 (1.02-1.43) p-value=0.015. Stratified analysis of age and BMI, indicated the GRSn to be significantly associated with T2D among the non-obese and participants less than 50years. The area under the ROC of the T2D risk factors only was 0.652 (p value<0.001) and with the addition of GRSn it was 0.665 (p value<0.001). The GRS of European and Asian derived variants have limited clinical utility in the black South African population. The inclusion of population specific variants in the GRS is pivotal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Reliability and Validity of a Chinese-Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scale- Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Angela F. Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of a Chinese-translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) and explores the effect of gender and age on each of the subscales. Data were collected from 250 kindergarten children, with age ranging from 4 years, 0 months to 6 years, 11 months. Results indicated…

  16. Second Letter Report of Test Results of USATECOM Project No. 8-3-0300-07 F, Product Improvement Test of Armaltite AR-15 Rifle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-10-14

    a verbal report is acceptable prior to the letter report. 5. Consider this task as a secand letter report under USATEO)K Project No. 8-3-0030-07F. FOR THE COMMANDER: /1 10htN IN. RbdGRS Ci. AdImI Old’

  17. Genetic Risk of Progression to Type 2 Diabetes and Response to Intensive Lifestyle or Metformin in Prediabetic Women With and Without a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Shannon D.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Florez, Jose C.; Dabelea, Dana; Franks, Paul W.; Dagogo-Jack, Sam; Kim, Catherine; Knowler, William C.; Christophi, Costas A.; Ratner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial investigated rates of progression to diabetes among adults with prediabetes randomized to treatment with placebo, metformin, or intensive lifestyle intervention. Among women in the DPP, diabetes risk reduction with metformin was greater in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with women without GDM but with one or more previous live births. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We asked if genetic variability could account for these differences by comparing β-cell function and genetic risk scores (GRS), calculated from 34 diabetes-associated loci, between women with and without histories of GDM. RESULTS β-Cell function was reduced in women with GDM. The GRS was positively associated with a history of GDM; however, the GRS did not predict progression to diabetes or modulate response to intervention. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that a diabetes-associated GRS is associated with development of GDM and may characterize women at risk for development of diabetes due to β-cell dysfunction. PMID:24271189

  18. 76 FR 31881 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Retention Standard; Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Act (AFA) vessels, and Amendment 80 cooperatives from the groundfish retention standard (GRS) program... retention and utilization of groundfish caught by the non-AFA trawl C/Ps and to respond to bycatch reduction... necessary to exempt non-AFA trawl C/Ps and Amendment 80 cooperatives from the minimum...

  19. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigate the effects of 51 genetic variants identified in previous GWAS on breast cancer risk. The independent effect of these genetic variants was assessed by creating a summed genetic risk score (GRS) after adjustment for body mass index and the Gail model risk factors for breast cancer. Results The GRS was an independent predictor of breast cancer risk in Chinese women. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of breast cancer for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of the GRS were 1.26 (0.90 to 1.76), 1.47 (1.06 to 2.04) and 1.75 (1.27 to 2.41) respectively (P for trend <0.001). In addition to established risk factors, the GRS improved the classification of 6.2% of women for their absolute risk of breast cancer in the next five years. Conclusions Genetic variants on top of conventional risk factors can improve the risk prediction of breast cancer in Chinese women. PMID:24941967

  20. Monte Carlo calibration of the SMM gamma ray spectrometer for high energy gamma rays and neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Reppin, C.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was primarily designed and calibrated for nuclear gamma ray line measurements, but also has a high energy mode which allows the detection of gamma rays at energies above 10 MeV and solar neutrons above 20 MeV. The GRS response has been extrapolated until now for high energy gamma rays from an early design study employing Monte Carlo calculations. The response to 50 to 600 MeV solar neutrons was estimated from a simple model which did not consider secondary charged particles escaping into the veto shields. In view of numerous detections by the GRS of solar flares emitting high energy gamma rays, including at least two emitting directly detectable neutrons, the calibration of the high energy mode in the flight model has been recalculated by the use of more sophisticated Monte Carlo computer codes. New results presented show that the GRS response to gamma rays above 20 MeV and to neutrons above 100 MeV is significantly lower than the earlier estimates.

  1. Ultraviolet observations of Jupiter and Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Wagener, R.

    1986-01-01

    To further understand the processes that led to the formation of organic molecules in the atmosphere of the primitive Earth, two of the planets that have maintained their reducing atmospheres were studied. The Observations consist of spectra obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in the wavelength region from 1400 to 3350 A. After examining IUE spectra of Saturn's Rings, Mars, and the solar analogs 16 Cyg A and B, rocket measurements of the full disk solar spectrum (Mount and Rottman, 1981; 1983s) were found to be the preferable solar calibration for calibration for calculating planetary reflectivities. A vertically inhomogeneous radiative transfer program was used to compute reflectivities of various model stratospheric compositions for comparison with the planetary spectra. The analysis of the equatorial region of Jupiter resulted in the detection of allene (C/sub 3/H/sub 4/) and another absorber near 1600 A, possibly cyclopropane (C/sub 3/H/sub 6/) or a high altitude haze. Small aperture observations of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and the South Tropical Zone (STrZ) in the 1900 to 2200 A wavelength region show that the enhancement of vertical mixing in the GRS due to upwelling is small and is not capable of significantly enhancing the PH/sub 3/ abundance in the GRS. Thus, the photolysis of PH/sub 3/ cannot be invoked to explain the red coloration of the GRS. Alternatives, such as nitrogen bearing compounds, should continue to be considered.

  2. Analysis of Jordanian phosphate using nuclear techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, N.S.; Al-Saleh, K.A.

    1987-09-01

    The concentrations of major, minor and trace element content of Jordanian phosphate ores were determined using different complementary nuclear techniques. These techniques were: Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (GRS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Special emphasis was given to the determination of Uranium and rare earth element concentrations.

  3. Seasonal polar carbon dioxide frost on Mars: CO2 mass and columnar thickness distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, N. J.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Kim, K. J.; Haberle, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Conclusions are drawn about the column density (g/cm2), spatial extent, and mass of the seasonal carbon dioxide frost on the poles of Mars as a function of time utilizing data from the 2001 Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). Quantification of these CO2 values is achieved by observing attenuation effects of the surface-emitted hydrogen gamma ray flux as the frost condenses and sublimates in a seasonal exchange of CO2 between the ground and the atmosphere. Columnar thickness and mass results are discussed and plotted for latitudes including +/-60° and poleward. GRS observations are compared to predictions from the NASA Ames Research Center General Circulation Model and to similar experimental results from the Mars Odyssey High Energy Neutron Detector and Neutron Spectrometer. Models for north and south polar atmosphere and regolith distributions are incorporated, and our results indicate that the assumption of a 100% H2O-ice residual cap underlying the seasonal frost in the north is accurate. The GRS CO2 frost observations are in good agreement with the other studies mentioned, in particular for the timing of the beginning of frost deposition to the complete sublimation of surface CO2 back into the atmosphere. The total amount of condensed carbon dioxide mass seen by the GRS is on the order of 6.0 × 1015 kg and verifies previous reports that nearly 25% of the Martian CO2 reservoir participates in the ground-atmosphere exchange cycle.

  4. South Polar Ar Enhancement as a Tracer for Southern Winter Horizontal Meridional Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kim, K.; Reedy, R.; Kerry, K.; Janes, D.

    2004-03-01

    Measurement of an Ar excess in the southern winter high latitude atmosphere at Mars by the GRS on Mars Odyssey has permitted estimation of meridional mixing. Eddy mixing rates for early southern winter and for late southern winter and spring have been made.

  5. Preliminary Thickness Measurements of the Seasonal Polar Carbon Dioxide Frost on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, N. J.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D.; Mikheeva, I.; Prettyman, T.; Feldman, W. C.; GRS Team

    2003-07-01

    We have attempted here to quantize the time-dependence, spatial extent, and thickness of the seasonal polar carbon dioxide frost on Mars through gamma-ray data measured by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument suite on 2001 Mars Odyssey.

  6. Determination of Both Depth and Ice Content of Sub-Surface Ice in the Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Kim, K. J.; Drake, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Janes, D.; Kerry, K.; Williams, R.; Crombie, K.; GRS Science Team

    2005-03-01

    The GRS determined fluxes of gamma rays from Si and H are used to determine both the H2O content and burial depth of the sub-surface ice in the polar regions. We find an H2O content of about 50% in the north and 75% in the south.

  7. Parent Ratings Using the Chinese Version of the Parent Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: Reliability and Validity for Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steve I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the scores of a Chinese-translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) using parents as raters and explored the effects of gender and grade on the ratings. A total of 222 parents participated in the study and rated their child independently using the Chinese version of the…

  8. The Reliability and Validity of a Korean-Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghyuck; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a Korean-translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales--School Form (GRS-S) and explored the effect of gender, rater, and grade. Data were collected from elementary schools in a metropolitan area and a midsize town in South Korea. In all, 49 elementary school teachers and 272 parents…

  9. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  10. Structure of Vocational Interests for Diverse Groups on the 2005 Strong Interest Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantamneni, Neeta; Fouad, Nadya

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the structure of vocational interests in a diverse sample of individuals who completed the 2005 revision of the Strong Interest Inventory. We examined the fit of three racial/ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Latino/a), both genders, and three levels of professional status (GRS participant, student,…

  11. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on an analysis of the standardization sample of a rating scale designed to assist in identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness designed for preschool and kindergarten students. Results provide support for: the internal…

  12. Molecular mapping of greenbug resistance loci Gb6 and Gb2 in 1AL.1RS wheat-rye translocations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is an economically important aphid pest of wheat worldwide. The greenbug resistance genes Gb2 and Gb6, derived from the same donor rye line 'Insave', are presented in wheat germplasm lines 'Amigo' and 'GRS1201' respectively as 1AL.1RS wheat-rye transloca...

  13. Joint effect of unlinked genotypes: application to type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Knüppel, Sven; Meidtner, Karina; Arregui, Maria; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-07-01

    Analyzing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising approach to finding genetic effects beyond single-locus associations. We proposed the use of multilocus stepwise regression (MSR) to screen for allele combinations as a method to model joint effects, and compared the results with the often used genetic risk score (GRS), conventional stepwise selection, and the shrinkage method LASSO. In contrast to MSR, the GRS, conventional stepwise selection, and LASSO model each genotype by the risk allele doses. We reanalyzed 20 unlinked SNPs related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study (760 cases, 2193 noncases). No SNP-SNP interactions and no nonlinear effects were found. Two SNP combinations selected by MSR (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.050 and 0.048) included eight SNPs with mean allele combination frequency of 2%. GRS and stepwise selection selected nearly the same SNP combinations consisting of 12 and 13 SNPs (Nagelkerke's R² ranged from 0.020 to 0.029). LASSO showed similar results. The MSR method showed the best model fit measured by Nagelkerke's R² suggesting that further improvement may render this method a useful tool in genetic research. However, our comparison suggests that the GRS is a simple way to model genetic effects since it does not consider linkage, SNP-SNP interactions, and no non-linear effects.

  14. Clinical validity and utility of genetic risk scores in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, Brian T; Kearns, James; Conran, Carly; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Current issues related to prostate cancer (PCa) clinical care (e.g., over-screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment of nonaggressive PCa) call for risk assessment tools that can be combined with family history (FH) to stratify disease risk among men in the general population. Since 2007, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 100 SNPs associated with PCa susceptibility. In this review, we discuss (1) the validity of these PCa risk-associated SNPs, individually and collectively; (2) the various methods used for measuring the cumulative effect of multiple SNPs, including genetic risk score (GRS); (3) the adequate number of SNPs needed for risk assessment; (4) reclassification of risk based on evolving numbers of SNPs used to calculate genetic risk, (5) risk assessment for men from various racial groups, and (6) the clinical utility of genetic risk assessment. In conclusion, data available to date support the clinical validity of PCa risk-associated SNPs and GRS in risk assessment among men with or without FH. PCa risk-associated SNPs are not intended for diagnostic use; rather, they should be used the same way as FH. Combining GRS and FH can significantly improve the performance of risk assessment. Improved risk assessment may have important clinical utility in targeted PCa testing. However, clinical trials are urgently needed to evaluate this clinical utility as well as the acceptance of GRS by patients and physicians. PMID:27297129

  15. Prediction of Future Osteoporotic Fracture Occurrence by Genetic Profiling: A 6-Year Follow-Up Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hun; Cho, Eun-Hee; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeon-Mok; Lim, Kyeong-Hye; Kim, Beom-Jun; Kim, Sang-Wook; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Kim, Ghi Su; Kang, Moo Il; Koh, Jung-Min

    2016-03-01

    Heredity is an important risk factor for osteoporotic fracture, but it remains unclear whether genetic factors improve the predictability of future fracture occurrence. To compare an integration model of genetic profiling with the current model for predicting future fracture occurrence. A retrospective observational cohort study. Postmenopausal women aged 45-93 years who were untreated (n = 117), hormone-treated (n = 491), or bisphosphonate (BP)-treated (n = 415), with a mean 6.1-year follow-up. The main outcome was incident fractures. Ninety-five single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. We calculated the Korean-specific genetic risk score 35 (GRS35) from 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with osteoporosis-related traits at the baseline visit. Osteoporotic fracture occurred more frequently in the highest GRS35 tertile group than in the lower two tertile groups after adjustments for confounders (hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-2.55). The associations of the GRS35 with incident fracture were only significant in the BP group (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.28-3.95) and not in the untreated (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.34-4.66) and hormone-treated (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.62-2.36) groups. Integration of the GRS35 into the current model further improved its predictability for incident fracture occurrence by 6.3% (P = .010). Genetic profiling can more accurately predict future fracture risk, especially in individuals taking BPs.

  16. What's New in Facilities at the U.S. Department of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falken, Andrea Suarez

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (ED) has been hard at work developing criteria and award infrastructure for U.S. Department of Education Green Ribbon Schools (ED-GRS), the first comprehensive and coordinated federal policy in the three institutional roles of schools related to environment, health and education. The ground-breaking award…

  17. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  18. Genetic predisposition to coronary heart disease and stroke using an additive genetic risk score: a population-based study in Greece

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To determine the extent to which the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) increases in relation to a genetic risk score (GRS) that additively integrates the influence of high-risk alleles in nine documented single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CHD, and to examine whether t...

  19. Structure of Vocational Interests for Diverse Groups on the 2005 Strong Interest Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantamneni, Neeta; Fouad, Nadya

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the structure of vocational interests in a diverse sample of individuals who completed the 2005 revision of the Strong Interest Inventory. We examined the fit of three racial/ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Latino/a), both genders, and three levels of professional status (GRS participant, student,…

  20. Identification of Gifted Students in Oman: Gender and Grade Differences on the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Pfeiffer, Steven; Alzubaidi, Abdul-Qawi; Elwan, Reda Abu; Ambosaidi, Abdullah; Al-Washahi, Mariam; Al-Kharosi, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that teacher-completed gifted screening scales can reduce undernomination of students with culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) in the identification of gifted students in Oman. The participants of the study represented…

  1. Genetic Association Analysis of Drusen Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joshua D.; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Li, Chun; Brantley, Milam; McGrath, Josephine; Agarwal, Anita; Scott, William K.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Kovach, Jaclyn; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Sanchez, Clara I.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration is a common form of vision loss affecting older adults. The etiology of AMD is multifactorial and is influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors. In this study, we examine how 19 common risk variants contribute to drusen progression, a hallmark of AMD pathogenesis. Methods Exome chip data was made available through the International AMD Genomics Consortium (IAMDGC). Drusen quantification was carried out with color fundus photographs using an automated drusen detection and quantification algorithm. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated per subject by summing risk allele counts at 19 common genetic risk variants weighted by their respective effect sizes. Pathway analysis of drusen progression was carried out with the software package Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. Results We observed significant correlation with drusen baseline area and the GRS in the age-related eye disease study (AREDS) dataset (ρ = 0.175, P = 0.006). Measures of association were not statistically significant between drusen progression and the GRS (P = 0.54). Pathway analysis revealed the cell adhesion molecules pathway as the most highly significant pathway associated with drusen progression (corrected P = 0.02). Conclusions In this study, we explored the potential influence of known common AMD genetic risk factors on drusen progression. Our results from the GRS analysis showed association of increasing genetic burden (from 19 AMD associated loci) to baseline drusen load but not drusen progression in the AREDS dataset while pathway analysis suggests additional genetic contributors to AMD risk. PMID:27116550

  2. The Combination of Three Components Derived from Sheng MaiSan Protects Myocardial Ischemic Diseases and Inhibits Oxidative Stress via Modulating MAPKs and JAK2-STAT3 Signaling Pathways Based on Bioinformatics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Donglin; Xia, Yu; Fan, Xiaoxue; Tan, Yisha; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2017-01-01

    GRS is a drug combination of three components including ginsenoside Rb1, ruscogenin and schisandrin. It derived from the well-known TCM formula Sheng MaiSan, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in clinic. The present study illuminates its underlying mechanisms against myocardial ischemic diseases based on the combined methods of bioinformatic prediction and experimental verification. A protein database was established through constructing the drug-protein network. And the target-pathway interaction network clustered the potential signaling pathways and targets of GRS in treatment of myocardial ischemic diseases. Several target proteins, such as NFKB1, STAT3 and MAPK14, were identified as the candidate key proteins, and MAPKs and JAK-STAT signaling pathway were suggested as the most related pathways, which were in accordance with the gene ontology analysis. Then, the predictive results were further validated and we found that GRS treatment alleviated hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocytes injury via suppression of MDA levels and ROS generation, and potential mechanisms might related to the suppression of activation of MAPKs and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways. Conclusively, our results offer the evidence that GRS attenuates myocardial ischemia injury via regulating oxidative stress and MAPKs and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways, which supplied some new insights for its prevention and treatment of myocardial ischemia diseases. PMID:28197101

  3. Genetic risk score does not correlate with body mass index of Latina women in a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Kimberly R; Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B; Dietrich, Mary S; Morgan, Thomas M; Barkin, Shari L

    2011-10-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects Latina women. Common genetic variants are convincingly associated with body mass index (BMI) and may be used to create genetic risk scores (GRS) for obesity that could define genetically influenced forms of obesity and alter response to clinical trial interventions. The objective of this study was (1) to identify the frequency and effect size of common obesity genetic variants in Latina women; (2) to determine the clinical utility of a GRS for obesity with Latina women participating in a community-based clinical trial. DNA from 85 Latina women was genotyped for eight genetic variants previously associated with BMI in Caucasians, but not yet assessed in Latina populations. The main outcome measure was the correlation of GRS (sum of eight risk alleles) with BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat. A majority (83%) of participants had a BMI ≥25. Frequency of loci near FTO, MC4R, and GNPDA2 were lower in Latinas than Caucasians. Association of each locus with BMI was lower in Latinas compared to Caucasians with no significant correlations with BMI. We conclude that an eight locus GRS has no clinical utility for explaining obesity or predicting response to intervention in Latina women participating in a clinical trial.

  4. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  5. Grassroot Soccer Resiliency Pilot Program: Building Resiliency through Sport-Based Education in Zambia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock-Villada, Paola; DeCelles, Jeff; Banda, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Grassroot Soccer (GRS), a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, designed a curriculum and sport-based teaching model to build resiliency, targeting boys and girls in Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa, where most children are reminded daily of the devastation caused by AIDS and where many face chronic and acute hardship. Collaborating…

  6. 63 FR 2268 - Electronic Records Work Group; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-01-14

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Electronic Records Work Group; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: National Archives and... Electronic Records Work Group on January 29, 1998, to obtain further comments on issues relating to NARA's General Records Schedule (GRS) 20 for Electronic Records. The Electronic Records Work Group, with...

  7. Phenotypic and genetic evaluation of elbow dysplasia in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, and Bernese Mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Lavrijsen, I C M; Heuven, H C M; Voorhout, G; Meij, B P; Theyse, L F H; Leegwater, P A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2012-08-01

    Canine elbow dysplasia encompasses four developmental diseases: ununited anconeal process, osteochondrosis of the medial part of the humeral condyle, fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP), and incongruity of the elbow joint. Four radiographic views per joint were used to evaluate 2693 Labrador Retrievers (LRs), 1213 Golden Retrievers (GRs), and 974 Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMDs) for the presence of elbow dysplasia between 2002 and 2009 in the Netherlands. The views were also graded for signs of osteoarthritis and sclerosis. FCP was diagnosed most frequently in LRs, GRs and BMDs, with an incidence of 6%, 5%, and 15%, and a heritability of 0.17, 0.24, and 0.06, respectively. Heritabilities were estimated using a sire model and all available ancestors. Sclerosis at the base of the medial coronoid process was the radiographic sign most strongly correlated with FCP (r=0.95, 0.92, and 0.95 in LRs, GRs and BMDs, respectively). The sex of the dog was significantly correlated with the presence of osteoarthritis in LRs, but not in GRs and BMDs. Male LRs were 1.7-fold more frequently, but not more severely, affected by osteoarthritis than female dogs. Age at radiographic examination was significantly associated with osteoarthritis in all three breeds. The heritability estimates in Retrievers were high enough to warrant including FCP findings in the breeding policy, but until the biomechanical and genetic background of elbow dysplasia are better understood, correct phenotyping with a sensitive technique is essential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The full repertoire of Drosophila gustatory receptors for detecting an aversive compound.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaewon; Lee, Youngseok; Jeong, Yong Taek; Kim, Yonjung; Lee, Min Goo; Montell, Craig; Moon, Seok Jun

    2015-11-16

    The ability to detect toxic compounds in foods is essential for animal survival. However, the minimal subunit composition of gustatory receptors required for sensing aversive chemicals in Drosophila is unknown. Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a plant-derived insecticide. Ectopic co-expression of Gr8a and Gr98b in Gr66a-expressing, bitter-sensing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) confers responsiveness to L-canavanine. Furthermore, misexpression of all three Grs enables salt- or sweet-sensing GRNs to respond to L-canavanine. Introduction of these Grs in sweet-sensing GRNs switches L-canavanine from an aversive to an attractive compound. Co-expression of GR8a, GR66a and GR98b in Drosophila S2 cells induces an L-canavanine-activated nonselective cation conductance. We conclude that three GRs collaborate to produce a functional L-canavanine receptor. Thus, our results clarify the full set of GRs underlying the detection of a toxic tastant that drives avoidance behaviour in an insect.

  9. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  10. Genetic risk score and acute skin toxicity after breast radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Andrea; Vecoli, Cecilia; Mercuri, Antonella; Petruzzelli, Maria Fonte; D'Errico, Maria Patrizia; Portaluri, Maurizio; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

    2014-09-01

    Genetic predisposition has been shown to affect the severity of skin complications in breast cancer patients after radiotherapy. Limited data exist regarding the use of a genetic risk score (GRS) for predicting risk of tissue radiosensitivity. We evaluated the impact of different single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to DNA repair mechanisms and oxidative stress response combined in a GRS on acute adverse effects induced by breast radiation therapy (RT). Skin toxicity was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria in 59 breast cancer patients who received RT. After genotyping, a multilocus GRS was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. The hazard ratio (HR) for GSTM1 was 2.4 (95% confidence intervals [CI]=1.1-5.3, p=0.04). The other polymorphisms were associated to an increased adverse radiosensitivity, although they did not reach statistical significance. GRS predicted roughly 40% risk for acute skin toxicity per risk allele (HR 1.37, 95% CI=1.1-1.76, p<0.01). Patients in the top tertile had a fivefold higher risk of skin reaction (HR 5.1, 95% CI=1.2-22.8, p=0.03). Our findings demonstrate that the joint effect of SNPs from oxidative stress and DNA damage repair genes may be a promising approach to identify patients with a high risk of skin reaction after breast RT.

  11. Short-Duration X-ray Transients Observed with WATCH on Granat: Are Some of Them Related to Stellar Flares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Lapshov, Igor; Sunyaev, Rashid

    During 1990-92, the WATCH all-sky X-ray monitor on GRANAT has discovered 6 short-duration X-ray transients. We discuss their possible relationship to peculiar stars. Only one source, GRS 1100-77 seems to be related to a T Tauri star.

  12. 77 FR 67820 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of a New System of Records; Food and Drug Administration User Fee System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... implementing regulations. The records kept in this system relate to fees assessed under the Freedom of... records fall under GRS 20, Items 2a(4) (hard copy input records), 12 and 16 (Output records and reports... Act Coordinator, Division of Freedom of Information, 12420 Parklawn Dr., ELEM-1036, Rockville,...

  13. Antennal transcriptomes of three tortricid moths reveal putative conserved chemosensory receptors for social and habitat olfactory cues

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Francisco; Witzgall, Peter; Walker, William B.

    2017-01-01

    Insects use chemical signals to find mates, food and oviposition sites. The main chemoreceptor gene families comprise odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). Understanding the evolution of these receptors as well as their function will assist in advancing our knowledge of how chemical stimuli are perceived and may consequently lead to the development of new insect management strategies. Tortricid moths are important pests in horticulture, forestry and agriculture around the globe. Here, we characterize chemoreceptors from the three main gene families of three economically important tortricids, based on male antennal transcriptomes using an RNA-Seq approach. We identified 49 ORs, 11 GRs and 23 IRs in the green budworm moth, Hedya nubiferana; 49 ORs, 12 GRs and 19 IRs in the beech moth, Cydia fagiglandana; and 48 ORs, 11 GRs and 19 IRs in the pea moth, Cydia nigricana. Transcript abundance estimation, phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution rate comparisons with deorphanized receptors of Cydia pomonella allow us to hypothesize conserved functions and therefore candidate receptors for pheromones and kairomones. PMID:28150741

  14. A summary of major activities of the UNH and NRL groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    The major activities of the SMM GRS team members at the University of New Hampshire and the Naval Research Laboratory since the last semi-annual report are summarized. An updated list of published papers and invited papers or contributed papers presented at scientific meetings is provided.

  15. “I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood”: Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Malebranche, David J.; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental–family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention. PMID:24832150

  16. The full repertoire of Drosophila gustatory receptors for detecting an aversive compound

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jaewon; Lee, Youngseok; Jeong, Yong Taek; Kim, Yonjung; Lee, Min Goo; Montell, Craig; Moon, Seok Jun

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect toxic compounds in foods is essential for animal survival. However, the minimal subunit composition of gustatory receptors required for sensing aversive chemicals in Drosophila is unknown. Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a plant-derived insecticide. Ectopic co-expression of Gr8a and Gr98b in Gr66a-expressing, bitter-sensing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) confers responsiveness to L-canavanine. Furthermore, misexpression of all three Grs enables salt- or sweet-sensing GRNs to respond to L-canavanine. Introduction of these Grs in sweet-sensing GRNs switches L-canavanine from an aversive to an attractive compound. Co-expression of GR8a, GR66a and GR98b in Drosophila S2 cells induces an L-canavanine-activated nonselective cation conductance. We conclude that three GRs collaborate to produce a functional L-canavanine receptor. Thus, our results clarify the full set of GRs underlying the detection of a toxic tastant that drives avoidance behaviour in an insect. PMID:26568264

  17. Functional characterisation of germinant receptors in Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes presents novel insights into spore germination systems.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Jason; Plowman, June; Gaskin, Duncan J H; Itchner, Manoa; Carter, Andrew T; Peck, Michael W

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a dangerous pathogen that forms the highly potent botulinum toxin, which when ingested causes a deadly neuroparalytic disease. The closely related Clostridium sporogenes is occasionally pathogenic, frequently associated with food spoilage and regarded as the non-toxigenic equivalent of Group I C. botulinum. Both species form highly resistant spores that are ubiquitous in the environment and which, under favourable growth conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is imperative to comprehend the mechanisms by which spores germinate. Germination is initiated following the recognition of small molecules (germinants) by a specific germinant receptor (GR) located in the spore inner membrane. The present study precisely defines clostridial GRs, germinants and co-germinants. Group I C. botulinum ATCC3502 contains two tricistronic and one pentacistronic GR operons, while C. sporogenes ATCC15579 has three tricistronic and one tetracistronic GR operons. Insertional knockout mutants, allied with characterisation of recombinant GRs shows for the first time that amino acid stimulated germination in C. botulinum requires two tri-cistronic encoded GRs which act in synergy and cannot function individually. Spore germination in C. sporogenes requires one tri-cistronic GR. Two other GRs form part of a complex involved in controlling the rate of amino-acid stimulated germination. The suitability of using C. sporogenes as a substitute for C. botulinum in germination studies and food challenge tests is discussed.

  18. Association of Triglyceride-Related Genetic Variants With Mitral Annular Calcification.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Mehdi; Luk, Kevin; Do, Ron; Dufresne, Line; Owens, David S; Harris, Tamara B; Peloso, Gina M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Wong, Quenna; Smith, Albert V; Budoff, Mathew J; Rotter, Jerome I; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rich, Stephen S; Engert, James C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Post, Wendy S; Thanassoulis, George

    2017-06-20

    Mitral annular calcium (MAC), commonly identified by cardiac imaging, is associated with cardiovascular events and predisposes to the development of clinically important mitral valve regurgitation and mitral valve stenosis. However, its biological determinants remain largely unknown. The authors sought to evaluate whether a genetic predisposition to elevations in plasma lipids is associated with the presence of MAC. The authors used 3 separate Mendelian randomization techniques to evaluate the associations of lipid genetic risk scores (GRS) with MAC in 3 large patient cohorts: the Framingham Health Study, MESA (Multiethnic European Study of Atherosclerosis), and the AGE-RS (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study). The authors provided cross-ethnicity replication in the MESA Hispanic-American participants. MAC was present in 1,149 participants (20.4%). In pooled analyses across all 3 cohorts, a triglyceride GRS was significantly associated with the presence of MAC (odds ratio [OR] per triglyceride GRS unit: 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 to 2.41; p = 0.0013). Neither low- nor high-density lipoprotein cholesterol GRS was significantly associated with MAC. Results were consistent in cross-ethnicity analyses among the MESA Hispanic-Americans cohort (OR per triglyceride GRS unit: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.03; p = 0.04). In joint meta-analysis across all included cohorts, the triglyceride GRS was associated with MAC (OR per triglyceride GRS unit: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.32 to 2.41; p = 0.0001). The results were robust to several sensitivity analyses that limit both known and unknown forms of genetic pleiotropy. Genetic predisposition to elevated triglyceride levels was associated with the presence of MAC, a risk factor for clinically significant mitral valve disease, suggesting a causal association. Whether reducing triglyceride levels can lower the incidence of clinically significant mitral valve disease requires further study. Copyright © 2017

  19. Adding genetic risk score to family history identifies twice as many high-risk men for prostate cancer: Results from the prostate cancer prevention trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haitao; Liu, Xu; Brendler, Charles B; Ankerst, Donna P; Leach, Robin J; Goodman, Phyllis J; Lucia, M Scott; Tangen, Catherine M; Wang, Li; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Sun, Jielin; Kader, A Karim; Isaacs, William B; Helfand, Brian T; Zheng, S Lilly; Thompson, Ian M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-09-01

    While family history (FH) has been widely used to provide risk information, it captures only a small proportion of subjects with higher genetic susceptibility. Our objective is to assess whether a genetic risk score (GRS) calculated from prostate cancer (PCa) risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can supplement FH for more effective risk stratification for PCa screening decision-making. A GRS was calculated based on 29 PCa risk-associated SNPs for 4,528 men of European descent in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). At study entry, participants were free of PCa diagnosis. Performance of FH and GRS were measured by observed detection rate of PCa and high-grade PCa (Gleason score ≥7) during the 7-year study. GRS was a significant predictor of PCa in men with or without a positive FH (P = 1.18 × 10(-4) and P = 4.50 × 10(-16) , respectively). Using FH alone, as expected, the 17% of men who were FH+ had a PCa detection rate that was significantly higher (29.02%) than FH- men (23.43%, P = 0.001). When both FH+ or GRS >1.4 are considered, more than twice as many men (36%) can be classified as higher risk, as evidenced by a significantly higher PCa detection rate (30.98%) than in the remaining men (20.61%, P = 5.30 × 10(-15) ). If targeting only FH+ men, four out of five PCa cases would go undetected, as would a similarly large fraction (∼80%) of high-grade PCa cases. In comparison, if targeting FH+ or GRS >1.4 men, almost half of all PCa cases would be detected, including 45% of high-grade PCa cases. A prostate cancer GRS can supplement family history to better identify higher risk men for targeted intervention. Prostate 76:1120-1129, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Expression map of a complete set of gustatory receptor genes in chemosensory organs of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhen; Cheng, Tingcai; Chen, Zhiwei; Jiang, Liang; Guo, Youbing; Liu, Jianqiu; Li, Shenglong; Taniai, Kiyoko; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Wu, Jiaqi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Zhang, Huijie; Seth, Rakesh K; Gopinathan, Karumathil P; Montagné, Nicolas; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2017-03-01

    Most lepidopteran species are herbivores, and interaction with host plants affects their gene expression and behavior as well as their genome evolution. Gustatory receptors (Grs) are expected to mediate host plant selection, feeding, oviposition and courtship behavior. However, due to their high diversity, sequence divergence and extremely low level of expression it has been difficult to identify precisely a complete set of Grs in Lepidoptera. By manual annotation and BAC sequencing, we improved annotation of 43 gene sequences compared with previously reported Grs in the most studied lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and identified 7 new tandem copies of BmGr30 on chromosome 7, bringing the total number of BmGrs to 76. Among these, we mapped 68 genes to chromosomes in a newly constructed chromosome distribution map and 8 genes to scaffolds; we also found new evidence for large clusters of BmGrs, especially from the bitter receptor family. RNA-seq analysis of diverse BmGr expression patterns in chemosensory organs of larvae and adults enabled us to draw a precise organ specific map of BmGr expression. Interestingly, most of the clustered genes were expressed in the same tissues and more than half of the genes were expressed in larval maxillae, larval thoracic legs and adult legs. For example, BmGr63 showed high expression levels in all organs in both larval and adult stages. By contrast, some genes showed expression limited to specific developmental stages or organs and tissues. BmGr19 was highly expressed in larval chemosensory organs (especially antennae and thoracic legs), the single exon genes BmGr53 and BmGr67 were expressed exclusively in larval tissues, the BmGr27-BmGr31 gene cluster on chr7 displayed a high expression level limited to adult legs and the candidate CO2 receptor BmGr2 was highly expressed in adult antennae, where few other Grs were expressed. Transcriptional analysis of the Grs in B. mori provides a valuable new reference for

  1. Population-standardized genetic risk score: the SNP-based method of choice for inherited risk assessment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conran, Carly A; Na, Rong; Chen, Haitao; Jiang, Deke; Lin, Xiaoling; Zheng, S Lilly; Brendler, Charles B; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Several different approaches are available to clinicians for determining prostate cancer (PCa) risk. The clinical validity of various PCa risk assessment methods utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been established; however, these SNP-based methods have not been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the three most commonly used SNP-based methods for PCa risk assessment. Participants were men (n = 1654) enrolled in a prospective study of PCa development. Genotypes of 59 PCa risk-associated SNPs were available in this cohort. Three methods of calculating SNP-based genetic risk scores (GRSs) were used for the evaluation of individual disease risk such as risk allele count (GRS-RAC), weighted risk allele count (GRS-wRAC), and population-standardized genetic risk score (GRS-PS). Mean GRSs were calculated, and performances were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and positive predictive value (PPV). All SNP-based methods were found to be independently associated with PCa (all P < 0.05; hence their clinical validity). The mean GRSs in men with or without PCa using GRS-RAC were 55.15 and 53.46, respectively, using GRS-wRAC were 7.42 and 6.97, respectively, and using GRS-PS were 1.12 and 0.84, respectively (all P < 0.05 for differences between patients with or without PCa). All three SNP-based methods performed similarly in discriminating PCa from non-PCa based on AUC and in predicting PCa risk based on PPV (all P > 0.05 for comparisons between the three methods), and all three SNP-based methods had a significantly higher AUC than family history (all P < 0.05). Results from this study suggest that while the three most commonly used SNP-based methods performed similarly in discriminating PCa from non-PCa at the population level, GRS-PS is the method of choice for risk assessment at the individual level because its value (where 1.0 represents average population risk) can be easily interpreted regardless

  2. Associations of Genetic Risk Score with Obesity and Related Traits and the Modifying Effect of Physical Activity in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingwen; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lu, Ling; Zong, Geng; Gan, Wei; Ye, Xingwang; Sun, Liang; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with BMI, predominantly in European ancestry (EA) populations. However, associations of these loci with obesity and related traits have not been well described in Chinese Hans. This study aimed to investigate whether BMI-associated loci are, individually and collectively, associated with adiposity-related traits and obesity in Chinese Hans and whether these associations are modified by physical activity (PA). Subjects/Methods We genotyped 28 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a population-based cohort including 2,894 unrelated Han Chinese. Genetic risk score (GRS), EA and East Asian ancestry (EAA) GRSs were calculated by adding BMI-increasing alleles based on all, EA and EAA identified SNPs, respectively. Interactions of GRS and PA were examined by including the interaction-term in the regression model. Results Individually, 26 of 28 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI, and associations of four loci (TMEM18, PCSK1, BDNF and MAP2K5) reached nominal significance (P<0.05). The GRS was associated with increased BMI, trunk fat and body fat percentages; and increased risk of obesity and overweight (all P<0.05). Effect sizes (0.11 vs. 0.17 kg/m2) and explained variance (0.90% vs. 1.45%) of GRS for BMI tended to be lower in Chinese Hans than in Europeans. The EA GRS and EAA GRS were associated with 0.11 and 0.13 kg/m2 higher BMI, respectively. In addition, we found that PA attenuated the effect of the GRS on BMI (Pinteraction = 0.022). Conclusions Our observations suggest that the combined effect of obesity-susceptibility loci on BMI tended to be lower in Han Chinese than in EA. The overall, EA and EAA GRSs exert similar effects on adiposity traits. Genetic predisposition to increased BMI is attenuated by PA in this population of Han Chinese. PMID:24626232

  3. Detection of gene-environment interactions in the presence of linkage disequilibrium and noise by using genetic risk scores with internal weights from elastic net regression.

    PubMed

    Hüls, Anke; Ickstadt, Katja; Schikowski, Tamara; Krämer, Ursula

    2017-06-12

    For the analysis of gene-environment (GxE) interactions commonly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are used to characterize genetic susceptibility, an approach that mostly lacks power and has poor reproducibility. One promising approach to overcome this problem might be the use of weighted genetic risk scores (GRS), which are defined as weighted sums of risk alleles of gene variants. The gold-standard is to use external weights from published meta-analyses. In this study, we used internal weights from the marginal genetic effects of the SNPs estimated by a multivariate elastic net regression and thereby provided a method that can be used if there are no external weights available. We conducted a simulation study for the detection of GxE interactions and compared power and type I error of single SNPs analyses with Bonferroni correction and corresponding analysis with unweighted and our weighted GRS approach in scenarios with six risk SNPs and an increasing number of highly correlated (up to 210) and noise SNPs (up to 840). Applying weighted GRS increased the power enormously in comparison to the common single SNPs approach (e.g. 94.2% vs. 35.4%, respectively, to detect a weak interaction with an OR ≈ 1.04 for six uncorrelated risk SNPs and n = 700 with a well-controlled type I error). Furthermore, weighted GRS outperformed the unweighted GRS, in particular in the presence of SNPs without any effect on the phenotype (e.g. 90.1% vs. 43.9%, respectively, when 20 noise SNPs were added to the six risk SNPs). This outperforming of the weighted GRS was confirmed in a real data application on lung inflammation in the SALIA cohort (n = 402). However, in scenarios with a high number of noise SNPs (>200 vs. 6 risk SNPs), larger sample sizes are needed to avoid an increased type I error, whereas a high number of correlated SNPs can be handled even in small samples (e.g. n = 400). In conclusion, weighted GRS with weights from the marginal genetic effects of the

  4. Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Genetic Score and Risk of Decreased Renal Function and Albuminuria: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Huang, Ya; Xie, Lan; Hao, Mingli; Zhao, Zhiyun; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Sun, Yimin; Qi, Lu; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for dysregulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria. However, whether the association is causal remains unestablished. Research Design and Methods We performed a Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis in 11,502 participants aged 40 and above, from a well-defined community in Shanghai during 2011–2013, to explore the causal association between T2D and decreased estimated GFR (eGFR) and increased urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). We genotyped 34 established T2D common variants in East Asians, and created a T2D-genetic risk score (GRS). We defined decreased eGFR as eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 and increased uACR as uACR ≥ 30 mg/g. We used the T2D_GRS as the instrumental variable (IV) to quantify the causal effect of T2D on decreased eGFR and increased uACR. Results Each 1-standard deviation (SD, 3.90 points) increment in T2D_GRS was associated with decreased eGFR: odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.30). In the MR analysis, we demonstrated a causal relationship between genetically determined T2D and decreased eGFR (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.88, P = 0.0003). When grouping the genetic loci according to their relations with either insulin secretion (IS) or insulin resistance (IR), we found both IS_GRS and IR_GRS were significantly related to decreased eGFR (both P < 0.02). In addition, T2D_GRS and IS_GRS were significantly associated with Log-uACR (both P = 0.04). Conclusion Our results provide novel evidence for a causal association between T2D and decreased eGFR by using MR approach in a Chinese population. PMID:27211558

  5. The Contribution of Genetic Architecture to the 10-Year Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Fellow Eye.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masahiro; Yamashiro, Kenji; Tamura, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Kyoko; Saito, Masaaki; Sugahara-Kuroda, Masako; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Oishi, Maho; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Nakata, Isao; Nakanishi, Hideo; Gotoh, Norimoto; Oishi, Akio; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-08-01

    To correlate a genetic risk score based on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) susceptibility genes with the risk of AMD in the second eye. This is a retrospective, open cohort study consisting of 891 unilateral AMD patients, who were followed for at least 12 months and recruited from three institutes. DNAs were genotyped using Illumina OmniExpress, HumanOmni2.5-8, and/or HumanExome. Survival analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between 11 AMD susceptibility genes and the duration until second-eye involvement in 499 samples from Kyoto University, which were replicated in two other cohorts. Genetic risk score (GRS) was also evaluated. The ARMS2 rs10490924 recessive model (hazard ratio [HR]meta = 2.04; Pmeta = 3.4 × 10⁻³) and CFH rs800292 additive model (HRmeta = 1.77; Pmeta = 0.013) revealed significant associations with second-eye involvement. The dominant model of TNFRSF10A rs13278062, VEGFA rs943080, and CFI rs4698775 showed consistent effects across three datasets (I² = 0%; HRmeta = 1.46, 1.30, 1.51, respectively). The GRS using these five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was also significantly associated (HRmeta [per score] = 2.42; P = 2.2 × 10⁻⁵; I² = 0%). After 10 years from the first visit, the patients within the top 10% by GRS showed a 51% hazard rate, in contrast to 2.3% among patients within the lowest 10% by GRS. We demonstrated that the GRS using ARMS2, CFH, TNFRSF10A, VEGFA, and CFI was significantly associated with second-eye involvement. Genetic risk has high predictive ability for second-eye involvement of AMD.

  6. Interaction between the trout mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kiilerich, Pia; Triqueneaux, Gérard; Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Trayer, Vincent; Terrien, Xavier; Lombès, Marc; Prunet, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    The salmonid corticosteroid receptors (CRs), glucocorticoid receptors 1 and 2 (GR1 and GR2) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) share a high degree of homology with regard to structure, ligand- and DNA response element-binding, and cellular co-localization. Typically, these nuclear hormone receptors homodimerize to confer transcriptional activation of target genes, but a few studies using mammalian receptors suggest some degree of heterodimerization. We observed that the trout MR confers a several fold lower transcriptional activity compared to the trout GRs. This made us question the functional relevance of the MR when this receptor is located in the same cells as the GRs and activated by cortisol. A series of co-transfection experiments using different glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) containing promoter-reporter constructs were carried out to investigate any possible interaction between the piscine CRs. Co-transfection of the GRs with the MR significantly reduced the total transcriptional activity even at low MR levels, suggesting interaction between these receptors. Co-transfection of GR1 or GR2 with the MR did not affect the subcellular localization of the GRs, and the MR-mediated inhibition seemed to be independent of specific activation or inhibition of the MR. Site-directed mutagenesis of the DNA-binding domain and dimerization interface of the MR showed that the inhibition was dependent on DNA binding but not necessarily on dimerization ability. Thus, we suggest that the interaction between MR and the GRs may regulate the cortisol response in cell types where the receptors co-localize and propose a dominant-negative role for the MR in cortisol-mediated transcriptional activity. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Early growth response-1 protein is induced by JC virus infection and binds and regulates the JC virus promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Romagnoli, Luca; Sariyer, Ilker K.; Tung, Jacqueline; Feliciano, Mariha; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Del Valle, Luis; Ferrante, Pasquale; Khalili, Kamel; Safak, Mahmut; White, Martyn K.

    2008-06-05

    JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that can emerge from a latent state to cause the cytolytic destruction of oligodendrocytes in the brain resulting in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Previous studies described a cis-acting transcriptional regulatory element in the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR) that is involved in the response of JCV to cytokines. This consists of a 23 base pair GGA/C rich sequence (GRS) near the replication origin (5112 to + 4) that contains potential binding sites for Sp1 and Egr-1. Gel shift analysis showed that Egr-1, but not Sp1, bound to GRS. Evidence is presented that the GRS gel shift seen on cellular stimulation is due to Egr-1. Thus, TPA-induced GRS gel shift could be blocked by antibody to Egr-1. Further, the TPA-induced GRS DNA/protein complex was isolated and found to contain Egr-1 by Western blot. No other Egr-1 sites were found in the JCV NCCR. Functionally, Egr-1 was found to stimulate transcription of JCV late promoter but not early promoter reporter constructs. Mutation of the Egr-1 site abrogated Egr-1 binding and virus with the mutated Egr-1 site showed markedly reduced VP1 expression and DNA replication. Infection of primary astrocytes by wild-type JCV induced Egr-1 nuclear expression that was maximal at 5-10 days post-infection. Finally, upregulation of Egr-1 was detected in PML by immunohistochemistry. These data suggest that Egr-1 induction may be important in the life cycle of JCV and PML pathogenesis.

  8. Polymorphisms in MIR137HG and microRNA-137-regulated genes influence gray matter structure in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.; Gupta, C. N.; Chen, J.; Patel, V.; Calhoun, V. D.; Ehrlich, S.; Wang, L.; Bustillo, J. R.; Perrone-Bizzozero, N. I.; Turner, J. A.

    2016-02-02

    Evidence suggests that microRNA-137 (miR-137) is involved in the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Risk variants within the miR-137 host gene (MIR137HG) influence structural and functional brain-imaging measures, and miR-137 itself is predicted to regulate hundreds of genes. We evaluated the influence of a MIR137HG risk variant (rs1625579) in combination with variants in miR-137- regulated genes TCF4, PTGS2, MAPK1 and MAPK3 on gray matter concentration (GMC). These genes were selected based on our previous work assessing schizophrenia risk within possible miR-137-regulated gene sets using the same cohort of subjects. A genetic risk score (GRS) was determined based on genotypes of these four schizophrenia risk-associated genes in 221 Caucasian subjects (89 schizophrenia patients and 132 controls). The effects of the rs1625579 genotype with the GRS of miR-137-regulated genes in a three-way interaction with diagnosis on GMC patterns were assessed using a multivariate analysis. We found that schizophrenia subjects homozygous for the MIR137HG risk allele show significant decreases in occipital, parietal and temporal lobe GMC with increasing miR-137-regulated GRS, whereas those carrying the protective minor allele show significant increases in GMC with GRS. No correlations of GMC and GRS were found in control subjects. Variants within or upstream of genes regulated by miR-137 in combination with the MIR137HG risk variant may influence GMC in schizophrenia-related regions in patients. Furthermore, given that the genes evaluated here are involved in protein kinase A signaling, dysregulation of this pathway through alterations in miR-137 biogenesis may underlie the gray matter loss seen in the disease.

  9. Impact of MS genetic loci on familial aggregation, clinical phenotype, and disease prediction

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Federica; Guaschino, Clara; Sorosina, Melissa; Clarelli, Ferdinando; Ferre', Laura; Mascia, Elisabetta; Santoro, Silvia; Pagnesi, Matteo; Radaelli, Marta; Colombo, Bruno; Moiola, Lucia; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Stupka, Elia; Martinelli, Vittorio; Comi, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of known multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated genetic variants in MS familial aggregation, clinical expression, and accuracy of disease prediction in sporadic and familial cases. Methods: A total of 1,443 consecutive patients were screened for MS and familial autoimmune history in a hospital-based Italian cohort. Among them, 461 sporadic and 93 familial probands were genotyped for 107 MS-associated polymorphisms. Their effect sizes were combined to calculate the weighted genetic risk score (wGRS). Results: Family history of MS was reported by 17.2% of probands, and 33.8% reported a familial autoimmune disorder, with autoimmune thyroiditis and psoriasis being the most frequent. No difference in wGRS was observed between sporadic and familial MS cases. In contrast, a lower wGRS was observed in probands with greater familial aggregation (>1 first-degree relative or >2 relatives with MS) (p = 0.03). Also, female probands of familial cases with greater familial aggregation had a lower wGRS than sporadic cases (p = 0.0009) and male probands of familial cases (p = 0.04). An inverse correlation between wGRS and age at onset was observed (p = 0.05). The predictive performance of the genetic model including all known MS variants was modest but greater in sporadic vs familial cases (area under the curve = 0.63 and 0.57). Conclusions: Additional variants outside the known MS-associated loci, rare variants, and/or environmental factors may explain disease occurrence within families; in females, hormonal and epigenetic factors probably have a predominant role in explaining familial aggregation. The inclusion of these additional factors in future versions of aggregated genetic measures could improve their predictive ability. PMID:26185776

  10. Evolution Of The Oval Ba During 2004-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Christopher Y.; de Pater, I.; Wong, M.; Lockwood, S.; Marcus, P.; Asay-Davis, X.; Shetty, S.

    2006-09-01

    During 1939-41, dark features appeared in the South Tropical Zone, and in between these features the 3 Great South Temperate Belt White Ovals, designated as BC, DE and FA, emerged (The Giant Planet Jupiter, J. Rogers p.223). The ovals were elongated, like the Great Red Spot (GRS), with an aspect ratio (major/minor axis) of about 2. The ovals merged in 1998-2000 into White Oval BA, and this oval was much rounder than its predecessors, with an aspect ratio of 1.3. Since 2000 the Oval has been observed regularly from the ground by amateur astronomers, using equipment that provided diffraction-limited images of Jupiter. These images reveal major changes in the Oval BA. During the last conjunction between the Oval BA and the GRS, in 2004, the Oval BA became more elongated for a brief period of time. During the 2005 apparition of Jupiter, features were observed inside the Oval BA. These changes culminated in December 2005 when the Oval BA turned red (between December 1-9), the same shade of red as the GRS. Methane band images (892nm) showed that the Oval BA, like the GRS, is bright. This filter signifies high altitude clouds. Amateur images along with Hubble Space Telescope images further showed the formation of a red ring inside Oval BA. Another conjunction between the Oval BA and the GRS is currently on going. As in 2004, the Oval BA is now more elongated. In this poster we will show a compilation of images taken between 2004 and 2006, highlighting the changes that have occurred in Oval BA throughout conjunction in July 2006. Amateur images, alongside HST observations from April 2006, and Keck adaptive optics images from 21 July 2006 (UT) will be shown.

  11. Genetic and clinical markers of elevated liver fat content in overweight and obese Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ryan W; Sinatra, Frank; Hartiala, Jaana; Weigensberg, Marc; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Alderete, Tanya L; Goran, Michael I; Allayee, Hooman

    2013-12-01

    Genetic variation in six genes has been associated with elevated liver fat and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. The influence of these genes on liver fat and whether a genetic risk score (GRS) would improve upon the ability of common clinical risk factors to predict elevated liver fat content (ELF) in Hispanic children was determined. 223 obese Hispanic children were genotyped for six SNPs. MRI was used to measure liver fat. A GRS was tested for association with ELF using multivariate linear regression. Predictors were assessed via ROC curves and pair-wise analysis was used to determine significance alone and combined with clinical markers. Only variants in PNPLA3 and APOC3 genes were associated with liver fat (P < 0.001, P = 0.01, respectively). Subjects with a GRS = 4 had ∼3-fold higher liver fat content than subjects with GRS of 0 (15.1 ± 12.7 vs. 5.1 ± 3.7%, P = 0.03). While the addition of the GRS to a model containing BMI and liver enzymes increased ROC AUC from 0.83 to 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.89], (P = 0.01), it does not improve detection of ELF from a clinical perspective. Only PNPLA3 and APOC3 were related to ELF and a GRS comprised of these susceptibility alleles did not add to the discriminatory power of traditional biomarkers for clinical assessment of liver fat. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  12. Thermoelastic properties of grossular–andradite solid solution at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Dawei; Kuang, Yunqian; Xu, Jingui; Li, Bo; Zhou, Wenge; Xie, Hongsen

    2016-09-21

    The pressure–volume–temperature (P–V–T) equation of state (EoS) of synthetic grossular (Grs)–andradite (And) solid-solution garnet sample have been measured at high temperature up to 900 K and high pressures up to 22.75 GPa for Grs50And50, by using in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and diamond anvil cell. Analysis of room-temperature P–V data to a third-order Birch–Murnaghan (BM) EoS yields: V0 = 1706.8 ± 0.2 Å3, K0 = 164 ± 2 GPa and K'0 = 4.7 ± 0.5. Fitting of our P–V–T data by means of the high-temperature third-order BM EoS gives the thermoelastic parameters: V0 = 1706.9 ± 0.2 Å3, K0 = 164 ± 2 GPa, K'0 = 4.7 ± 0.2, (∂K/∂T)P = -0.018 ± 0.002 GPa K-1, and α0 = (2.94 ± 0.07) × 10-5 K-1. The results also confirm that grossular content increases the bulk modulus of the Grs-And join following a nearly ideal mixing model. The relation between bulk modulus and Grs mole fraction (XGrs) in this garnet join is derived to be K0 (GPa) = (163.7 ± 0.7) + (0.14 ± 0.02) XGrs (R2 = 0.985). Present results are also compared to previously studies determined the thermoelastic properties of Grs-And garnets.

  13. Polymorphisms in MIR137HG and microRNA-137-regulated genes influence gray matter structure in schizophrenia

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, C.; Gupta, C. N.; Chen, J.; ...

    2016-02-02

    Evidence suggests that microRNA-137 (miR-137) is involved in the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Risk variants within the miR-137 host gene (MIR137HG) influence structural and functional brain-imaging measures, and miR-137 itself is predicted to regulate hundreds of genes. We evaluated the influence of a MIR137HG risk variant (rs1625579) in combination with variants in miR-137- regulated genes TCF4, PTGS2, MAPK1 and MAPK3 on gray matter concentration (GMC). These genes were selected based on our previous work assessing schizophrenia risk within possible miR-137-regulated gene sets using the same cohort of subjects. A genetic risk score (GRS) was determined based on genotypes of thesemore » four schizophrenia risk-associated genes in 221 Caucasian subjects (89 schizophrenia patients and 132 controls). The effects of the rs1625579 genotype with the GRS of miR-137-regulated genes in a three-way interaction with diagnosis on GMC patterns were assessed using a multivariate analysis. We found that schizophrenia subjects homozygous for the MIR137HG risk allele show significant decreases in occipital, parietal and temporal lobe GMC with increasing miR-137-regulated GRS, whereas those carrying the protective minor allele show significant increases in GMC with GRS. No correlations of GMC and GRS were found in control subjects. Variants within or upstream of genes regulated by miR-137 in combination with the MIR137HG risk variant may influence GMC in schizophrenia-related regions in patients. Furthermore, given that the genes evaluated here are involved in protein kinase A signaling, dysregulation of this pathway through alterations in miR-137 biogenesis may underlie the gray matter loss seen in the disease.« less

  14. Synthesis and electrocatalytic effect of Ag@Pt core-shell nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide for sensitive and simple label-free electrochemical aptasensor.

    PubMed

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Laleh; Taleat, Zahra

    2015-12-15

    Bimetallic Ag@Pt core-shell nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Ag@Pt-GRs) was synthesized and used as novel desirable sensor platform and electrocatalyst for catechol as probe in aptasensor. Gold screen-printed electrodes modified with Ag@Pt-GRs and applied to advance enzyme-free and label-free electrochemical aptasensor for detection of protein biomarker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The morphology of the Ag@Pt-GRs could be characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectra. The results showed that these nanocomposite exhibited attractive electrocatalytic activity and also yielded large surface area, which improve the amount of immobilized TNF-α aptamer. Due to the excellent electrocatalytic activity of Ag@Pt-GRs towards the oxidation of catechol, determination of TNF-α antigen was based on its obstruction to the electrocatalytic oxidation of catechol by Ag@Pt-GRs after binding to the surface of electrode through interaction with the aptamer. The calibration curve was obtained by differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. Under optimum conditions, the results demonstrated that this electrochemical aptasensor possessed a dynamic range from 0.0 pg/mL to 60 pg/mL with a low detection limit of 2.07 pg/mL for TNF-α. The analytical usefulness of the aptasensor was finally demonstrated analyzing serum samples. The simple fabrication method, high sensitivity, specificity, good reproducibility and stability as well as acceptable accuracy for TNF-α detection in human serum samples are the main advantages of this aptasensor, which might have broad applications in protein diagnostics and bioassay.

  15. Association of uric acid genetic risk score with blood pressure: the Rotterdam study.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Sanaz; Pazoki, Raha; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas

    2014-11-01

    High levels of serum uric acid are associated with hypertension in observational studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of uric acid gene variants with blood pressure. We studied 5791 participants aged ≥55 years from the Rotterdam Study. Thirty gene variants identified for serum uric acid level were used to compile genetic risk score (GRS). We used linear regression models to investigate the association of the uric acid GRS with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the whole study population and separately in participants with and without comorbidities and medication use. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, each SD increase in uric acid GRS was associated with 0.75 mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, -1.31 to -0.19) and 0.42 mm Hg lower diastolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, -0.72 to -0.13). The association did not attenuate after further adjustment for antihypertensive medication use and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. In subgroup analysis, the association of uric acid GRS with systolic blood pressure was significantly stronger in participants (n=885) on diuretic treatment (P for interaction, 0.007). In conclusion, we found that higher uric acid GRS is associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Diuretics treatment may modify the association of uric acid genetic risk score and systolic blood pressure. Our study suggests that genome wide association study's findings can be associated with an intermediate factor or have a pleiotropic role and, therefore, should be applied for Mendelian Randomization with caution. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  17. Guest-responsive covalent frameworks by the cross-linking of liquid-crystalline salts: tuning of lattice flexibility by the design of polymerizable units.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasuhiro; Sakata, Hiroaki; Achalkumar, Ammathnadu S; Yamada, Kuniyo; Matsuoka, Yuki; Iwahashi, Nobutaka; Amano, Sayaka; Saigo, Kazuhiko

    2011-12-23

    Cross-linked polymers prepared by the in-situ polymerization of liquid-crystalline salts were found to work as solid-state hosts with a flexible framework. As a component of such hosts, four kinds of polymerizable amphiphilic carboxylic acids bearing alkyl chains with acryloyloxy (A), dienyl (D), and/or nonreactive (N) chain ends (monomeric carboxylic acids; M(AAA), M(ANA), M(DDD), and M(DND)) were used. The carboxylic acids were mixed with an equimolar amount of a template unit, (1R,2S)-norephedrine (guest amine; G(RS)), to form the corresponding salts. Every salt exhibited a rectangular columnar LC phase at room temperature, which was successfully polymerized by (60)Co γ-ray-induced polymerization without serious structural disordering to afford the salt of cross-linked carboxylic acid (polymeric carboxylic acid; P(AAA), P(ANA), P(DDD), and P(DND)) with G(RS) . Owing to the noncovalency of the interactions between the polymer framework P and the template G(RS), the cross-linked polymers could reversibly release and capture a meaningful amount of G(RS). In response to the desorption and adsorption of G(RS), the cross-linked polymers dramatically switched their nanoscale structural order. A systematic comparison of the polymers revealed that the choice of polymerizable groups has a significant influence on the properties of the resultant polymer frameworks as solid-state hosts. Among these polymers, P(DDD) was found to be an excellent solid-state host, in terms of guest-releasing/capturing ability, guest-recognition ability, durability to repetitive usage, and unique structural switching mode.

  18. Investigating the functional hierarchy of Bacillus megaterium PV361 spore germinant receptors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Srishti; Ustok, Fatma Isik; Johnson, Christian L; Bailey, David M D; Lowe, Christopher R; Christie, Graham

    2013-07-01

    Spores of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 germinate rapidly when exposed to a number of single-trigger germinant compounds, including glucose, proline, leucine, and certain inorganic salts. However, spores of strain PV361, a plasmidless QM B1551 derivative that lacks the GerU germinant receptor (GR) responsible for mediating germination in response to single-trigger compounds, can germinate efficiently when incubated in nutritionally rich media, presumably via activation of additional germinant receptors. In this work, we have identified five chromosomally encoded GRs and attempted to characterize, by mutational analysis, germinant recognition profiles associated with the respective receptors in strain PV361. Of strains engineered with single GR insertion-deletions, only GerK-null spores displayed significant defective germination phenotypes when incubated in 5% (wt/vol) beef extract or plated on rich solid medium. Cumulative decreases in viability were observed in GerK-null spores that also lacked GerA or GerA2, indicating that these GRs, which exerted little effect on spore germination when disrupted individually, have a degree of functionality. Unexpectedly, an efficient germination response to combinations of germinants was restored in GerA(+) spores, which lack all other functional GRs, providing evidence for negative cooperativity between some GRs within the spore. Tetrazolium-based germinative assays conducted with purified spores indicated that these newly characterized B. megaterium GRs are cognate for a wide and chemically diverse range of germinant molecules, but unlike GerU, can only be induced to trigger germination when stimulated by at least two different germinants.

  19. Prospective association of a genetic risk score and lifestyle intervention with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Look AHEAD randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    Both obesity and genetics contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined whether a genetic risk score (GRS) prospectively predicted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and whether behavioural weight loss could diminish this association. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomised controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Of the participants, 4,016 provided consent for genetic analyses and had DNA samples passing quality control procedures. These secondary data analyses focused on whether a GRS derived from 153 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease in the most recent genome-wide association study predicted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over a median of 9.6 years of follow-up, and whether ILI would diminish this association. The GRS significantly predicted the primary composite endpoint of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalisation for angina in the full sample (HR, 95% CI per 1 SD increase in GRS: 1.19 [1.10, 1.28]) and among individuals with no known history of CVD at baseline (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.07, 1.30]). In no case did ILI significantly alter this association. A GRS comprised of SNPs significantly predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over 9.6 years of follow-up in Look AHEAD. Lifestyle intervention did not alter the genetic association. NCT00017953; NCT01270763.

  20. Genetic susceptibility to diabetes and long-term improvement of insulin resistance and β cell function during weight loss: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Ley, Sylvia H; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Tiange; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Diet interventions have shown effectiveness in improving diabetes risk factors; however, little is known about whether the effects of diet intervention are different according to genetic susceptibility. We examined interactions between weight-loss diets and the genetic risk score (GRS) for diabetes on 2-y changes in markers of insulin resistance and β cell function in a randomized controlled trial. Data from the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial were analyzed. A GRS was calculated on the basis of 31 diabetes-associated variants in 744 overweight or obese nondiabetic adults (80% white Americans). We assessed the changes in insulin resistance and β cell function over the 2-y intervention. Dietary protein significantly interacted with the diabetes GRS on fasting insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the homeostasis model assessment of β cell function (HOMA-B), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at 2 y in white Americans (P-interaction = 0.02, 0.04, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively). The lower GRS was associated with a greater decrease in fasting insulin (P = 0.04), HbA1c (P = 0.0001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.02), and a lesser increase in HOMA-B (P = 0.004) in participants consuming a low-protein diet. Participants with a higher GRS might have a greater reduction in fasting insulin when consuming a high-protein diet (P = 0.03). Our data suggest that individuals with a lower genetic risk of diabetes may benefit more from consuming a low-protein weight-loss diet in improving insulin resistance and β cell function, whereas a high-protein diet may be more beneficial for white patients with a higher genetic risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Polymorphisms in MIR137HG and microRNA-137-regulated genes influence gray matter structure in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wright, C; Gupta, C N; Chen, J; Patel, V; Calhoun, V D; Ehrlich, S; Wang, L; Bustillo, J R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Turner, J A

    2016-02-02

    Evidence suggests that microRNA-137 (miR-137) is involved in the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Risk variants within the miR-137 host gene (MIR137HG) influence structural and functional brain-imaging measures, and miR-137 itself is predicted to regulate hundreds of genes. We evaluated the influence of a MIR137HG risk variant (rs1625579) in combination with variants in miR-137-regulated genes TCF4, PTGS2, MAPK1 and MAPK3 on gray matter concentration (GMC). These genes were selected based on our previous work assessing schizophrenia risk within possible miR-137-regulated gene sets using the same cohort of subjects. A genetic risk score (GRS) was determined based on genotypes of these four schizophrenia risk-associated genes in 221 Caucasian subjects (89 schizophrenia patients and 132 controls). The effects of the rs1625579 genotype with the GRS of miR-137-regulated genes in a three-way interaction with diagnosis on GMC patterns were assessed using a multivariate analysis. We found that schizophrenia subjects homozygous for the MIR137HG risk allele show significant decreases in occipital, parietal and temporal lobe GMC with increasing miR-137-regulated GRS, whereas those carrying the protective minor allele show significant increases in GMC with GRS. No correlations of GMC and GRS were found in control subjects. Variants within or upstream of genes regulated by miR-137 in combination with the MIR137HG risk variant may influence GMC in schizophrenia-related regions in patients. Given that the genes evaluated here are involved in protein kinase A signaling, dysregulation of this pathway through alterations in miR-137 biogenesis may underlie the gray matter loss seen in the disease.

  2. An unusually massive stellar black hole in the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Greiner, J; Cuby, J G; McCaughrean, M J

    2001-11-29

    The X-ray source known as GRS1915+105 belongs to a group dubbed 'microquasars'. These objects are binary systems which sporadically eject matter at speeds that appear superluminal, as is the case for some quasars. GRS1915+105 is also one of only two known binary sources thought to contain a maximally spinning black hole. Determining the basic parameters of GRS195+105, such as the masses of the components, will help us to understand jet formation in this system, as well as providing links to other objects which exhibit jets. Using X-ray data, indirect methods have previously been used to infer a variety of masses for the accreting compact object in the range 10-30 solar masses (M middle dot in circle). Here we report a direct measurement of the orbital period and mass function of GRS1915+105, which allow us to deduce a mass of 14 +/- 4 M middle dot in circle for the black hole. Black holes with masses >5-7 M middle dot in circle challenge the conventional picture of black-hole formation in binary systems. Based on the mass estimate, we interpret the distinct X-ray variability of GRS1915+105 as arising from instabilities in an accretion disk that is dominated by radiation pressure, and radiating near the Eddington limit (the point where radiation pressure supports matter against gravity). Also, the mass estimate constrains most models which relate observable X-ray properties to the spin of black holes in microquasars.

  3. Riparian Land-Use and Rehabilitation: Impact on Organic Matter Input and Soil Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelbermann, Maren; Raimbault, Beverly A.

    2015-02-01

    Rehabilitated riparian zones in agricultural landscapes enhance environmental integrity and provide environmental services such as carbon (C) sequestration. This study quantified differences in organic matter input, soil biochemical characteristics, and soil respiration in a 25-year-old rehabilitated (RH), grass (GRS), and undisturbed natural forest (UNF) riparian zone. Input from herbaceous vegetation was significantly greater ( P < 0.05) in the GRS riparian zone, whereas autumnal litterfall was significantly greater ( P < 0.05) in the RH riparian zone. Soil bulk density was significantly greater ( P < 0.05) in the RH riparian zone, but its soil chemical characteristics were significantly lower. Soil respiration rates were lowest ( P < 0.05) in the UNF (106 C m-2 h-1), followed by the RH (169 mg C m-2 h-1) and GRS (194 C m-2 h-1) riparian zones. Soil respiration rates were significantly different ( P < 0.05) among seasons, and were significantly correlated with soil moisture ( P < 0.05) and soil temperature ( P < 0.05) in all riparian zones. Soil potential microbial activity indicated a significantly different ( P < 0.05) response of the microbial metabolic diversity in the RH compared to the GRS and UNF riparian zones, and principle component analysis showed a distinct difference in microbial activity among the riparian land-use systems. Rehabilitating degraded riparian zones with trees rather than GRS is a more effective approach to the long-term mitigation of CO2. Therefore, the protection of existing natural/undisturbed riparian forests in agricultural landscapes is equally important as their rehabilitation with trees, given their higher levels of soil organic C and lower soil respiration rates.

  4. Genetic Susceptibility to Coronary Heart Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: Three Independent Studies

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Parast, Layla; Cai, Tianxi; Powers, Christine; Gervino, Ernest V.; Hauser, Thomas H.; Hu, Frank B.; Doria, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether coronary heart disease (CHD)-susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies of the general population also contribute to CHD in type 2 diabetes. Background No study has examined the effects of these genetic variants on CHD in diabetic patients. Methods We genotyped 15 genetic markers of 12 loci in three studies of diabetic patients: the prospective Nurses’ Health Study (309 CHD cases and 544 controls) and Health Professional Follow-up Study (345 CHD cases and 451 controls), and the cross-sectional Joslin Heart Study (422 CHD cases and 435 controls). Results Five SNPs, rs4977574 (CDKN2A/2B), rs12526453 (PHACTR1), rs646776 (CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1), rs2259816 (HNF1A), and rs11206510 (PCSK9) showed directionally consistent associations with CHD in the three studies, with combined odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.17 to 1.25 (p=0.03 to 0.0002). None of the other SNPs reached significance in individual or combined analyses. A genetic risk score (GRS) was created by combining the risk alleles of the five significantly associated loci. The OR of CHD per GRS unit was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13– 1.26; p<0.0001). Individuals with GRS ≥8 (19% of diabetic subjects) had almost a two-fold increase in CHD risk (OR=1.94, 95% CI 1.60–2.35) as compared to individuals with GRS ≤5 (30% of diabetic subjects). Prediction of CHD was significantly improved (p<0.001) when the GRS was added to a model including clinical predictors in the combined samples. Conclusions Our results illustrate the consistency and differences in the determinants of genetic susceptibility to CHD in diabetic patients and the general populations. PMID:22152955

  5. Predicting stroke through genetic risk functions: the CHARGE Risk Score Project.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Fornage, Myriam; Bis, Joshua C; Choi, Seung Hoan; Psaty, Bruce M; Meigs, James B; Rao, Madhu; Nalls, Mike; Fontes, Joao D; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Ehret, Georg B; Fox, Caroline S; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Schmidt, Helena; Lahti, Jari; Heckbert, Susan R; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Rotter, Jerome I; Taylor, Kent D; Folsom, Aaron R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rosamond, Wayne D; Shahar, Eyal; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Koudstaal, Peter J; Amin, Najaf; Wieberdink, Renske G; Dehghan, Abbas; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Destefano, Anita L; Debette, Stephanie; Xue, Luting; Beiser, Alexa; Wolf, Philip A; Decarli, Charles; Ikram, M Arfan; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H; Longstreth, W T; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-02-01

    Beyond the Framingham Stroke Risk Score, prediction of future stroke may improve with a genetic risk score (GRS) based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with stroke and its risk factors. The study includes 4 population-based cohorts with 2047 first incident strokes from 22,720 initially stroke-free European origin participants aged ≥55 years, who were followed for up to 20 years. GRSs were constructed with 324 single-nucleotide polymorphisms implicated in stroke and 9 risk factors. The association of the GRS to first incident stroke was tested using Cox regression; the GRS predictive properties were assessed with area under the curve statistics comparing the GRS with age and sex, Framingham Stroke Risk Score models, and reclassification statistics. These analyses were performed per cohort and in a meta-analysis of pooled data. Replication was sought in a case-control study of ischemic stroke. In the meta-analysis, adding the GRS to the Framingham Stroke Risk Score, age and sex model resulted in a significant improvement in discrimination (all stroke: Δjoint area under the curve=0.016, P=2.3×10(-6); ischemic stroke: Δjoint area under the curve=0.021, P=3.7×10(-7)), although the overall area under the curve remained low. In all the studies, there was a highly significantly improved net reclassification index (P<10(-4)). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with stroke and its risk factors result only in a small improvement in prediction of future stroke compared with the classical epidemiological risk factors for stroke.

  6. Weighted Genetic Risk Scores and Prediction of Weight Gain in Solid Organ Transplant Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saigi-Morgui, Núria; Quteineh, Lina; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Crettol, Severine; Kutalik, Zoltán; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Bibert, Stéphanie; Beckmann, Sonja; Mueller, Nicolas J; Binet, Isabelle; van Delden, Christian; Steiger, Jürg; Mohacsi, Paul; Stirnimann, Guido; Soccal, Paola M.; Pascual, Manuel; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-01

    Background Polygenic obesity in Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) populations is considered a risk factor for the development of metabolic abnormalities and graft survival. Few studies to date have studied the genetics of weight gain in SOT recipients. We aimed to determine whether weighted genetic risk scores (w-GRS) integrating genetic polymorphisms from GWAS studies (SNP group#1 and SNP group#2) and from Candidate Gene studies (SNP group#3) influence BMI in SOT populations and if they predict ≥10% weight gain (WG) one year after transplantation. To do so, two samples (nA = 995, nB = 156) were obtained from naturalistic studies and three w-GRS were constructed and tested for association with BMI over time. Prediction of 10% WG at one year after transplantation was assessed with models containing genetic and clinical factors. Results w-GRS were associated with BMI in sample A and B combined (BMI increased by 0.14 and 0.11 units per additional risk allele in SNP group#1 and #2, respectively, p-values<0.008). w-GRS of SNP group#3 showed an effect of 0.01 kg/m2 per additional risk allele when combining sample A and B (p-value 0.04). Models with genetic factors performed better than models without in predicting 10% WG at one year after transplantation. Conclusions This is the first study in SOT evaluating extensively the association of w-GRS with BMI and the influence of clinical and genetic factors on 10% of WG one year after transplantation, showing the importance of integrating genetic factors in the final model. Genetics of obesity among SOT recipients remains an important issue and can contribute to treatment personalization and prediction of WG after transplantation. PMID:27788139

  7. Gene × Physical Activity Interactions in Obesity: Combined Analysis of 111,421 Individuals of European Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V.; Ali, Ashfaq; Kurbasic, Azra; Shungin, Dmitry; Ericson, Ulrika; Koivula, Robert W.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Rose, Lynda M.; Ganna, Andrea; Qi, Qibin; Stančáková, Alena; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Elks, Cathy E.; Curhan, Gary; Jensen, Majken K.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Allin, Kristine H.; Jørgensen, Torben; Brage, Soren; Langenberg, Claudia; Aadahl, Mette; Grarup, Niels; Linneberg, Allan; Paré, Guillaume; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Boehnke, Michael; Hamsten, Anders; Mohlke, Karen L.; Pasquale, Louis T.; Pedersen, Oluf; Scott, Robert A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ingelsson, Erik; Laakso, Markku; Hansen, Torben; Qi, Lu; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Hallmans, Göran; Hu, Frank B.; Renström, Frida; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal. PMID:23935507

  8. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V; Ali, Ashfaq; Kurbasic, Azra; Shungin, Dmitry; Ericson, Ulrika; Koivula, Robert W; Chu, Audrey Y; Rose, Lynda M; Ganna, Andrea; Qi, Qibin; Stančáková, Alena; Sandholt, Camilla H; Elks, Cathy E; Curhan, Gary; Jensen, Majken K; Tamimi, Rulla M; Allin, Kristine H; Jørgensen, Torben; Brage, Soren; Langenberg, Claudia; Aadahl, Mette; Grarup, Niels; Linneberg, Allan; Paré, Guillaume; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Boehnke, Michael; Hamsten, Anders; Mohlke, Karen L; Pasquale, Louis T; Pedersen, Oluf; Scott, Robert A; Ridker, Paul M; Ingelsson, Erik; Laakso, Markku; Hansen, Torben; Qi, Lu; Wareham, Nicholas J; Chasman, Daniel I; Hallmans, Göran; Hu, Frank B; Renström, Frida; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franks, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2), sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction  = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction  = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction  = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction  = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.

  9. Riparian land-use and rehabilitation: impact on organic matter input and soil respiration.

    PubMed

    Oelbermann, Maren; Raimbault, Beverly A; Gordon, A M

    2015-02-01

    Rehabilitated riparian zones in agricultural landscapes enhance environmental integrity and provide environmental services such as carbon (C) sequestration. This study quantified differences in organic matter input, soil biochemical characteristics, and soil respiration in a 25-year-old rehabilitated (RH), grass (GRS), and undisturbed natural forest (UNF) riparian zone. Input from herbaceous vegetation was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the GRS riparian zone, whereas autumnal litterfall was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the RH riparian zone. Soil bulk density was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the RH riparian zone, but its soil chemical characteristics were significantly lower. Soil respiration rates were lowest (P < 0.05) in the UNF (106 C m(-2) h(-1)), followed by the RH (169 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and GRS (194 C m(-2) h(-1)) riparian zones. Soil respiration rates were significantly different (P < 0.05) among seasons, and were significantly correlated with soil moisture (P < 0.05) and soil temperature (P < 0.05) in all riparian zones. Soil potential microbial activity indicated a significantly different (P < 0.05) response of the microbial metabolic diversity in the RH compared to the GRS and UNF riparian zones, and principle component analysis showed a distinct difference in microbial activity among the riparian land-use systems. Rehabilitating degraded riparian zones with trees rather than GRS is a more effective approach to the long-term mitigation of CO2. Therefore, the protection of existing natural/undisturbed riparian forests in agricultural landscapes is equally important as their rehabilitation with trees, given their higher levels of soil organic C and lower soil respiration rates.

  10. Genetic predisposition to obesity and lifestyle factors--the combined analyses of twenty-six known BMI- and fourteen known waist:hip ratio (WHR)-associated variants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Paananen, Jussi; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2013-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with BMI or the waist:hip ratio (WHR). However, evidence on gene-lifestyle interactions is still scarce, and investigation of the effects of well-documented dietary and other lifestyle data is warranted to assess whether genetic risk can be modified by lifestyle. We assessed whether previously established BMI and WHR genetic variants associate with obesity and weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, and whether the associations are modified by dietary factors or physical activity. Individuals (n 459) completed a 3 d food record and were genotyped for twenty-six BMI- and fourteen WHR-related variants. The effects of the variants individually and in combination were investigated in relation to obesity and to 1- and 3-year weight change by calculating genetic risk scores (GRS). The GRS were separately calculated for BMI and the WHR by summing the increasing alleles weighted by their published effect sizes. At baseline, the GRS were not associated with total intakes of energy, macronutrients or fibre. The mean 1- and 3-year weight changes were not affected by the BMI or WHR GRS. During the 3-year follow-up, a trend for higher BMI by the GRS was detected especially in those who reported a diet low in fibre (P for interaction=0·065). Based on the present findings, it appears unlikely that obesity-predisposing variants substantially modify the effect of lifestyle modification on the success of weight reduction in the long term. In addition, these findings suggest that the association between the BMI-related genetic variants and obesity could be modulated by the diet.

  11. Clinical risk scores predict procedural complications of primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hadadi, László; Şerban, Răzvan Constantin; Scridon, Alina; Şuş, Ioana; Lakatos, Éva Katalin; Demjén, Zoltán; Dobreanu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The predictive value of five risk score models containing clinical (PAMI-PMS, GRACE–GRS, and modified ACEF-ACEFm–scores), angiographic SYNTAX score (SXS) and combined Clinical SYNTAX score (CSS) variables were evaluated for the incidence of three procedural complications of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI): iatrogenic coronary artery dissection, angiographically visible distal embolization and angiographic no-reflow phenomenon. Methods: The mentioned scores and the incidence of procedural complications were retrospectively analyzed in 399 consecutive patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent pPCI. Results: Coronary dissection, distal embolization and no-reflow occurred in 39 (9.77%), 71 (17.79%), and 108 (27.07%) subjects, respectively. Coronary dissections were significantly associated with higher GRS, ACEFm, and CSS values (all p<0.05). PMS, GRS, ACEFm, and CSS were significantly higher in patients with no-reflow (all p<0.05), while distal embolization was not predicted by any of the calculated scores. In multiple logistic regression models, GRS and ACEFm remained independent predictors of both coronary dissections (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.56–6.54, p<0.01 and OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.27–6.45, p=0.01, respectively) and no-reflow (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04–2.82, p=0.03 and OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.10–3.14, p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Whereas SXS failed to predict procedural complications related to pPCI, two simple, noninvasive risk models, GRS and ACEFm, independently predicted coronary dissections and no-reflow. Pre-interventional assessment of these scores may help the interventional cardiologist to prepare for procedural complications during pPCI. (Anatol J Cardiol 2017; 17: 276-84) PMID:28315564

  12. Clinical risk scores predict procedural complications of primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Hadadi, László; Şerban, Razvan Constantin; Scridon, Alina; Şuş, Ioana; Lakatos, Éva Katalin; Demjén, Zoltán; Dobreanu, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The predictive value of five risk score models containing clinical (PAMI-PMS, GRACE-GRS, and modified ACEF-ACEFm-scores), angiographic SYNTAX score (SXS) and combined Clinical SYNTAX score (CSS) variables were evaluated for the incidence of three procedural complications of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI): iatrogenic coronary artery dissection, angiographically visible distal embolization and angiographic no-reflow phenomenon. The mentioned scores and the incidence of procedural complications were retrospectively analyzed in 399 consecutive patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent pPCI. Coronary dissection, distal embolization and no-reflow occurred in 39 (9.77%), 71 (17.79%), and 108 (27.07%) subjects, respectively. Coronary dissections were significantly associated with higher GRS, ACEFm, and CSS values (all p<0.05). PMS, GRS, ACEFm, and CSS were significantly higher in patients with no-reflow (all p<0.05), while distal embolization was not predicted by any of the calculated scores. In multiple logistic regression models, GRS and ACEFm remained independent predictors of both coronary dissections (OR 3.20, 95% CI 1.56-6.54, p<0.01 and OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.27-6.45, p=0.01, respectively) and no-reflow (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.82, p=0.03 and OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.10-3.14, p=0.01, respectively). Whereas SXS failed to predict procedural complications related to pPCI, two simple, noninvasive risk models, GRS and ACEFm, independently predicted coronary dissections and no-reflow. Pre-interventional assessment of these scores may help the interventional cardiologist to prepare for procedural complications during pPCI.

  13. Development of liquid scintillation based 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system and demonstration of its performance by standardization of ⁶⁰Co.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Tomar, B S

    2013-02-01

    A single-vial, single-PMT 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system has been developed at the Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC. It has advantages of simple sample preparation, higher counting efficiency and the absence of self absorption over the conventional proportional counter based 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system. The performance of the system is demonstrated by standardizing a (60)Co solution using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system and CIEMAT/NIST method and comparing the results obtained by each method. The detection efficiency of liquid scintillation counter of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system was varied by color quenching, by chemical quenching and by varying the bias voltage applied to the LSC PMT. For the proportional counter based 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system the detection efficiency was varied by source self absorption. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system and the CIEMAT/NIST method are comparable within the uncertainty limits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conference report on the 3rd International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzitelli, Guiseppe; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-01-14

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9-11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. Furthermore, this international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma-Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.

  15. Conference Report on the 3rd International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-02-01

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9-11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. This international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma-Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.

  16. A New Four-Barrel Pellet Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephen Kirk; Foust, Charles R; McGill, James M; Baylor, Larry R; Caughman, John B; Fehling, Dan T; Harris, Jeffrey H; Meitner, Steven J; Rasmussen, David A; McCarthy, K. J.; Chamorro, M.; Garcia, R.; Hildago, C.; Medrano, M.; Unamuno, R.

    2011-01-01

    A new pellet injection system for the TJ-II stellarator has been developed/constructed as part of a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Centro de Investigaciones Energ ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol gicas (CIEMAT). ORNL is providing most of the injector hardware and instrumentation, the pellet diagnostics, and the pellet transport tubes; CIEMAT is responsible for the injector stand/interface to the stellarator, cryogenic refrigerator, vacuum pumps/ballast volumes, gas manifolds, remote operations, plasma diagnostics, and data acquisition. The pellet injector design is an upgraded version of that used for the ORNL injector installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). It is a four-barrel system equipped with a cryogenic refrigerator for in situ hydrogen pellet formation and a combined mechanical punch/propellant valve system for pellet acceleration (speeds ~100 to 1000 m/s). On TJ-II, it will be used as an active diagnostic and for fueling. To accommodate the plasma experiments planned for TJ-II, pellet sizes significantly smaller than those typically used for the MST application are required. The system will initially be equipped with four different pellet sizes, with the gun barrel bores ranging between ~0.5 to 1.0 mm. The new system is almost complete and is described briefly here, highlighting the new features added since the original MST injector was constructed. Also, the future installation on TJ-II is reviewed.

  17. Investigation of the Transformation of Uranium under Iron-Reducing Conditions: Reduction of UVI by Biogenic FeII/FeIII Hydroxide (Green Rust)

    SciTech Connect

    Edward O’Loughlin; Michelle Scherer; Kenneth Kemner; Shelly Kelly

    2004-03-17

    The research we are proposing addresses fundamental aspects of the effects of coupled biotic and abiotic processes on U speciation in subsurface environments where Fe redox cycling is significant. The long-term objective of this research is to evaluate whether reduction of U{sup VI} by biogenic GRs is a significant immobilization mechanism in subsurface environments. Our preliminary experiments have shown that biogenic GRs can reduce U{sup VI} to U{sup IV}; however, little is known about how biogeochemical conditions (such as pH, U concentration, carbonate concentration, and the presence of cocontaminants) and GR composition affect the rate and products of U{sup VI} reduction by GRs. It is also unclear which biogeochemical conditions favor formation of GR over other non-reactive Fe-bearing biomineralization products from the reduction of Fe{sup III} by DIRB. To address these issues, the following objectives are proposed: (1) Identify the geochemical conditions that favor the formation of biogenic GRs from the reduction of Fe{sup III} oxyhydroxides by DIRB (e.g., Shewanella and Geobacter species). (2) Characterize the chemical composition of biogenic GRs (e.g., Fe{sup II}:Fe{sup III} ratios and interlayer anions) and the effects of compositional variability on the rate and extent of U{sup VI} reduction. (3) Evaluate the effects of variations in geochemical conditions--particularly pH, U concentration, carbonate concentration, the presence of organic ligands, and the presence of reducible co-contaminants--both on the kinetics of U{sup VI} reduction by biogenic GR and on the composition of U-bearing mineral phases. Particular attention will be given to examining geochemical conditions relevant to conditions at DOE field sites. (4) Determine the potential for coupling the reduction of Fe{sup III} by DIRB to the reduction of U{sup VI} via biogenic Fe{sup II} species (including biogenic GRs). The objectives outlined above will be achieved by testing the following

  18. Validation of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Variants Identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies in Northern Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Ge, Si-Qi; Wang, An-Xin; Yu, Xin-Wei; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Veronica, Andrea Katherine; Qiu, Jing; Song, Man-Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Hao; Fang, Hong-Hong; Gao, Qing; Wang, You-Xin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than 60 genetic susceptibility loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been established in populations of Asian and European ancestry. Given ethnic differences and environmental factors, validation of the effects of genetic risk variants with reported associations identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWASs) is essential. The study aims at evaluating the associations of T2DM with 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 19 candidate genes derived from GWASs in a northern Han Chinese population. Method: In this case-control study, 461 T2DM-diagnosed patients and 434 controls were recruited at the Jidong oil field hospital (Hebei, China) from January 2009 to October 2013. A cumulative genetic risk score (cGRS) was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles, and a weight GRS (wGRS) was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes for T2DM, using the independent variants selected. Result: The allelic frequency of the “A” allele at rs17106184 (Fas-associated factor 1, FAF1) was significantly higher in the T2DM patients than that of the healthy controls (11.7% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.001). Individuals in the highestquartile of wGRS had an over three-fold increased risk for developing T2DM compared with those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.92–4.88, p < 0.001) adjusted for age, sex, BMI, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The results were similar when analyzed with the cGRS. Conclusions: We confirmed the association between rs17106184 (FAF1) and T2DM in a northern Han Chinese population. The GRS calculated based on T2DM susceptibility variants may be a useful tool for predicting the T2DM susceptibility. PMID:27589775

  19. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain: Influence of Molecular Genetic Predisposition to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles; Morgen, Camilla S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Smith, George Davey; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Nohr, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. Objective To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. Design A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 4,841). We included 32 body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS). Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined. Results In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g) of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P<0.01). For total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish. Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01) per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings. Conclusion We found no consistent evidence of association between fish consumption and GWG, and our results indicate that the association between dietary fish and GWG has little or no dependency on GRS or individual SNPs. PMID:26930408

  20. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540