Science.gov

Sample records for ciemat anpa grs

  1. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  2. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (< 0.1 eV) obtained by Lunar Prospector because the Kaguya orbiter did not carry a neutron detector. We used the relative change in thermal neutron flux as a function of topography measured by Lunar Prospector. Normalization of Si elemental abundance using the Kaguya data was accomplished using Apollo 11, 12, 16, and 17 archive data. The normalized Si elemental abundance of the Kaguya GRS data ranged from about 15 to 27% Si. The lowest and highest SiO _{2} abundance correspond to mineral groups like pyroxene group (PKT region) and feldspar group (Northern highlands), respectively. The Si abundance permits the quantification of the relative abundance and distribution of mafic or non-mafic lunar surfaces materials. Our KGRS data analysis shows that highland terrains are Si-enriched relative to lower basins and plains regions, which appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to

  3. Gramicidin S biosynthesis operon containing the structural genes grsA and grsB has an open reading frame encoding a protein homologous to fatty acid thioesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Krätzschmar, J; Krause, M; Marahiel, M A

    1989-01-01

    The DNA sequence of about 5.9 kilobase pairs (kbp) of the gramicidin S biosynthesis operon (grs) was determined. Three open reading frames were identified; the corresponding genes, called grsT, grsA, and grsB, were found to be organized in one transcriptional unit, not two as previously reported (M. Krause and M. A. Marahiel, J. Bacteriol. 170:4669-4674, 1988). The entire nucleotide sequence of grsA, coding for the 126.663-kilodalton gramicidin S synthetase 1, grsT, encoding a 29.191-kilodalton protein of unknown function, and 732 bp of the 5' end of grsB, encoding the gramicidin S synthetase 2, were determined. A single initiation site of transcription 81 bp upstream of the grsT initiation condon GTG was identified by high-resolution S1 mapping studies. The sequence of the grsA gene product showed a high degree of homology to the tyrocidine synthetase 1 (TycA protein), and that of grsT exhibited a significant degree of homology to vertebrate fatty acid thioesterases. Images PMID:2477357

  4. Multi-Wavelength Monitoring of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, R.; Martini, P.; Gerard, E.; Charles, P. A.; Wagner, R. M.; Shrader, C.; Shahbaz, T.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1992, the superluminal X-ray transient GRS 1915+105 has been extensively observed in an attempt to understand its behaviour. We present here first results from a multi-wavelength campaign undertaken from July to September 1996. This study includes X-ray data from the RXTE All Sky Monitor and BATSE, two-frequency data from the Nancay radio telescope, and infrared photometry from the 1.8 m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. The first long-term well-sampled IR light curve of GRS 1915+105 is presented herein and is consistent with the interpretation of this source as a long-period binary. We compare the various light curves, searching for correlations in the behaviour of the source at differing wavelengths and for possible periodicities.

  5. Multi-Wavelength Monitoring of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, R.; Martini, P.; Gerard, E.; Charles, P. A.; Wagner, R. M.; Shrader, C.; Shahbaz, T.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1997-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1992, the superluminal X-ray transient GRS 1915+105 has been extensively observed in an attempt to understand its behaviour. We present here preliminary results from a multi-wavelength campaign undertaken from July to September 1996. This study includes X-ray data from the RXTE All Sky Monitor and BATSE, two-frequency data from the Nancay radio telescope, and infrared photometry from the 1.8m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. The K-band data presented herein provide the first long-term well-sampled IR light curve of GRS 1915+105. We compare the various light curves, searching for correlations in the behaviour of the source at differing wavelengths and for possible periodicities.

  6. Large-scale Jets in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupen, M. P.; Dhawan, V.; Mioduszewski, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Observations with the Very Large Array (VLA), originally intended to support the HERO balloon flight, show multiple arcsecond-scale components moving out from the core of the black hole X-ray binary GRS 1915+105. Data taken at 8.46 GHz on May 11 and May 23 show extended emission along the known jet axis of this microquasar (e.g., Mirabel & Rodriguez 1994 [MR94], Nature, 371, 46-48). The beam was roughly round in both observations, with a full-width at half-maximum of about 0.67 arcseconds.

  7. Grs 1915+105: a superluminal source in the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, L F; Mirabel, I F

    1995-12-01

    We present the results of additional observations of the high energy source GRS 1915+105, which produces ejecta with apparent superluminal motions. The observations reported here were carried out with the Very Large Array at 3.5 cm and 20 cm. The 3.5-cm observations made during 1994 May allowed us to continue following the proper motions of the bright 1994 March 19 ejecta, as well as those of a subsequent, fainter ejection. The proper motions of the 1994 March 19 ejecta continued to be ballistic (i.e., constant) over the period of about 75 days where they remained detectable. From the observations in 1994 March-May we have identified three ejections of pairs of plasma clouds moving ballistically in approximately the same direction on the sky with similar proper motions. The 20-cm observations made during 1994 November and December were used to search, yet unsuccessfully, for extended jets or lobes associated with GRS 1915+105.

  8. Grs 1915+105: a superluminal source in the Galaxy.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, L F; Mirabel, I F

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of additional observations of the high energy source GRS 1915+105, which produces ejecta with apparent superluminal motions. The observations reported here were carried out with the Very Large Array at 3.5 cm and 20 cm. The 3.5-cm observations made during 1994 May allowed us to continue following the proper motions of the bright 1994 March 19 ejecta, as well as those of a subsequent, fainter ejection. The proper motions of the 1994 March 19 ejecta continued to be ballistic (i.e., constant) over the period of about 75 days where they remained detectable. From the observations in 1994 March-May we have identified three ejections of pairs of plasma clouds moving ballistically in approximately the same direction on the sky with similar proper motions. The 20-cm observations made during 1994 November and December were used to search, yet unsuccessfully, for extended jets or lobes associated with GRS 1915+105. PMID:11607605

  9. TDCR and CIEMAT/NIST Liquid Scintillation Methods applied to the Radionuclide Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, P. A. L.; da Silva, C. J.; Iwahara, A.; Loureiro, J. S.; De Oliveira, A. E.; Tauhata, L.; Lopes, R. T.

    2016-07-01

    This work presents TDCR and CIEMAT/NIST methods of liquid scintillation implemented in National Institutes of Metrology for activity standardization of radionuclides, which decay by beta emission and electron capture. The computer codes used to calculate the detection efficiency take into account: decay schemes, beta decay theory, quenching parameter evaluation, Poisson statistic model and Monte Carlo simulation for photon and particle interactions in the detection system. Measurements were performed for pure emitters 3H, 14C, 99Tc and for 68Ge/68Ga which decay by electron capture and positron emission, with uncertainties smaller than 1% (k = 1).

  10. Mars Geological Province Designations for the Interpretation of GRS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Kerry, K.; Baker, V. R.; Boynton, W.; Maruyama, Shige; Anderson, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: An overarching geologic theory, GEOMARS, coherently explains many otherwise anomalous aspects of the geological history of Mars. Premises for a theory of martian geologic evolution include: (1) Mars is a water-rich terrestrial planet, (2) terrestrial planets should evolve through progressive stages of dynamical history (accretion, differentiation, tectonism) and mantle convection (magma ocean, plate tectonism, stagnant lid), and (3) the early history of Earth affords an analogue to the evolution of Mars. The theory describes the following major stages of evolution for Mars (from oldest to youngest): Stage 1 - shortly after accretion, Mars differentiates to a liquid metallic core, a mantle boundary (MBL) of high-pressure silicate mineral phases, upper mantle, magma ocean, thin komatiic crust, and convecting steam atmosphere; Stage 2- Mars cools to condense its steam atmosphere and transform its mode of mantle convection to plate tectonism; subduction of waterrich oceanic crust initiates arc volcanism and transfers water, carbonates and sulfates to the mantle; Stage 3 - the core dynamo initiates, and the associated magnetosphere leads to conditions conducive to the development of near-surface life and photosynthetic production of oxygen; Stage 4 - accretion of thickened, continental crust and subduction of hydrated oceanic crust to the mantle boundary layer and lower mantle of Mars occurs; Stage 5 - the core dynamo stops during Noachian heavy bombardment while plate tectonism continues; Stage 6 - initiation of the Tharsis superplume (approx. between 4.0 and 3.8Ga) occurs, and Stage 7 - the superlume phase (stagnant-lid regime) of martian planetary evolution with episodic phases of volcanism and water outflows continues into the present. The GEOMARS Theory is testable through a multidisciplinary approach, including utilizing GRS-based information. Based on a synthesis of published geologic, paleohydrologic, topographic, geophysical, spectral, and

  11. CIEMAT EXTERNAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE: ISO/IEC 17025 ACCREDITATION AND 3 Y OF OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE AS AN ACCREDITED LABORATORY.

    PubMed

    Romero, A M; Rodríguez, R; López, J L; Martín, R; Benavente, J F

    2016-09-01

    In 2008, the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service decided to implement a quality management system, in accordance with established requirements, in order to achieve ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. Although the Service comprises the approved individual monitoring services of both external and internal radiation, this paper is specific to the actions taken by the External Dosimetry Service, including personal and environmental dosimetry laboratories, to gain accreditation and the reflections of 3 y of operational experience as an accredited laboratory. PMID:26567323

  12. Application of the CIEMAT-NIST method to plastic scintillation microspheres.

    PubMed

    Tarancón, A; Barrera, J; Santiago, L M; Bagán, H; García, J F

    2015-04-01

    An adaptation of the MICELLE2 code was used to apply the CIEMAT-NIST tracing method to the activity calculation for radioactive solutions of pure beta emitters of different energies using plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm) and (3)H as a tracing radionuclide. Particle quenching, very important in measurements with PSm, was computed with PENELOPE using geometries formed by a heterogeneous mixture of polystyrene microspheres and water. The results obtained with PENELOPE were adapted to be included in MICELLE2, which is capable of including the energy losses due to particle quenching in the computation of the detection efficiency. The activity calculation of (63)Ni, (14)C, (36)Cl and (90)Sr/(90)Y solutions was performed with deviations of 8.8%, 1.9%, 1.4% and 2.1%, respectively. Of the different parameters evaluated, those with the greatest impact on the activity calculation are, in order of importance, the energy of the radionuclide, the degree of quenching of the sample and the packing fraction of the geometry used in the computation.

  13. Design and verification of the shielding around the new Neutron Standards Laboratory (LPN) at CIEMAT.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Villafañe, R; Guerrero, J E; Embid, M; Fernández, R; Grandio, R; Pérez-Cejuela, P; Márquez, J L; Alvarez, F; Ortego, P

    2014-10-01

    The construction of the new Neutron Standards Laboratory at CIEMAT (Laboratorio de Patrones Neutrónicos) has been finalised and is ready to provide service. The facility is an ∼8 m×8 m×8 m irradiation vault, following the International Organization for Standardization 8529 recommendations. It relies on several neutron sources: a 5-GBq (5.8× 10(8) s(-1)) (252)Cf source and two (241)Am-Be neutron sources (185 and 11.1 GBq). The irradiation point is located 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical centre of the room. Each neutron source can be moved remotely from its storage position inside a water pool to the irradiation point. Prior to this, an important task to design the neutron shielding and to choose the most appropriate materials has been developed by the Radiological Security Unit and the Ionizing Radiations Metrology Laboratory. MCNPX was chosen to simulate the irradiation facility. With this information the walls were built with a thickness of 125 cm. Special attention was put on the weak points (main door, air conditioning system, etc.) so that the ambient dose outside the facility was below the regulatory limits. Finally, the Radiation Protection Unit carried out a set of measurements in specific points around the installation with an LB6411 neutron monitor and a Reuter-Stokes high-pressure ion chamber to verify experimentally the results of the simulation.

  14. GRS 1915+105 AS A GALACTIC ANALOG OF A FANAROFF-RILEY II QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jerome E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2013-06-20

    We study the long-term time-averaged kinetic luminosity, Q-bar , of the major flares of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 and the relationship to the intrinsic X-ray (bolometric) luminosity, L{sub bol}, and scale it to that of a complete sample of SDSS/FIRST Fanaroff-Riley (FR) II quasars. If the scale invariance hypothesis for black holes (BHs) holds then we show that the expected distribution in the Q-bar -L{sub bol} scatter plane of GRS 1915+105 is consistent with FR II quasars for distances D = 10.7-11 kpc. We compare the specific values of kinetic luminosity and L{sub bol} during flares of GRS 1915+105 to that predicted by several three-dimensional MHD simulations of BH accretion flows with relativistic ejections. If FR II quasars are a scaled up version of GRS 1915+105, the data are consistent with numerical models when they contain an ergospheric disk jet and the BH spin is a/M = 0.99 or a/M = 0.998 (we estimate a/M > 0.984). In the framework of scale invariance of BHs, our results may imply that FR II quasars also hold rapidly rotating BHs.

  15. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number...

  16. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number...

  17. 36 CFR 1227.14 - How do I obtain copies of the GRS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I obtain copies of the... ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT GENERAL RECORDS SCHEDULES § 1227.14 How do I obtain copies of the GRS? (a) The... Administration, Modern Records Programs (NWM), 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001, phone number...

  18. GRS 1758-258 not detected at hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Eikmann, W.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Hirsch, M.; Kuehnel, M.; Rodrigues, B. H. G.; Krauss, F.; Soria, R.; Grinberg, V.; Smith, D. M.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; Kuulkers, E.; INTEGRAL Galactic Bulge Monitoring Team; Kalemci, E.; Miller, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1758-258 is usually found in the hard state but has been known to enter soft states in which the spectrum changes from a power-law to a thermal disk without substantial changes in bolometric luminosity (Soria et al., 2011, MNRAS 415, 410).

  19. Outburst from low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1747-312 in Terzan 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahramian, A.; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Kennea, J. A.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.

    2016-05-01

    GRS 1747-312 is an eclipsing transient low-mass X-ray binary in the core of the globular cluster Terzan 6. This source shows regular outbursts ~ every 6 months and, due to its eclipsing behaviour, has an accurately-constrained orbital period (12.36 hrs, in't Zand et al. 2003, A & A, 406, 233).

  20. MEASURING THE SPIN OF GRS 1915+105 WITH RELATIVISTIC DISK REFLECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, J. L.; Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Reis, R. C.; Miller, M. C.; Homan, J.; Van der Klis, M.

    2009-11-20

    GRS 1915+105 harbors one of the most massive known stellar black holes in the Galaxy. In 2007 May, we observed GRS 1915+105 for approx117 ks in the low/hard state using Suzaku. We collected and analyzed the data with the Hard X-ray Detector/Positive Intrinsic Negative and X-ray Spectrometer cameras spanning the energy range from 2.3 to 55 keV. Fits to the spectra with simple models reveal strong disk reflection through an Fe K emission line and a Compton backscattering hump. We report constraints on the spin parameter of the black hole in GRS 1915 + 105 using relativistic disk reflection models. The model for the soft X-ray spectrum (i.e., < 10 keV) suggests a-hat=0.56{sup +0.02}{sub -0.02} and excludes zero spin at the 4sigma level of confidence. The model for the full broadband spectrum suggests that the spin may be higher, a-hat=0.98{sup +0.01}{sub =0.01} (1sigma confidence), and again excludes zero spin at the 2sigma level of confidence. We discuss these results in the context of other spin constraints and inner disk studies in GRS 1915 + 105.

  1. Uncertainty determination for activity measurements by means of the TDCR method and the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossert, Karsten; Broda, Ryszard; Cassette, Philippe; Ratel, Guy; Zimmerman, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Liquid scintillation counting is a very powerful technique for the activity determination of a number of radionuclides. In radionuclide metrology, the TDCR method and the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing technique are widely used in many laboratories. Both methods require rather complex calculation techniques to derive the counting efficiency of the nuclide under study. This article explores the various sources of uncertainty that should be considered when applying these two techniques, and focuses on possible ways to evaluate them. Concrete examples are provided within the paper.

  2. Standardisation of the (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho activity concentration using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method.

    PubMed

    Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Rožkov, Andrej

    2016-03-01

    The (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho standardisations using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method, that have been carried out in the frame of the European Metrology Research Program project "Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management" are described. The radionuclide beta counting efficiencies were calculated using two computer codes CN2005 and MICELLE2. The sensitivity analysis of the code input parameters (ionization quenching factor, beta shape factor) on the calculated efficiencies was performed, and the results are discussed. The combined relative standard uncertainty of the standardisations of the (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho solutions were 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively. The stated precision obtained using the CIEMAT/NIST method is better than that previously reported in the literature obtained by the TDCR ((129)I), the 4πγ-NaI ((166m)Ho) counting or the CIEMAT/NIST method ((151)Sm).

  3. The Relativistic Iron Emission Line - QPO Connection in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon

    2005-10-01

    In accreting black hole and neutron star binaries, QPOs and broad Fe emission lines are both thought to be incisive diagnostics of the inner disk, and can even be used to constrain black hole spin parameters. We have discovered a connection between Fe line strength and QPO phase in RXTE observations of GRS 1915+105. This connection clearly ties Fe lines to radii less than 100 Rschw, where relativistic skewing is inevitable. Moreover, for a known mass, the connection gives two measures of radius; over-constraining radii in this way will enable mapping of the inner disk and strong tests of accretion flow models and general relativistic effects. We request a 45 ksec TOO observation of GRS 1915+105 to study this connection at CCD resolution.

  4. PETER: A Hardware Simulator for the Test Mass-GRS System of LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, L.; Stanga, R.; Bassan, M.; De Marchi, F.; Pucacco, G.; Visco, M.; Di Fiore, L.; De Rosa, R.; Garufi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Each LISA PathFinder test mass (TM) will be sensitive to forces along all its 6 Degrees of Freedom (DoFs). Extensive ground testing is required in order to evaluate the influence of cross-talks from the read-out and actuator channels. In the INFN laboratory of Firenze we have developed a facility for a good representation of the free fall conditions of the TM on flight. A hollow replica of a TM hanging from a double torsion pendulum can move inside a Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS) with quasi free fall condition on two Dofs, in the frequency band (0.1 ÷ 100)mHz. On both DoFs, the target residual accelerations (yet to be achieved) at the low end frequency range are ≤ 3 × 10-13ms-2, limited by the thermal noise of the fibres. At higher frequencies, the sensitivity is limited by the readout noise of the readout, a replica of the flight electronics. After a long commissioning, we are now in operating conditions, and can carry out a series of experiments to better qualify the interaction between TM and GRS. In this paper we will show some significant qualification measurements and a first scientific measurements, i.e. the measurement and compensation of the DC bias in the GRS using two independent channels, as well as a measurement of the residual acceleration of the translational DoF, with the feedback loop closed on the rotational one, and viceversa.

  5. EFFICIENCY STUDY OF A LEGe DETECTOR SYSTEM FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF 241Am IN SKULL AT CIEMAT WHOLE BODY COUNTER.

    PubMed

    Pérez López, B; Navarro, J F; López Ponte, M A; Nogueira, P

    2016-09-01

    (241)Am incorporation due to an incident or chronic exposure causes an internal dose, which can be evaluated from the total activity of this isotope in the skeleton several months after the intake. For this purpose, it is necessary to perform in vivo measurements of this bone-seeker radionuclide in appropriate counting bone geometries with very low attenuation of surrounded tissue and to extrapolate to total activity in the skeleton (ICRP 89, Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. 2001. 265). The work here presented refers to direct measurements of americium in the Cohen skull phantom at the CIEMAT Whole Body Counter (WBC) using low-energy germanium (LEGe) detectors inside a shielding room. The main goal was to determinate the most adequate head counting geometry for the in vivo detection of americium in the bone. The calibration of the in vivo LEGe system was performed with four detectors with 2 cm of distance to Cohen phantom. Two geometries were measured, on junction of frontal to parietal bones and frontal bone. The efficiencies are very similar in both geometries, the preferred counting geometry is the most comfortable for the person, with the LEGe detectors in the highest part of the frontal bone, near the junction with the parietal bone, CIEMAT WBC participated in a skull intercomparison exercise organised by WG7 of EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V.). Efficiencies using three different skull phantoms were obtained. Measurements were performed for different head counting positions, four of them in the plane of symmetry and others over the temporal bone. The detector was placed in parallel with the calibration phantom at a distance of 1 cm. The main gamma emission of (241)Am, 59.5 keV (36 %), was used for comparing efficiency values. The lower efficiency was obtained over the frontal and occipital bones. Measurement with one LEGe detector over the parietal bone is the most efficient. The

  6. The Distribution of Non-Volatile Elements on Mars: Mars Odyssey GRS Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W.; Janes, D.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.; Reedy, R.; Evans, L.; Starr, R.; Drake, D.; Taylor, J.; Waenke, H.

    2004-01-01

    The major scientific objective of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission is to determine the distribution of elements in the near-surface of Mars. Mars Odyssey has been in its mapping orbit since February, 2002, and the GRS boom, which removes the instrument from the gamma-ray background of the spacecraft, was erected in June, 2002. In the 580 days since boom erection, we have accumulated 453 days of mapping data. The difference is due mostly to two times when Odyssey went into safe mode and the instrument warmed up forcing us to anneal out radiation damage that manifests itself after warming. Other data losses are due to simple transmitter data gaps and to intense solar particle events. The data from the GRS is statistical in nature. We have a very low count rate and a very low signal-to-noise ratio. With the exception of K, the most easily mapped elements have a signal/noise ratio on the order of 0.1 (0.5 for K) and the counting rates are on the order of 0.3 to 0.7 counts/min (4 cpm for K). In order to map the distribution of an element, we have to divide the total signal from Mars up into many cells that define the map s spatial resolution (unless the statistics are good enough that the intrinsic spatial resolution of the instrument, about 550 km diameter, dominates). The data for several elements have now achieved a statistical precision that permits us to make meaningful maps.

  7. Origin of the X-ray broad iron spectral feature in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Ebisawa, Ken; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Inoue, Hajime

    2016-06-01

    The X-ray spectrum of GRS 1915+105 is known to have a "broad iron spectral feature" in the spectral hard state. Similar spectral features are often observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and other black-hole binaries (BHBs), and several models have been proposed for explaining it. In order to distinguish spectral models, time variation provides an important key. In AGNs, variation amplitude has been found to drop significantly at the iron K-energy band at timescales of ˜10 ks. If spectral variations of black holes are normalized by their masses, the spectral variations of BHBs on timescales of sub-seconds should exhibit similar characteristics to those of AGNs. In this paper, we investigated spectral variations of GRS 1915+105 at timescales down to ˜10 ms. This was made possible for the first time with the Suzaku XIS Parallel-sum clocking (P-sum) mode, which has the CCD energy-resolution as well as a time-resolution of 7.8 ms. Consequently, we found that the variation amplitude of GRS 1915+105 does not drop at the iron K-energy band on any timescales from 0.06 s to 63000 s, and that the entire X-ray flux and the iron feature are independently variable at timescales of hours. These are naturally understood in the framework of the "partial covering" model, in which variation timescales of the continuum flux and partial absorbers are independent. The difference of the energy dependence of the variation amplitude between AGNs and BHBs is presumably due to different mechanisms of the outflow winds, i.e., the partial absorbers are due to UV-line driven winds (AGNs) or thermally driven winds (BHBs).

  8. VVV near-infrared observations of the GRS 1736-297 field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, N.; Saito, R. K.; Rojas, A. F.; Minniti, D.

    2016-02-01

    After the announcement of the arcsec-sized soft X-ray error box (ATel #8704) of the X-ray source GRS 1736-297 which recently underwent an active phase at high energies (ATel #8698), we searched the archival frames of the near-infrared (NIR) VVV survey (vvvsurvey.org; Minniti et al. 2010, New Astron., 15, 433) of the Galactic Bulge and inner disk, obtained with the 4.1m VISTA telescope at Cerro Paranal (Chile), to look for the presence of NIR objects within the Swift/XRT error circle reported in ATel #8704.

  9. X-ray spectral analysis of the steady states of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Dil Vrtilek, Saeqa; Varniere, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy G.

    2016-04-01

    Of the black hole binaries (BHBs) discovered thus far, GRS 1915+105 stands out as an exceptional source primarily due to its wild X-ray variability, the diversity of which has not been replicated in any other stellar-mass black hole. Although extreme variability is commonplace in its light-curve, about half of the observations of GRS1915+105 show fairly steady X-ray intensity. We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within these steady observations. Our work is based on a vast RXTE/PCA data set obtained on GRS 1915+105 during the course of its entire mission and 10 years of radio data from the Ryle Telescope, which overlap the X-ray data. We find that the steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separate into two regions in a color-color diagram, which we refer to as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS 1915+105 displays significant curvature in the Comptonization component within the PCA band pass suggesting significantly heating from a hot disk present in all states. A new Comptonization model 'simplcut' was developed in order to model this curvature to best effect. A majority of the steady-soft observations display a roughly constant inner disk radius, remarkably reminiscent of canonical soft state black hole binaries. In contrast, the steady-hard observations display a growing disk truncation that is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk, which suggests a magnetically truncated disk. A comparison of X-ray model parameters to the canonical state definitions show that almost all steady-soft observations match the criteria of either thermal or steep power law state, while the thermal state observations dominate the constant radius branch. A large portion 80 % of the steady-hard observations matches the hard state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected. These results combine to suggest that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states, which map to those observed in canonical BHBs.

  10. Accretion disc geometry evolution of GRS 1915+105 during its plataeu states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathi Pal, Partha; Gopal Dutta, Broja; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of Time-lags are correlated with the accretion geometry during Plateau states of GRS 1915+105. We find that the lag spectrum for the χ_3 class is different from that of χ_1, χ_2 and χ_4 classes. Hard lags occur only when Comptonizing efficiency (CE) is about 0.9% for different plateau states and its evolution follows the sequence of class transitions suggested on the basis of CE parameter. We conclude that the variation of time lags could be due to change of size of the CENBOL which is often triggered by Compton cooling process.

  11. Inner disc obscuration in GRS 1915+105 based on relativistic slim disc model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierdayanti, K.; Sadowski, A.; Mineshige, S.; Bursa, M.

    2013-11-01

    We study the observational signatures of the relativistic slim disc of 10 M⊙ black hole, in a wide range of mass accretion rate, dot{m}, dimensionless spin parameter, a*, and viewing angle, i. In general, the innermost temperature, Tin, increases with the increase of i for a fixed value of dot{m} and a*, due to the Doppler effect. However, for i > 50° and dot{m}>dot{m}_turn, Tin starts to decrease with the increase of dot{m}. This is a result of self-obscuration - the radiation from the innermost hot part of the disc is blocked by the surrounding cooler part. The value of dot{m}_turn and the corresponding luminosities depend on a* and i. Such obscuration effects cause an interesting behaviour on the disc luminosity (Ldisc)-Tin plane for high inclinations. In addition to the standard disc branch which appears below dot{m}_turn and which obeys L_disc ∝ T_in4 relation, another branch above dot{m}_turn, which is nearly horizontal, may be observed at luminosities close to the Eddington luminosity. We show that these features are likely observed in a Galactic X-ray source, GRS 1915+105. We support a high spin parameter (a* > 0.9) for GRS 1915+105 since otherwise the high value of Tin and small size of the emitting region (rin < 1rS) cannot be explained.

  12. THE VARIABLE NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPART OF THE MICROQUASAR GRS 1758–258

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.

    2014-12-10

    We present a new study of the microquasar system GRS 1758–258 in the near-infrared domain based on archival observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the NICMOS camera. In addition to confirming the near-infrared counterpart pointed out by Muñoz-Arjonilla et al., we show that this object displays significant photometric variability. From its average magnitudes, we also find that GRS 1758–258 fits well within the correlation between the optical/near-infrared and X-ray luminosity known to exist for low-mass, black-hole candidate X-ray binaries in a hard state. Moreover, the spectral energy distribution built using all radio, near-infrared, and X-ray data available closest in time to the NICMOS observations can be reasonably interpreted in terms of a self-absorbed radio jet and an irradiated accretion disk model around a stellar-mass black hole. All these facts match the expected behavior of a compact binary system and strengthen our confidence in the counterpart identification.

  13. Studying Absorption Line Feature in the Relativistic Jet Source GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The galactic superluminal source GRS 1915+105 is among the most interesting objects in our Galaxy. It is subject to erratic accretion instabilities with energization of relativistic jets producing X-ray, optical and radio emission. This source was observed by ASCA on Sept. 27, 1994, April 20, 1995, October 23, 1996 and April 25, 1997 as part of a long timescale investigation. We detected strong variability of the source, and in particular the existence of burst/dip structure in October 1996 and April 1997. Clear evidence of transient absorption features at 6.7, 7.0 and 8.0 keV was obtained for the first time in September 1994 and April 1995. Given the phenomenology of plasmoid energization and ejection, these transient spectral features might be produced by material entrained in the radio jets or in other high-velocity outflows. Our contribution to the interpretation is to incorporate these observations into a overall theoretical picture for GRS 1915+105 also taking into account other observations by XTE and BSAX. The emerging picture is complex. The central source is subject to (most likely) super-Eddington instabilities mediated by magnetic field build-up, reconnection and dissipation in the form of blobs that eventually leads to the formation of transient spectral features from the surrounding of the plasmoid emitting region. A comprehensive theoretical investigation is in progress.

  14. NuSTAR SPECTROSCOPY OF GRS 1915+105: DISK REFLECTION, SPIN, AND CONNECTIONS TO JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.; King, A. L.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Barret, D.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Boggs, S. E.; Tomsick, J. A.; Chakrabarty, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D. K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the results of spectral fits made to a NuSTAR observation of the black hole GRS 1915+105 in a 'plateau' state. This state is of special interest because it is similar to the 'low/hard' state seen in other black holes, especially in that compact, steady jets are launched in this phase. The 3-79 keV bandpass of NuSTAR, and its ability to obtain moderate-resolution spectra free from distortions such as photon pile-up, are extremely well suited to studies of disk reflection in X-ray binaries. In only 15 ks of net exposure, an extraordinarily sensitive spectrum of GRS 1915+105 was measured across the full bandpass. Ionized reflection from a disk around a rapidly spinning black hole is clearly required to fit the spectra; even hybrid Comptonization models including ionized reflection from a disk around a Schwarzschild black hole proved inadequate. A spin parameter of a = 0.98 ± 0.01 (1σ statistical error) is measured via the best-fit model; low spins are ruled out at a high level of confidence. This result suggests that jets can be launched from a disk extending to the innermost stable circular orbit. A very steep inner disk emissivity profile is also measured, consistent with models of compact coronae above Kerr black holes. These results support an emerging association between the hard X-ray corona and the base of the relativistic jet.

  15. Discovery of Photon Index Saturation in the Black Hole Binary GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the correlations between spectral, timing properties and mass accretion rate observed in X-rays from the Galactic Black Hole (BH) binary GRS 1915+105 during the transition between hard and soft states. We analyze all transition episodes from this source observed with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), coordinated with Ryle Radio Telescope (RT) observations. We show that broad-band energy spectra of GRS 1915+105 during all these spectral states can be adequately presented by two Bulk Motion Comptonization (BMC) components: a hard component (BMC1, photon index Gamma(sub 1) = 1.7 -- 3.0) with turnover at high energies and soft thermal component (BMC2, Gamma(sub 2) = 2.7 -- 4.2) with characteristic color temperature < or = 1 keV, and the red-skewed iron line (LAOR) component. We also present observable correlations between the index and the normalization of the disk "seed" component. The use of "seed" disk normalization, which is presumably proportional to mass accretion rate in the disk, is crucial to establish the index saturation effect during the transition to the soft state. We discovered the photon index saturation of the soft and hard spectral components at values of < or approximately equal 4.2 and 3 respectively. We present a physical model which explains the index-seed photon normalization correlations. We argue that the index saturation effect of the hard component (BMC1) is due to the soft photon Comptonization in the converging inflow close to 1311 and that of soft component is due to matter accumulation in the transition layer when mass accretion rate increases. Furthermore we demonstrate a strong correlation between equivalent width of the iron line and radio flux in GRS 1915+105. In addition to our spectral model components we also find a strong feature of "blackbody-like" bump which color temperature is about 4.5 keV in eight observations of the intermediate and soft states. We discuss a possible origin of this "blackbody

  16. Compressive Creep Response of T1000G/RS-14 Graphite/Polycyanate Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The response of a T1000G/RS-14 graphite/polycyanate composite material system to transverse compressive loads is quantified via experimentation. The primary objective of the work was to quantify the effects of process environment and test environment on the T1000G/RS-14 compressive creep response. Tests were conducted on both the neat resin and the composite material system. In addition to the creep tests, static compressive strength tests were conducted to define the stress-strain response. The creep behavior for the RS-14 resin was quantified by conducting a series of tests to study the effects of different process environments (air and nitrogen), different cure temperatures, and different test environments (air and vacuum). The combined effect on the RS-14 resin compressive creep of processing in nitrogen and testing under vacuum versus processing in air and testing in air was a 47% decrease in the creep strain after 2177 hr. The test environment appeared to have a greater effect on the resin creep than the process environment. Following the conclusion of the resin creep tests, composite transverse compressive creep tests were conducted. The composite creep test cylinder was post-cured in a nitrogen environment prior to machining test specimens and all tests were conducted in a vacuum environment. The series of tests investigated the effects of initial stress level and test temperature on the creep behavior. At the end of the 2000-hr tests at 275{degrees}F on specimens stressed at 10,000 psi, the nitrogen-processed and vacuum-tested conditions reduced the composite transverse compressive creep strain by 19% compared to processing in air and testing in air. The effects of process and test environment on the creep behavior are not as great for the composite system as they were for the neat resin, primarily because of the low resin content in the composite material system. At the 275{degrees}F test temperature there was a significant increase in the composite

  17. Detection of beta-class variability in Black Hole source GRS 1915+105 by Astrosat Scanning Sky Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadevi, M. C.; Ravishankar, B. T.; Nandi, Anuj; Girish, V.; Singh, Brajpal; Jain, Anand; Agrawal, Vivek Kumar; Agarwal, Anil; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Seetha, S.; Sharma, M. Ramakrishna; Sharan, Vaishali; Babu, V. C.; Yadav, Reena; Meena, G.; Murthy, N. Sitarama; Kumar; Ashoka, B. N.; Kulkarni, Ravi; Iyer, Nirmal; Radhika, D.; Kushwaha, Ankur; Balaji, K.; Nagesh, G.; Kumar, Manoj; Gaan, Dhruti Ranjan; Kulshresta, Prashanth; Agarwal, Pankaj; Sebastin, Matthew; Rajarajan, A.; Rao, S. V. S. Subba; Pandiyan; R.; Rao, K. Subba; Rao, Chaitra; Sarma, K. Suryanarayana

    2015-10-01

    The Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM) on board ASTROSAT was made operational on October 12th, 2015, the 15th day after launch (September 28th, 2015). After initial observations of the Crab Nebula, on October 14th 2015, the SSM was maneuvered for a stare at the galactic Black Hole source GRS 1915+105.

  18. The NUSTAR view of a QPO evolution of GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Liang; Chen, Li; Bu, Qing-cui; Qu, Jin-lu E-mail: chenli@bnu.edu.cn E-mail: qujl@ihep.ac.cn

    2015-02-01

    We report a timing analysis of the black hole binary GRS 1915+105 with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array Observatory. A strong type-C quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) below 2 Hz appears in the power density spectrum during the whole observation, whose frequency is correlated with the 3–25 keV count rate. The QPO shows a sudden increase in frequency along with an increase in flux and a softening of the spectrum. We discuss the possible origin of the QPO and the reasons that lead to the QPO frequency variation. It is suggested that the reflection component has little influence on QPO frequency and the increase in QPO frequency could be associated with the inward motion of the outer part of the disk.

  19. Accretion Disk Structure in Various Spectral States of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, Ronald

    2000-09-01

    GRS 1915+105 displays 9 types of light curves that fall in 3 categories. In the steady-hard states, the Fe line is strongest, and there is a steady type of jet. In the soft states, the accretion disk dominates the X-ray spectrum, and we often detect the 67 Hz QPO thought to arise from GR effects in the inner disk. The remaining states show a variety of instability oscillations, some producing violent mass ejections. Progress on all fronts requires high resolution spectra to help interpret the disk structure. We have particular interest in the profiles of broad Fe emission, intending to gain physical insights using theoretical models of Nayakshin et al. With monitoring timescales selected to randomize the 9 states, we request 3 obs likely to sample different conditions in the disk.

  20. GRS Method for Uncertainties Evaluation of Parameters in a Prospective Fast Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudov, A.; Andrianova, O.; Raskach, K.; Tsibulya, A.

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies have been devoted to the uncertainty estimation of reactor calculation parameters by the GRS (Generation Random Sampled) method. This method is based on direct sampling input data resulting in formation of random sets of input parameters which are used for multiple calculations. Once these calculations are performed, statistical processing of the calculation results is carried out to determine the mean value and the variance of each calculation parameter of interest. In our study this method is used to estimate the uncertainty of calculation parameters (keff, power density, dose rate) of a prospective sodium-cooled fast reactor. Neutron transport calculations were performed by the nodal diffusion code TRIGEX and Monte Carlo code MMK.

  1. Gemini H-band spectroscopy of the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, O.; Callanan, P.; Reynolds, M.

    2014-07-01

    Since its discovery in 1994 (Castro-Tirado 1994) GRS 1915+105 has become one of the most intensely studied of all the X-ray binaries in the Galaxy. This Galactic microquasar system is unique in that it has remained in outburst for the past 20 years: furthermore, initial measurements suggested a relatively high black hole mass of 14 ± 4 M_{⊙} (Greiner et al. 2001), outside the predicted mass range for such transients (Ozel et al. 2010). Here we present new Gemini H-band observations, and discuss the degree to which they can be used to refine the black hole mass in comparison to more recent estimates (Hurley et al 2013, Steeghs et al 2013). In addition, previous work found phase dependent emission of the CO bandheads in the K-band, and we present evidence of double peaked emission lines, indicative of ongoing mass transfer via the accretion disk.

  2. X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-05-01

    We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color–color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ˜ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ˜ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.

  3. Accretion States of the Galactic Micro Quasar GRS 1758-258

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soria, Roberto; Mehdipour, Missagh; Broderick, Jess W.; Hao, JingFang; Hannikainen, Diana C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a radio and X-ray study of the Galactic micro quasar GRS 1758-258, using unpublished archival data and new observations. We focus in particular on the 2000-2002 state transitions, and on its more quiet behaviour in 2008-2009. Our spectral and timing analysis of the XMM-Newton data shows that the source was in the canonical intermediate, soft and hard states in 2000 September 19,2001 March 22 and 2002 September 28, respectively. We estimate the disk size, luminosity and temperature, which are consistent with a black hole mass approx.10 Solar Mass, There is much overlap between the range of total X-ray luminosities (on average approx. 0.02L(sub Edd)) in the hard and soft states, and probably between the corresponding mass accretion rates; in fact, the hard state is often more luminous. The extended radio lobes seen in 1992 and 1997 are still present in 2008-2009. The 5-GHz radio core flux density has shown variability between approx. 0.1-0.5 mJy over the last two decades. This firmly places GRS 1758-258 in the radio-quiet sequence of Galactic black holes, in the radio/X-ray plane. We note that this dichotomy is similar to the dichotomy between the radio/X-ray sequences of Seyfert and radio galaxies. We propose that the different radio efficiency of the two sequences is due to relativistic electron/positron jets in radio-loud black holes, and sub-relativistic, thermally dominated outflows in radio-quiet sources.

  4. THE NOT-SO-MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE MICROQUASAR GRS1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Steeghs, D.; Parsons, S. G.; McClintock, J. E.; Reid, M. J.; Littlefair, S.; Dhillon, V. S.

    2013-05-10

    We present a new dynamical study of the black hole X-ray transient GRS1915+105 making use of near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope. We detect a large number of donor star absorption features across a wide range of wavelengths spanning the H and K bands. Our 24 epochs covering a baseline of over 1 yr permit us to determine a new binary ephemeris including a refined orbital period of P = 33.85 {+-} 0.16 days. The donor star radial velocity curves deliver a significantly improved determination of the donor semi-amplitude which is both accurate (K{sub 2} = 126 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1}) and robust against choice of donor star template and spectral features used. We furthermore constrain the donor star's rotational broadening to vsin i = 21 {+-} 4 km s{sup -1}, delivering a binary mass ratio of q = 0.042 {+-} 0.024. If we combine these new constraints with distance and inclination estimates derived from modeling the radio emission, a black hole mass of M{sub BH} = 10.1 {+-} 0.6 M{sub Sun} is inferred, paired with an evolved mass donor of M{sub 2} = 0.47 {+-} 0.27 M{sub Sun }. Our analysis suggests a more typical black hole mass for GRS1915+105 rather than the unusually high values derived in the pioneering dynamical study by Greiner et al. Our data demonstrate that high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of obscured accreting binaries can deliver dynamical mass determinations with a precision on par with optical studies.

  5. A Temporal Analysis Indicates a Mildly Relativistic Compact Jet in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Most of our knowledge of the radio morphology and kinematics of X-ray binary partially synchrotron self-absorbed compact jets (hereafter, compact jets) is based on the observations of GRS 1915+105, which has the most prominent compact jet. Yet, the compact jet bulk velocity, v, is poorly constrained in the literature, 0.07\\lt v/c\\lt 0.98. In spite of this uncertainty, compact jets are often unified with relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. We estimated v as part of a temporal analysis of GRS 1915+105 jets in “high plateau states” (HPS). We define HPS as a state showing a hard X-ray spectrum and low level of long-term (\\gt 10 s) X-ray activity associated with 15 GHz flux density \\gt 70 mJy for \\gt 7 consecutive days. The radio emission is associated with compact jet emission. Two HPS were monitored at 15 GHz during their termination with e-folding times of 3.8 and 8.6 hr. We combine this timescale with the scale of the spatial variation of the linear source of a Very Large Baseline Array image preceding the fade of one of these HPS in order to estimate the jet speed. Our assumption that the reduction in radio emissivity propagates as an approximate discontinuity down the HPS jet (leaving a weak jet in its wake) indicates 0.17\\lt v/c\\lt 0.43. This agrees closely with the only other existing v estimates that are derived directly from radio images, jet asymmetry produced by Doppler enhancement.

  6. X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Steady States of GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith S.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James F.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D.; Varnière, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-05-01

    We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within the steady states of GRS1915+105. Our work is based on the full data set of the source obtained using the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and 15 GHz radio data obtained using the Ryle Telescope. The steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separated into two regions in the color-color diagram and we refer to these regions as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS1915+105 displays significant curvature in the coronal component in both the soft and hard data within the RXTE/PCA bandpass. A majority of the steady-soft observations displays a roughly constant inner disk radius ({R}{{in}}), while the steady-hard observations display an evolving disk truncation which is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk. The disk flux and coronal flux are strongly correlated in steady-hard observations and very weakly correlated in the steady-soft observations. Within the steady-hard observations, we observe two particular circumstances when there are correlations between the coronal X-ray flux and the radio flux with log slopes η ˜ 0.68+/- 0.35 and η ˜ 1.12+/- 0.13. They are consistent with the upper and lower tracks of Gallo et al. (2012), respectively. A comparison of the model parameters to the state definitions shows that almost all of the steady-soft observations match the criteria of either a thermal or steep power-law state, while a large portion of the steady-hard observations match the hard-state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected.

  7. THE PHYSICS OF THE 'HEARTBEAT' STATE OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Joseph; Lee, Julia C.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2011-08-20

    We present the first detailed phase-resolved spectral analysis of a joint Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observation of the {rho} variability class in the microquasar GRS 1915+105. The {rho} cycle displays a high-amplitude, double-peaked flare that recurs roughly every 50 s and is sometimes referred to as the 'heartbeat' oscillation. The spectral and timing properties of the oscillation are consistent with the radiation pressure instability and the evolution of a local Eddington limit in the inner disk. We exploit strong variations in the X-ray continuum, iron emission lines, and the accretion disk wind to probe the accretion geometry over nearly six orders of magnitude in distance from the black hole. At small scales (1-10 R{sub g}), we detect a burst of bremsstrahlung emission that appears to occur when a portion of the inner accretion disk evaporates due to radiation pressure. Jet activity, as inferred from the appearance of a short X-ray hard state, seems to be limited to times near minimum luminosity, with a duty cycle of {approx}10%. On larger scales (10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} R{sub g}), we use detailed photoionization arguments to track the relationship between the fast X-ray variability and the accretion disk wind. For the first time, we are able to show that changes in the broadband X-ray spectrum produce changes in the structure and density of the accretion disk wind on timescales as short as 5 s. These results clearly establish a causal link between the X-ray oscillations and the disk wind and therefore support the existence of a disk-jet-wind connection. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the mass-loss rate in the wind may be sufficient to cause long-term oscillations in the accretion rate, leading to state transitions in GRS 1915+105.

  8. A parallax distance to the microquasar GRS 1915+105 and a revised estimate of its black hole mass

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M. J.; McClintock, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Narayan, R.; Steeghs, D.; Remillard, R. A.; Dhawan, V.

    2014-11-20

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have measured a trigonometric parallax for the microquasar GRS 1915+105, which contains a black hole and a K-giant companion. This yields a direct distance estimate of 8.6{sub −1.6}{sup +2.0} kpc and a revised estimate for the mass of the black hole of 12.4{sub −1.8}{sup +2.0} M {sub ☉}. GRS 1915+105 is at about the same distance as some H II regions and water masers associated with high-mass star formation in the Sagittarius spiral arm of the Galaxy. The absolute proper motion of GRS 1915+105 is –3.19 ± 0.03 mas yr{sup –1} and –6.24 ± 0.05 mas yr{sup –1} toward the east and north, respectively, which corresponds to a modest peculiar speed of 22 ± 24 km s{sup –1} at the parallax distance, suggesting that the binary did not receive a large velocity kick when the black hole formed. On one observational epoch, GRS 1915+105 displayed superluminal motion along the direction of its approaching jet. Considering previous observations of jet motions, the jet in GRS 1915+105 can be modeled with a jet inclination to the line of sight of 60° ± 5° and a variable flow speed between 0.65c and 0.81c, which possibly indicates deceleration of the jet at distances from the black hole ≳ 2000 AU. Finally, using our measurements of distance and estimates of black hole mass and inclination, we provisionally confirm our earlier result that the black hole is spinning very rapidly.

  9. Probing the Peculiar Behavior of GRS 1915+105 at Near-Eddington Luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierdayanti, Kiki; Mineshige, Shin; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    To understand the nature of supercritical accretion, we systematically analyzed the RXTE/PCA data of GRS 1915+105 in its quasi-steady states, by choosing data with small variability during 1999-2000. We applied a multicolor disk plus a thermal Comptonization model, and took into consideration accurate interstellar absorption, a reflection component (with an iron-K emission line), and absorption features from the disk wind self-consistently. The total luminosity ranges from ˜0.2LE to slightly above LE. There is a strong correlation between the inner disk temperature and the fraction of the disk component. Most of the Comptonization-dominated (>50% total flux) spectra show Tin ˜ 1 keV with a high electron temperature of >10 keV, which may correspond to the very high state in canonical black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs). In contrast, the disk-dominated spectra have Tin ˜ 2 keV with a low temperature (<10 keV) and optically thick Comptonization, and show two separate branches in the luminosity vs. innermost temperature (L-Tin) diagram. The lower branch clearly follows the L ∝ T4in-track. Furthermore, by applying the extended disk blackbody (or p-free disk) model, we found that 9 out of 12 datasets with disk luminosity above 0.3LE prefer a flatter temperature gradient than that in the standard disk (p < 0.7). We interpret that, in the lower branch, the disk extends down to the innermost stable circular orbit, and the source is most probably in the slim-disk state. A rapidly spinning black hole can explain both the lack of the L ∝ T2in-track and a high value of the spectral hardening factor (˜4) that would be required for a non-rotating black hole. The spectra in the upper branch are consistent with the picture of a truncated disk with low-temperature Comptonization. This state was uniquely observed from GRS 1915+105 among BHBs, which may be present at near-Eddington luminosity.

  10. Testing and performance evaluation of T1000G/RS-14 graphite/polycyanate composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a graphite fiber/polycyanate matrix composite material system, T1000G/RS-14, was evaluated by performing an extensive mechanical property test program. The test program included both static strength and long-term tests for creep, fatigue, and stress rupture. The system was evaluated at both ambient temperature and elevated temperatures. The specimens were machined from composite cylinders that had a unidirectional layup with all the fibers oriented in the hoop direction. The cylinders were fabricated using the wet-filament winding process. In general, the T1000G/RS-14 system demonstrated adequate static strengths for possible aerospace structural applications. The results from the static tests indicated that very high composite hoop tensile strengths can be achieved with this system at both ambient and elevated temperatures as high as 350{degree}F. However, in the long-term testing for compressive creep and tension-tension fatigue the results indicated a lower elevated temperature was required to minimize the risk of using this material system. Additional testing and analysis activities led to the selection of 275{degree}F as the desired temperature for future performance evaluation. Subsequent testing efforts for determining the resin and composite transverse compressive creep responses at 275{degrees}F indicated that excessive creep strain rates may still be a weakness of this system. In the long-term tests, sufficient data was generated from impregnated strand and composite ring stress-life testing, and composite ring tension-tension fatigue to determine failure probabilities for a given set of design requirements. The statistical analyses of the test data, in terms of determining failure probability curves, will be reported on in a separate report. However, it is expected that this material system will have a very low failure probability for stress rupture based on the collected stress-life data. Material responses that will require further

  11. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  12. STOCHASTIC VARIABILITY IN X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLACK HOLE BINARY GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Timashev, Serge F.

    2012-06-15

    We examine stochastic variability in the dynamics of X-ray emission from the black hole system GRS 1915+105, a strongly variable microquasar commonly used for studying relativistic jets and the physics of black hole accretion. The analysis of sample observations for 13 different states in both soft (low) and hard (high) energy bands is performed by flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a phenomenological time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates. We find the values of FNS parameters, including the Hurst exponent, flicker-noise parameter, and characteristic timescales, for each observation based on multiple 2500 s continuous data segments. We identify four modes of stochastic variability driven by dissipative processes that may be related to viscosity fluctuations in the accretion disk around the black hole: random (RN), power-law (1F), one-scale (1S), and two-scale (2S). The variability modes are generally the same in soft and hard energy bands of the same observation. We discuss the potential for future FNS studies of accreting black holes.

  13. Decoding the Heartbeat of GRS1915+105 with NuSTAR and Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Miller, Jon; Harrison, Fiona A.

    2016-07-01

    GRS 1915+105 is a microquasar that shows extreme variability in X-ray, IR and radio bands. It shows disk emission, relativistic jets and strong winds during its different states. We observed this source simultaneously with NuSTAR and Chandra during the heartbeat state, characterized a 50 seconds strong oscillations. The oscillations are likely due to thermal/viscous instability in the inner disk when it deviates significantly from the standard Shakura & Sunyaev disk. Combining the high sensitivity of NuSTAR and the high resolution of Chandra, we use phase spectroscopy to study the details of these oscillation, revealing changes in the inner accretion disk as well as the launching of powerful winds during the oscillations. This is the first time we are able to study the detailed changes in the reflection spectrum from the inner accretion disk, providing unprecedented insights into the geometry and physical processes in action during the oscillations. I will discuss the implications of these results on accretion physics, the thermal instability and the launching mechanism of the wind.

  14. Monitoring the Black Hole Binary GRS 1758-258 with INTEGRAL and RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, Katja; Chernyakova, Masha; Lubinski, Piotr; Migliari, Simone; Smith, David M.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bezayiff, N.; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kretschmar, Peter; Kalemci, Emrah

    2008-01-01

    The microquasar GRS 1758-258 is one of only three persistent black hole binaries that spend most of their time in the hard spectral state, the other two being Cyg X-l and 1E 1741.7-2942. It therefore provides the rare opportunity for an extensive long term study of this important black hole state which is associated with strong variability and radio jet emission. INTEGRAL has been monitoring the source since the first Galactic Center Deep Exposure season in spring 2003 during two 2-3 months long Galactic Center viewing epochs each year, amounting to 11 epochs including spring of 2008. With the exception of the last epoch quasi-simultaneous RXTE monitoring observations are available as well. Here we present an analysis of the epoch averaged broad band spectra which display considerable long term variability, most notably the occurrence of two soft/off states, extreme examples for the hysteretic behavior of black hole binaries. The hard source spectrum and long exposures allow us to extend the analysis for several epochs to approximately 800 keV using PICsIT data and address the question of the presence of a non-thermal Comptonization component.

  15. The Accretion Flow–Discrete Ejection Connection in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Trushkin, Sergei A.

    2016-07-01

    The microquasar GRS 1915+105 is known for its spectacular discrete ejections. They occur unexpectedly, thus their inception has escaped direct observation. It has been shown that the X-ray flux increases in the hours leading up to a major ejection. In this article, we consider the serendipitous interferometric monitoring of a modest version of a discrete ejection described in Reid et al. that would have otherwise escaped detection in daily radio light curves. The observation begins ˜1 hr after the onset of the ejection, providing unprecedented accuracy on the estimate of the ejection time. The astrometric measurements allow us to determine the time of ejection as {{MJD}} {56436.274}-0.013+0.016, i.e., within a precision of 41 minutes (95% confidence). Just like larger flares, we find that the X-ray luminosity increases in last 2–4 hr preceding ejection. Our finite temporal resolution indicates that this elevated X-ray flux persists within {21.8}-19.1+22.6 minutes of the ejection with 95% confidence, the highest temporal precision of the X-ray–superluminal ejection connection to date. This observation provides direct evidence that the physics that launches major flares occurs on smaller scales as well (lower radio flux and shorter ejection episodes). The observation of a X-ray spike prior to a discrete ejection, although of very modest amplitude, suggests that the process linking accretion behavior to ejection is general from the smallest scales to high luminosity major superluminal flares.

  16. Variable-Frequency QPOs from the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Taam, Ronald E.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105 exhibits quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) whose frequency varies continuously from 1-15 Hz, during spectrally hard dips when the source is in a flaring state. NN'e report here analyses of simultaneous energy spectra and power density spectra at 4 s intervals. The energy spectrum is well fit at each time step by an optically thick accretion disk plus power law model, while the power density spectrum consists of a varying red noise component plus the variable frequency QPO. The features of both spectra are strongly correlated with one another. The 1-15 Hz QPOs appear when the power law component becomes hard and intense, and themselves have an energy spectrum consistent with the power law component (with root mean square amplitudes as high as 10%). The frequency of the oscillations, however, is most strikingly correlated with the parameters of the thermal disk component. The tightest correlation is between QPO frequency and the disk X-ray flux. This fact indicates that the properties of the QPO are not determined by solely a disk or solely a corona.

  17. Revelations of X-ray spectral analysis of the enigmatic black hole binary GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith; Remillard, Ronald A.; Steiner, James; Dil Vrtilek, Saeqa; Varniere, Peggy; Rodriguez, Jerome; Pooley, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Of the black hole binaries discovered thus far, GRS 1915+105 stands out as an exceptional source primarily due to its wild X-ray variability, the diversity of which has not been replicated in any other stellar-mass black hole. Although extreme variability is commonplace in its light-curve, about half of the observations of GRS1915+105 show fairly steady X-ray intensity. We report on the X-ray spectral behavior within these steady observations. Our work is based on a vast RXTE/PCA data set obtained on GRS 1915+105 during the course of its entire mission and 10 years of radio data from the Ryle Telescope, which overlap the X-ray data. We find that the steady observations within the X-ray data set naturally separate into two regions in a color-color diagram, which we refer to as steady-soft and steady-hard. GRS 1915+105 displays significant curvature in the Comptonization component within the PCA band pass suggesting significantly heating from a hot disk present in all states. A new Comptonization model 'simplcut' was developed in order to model this curvature to best effect. A majority of the steady-soft observations display a roughly constant inner radius; remarkably reminiscent of canonical soft state black hole binaries. In contrast, the steady-hard observations display a growing disk truncation that is correlated to the mass accretion rate through the disk, which suggests a magnetically truncated disk. A comparison of X-ray model parameters to the canonical state definitions show that almost all steady-soft observations match the criteria of either thermal or steep power law state, while the thermal state observations dominate the constant radius branch. A large portion (80%) of the steady-hard observations matches the hard state criteria when the disk fraction constraint is neglected. These results suggest that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states, which map to those observed in canonical black hole binaries. When

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN X-RAY LUMINOSITY AND MAJOR FLARE LAUNCHING IN GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jerome E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com

    2013-02-20

    We perform the most detailed analysis to date of the X-ray state of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 just prior to (0-4 hr) and during the brief (1-7 hr) ejection of major (superluminal) radio flares. A very strong model independent correlation is found between the 1.2 keV-12 keV X-ray flux 0-4 hr before flare ejections with the peak optically thin 2.3 GHz emission of the flares. This suggests a direct physical connection between the energy in the ejection and the luminosity of the accretion flow preceding the ejection. In order to quantify this concept, we develop techniques to estimate the intrinsic (unabsorbed) X-ray luminosity, L {sub intrinsic}, from RXTE All Sky Monitor data and to implement known methods to estimate the time-averaged power required to launch the radio emitting plasmoids, Q (sometimes called jet power). We find that the distribution of intrinsic luminosity from 1.2 keV-50 keV, L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50), is systematically elevated just before ejections compared to arbitrary times when there are no major ejections. The estimated Q is strongly correlated with L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) 0-4 hr before the ejection, the increase in L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) in the hours preceding the ejection and the time-averaged L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) during the flare rise. Furthermore, the total time-averaged power during the ejection (Q + the time average of L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) during ejection) is strongly correlated with L {sub intrinsic} (1.2-50) just before launch with near equality if the distance to the source is Almost-Equal-To 10.5 kpc.

  19. CHARACTERIZING THE RADIO-X-RAY CONNECTION IN GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Prat, L.; Rodriguez, J.

    2010-07-10

    We analyzed radio and X-ray observations of GRS 1915+105, between 1995 May and 2006 June, focusing on the times characterized by radio flares and cycles of hard dips-soft spikes in the X-ray light curve. Assuming these flares to be discrete ejections, we applied a plasmon model to the radio data, with good agreement with the light curves. We fitted a total of 687 radio flares with a standard model of a plasmon. We found that the distribution of width is t{sub 0} = 1160 s with an rms deviation of 360 s, while that of the amplitude is S {sub max} = 59 mJy with an rms deviation of 28 mJy. The distribution of width is thus rather peaked, while that of the amplitude is not. Regarding radio and X-ray links, this study confirms previous observations on smaller data sets, namely that X-ray cycles of hard dips-soft spikes are always followed by radio flares. A strong correlation is found between the length of X-ray 'dips' in the X-ray light curves and the amplitude and fluence of the subsequent radio oscillations. A model of an exponential rise of the form L{sub 15GHz}({Delta}t) = L {sub max}(1 - exp(-({Delta}t - {Delta}t{sub min})/{tau}) is in good agreement with the observations, with the maximum fluence L{sub max} on the order of 70 Jy s, and the characteristic time {tau} on the order of 200-500 s. We discuss possible physical interpretations of this correlation, regarding the nature of the ejected material and the physical process responsible for the ejection.

  20. Rings in the RXTE/2-colour diagram of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhu, Osmi; Nevalainen, Jukka

    1998-05-01

    The Galactic superluminal source GRS 1915+105 was found to experience a very peculiar variability in a narrow PCA interval 9300 - 11300 cts/s. This can be seen as a ring-shaped pattern in the 2-colour diagram, where the hard hardness is plotted against the soft hardness. The system runs one cycle with quasi-periods ranging between 40 - 100 sec. We model this behaviour with the help of a self-consistent 2-phase model where soft seed photons from an optically thick classical disc are Comptonized in a hot spherical flow inside this disc (see Poutanen and Svensson, 1996, ApJ 470, 249; Vilhu et al. 1997, 4th Compton Symp., astro-ph 9707094). In the model, changes of two parameters regulate the paths in the 2-colour diagram: the black body temperature (Tin) at the inner disc and the optical depth of the hot phase (tau_e ). Both of these oscillate with the same period but with a small phase-shift between each other, causing the ring-shaped pattern. Since there is a strong correlation between tau_e and the hard tail photon index alpha (large tau_e - small alpha ), the model can be compared with other studies using other sets of observations and diskbb + power law modelling. We found that our model produced qualitatively the same behaviour of Tin and alpha as found by Belloni et al. (1997, ApJ, 479, L145) and by Craig Markwardt (1997, private comm.) for their particular observations. A more detailed spectral fitting is in progress, after which the reason for the ring behaviour can be better discussed in terms of the inner disc radius, mass transfer rate and the coronal (hot phase) temperature and density. 'What do they tell and what is the spell they cast? Some of them fall and seem to recall the past.' (Smoke Rings by Ned Washington and H. Eugene Gifford)

  1. RADIATION PRESSURE AND MASS EJECTION IN {rho}-LIKE STATES OF GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Joseph; Remillard, Ronald A.; Lee, Julia C.

    2012-05-01

    We present a unifying scenario to address the physical origin of the diversity of X-ray light curves within the {rho} variability class of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. This 'heartbeat' state is characterized by a bright flare that recurs every {approx}50-100 s, but the profile and duration of the flares vary significantly from observation to observation. Based on a comprehensive, phase-resolved study of heartbeats in the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer archive, we demonstrate that very different X-ray light curves do not require origins in different accretion processes. Indeed, our detailed comparison of the phase-resolved spectra of a double-peaked oscillation and a single-peaked oscillation shows that different cycles can have basically similar X-ray spectral evolution. We argue that all heartbeat oscillations can be understood as the result of a combination of a thermal-viscous radiation pressure instability, a local Eddington limit in the disk, and a sudden, radiation-pressure-driven evaporation or ejection event in the inner accretion disk. This ejection appears to be a universal, fundamental part of the {rho} state, and is largely responsible for a hard X-ray pulse seen in the light curve of all cycles. We suggest that the detailed shape of oscillations in the mass accretion rate through the disk is responsible for the phenomenological differences between different {rho}-type light curves, and we discuss how future time-dependent simulations of disk instabilities may provide new insights into the role of radiation pressure in the accretion flow.

  2. Peculiar lapse of periodic eclipsing event at low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1747-312 during Suzaku observation in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saji, Shigetaka; Mori, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Hironori; Dotani, Tadayasu; Iwai, Masachika; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ozaki, Masanobu; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2016-06-01

    GRS 1747-312 is a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary in the globular cluster Terzan 6, located at a distance of 9.5 kpc from the Earth. During its outbursts, periodic eclipses were known to occur. Observations for the outbursts were performed with Chandra in 2004 and Swift in 2013. XMM-Newton observed its quiescent state in 2004. In addition, when Suzaku observed it in 2009 as a part of Galactic center mapping observations, GRS 1747-312 was found to be in a low-luminosity state with Lx ˜ 1.2 × 1035 erg s-1. All of the observations except for XMM-Newton included the time of the eclipses predicted. We analyzed archival data of these observations. During the Chandra and Swift observations, we found clear flux decreases at the expected time of the eclipses. During the Suzaku observation, however, there were no clear signs for the predicted eclipses. The lapse of the predicted eclipses during the Suzaku observation can be explained by a contaminant source quite close to GRS 1747-312. When GRS 1747-312 is in the quiescent state, we observe X-rays from the contaminant source rather than from GRS 1747-312. However, we have no clear evidence for the contaminant source in our data. The lapse might also be explained by thick material (NH > 1024 cm-2) between the neutron star and the companion star, though the origin of the thick material is not clear.

  3. Detection of a Relativistic Outflow from the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Hard State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Mark; Miller, Jon; Cackett, Edward; King, Ashley

    2016-07-01

    Outflows in the form of collimated jets and wider angle winds are observed ubiquitously from accreting systems. Herein, we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the persistent Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 at a luminosity of ˜1% L_{Edd}. Spectral analysis reveals the presence of an absorption feature at an energy of ˜7.5 keV, consistent with the presence of a relativistic outflow (v ˜0.1c). Photo-ionization modeling with XSTAR finds this wind to be highly ionized consistent with absorption by Fe XXVI at a distance of ˜2700 R_g from the black hole. This is the highest velocity wind detected from a stellar mass black hole accretion flow to date, and represents the first detection of a photo-ionized outflow in the hard spectral state, demonstrating the persistent of the wind outflow mechanism down to luminosities of at least 1% L_{Edd}.

  4. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the Galactic Microquasar GRS 1758-258 in the Peculiar Off/Soft State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Wunands, R.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M.; Ferrando, P.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goldwurm, A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Pooley, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observation of the black hole candidate and Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258. The source entered a peculiar "off/soft" state in 2001 late February in which the spectrum softened while the X-ray flux-and the inferred mass accretion rate-steadily decreased. We find no clear evidence for emission or absorption lines in the dispersed spectra, indicating that most of the observed soft flux is likely from an accretion disk and not from a cool plasma. The accretion disk strongly dominates the spectrum in this lower luminosity state and is only mildly recessed from the marginally stable orbit. These findings may be di8licult to explain in terms of advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. We discuss these results within the context of ADAF models, simultaneous two-flow models, and observed correlations between hard X-ray flux and jet production.

  5. Application of GRS method to evaluation of uncertainties of calculation parameters of perspective sodium-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Peregudov, A.; Andrianova, O.; Raskach, K.; Tsibulya, A.

    2012-07-01

    A number of recent studies have been devoted to the estimation of errors of reactor calculation parameters by the GRS (Generation Random Sampled) method. This method is based on direct sampling input data resulting in formation of random sets of input parameters which are used for multiple calculations. Once these calculations are performed, statistical processing of the calculation results is carried out to determine the mean value and the variance of each calculation parameter of interest. In our study this method is used for estimation of errors of calculation parameters (K{sub eff}, power density, dose rate) of a perspective sodium-cooled fast reactor. Neutron transport calculations were performed by the nodal diffusion code TRIGEX and Monte Carlo code MMK. (authors)

  6. Low-Frequency Coherence Break in the Soft X-Ray State of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Shuang-nan; Qu, Jin-Lu; Li, Ti-Pei

    2003-01-01

    We present results from the analysis of X-ray power density spectra and coherence when GRS 1915+105 is in soft states. We use three data sets that belong to mu, phi, and delta classes as found in the work of Belloni et al. We find that the power density spectra appear t o be complex, with several features between 0.01 and 10 Hz. The coherence deviates from unity above a characteristic frequency. We discuss our results from different models. The corona size in the sphere-disk model implied by this break frequency is on the order of 10(exp 4) GM/c(exp 2), which is unphysical. Our results are more consistent with the prediction of the model of a planar corona sustained by magnetic flares, in which the characteristic frequency is associated with the longest timescale of an individual flare, which is about 8 s.

  7. NuSTAR Observation of a Type I X-Ray Burst from GRS 1741.9-2853

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Bachetti, Matteo; Boggs, Steven E.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-02-01

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 1034 erg s-1 on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 1035 erg s-1 in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H mass fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M ⊙, we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M ⊙.

  8. FAST X-RAY/IR CROSS-CORRELATIONS AND RELATIVISTIC JET FORMATION IN GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.

    2013-10-01

    We present cross-correlation analyses of simultaneous X-ray and near-infrared (near-IR) observations of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 during relativistic jet-producing epochs (X-ray class α and β). While previous studies have linked the large amplitude IR flares and X-ray behaviors to jet formation in these states, our new analyses are sensitive to much lower amplitude IR variability, providing more sensitive probes of the jet formation process. The X-ray to IR cross-correlation function (CCF) shows significant correlations that vary in form between the different X-ray states. During low/hard dips in both classes, we find no significant X-ray/IR correlation. During high-variability epochs, we find consistently significant correlations in both α and β classes, but with strong differences in the CCF structure. The high variability α CCF shows strong anti-correlation between X-ray/IR, with the X-ray preceding the IR by ∼13 ± 2 s. The high variability β state shows a time-variable CCF structure, which is statistically significant but without a clearly consistent lag. Our simulated IR light curves, designed to match the observed CCFs, show variably flickering IR emission during the class β high-variability epoch, while class α can be fit by IR flickering with frequencies in the range 0.1-0.3 Hz, strengthening ∼10 s after every X-ray subflare. We interpret these features in the context of the X-ray-emitting accretion disk and IR emission from relativistic jet formation in GRS 1915+105, concluding that the CCF analysis places the origin in a synchrotron-emitting relativistic compact jet at a distance from the compact object of ∼0.02 AU.

  9. NuSTAR OBSERVATION OF A TYPE I X-RAY BURST FROM GRS 1741.9-2853

    SciTech Connect

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Bachetti, Matteo; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-02-01

    We report on two NuSTAR observations of GRS 1741.9-2853, a faint neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binary burster located 10' away from the Galactic center. NuSTAR detected the source serendipitously as it was emerging from quiescence: its luminosity was 6 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} on 2013 July 31 and 5 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1} in a second observation on 2013 August 3. A bright, 800 s long, H-triggered mixed H/He thermonuclear Type I burst with mild photospheric radius expansion (PRE) was present during the second observation. Assuming that the luminosity during the PRE was at the Eddington level, an H mass fraction X = 0.7 in the atmosphere, and an NS mass M = 1.4 M {sub ☉}, we determine a new lower limit on the distance for this source of 6.3 ± 0.5 kpc. Combining with previous upper limits, this places GRS 1741.9-2853 at a distance of 7 kpc. Energy independent (achromatic) variability is observed during the cooling of the NS, which could result from the disturbance of the inner accretion disk by the burst. The large dynamic range of this burst reveals a long power-law decay tail. We also detect, at a 95.6% confidence level (1.7σ), a narrow absorption line at 5.46 ± 0.10 keV during the PRE phase of the burst, reminiscent of the detection by Waki et al. We propose that the line, if real, is formed in the wind above the photosphere of the NS by a resonant Kα transition from H-like Cr gravitationally redshifted by a factor 1 + z = 1.09, corresponding to a radius range of 29.0-41.4 km for a mass range of 1.4-2.0 M {sub ☉}.

  10. PRIMED: PRIMEr database for deleting and tagging all fission and budding yeast genes developed using the open-source genome retrieval script (GRS).

    PubMed

    Cummings, Michael T; Joh, Richard I; Motamedi, Mo

    2015-01-01

    The fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) yeasts have served as excellent models for many seminal discoveries in eukaryotic biology. In these organisms, genes are deleted or tagged easily by transforming cells with PCR-generated DNA inserts, flanked by short (50-100 bp) regions of gene homology. These PCR reactions use especially designed long primers, which, in addition to the priming sites, carry homology for gene targeting. Primer design follows a fixed method but is tedious and time-consuming especially when done for a large number of genes. To automate this process, we developed the Python-based Genome Retrieval Script (GRS), an easily customizable open-source script for genome analysis. Using GRS, we created PRIMED, the complete PRIMEr D atabase for deleting and C-terminal tagging genes in the main S. pombe and five of the most commonly used S. cerevisiae strains. Because of the importance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in many biological processes, we also included the deletion primer set for these features in each genome. PRIMED are accurate and comprehensive and are provided as downloadable Excel files, removing the need for future primer design, especially for large-scale functional analyses. Furthermore, the open-source GRS can be used broadly to retrieve genome information from custom or other annotated genomes, thus providing a suitable platform for building other genomic tools by the yeast or other research communities.

  11. Similarilies in accretion dynamics in IGR J17091-3624 and GRS 1915+105 as revealed by the study of Comptonizing Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathi Pal, Partha; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Variability classes in the enigmatic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 are known to be correlated with the variation of the Comptonizing Efficiency (CE) which is defined to be the ratio between the number of power-law (hard) photons and seed (soft) photons injected into the Compton cloud. Similarities of light curves of several variability classes of GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, some of which are already reported in the literature, motivated us to compute CE for IGR J17091-3624 as well. We find that they are similar to what were reported earlier for GRS 1915+105, even though masses of these objects could be different. The reason is that the both the sizes of the sources of the seed photons and of the Comptonizing corona scale in the same way as the mass of the black hole. This indicates that characterization of variability classes based on CE is likely to be black hole mass independent, in general.

  12. Evidence of elevated X-ray absorption before and during major flare ejections in GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Punsly, Brian; Rodriguez, Jérôme

    2014-03-10

    We present time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 with the MAXI observatory in order to study the accretion state just before and during the ejections associated with its major flares. Radio monitoring with the RATAN-600 radio telescope from 4.8-11.2 GHz has revealed two large, steep-spectrum major flares in the first eight months of 2013. Since the RATAN has received one measurement per day, we cannot determine the jet-forming time without more information. Fortunately, this is possible since a distinct X-ray light curve signature that occurs preceding and during major ejections has been determined in an earlier study. The X-ray luminosity spikes to very high levels in the hours before ejection, then becomes variable (with a nearly equal X-ray luminosity when averaged over the duration of the ejection) during a brief 3-8 hr ejection process. By comparing this X-ray behavior with MAXI light curves, we can estimate the beginning and end of the ejection episode of the strong 2013 flares to within ∼3 hr. Using this estimate in conjunction with time-resolved spectroscopy from the data in the MAXI archives allows us to deduce that the X-ray absorbing hydrogen column density increases significantly in the hours preceding the ejections and remains elevated during the ejections responsible for the major flares. This finding is consistent with an outflowing wind or enhanced accretion at high latitudes.

  13. The 67 Hz Feature in the Black Hole Candidate GRS 1915+105 as a Possible Diskoseismic Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wagoner, Robert V.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Lehr, Dana E.

    1997-01-01

    The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer has made feasible for the first time the search for high-frequency (greater than or equal to 100 Hz) periodic features in Black Hole Candidate (BHC) systems. Such a feature, with a 67 Hz frequency, recently has been discovered in the BHC GRS 1915+105 (Morgan, Remillard, & Greiner). This feature is weak (rms variability approx. 0.3%-1.6%), stable in frequency (to within approx. 2 Hz) despite appreciable luminosity fluctuations, and narrow (quality factor Q approx. 20). Several of these properties are what one expects for a 'diskoseismic' g-mode in an accretion disk about a 10.6 M(solar mass) (nonrotating) to 36.3 M(solar mass) (maximally rotating) black hole (if we are observing the fundamental-mode frequency). We explore this possibility by considering the expected luminosity modulation, as well as possible excitation and growth mechanisms-including turbulent excitation, damping, and 'negative' radiation damping. We conclude that a diskoseismic interpretation of the observations is viable.

  14. Comparison of time/phase lags in the hard state and plateau state of GRS 1915+105

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Misra, Ranjeev; Uttley, Phil

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the complex behavior of energy- and frequency-dependent time/phase lags in the plateau state and the radio-quiet hard (χ) state of GRS 1915+105. In our timing analysis, we find that when the source is faint in the radio, quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are observed above 2 Hz and typically exhibit soft lags (soft photons lag hard photons), whereas QPOs in the radio-bright plateau state are found below 2.2 Hz and consistently show hard lags. The phase lag at the QPO frequency is strongly anti-correlated with that frequency, changing sign at 2.2 Hz. However, the phase lag at the frequency of the first harmonic is positive and nearly independent of that frequency at ∼0.172 rad, regardless of the radio emission. The lag energy dependence at the first harmonic is also independent of radio flux. However, the lags at the QPO frequency are negative at all energies during the radio-quiet state, but lags at the QPO frequency during the plateau state are positive at all energies and show a 'reflection-type' evolution of the lag energy spectra with respect to the radio-quiet state. The lag energy dependence is roughly logarithmic, but there is some evidence for a break around 4-6 keV. Finally, the Fourier-frequency-dependent phase lag spectra are fairly flat during the plateau state, but increase from negative to positive during the radio-quiet state. We discuss the implications of our results in light of some generic models.

  15. Properties of unique hard X-ray dips observed from GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091–3624 and their implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Pandey, S. K.

    2013-11-20

    We report a comprehensive study on spectral and timing properties of hard X-ray dips uniquely observed in some so-called variability classes of the micro-quasars GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091–3624. These dips are characterized by a sudden decline in the 2.0-60.0 keV X-ray intensity by a factor of 4-12 simultaneous with the increase in hardness ratio by a factor of 2-4. Using 31 observations of GRS 1915+105 with RXTE/PCA, we show that different behaviors are observed in different types of variability classes, and we find that a dichotomy is observed between classes with abrupt transitions versus those with smoother evolution. For example, both energy-lag spectra and frequency-lag spectra of hard X-ray dips in classes with abrupt transitions and shorter dip intervals show hard-lag (hard photons lag soft photons), while both lag spectra during hard dips in classes with smoother evolution and longer dip intervals show soft-lag. Both lag time-scales are of the order of 100-600 mS. We also show that timing and spectral properties of hard X-ray dips observed in light curves of IGR J17091–3624 during its 2011 outburst are consistent with the properties of the abrupt transitions in GRS 1915+105 rather than smooth evolutions. A global correlation between the X-ray intensity cycle time and hard dip time is observed for both abrupt and smooth transition which may be due to two distinct physical processes whose time-scales are eventually correlated. We discuss implications of our results in the light of some generic models.

  16. Long-term Multi-wavelength Studies of GRS 1915+105. I. A High-energy and Mid-infrared Focus with RXTE/INTEGRAL and Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahoui, F.; Chaty, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Fuchs, Y.; Mirabel, I. F.; Pooley, G. G.

    2010-06-01

    To date, mid-infrared properties of Galactic black hole binaries have barely been investigated in the framework of multi-wavelength campaigns. Yet, studies in this spectral domain are crucial to get complementary information on the presence of dust and/or on the physical processes such as dust heating and thermal bremsstrahlung. Here, we report a long-term multi-wavelength study of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. On the one hand, we aimed at understanding the origins of the mid-infrared emission, and on the other hand, at searching for correlation with the high-energy and/or radio activities. We observed the source at several epochs between 2004 and 2006 with the photometer IRAC and spectrometer IRS, both mounted on the Spitzer Space Telescope. When available, we completed our set of data with quasi-simultaneous RXTE/INTEGRAL high-energy and/or Ryle radio observations from public archives. We then studied the mid-infrared environment and activities of GRS 1915+105 through spectral analysis and broadband fitting of its radio to X-ray spectral energy distributions. We detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in all but one IRS spectra of GRS 1915+105 which unambiguously proves the presence of a dust component, likely photoionized by the high-energy emission. We also argue that this dust is distributed in a disk-like structure heated by the companion star, as observed in some Herbig Ae/Be and isolated cool giant stars. Moreover, we show that some of the soft X-ray emission emanating from the inner regions of the accretion disk is reprocessed and thermalized in the outer part. This leads to a mid-infrared excess that is very likely correlated to the soft X-ray emission. We exclude thermal bremsstrahlung as contributing significantly in this spectral domain.

  17. Búsqueda de emisión transitoria de radiación gamma de TeV proveniente del microcuasar GRS1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Fegan, S.; Weekes, T. C.

    GRS 1915+105 is a transient source that has been detected at X, IR, and radio wavelength. The radio flares in this source are connected with ejection of clouds with relativistic electrons and magnetic fields that could give enough energy to the available radio photons to reach TeV energies. It is speculated that, for given conditions, this source would emit gamma radiation right after these ejections, a few days before the cloud became transparent to radio, this is, before a pick occurs at radio wavelengths. The predicted TeV radiation can be observed from the ground by Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes, like the 10 meter aperture telescope at Whipple Observatory, in Arizona, USA. GRS 1915+105 has been observed by this observatory since its discovery in 1994, with negative results. However, it was never observed in correlation with periods of activity in radio. As an attempt to confirm the theoretical predictions, we have observed GRS 1915+105 during its radio active stages in 1998, 1999 and 2002. For reasons related to the Cerenkov Technique, the telescope's duty cycle is only 10% which prevented us to regularly follow the source during the whole active stages as we planned. Nevertheless, one single relatively short observation was made exactly when theory predicts TeV emission, approximately two days before the radio emission of April 28th, 1998; this observation gave a 3.1 σ significance which can be considered an indication of gamma ray flux. Confirmation of this marginal result could be possible with the new generation Cerenkov arrays (like VERITAS), which have lower energy thresholds and one order of magnitude higher sensitivities than present single telescopes.

  18. Two-Phase Modeling of the Rings in the RXTE Two-Color Diagram of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhu, Osmi; Nevalainen, Jukka

    1998-11-01

    The Galactic superluminal source GRS 1915+105 was found to experience a peculiar X-ray variability in a narrow count rate range (9300-12,100 counts s-1, 5 PCUs) of the Proportional Counter Array on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. This can be seen as a ring-shaped pattern in the two-color diagram of count rates, where the hard hardness F(13-40 keV)/F(2-13 keV) is plotted against the soft hardness F(5-13 keV)/F(2-5 keV). The system runs one cycle with periods ranging between 50 and 100 s for different observations, one rotation in the two-color diagram corresponding to the time between two contiguous maxima in the light curve. We model this behavior successfully with the help of a self-consistent two-phase thermal model in which seed photons from an optically thick classical disk are Comptonized in a hot spherical corona surrounding the inner disk (Poutanen & Svensson; Vilhu et al.; Nevalainen et al.). In the model, changes of two parameters regulate the paths in the two-color diagram: the blackbody temperature Tin of the inner disk and the Thomson optical depth multiplied by the electron temperature of the hot phase τTe. These parameters oscillate with time but with a phase shift between each other, causing the ring-shaped pattern. During the observation studied in more detail (20402-01-30-00), the inner disk radius varied with a 97 s period between 20 and 35 km with an anticorrelation between the coronal τTe and the mass accretion rate Ṁ through the disk, possibly indicating a coupling between the disk and coronal accretion. During a typical cycle, the inner disk radius rapidly shrank and returned more slowly back to the original larger value. In the rings we may see phenomena close to the black hole horizon under near Eddington accretion rates.

  19. A low-order coupled chemistry meteorology model for testing online and offline data assimilation schemes: L95-GRS (v1.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussaire, J.-M.; Bocquet, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bocquet and Sakov (2013) introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of the chaotic Lorenz-95 (L95) model, which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with the transport of a tracer species advected by this zonal wind field. This model, named L95-T, can serve as a playground for testing data assimilation schemes with an online model. Here, the tracer part of the model is extended to a reduced photochemistry module. This coupled chemistry meteorology model (CCMM), the L95-GRS (generic reaction set) model, mimics continental and transcontinental transport and the photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. Its numerical implementation is described. The model is shown to reproduce the major physical and chemical processes being considered. L95-T and L95-GRS are specifically designed and useful for testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS), which combines the best of ensemble and variational methods. These models provide useful insights prior to the implementation of data assimilation methods into larger models. We illustrate their use with data assimilation schemes on preliminary yet instructive numerical experiments. In particular, online and offline data assimilation strategies can be conveniently tested and discussed with this low-order CCMM. The impact of observed chemical species concentrations on the wind field estimate can be quantitatively assessed. The impacts of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical species non-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the data assimilation strategies are illustrated.

  20. THE CHALLENGE OF CIEMAT INTERNAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE FOR ACCREDITATION ACCORDING TO ISO/IEC 17025 STANDARD, FOR IN VIVO AND IN VITRO MONITORING AND DOSE ASSESSMENT OF INTERNAL EXPOSURES.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Martin, R; Hernandez, C; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T; Perez, B; Sierra, I

    2016-09-01

    The accreditation of an Internal Dosimetry Service (IDS) according to ISO/IEC 17025 Standard is a challenge. The aim of this process is to guarantee the technical competence for the monitoring of radionuclides incorporated in the body and for the evaluation of the associated committed effective dose E(50). This publication describes the main accreditation issues addressed by CIEMAT IDS regarding all the procedures involving good practice in internal dosimetry, focussing in the difficulties to ensure the traceability in the whole process, the appropriate calculation of detection limit of measurement techniques, the validation of methods (monitoring and dose assessments), the description of all the uncertainty sources and the interpretation of monitoring data to evaluate the intake and the committed effective dose. PMID:26433182

  1. Alternating Lags of QPO Harmonics: A Generic Model and its Application to the 67 mHz QPO of GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Ranjeev; Mandal, Soma

    2013-12-01

    A generic model for alternating lags in quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) harmonics is presented where variations in the photon spectrum are caused by oscillations in two parameters that characterize the spectrum. It is further assumed that variations in one of the parameters are linearly driven by variations in the other after a time delay td . It is shown that alternating lags will be observed for a range of td values. A phenomenological model based on this generic one is developed that can explain the amplitude and phase lag variation with energy of the fundamental and the next three harmonics of the 67 mHz QPO observed in GRS 1915+105. The phenomenological model also predicts the variation of the Bicoherence phase with energy, which can be checked by further analysis of the observational data.

  2. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE MICROQUASARS CYGNUS X-1, CYGNUS X-3, GRS 1915+105, AND GX 339–4 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Pooley, Guy G.

    2013-10-01

    Detecting gamma-rays from microquasars is a challenging but worthwhile endeavor for understanding particle acceleration and the jet mechanism and for constraining leptonic/hadronic emission models. We present results from a likelihood analysis on timescales of 1 day and 10 days of ∼4 yr worth of gamma-ray observations (0.1-10 GeV) by Fermi-LAT of Cyg X-1, Cyg X-3, GRS 1915+105, and GX 339–4. Our analysis reproduced all but one of the previous gamma-ray outbursts of Cyg X-3 as reported with Fermi or AGILE, plus five new days on which Cyg X-3 is detected at a significance of ∼5σ that are not reported in the literature. In addition, Cyg X-3 is significantly detected on 10 day timescales outside of known gamma-ray flaring epochs, which suggests that persistent gamma-ray emission from Cyg X-3 has been detected for the first time. For Cyg X-1 we find three low-significance excesses (∼3-4σ) on daily timescales that are contemporaneous with gamma-ray flares reported (also at low significance) by AGILE. Two other microquasars, GRS 1915+105 and GX 339–4, are not detected, and we derive 3σ upper limits of 2.3 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} and 1.6 × 10{sup –8} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, respectively, on the persistent flux in the 0.1-10 GeV range. These results enable us to define a list of the general conditions that are necessary for the detection of gamma-rays from microquasars.

  3. The discovery and modeling of energy dependent time-lags and fractional RMS of heartbeat state in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Mubashir; Iqbal, Naseer; Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    We report the discovery and modeling of enigmatic Energy dependent time-lags and fractional RMS of the heartbeat state in GRS 1915+105. The time-lags reveal the crucial information related to geometry of accretion flow, the emission regions and the relation between various spectral parameters. The lag and frms at the fundamental frequency show non-monotonic behavior with energy. The lag increases up to typically ˜10 keV and later shows a reversal and in some observations becomes hard(negative). However, the lags at the harmonic increase with energy and don't show any turn around at least till ˜20 keV. The frms at harmonic has similar non-monotonic behavior as at fundamental, however the variability amplitude is lesser as expected. The lag seen here can have magnitude of the order of seconds, and thus can't be accounted by light travel time effects or comptonization delays. The continuum X-ray spectra can roughly be described by a disk blackbody and a hard X-ray power-law component and from phase resolved spectroscopy it has been shown that the inner disk radius varies during the oscillation We propose the model based on the delayed response of inner disc (DRIOD) radius to the outer accretion rate i;e r_{in}(t)∝ dot{m}^β (t-τ_d). The fluctuating accretion rate varies the inner disk after a certain time delay t_d which could be of the order of the viscous propagation delays. The model very well explains the observed shape and nature of lags and frms at fundamental and harmonic frequencies. We present here the series of observations that constrain the four free parameters of our model. These parameters contain the vital information related to the nature of accretion flow in a highly periodic state like a heartbeat state.

  4. A model for the energy-dependent time-lag and rms of the heartbeat oscillations in GRS 1915+105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Mubashir Hamid; Misra, Ranjeev; Pahari, Mayukh; Iqbal, Naseer; Ahmad, Naveel

    2016-04-01

    Energy-dependent phase lags reveal crucial information about the causal relation between various spectral components and about the nature of the accretion geometry around the compact objects. The time-lag and the fractional root mean square (rms) spectra of GRS 1915+105 in its heartbeat oscillation class/ρ state show peculiar behaviour at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies where the lags at the fundamental show a turn around at ˜10 keV, while the lags at the harmonic do not show any turn around at least till ˜20 keV. The magnitude of lags is of the order of few seconds and hence cannot be attributed to the light travel time effects or Comptonization delays. The continuum X-ray spectra can roughly be described by a disc blackbody and a hard X-ray power-law component and from phase-resolved spectroscopy, it has been shown that the inner disc radius varies during the oscillation. Here, we propose that there is a delayed response of the inner disc radius to the accretion rate such that r_{in}(t)∝ dot{m}^β (t-τ_d). The fluctuating accretion rate drives the oscillations of the inner radius after a time delay τd while the power-law component responds immediately. We show that in such a scenario a pure sinusoidal oscillation of the accretion rate can explain not only the shape and magnitude of energy-dependent rms and time-lag spectra at the fundamental, but also the next harmonic with just four free parameters.

  5. Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) AN/PAS-13 diffractive optics designed for producibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. Steven; Chen, Chungte W.; Spande, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    The Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) program is a manportable 3-5 micrometer forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) rifle sight. The manportable nature requires that the optics modules be lightweight, low cost and compact while maximizing performance. These objectives were met with diffractive optics. TWS promises to be the first FLIR sensor to incorporate kinoform surfaces in full scale production.

  6. Cloaked Attribution--What Does It Mean to News Readers? ANPA News Research Bulletin. No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Hugh M.; Somerick, Nancy

    A study was conducted to determine how people react to unnamed or veiled news sources in newspaper articles. A group of 283 persons, chosen at random from three contrasting communities, was asked to read two articles dealing with different topics, one with sources quoted by name and one with euphemisms ("a White House spokesman,""a city official")…

  7. The Newspaper Editor As Graphic Strategist. ANPA News Research Report No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Mario R.

    This report discusses the graphic strategies available to editors for positioning the day's news. The purposes of the report are: (1) to introduce those in charge of designing the newspaper page to the structural approach to design (the structural approach is defined as incorporating horizontal and vertical structures in the available spaces,…

  8. Putting Research Findings to Work. ANPA News Research Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauro, John B.; Bonney, Christopher F.

    Twenty-six American Newspaper Publishers Association research reports published since 1978 are reviewed in this paper. The paper analyzes each of the reports in order to provide an overview of what their findings really say and what newspapers can do in their own market areas to use the findings to improve their product. Among the topics covered…

  9. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Lewis Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-02-26

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable sources from a carbon-neutral source. Sunlight is by far the most abundant global carbon-neutral energy resource. More solar energy strikes the surface of the earth in one hour than is obtained from all of the fossil fuels consumed globally in a year. Sunlight may be used to power the planet. However, it is intermittent, and therefore it must be converted to electricity or stored chemical fuel to be used on a large scale. The 'grand challenge' of using the sun as a future energy source faces daunting challenges - large expanses of fundamental science and technology await discovery. A viable solar energy conversion scheme must result in a 10-50 fold decrease in the cost-to-efficiency ratio for the production of stored fuels, and must be stable and robust for a 20-30 year period. To reduce the cost of installed solar energy conversion systems to $0.20/peak watt of solar radiation, a cost level that would make them economically attractive in today's energy market, will require revolutionary technologies. This GRC seeks to present a forum for the underlying science needed to permit future generations to use the sun as a renewable and sustainable primary energy source. Speakers will discuss recent advances in homoogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of multi-electron transfer processes of importance to solar fuel production, such as water oxidation and reduction, and carbon dioxide reduction. Speakers will also discuss advances in scaleably manufacturable systems for the capture and conversion of sunlight into electrical charges that can be readily coupled into, and utilized for, fuel production in an integrated system.

  10. GRS Measurements of Ar in Mars' Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Kerry, K. E.; Janes, D. M.; Kelly, N. J.; Crombie, M. K.; Hunten, D. M.; Nelli, S. M.; Murphy, J. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Metzger, A. E.

    2005-08-01

    One and one half Mars years of atmospheric argon (Ar) measurements are described in the context of understanding how Ar, a minor constituent of Mars atmosphere that does not condense at Mars temperatures, can be used to study martian circulation and dynamics. There is a repeated factor of 6 enhancement of Ar measured over south polar latitudes. The maximum in Ar abundance occurs near the onset of southern winter. There is no similar strong enhancement of Ar over north-polar regions during northern winter; only modest evidence for an enhancement peak is present. Part of this difference is explained by the global topographic dichotomy and the fact that the duration of northern autumn and winter is shorter than southern autumn and winter. Rapid seasonal fluctuations in Ar abundance may indicate evidence for wave activity at the perimeter of the southern seasonal polar cap. The apparent lack of coincidence of Ar enhancement with the relatively cold, cryptic terrain or relatively warm, bright albedo regions, indirectly supports the conclusion that the low temperatures measured over the south polar region by IRTM are probably caused by the combination of low CO2 abundance over south polar night and low emissivity regions on the surface associated with small grain size.

  11. What Editors and Journalism Educators Expect from Journalism Education; An ANPA News Research Center Survey. News Research Bulletin No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulteng, John L.

    The purpose of this survey was to assemble data about the expectations of editors and journalism educators as to journalism education, with the objective of providing a basis for an informed dialogue about ways to advance and support education for journalism. Some of the findings were: editors much less than educators perceived newly-hired…

  12. Newspaper Readership Among Public School Children Grades 7-12. ANPA News Research Report, Number 23, October 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauro, John B.

    A sample of 1,048 seventh through twelfth grade students in Richmond, Virginia, was surveyed to determine whether they read the local morning newspaper, what features or types of news interested them, and what exposure they had to other daily newspapers and to television. Survey results are as follows: nine out of ten students were exposed to…

  13. GRS evidence and the possibility of paleooceans on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Baker, V.R.; Boynton, W.V.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.; Finch, M.; Furfaro, R.; Hare, T.M.; Janes, D.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Karunatillake, S.; Keller, J.; Kerry, K.; Kim, K.J.; Komatsu, G.; Mahaney, W.C.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Marinangeli, L.; Ori, G.G.; Ruiz, J.; Wheelock, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (Mars Odyssey spacecraft) has revealed elemental distributions of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and iron (Fe) on Mars that require fractionation of K (and possibly Th and Fe) consistent with aqueous activity. This includes weathering, evolution of soils, and transport, sorting, and deposition, as well as with the location of first-order geomorphological demarcations identified as possible paleoocean boundaries. The element abundances occur in patterns consistent with weathering in situ and possible presence of relict or exhumed paleosols, deposition of weathered materials (salts and clastic minerals), and weathering/transport under neutral to acidic brines. The abundances are explained by hydrogeology consistent with the possibly overlapping alternatives of paleooceans and/or heterogeneous rock compositions from diverse provenances (e.g., differing igneous compositions). ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. GRS evidence and the possibility of paleooceans on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Boynton, William V.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Finch, Michael; Furfaro, Roberto; Hare, Trent M.; Janes, Daniel M.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Karunatillake, Suniti; Keller, John; Kerry, Kris; Kim, Kyeong J.; Komatsu, Goro; Mahaney, William C.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Marinangeli, Lucia; Ori, Gian G.; Ruiz, Javier; Wheelock, Shawn J.

    2009-05-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (Mars Odyssey spacecraft) has revealed elemental distributions of potassium (K), thorium (Th), and iron (Fe) on Mars that require fractionation of K (and possibly Th and Fe) consistent with aqueous activity. This includes weathering, evolution of soils, and transport, sorting, and deposition, as well as with the location of first-order geomorphological demarcations identified as possible paleoocean boundaries. The element abundances occur in patterns consistent with weathering in situ and possible presence of relict or exhumed paleosols, deposition of weathered materials (salts and clastic minerals), and weathering/transport under neutral to acidic brines. The abundances are explained by hydrogeology consistent with the possibly overlapping alternatives of paleooceans and/or heterogeneous rock compositions from diverse provenances (e.g., differing igneous compositions).

  15. New Maps of Lunar Elements : Kaguya GRS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    The Kaguya Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (KGRS) onboard Japanese lunar polar orbiter, Kaguya (Selene), successfully observed elemental compositions over the entire lunar surface. Specific objectives of the KGRS were to map abundances of trace incompatible elements, K, Th, U, and major elements, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe to depths of 20 cm. The abundances of radioactive elements are highly elevated along the rim of the Imbrium basin and its surrounding in Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), while highlands in the farside have a relatively low concentration. A number of regions such as the northwestern region of South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) and the Compton/Belkovich region in the northeastern highlands are also anomalously abundant. In contrast, Tycho crater and Mare Orientale have very low thorium abundances. The distributions of K and Th concentrations are divided into several different regions with a clear statistical distinction in the K/Th ratio. Especially, the higher ratio seems to be correlated with the Imbrium event. The Th-map also reveals two lowest Th-regions in the farside. The Th-distribution is found to correspond with the crustal thickness variations and there is an inverse correlation between the Th-abundance and the crustal thickness. Moreover, the Fe, Ti and Ca maps are unambiguously created over the Moon. The Ti-distribution in the maria of eastern nearside is different from that of Fe one. The Ti signature of Mare Tranquillitatis is higher than that of Procellarum and Imbrium. We found that eastern mare regions such as Crisium, Nectaris, and Fecunditatis exhibit significantly higher calcium abundances compared to western mare regions in the nearside, suggesting the regional concentration of high-Ca clinopyroxene. The results obtained by the KGRS are presented along with their geochemical discussion.

  16. The Public and Local News [and] Why Some Editorial Endorsements are More Persuasive Than Others. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, James P.; And Others

    Two unrelated studies investigated issues in newspaper journalism. The first, a replication of an earlier study, examined whether the priority given by newspapers to reporting local news was warranted. Respondents in three areas of the country were asked to rate their interest in various types of news on a five-point scale. Results indicated that…

  17. Comparisons of Subscribers and Non-Subscribers. An NRC Mining Company Report. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einsiedel, Edna

    Market data in 34 different markets around the country provided the background for a comparison of newspaper subscribers and nonsubscribers. Essentially the market reports provided information on what kinds of people subscribe to a newspaper and why. Among the findings are the following: (1) subscribers tend to be older, to have higher incomes,…

  18. Morning and Evening Daily Newspaper Readers. An NRC Mining Company Report. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohn, Elsa

    Data collected from 36 different markets and 82 research reports were used to compare the readers of morning and evening newspapers. Patterns across markets revealed morning newspaper readers are more likely than evening newspaper readers to have white-collar occupations, to be better educated, and to have no children under 18 years of age present…

  19. 2012 ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY GRC/GRS, JULY 7-13, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Hillhouse, Gregory

    2012-07-13

    The 2012 Organometallic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference will highlight new basic science and fundamental applications of organometallic chemistry in industrial, academic, and national lab settings. Scientific themes of the conference will include chemical synthesis, reactivity, catalysis, polymer chemistry, bonding, and theory that involve transition-metal (and main-group) interactions with organic moieties.

  20. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  1. 2012 CORRELATED ELECTRON SYSTEMS GRC AND GRS, JUNE 23-29, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kivelson, Steven

    2012-06-29

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Correlated Electron Systems will present cutting-edge research on emergent properties arising from strong electronic correlations. While we expect the discussion at the meeting to be wide-ranging, given the breadth of the title subject matter, we have chosen several topics to be the particular focus of the talks. These are New Developments in Single and Bilayer Graphene, Topological States of Matter, including Topological Insulators and Spin Liquids, the Interplay Between Magnetism and Unconventional Superconductivity, and Quantum Critical Phenomena in Metallic Systems. We also plan to have shorter sessions on Systems Far From Equilibrium, Low Dimensional Electron Fluids, and New Directions (which will primarily focus on new experimental methodologies and their interpretation).

  2. Schematic Illustration of the Operation of MESSENGER's Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Galactic cosmic rays interact with Mercury's surface to a depth of tens of centimeters, producing high-energy neutrons. These neutrons interact with surface material, resulting in the emission of g...

  3. Reader Response to Front Pages with Modular Format and Color [and] Newspaper Errors: Source Perception, Reporter Response and Some Causes. American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) News Research Report No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Click, J. W.; And Others

    Two studies were conducted, the first to determine reader response to newspaper front pages with modular format and color, and the second to examine source perception and reporter response to errors in news stories. Results of the first study revealed that respondents in three cities preferred modular front pages to other modern format pages and…

  4. A Global Risk Score (GRS) to Simultaneously Predict Early and Late Tumor Recurrence Risk after Resection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Dekervel, Jeroen; Popovic, Dusan; van Malenstein, Hannah; Windmolders, Petra; Heylen, Line; Libbrecht, Louis; Bulle, Ashenafi; De Moor, Bart; Van Cutsem, Eric; Nevens, Frederik; Verslype, Chris; van Pelt, Jos

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma can arise from the primary tumor (“early recurrence”) or de novo from tumor formation in a cirrhotic environment (“late recurrence”). We aimed to develop one simple gene expression score applicable in both the tumor and the surrounding liver that can predict the recurrence risk. METHODS: We determined differentially expressed genes in a cell model of cancer aggressiveness. These genes were first validated in three large published data sets of hepatocellular carcinoma from which we developed a seven-gene risk score. RESULTS: The gene score was applied on two independent large patient cohorts. In the first cohort, with only tumor data available, it could predict the recurrence risk at 3 years after resection (68 ± 10% vs 35 ± 7%, P = .03). In the second cohort, when applied on the tumor, this gene score predicted early recurrence (62 ± 5% vs 37 ± 4%, P < .001), and when applied on the surrounding liver tissue, the same genes also correlated with late recurrence. Four patient classes with each different time patterns and rates of recurrence could be identified based on combining tumor and liver scores. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, our gene score remained significantly associated with recurrence, independent from other important cofactors such as disease stage (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a Global Risk Score that is able to simultaneously predict the risk of early recurrence when applied on the tumor itself, as well as the risk of late recurrence when applied on the surrounding liver tissue. PMID:27084430

  5. 2012 WATER & AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE (GRC) AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR (GRS), AUG 10-17, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Dor Ben-Amotz, PI

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the fundamental principles governing the structure and dynamics of water - and particularly how water mediates chemical interactions and processes - continues to pose formidable challenges and yield abundant surprises. The focus of this Gordon Research Conference is on identifying key questions, describing emerging understandings, and unveiling surprising discoveries related to water and aqueous solutions. The talks and posters at this meeting will describe studies of water and its interactions with objects such as interfaces, channels, electrons, oils, ions, and proteins; probed using optical, electrical, and particle experiments, and described using classical, quantum, and multi-scale theories.

  6. Granzymes regulate proinflammatory cytokine responses.

    PubMed

    Wensink, Annette C; Hack, C Erik; Bovenschen, Niels

    2015-01-15

    Granzymes (Grs) are serine proteases mainly produced by cytotoxic lymphocytes and are traditionally considered to cause apoptosis in tumor cells and virally infected cells. However, the cytotoxicity of several Grs is currently being debated, and additional, predominantly extracellular, functions of Grs in inflammation are emerging. Extracellular soluble Grs are elevated in the circulation of patients with autoimmune diseases and infections. Additionally, Grs are expressed by several types of immune cells other than cytotoxic lymphocytes. Recent research has revealed novel immunomodulatory functions of Grs. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on the role of Grs in inflammation, highlighting their role in cytokine induction and processing.

  7. IET. Control and equipment building (TAN620) floor plan. Schedule of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Control and equipment building (TAN-620) floor plan. Schedule of furniture and equipment. Ralph M. Parsons 902-4-ANP-A 320. Date: February 1954. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0620-00-693-106905 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Time-resolved ion energy distribution measurements using an advanced neutral particle analyzer on the MST reversed-field pinch.

    PubMed

    Eilerman, S; Anderson, J K; Reusch, J A; Liu, D; Fiksel, G; Polosatkin, S; Belykh, V

    2012-10-01

    An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) capable of simultaneously measuring hydrogen and deuterium ions of energies up to 45 keV has recently been developed for use on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The charge-to-mass separation allows for separate analysis of bulk deuterium ions and hydrogen ions injected with a 1 MW, 25 keV neutral beam. Orientation of the ANPA allows sampling of different regions of ion velocity space; a radial viewport favors collection of ions with high v(perpendicular)∕|v| while a recently installed tangential viewport favors ions with high v(||)∕|v|, such as those from the core-localized fast ion population created by the neutral beam. Signals are observed in the ANPA's highest energy channels during periodic magnetic reconnection events, which are drivers of anisotropic, non-Maxwellian ion energization in the reversed-field pinch. ANPA signal strength is dependent on the background neutral density, which also increases during magnetic reconnection events, so careful analysis must be performed to identify the true change in the ion distribution. A Monte Carlo neutral particle tracing code (NENE) is used to reconstruct neutral density profiles based on D(α) line emission, which is measured using a 16-chord filtered photodiode array.

  9. The 'Heartbeats' of Flaring Black Holes

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation compares the X-ray 'heartbeats' of GRS 1915 and IGR J17091, two black holes that ingest gas from companion stars. GRS 1915 has nearly five times the mass of IGR J17091, which at thre...

  10. Analysis techniques for diagnosing runaway ion distributions in the reversed field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Bonofiglo, P. J.; Sears, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    An advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA) on the Madison Symmetric Torus measures deuterium ions of energy ranges 8-45 keV with an energy resolution of 2-4 keV and time resolution of 10 μs. Three different experimental configurations measure distinct portions of the naturally occurring fast ion distributions: fast ions moving parallel, anti-parallel, or perpendicular to the plasma current. On a radial-facing port, fast ions moving perpendicular to the current have the necessary pitch to be measured by the ANPA. With the diagnostic positioned on a tangent line through the plasma core, a chord integration over fast ion density, background neutral density, and local appropriate pitch defines the measured sample. The plasma current can be reversed to measure anti-parallel fast ions in the same configuration. Comparisons of energy distributions for the three configurations show an anisotropic fast ion distribution favoring high pitch ions.

  11. Polyacrylonitrile Fibers Anchored Cobalt/Graphene Sheet Nanocomposite: A Low-Cost, High-Performance and Reusable Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Huang, Guoji; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt and its composites are known to be active and inexpensive catalysts in sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis to generate clean and renewable hydrogen energy. A novel fiber catalyst, cobalt/graphene sheet nanocomposite anchored on polyacrylonitrile fibers (Co/GRs-PANFs), which can be easily recycled and used in any reactor with different shapes, were synthesized by anchoring cobalt/graphene (Co/GRs) on polyacrylonitrile fibers coated with graphene (GRs-PANFs) at low temperature. The unique structure design effectively prevents the inter-sheet restacking of Co/GRs and fully exploits the large surface area of novel hybrid material for generate hydrogen. And the extra electron transfer path supplied by GRs on the surface of GRs-PANFs can also enhance their catalysis performances. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was investigated by the hydrolysis of NaBH4 in aqueous solution with GRs-PANFs. GRs powders and Co powders were used as control groups. It was found that both GRs and fiber contributed to the hydrogen generation rate of Co/GRs-PANFs (3222 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)), which is much higher than that of cobalt powders (915 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)) and Co/GRs (995 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)). The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling make the Co/GRs-PANFs promising candidate as catalysts for hydrogen generation.

  12. Transformation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons on Synthetic Green Rusts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green rusts (GRs) are layered double hydroxides that contain both ferrous and ferric ions in their structure. GRs can potentially serve as a chemical reductant for degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. GRs are found in zerovalent iron based permeable reactive barriers and in c...

  13. Polyacrylonitrile Fibers Anchored Cobalt/Graphene Sheet Nanocomposite: A Low-Cost, High-Performance and Reusable Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Huang, Guoji; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt and its composites are known to be active and inexpensive catalysts in sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis to generate clean and renewable hydrogen energy. A novel fiber catalyst, cobalt/graphene sheet nanocomposite anchored on polyacrylonitrile fibers (Co/GRs-PANFs), which can be easily recycled and used in any reactor with different shapes, were synthesized by anchoring cobalt/graphene (Co/GRs) on polyacrylonitrile fibers coated with graphene (GRs-PANFs) at low temperature. The unique structure design effectively prevents the inter-sheet restacking of Co/GRs and fully exploits the large surface area of novel hybrid material for generate hydrogen. And the extra electron transfer path supplied by GRs on the surface of GRs-PANFs can also enhance their catalysis performances. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was investigated by the hydrolysis of NaBH4 in aqueous solution with GRs-PANFs. GRs powders and Co powders were used as control groups. It was found that both GRs and fiber contributed to the hydrogen generation rate of Co/GRs-PANFs (3222 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)), which is much higher than that of cobalt powders (915 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)) and Co/GRs (995 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)). The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling make the Co/GRs-PANFs promising candidate as catalysts for hydrogen generation. PMID:27427607

  14. Suggestions for Improving the IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey Data Collection and Reporting. NPEC 2010-832

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) at the U.S. Department of Education developed the Graduation Rate Survey (GRS) to help institutions comply with the "Student Right-to-Know (SRTK) Act" requirements. NCES uses GRS data to calculate graduation rates within 150 percent of normal time for all students in the GRS cohort, as well as…

  15. Design of a retarding potential grid system for a neutral particle analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J. B. Mezonlin, E. D.; Anderson, J. K.; Reusch, J. A.

    2014-11-15

    The ion energy distribution in a magnetically confined plasma can be inferred from charge exchange neutral particles. On the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST), deuterium neutrals are measured by the Florida A and M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA) and the advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA). The CNPA energy range covers the bulk deuterium ions to the beginning of the fast ion tail (0.34–5.2 keV) with high-energy resolution (25 channels) while the ANPA covers the vast majority of the fast ion tail distribution (∼10–45 keV) with low energy resolution (10 channels). Though the ANPA has provided insight into fast ion energization in MST plasma, more can be gained by increasing the energy resolution in that energy range. To utilize the energy resolution of the CNPA, fast ions can be retarded by an electric potential well, enabling their detection by the diagnostic. The ion energy distribution can be measured with arbitrary resolution by combining data from many similar MST discharges with different energy ranges on the CNPA, providing further insight into ion energization and fast ion dynamics on MST.

  16. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 113Sn to include the 2010 results of the PTB (Germany) and the LNE-LNHB (France), and the 2011 result of the CIEMAT (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Bobin, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Moune, M.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Roteta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1975, seven national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted eleven samples of known activity of 113Sn to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.7 MBq and 22 MBq. The present primary standardization results for the PTB, Germany and the LNE-LNHB, France, replace their earlier results of 1989 and 1992, respectively. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 113Sn. There are only three results remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 comparison, all the previously published ones being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each of these three equivalent activities measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Effect of gelatinized-retrograded and extruded starches on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Narpinder; Katyal, Mehak

    2016-05-01

    The effect of substitution of wheat flour with gelatinized-retrograded starch (GRS) and extruded starch (ES) at 10 and 20 % levels on characteristics of cookies, muffins and noodles was evaluated. Cookies made by substitution of flour with GRS or ES were lighter in color, showed higher spread ratio and resistant starch (RS) content. Muffins made by substitution of flour with GRS or ES were lighter in color, showed less height, specific volume and gas cells and higher RS content. Muffins containing GRS were less firm while those made by incorporating ES showed higher firmness than those made without substitution. Noodles made with substitution of flour with GRS or ES showed higher RS content and reduced water uptake, gruel solid loss, hardness and adhesiveness. Cookies and noodles prepared with and without substitution of flour with GRS or ES did not show any significant differences in terms of overall acceptability scores.

  18. Evolution of corticosteroid specificity for human, chicken, alligator and frog glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Oka, Kaori; Baker, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the evolution of the response of human, chicken, alligator and frog glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) to dexamethasone, cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol and aldosterone. We find significant differences among these vertebrates in the transcriptional activation of their full length GRs by these steroids, indicating that there were changes in the specificity of the GR for steroids during the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates. To begin to study the role of interactions between different domains on the GR in steroid sensitivity and specificity for terrestrial GRs, we investigated transcriptional activation of truncated GRs containing their hinge domain and ligand binding domain (LBD) fused to a GAL4 DNA binding domain (GAL4-DBD). Compared to corresponding full length GRs, transcriptional activation of GAL4-DBD_GR-hinge/LBD constructs required higher steroid concentrations and displayed altered steroid specificity, indicating that interactions between the hinge/LBD and other domains are important in glucocorticoid activation of these terrestrial GRs. PMID:27317937

  19. Integration and evaluation of a position sensor with continuous read-out for use with the Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling Gamma Ray Spectrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, R.A.; Lockwood, G.J.; Williams, C.V.; Selph, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled waste retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling were compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples. The results show general agreement between the soil sampling and EMWD-GRS techniques for Cs-137. The EMWD-GRS system has been improved by the integration of an orientation sensor package for position sensing (PS) (EMWD-GRS/PS). This added feature gives the capability of calculating position, which is tied directly to EMWD-GRS sensor data obtained while drilling. The EMWD-GRS/PS system is described and the results of the field tests are presented.

  20. Prototype Environmental Assessment of the impacts of siting and construction of an SPS ground receiving station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype assessment of the environmental impacts of siting and constructing a Satellite Power System (SPS) Ground Receiving Station (GRS) is reported. The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop an assessment of the nonmicrowave related impacts of the reference system SPS GRS on the natural environment; (2) to assess the impacts of GRS construction and operations in the context of actual baseline data for a site in the California desert; and (3) to identify critical GRS characteristics or parameters that are most significant in terms of the natural environment.

  1. The quality assurance programme for the national radioactivity surveillance network in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Felice, P

    2001-01-01

    The quality assurance programme (QAP) carried out by the ENEA and ANPA for the laboratories belonging to the radioactivity surveillance network in Italy is outlined. The organisation of the QAP and the measurement campaigns performed from 1983 to 2000 are reviewed under different aspects such as network evolution, measurement types, standard sources needed for the calibration and intercomparison campaigns. network homogeneity and accuracy level, and main sources of systematic errors. The results show the effectiveness of the programme in obtaining a uniform accuracy level among the participating laboratories. Nevertheless a few sources of systematic errors are still present.

  2. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry. PMID:27537844

  3. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry. PMID:27537844

  4. Muscle Dysmorphia, Gender Role Stress, and Sociocultural Influences: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Readdy, Tucker; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the contribution of gender role stress (GRS) and sociocultural appearance demands to symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) in a college sample of 219 women and 154 men. For women, five GRS subscales, sociocultural appearance demands, age, and frequency of aerobic exercise predicted MD symptoms (model R[superscript 2] = 0.33;…

  5. The Reader-Text-Writer Interaction: L2 Japanese Learners' Response toward Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabata-Sandom, Mitsue

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on two projects which investigated graded readers (GRs) as meaningful input for learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). Project One examined the intentions of six writers of Japanese GRs. A focus group interview demonstrated that the writers had a genuine communicative intent in the writing process. Project Two…

  6. Student Graduation in Spain: To What Extent Does University Expenditure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Estevez, Javier; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Graduation rates (GRs) remain one of the most frequently applied measures of institutional performance. This paper analyzes the relationship between university characteristics and GRs in Spain, using a dataset for the entire public university system over the period 1998-2008. Since we observe the same university over several years, we address the…

  7. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  8. Measurement Invariance of the Chinese Gifted Rating Scales: Teacher and Parent Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Li, Huijun

    2008-01-01

    The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) has been validated in several countries; however, no study has examined the rater invariance of this measure. The present study built on previous validity studies and examined configural and metric invariance between parent and teacher raters using the Chinese version of the GRS-S Teacher and Parent…

  9. General Revenue Sharing: The Last Hope of Public Libraries for a Federal Pot of Gold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Art

    1978-01-01

    General Revenue Sharing (GRS) was developed under the pretension of bringing government closer to the people by enabling them to exercise greater influence on the distribution of federal tax revenues. Libraries have not received fair and impartial consideration under GRS; in fact, very few public services have. (Author/JPF)

  10. Extensive Reading for Second Language Learners of Japanese in Higher Education: Graded Readers and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Teiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of Japanese extensive reading with international students studying at a Japanese university using graded readers (GRs). GRs chosen for the present study were simplified versions of original Japanese literature and were used to support students in acquiring a top-down reading strategy, a wide range of…

  11. 77 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... program in April 2006 (71 FR 17362), and the GRS program became effective in 2008. As originally... is described in the preamble to the final rule for the GRS program (71 FR 17362, April 6, 2006) and... in 2007 (72 FR 52668, September 14, 2007), and the Amendment 80 program was fully effective...

  12. 78 FR 12627 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... rule for this regulatory amendment in the Federal Register on October 15, 2012 (77 FR 62482). The 30... is provided in the preamble to the proposed rule (77 FR 62482, October 15, 2012). The proposed rule... implementing the GRS program published on April 6, 2006 (71 FR 17362). The GRS program became effective in...

  13. How to Schedule Multiple Graphical Representations? A Classroom Experiment with an Intelligent Tutoring System for Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rau, M. A.; Aleven, V.; Rummel, N.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical representations (GRs) of the learning content are often used for instruction (Ainsworth, 2006). When used in learning technology, GRs can be especially useful since they allow for interactions across representations that are physically impossible, for instance by dragging and dropping symbolic statements into a chart that automatically…

  14. Assessment of the value of a genetic risk score in improving the estimation of coronary risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Heart Association has established criteria for the evaluation of novel markers of cardiovascular risk. In accordance with these criteria, we assessed the association between a multi-locus genetic risk score (GRS) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), and evaluated whether this GRS ...

  15. Thermal structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere. I - The Great Red SPOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Conrath, B. J.; Pirraglia, J.; Clark, P. C.; French, R. G.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1981-09-01

    Temperatures and thermal winds over the Great Red Spot (GRS) are derived from Voyager IRIS data for atmospheric pressures between 3 and 500 mbar. A cold tropopause implies a decrease in anticyclonic vorticity with height above 500 mbar through the lower stratosphere. Observations at 5 microns indicate that there is little emission from the GRS itself, although there is enhanced emission from a ring around it. The behavior of the tropopause and 5 micron temperatures are considered to be results of circulation which rises within the GRS and subsides in the area around it. Results are discussed in the context of several theoretical models of the GRS, and latent heat release as an energy source is considered. Dynamical scalings based on an axisymmetric frictionally controlled vortex indicate that the large-scale dynamics of the GRS are linear, as opposed to those of a tropical cyclone which are nonlinear.

  16. The 2008 Passage of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Oval BA as Observed from Hubble/WFPC2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Orton, G. S.; Tsavaris, I.

    2008-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope data of the passage of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and Oval BA were acquired on May 15, June 28 (near closest approach), and July 8. Wind fields were measured from Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) data with 10-hour separations before and after closest approach, and within the GRS with 40-minute separations on all three dates. Color information was also derived using 8 narrowband WFPC2 filters from 343 to 673-nm on all three dates. We will present the results of principal components and wind analyses and discuss unique features seen in this data set. In addition, we will highlight any changes observed in the GRS, Oval BA and their surroundings as a result of the passage, including the movement of a smaller red anticyclone from west of the GRS, around its southern periphery, and to the east of the GRS.

  17. Interaction of leech neurons with topographical gratings: comparison with rodent and human neuronal lines and primary cells

    PubMed Central

    Tonazzini, Ilaria; Pellegrini, Monica; Pellegrino, Mario; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Controlling and improving neuronal cell migration and neurite outgrowth are critical elements of tissue engineering applications and development of artificial neuronal interfaces. To this end, a promising approach exploits nano/microstructured surfaces, which have been demonstrated to be capable of tuning neuronal differentiation, polarity, migration and neurite orientation. Here, we investigate the neurite contact guidance of leech neurons on plastic gratings (GRs; anisotropic topographies composed of alternating lines of grooves and ridges). By high-resolution microscopy, we quantitatively evaluate the changes in tubulin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology and in the neurite and growth cone development. The topography-reading process of leech neurons on GRs is mediated by filopodia and is more responsive to 4-µm-period GRs than to smaller period GRs. Leech neuron behaviour on GRs is finally compared and validated with several other neuronal cells, from murine differentiated embryonic stem cells and primary hippocampal neurons to differentiated human neuroblastoma cells. PMID:24501675

  18. Detectors/Dosemeters of galactic and solar cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Tommasino, L

    2004-01-01

    Different passive multidetector stacks have been developed at the Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA-stack), which makes it possible to measure directly ionising radiations, low-energy and high-energy neutrons, and high-energy charged (HZE) particles. The stack consists of several types of passive devices, namely recoil-track and fission-track detectors, bubble detectors, thermoluminescence dosemeters and an electronic personal dosemeter. Most of these detectors have been used on earth for the assessment of the occupational exposure, or in outer space for cosmic ray physics and/or for the assessment of the dose received by astronauts. A great deal of efforts and new developments have been required to make these detectors useful for in-flight measurements. As outcome of these extensive efforts, different new detectors have been developed, which exploit some of the most successful principles of radiation detection, such as the use of avalanche processes to facilitate the registration of nuclear tracks and the use of coincidence-counting to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. On the basis of these new detectors, different systems (generally referred to as ANPA-stack) have been obtained, which have been successfully applied for a variety of different measurements of cosmic ray radiation fields and doses. PMID:15273355

  19. Exploring the Impact of Prior Knowledge and Appropriate Feedback on Students' Perceived Cognitive Load and Learning Outcomes: Animation-based earthquakes instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Tseng, Kuan-Yun; Cho, Chung-Wen; Barufaldi, James P.; Lin, Mei-Shin; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an animation-based curriculum and to evaluate the effectiveness of animation-based instruction; the report involved the assessment of prior knowledge and the appropriate feedback approach, for the purpose of reducing perceived cognitive load and improving learning. The curriculum was comprised of five subunits designed to teach the 'Principles of Earthquakes.' Each subunit consisted of three modules: evaluation of prior knowledge with/without in-time feedback; animation-based instruction; and evaluation of learning outcomes with feedback. The 153 participants consisted of 10th grade high-school students. Seventy-eight students participated in the animation-based instruction, involving assessment of prior knowledge and appropriate feedback mechanism (APA group). A total of 75 students participated in animation-based learning that did not take into account their prior knowledge (ANPA group). The effectiveness of the instruction was then evaluated by using a Science Conception Test (SCT), a self-rating cognitive load questionnaire (CLQ), as well as a structured interview. The results indicated that: (1) Students' perceived cognitive load was reduced effectively through improving their prior knowledge by providing appropriate feedback. (2) When students perceived lower levels of cognitive load, they showed better learning outcome. The result of this study revealed that students of the APA group showed better performance than those of the ANPA group in an open-ended question. Furthermore, students' perceived cognitive load was negatively associated with their learning outcomes.

  20. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ERCC2 gene and their haplotypes with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yougai; Wang, Longzhi; Wang, Peng; Song, Chunhua; Wang, Kaijuan; Zhang, Jianying; Dai, Liping

    2014-05-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide, occurs at a relatively high frequency in China. To investigate whether common excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair group 2 (ERCC2) variants (rs3916874 G>C, rs238415 C>G, rs1618536 G>A, rs1799793 G>A, and rsl3181 A>C) were associated with ESCC risk, a case-control study was conducted, including 405 cases with ESCC and 405 age and sex 1:1 matched cancer-free controls. The result showed that rsl3181 AC/CC genotypes was associated with an increased risk of ESCC (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.05-2.00), and two ERCC2 haplotypes Grs3916874Crs238415Grs1618536Grs1799793Crsl3181 (Hap5) and Grs3916874Grs238415Ars1618536Grs1799793Crsl3181 (Hap7) were associated with increased risk of ESCC (OR: 2.16, 95 % CI: 1.27-3.57 for Hap5 and OR: 3.72; 95 % CI: 1.89-6.63 for Hap7, respectively), while Grs3916874Grs238415Grs1618536Grs1799793Arsl3181 (Hap4) was associated with decreased risk of ESCC (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35-0.71). Gene-environment interaction analysis by multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) software showed that there was an interaction among rs238415, rs1618536, and family history of cancer with a P value under 0.0001 (OR: 3.23: 95% CI: 2.37-4.40). These results suggested that genetic variations in the ERCC2 gene were associated with risk of ESCC, and there was a significant interaction between gene polymorphisms and family history of cancer in the etiology of ESCC.

  1. Growing Slowly 1 locus encodes a PLS-type PPR protein required for RNA editing and plant development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tingting; Chen, Dan; Wu, Jian; Huang, Xiaorong; Wang, Yifan; Tang, Keli; Li, Jiayang; Sun, Mengxiang; Peng, Xiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Most pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are involved in organelle post-transcriptional processes, including RNA editing. The PPR proteins include the PLS subfamily, containing characteristic triplets of P, L, and S motifs; however, their editing mechanisms and roles in developmental processes are not fully understood. In this study, we isolated the Arabidopsis thaliana Growing slowly 1 (AtGRS1) gene and showed that it functions in RNA editing and plant development. Arabidopsis null mutants of grs1 exhibit slow growth and sterility. Further analysis showed that cell division activity was reduced dramatically in the roots of grs1 plants. We determined that GRS1 is a nuclear-encoded mitochondria-localized PPR protein, and is a member of the PLS subfamily. GRS1 is responsible for the RNA editing at four specific sites of four mitochondrial mRNAs: nad1-265, nad4L-55, nad6-103, and rps4-377. The first three of these mRNAs encode for the subunits of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. Thus, the activity of complex I is strongly reduced in grs1. Changes in RPS4 editing in grs1 plants affect mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis. Expression of the alternative respiratory pathway and the abscisic acid response gene ABI5 were up-regulated in grs1 mutant plants. Genetic analysis revealed that ABI5 is involved in the short root phenotype of grs1. Taken together, our results indicate that AtGRS1 regulates plant development by controlling RNA editing in Arabidopsis. PMID:27670716

  2. [The detection of biphasic reactivity of the airway by astograph].

    PubMed

    Ohe, Masashi; Kishi, Fujiya; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2010-03-01

    Dose-related curves of the airway responses to Methacholine by Astograph are frequently biphasic. That is, respiratory resistance (Rrs) increases slowly at first and rapidly after that. We proposed (-dGrs/dt)/Grs obtained by using Astograph as an index of dynamic property of the airway, which we suggested was related to a coefficient of the contraction or dilatation of the airway. Grs represents respiratory conductance. By calculating (-dGrs/dt)/Grs, we found that biphasic dose-related curves were composed of the slow and subsequently rapid contraction of the airways. And by mathematical analysis, we found that all segments of the airway contracted simultaneously at a uniform velocity. The combination of slow and rapid contraction explains three types of the airway responses, that is, the monophasic reactivity of the airway with slow contraction, the monophasic reactivity of the airway with rapid contraction and the biphasic reactivity of the airway with slow and subsequently rapid contraction. We found that the frequency of the monophasic reactivity of the airway with slow contraction was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in healthy subjects or in patients with mild asthma. But there was no significant difference in (-dGrs/dt)/Grs values among healthy subjects, patients with mild asthma and patients with COPD.

  3. Association of physical activity with lower type 2 diabetes incidence is weaker among individuals at high genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Chen, Zhao; Arora, Amit; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We examined whether or not the association of physical activity with type 2 diabetes incidence differs according to several types of genetic susceptibility. Methods In a large prospective cohort with 821 incident cases of type 2 diabetes, we examined interactions of physical activity with: (1) each of 65 type 2 diabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); (2) a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising all 65 SNPs; (3) two GRS comprised of SNPs implicated in insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion; (4) GRS for fasting insulin (FI) and fasting glucose. Results We found a significant interaction of physical activity and the type 2 diabetes GRS (pinteraction=0.016), suggesting a weaker protective effect of physical activity in those at high genetic risk. Based on the interactions observed with the IR GRS (pinteraction=0.046) and the FI GRS (pinteraction=0.042), it appears that the overall type 2 diabetes GRS interaction most likely occurs through genetic susceptibility to IR as opposed to insulin secretion. Furthermore, this interaction was more pronounced in women (pinteraction=0.0025) than in men (pinteraction=0.46). No single SNP stood out as displaying a strong interaction with physical activity. Conclusions/interpretation We conclude that although physical activity appears to have an overall protective effect on type 2 diabetes, this putative effect is weakest in women with high genetic risk for type 2 diabetes and IR. PMID:25273344

  4. Odorant and Gustatory Receptors in the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans

    PubMed Central

    Obiero, George F. O.; Mireji, Paul O.; Nyanjom, Steven R. G.; Christoffels, Alan; Robertson, Hugh M.; Masiga, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    Tsetse flies use olfactory and gustatory responses, through odorant and gustatory receptors (ORs and GRs), to interact with their environment. Glossina morsitans morsitans genome ORs and GRs were annotated using homologs of these genes in Drosophila melanogaster and an ab initio approach based on OR and GR specific motifs in G. m. morsitans gene models coupled to gene ontology (GO). Phylogenetic relationships among the ORs or GRs and the homologs were determined using Maximum Likelihood estimates. Relative expression levels among the G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were established using RNA-seq data derived from adult female fly. Overall, 46 and 14 putative G. m. morsitans ORs and GRs respectively were recovered. These were reduced by 12 and 59 ORs and GRs respectively compared to D. melanogaster. Six of the ORs were homologous to a single D. melanogaster OR (DmOr67d) associated with mating deterrence in females. Sweet taste GRs, present in all the other Diptera, were not recovered in G. m. morsitans. The GRs associated with detection of CO2 were conserved in G. m. morsitans relative to D. melanogaster. RNA-sequence data analysis revealed expression of GmmOR15 locus represented over 90% of expression profiles for the ORs. The G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were phylogenetically closer to those in D. melanogaster than to other insects assessed. We found the chemoreceptor repertoire in G. m. morsitans smaller than other Diptera, and we postulate that this may be related to the restricted diet of blood-meal for both sexes of tsetse flies. However, the clade of some specific receptors has been expanded, indicative of their potential importance in chemoreception in the tsetse. PMID:24763191

  5. High-resolution breakpoint analysis provides evidence for the sequence-directed nature of genome rearrangements in hereditary disorders.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Michal B; Kovacova, Monika; Bachraty, Hynek; Bachrata, Katarina; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Hutter, Pierre; Ilencikova, Denisa; Bartosova, Zdena; Tomlinson, Ian; Roethlisberger, Benno; Heinimann, Karl

    2015-02-01

    Although most of the pertinent data on the sequence-directed processes leading to genome rearrangements (GRs) have come from studies on somatic tissues, little is known about GRs in the germ line of patients with hereditary disorders. This study aims at identifying DNA motifs and higher order structures of genome architecture, which can result in losses and gains of genetic material in the germ line. We first identified candidate motifs by studying 112 pathogenic germ-line GRs in hereditary colorectal cancer patients, and subsequently created an algorithm, termed recombination type ratio, which correctly predicts the propensity of rearrangements with respect to homologous versus nonhomologous recombination events. PMID:25418510

  6. Bitter taste receptors confer diverse functions to neurons

    PubMed Central

    Delventhal, Rebecca; Carlson, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bitter compounds elicit an aversive response. In Drosophila, bitter-sensitive taste neurons coexpress many members of the Gr family of taste receptors. However, the molecular logic of bitter signaling is unknown. We used an in vivo expression approach to analyze the logic of bitter taste signaling. Ectopic or overexpression of bitter Grs increased endogenous responses or conferred novel responses. Surprisingly, expression of Grs also suppressed many endogenous bitter responses. Conversely, deletion of an endogenous Gr led to novel responses. Expression of individual Grs conferred strikingly different effects in different neurons. The results support a model in which bitter Grs interact, exhibiting competition, inhibition, or activation. The results have broad implications for the problem of how taste systems evolve to detect new environmental dangers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11181.001 PMID:26880560

  7. Fast-ion energy resolution by one-step reaction gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salewski, M.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Kiptily, V. G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, J.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Contributors, JET

    2016-04-01

    The spectral broadening of γ-rays from fusion plasmas can be measured in high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). We derive weight functions that determine the observable velocity space and quantify the velocity-space sensitivity of one-step reaction high-resolution GRS measurements in magnetized fusion plasmas. The weight functions suggest that GRS resolves the energies of fast ions directly without the need for tomographic inversion for selected one-step reactions at moderate plasma temperatures. The D(p,γ)3He reaction allows the best direct fast-ion energy resolution. We illustrate our general formalism using reactions with and without intrinsic broadening of the γ-rays for the GRS diagnostic at JET.

  8. The Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Translated Version of the Gifted Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a newly developed Spanish translated version of the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). Data was collected from elementary and middle schools in northeastern Puerto Rico. Thirty teachers independently rated 153 students using the GRS-S Spanish Form. Results indicated strong internal consistency for teacher ratings with alphas ranging from .98 to .99. Intercorrelations between scales are moderate to strong, ranging from .88 to .97. Factor testing of two separate models supported a six factor model proposed by authors of the GRS-S. Results provided initial support for the GRS-S Spanish translated version as a reliable and potentially useful screening measure to assist in the identification of island Puerto Rican gifted students. PMID:26388705

  9. The tropospheric abundances of NH3 and PH3 in Jupiter's Great Red Spot, from Voyager IRIS observations.

    PubMed

    Griffith, C A; Bezard, B; Owen, T; Gautier, D

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the chemistry and dynamics of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS), the tropospheric abundances of NH3 and PH3 in the GRS are determined and compared to those of the surrounding region, the South Tropical Zone (STZ). These gases well up from deep in the atmosphere, and, in the upper troposphere, are depleted by condensation (in the case of NH3), chemical reactions, and UV photolysis. At Jupiter's tropopause, the chemical lifetimes of NH3 and PH3 are comparable to the time constant for vertical transport over the atmospheric scale height. The distributions of these gases are therefore diagnostic of the rate of vertical transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Three groups of Voyager IRIS spectra are analyzed, two of the STZ and one of the GRS. The two groups of STZ spectra are defined on the basis of their radiances at 602 and 226 cm-1, which reflect, respectively, the temperature near 150 mbar and the cloud opacity in the 300-600 mbar region. One selection of STZ spectra is chosen to have the same radiance as does the GRS at 226 cm-1. The other STZ selection has a significantly greater radiance, indicative of reduced cloudiness. Variations in the abundances of NH3 and PH3 are determined within the STZ, as a background for our studies of the GRS. Within the uncertainty of our measurements (-55% and +75%), the PH3 mixing ratio at 600 mbar is 3 x 10(-7), the same for all three selections. The NH3 mixing ratio profile in the pressure region between 300 and 600 mbar is the same within error (-25% and +50% at 300 mbar) for both STZ selections. In the GRS, however, NH3 is significantly depleted at 300 mbar, with an abundance of 25% that derived for the STZ selections. Since the GRS is believed to be a region of strong vertical transport, our finding of a depletion of NH3 below the tropopause within the GRS is particularly unexpected. One of the STZ selections has a temperature-pressure profile similar to that of the GRS below the 300-mbar level

  10. Velocity and vorticity measurements of Jupiter's Great Red Spot using automated cloud feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, David S.; Banfield, Don; Gierasch, Peter; Showman, Adam P.

    2007-05-01

    We have produced mosaics of the Great Red Spot (GRS) using images taken by the Galileo spacecraft in May 2000, and have measured the winds of the GRS using an automated algorithm that does not require manual cloud tracking. Our technique yields a high-density, regular grid of wind velocity vectors that is advantageous over a limited number of scattered wind vectors that result from manual cloud tracking. The high-velocity collar of the GRS is clearly seen from our velocity vector map, and highest wind velocities are measured to be around 170 m s -1. The high resolution of the mosaics has also enabled us to map turbulent eddies inside the chaotic central region of the GRS, similar to those mapped by Sada et al. [Sada, P.V., Beebe, R.F., Conrath, B.J., 1996. Icarus 119, 311-335]. Using the wind velocity measurements, we computed particle trajectories around the GRS as well as maps of relative and absolute vorticities. We have discovered a narrow ring of cyclonic vorticity that surrounds the main anti-cyclonic high-velocity collar. This narrow ring appears to correspond to a ring surrounding the GRS that is bright in 5 μm [Terrile, R.J., Beebe, R.F., 1979. Science 204, 948-951]. It appears that this cyclonic ring is not a transient feature of the GRS, as we have discovered it in a re-analysis of Galileo data taken in 1996 first analyzed by Vasavada et al. [Vasavada, A.R., and 13 colleagues, 1998. Icarus 135, 265-275]. We also calculate how absolute vorticity changes as a function of latitude along a trajectory around the GRS and compare these measurements to similar ones performed by Dowling and Ingersoll [Dowling, T.E., Ingersoll, A.P., 1988. J. Atmos. Sci. 45, 1380-1396] using Voyager data. We show no dramatic evolution in the structure of the GRS since the Voyager era except for additional evidence for a counter-rotating GRS core, an increase in velocity in the main velocity collar, and an overall decrease in the length of the GRS.

  11. Spectral feature of 31 December 1981 gamma-ray burst not confirmed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Share, G. H.; Chupp, E. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Matz, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of a gamma ray burst at 01:37 UT on December 31, 1981 using the SMM gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) are compared with those made by the Konus instruments on Veneras 11-14. Burst time profiles, photon spectra, and detector energy loss spectra for three time intervals are compared for the GRS and the Konus instruments. It is concluded that the SMM spectra exhibit no evidence for the presence of emission features reported by the Konus group.

  12. Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score: a novel tool to discriminate monogenic and type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, K A; Oram, R A; Flanagan, S E; De Franco, E; Colclough, K; shepherd, M; Ellard, S

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing patients with monogenic diabetes from Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is important for correct diagnosis, treatment and to select patients for gene discovery studies. We assessed whether a T1D genetic risk score (T1D-GRS) generated from T1D-associated common genetic variants provides a novel way to discriminate monogenic diabetes from T1D. The T1D-GRS was highly discriminative of proven MODY (n=805) and T1D (n=1963) (ROC-AUC=0.87). A T1D-GRS of >0.280 (>50th T1D centile) was indicative of T1D (94% specificity, 50% sensitivity). We then analyzed the T1D-GRS in 242 White-European patients with neonatal diabetes (NDM) who had been tested for all known neonatal diabetes genes. Monogenic NDM was confirmed in 90%, 59% and 8% in patients with GRS <5th T1D centile, 50-75th T1D centile and >75th T1D centile, respectively. Applying a GRS 50th T1D centile cut-off in 48 NDM patients with no known genetic cause, identified those most likely to have a novel monogenic etiology by highlighting patients with probable early-onset T1D (GRS >50th T1D centile) who were diagnosed later, had less syndromic presentation but had additional autoimmune features compared to proven monogenic NDM. The T1D-GRS is a novel tool to improve the use of biomarkers in the discrimination of monogenic diabetes from T1D. PMID:27207547

  13. Integration and Evaluation of a Position Sensor with Continuous Read-Out for use with the Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling Gamma Ray Spectrometer System

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The EMWD-GRS technology was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration consisted of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation-producing contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled waste retention basin. These boreholes passed near previously sampled locations where concentrations of contaminant levels of cesium had been measured. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling were compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples. The demonstration of the EMWD-GRS was a complete success. The results show general agreement between the soil sampling and EMWD-GRS techniques for CS-137. It was recognized that the EMWD-GRS tool would better satisfy our customers' needs if the instrument location could be continuously monitored. During the demonstration at SRS, an electromagnetic beacon with a walkover monitor (Subsite{reg_sign}) was used to measure bit location at depth. To use a beacon locator drilling must be stopped, thus it is normally only used when a new section of pipe was added. The location of contamination could only be estimated based on the position of the EMED-GRS package and the distance between locator beacon readings. A continuous location system that would allow us to know the location of each spectrum as it is obtained is needed.

  14. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

    2011-06-01

    In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage.

  15. Highly Strong and Elastic Graphene Fibres Prepared from Universal Graphene Oxide Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoji; Hou, Chengyi; Shao, Yuanlong; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Zhu, Meifang

    2014-01-01

    Graphene fibres are continuously prepared from universal graphene oxide precursors by a novel hydrogel-assisted spinning method. With assistance of a rolling process, meters of ribbon-like GFs, or GRs with improved conductivity, tensile strength, and a long-range ordered compact layer structure are successfully obtained. Furthermore, we refined our spinning process to obtained elastic GRs with a mixing microstructure and exceptional elasticity, which may provide a platform for electronic skins and wearable electronics, sensors, and energy devices. PMID:24576869

  16. Type 1 Diabetes Genetic Risk Score: A Novel Tool to Discriminate Monogenic and Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kashyap A; Oram, Richard A; Flanagan, Sarah E; De Franco, Elisa; Colclough, Kevin; Shepherd, Maggie; Ellard, Sian; Weedon, Michael N; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2016-07-01

    Distinguishing patients with monogenic diabetes from those with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is important for correct diagnosis, treatment, and selection of patients for gene discovery studies. We assessed whether a T1D genetic risk score (T1D-GRS) generated from T1D-associated common genetic variants provides a novel way to discriminate monogenic diabetes from T1D. The T1D-GRS was highly discriminative of proven maturity-onset diabetes of young (MODY) (n = 805) and T1D (n = 1,963) (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.87). A T1D-GRS of >0.280 (>50th T1D centile) was indicative of T1D (94% specificity, 50% sensitivity). We then analyzed the T1D-GRS of 242 white European patients with neonatal diabetes (NDM) who had been tested for all known NDM genes. Monogenic NDM was confirmed in 90, 59, and 8% of patients with GRS <5th T1D centile, 50-75th T1D centile, and >75th T1D centile, respectively. Applying a GRS 50th T1D centile cutoff in 48 NDM patients with no known genetic cause identified those most likely to have a novel monogenic etiology by highlighting patients with probable early-onset T1D (GRS >50th T1D centile) who were diagnosed later and had less syndromic presentation but additional autoimmune features compared with those with proven monogenic NDM. The T1D-GRS is a novel tool to improve the use of biomarkers in the discrimination of monogenic diabetes from T1D. PMID:27207547

  17. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between a genetic risk score of obesity and BMI in two US populations

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K.; Smith, Caren E.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and BMI in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and to replicate findings in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 US Caucasian participants from GOLDN and 2035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and <0.001 in GOLDN, MESA and meta-analysis, respectively). SFA intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although to determine the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs. PMID:24794412

  18. Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey`s quaternions, and RRQM

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-02-01

    The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive`s {open_quotes}Menshevik{close_quotes} position); (2) the author`s bit-string {open_quotes}Theory of Everything{close_quotes} (which Clive has dubbed {open_quotes}Bolshevik{close_quotes}); (3) Manthey`s cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence.

  19. Lifestyle and Metformin Ameliorate Insulin Sensitivity Independently of the Genetic Burden of Established Insulin Resistance Variants in Diabetes Prevention Program Participants.

    PubMed

    Hivert, Marie-France; Christophi, Costas A; Franks, Paul W; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Ehrmann, David A; Kahn, Steven E; Horton, Edward S; Pollin, Toni I; Mather, Kieren J; Perreault, Leigh; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Knowler, William C; Florez, Jose C

    2016-02-01

    Large genome-wide association studies of glycemic traits have identified genetics variants that are associated with insulin resistance (IR) in the general population. It is unknown whether people with genetic enrichment for these IR variants respond differently to interventions that aim to improve insulin sensitivity. We built a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 17 established IR variants and effect sizes (weighted IR-GRS) in 2,713 participants of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) with genetic consent. We tested associations between the weighted IR-GRS and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) at baseline in all participants, and with change in ISI over 1 year of follow-up in the DPP intervention (metformin and lifestyle) and control (placebo) arms. All models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and waist circumference at baseline (plus baseline ISI for 1-year ISI change models). A higher IR-GRS was associated with lower baseline ISI (β = -0.754 [SE = 0.229] log-ISI per unit, P = 0.001 in fully adjusted models). There was no differential effect of treatment for the association between the IR-GRS on the change in ISI; higher IR-GRS was associated with an attenuation in ISI improvement over 1 year (β = -0.520 [SE = 0.233], P = 0.03 in fully adjusted models; all treatment arms). Lifestyle intervention and metformin treatment improved the ISI, regardless of the genetic burden of IR variants. PMID:26525880

  20. Development and Testing of Screen-Based and Psychometric Instruments for Assessing Resident Performance in an Operating Room Simulator

    PubMed Central

    McNeer, Richard R.; Dudaryk, Roman; Nedeff, Nicholas B.; Bennett, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Medical simulators are used for assessing clinical skills and increasingly for testing hypotheses. We developed and tested an approach for assessing performance in anesthesia residents using screen-based simulation that ensures expert raters remain blinded to subject identity and experimental condition. Methods. Twenty anesthesia residents managed emergencies in an operating room simulator by logging actions through a custom graphical user interface. Two expert raters rated performance based on these entries using custom Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Crisis Management Checklist (CMC) instruments. Interrater reliability was measured by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and internal consistency of the instruments was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Agreement between GRS and CMC was measured using Spearman rank correlation (SRC). Results. Interrater agreement (GRS: ICC = 0.825, CMC: ICC = 0.878) and internal consistency (GRS: alpha = 0.838, CMC: alpha = 0.886) were good for both instruments. Subscale analysis indicated that several instrument items can be discarded. GRS and CMC scores were highly correlated (SRC = 0.948). Conclusions. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that screen-based simulation can allow blinded assessment of performance. GRS and CMC instruments demonstrated good rater agreement and internal consistency. We plan to further test construct validity of our instruments by measuring performance in our simulator as a function of training level. PMID:27293430

  1. Association between genetic risk scoring for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with regional subcortical volumes.

    PubMed

    Caseras, X; Tansey, K E; Foley, S; Linden, D

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown coincident abnormal regional brain volume in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) compared with controls. Whether these abnormalities are genetically driven or explained by secondary effects of the disorder or environmental factors is unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between genetic risk scoring (GRS) for SCZ and BD with volume of brain areas previously shown to be different between these clinical groups and healthy controls. We obtained subcortical brain volume measures and GRS for SCZ and BD from a sample of 274 healthy volunteers (71.4% females, mean age 24.7 (s.d. 6.9)). Volume of the globus pallidus was associated with the shared GRS between SCZ and BD, and also with the independent GRS for each of these disorders. Volume of the amygdala was associated with the non-shared GRS between SCZ and BD, and with the independent GRS for BD. Our results for volume of the globus pallidus support the idea of SCZ and BD sharing a common underlying neurobiological abnormality associated with a common genetic risk for both these disorders. Results for volume of the amygdala, though, would suggest the existence of a distinct mechanism only associated with genetic risk for BD. Finally, the lack of association between genetic risk and volume of most subcortical structures suggests that the volumetric differences reported in patient-control comparisons may not be genetically driven, but a consequence of the disorder or co-occurring environmental factors. PMID:26645627

  2. Association between genetic risk scoring for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with regional subcortical volumes

    PubMed Central

    Caseras, X; Tansey, K E; Foley, S; Linden, D

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown coincident abnormal regional brain volume in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) compared with controls. Whether these abnormalities are genetically driven or explained by secondary effects of the disorder or environmental factors is unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between genetic risk scoring (GRS) for SCZ and BD with volume of brain areas previously shown to be different between these clinical groups and healthy controls. We obtained subcortical brain volume measures and GRS for SCZ and BD from a sample of 274 healthy volunteers (71.4% females, mean age 24.7 (s.d. 6.9)). Volume of the globus pallidus was associated with the shared GRS between SCZ and BD, and also with the independent GRS for each of these disorders. Volume of the amygdala was associated with the non-shared GRS between SCZ and BD, and with the independent GRS for BD. Our results for volume of the globus pallidus support the idea of SCZ and BD sharing a common underlying neurobiological abnormality associated with a common genetic risk for both these disorders. Results for volume of the amygdala, though, would suggest the existence of a distinct mechanism only associated with genetic risk for BD. Finally, the lack of association between genetic risk and volume of most subcortical structures suggests that the volumetric differences reported in patient–control comparisons may not be genetically driven, but a consequence of the disorder or co-occurring environmental factors. PMID:26645627

  3. Investigations of the Occurrence of Gentamicin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Buckwold, Frederick J.; Albritton, William L.; Ronald, Allan R.; Lertzman, Joy; Henriksen, Ruby

    1979-01-01

    During the 19-month period from June 1976 to December 1977, 90 patients became colonized or infected with gentamicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (GRS). Of 63 adults, 56 had hospital-acquired GRS, whereas only 9 of 27 children had hospital-acquired GRS (P < 0.001). The other 7 adults and 18 children had GRS present on admission. More than half of those who acquired GRS in the hospital had received prior aminoglycoside therapy. Attack rates were higher in adults than in children and significantly higher on the plastic surgery service than on any other adult service. Phage typing revealed a single-strain outbreak on the plastic surgery ward involving 11 patients, whereas other isolates were of several phage types. Community-acquired GRS occurred more frequently in rural native communities (P < 0.02) and may be related to the use of topical gentamicin. Of 17 native children, 10 were from the same area but there was no common phage type. Agar dilution minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing confirmed that all isolates were gentamicin resistant (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) and almost all were tobramycin resistant (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml). Although the MIC distribution between gentamicin disk-susceptible and -resistant strains was significantly different, MIC's for 90% of gentamicin disk-resistant strains were ≤8 μg of amikacin per ml, and MIC's for 92% of the strains were ≤4 μg of netilmicin per ml. PMID:371541

  4. Emergency medicine resident crisis resource management ability: a simulation-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Samuel; Horeczko, Timothy; Carlisle, Matthew; Barton, Joseph D.; Ng, Vivienne; Al-Somali, Sameerah; Bair, Aaron E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Simulation has been identified as a means of assessing resident physicians’ mastery of technical skills, but there is a lack of evidence for its utility in longitudinal assessments of residents’ non-technical clinical abilities. We evaluated the growth of crisis resource management (CRM) skills in the simulation setting using a validated tool, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). We hypothesized that the Ottawa GRS would reflect progressive growth of CRM ability throughout residency. Methods Forty-five emergency medicine residents were tracked with annual simulation assessments between 2006 and 2011. We used mixed-methods repeated-measures regression analyses to evaluate elements of the Ottawa GRS by level of training to predict performance growth throughout a 3-year residency. Results Ottawa GRS scores increased over time, and the domains of leadership, problem solving, and resource utilization, in particular, were predictive of overall performance. There was a significant gain in all Ottawa GRS components between postgraduate years 1 and 2, but no significant difference in GRS performance between years 2 and 3. Conclusions In summary, CRM skills are progressive abilities, and simulation is a useful modality for tracking their development. Modification of this tool may be needed to assess advanced learners’ gains in performance. PMID:25499769

  5. Influence of acid mine drainage on microbial communities in stream and groundwater samples at Guryong Mine, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaisoo; Koo, So-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Don; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ko, Dong-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2009-10-01

    The effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a stream and groundwater near an abandoned copper mine were characterized by physicochemical properties, bacterial community structure using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE), and microbial activity/diversity using Ecoplate technique. Based on DGGE fingerprints, the eubacterial community structures grouped into the stream water (GRS1, GRS2 and GRS3) and groundwater samples (GW1 and GW2), apparently based on differences in water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrate and sulfate. The most highly AMD-contaminated sample (GRS1) had additional α-Proteobacteria whereas the groundwater samples included additional β-Proteobacteria, suggesting the development of populations resistant to AMD toxicity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Community level physiological activities on the 31 Ecoplate substrates suggested that the activities decreased with increasing concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals derived from AMD. The Shannon index showed that microbial diversity was greatest in GRS2, and lowest in GRS1, and was probably related to the level of AMD.

  6. Development and Testing of Screen-Based and Psychometric Instruments for Assessing Resident Performance in an Operating Room Simulator.

    PubMed

    McNeer, Richard R; Dudaryk, Roman; Nedeff, Nicholas B; Bennett, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Medical simulators are used for assessing clinical skills and increasingly for testing hypotheses. We developed and tested an approach for assessing performance in anesthesia residents using screen-based simulation that ensures expert raters remain blinded to subject identity and experimental condition. Methods. Twenty anesthesia residents managed emergencies in an operating room simulator by logging actions through a custom graphical user interface. Two expert raters rated performance based on these entries using custom Global Rating Scale (GRS) and Crisis Management Checklist (CMC) instruments. Interrater reliability was measured by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and internal consistency of the instruments was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Agreement between GRS and CMC was measured using Spearman rank correlation (SRC). Results. Interrater agreement (GRS: ICC = 0.825, CMC: ICC = 0.878) and internal consistency (GRS: alpha = 0.838, CMC: alpha = 0.886) were good for both instruments. Subscale analysis indicated that several instrument items can be discarded. GRS and CMC scores were highly correlated (SRC = 0.948). Conclusions. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that screen-based simulation can allow blinded assessment of performance. GRS and CMC instruments demonstrated good rater agreement and internal consistency. We plan to further test construct validity of our instruments by measuring performance in our simulator as a function of training level. PMID:27293430

  7. Real-time detecting gelatinases activity in living cells by FRET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix by Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) not only enhances tumor invasion, but also affects tumor cell behaviour and leads to cancer progression. To monitor gelatinases (contain MMP2 and MMP9) activity in living cells, we constructed a vector that encoded a gelatinases recognition site (GRS) between citrine (mutation of EYFP Q69M) in N terminal and ECFP in C terminal. Because Gelatinases are secretory proteins and act outside of cell, an expressing vector displayed the fusion protein on cellular surface was used for this FRET gene probe. On expression of YFP-GRS-ECFP in MCF-7 cells that expressed no gelatinases, we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited ECFP to YFP within the YFP-GRS-ECFP molecule. However, the fusion protein YFP-GRS-ECFP was expressed in MDA-MB 453s cell line with high secretory gelatinases, so YFP-GRS-ECFP was cleaved by gelatinases, no such transfer of energy was detected and fluorescence signal disappeared in YFP channel since YFP protein was cut down. Moreover, Doxycycline, a MMP inhibitor, could make FRET signal increase and fluorescence signal appeared in YFP channel. Thus, the FRET probe YFP-GRS-ECFP can sensitively and reliably monitor gelatinases activation in living cells and can be used for screening MMP inhibitors.

  8. A comparison of genetic risk score with family history for estimating prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) testing is recommended by most authoritative groups for high-risk men including those with a family history of the disease. However, family history information is often limited by patient knowledge and clinician intake, and thus, many men are incorrectly assigned to different risk groups. Alternate methods to assess PCa risk are required. In this review, we discuss how genetic variants, referred to as PCa-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms, can be used to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS). GRS assigns a relatively unique value to all men based on the number of PCa-risk SNPs that an individual carries. This GRS value can provide a more precise estimate of a man's PCa risk. This is particularly relevant in situations when an individual is unaware of his family history. In addition, GRS has utility and can provide a more precise estimate of risk even among men with a positive family history. It can even distinguish risk among relatives with the same degree of family relationships. Taken together, this review serves to provide support for the clinical utility of GRS as an independent test to provide supplemental information to family history. As such, GRS can serve as a platform to help guide-shared decision-making processes regarding the timing and frequency of PCa testing and biopsies. PMID:27004541

  9. THE FAINT 'HEARTBEATS' OF IGR J17091-3624: AN EXCEPTIONAL BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Kalamkar, M.; Belloni, T.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Linares, M.; Curran, P. A.; Krimm, H.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that IGR J17091-3624 shows the {nu}, {rho}, {alpha}, {lambda}, {beta}, and {mu} classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the {chi} class, all occurring at 2-60 keV count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+105. The so-called {rho} class 'heartbeats' occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as {approx}100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+105. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR J17091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR J17091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known (<3 M{sub Sun }).

  10. The Faint "Heartbeats" of IGR J17091-3624: An Exceptional Black Hole Candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Linares, M.; VanDerKlis, M.; Wunands, R.; Curran, P. A.; Kalamkar, M.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Casella, P.; Krimm, H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR Jl7091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that JGR J17091-3624 shows the nu, rho, alpha, lambda, Beta, and mu classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the chi class, all occurring at 2-60 keY count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+\\05. The so-called rho class "heartbeats" occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as approx 100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+\\05. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR Jl7091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR Il7091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known( <3 solar M).

  11. Thermoelastic properties of grossular-andradite solid solution at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dawei; Kuang, Yunqian; Xu, Jingui; Li, Bo; Zhou, Wenge; Xie, Hongsen

    2016-09-01

    The pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) equation of state (EoS) of synthetic grossular (Grs)-andradite (And) solid-solution garnet sample have been measured at high temperature up to 900 K and high pressures up to 22.75 GPa for Grs50And50, by using in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and diamond anvil cell. Analysis of room-temperature P-V data to a third-order Birch-Murnaghan (BM) EoS yields: V 0 = 1706.8 ± 0.2 Å3, K 0 = 164 ± 2 GPa and K' 0 = 4.7 ± 0.5. Fitting of our P-V-T data by means of the high-temperature third-order BM EoS gives the thermoelastic parameters: V 0 = 1706.9 ± 0.2 Å3, K 0 = 164 ± 2 GPa, K' 0 = 4.7 ± 0.2, (∂K/∂T) P = -0.018 ± 0.002 GPa K-1, and α 0 = (2.94 ± 0.07) × 10-5 K-1. The results also confirm that grossular content increases the bulk modulus of the Grs-And join following a nearly ideal mixing model. The relation between bulk modulus and Grs mole fraction (X Grs) in this garnet join is derived to be K 0 (GPa) = (163.7 ± 0.7) + (0.14 ± 0.02) X Grs (R 2 = 0.985). Present results are also compared to previously studies determined the thermoelastic properties of Grs-And garnets.

  12. The Spatial Variation of Water and Ammonia near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjoraker, G. L.; Orton, G. S.; Collard, A. D.; Stromovsky, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    The CSHELL spectrometer at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility was used in August 1996 to observe Jupiter at 5.18 microns. This wavelength sounds the 3-8 bar region in Jupiter's deep troposphere. A 1-arcsec-wide slit was aligned east-west on Jupiter and stepped from north to south across the Great Red Spot (GRS). Within our spectral bandpass are absorption lines of NH3 and a hot band of CH4. Radiative transfer models indicate that the strength of the CH4 feature is anti-correlated with gaseous H2O between 3 and 6 bars. The CH4 feature is predicted to be very strong for H2O abundances less than 10ppm and it should vanish when H2O > 300ppm. The depths of the observed CH4 and NH3 absorption features varied dramatically near the GRS. The center and east side (planetocentric) of the GRS is dry in both volatiles as indicated by strong CH4 absorption and a weak NH3 line. The CH4 line vanishes and the NH3 feature grows stronger on the west side of the GRS. We interpret this as due to a real variation in both volatiles - H2O and NH3 - due to a common dynamical mechanism. Water clouds are expected to be accompanied by saturated gaseous H2O profiles between 3 and 5 bars. The Galileo imaging team (Banfield et al 1998 Icarus 135, p230) deduced the presence of a cloud near the 4-bar level northwest of the GRS. Our data indicate that this same region is volatile rich; thus the combination of the two datasets provides a compelling case for a water cloud at this location. The deep volatile abundance does not correlate with 5-micron continuum opacity near the GRS. This suggests that the spatial variation of the 5-micron flux near the GRS is due primarily to NH3 clouds, rather than H2O clouds.

  13. Utility of a Genetic Risk Score to Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events 1 Year After an Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Pooled Analysis of the RISCA, PRAXY, and TRIUMPH Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Labos, Christopher; Martinez, Sara C.; Leo Wang, Rui Hao; Lenzini, Petra A.; Pilote, Louise; Bogaty, Peter; Brophy, James M.; Engert, James C.; Cresci, Sharon; Thanassoulis, George

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists regarding the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS) in predicting recurrent cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We sought to determine whether a GRS would predict early recurrent cardiovascular events within 1 year of ACS. Methods & Results Participants admitted with acute coronary syndromes from the RISCA, PRAXY, and TRIUMPH cohorts, were genotyped for 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) in prior genome wide association studies. A 30 SNP CAD/MI GRS was constructed. The primary endpoint was defined as all-cause mortality, recurrent ACS or cardiac re-hospitalization within 1 year of ACS admission. Results across all cohorts for the 30 SNP CAD/MI GRS were pooled using a random-effects model. There were 1040 patients from the RISCA cohort, 691 patients from the PRAXY cohort, and 1772 patients from the TRIUMPH cohort included in the analysis and 389 occurrences of the primary endpoint of recurrent events at 1-year post-ACS. In unadjusted and fully adjusted analyses, a 30 SNP GRS was not significantly associated with recurrent events (HR per allele 0.97 (95%CI 0.91–1.03) for RISCA, HR 0.99 (95%CI 0.93–1.05) for PRAXY, 0.98 (95%CI 0.94–1.02) for TRIUMPH, and 0.98 (95%CI 0.95–1.01) for the pooled analysis). Addition of this GRS to the GRACE risk model did not significantly improve risk prediction. Conclusion The 30 MI SNP GRS was not associated with recurrent events 1-year post ACS in pooled analyses across cohorts and did not improve risk discrimination or reclassification indices. Our results suggest that the genetic etiology of early events post-ACS may differ from later events. PMID:26232166

  14. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Yiannakouris, Nikos; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ordovas, Jose M; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors (ConvRFs), including smoking, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), body mass index (BMI), physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Design A case–control study. Setting The general Greek population of the EPIC study. Participants and outcome measures 477 patients with medically confirmed incident CHD and 1271 controls participated in this study. We estimated the ORs for CHD by dividing participants at higher or lower GRS and, alternatively, at higher or lower ConvRF, and calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) as a measure of deviation from additivity. Results The joint presence of higher GRS and higher risk ConvRF was in all instances associated with an increased risk of CHD, compared with the joint presence of lower GRS and lower risk ConvRF. The OR (95% CI) was 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4) for smoking, 2.7 (1.9 to 3.8) for hypertension, 4.1 (2.8 to 6.1) for T2DM, 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) for lower physical activity, 2.0 (1.3 to 3.2) for high BMI and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. In all instances, RERI values were fairly small and not statistically significant, suggesting that the GRS and the ConvRFs do not have effects beyond additivity. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to CHD, operationalised through a multilocus GRS, and ConvRFs have essentially additive effects on CHD risk. PMID:24500614

  15. A weighted genetic risk score using all known susceptibility variants to estimate rheumatoid arthritis risk

    PubMed Central

    Yarwood, Annie; Han, Buhm; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Bowes, John; Lunt, Mark; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Plenge, Robert; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne; Eyre, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background There is currently great interest in the incorporation of genetic susceptibility loci into screening models to identify individuals at high risk of disease. Here, we present the first risk prediction model including all 46 known genetic loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was created using 45 RA non-human leucocyte antigen (HLA) susceptibility loci, imputed amino acids at HLA-DRB1 (11, 71 and 74), HLA-DPB1 (position 9) HLA-B (position 9) and gender. The wGRS was tested in 11 366 RA cases and 15 489 healthy controls. The risk of developing RA was estimated using logistic regression by dividing the wGRS into quintiles. The ability of the wGRS to discriminate between cases and controls was assessed by receiver operator characteristic analysis and discrimination improvement tests. Results Individuals in the highest risk group showed significantly increased odds of developing anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive RA compared to the lowest risk group (OR 27.13, 95% CI 23.70 to 31.05). The wGRS was validated in an independent cohort that showed similar results (area under the curve 0.78, OR 18.00, 95% CI 13.67 to 23.71). Comparison of the full wGRS with a wGRS in which HLA amino acids were replaced by a HLA tag single-nucleotide polymorphism showed a significant loss of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Our study suggests that in RA, even when using all known genetic susceptibility variants, prediction performance remains modest; while this is insufficiently accurate for general population screening, it may prove of more use in targeted studies. Our study has also highlighted the importance of including HLA variation in risk prediction models. PMID:24092415

  16. Genetic predisposition, Western dietary pattern, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in men123

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Zhang, Cuilin; van Dam, Rob M; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Background: A widely held hypothesis is that interactions between genetic predisposition and Western-type lifestyle contribute to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). No study has tested this hypothesis. Objective: The objective was to assess whether established genetic variants, mainly from genomewide association studies, modify dietary patterns in predicting diabetes risk. Design: We determined 10 polymorphisms in a prospective, nested, case-control study of 1196 diabetic and 1337 nondiabetic men. A genetic risk score (GRS) was generated by using an allele counting method. Baseline dietary intakes were collected by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. We used factor analysis to derive Western and “Prudent” dietary patterns from 40 food groups. Results: A significant interaction (P = 0.02) was observed between the GRS and Western dietary pattern. The multivariable odds ratios (ORs) of T2D across increasing quartiles for the Western dietary pattern were 1.00, 1.23 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.73), 1.49 (1.06,2.09), and 2.06 (1.48, 2.88) among men with a high GRS (≥12 risk alleles; P for trend = 0.01). The Western dietary pattern was not associated with diabetes risk among those with a lower GRS. In addition, we found that intakes of processed meat, red meat, and heme iron, which characterized the Western dietary pattern, showed significant interactions with GRS in relation to diabetes risk (P for interaction = 0.029, 0.02, and 0.0004, respectively). The diet-diabetes associations were more evident among men with a high GRS (≥12) than in those with a low GRS. Conclusion: Genetic predisposition may synergistically interact with a Western dietary pattern in determining diabetes risk in men. PMID:19279076

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; McCarthy, Jeanette; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Background Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) represent a potential resource for etiological and treatment research. GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes have been especially successful. To translate this success into a research tool, we developed and tested a “genetic risk score” (GRS) that summarizes an individual’s genetic predisposition to obesity. Methods Different GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes report different sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as the best genomic markers of obesity risk. Therefore, we applied a 3-stage approach that pooled results from multiple GWAS to select SNPs to include in our GRS: The 3 stages are (1) Extraction. SNPs with evidence of association are compiled from published GWAS; (2) Clustering. SNPs are grouped according to patterns of linkage disequilibrium; (3) Selection. Tag SNPs are selected from clusters that meet specific criteria. We applied this 3-stage approach to results from 16 GWAS of obesity-related phenotypes in European-descent samples to create a GRS. We then tested the GRS in the Atherosclerosis Risk in the Communities (ARIC) Study cohort (N=10,745, 55% female, 77% white, 23% African American). Results Our 32-locus GRS was a statistically significant predictor of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among ARIC whites (for BMI, r=0.13, p<1×10−30; for obesity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.57 [95% CI 0.55–0.58]). The GRS improved prediction of obesity (as measured by delta-AUC and integrated discrimination index) when added to models that included demographic and geographic information. FTO- and MC4R-linked SNPs, and a non-genetic risk assessment consisting of a socioeconomic index (p<0.01 for all comparisons). The GRS also predicted increased mortality risk over 17 years of follow-up. The GRS performed less well among African Americans. Conclusions The obesity GRS derived using our 3-stage approach is not useful for clinical risk prediction, but

  18. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiters Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Robert W.; Baines, Kevin H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.; Simon, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The high altitude of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) may enhance the upward flux of gaseous ammonia (NH3 ) into the high troposphere, where NH3 molecules can be photodissociated and initiate a chain of chemical reactions with downwelling acetylene molecules (C2H2 ). These reactions, experimentally studied earlier by (Ferris and Ishikawa [1987] Nature 326, 777-778) and (Ferris and Ishikawa [1988] J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312), produce chromophores that absorb in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In this work we photolyzed mixtures of NH3 and C2H2 using ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 214 nm and measured the spectral transmission of the deposited films in the visible region (400-740 nm). From these transmission data we estimated the imaginary indices of refraction. Assuming that ammonia grains at the top of the GRS clouds are coated with this material, we performed layered sphere and radiative transfer calculations to predict GRS reflection spectra. Comparison of those results with observed and previously unreported Cassini visible spectra and with true-color images of the GRS show that the unknown GRS chromophore is spectrally consistent with the coupled NH3-C2H2 photochemical products produced in our laboratory experiments. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy we infer that the chromophore-containing residue is composed of aliphatic azine, azo, and diazo compounds.

  19. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. PMID:27228010

  20. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Baines, K. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.; Simon, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high altitude of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) may enhance the upward flux of gaseous ammonia (NH3) into the high troposphere, where NH3 molecules can be photodissociated and initiate a chain of chemical reactions with downwelling acetylene molecules (C2H2). These reactions, experimentally studied earlier by (Ferris and Ishikawa [1987] Nature 326, 777-778) and (Ferris and Ishikawa [1988] J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312), produce chromophores that absorb in the visible and ultraviolet regions. In this work we photolyzed mixtures of NH3 and C2H2 using ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 214 nm and measured the spectral transmission of the deposited films in the visible region (400-740 nm). From these transmission data we estimated the imaginary indices of refraction. Assuming that ammonia grains at the top of the GRS clouds are coated with this material, we performed layered sphere and radiative transfer calculations to predict GRS reflection spectra. Comparison of those results with observed and previously unreported Cassini visible spectra and with true-color images of the GRS show that the unknown GRS chromophore is spectrally consistent with the coupled NH3-C2H2 photochemical products produced in our laboratory experiments. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy we infer that the chromophore-containing residue is composed of aliphatic azine, azo, and diazo compounds.

  1. Detection of human tumor cells by amplicon fusion site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR)

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Axel; Taube, Sylvia; Starke, Sven; Bergmann, Eckhard; Christiansen, Nina Merete; Christiansen, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Reliable diagnostic strategies for individuals with cancer demand practical methods for highly sensitive and specific detection of tumor cells. Amplification of genomic regions that include putative oncogenes is common in tumor cells of various types. Genomic array platforms offer the opportunity to identify and precisely map amplified genomic regions (ampGRs). The stable existence of these tumor cell–specific genomic aberrations during and after therapy, in theory, make ampGRs optimal targets for cancer diagnostics. In this study, we mapped ampGRs around the proto-oncogene MYCN of human neuroblastomas using a high-resolution tiling array (HR-TA). Based on the HR-TA data, we were able to precisely describe the telomeric and centromeric borders of the ampGRs and deduce virtual fusion sites of the joined ampGRs (amplicon fusion sites [AFSs]). These AFSs served as blueprints for the subsequent design of AFS bridging PCR assays (AFS-PCRs). Strikingly, these assays were absolutely tumor cell specific and capable of detecting 1 tumor cell in 1 × 106 to 8 × 106 control cells. We successfully proved the in vivo practicability of AFS-PCR by detecting and quantifying the specific AFS DNA of human MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas in the patients’ corresponding peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Thus, we believe AFS-PCR could become a powerful and nevertheless feasible personalized diagnostic tool applicable to a large number of cancer patients, including children with MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas. PMID:21293059

  2. Detection of human tumor cells by amplicon fusion site polymerase chain reaction (AFS-PCR).

    PubMed

    Weber, Axel; Taube, Sylvia; Starke, Sven; Bergmann, Eckhard; Christiansen, Nina Merete; Christiansen, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Reliable diagnostic strategies for individuals with cancer demand practical methods for highly sensitive and specific detection of tumor cells. Amplification of genomic regions that include putative oncogenes is common in tumor cells of various types. Genomic array platforms offer the opportunity to identify and precisely map amplified genomic regions (ampGRs). The stable existence of these tumor cell–specific genomic aberrations during and after therapy, in theory, make ampGRs optimal targets for cancer diagnostics. In this study, we mapped ampGRs around the proto-oncogene MYCN of human neuroblastomas using a high-resolution tiling array (HR-TA). Based on the HR-TA data, we were able to precisely describe the telomeric and centromeric borders of the ampGRs and deduce virtual fusion sites of the joined ampGRs (amplicon fusion sites [AFSs]). These AFSs served as blueprints for the subsequent design of AFS bridging PCR assays (AFS-PCRs). Strikingly, these assays were absolutely tumor cell specific and capable of detecting 1 tumor cell in 1 × 10(6) to 8 × 10(6) control cells. We successfully proved the in vivo practicability of AFS-PCR by detecting and quantifying the specific AFS DNA of human MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas in the patients’ corresponding peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. Thus, we believe AFS-PCR could become a powerful and nevertheless feasible personalized diagnostic tool applicable to a large number of cancer patients, including children with MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas.

  3. Charged Particle Induced Radiation damage of Germanium Detectors in Space: Two Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruekner, J.; Koenen, M.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Bailey, S. H.; Boynton W. V.

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MO GRS) was designed to measure gamma-rays emitted by the Martian surface. This gamma-ray emission is induced by energetic cosmic-ray particles penetrating the Martian surface and producing many secondary particles and gamma rays. The MO GRS consisted of an high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector with a passive cooler. Since radiation damage due to permanent bombardment of energetic cosmic ray particles (with energies up to several GeV) was expected for the MO GRS HPGe crystal, studies on radiation damage effects of HPGe crystals were carried on earth. One of the HPGe crystals (paradoxically called FLIGHT) was similar to the MO GRS crystal. Both detectors, MO GRS and FLIGHT, contained closed-end coaxial n-type HPGe crystals and had the same geometrical dimensions (5.6 x 5.6 cm). Many other parameters, such as HV and operation temperature, differed in space and on earth, which made it somewhat difficult to directly compare the performance of both detector systems. But among other detectors, detector FLIGHT provided many useful data to better understand radiation damage effects.

  4. Increased Gustatory Response Score in Obesity and Association Levels with IL-6 and Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Remla, Nesrine; Hadjidj, Zeyneb; Ghezzaz, Kamel; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Aribi, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the circulating IL-6 and leptin levels with taste alteration in young obese patients. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in thirty obese patients and thirty age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results. Circulating levels of IL-6 and leptin were significantly increased in obese patients than in controls. However, catalase and ORAC levels were significantly decreased in obese patients compared to controls. Additionally, obese participants had high scores for the detection of fats (gustatory response scores [GRS]; p < 0.001). Moreover, IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with GRS alteration among patients with GRS 4 (resp., OR =17.5 [95% CI, 1.56–193.32; p = 0.007]; OR = 16 [95% CI, 1.69–151.11; p = 0.006]). For the Mantel-Haenszel common odds ratio estimate (MH OR), IL-6 and leptin were strongly associated with obesity, in patients with either GRS 4 or GRS > 4 (resp., MH OR = 8.77 [95% CI, 2.06–37.44; p = 0.003]; MH OR = 5.76 [95% CI, 1.64–20.24; p = 0.006]). Conclusions. In a low grade inflammation linked to obesity, taste alteration is associated with high levels of IL-6 and leptin. PMID:27413547

  5. Lack of Gene-Diuretic Interactions on the Risk of Incident Gout: the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying; Curhan, Gary; Merriman, Tony; Plenge, Robert; Kraft, Peter; Choi, Hyon K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diuretic-induced gout might occur only among those with a genetic predisposition to hyperuricemia, as suggested by a recent study with 108 self-reported gout cases. Methods We examined the role of urate genes on the risk of diuretic-induced incident gout in 6850 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and in 4,223 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Two published genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated using urate-associated SNPs for eight genes (GRS8) and for 29 genes (GRS29). Results Our analyses included 727 and 354 confirmed incident gout cases in the HPFS and NHS, respectively. The multivariate RR for diuretic use was 2.20 and 1.69 among those with a GRS8 < and ≥ the median (p for interaction=0.27). The corresponding RRs using GRS29 were 2.19 and 1.88 (p for interaction=0.40). The lack of interaction persisted in the NHS (all p values >0.20) and in our analyses limited to those with hypertension in both cohorts. SLC22A11 (OAT4) showed a significant interaction only among women but in the opposite direction to the recent study. Conclusion In these large prospective studies, individuals with a genetic predisposition for hyperuricemia are not at a higher risk of developing diuretic-induced gout than those without. PMID:25667207

  6. LISA technology development using the UF precision torsion pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, Stephen; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2015-04-01

    LISA will directly observe low-frequency gravitational waves emitted by sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries. A laser interferometer will measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). The demanding acceleration noise requirement for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in the fall of 2015. At the University of Florida we are developing a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing GRS technology enhancements that may improve the performance and/or reduce the cost of the LISA GRS. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and consists of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. Some of the technologies that will be demonstrated by this facility include a novel TM charge control scheme based on ultraviolet LEDs, an all-optical TM position and attitude sensor, and drift mode operation. This presentation will describe the design of the torsion pendulum facility, its current acceleration noise performance, and the status of the GRS technologies under development.

  7. Testing new technologies for the LISA Gravitational Reference Senso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Apple, Stephen; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido

    2015-01-01

    LISA will directly observe low-frequency gravitational waves emitted by sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries. A laser interferometer will measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). The demanding acceleration noise requirement of < 3×10-15 m/sec2Hz1/2 for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in the summer of 2015. At the University of Florida we are developing a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing GRS technology enhancements and for understanding the dozens of acceleration noise sources that affect the performance of the GRS. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and consists of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. Some of the technologies that will be demonstrated by this facility include a novel TM charge control scheme based on ultraviolet LEDs, an all-optical TM position and attitude sensor, and drift mode operation. This presentation will describe the design of the torsion pendulum facility, its current acceleration noise performance, and the status of the GRS technologies under development.

  8. Standardization of Ga-68 by coincidence measurements, liquid scintillation counting and 4πγ counting.

    PubMed

    Roteta, Miguel; Peyres, Virginia; Rodríguez Barquero, Leonor; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Arenillas, Pablo; Balpardo, Christian; Rodrígues, Darío; Llovera, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    The radionuclide (68)Ga is one of the few positron emitters that can be prepared in-house without the use of a cyclotron. It disintegrates to the ground state of (68)Zn partially by positron emission (89.1%) with a maximum energy of 1899.1 keV, and partially by electron capture (10.9%). This nuclide has been standardized in the frame of a cooperation project between the Radionuclide Metrology laboratories from CIEMAT (Spain) and CNEA (Argentina). Measurements involved several techniques: 4πβ-γ coincidences, integral gamma counting and Liquid Scintillation Counting using the triple to double coincidence ratio and the CIEMAT/NIST methods. Given the short half-life of the radionuclide assayed, a direct comparison between results from both laboratories was excluded and a comparison of experimental efficiencies of similar NaI detectors was used instead. PMID:22421395

  9. The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI)

    PubMed

    Los Arcos JM; Bailador; Gonzalez; Gonzalez; Gorostiza; Ortiz; Sanchez; Shaw; Williart

    2000-03-01

    The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI) is being implemented by a reasearch team in the frame of a joint project between CIEMAT (Unidad de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes and Direccion de Informatica) and the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED, Departamento de Mecanica y Departamento de Fisica de Materiales). This paper presents the main objectives of BANDRRI, its dynamic and relational data base structure, interactive Web accessibility and its main radionuclide-related contents at this moment.

  10. Control Design of the Test Mass Release Mode for the LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montemurro, F.; Fichter, W.; Schlotterer, M.; Vitale, S.

    2006-11-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) onboard the LISA Pathfinder mission features two high precision Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRS). Each GRS encompasses a free floating cubic Test Mass (TM) surrounded by a capacitive housing. The electrodes, hosted by the housing, form a set of variable capacitors with the TM and are used both for TM sensing and suspension. Moreover, each GRS contains a Caging Mechanism which sustains the TM during launch. Before the science phase of the mission begins, each TM is set free and the control system enters the TM Release Mode. This paper presents the design of the TM Release Mode: it covers equipment modelling, actuation strategy selection, disturbances estimation, controller law definition, performance results, and stability and robustness analysis.

  11. A taste of the Drosophila gustatory receptors.

    PubMed

    Montell, Craig

    2009-08-01

    Insects such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, rely on contact chemosensation to detect nutrient-rich foods, to avoid consuming toxic chemicals, and to select mates and hospitable zones to deposit eggs. Flies sense tastants and nonvolatile pheromones through gustatory bristles and pegs distributed on multiple body parts including the proboscis, wing margins, legs, and ovipositor. The sensilla house gustatory receptor neurons, which express members of the family of 68 gustatory receptors (GRs). In contrast to mammalian chemosensation or Drosophila olfaction, which are initiated by receptors composed of dimers of one or two receptor types, the functional Drosophila GRs may include three or more subunits. Several GRs appear to be expressed in multiple cell types that are not associated with contact chemosensation raising the possibility that these proteins may have roles that extend beyond the detection of tastants and pheromones. PMID:19660932

  12. Reconciling different observations of the CO2 ice mass loading of the Martian north polar cap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haberle, R.M.; Mattingly, B.; Titus, T.N.

    2004-01-01

    The GRS measurements of the peak mass loading of the north polar CO2 ice cap on Mars are about 60% lower than those calculated from MGS TES radiation data and those inferred from the MOLA cap thicknesses. However, the GRS data provide the most accurate measurement of the mass loading. We show that the TES and MOLA data can be reconciled with the GRS data if (1) subsurface heat conduction and atmospheric heat transport are included in the TES mass budget calculations, and (2) the density of the polar deposits is ???600 kg m-3. The latter is much less than that expected for slab ice (???1600 kg m-3) and suggests that processes unique to the north polar region are responsible for the low cap density. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aizura, Aren Z

    2010-10-01

    Every year, hundreds of transgendered people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia travel to Thailand to undergo cosmetic and gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women (people assigned a male sex at birth who later identify as female). This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.

  14. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  15. Experimental Simulation of Buoyancy-Driven Vortical Flow in Jupiter Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmalbaf, Hady; Liu, Tianshu; Merati, Parviz

    2015-11-01

    This new experimental study on Geophysical Buoyancy-Driven Vortical Flow presents a new approach to model the Great Red Spot (GRS) that explains some feature of this phenomena that other classic approaches such as shallow layer model and deep layer model do not. The low velocity region at the center and the counter rotating system at the core that recently were observed by high resolution image processing methods, have never been justified before. This setup generates flow structures similar to the GRS's in the test zone and compares the results and suggests that a counter rotating flow structure at the lower altitude is the source of the GRS formation. PhD candidate/research assistant Dept of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Western Michigan University Kalamazoo MI 49008-5343 Room G-106 Fluids Lab T:(269)348-6229 F:(269)276-3421.

  16. Muscle dysmorphia, gender role stress, and sociocultural influences: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Readdy; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2011-06-01

    Our study explored the contribution of gender role stress (GRS) and sociocultural appearance demands to symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD) in a college sample of 219 women and 154 men. For women, five GRS subscales, sociocultural appearance demands, age, and frequency of aerobic exercise predicted MD symptoms (model R2 = .33; F(8,210) = 12.81, p < . 001); for men, only one GRS subscale, age, and sociocultural appearance demands predicted MD symptoms (model R2 = .40; F(3,150) = 9.52, p < .001). Post hoc analyses revealed that a small number of items explained a substantial portion of the variation, suggesting that MD may be more related to specific perceptions of pressure to attain an attractive body than to global gender role stress. PMID:21699111

  17. The effects of heat activation on Bacillus spore germination, with nutrients or under high pressure, with or without various germination proteins.

    PubMed

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E; Doona, Christopher J; Setlow, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75 °C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine-glucose-fructose-K(+) mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation.

  18. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit neighborhood health study

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene–environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10−7) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ∼3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene–environment interaction, for

  19. Interaction between polygenic risk for cigarette use and environmental exposures in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study.

    PubMed

    Meyers, J L; Cerdá, M; Galea, S; Keyes, K M; Aiello, A E; Uddin, M; Wildman, D E; Koenen, K C

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is influenced both by genetic and environmental factors. Until this year, all large-scale gene identification studies on smoking were conducted in populations of European ancestry. Consequently, the genetic architecture of smoking is not well described in other populations. Further, despite a rich epidemiologic literature focused on the social determinants of smoking, few studies have examined the moderation of genetic influences (for example, gene-environment interactions) on smoking in African Americans. In the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a sample of randomly selected majority African American residents of Detroit, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS), in which we combined top (P-value <5 × 10(-7)) genetic variants from a recent meta-analysis conducted in a large sample of African Americans. Using regression (effective n=399), we first tested for association between the GRS and cigarettes per day, attempting to replicate the findings from the meta-analysis. Second, we examined interactions with three social contexts that may moderate the genetic association with smoking: traumatic events, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood physical disorder. Among individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes, the GRS significantly predicted the number of cigarettes smoked per day and accounted for ~3% of the overall variance in the trait. Significant interactions were observed between the GRS and number of traumatic events experienced, as well as between the GRS and average neighborhood social cohesion; the association between genetic risk and smoking was greater among individuals who had experienced an increased number of traumatic events in their lifetimes, and diminished among individuals who lived in a neighborhood characterized by greater social cohesion. This study provides support for the utility of the GRS as an alternative approach to replication of common polygenic variation, and in gene-environment interaction, for smoking

  20. Gravitational Reference Sensor Technology Development at the University of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John; Chilton, Andrew; Chiani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Shelley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the most mature concept for detecting gravitational waves from space, consists of three Sun-orbiting spacecraft that form a million kilometer-scale equilateral triangle. Each spacecraft houses two free-floating test masses (TM), which are protected from disturbing forces so that they follow pure geodesics. A single TM together with its protective housing and associated components is referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). Laser interferometry is used to measure the minute variations in the distance, or light travel time, between these purely free-falling TMs, caused by gravitational waves. The demanding acceleration noise requirement of 3 x 10-15 m/sec^2Hz^1/2 for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in 2014. In order to increase U.S. competency in GRS technologies, various research activities at the University of Florida (UF) have been initiated. The first is the development of a nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing the GRS and for understanding the dozens of acceleration noise sources that affect the performance of the LISA GRS. The team at UF also collaborates with Stanford and NASA Ames on a small satellite mission that will test the performance of UV LEDs for ac charge control in space. This presentation will describe the design of the GRS testing facility at UF, the status of the UV LED small satellite mission, and plans for UF participation in the LISA Pathfinder mission.

  1. A Twelve-SNP Genetic Risk Score Identifies Individuals at Increased Risk for Future Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Gustav; Sjögren, Marketa; Lubitz, Steven A.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Louie, Judy Z.; Catanese, Joseph J.; Engström, Gunnar; Devlin, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent and there is a clinical need for biomarkers to identify individuals at higher risk for AF. Fixed throughout a life course and assayable early in life, genetic biomarkers may meet this need. Here, we investigate whether multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) together as an AF genetic risk score (AF-GRS) can improve prediction of one's risk for AF. Methods In 27,471 participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a prospective, community-based cohort, we used Cox models that adjusted for established AF risk factors to assess the association of AF-GRS with incident AF and ischemic stroke. Median follow-up was 14.4 years for incident AF and 14.5 years for ischemic stroke. The AF-GRS comprised 12 SNPs that had been previously shown to be associated with AF at genome-wide significance. Results During follow-up, 2,160 participants experienced a first AF event and 1,495 had a first ischemic stroke event. Participants in the top AF-GRS quintile were at increased risk for incident AF (HR = 2.00; 95%CI = 1.73 to 2.31; P=2.7×10−21) and ischemic stroke (HR = 1.23; 95%CI = 1.04 to 1.46; P=0.02) when compared with the bottom quintile. Addition of the AF-GRS to established AF risk factors modestly improved both discrimination and reclassification (P<0.0001 for both). Conclusions An AF-GRS can identify 20% of individuals who are at approximately two-fold increased risk for incident AF and at 23% increased risk for ischemic stroke. Targeting diagnostic or therapeutic interventions to this subset may prove clinically useful. PMID:25123217

  2. The Effects of Heat Activation on Bacillus Spore Germination, with Nutrients or under High Pressure, with or without Various Germination Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E.; Doona, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75°C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the l-asparagine–glucose–fructose–K+ mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation. PMID:25681191

  3. Female Behaviour Drives Expression and Evolution of Gustatory Receptors in Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Briscoe, Adriana D.; Macias-Muñoz, Aide; Kozak, Krzysztof M.; Walters, James R.; Yuan, Furong; Jamie, Gabriel A.; Martin, Simon H.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Mallet, James; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary plant compounds are strong deterrents of insect oviposition and feeding, but may also be attractants for specialist herbivores. These insect-plant interactions are mediated by insect gustatory receptors (Grs) and olfactory receptors (Ors). An analysis of the reference genome of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene, which feeds on passion-flower vines (Passiflora spp.), together with whole-genome sequencing within the species and across the Heliconius phylogeny has permitted an unprecedented opportunity to study the patterns of gene duplication and copy-number variation (CNV) among these key sensory genes. We report in silico gene predictions of 73 Gr genes in the H. melpomene reference genome, including putative CO2, sugar, sugar alcohol, fructose, and bitter receptors. The majority of these Grs are the result of gene duplications since Heliconius shared a common ancestor with the monarch butterfly or the silkmoth. Among Grs but not Ors, CNVs are more common within species in those gene lineages that have also duplicated over this evolutionary time-scale, suggesting ongoing rapid gene family evolution. Deep sequencing (∼1 billion reads) of transcriptomes from proboscis and labial palps, antennae, and legs of adult H. melpomene males and females indicates that 67 of the predicted 73 Gr genes and 67 of the 70 predicted Or genes are expressed in these three tissues. Intriguingly, we find that one-third of all Grs show female-biased gene expression (n = 26) and nearly all of these (n = 21) are Heliconius-specific Grs. In fact, a significant excess of Grs that are expressed in female legs but not male legs are the result of recent gene duplication. This difference in Gr gene expression diversity between the sexes is accompanied by a striking sexual dimorphism in the abundance of gustatory sensilla on the forelegs of H. melpomene, suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly genomes. PMID

  4. Predicting stroke through genetic risk functions: The CHARGE risk score project

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Fornage, Myriam; Bis, Joshua C; Choi, Seung Hoan; Psaty, Bruce M; Meigs, James B; Rao, Madhu; Nalls, Mike; Fontes, Joao D; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Ehret, Georg B.; Fox, Caroline S; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Schmidt, Helena; Lahti, Jari; Heckbert, Susan R; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Rotter, Jerome I; Taylor, Kent D; Folsom, Aaron R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rosamond, Wayne D; Shahar, Eyal; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Koudstaal, Peter J; Amin, Najaf; Wieberdink, Renske G.; Dehghan, Abbas; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; DeStefano, Anita L.; Debette, Stephanie; Xue, Luting; Beiser, Alexa; Wolf, Philip A.; DeCarli, Charles; Ikram, M. Arfan; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H; Longstreth, WT; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Beyond the Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS), prediction of future stroke may improve with a genetic risk score (GRS) based on Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with stroke and its risk factors. Methods The study includes four population-based cohorts with 2,047 first incident strokes from 22,720 initially stroke-free European origin participants aged 55 years and older, who were followed for up to 20 years. GRS were constructed with 324 SNPs implicated in stroke and 9 risk factors. The association of the GRS to first incident stroke was tested using Cox regression; the GRS predictive properties were assessed with Area under the curve (AUC) statistics comparing the GRS to age sex, and FSRS models, and with reclassification statistics. These analyses were performed per cohort and in a meta-analysis of pooled data. Replication was sought in a case-control study of ischemic stroke (IS). Results In the meta-analysis, adding the GRS to the FSRS, age and sex model resulted in a significant improvement in discrimination (All stroke: Δjoint AUC =0.016, p-value=2.3*10-6; IS: Δ joint AUC =0.021, p-value=3.7*10−7), although the overall AUC remained low. In all studies there was a highly significantly improved net reclassification index (p-values <10−4). Conclusions The SNPs associated with stroke and its risk factors result only in a small improvement in prediction of future stroke compared to the classical epidemiological risk factors for stroke. PMID:24436238

  5. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) haplotypes and the response to therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Leland J.; Im, KyungAh; Borg, Brian; Yang, Huiying; Liang, T. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects nearly 170 million individuals worldwide. Treatment of HCV with pegylated interferon-α-2a is successful in eradicating virus from only 30%–80% of those treated. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important cytokine involved in the immune response to infectious agents and in vitro studies suggest that host genetic variation, particularly haplotypes, may affect IL-6 expression. We examined the contribution of haplotypes in the IL-6 gene on sustained viral response (SVR) to therapy for chronic HCV infection. We observed the IL-6 T-T-G-G-G-G-C-A-G-A haplotype to be associated with a lower risk of achieving SVR among Caucasian Americans (CAs) (RR=0.80; 95%C.I.: 0.66– 0.98; p=0.0261). Using a sliding window approach, the rs1800797-(G)-rs1800796-(G)-rs1800795-(G) haplotype was associated with a reduced chance of SVR (RR=0.79; 95%C.I.: 0.66–0.94; p=0.0081), as was the rs1800796-(G)-rs1800795-(G)-rs2069830-(C) haplotype (RR=0.78; 95%C.I.: 0.66–0.94; p=0.0065) among CAs. Overall, the rs1800797-(G)-rs1800796-(G)-rs1800795-(G) haplotype was independently associated with a reduced chance of SVR (RR=0.78; 95% C.I.: 0.62–1.0; p=0.0489) after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Our findings further illustrate the complexity of IL-6 genetic regulation and the potential importance of haplotypes on IL-6 expression. Our findings provide additional support for the potential importance of genetic variation in the IL-6 gene and the response to HCV therapy. PMID:19387461

  6. ATP-dependent release of glucocorticoid receptors from the nuclear matrix.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y; DeFranco, D B

    1996-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) have the capacity to shuttle between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments, sharing that trait with other steroid receptors and unrelated nuclear proteins of diverse function. Although nuclear import of steroid receptors, like that of nearly all other karyophilic proteins examined to date, requires ATP, there appear to be different energetic requirements for export of proteins, including steroid receptors, from nuclei. In an attempt to reveal which steps, if any, in the nuclear export pathway utilized by steroid receptors require ATP, we have used indirect immunofluorescence to visualize GRs within cells subjected to a reversible ATP depletion. Under conditions which lead to >95% depletion of cellular ATP levels within 90 min, GRs remain localized within nuclei and do not efflux into the cytoplasm. Under analogous conditions of ATP depletion, transfected progesterone receptors are also retained within nuclei. Importantly, GRs which accumulate within nuclei of ATP-depleted cells are distinguished from nuclear receptors in metabolically active cells by their resistance to in situ extraction with a hypotonic, detergent-containing buffer. GRs in ATP-depleted cells are not permanently trapped in this nuclear compartment, as nuclear receptors rapidly regain their capacity to be extracted upon restoration of cellular ATP, even in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. More extensive extraction of cells with high salt and detergent, coupled with DNase I digestion, established that a significant fraction of GRs in ATP-depleted cells are associated with an RNA-containing nuclear matrix. Quantitative Western blot (immunoblot) analysis confirmed the dramatic increase in GR binding to the nuclear matrix of ATP-depleted cells, while confocal microscopy revealed that GRs are bound to the matrix throughout all planes of the nucleus. ATP depletion does not lead to wholesale collapse of nuclear proteins onto the matrix, as the interaction of a

  7. Relativistic geocentric satellite equations of motion in closed form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumberg, V. A.

    1992-04-01

    In extending the results of Brumberg & Kopejkin (1989) the relativistic (post-Newtonian) geocentric satellite equations of motion are given in closed form avoiding expansion in geocentric coordinates of a satellite. These equations may be applied for the description of motion of a distant Earth's satellite in DGRS or KGRS (dynamically or kinematically non-rotating geocentric reference system, respectively). As by-product of the transformation between BRS and GRS (barycentric and geocentric reference system, respectively) one obtains the relationship between BRS and GRS angular velocity of rotation of the Earth.

  8. Air pollution and diabetes association: Modification by type 2 diabetes genetic risk score.

    PubMed

    Eze, Ikenna C; Imboden, Medea; Kumar, Ashish; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Stolz, Daiana; Gerbase, Margaret W; Künzli, Nino; Pons, Marco; Kronenberg, Florian; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution (AP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Evidence on the impact of T2D genetic variants on AP susceptibility is lacking. Compared to single variants, joint genetic variants contribute substantially to disease risk. We investigated the modification of AP and diabetes association by a genetic risk score (GRS) covering 63 T2D genes in 1524 first follow-up participants of the Swiss cohort study on air pollution and lung and heart diseases in adults. Genome-wide data and covariates were available from a nested asthma case-control study design. AP was estimated as 10-year mean residential particulate matter <10μm (PM10). We computed count-GRS and weighted-GRS, and applied PM10 interaction terms in mixed logistic regressions, on odds of diabetes. Analyses were stratified by pathways of diabetes pathology and by asthma status. Diabetes prevalence was 4.6% and mean exposure to PM10 was 22μg/m(3). Odds of diabetes increased by 8% (95% confidence interval: 2, 14%) per T2D risk allele and by 35% (-8, 97%) per 10μg/m(3) exposure to PM10. We observed a positive interaction between PM10 and count-GRS on diabetes [ORinteraction=1.10 (1.01, 1.20)], associations being strongest among participants at the highest quartile of count-GRS [OR: 1.97 (1.00, 3.87)]. Stronger interactions were observed with variants of the GRS involved in insulin resistance [(ORinteraction=1.22 (1.00, 1.50)] than with variants related to beta-cell function. Interactions with count-GRS were stronger among asthma cases. We observed similar results with weighted-GRS. Five single variants near GRB14, UBE2E2, PTPRD, VPS26A and KCNQ1 showed nominally significant interactions with PM10 (P<0.05). Our results suggest that genetic risk for T2D may modify susceptibility to air pollution through alterations in insulin sensitivity. These results need confirmation in diabetes cohort consortia.

  9. Air pollution and diabetes association: Modification by type 2 diabetes genetic risk score.

    PubMed

    Eze, Ikenna C; Imboden, Medea; Kumar, Ashish; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Stolz, Daiana; Gerbase, Margaret W; Künzli, Nino; Pons, Marco; Kronenberg, Florian; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution (AP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Evidence on the impact of T2D genetic variants on AP susceptibility is lacking. Compared to single variants, joint genetic variants contribute substantially to disease risk. We investigated the modification of AP and diabetes association by a genetic risk score (GRS) covering 63 T2D genes in 1524 first follow-up participants of the Swiss cohort study on air pollution and lung and heart diseases in adults. Genome-wide data and covariates were available from a nested asthma case-control study design. AP was estimated as 10-year mean residential particulate matter <10μm (PM10). We computed count-GRS and weighted-GRS, and applied PM10 interaction terms in mixed logistic regressions, on odds of diabetes. Analyses were stratified by pathways of diabetes pathology and by asthma status. Diabetes prevalence was 4.6% and mean exposure to PM10 was 22μg/m(3). Odds of diabetes increased by 8% (95% confidence interval: 2, 14%) per T2D risk allele and by 35% (-8, 97%) per 10μg/m(3) exposure to PM10. We observed a positive interaction between PM10 and count-GRS on diabetes [ORinteraction=1.10 (1.01, 1.20)], associations being strongest among participants at the highest quartile of count-GRS [OR: 1.97 (1.00, 3.87)]. Stronger interactions were observed with variants of the GRS involved in insulin resistance [(ORinteraction=1.22 (1.00, 1.50)] than with variants related to beta-cell function. Interactions with count-GRS were stronger among asthma cases. We observed similar results with weighted-GRS. Five single variants near GRB14, UBE2E2, PTPRD, VPS26A and KCNQ1 showed nominally significant interactions with PM10 (P<0.05). Our results suggest that genetic risk for T2D may modify susceptibility to air pollution through alterations in insulin sensitivity. These results need confirmation in diabetes cohort consortia. PMID:27281273

  10. 2007 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference and Graduate Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Erich Grotewold

    2008-09-15

    Plant Metabolic Engineering is an emerging field that integrates a diverse range of disciplines including plant genetics, genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and cell biology. The Gordon-Kenan Graduate Research Seminar (GRS) in Plant Metabolic Engineering was initiated to provide a unique opportunity for future researcher leaders to present their work in this field. It also creates an environment allowing for peer-review and critical assessment of work without the intimidation usually associated with the presence of senior investigators. The GRS immediately precedes the Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Research Conference and will be for and by graduate students and post-docs, with the assistance of the organizers listed.

  11. Differences between brain structures in nuclear translocation and DNA binding of the glucocorticoid receptor during stress and the circadian cycle.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Pierre; Di Blasi, Francesco; Borrelli, Emiliana; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2004-04-01

    Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are transcription factors that, upon activation by glucocorticoids, translocate to the cell nucleus, and bind to specific response elements (GREs) in the promoter region of target genes. We analysed stress- and circadian-induced changes in nuclear translocation and GRE binding of GRs in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex of the rat brain. Nuclear translocation and binding to GRE were measured in nuclear extracts by Western blot and gel shift, respectively. When glucocorticoid levels were low, as during the light period of the circadian cycle, nuclear GRs and GRE binding were almost undetectable. However, the increase in glucocorticoid levels observed during the dark phase of the circadian cycle or after stress induced a massive nuclear translocation of GRs and GRE binding. These effects were corticosterone-dependent because they were suppressed by adrenalectomy and restored by the injection of corticosterone. Furthermore, GR translocation and GRE binding were of higher amplitude or lasted longer in the hippocampus than in the prefrontal cortex. By contrast, extracellular levels of glucocorticoids, measured by microdialysis in freely moving animals, were identical in the two structures. These results suggest that specific intracellular regulations of GR activity contribute to differentiate the effects of glucocorticoids in different regions of the brain. PMID:15078557

  12. Scientific Objectives of the Mars Surveyor 2001 Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, W. V.; Feldman, W. C.; Trombka, J. I.; d'Uston, C.; Mitrofanov, I.; Arnold, J. R.; Englert, P. A. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) is one of the instruments on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Orbiter, which is part of NASA's Mars-Surveyor program. The GRS is really an instrument suite consisting of the GRS, a neutron spectrometer (NS), and a high-energy neutron detector (FIEND). Each of these instruments/sensors are remotely mounted at different locations on the spacecraft and connect to a central electronics box. The GRS will achieve global mapping of the elemental composition of the surface and the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface. It is an updated design using the same technology as the lost Mars Observer mission. The Martian surface is continuously bombarded by cosmic ray particles; their interactions with the constituents of the soil produces nuclear reaction cascades with fast neutrons being the main secondaries. Those neutrons interact in turn with the nuclei of the elements that make up the soil and they eventually get slowed to thermal energies. In this process they leave the nuclei in an excited state that decays via the emission of characteristic gamma rays. All these processes are precisely known and have been simulated by means of numerical models. Thus, remote gamma-ray spectroscopy is a useful method for quantitatively measuring the geochemical composition of the surface down to a few tens of g/sq cm. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  13. Validity Evidence for the Interpretation and Use of Essential Elements of Communication Global Rating Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Nancy Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Clinical communication influences health outcomes, so medical schools are charged to prepare future physicians with the skills they need to interact effectively with patients. Communication leaders at The University of New Mexico School of Medicine (UNMSOM) developed The Essential Elements of Communication-Global Rating Scale (EEC-GRS) to…

  14. Gustatory receptors required for avoiding the insecticide L-canavanine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngseok; Kang, Min Jung; Shim, Jaewon; Cheong, Chae Uk; Moon, Seok Jun; Montell, Craig

    2012-01-25

    Insect survival depends on contact chemosensation to sense and avoid consuming plant-derived insecticides, such as L-canavanine. Members of a family of ∼60 gustatory receptors (GRs) comprise the main peripheral receptors responsible for taste sensation in Drosophila. However, the roles of most Drosophila GRs are unknown. In addition to GRs, a G protein-coupled receptor, DmXR, has been reported to be required for detecting L-canavanine. Here, we showed that GRs are essential for responding to L-canavanine and that flies missing DmXR displayed normal L-canavanine avoidance and L-canavanine-evoked action potentials. Mutations disrupting either Gr8a or Gr66a resulted in an inability to detect L-canavanine. We found that L-canavanine stimulated action potentials in S-type sensilla, which were where Gr8a and Gr66a were both expressed, but not in Gr66a-expressing sensilla that did not express Gr8a. L-canavanine-induced action potentials were also abolished in the Gr8a and Gr66a mutant animals. Gr8a was narrowly required for responding to L-canavanine, in contrast to Gr66a, which was broadly required for responding to other noxious tastants. Our data suggest that GR8a and GR66a are subunits of an L-canavanine receptor and that GR8a contributes to the specificity for L-canavanine. PMID:22279227

  15. Grassroot Soccer Resiliency Pilot Program: Building Resiliency through Sport-Based Education in Zambia and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock-Villada, Paola; DeCelles, Jeff; Banda, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    Grassroot Soccer (GRS), a U.S.-based nonprofit organization, designed a curriculum and sport-based teaching model to build resiliency, targeting boys and girls in Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa, where most children are reminded daily of the devastation caused by AIDS and where many face chronic and acute hardship. Collaborating…

  16. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  17. Identifying Young Gifted Children Using the Gifted Rating Scales Preschool/Kindergarten Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted preschool and kindergarten students. The Gifted Rating Scales-Preschool/Kindergarten Form (GRS-P) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. An examination of the standardization sample using…

  18. Genetic Association Analysis of Drusen Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joshua D.; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Li, Chun; Brantley, Milam; McGrath, Josephine; Agarwal, Anita; Scott, William K.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Kovach, Jaclyn; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Sanchez, Clara I.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration is a common form of vision loss affecting older adults. The etiology of AMD is multifactorial and is influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors. In this study, we examine how 19 common risk variants contribute to drusen progression, a hallmark of AMD pathogenesis. Methods Exome chip data was made available through the International AMD Genomics Consortium (IAMDGC). Drusen quantification was carried out with color fundus photographs using an automated drusen detection and quantification algorithm. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated per subject by summing risk allele counts at 19 common genetic risk variants weighted by their respective effect sizes. Pathway analysis of drusen progression was carried out with the software package Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. Results We observed significant correlation with drusen baseline area and the GRS in the age-related eye disease study (AREDS) dataset (ρ = 0.175, P = 0.006). Measures of association were not statistically significant between drusen progression and the GRS (P = 0.54). Pathway analysis revealed the cell adhesion molecules pathway as the most highly significant pathway associated with drusen progression (corrected P = 0.02). Conclusions In this study, we explored the potential influence of known common AMD genetic risk factors on drusen progression. Our results from the GRS analysis showed association of increasing genetic burden (from 19 AMD associated loci) to baseline drusen load but not drusen progression in the AREDS dataset while pathway analysis suggests additional genetic contributors to AMD risk. PMID:27116550

  19. The full repertoire of Drosophila gustatory receptors for detecting an aversive compound.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaewon; Lee, Youngseok; Jeong, Yong Taek; Kim, Yonjung; Lee, Min Goo; Montell, Craig; Moon, Seok Jun

    2015-11-16

    The ability to detect toxic compounds in foods is essential for animal survival. However, the minimal subunit composition of gustatory receptors required for sensing aversive chemicals in Drosophila is unknown. Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a plant-derived insecticide. Ectopic co-expression of Gr8a and Gr98b in Gr66a-expressing, bitter-sensing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) confers responsiveness to L-canavanine. Furthermore, misexpression of all three Grs enables salt- or sweet-sensing GRNs to respond to L-canavanine. Introduction of these Grs in sweet-sensing GRNs switches L-canavanine from an aversive to an attractive compound. Co-expression of GR8a, GR66a and GR98b in Drosophila S2 cells induces an L-canavanine-activated nonselective cation conductance. We conclude that three GRs collaborate to produce a functional L-canavanine receptor. Thus, our results clarify the full set of GRs underlying the detection of a toxic tastant that drives avoidance behaviour in an insect.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF URANIUM UNDER IRON-REDUCING CONDITIONS: REDUCTION OF UVI BY BIOGENIC FEII/FEIII HYDROXIDE (GREEN RUST)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Scherer, Michelle M.; Kemner, Kenneth M.

    2006-12-31

    The recent identification of green rusts (GRs) as products of the reduction of FeIII oxyhydroxides by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, coupled with the ability of synthetic (GR) to reduce UVI species to insoluble UO2, suggests that biogenic green rusts (BioGRs) may play an important role in the speciation (and thus mobility) of U in FeIII-reducing environments. The objective of our research was to examine the potential for BioGR to affect the speciation of U under FeIII-reducing conditions. To meet this objective, we designed and executed a hypothesis-driven experimental program to identify key factors leading to the formation of BioGRs as products of dissimilatory FeIII reduction, to determine the key factors controlling the reduction of UVI to UIV by GRs, and to identify the resulting U-bearing mineral phases. The results of this research significantly increase our understanding of the coupling of biotic and abiotic processes with respect to the speciation of U in iron-reducing environments. In particular, the reduction of UVI to UIV by BioGR with the subsequent formation of U-bearing mineral phases may be effective for immobilizing U in suboxic subsurface environments. This information has direct applications to contaminant transport modeling and bioremediation engineering for natural or enhanced in situ remediation of subsurface contamination.

  1. Changing values of farm animal genomic resources. from historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of Animal genetic resources (AnGRs) and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA) and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of “in situ condition” has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions. PMID:26442098

  2. “I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood”: Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Malebranche, David J.; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental–family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention. PMID:24832150

  3. "I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood": Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention.

  4. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of absolute color on Jupiter from Hubble Space Telescope imaging data shows that the Great Red Spot (GRS) is not the reddest region of the planet. Rather, a transient red cyclone visible in 1995 and the North Equatorial Belt both show redder spectra than the GRS (i.e., more absorption at blue and green wavelengths). This cyclone is unique among vortices in that it is intensely colored yet low altitude, unlike the GRS. Temporal analysis shows that the darkest regions of the NEB are relative constant in color from 1995 to 2008, while the slope of the GRS core may vary slightly. Principal component analysis shows several spectral components are needed, in agreement with past work, and further highlights the differences between regions. These color differences may be indicative of the same chromophore(s) under different conditions, such as mixing with white clouds, longer UV irradiation at higher altitude, and thermal processing, or may indicate abundance variations in colored compounds. A single compound does not fit the spectrum of any region well and mixes of multiple compounds including NH4SH, photolyzed NH3, hydrocarbons, and possibly P4, are likely needed to fully match each spectrum.

  5. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  6. [The application of genetic risk score in genetic studies of complex human diseases].

    PubMed

    Dayan, Niu; Weili, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Complex diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, asthma, obesity and cancer have spread across the globe and become the predominant cause of death. There are growing concerns over the role of genetic susceptibility in pathogenesis of complex diseases. However, the related susceptibility genes and sequence variations are still unknown. To elucidate the genetic basis of complex diseases, researchers have identified a large number of genetic variants associated with complex diseases through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies recently. The identification of these causal and/or associated variants promotes the development of approaches for complex diseases prediction and prevention. Genetic risk score (GRS), an emerging method for exploring correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical phenotypes of complex diseases, integrates weak effects of multiple SNPs and dramatically enhances predictability of complex diseases by gene polymorphisms. This method has been applied successfully in genetic studies of many complex diseases. Here we focus on the introduction of the computational methods and evaluation criteria of GRS, enumerate a series of achievements through GRS application, discuss some limitations during application, and finally prospect the future of GRS.

  7. Identifying Gifted Students in Puerto Rico: Validation of a Spanish Translation of the Gifted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Javier I.; Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of correctly identifying gifted students is a critical issue. Gifted education in Puerto Rico is marked by insufficient support and a lack of appropriate identification methods. This study examined the reliability and validity of a Spanish translation of the "Gifted Rating Scales-School Form" (GRS) with a sample of 618…

  8. A summary of major activities of the UNH and NRL groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    The major activities of the SMM GRS team members at the University of New Hampshire and the Naval Research Laboratory since the last semi-annual report are summarized. An updated list of published papers and invited papers or contributed papers presented at scientific meetings is provided.

  9. Joint Effect of Genotypic and Phenotypic Features of Reproductive Factors on Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanwei; Risch, Harvey; Lu, Lingeng; Irwin, Melinda L.; Mayne, Susan; Schwartz, Peter; Rutherford, Thomas; De Vivo, Immaculata; Yu, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged estrogen exposure is believed to be the major cause of endometrial cancer. As possible markers of estrogen exposure, various menstrual and reproductive features, e.g., ages at menarche and menopause, are found to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. In order to assess their combined effects on endometrial cancer, we created the total number of menstrual cycles (TNMC) that a woman experienced during her life or up to the time of study and two genetic risk scores, GRS1 for age at menarche and GRS2 for age at menopause. Comparing 482 endometrial cancer patients with 571 population controls, we found TNMC was associated with endometrial cancer risk and that the association remained statistically significant after adjustment for obesity and other potential confounders. Risk increased by about 2.5% for every additional 10 menstrual-cycles. The study also showed that high GRS1 was associated with increased risk. This relationship, however, was attenuated after adjustment for obesity. Our study further indicated women with high TNMC and GRS1 had twice the risk of endometrial cancer compared to those low in both indices. Our results provided additional support to the involvement of estrogen exposure in endometrial cancer risk with regard to genetic background and lifestyle features. PMID:26498156

  10. Monte Carlo calibration of the SMM gamma ray spectrometer for high energy gamma rays and neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Reppin, C.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft was primarily designed and calibrated for nuclear gamma ray line measurements, but also has a high energy mode which allows the detection of gamma rays at energies above 10 MeV and solar neutrons above 20 MeV. The GRS response has been extrapolated until now for high energy gamma rays from an early design study employing Monte Carlo calculations. The response to 50 to 600 MeV solar neutrons was estimated from a simple model which did not consider secondary charged particles escaping into the veto shields. In view of numerous detections by the GRS of solar flares emitting high energy gamma rays, including at least two emitting directly detectable neutrons, the calibration of the high energy mode in the flight model has been recalculated by the use of more sophisticated Monte Carlo computer codes. New results presented show that the GRS response to gamma rays above 20 MeV and to neutrons above 100 MeV is significantly lower than the earlier estimates.

  11. "I Always Felt I Had to Prove My Manhood": Homosexuality, Masculinity, Gender Role Strain, and HIV Risk Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Errol Lamont; Bogart, Laura M; Smith, Katherine C; Malebranche, David J; Ellen, Jonathan; Schuster, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We explored gender role strain (GRS) arising from conflict between homosexuality and cultural conceptions of masculinity among young Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. We conducted a categorical analysis (a qualitative, 3-stage, iterative analysis) of data from studies conducted in 2001 to 2006, which interviewed 35 men aged 18 to 24 years in 3 New York cities and Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Participants described rigid, often antihomosexual expectations of masculinity from their families, peers, and communities. Consistent with GRS, this conflict and pressure to conform to these expectations despite their homosexuality led to psychological distress, efforts to camouflage their homosexuality, and strategies to prove their masculinity. Participants believed this conflict and the associated experience of GRS might increase HIV risk through social isolation, poor self-esteem, reduced access to HIV prevention messages, and limited parental-family involvement in sexuality development and early sexual decision-making. Conclusions. Antihomosexual expectations of masculinity isolate young Black MSM during a developmental stage when interpersonal attachments are critical. GRS may influence sexual risk behavior and HIV risk and be an important target for HIV prevention. PMID:24832150

  12. Genetic predisposition to coronary heart disease and stroke using an additive genetic risk score: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the extent to which the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) increases in relation to a genetic risk score (GRS) that additively integrates the influence of high-risk alleles in nine documented single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CHD, and to examine whether t...

  13. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two U.S. populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher pr...

  14. Clinical validity and utility of genetic risk scores in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Helfand, Brian T; Kearns, James; Conran, Carly; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Current issues related to prostate cancer (PCa) clinical care (e.g., over-screening, over-diagnosis, and over-treatment of nonaggressive PCa) call for risk assessment tools that can be combined with family history (FH) to stratify disease risk among men in the general population. Since 2007, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 100 SNPs associated with PCa susceptibility. In this review, we discuss (1) the validity of these PCa risk-associated SNPs, individually and collectively; (2) the various methods used for measuring the cumulative effect of multiple SNPs, including genetic risk score (GRS); (3) the adequate number of SNPs needed for risk assessment; (4) reclassification of risk based on evolving numbers of SNPs used to calculate genetic risk, (5) risk assessment for men from various racial groups, and (6) the clinical utility of genetic risk assessment. In conclusion, data available to date support the clinical validity of PCa risk-associated SNPs and GRS in risk assessment among men with or without FH. PCa risk-associated SNPs are not intended for diagnostic use; rather, they should be used the same way as FH. Combining GRS and FH can significantly improve the performance of risk assessment. Improved risk assessment may have important clinical utility in targeted PCa testing. However, clinical trials are urgently needed to evaluate this clinical utility as well as the acceptance of GRS by patients and physicians. PMID:27297129

  15. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  16. GH safety workshop position paper: A critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, t...

  17. Genetic risk score does not correlate with body mass index of Latina women in a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Kimberly R; Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B; Dietrich, Mary S; Morgan, Thomas M; Barkin, Shari L

    2011-10-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects Latina women. Common genetic variants are convincingly associated with body mass index (BMI) and may be used to create genetic risk scores (GRS) for obesity that could define genetically influenced forms of obesity and alter response to clinical trial interventions. The objective of this study was (1) to identify the frequency and effect size of common obesity genetic variants in Latina women; (2) to determine the clinical utility of a GRS for obesity with Latina women participating in a community-based clinical trial. DNA from 85 Latina women was genotyped for eight genetic variants previously associated with BMI in Caucasians, but not yet assessed in Latina populations. The main outcome measure was the correlation of GRS (sum of eight risk alleles) with BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat. A majority (83%) of participants had a BMI ≥25. Frequency of loci near FTO, MC4R, and GNPDA2 were lower in Latinas than Caucasians. Association of each locus with BMI was lower in Latinas compared to Caucasians with no significant correlations with BMI. We conclude that an eight locus GRS has no clinical utility for explaining obesity or predicting response to intervention in Latina women participating in a clinical trial.

  18. The full repertoire of Drosophila gustatory receptors for detecting an aversive compound.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaewon; Lee, Youngseok; Jeong, Yong Taek; Kim, Yonjung; Lee, Min Goo; Montell, Craig; Moon, Seok Jun

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect toxic compounds in foods is essential for animal survival. However, the minimal subunit composition of gustatory receptors required for sensing aversive chemicals in Drosophila is unknown. Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a plant-derived insecticide. Ectopic co-expression of Gr8a and Gr98b in Gr66a-expressing, bitter-sensing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) confers responsiveness to L-canavanine. Furthermore, misexpression of all three Grs enables salt- or sweet-sensing GRNs to respond to L-canavanine. Introduction of these Grs in sweet-sensing GRNs switches L-canavanine from an aversive to an attractive compound. Co-expression of GR8a, GR66a and GR98b in Drosophila S2 cells induces an L-canavanine-activated nonselective cation conductance. We conclude that three GRs collaborate to produce a functional L-canavanine receptor. Thus, our results clarify the full set of GRs underlying the detection of a toxic tastant that drives avoidance behaviour in an insect. PMID:26568264

  19. What's New in Facilities at the U.S. Department of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falken, Andrea Suarez

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (ED) has been hard at work developing criteria and award infrastructure for U.S. Department of Education Green Ribbon Schools (ED-GRS), the first comprehensive and coordinated federal policy in the three institutional roles of schools related to environment, health and education. The ground-breaking award…

  20. The full repertoire of Drosophila gustatory receptors for detecting an aversive compound

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jaewon; Lee, Youngseok; Jeong, Yong Taek; Kim, Yonjung; Lee, Min Goo; Montell, Craig; Moon, Seok Jun

    2015-01-01

    The ability to detect toxic compounds in foods is essential for animal survival. However, the minimal subunit composition of gustatory receptors required for sensing aversive chemicals in Drosophila is unknown. Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a plant-derived insecticide. Ectopic co-expression of Gr8a and Gr98b in Gr66a-expressing, bitter-sensing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) confers responsiveness to L-canavanine. Furthermore, misexpression of all three Grs enables salt- or sweet-sensing GRNs to respond to L-canavanine. Introduction of these Grs in sweet-sensing GRNs switches L-canavanine from an aversive to an attractive compound. Co-expression of GR8a, GR66a and GR98b in Drosophila S2 cells induces an L-canavanine-activated nonselective cation conductance. We conclude that three GRs collaborate to produce a functional L-canavanine receptor. Thus, our results clarify the full set of GRs underlying the detection of a toxic tastant that drives avoidance behaviour in an insect. PMID:26568264

  1. Changing values of farm animal genomic resources. from historical breeds to the Nagoya Protocol.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of Animal genetic resources (AnGRs) and claims that over the course of history they have been conceptually transformed from economic, ecologic and scientific life forms into political objects, reflecting in the way in which any valuation of AnGRs is today inherently imbued with national politics and its values enacted by legally binding global conventions. Historically, the first calls to conservation were based on the economic, ecological and scientific values of the AnGR. While the historical arguments are valid and still commonly proposed values for conservation, the AnGR have become highly politicized since the adoption of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the subsequent Interlaken Declaration, the Global Plan for Action (GPA) and the Nagoya Protocol. The scientific and political definitions of the AnGRs were creatively reshuffled within these documents and the key criteria by which they are now identified and valued today were essentially redefined. The criteria of "in situ condition" has become the necessary starting point for all valuation efforts of AnGRs, effectively transforming their previous nature as natural property and global genetic commons into objects of national concern pertaining to territorially discrete national genetic landscapes, regulated by the sovereign powers of the parties to the global conventions. PMID:26442098

  2. Soft gamma-ray repeaters: Black holes in giant molecular clouds?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1994-01-01

    The BATSE discovery of the near-simultaneous turnon of a soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) source, located to apporximately 5 deg and possibly SGR 1900+14, and a new hard X-ray transient GRS 1915+105 (discovered by Granat), suggests they may be associated. Published positions for both the SGR and GRS sources do not preclude spatial coincidence for the two sources, or the GRS transient may be associated with another SGR source. We outline a model for SGR sources as due to thermal instabilities in spherical accretion onto black holes in giant molecular clouds. We show that the SIGMA position for the GRS 1915 source is consistent with it being in a giant molecular cloud and compare this possible identification with that suggested for the `1E' source in the Galactic center region. Our model would predict a strong concentration of SGR sources toward the Galactic plane (consistent with both SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20) and so would require the only other known 'SGR,' the GRB 790305 superburst source apparently in the Large Magellanic Cloud, to be fundamentally different. We note that the recently discovered radio/infrared counterpart for the SGR 1806-20 may be consistent with this model, rather than the compact suprernova remnant/pulsar model suggested by Kulkarni and Frail.

  3. Genetic Risk of Progression to Type 2 Diabetes and Response to Intensive Lifestyle or Metformin in Prediabetic Women With and Without a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Shannon D.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Florez, Jose C.; Dabelea, Dana; Franks, Paul W.; Dagogo-Jack, Sam; Kim, Catherine; Knowler, William C.; Christophi, Costas A.; Ratner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial investigated rates of progression to diabetes among adults with prediabetes randomized to treatment with placebo, metformin, or intensive lifestyle intervention. Among women in the DPP, diabetes risk reduction with metformin was greater in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared with women without GDM but with one or more previous live births. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We asked if genetic variability could account for these differences by comparing β-cell function and genetic risk scores (GRS), calculated from 34 diabetes-associated loci, between women with and without histories of GDM. RESULTS β-Cell function was reduced in women with GDM. The GRS was positively associated with a history of GDM; however, the GRS did not predict progression to diabetes or modulate response to intervention. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that a diabetes-associated GRS is associated with development of GDM and may characterize women at risk for development of diabetes due to β-cell dysfunction. PMID:24271189

  4. Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Genetic Score and Risk of Decreased Renal Function and Albuminuria: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Huang, Ya; Xie, Lan; Hao, Mingli; Zhao, Zhiyun; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Sun, Yimin; Qi, Lu; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for dysregulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria. However, whether the association is causal remains unestablished. Research Design and Methods We performed a Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis in 11,502 participants aged 40 and above, from a well-defined community in Shanghai during 2011–2013, to explore the causal association between T2D and decreased estimated GFR (eGFR) and increased urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). We genotyped 34 established T2D common variants in East Asians, and created a T2D-genetic risk score (GRS). We defined decreased eGFR as eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 and increased uACR as uACR ≥ 30 mg/g. We used the T2D_GRS as the instrumental variable (IV) to quantify the causal effect of T2D on decreased eGFR and increased uACR. Results Each 1-standard deviation (SD, 3.90 points) increment in T2D_GRS was associated with decreased eGFR: odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.30). In the MR analysis, we demonstrated a causal relationship between genetically determined T2D and decreased eGFR (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.88, P = 0.0003). When grouping the genetic loci according to their relations with either insulin secretion (IS) or insulin resistance (IR), we found both IS_GRS and IR_GRS were significantly related to decreased eGFR (both P < 0.02). In addition, T2D_GRS and IS_GRS were significantly associated with Log-uACR (both P = 0.04). Conclusion Our results provide novel evidence for a causal association between T2D and decreased eGFR by using MR approach in a Chinese population. PMID:27211558

  5. Associations of Genetic Risk Score with Obesity and Related Traits and the Modifying Effect of Physical Activity in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingwen; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lu, Ling; Zong, Geng; Gan, Wei; Ye, Xingwang; Sun, Liang; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with BMI, predominantly in European ancestry (EA) populations. However, associations of these loci with obesity and related traits have not been well described in Chinese Hans. This study aimed to investigate whether BMI-associated loci are, individually and collectively, associated with adiposity-related traits and obesity in Chinese Hans and whether these associations are modified by physical activity (PA). Subjects/Methods We genotyped 28 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a population-based cohort including 2,894 unrelated Han Chinese. Genetic risk score (GRS), EA and East Asian ancestry (EAA) GRSs were calculated by adding BMI-increasing alleles based on all, EA and EAA identified SNPs, respectively. Interactions of GRS and PA were examined by including the interaction-term in the regression model. Results Individually, 26 of 28 SNPs showed directionally consistent effects on BMI, and associations of four loci (TMEM18, PCSK1, BDNF and MAP2K5) reached nominal significance (P<0.05). The GRS was associated with increased BMI, trunk fat and body fat percentages; and increased risk of obesity and overweight (all P<0.05). Effect sizes (0.11 vs. 0.17 kg/m2) and explained variance (0.90% vs. 1.45%) of GRS for BMI tended to be lower in Chinese Hans than in Europeans. The EA GRS and EAA GRS were associated with 0.11 and 0.13 kg/m2 higher BMI, respectively. In addition, we found that PA attenuated the effect of the GRS on BMI (Pinteraction = 0.022). Conclusions Our observations suggest that the combined effect of obesity-susceptibility loci on BMI tended to be lower in Han Chinese than in EA. The overall, EA and EAA GRSs exert similar effects on adiposity traits. Genetic predisposition to increased BMI is attenuated by PA in this population of Han Chinese. PMID:24626232

  6. Population-standardized genetic risk score: the SNP-based method of choice for inherited risk assessment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conran, Carly A; Na, Rong; Chen, Haitao; Jiang, Deke; Lin, Xiaoling; Zheng, S Lilly; Brendler, Charles B; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Several different approaches are available to clinicians for determining prostate cancer (PCa) risk. The clinical validity of various PCa risk assessment methods utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been established; however, these SNP-based methods have not been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the three most commonly used SNP-based methods for PCa risk assessment. Participants were men (n = 1654) enrolled in a prospective study of PCa development. Genotypes of 59 PCa risk-associated SNPs were available in this cohort. Three methods of calculating SNP-based genetic risk scores (GRSs) were used for the evaluation of individual disease risk such as risk allele count (GRS-RAC), weighted risk allele count (GRS-wRAC), and population-standardized genetic risk score (GRS-PS). Mean GRSs were calculated, and performances were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and positive predictive value (PPV). All SNP-based methods were found to be independently associated with PCa (all P < 0.05; hence their clinical validity). The mean GRSs in men with or without PCa using GRS-RAC were 55.15 and 53.46, respectively, using GRS-wRAC were 7.42 and 6.97, respectively, and using GRS-PS were 1.12 and 0.84, respectively (all P < 0.05 for differences between patients with or without PCa). All three SNP-based methods performed similarly in discriminating PCa from non-PCa based on AUC and in predicting PCa risk based on PPV (all P > 0.05 for comparisons between the three methods), and all three SNP-based methods had a significantly higher AUC than family history (all P < 0.05). Results from this study suggest that while the three most commonly used SNP-based methods performed similarly in discriminating PCa from non-PCa at the population level, GRS-PS is the method of choice for risk assessment at the individual level because its value (where 1.0 represents average population risk) can be easily interpreted regardless

  7. Fluorine-bearing grossular-rich garnet - an indicator for UHP - LT metamorphism of metagranitoids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, M.

    2002-12-01

    Melting experiments on biotite-phengite-gneiss at pressures of 1.5 to 4.5 GPa and temperatures of 675°C to 1000°C were performed to clarify the phase assemblages of S-type metagranitoids at high pressures. The starting material used was S-type granitic biotite-phengite-gneiss, which represents the country rock for the pyrope-quarztites from the Dora-Maira-Massif, Western Italy. These pyrope-quarztites contain the silicate ellenbergerite, which, together with the growth of pyrope, indicates P and T of more than 3 GPa and 700°C. Experimental evidence confirms that the presence of ellenbergerite indicates high water activities. For this reason all experiments were performed with a water fraction of 1.9 to 9.9 wt.%. The most important phases in the run products are melt, K-feldspar / K-felspar-hydrate, coesite / quartz, phengite, jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, almandine-grossular garnet, epidote, rutile and sphene. At pressures between 3.5 and 4.5 GPa and T of less than 675°C or 775°C, respectively, small, rare crystals of grossular garnets were observed. These grs-rich garnets form corona structures around the alm-grs garnets of the starting material. EMP-analysis shows that these garnets contain up to 1.2 wt.% F at 700°C, decreasing with temperature to 0.4 wt.% at 750°C. A garnet analysis from a run at 4 GPa and 700°C yields 69% grossular, 8% hydrogrossular, 6% fluorgrossular, 6% almandine, 2% spessartine and 3% andradite. The coexistence of such garnets with sphene and epidote in HP experiments shows that the high-pressure reaction sph + zoi -> grs + coe + H2O suggested by Chopin et al (1991) is not relevant at these conditions. From Chopin et al (1991) and Schertl at al (1991) it is known that there are extremely rare inclusions of grs-rich garnet in plagioclase and alm-grs garnet in the original rock, but these authors unfortunately did not analyze the F content. During a reinvestigation of the biotite-phengite gneiss grs inclusions in sph were found that

  8. Riparian land-use and rehabilitation: impact on organic matter input and soil respiration.

    PubMed

    Oelbermann, Maren; Raimbault, Beverly A; Gordon, A M

    2015-02-01

    Rehabilitated riparian zones in agricultural landscapes enhance environmental integrity and provide environmental services such as carbon (C) sequestration. This study quantified differences in organic matter input, soil biochemical characteristics, and soil respiration in a 25-year-old rehabilitated (RH), grass (GRS), and undisturbed natural forest (UNF) riparian zone. Input from herbaceous vegetation was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the GRS riparian zone, whereas autumnal litterfall was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the RH riparian zone. Soil bulk density was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the RH riparian zone, but its soil chemical characteristics were significantly lower. Soil respiration rates were lowest (P < 0.05) in the UNF (106 C m(-2) h(-1)), followed by the RH (169 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and GRS (194 C m(-2) h(-1)) riparian zones. Soil respiration rates were significantly different (P < 0.05) among seasons, and were significantly correlated with soil moisture (P < 0.05) and soil temperature (P < 0.05) in all riparian zones. Soil potential microbial activity indicated a significantly different (P < 0.05) response of the microbial metabolic diversity in the RH compared to the GRS and UNF riparian zones, and principle component analysis showed a distinct difference in microbial activity among the riparian land-use systems. Rehabilitating degraded riparian zones with trees rather than GRS is a more effective approach to the long-term mitigation of CO2. Therefore, the protection of existing natural/undisturbed riparian forests in agricultural landscapes is equally important as their rehabilitation with trees, given their higher levels of soil organic C and lower soil respiration rates. PMID:25432450

  9. Gene × Physical Activity Interactions in Obesity: Combined Analysis of 111,421 Individuals of European Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V.; Ali, Ashfaq; Kurbasic, Azra; Shungin, Dmitry; Ericson, Ulrika; Koivula, Robert W.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Rose, Lynda M.; Ganna, Andrea; Qi, Qibin; Stančáková, Alena; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Elks, Cathy E.; Curhan, Gary; Jensen, Majken K.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Allin, Kristine H.; Jørgensen, Torben; Brage, Soren; Langenberg, Claudia; Aadahl, Mette; Grarup, Niels; Linneberg, Allan; Paré, Guillaume; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Boehnke, Michael; Hamsten, Anders; Mohlke, Karen L.; Pasquale, Louis T.; Pedersen, Oluf; Scott, Robert A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ingelsson, Erik; Laakso, Markku; Hansen, Torben; Qi, Lu; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Hallmans, Göran; Hu, Frank B.; Renström, Frida; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal. PMID:23935507

  10. Polymorphisms in MIR137HG and microRNA-137-regulated genes influence gray matter structure in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, C; Gupta, C N; Chen, J; Patel, V; Calhoun, V D; Ehrlich, S; Wang, L; Bustillo, J R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Turner, J A

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that microRNA-137 (miR-137) is involved in the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Risk variants within the miR-137 host gene (MIR137HG) influence structural and functional brain-imaging measures, and miR-137 itself is predicted to regulate hundreds of genes. We evaluated the influence of a MIR137HG risk variant (rs1625579) in combination with variants in miR-137-regulated genes TCF4, PTGS2, MAPK1 and MAPK3 on gray matter concentration (GMC). These genes were selected based on our previous work assessing schizophrenia risk within possible miR-137-regulated gene sets using the same cohort of subjects. A genetic risk score (GRS) was determined based on genotypes of these four schizophrenia risk-associated genes in 221 Caucasian subjects (89 schizophrenia patients and 132 controls). The effects of the rs1625579 genotype with the GRS of miR-137-regulated genes in a three-way interaction with diagnosis on GMC patterns were assessed using a multivariate analysis. We found that schizophrenia subjects homozygous for the MIR137HG risk allele show significant decreases in occipital, parietal and temporal lobe GMC with increasing miR-137-regulated GRS, whereas those carrying the protective minor allele show significant increases in GMC with GRS. No correlations of GMC and GRS were found in control subjects. Variants within or upstream of genes regulated by miR-137 in combination with the MIR137HG risk variant may influence GMC in schizophrenia-related regions in patients. Given that the genes evaluated here are involved in protein kinase A signaling, dysregulation of this pathway through alterations in miR-137 biogenesis may underlie the gray matter loss seen in the disease. PMID:26836412

  11. Weighted Genetic Risk Scores and Prediction of Weight Gain in Solid Organ Transplant Populations

    PubMed Central

    Saigi-Morgui, Núria; Quteineh, Lina; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Crettol, Severine; Kutalik, Zoltán; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Bibert, Stéphanie; Beckmann, Sonja; Mueller, Nicolas J; Binet, Isabelle; van Delden, Christian; Steiger, Jürg; Mohacsi, Paul; Stirnimann, Guido; Soccal, Paola M.; Pascual, Manuel; Eap, Chin B

    2016-01-01

    Background Polygenic obesity in Solid Organ Transplant (SOT) populations is considered a risk factor for the development of metabolic abnormalities and graft survival. Few studies to date have studied the genetics of weight gain in SOT recipients. We aimed to determine whether weighted genetic risk scores (w-GRS) integrating genetic polymorphisms from GWAS studies (SNP group#1 and SNP group#2) and from Candidate Gene studies (SNP group#3) influence BMI in SOT populations and if they predict ≥10% weight gain (WG) one year after transplantation. To do so, two samples (nA = 995, nB = 156) were obtained from naturalistic studies and three w-GRS were constructed and tested for association with BMI over time. Prediction of 10% WG at one year after transplantation was assessed with models containing genetic and clinical factors. Results w-GRS were associated with BMI in sample A and B combined (BMI increased by 0.14 and 0.11 units per additional risk allele in SNP group#1 and #2, respectively, p-values<0.008). w-GRS of SNP group#3 showed an effect of 0.01 kg/m2 per additional risk allele when combining sample A and B (p-value 0.04). Models with genetic factors performed better than models without in predicting 10% WG at one year after transplantation. Conclusions This is the first study in SOT evaluating extensively the association of w-GRS with BMI and the influence of clinical and genetic factors on 10% of WG one year after transplantation, showing the importance of integrating genetic factors in the final model. Genetics of obesity among SOT recipients remains an important issue and can contribute to treatment personalization and prediction of WG after transplantation. PMID:27788139

  12. Polymorphisms in MIR137HG and microRNA-137-regulated genes influence gray matter structure in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wright, C; Gupta, C N; Chen, J; Patel, V; Calhoun, V D; Ehrlich, S; Wang, L; Bustillo, J R; Perrone-Bizzozero, N I; Turner, J A

    2016-02-02

    Evidence suggests that microRNA-137 (miR-137) is involved in the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Risk variants within the miR-137 host gene (MIR137HG) influence structural and functional brain-imaging measures, and miR-137 itself is predicted to regulate hundreds of genes. We evaluated the influence of a MIR137HG risk variant (rs1625579) in combination with variants in miR-137-regulated genes TCF4, PTGS2, MAPK1 and MAPK3 on gray matter concentration (GMC). These genes were selected based on our previous work assessing schizophrenia risk within possible miR-137-regulated gene sets using the same cohort of subjects. A genetic risk score (GRS) was determined based on genotypes of these four schizophrenia risk-associated genes in 221 Caucasian subjects (89 schizophrenia patients and 132 controls). The effects of the rs1625579 genotype with the GRS of miR-137-regulated genes in a three-way interaction with diagnosis on GMC patterns were assessed using a multivariate analysis. We found that schizophrenia subjects homozygous for the MIR137HG risk allele show significant decreases in occipital, parietal and temporal lobe GMC with increasing miR-137-regulated GRS, whereas those carrying the protective minor allele show significant increases in GMC with GRS. No correlations of GMC and GRS were found in control subjects. Variants within or upstream of genes regulated by miR-137 in combination with the MIR137HG risk variant may influence GMC in schizophrenia-related regions in patients. Given that the genes evaluated here are involved in protein kinase A signaling, dysregulation of this pathway through alterations in miR-137 biogenesis may underlie the gray matter loss seen in the disease.

  13. A new torsion pendulum for testing enhancements to the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John; Chilton, A.; Ciani, G.; Mueller, G.; Olatunde, T.; Shelley, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the most mature concept for observing gravitational waves from space, consists of three Sun-orbiting spacecraft that form a million km-scale equilateral triangle. Each spacecraft houses two free-floating test masses (TM), which are protected from disturbing forces so that they follow pure geodesics in spacetime. A single test mass together with its housing and associated components is referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). Laser interferometry is used to measure the minute variations in the distance between these free-falling TMs, caused by gravitational waves. The demanding acceleration noise requirement of 3E-15 m/sec^2Hz^1/2 for the LISA GRS has motivated a rigorous testing campaign in Europe and a dedicated technology mission, LISA Pathfinder, scheduled for launch in 2015. Recently, efforts have begun in the U.S. to design and assemble a new, nearly thermally noise limited torsion pendulum for testing GRS technology enhancements and for understanding the dozens of acceleration noise sources that affect the performance of the GRS. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and will consist of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. The GRS technology enhancements under development include a novel TM charge control scheme based on ultraviolet LEDs, simplified capacitive readout electronics, and a six degree-of-freedom, all-optical TM sensor. This presentation will describe the design of the torsion pendulum facility, its expected performance, and the potential technology enhancements.

  14. Riparian land-use and rehabilitation: impact on organic matter input and soil respiration.

    PubMed

    Oelbermann, Maren; Raimbault, Beverly A; Gordon, A M

    2015-02-01

    Rehabilitated riparian zones in agricultural landscapes enhance environmental integrity and provide environmental services such as carbon (C) sequestration. This study quantified differences in organic matter input, soil biochemical characteristics, and soil respiration in a 25-year-old rehabilitated (RH), grass (GRS), and undisturbed natural forest (UNF) riparian zone. Input from herbaceous vegetation was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the GRS riparian zone, whereas autumnal litterfall was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the RH riparian zone. Soil bulk density was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the RH riparian zone, but its soil chemical characteristics were significantly lower. Soil respiration rates were lowest (P < 0.05) in the UNF (106 C m(-2) h(-1)), followed by the RH (169 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and GRS (194 C m(-2) h(-1)) riparian zones. Soil respiration rates were significantly different (P < 0.05) among seasons, and were significantly correlated with soil moisture (P < 0.05) and soil temperature (P < 0.05) in all riparian zones. Soil potential microbial activity indicated a significantly different (P < 0.05) response of the microbial metabolic diversity in the RH compared to the GRS and UNF riparian zones, and principle component analysis showed a distinct difference in microbial activity among the riparian land-use systems. Rehabilitating degraded riparian zones with trees rather than GRS is a more effective approach to the long-term mitigation of CO2. Therefore, the protection of existing natural/undisturbed riparian forests in agricultural landscapes is equally important as their rehabilitation with trees, given their higher levels of soil organic C and lower soil respiration rates.

  15. Polymorphisms in MIR137HG and microRNA-137-regulated genes influence gray matter structure in schizophrenia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wright, C.; Gupta, C. N.; Chen, J.; Patel, V.; Calhoun, V. D.; Ehrlich, S.; Wang, L.; Bustillo, J. R.; Perrone-Bizzozero, N. I.; Turner, J. A.

    2016-02-02

    Evidence suggests that microRNA-137 (miR-137) is involved in the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Risk variants within the miR-137 host gene (MIR137HG) influence structural and functional brain-imaging measures, and miR-137 itself is predicted to regulate hundreds of genes. We evaluated the influence of a MIR137HG risk variant (rs1625579) in combination with variants in miR-137- regulated genes TCF4, PTGS2, MAPK1 and MAPK3 on gray matter concentration (GMC). These genes were selected based on our previous work assessing schizophrenia risk within possible miR-137-regulated gene sets using the same cohort of subjects. A genetic risk score (GRS) was determined based on genotypes of thesemore » four schizophrenia risk-associated genes in 221 Caucasian subjects (89 schizophrenia patients and 132 controls). The effects of the rs1625579 genotype with the GRS of miR-137-regulated genes in a three-way interaction with diagnosis on GMC patterns were assessed using a multivariate analysis. We found that schizophrenia subjects homozygous for the MIR137HG risk allele show significant decreases in occipital, parietal and temporal lobe GMC with increasing miR-137-regulated GRS, whereas those carrying the protective minor allele show significant increases in GMC with GRS. No correlations of GMC and GRS were found in control subjects. Variants within or upstream of genes regulated by miR-137 in combination with the MIR137HG risk variant may influence GMC in schizophrenia-related regions in patients. Furthermore, given that the genes evaluated here are involved in protein kinase A signaling, dysregulation of this pathway through alterations in miR-137 biogenesis may underlie the gray matter loss seen in the disease.« less

  16. A Genetic Risk Score Comprising Known Venous Thromboembolism Loci is Associated with Chronic Venous Disease in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wassel, Christina L; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Callas, Peter W.; Denenberg, Julie O.; Durda, Peter; Reiner, Alexander P.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Allison, Matthew A.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Criqui, Michael H.; Cushman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic venous disease is common and shares some risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Several genetic loci have been discovered and well-replicated for VTE in European descent populations. We examined associations of a genetic risk score (GRS), comprising known VTE loci, with chronic venous disease. Methods The San Diego Population Study (SDPS) is a multi-ethnic cohort that evaluated 2404 men and women aged 29–91 from 1994 – 1998 for chronic venous disease. The current study includes 1447 participants genotyped for 33 variants in 22 established VTE risk loci. Using these variants, unweighted and weighted GRS were constructed. Logistic regression was used to examine associations with venous disease. Results In non-Hispanic Whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, and Asians, each standard deviation increment higher of the unweighted 33-SNP GRS was associated with a 1.45-fold (95% CI (1.26, 1.67)), 1.74-fold (1.18, 2.55), a 1.80-fold (1.30, 2.51), and 1.88-fold (1.30, 2.73) greater odds, respectively, for moderate plus severe disease. The difference in c-statistics was significant between a known venous risk factor model and a model adding the 33-SNP GRS for Whites (p=0.008), African-Americans (0.03), and Hispanics (p=0.04), with marginal significance in Asians (p=0.06). Conclusions GRS comprising variants primarily from VTE findings in European descent populations were associated with chronic venous disease across all race/ethnic groups, and contributed significantly to prediction, indicating some level of generalizability to other race/ethnic groups. Future work should focus on more in depth examination of racial/ethnic group genetic architecture in relation to chronic venous disease. PMID:26442836

  17. Early growth response-1 protein is induced by JC virus infection and binds and regulates the JC virus promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Romagnoli, Luca; Sariyer, Ilker K.; Tung, Jacqueline; Feliciano, Mariha; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Del Valle, Luis; Ferrante, Pasquale; Khalili, Kamel; Safak, Mahmut; White, Martyn K.

    2008-06-05

    JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that can emerge from a latent state to cause the cytolytic destruction of oligodendrocytes in the brain resulting in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Previous studies described a cis-acting transcriptional regulatory element in the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR) that is involved in the response of JCV to cytokines. This consists of a 23 base pair GGA/C rich sequence (GRS) near the replication origin (5112 to + 4) that contains potential binding sites for Sp1 and Egr-1. Gel shift analysis showed that Egr-1, but not Sp1, bound to GRS. Evidence is presented that the GRS gel shift seen on cellular stimulation is due to Egr-1. Thus, TPA-induced GRS gel shift could be blocked by antibody to Egr-1. Further, the TPA-induced GRS DNA/protein complex was isolated and found to contain Egr-1 by Western blot. No other Egr-1 sites were found in the JCV NCCR. Functionally, Egr-1 was found to stimulate transcription of JCV late promoter but not early promoter reporter constructs. Mutation of the Egr-1 site abrogated Egr-1 binding and virus with the mutated Egr-1 site showed markedly reduced VP1 expression and DNA replication. Infection of primary astrocytes by wild-type JCV induced Egr-1 nuclear expression that was maximal at 5-10 days post-infection. Finally, upregulation of Egr-1 was detected in PML by immunohistochemistry. These data suggest that Egr-1 induction may be important in the life cycle of JCV and PML pathogenesis.

  18. An unusually massive stellar black hole in the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Greiner, J; Cuby, J G; McCaughrean, M J

    2001-11-29

    The X-ray source known as GRS1915+105 belongs to a group dubbed 'microquasars'. These objects are binary systems which sporadically eject matter at speeds that appear superluminal, as is the case for some quasars. GRS1915+105 is also one of only two known binary sources thought to contain a maximally spinning black hole. Determining the basic parameters of GRS195+105, such as the masses of the components, will help us to understand jet formation in this system, as well as providing links to other objects which exhibit jets. Using X-ray data, indirect methods have previously been used to infer a variety of masses for the accreting compact object in the range 10-30 solar masses (M middle dot in circle). Here we report a direct measurement of the orbital period and mass function of GRS1915+105, which allow us to deduce a mass of 14 +/- 4 M middle dot in circle for the black hole. Black holes with masses >5-7 M middle dot in circle challenge the conventional picture of black-hole formation in binary systems. Based on the mass estimate, we interpret the distinct X-ray variability of GRS1915+105 as arising from instabilities in an accretion disk that is dominated by radiation pressure, and radiating near the Eddington limit (the point where radiation pressure supports matter against gravity). Also, the mass estimate constrains most models which relate observable X-ray properties to the spin of black holes in microquasars.

  19. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  20. [Research on Cardiac Structure and Function in the Overweight and Obese population and Influence Factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanmei; Han, Lina; Huang, He; Yu, Yerong; Li, Jiangbo; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2016-02-01

    In this study we performed Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI), two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D- STI) and three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI) on enrolled healthy, overweight and obese groups (34 subjects in each group), respectively, to analyze cardiac structure and its function. Compared with healthy group, global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), global area strain(GAS) and global radial strain (GRS) decreased progressively (P < 0.05). The ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to global early diastolic strain rate of left ventricle (E/e'sr) (r = 0.466, P < 0.001), GLS (r = 0.502, P < 0. 001), GCS (r = 0.426, P < 0.001), GAS (r = 0.535, P < 0.001) and GRS (r = -0.554, P < 0.001) were correlated with body mass index (BMI). E/e'sr (r = 0.37, P = 0.003), GLS (r = 0.455, P < 0.001), GCS (r = 0.282, P = 0.02), GAS (r = 0.412, P < 0.001) and GRS (r = -0.471, P < 0.001) were correlated with free fatty acid (FFA). Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that BMI was independently correlated with E/e'sr, GLS, GCS, GAS and GRS. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) was independently correlated with GLS, GCS, GAS and GRS. FFA was independently correlated with E/e'sr (P < 0.05). The study showed that cardiac structure changed and impaired left ventricular global systolic and diastolic function in overweight and obes population. Moreover, BMI, WHR and FFA may be independent influence factors of cardiac function in overweight and obese population. PMID:27382752

  1. Investigation of the Transformation of Uranium under Iron-Reducing Conditions: Reduction of UVI by Biogenic FeII/FeIII Hydroxide (Green Rust)

    SciTech Connect

    Edward O’Loughlin; Michelle Scherer; Kenneth Kemner; Shelly Kelly

    2004-03-17

    The research we are proposing addresses fundamental aspects of the effects of coupled biotic and abiotic processes on U speciation in subsurface environments where Fe redox cycling is significant. The long-term objective of this research is to evaluate whether reduction of U{sup VI} by biogenic GRs is a significant immobilization mechanism in subsurface environments. Our preliminary experiments have shown that biogenic GRs can reduce U{sup VI} to U{sup IV}; however, little is known about how biogeochemical conditions (such as pH, U concentration, carbonate concentration, and the presence of cocontaminants) and GR composition affect the rate and products of U{sup VI} reduction by GRs. It is also unclear which biogeochemical conditions favor formation of GR over other non-reactive Fe-bearing biomineralization products from the reduction of Fe{sup III} by DIRB. To address these issues, the following objectives are proposed: (1) Identify the geochemical conditions that favor the formation of biogenic GRs from the reduction of Fe{sup III} oxyhydroxides by DIRB (e.g., Shewanella and Geobacter species). (2) Characterize the chemical composition of biogenic GRs (e.g., Fe{sup II}:Fe{sup III} ratios and interlayer anions) and the effects of compositional variability on the rate and extent of U{sup VI} reduction. (3) Evaluate the effects of variations in geochemical conditions--particularly pH, U concentration, carbonate concentration, the presence of organic ligands, and the presence of reducible co-contaminants--both on the kinetics of U{sup VI} reduction by biogenic GR and on the composition of U-bearing mineral phases. Particular attention will be given to examining geochemical conditions relevant to conditions at DOE field sites. (4) Determine the potential for coupling the reduction of Fe{sup III} by DIRB to the reduction of U{sup VI} via biogenic Fe{sup II} species (including biogenic GRs). The objectives outlined above will be achieved by testing the following

  2. Control strategies in a thermal oil - Molten salt heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Lidia; Bonilla, Javier; Rodríguez-García, Margarita M.; Palenzuela, Patricia; de la Calle, Alberto; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a preliminary control scheme for a molten salt - thermal oil heat exchanger. This controller regulates the molten salt mass flow rate to reach and maintain the desired thermal oil temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger. The controller architecture has been tested using an object-oriented heat exchanger model that has been validated with data from a molten salt testing facility located at CIEMAT-PSA. Different simulations are presented with three different goals: i) to analyze the controller response in the presence of disturbances, ii) to demonstrate the benefits of designing a setpoint generator and iii) to show the controller potential against electricity price variations.

  3. A SINGLE-EXPOSURE, MULTIDETECTOR NEUTRON SPECTROMETER FOR WORKPLACE MONITORING.

    PubMed

    Bedogni, R; Bortot, D; Buonomo, B; Esposito, A; Gómez-Ros, J M; Introini, M V; Mazzitelli, G; Moraleda, M; Pola, A; Romero, A M

    2016-09-01

    This communication describes a recently developed single-exposure neutron spectrometer, based on multiple active thermal neutron detectors located within a moderating sphere, which have been developed jointly by CIEMAT (Spain), INFN (Italy) and Politecnico di Milano (Italy) in the framework of Italian and Spanish collaboration projects. The fabricated prototypes permit to achieve spectrometric resolution with nearly isotropic response for neutron with energies from thermal to 100-200 MeV, thus being able to characterise the complete neutron spectrum in only one exposure by unfolding the measured responses of the detectors. This makes it especially advantageous for characterising neutron fields and workplace monitoring purposes in neutron-producing facilities.

  4. Standardisation and precise determination of the half-life of (44)Sc.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Peyrés, V; Roteta, M; Sánchez-Cabezudo, A I; Romero, E; Martínez Ortega, A

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (44)Sc has been determined by following the decay rate with two measurement systems; an Ionisation Chamber and a HPGe detector. The combination of seven results gives a value of T1/2=4.042 (25)h, about 2% higher than the recommended value of T1/2=3.97 (4)h (Browne, 2011) and with a lower uncertainty. This radionuclide has also been standardised by coincidence counting, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. A (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator developed at CIEMAT was used to obtain the (44)Sc solutions used in all measurements. PMID:26701659

  5. Standardization of Sn-113.

    PubMed

    Roteta, Miguel; Peyres, Virginia; García-Toraño, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The radionuclide (113)Sn is a quasi-monoenergetic gamma emitter often used in the efficiency calibration of gamma spectrometers in the energy region around 390keV. This paper presents the results of the standardization of this radionuclide by three methods: integral (4π-γ) counting with a well-type NaI(Tl) detector, liquid scintillation counting applying the CIEMAT-NIST method and 4π coincidence counting (conversion electron-X) with a digital coincidence system. PMID:24365465

  6. Validation of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Variants Identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies in Northern Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Ge, Si-Qi; Wang, An-Xin; Yu, Xin-Wei; Alzain, Mohamed Ali; Veronica, Andrea Katherine; Qiu, Jing; Song, Man-Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Hao; Fang, Hong-Hong; Gao, Qing; Wang, You-Xin; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than 60 genetic susceptibility loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been established in populations of Asian and European ancestry. Given ethnic differences and environmental factors, validation of the effects of genetic risk variants with reported associations identified by Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWASs) is essential. The study aims at evaluating the associations of T2DM with 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 19 candidate genes derived from GWASs in a northern Han Chinese population. Method: In this case-control study, 461 T2DM-diagnosed patients and 434 controls were recruited at the Jidong oil field hospital (Hebei, China) from January 2009 to October 2013. A cumulative genetic risk score (cGRS) was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles, and a weight GRS (wGRS) was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes for T2DM, using the independent variants selected. Result: The allelic frequency of the “A” allele at rs17106184 (Fas-associated factor 1, FAF1) was significantly higher in the T2DM patients than that of the healthy controls (11.7% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.001). Individuals in the highestquartile of wGRS had an over three-fold increased risk for developing T2DM compared with those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.92–4.88, p < 0.001) adjusted for age, sex, BMI, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The results were similar when analyzed with the cGRS. Conclusions: We confirmed the association between rs17106184 (FAF1) and T2DM in a northern Han Chinese population. The GRS calculated based on T2DM susceptibility variants may be a useful tool for predicting the T2DM susceptibility. PMID:27589775

  7. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain: Influence of Molecular Genetic Predisposition to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles; Morgen, Camilla S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Smith, George Davey; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Nohr, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. Objective To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. Design A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 4,841). We included 32 body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS). Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined. Results In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g) of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P<0.01). For total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish. Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01) per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings. Conclusion We found no consistent evidence of association between fish consumption and GWG, and our results indicate that the association between dietary fish and GWG has little or no dependency on GRS or individual SNPs. PMID:26930408

  8. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  9. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  10. Development of a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer for Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Park, Junghun; Choi, Yire; Lee, Sungsoon; Yeon, Youngkwang; Yi, Eung Seok; Jeong, Meeyoung; Sun, Changwan; van Gasselt, Stephan; Lee, K. B.; Kim, Yongkwon; Min, Kyungwook; Kang, Kyungin; Cho, Jinyeon; Park, Kookjin; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Elphic, Richard; Englert, Peter; Gasnault, Olivier; Lim, Lucy; Shibamura, Eido; GRS Team

    2016-10-01

    Korea is preparing for a lunar orbiter mission (KPLO) to be developed in no later than 2018. Onboard the spacecraft is a gamma ray spectrometer (KLGRS) allowing to collect low energy gamma–ray signals in order to detect elements by either X-ray fluorescence or by natural radioactive decay in the low as well as higher energy regions of up to 10 MeV. Scientific objectives include lunar resources (water and volatile measurements, rare earth elements and precious metals, energy resources, major elemental distributions for prospective in-situ utilizations), investigation of the lunar geology and studies of the lunar environment (mapping of the global radiation environment from keV to 10 MeV, high energy cosmic ray flux using the plastic scintillator).The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) system is a compact low-weight instrument for the chemical analysis of lunar surface materials within a gamma-ray energy range from 10s keV to 10 MeV. The main LaBr3 detector is surrounded by an anti-coincidence counting module of BGO/PS scintillators to reduce both low gamma-ray background from the spacecraft and housing materials and high energy gamma-ray background from cosmic rays. The GRS system will determine the elemental compositions of the near surface of the Moon.The GRS system is a recently developed gamma-ray scintillation based detector which can be used as a replacement for the HPGe GRS sensor with the advantage of being able to operate at a wide range of temperatures with remarkable energy resolution. LaBr3 also has a high photoelectron yield, fast scintillation response, good linearity and thermal stability. With these major advantages, the LaBr3 GRS system will allow us to investigate scientific objectives and assess important research questions on lunar geology and resource exploration.The GRS investigation will help to assess open questions related to the spatial distribution and origin of the elements on the lunar surface and will contribute to unravel geological

  11. The eLISA gravitational reference sensor and its test aboard LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, William Joseph; Dolesi, Rita; Vitale, Stefano

    The upcoming LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission represents the state-of-the-art in realizing a set of free-falling reference test masses for gravitational wave astronomy. The key hardware for achieving the smallest possible deviation from pure geodesic motion lies in the gravitational reference sensor or GRS. We present the GRS designed for achieving sub-femto-g/sqrt{mathrm{Hz}} performance with LPF and eLISA and discuss our current experimental estimates for the upcoming mission, including the latest results from the flight hardware test campaigns. Finally, we will address the LPF in-flight tests that will complete our physical model for test mass acceleration noise for eLISA and other possible experimental gravitational measurements in space.

  12. Volatile Cycling and Layering on Mars: Observations, Theory and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mischna, M. A.; McCleese, D. J.; Richardson, M. I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Wilson, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    With the release of Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) results, which indicate the presence of vast reservoirs of near-surface ice in the martian polar regions, we are presented with an exquisite dilemma. These deposits, which are present as far down as 60 deg. latitude in both hemispheres, are consistent with the suggestion of thermal models that ice will be best protected in these extended regions during periods of higher obliquity. However, the current paradigm regarding the placement of these deposits, i.e., diffusive deposition of water vapor, appears to be inconsistent with the large volume mixing ratios (approx. 70%) inferred from the GRS data. This apparent conflict argues that diffusion alone cannot be the primary mechanism for the creation of these reservoirs, and that an alternate, large-scale process should be considered.

  13. Global Distribution of Shallow Water on Mars: Neutron Mapping of Summer-Time Surface by HEND/Odyssey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Boynton, W.; Hamara, D.; Shinohara, C.; Saunders, R. S.; Drake, D.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital mapping of induced neutrons and gamma-rays by Odyssey has recently successfully proven the applicability of nuclear methods for studying of the elementary composition of Martian upper-most subsurface. In particular, the suite of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has discovered the presence of large water-ice rich regions southward and northward on Mars. The data of neutron mapping of summer-time surface are presented below from the Russian High Energy Neutron Spectrometer (HEND), which is a part of GRS suite. These maps represent the content of water in the soil for summer season at Southern and Northern hemispheres, when the winter deposit of CO2 is absent on the surface. The seasonal evolution of CO2 coverage on Mars is the subject of the complementary paper.

  14. 2011 Photochemistry Gordon Research Conference (July10-15, 2011, Stonehill College, Easton, MA)

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Gerald Meyer

    2011-07-15

    Photochemistry has wide implications on fundamental science with technological applications that range from synthetic and mechanistic organic and inorganic chemistry to sensing/manipulation in the biological sciences to viable solar energy conversion assemblies. The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Photochemistry will highlight recent advances on photochemical reactions, their mechanisms, spectroscopic techniques and applications to materials, organic synthesis, and biology. The conference will continue its long tradition on dynamic discussions on recent advances and unsolved scientific problems. The format of lectures, poster presentations and informal discussions provides an ideal venue for students and post-doctoral fellows to interact with the leaders in the field. These junior scientists will have an opportunity to participate in the Gordon Research Seminar on Photochemistry to be held prior to the GRC. The GRS will focus on photochemical aspects of solar energy conversion. Four abstracts for posters at the GRC and presentations at the GRS will be selected as short talks at the GRC.

  15. New theory of the Great Red Spot from solitary waves in the Jovian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxworthy, T.; Redekopp, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that many characteristics of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and numerous other features that have been observed on Jupiter can be explained by solitary waves on a horizontally sheared zonal flow in a rotating, stratified atmosphere. Streamline patterns for waves corresponding to combined depression-elevation solitary waves (D-E solitrons) show a strong resemblence to the flow around the GRS. The morphology and flow pattern of the South Tropical Disturbance indicate that it was a D solitron. Numerous spot-like features situated in regions between cloud bands where horizontal shear forces might be expected have the morphology of E solitrons. Restrictions placed on the atmospheric parameters by the model are consistent with available models and observations.

  16. Spectral evolution of pulse structures in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J. P.; Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Dennis, B. R.; Desai, U. D.; Cline, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) and Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data from the Solar Maximum Mission satellite have been searched for gamma-ray bursts with sufficient intensities and relatively simple time profiles such that their spectral behavior may be studied on a time scale of about 1 s. Ten such events were observed with the GRS experiment, and four of these were also detected within the HXRBS field of view. Details are presented for two moderately intense bursts with relatively simple structure. The spectral evolutions of the remaining events are summarized briefly. Results suggest a pattern in the spectral evolution within burst pulses: a tendency for the high-energy emission to lead the low-energy emission, in contrast to the correlation of intensity and spectral hardness reported by Golenetskii et al. (1983).

  17. Spectral evolution in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J. P.; Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Matz, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Dennis, B. R.; Desai, U. D.; Cline, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) and the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission satellite have independently monitored cosmic gamma-ray bursts since launch in February 1980. Several bursts with relatively simple pulse structure and sufficient intensity have been analyzed for evidence of spectral variability on time scales shorter than the pulse durations. In many of these bursts pulse structures are found, ranging in duration from 1 to 10 seconds, which exhibit a trend of hard-to-soft spectral evolution. No significant evidence for soft-to-hard evolution has been found. The HXRBS data above 100 keV and the GRS data above 1 MeV indicate that the spectral evolution generally is not due to time-varying absorption features at energies below 100 keV.

  18. A graphically oriented specification language for automatic code generation. GRASP/Ada: A Graphical Representation of Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, James H., II; Morrison, Kelly I.; May, Charles H., Jr.; Waddel, Kathryn C.

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of a three-phase effort to develop a new graphically oriented specification language which will facilitate the reverse engineering of Ada source code into graphical representations (GRs) as well as the automatic generation of Ada source code is described. A simplified view of the three phases of Graphical Representations for Algorithms, Structure, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) with respect to three basic classes of GRs is presented. Phase 1 concentrated on the derivation of an algorithmic diagram, the control structure diagram (CSD) (CRO88a) from Ada source code or Ada PDL. Phase 2 includes the generation of architectural and system level diagrams such as structure charts and data flow diagrams and should result in a requirements specification for a graphically oriented language able to support automatic code generation. Phase 3 will concentrate on the development of a prototype to demonstrate the feasibility of this new specification language.

  19. Search for Chemically Bound Water in the Surface Layer of Mars Based on HEND/Mars Odyssey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    This study is emphasized on search for signatures of chemically bound water in surface layer of Mars based on data acquired by High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND) which is part of the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS). Fluxes of epithermal (probe the upper 1-2 m) and fast (the upper 20-30 cm) neutrons, considered in this work, were measured since mid February till mid June 2002. First analysis of this data set with emphasis of chemically bound water was made. Early publications of the GRS results reported low neutron flux at high latitudes, interpreted as signature of ground water ice, and in two low latitude areas: Arabia and SW of Olympus Mons (SWOM), interpreted as 'geographic variations in the amount of chemically and/or physically bound H2O and or OH...'. It is clear that surface materials of Mars do contain chemically bound water, but its amounts are poorly known and its geographic distribution was not analyzed.

  20. Description of Galbitalea soli gen. nov., sp. nov., and Frondihabitans sucicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Hamada, Moriyuki; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Ahn, Tae-Young; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial strains KIS82-1(T) and GRS42(T) were isolated from soil and from sap of Acer mono, respectively, in the Republic of Korea. Both strains were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, mesophilic, rod-shaped and motile. Phylogenetically, both strains belonged to the family Microbacteriaceae of the phylum Actinobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KIS82-1(T) showed the highest similarity to those of Frondihabitans peucedani RS-15(T) (97.6%), Frigoribacterium mesophilum MSL-08(T) (97.2%) and Labedella gwakjiensis KSW2-17(T) (97.0%), while strain GRS42(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Frondihabitans peucedani RS-15(T) (98.7%), Frondihabitans cladoniiphilus CafT13(T) (98.4%), Frondihabitans australicus E1HC-02(T) (98.2%) and Frigoribacterium faeni 801(T) (97.3%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between GRS42(T) and KIS82-1(T) was 97.0%. Phylogenetic trees indicated that strain GRS42(T) was firmly grouped into the genus Frondihabitans, while strain KIS82-1(T) did not show a clear affiliation to any genus within the family Microbacteriaceae. Strain KIS82-1(T) showed type B1β peptidoglycan with 2,4-diamino-L-butyric acid as the diamino acid. It had MK-11, MK-10 and MK-12 as respiratory quinones, anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16: 0) and iso-C(14 : 0) as major cellular fatty acids and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown glycolipid as predominant polar lipids. The peptidoglycan of strain GRS42(T) was of type B2β with D-ornithine as the diamino acid. The strain contained MK-8, MK-9 and MK-7 as respiratory quinones, summed feature 8 (C(18 : 1)ω6c and/or C(18 : 1)ω7c) as major cellular fatty acid and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and three unknown glycolipids as predominant polar lipids. Strain GRS42(T) revealed low DNA-DNA hybridization (<50% relatedness) with closely related strains. Based on the data obtained in the present polyphasic taxonomic study, we propose that strain KIS82-1(T) represents a

  1. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials. PMID:27135862

  2. A Comparison of Dental Chartings Performed at the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command Central Identification Laboratory and the Kokura Central Identification Unit on Remains Identified from the Korean War.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Calvin Y

    2016-01-01

    During the Korean War, the Office of the Quartermaster General's Graves Registration Service (GRS) was responsible for the recovery, processing, identification, and repatriation of US remains. In January 1951, the GRS established a Central Identification Unit (CIU) at Kokura, Japan. At the Kokura CIU, postmortem dental examinations were performed by the dental technicians. Thirty-nine postmortem dental examinations performed at the CIU were compared to the findings documented in the Forensic Odontology Reports written at the JPAC Central Identification Laboratory (CIL). Differences were noted in 20 comparisons (51%). The majority of the discrepancies was considered negligible and would not alter the JPAC decision to disinter a set of unknown remains. Charting discrepancies that were considered significant included the occasional failure of the Kokura technicians to identify teeth with inter-proximal or esthetic restorations and the misidentification of a mechanically prepared tooth (i.e., tooth prepared for a restoration) as a carious surface.

  3. Development of liquid scintillation based 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system and demonstration of its performance by standardization of ⁶⁰Co.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Tomar, B S

    2013-02-01

    A single-vial, single-PMT 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system has been developed at the Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC. It has advantages of simple sample preparation, higher counting efficiency and the absence of self absorption over the conventional proportional counter based 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system. The performance of the system is demonstrated by standardizing a (60)Co solution using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system and CIEMAT/NIST method and comparing the results obtained by each method. The detection efficiency of liquid scintillation counter of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system was varied by color quenching, by chemical quenching and by varying the bias voltage applied to the LSC PMT. For the proportional counter based 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system the detection efficiency was varied by source self absorption. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system and the CIEMAT/NIST method are comparable within the uncertainty limits.

  4. Conference Report on the 3rd International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzitelli, G.; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-02-01

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9-11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. This international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma-Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.

  5. Conference report on the 3rd International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzitelli, Guiseppe; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-01-14

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9-11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. Furthermore, this international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma-Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.

  6. A New Four-Barrel Pellet Injection System for the TJ-II Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephen Kirk; Foust, Charles R; McGill, James M; Baylor, Larry R; Caughman, John B; Fehling, Dan T; Harris, Jeffrey H; Meitner, Steven J; Rasmussen, David A; McCarthy, K. J.; Chamorro, M.; Garcia, R.; Hildago, C.; Medrano, M.; Unamuno, R.

    2011-01-01

    A new pellet injection system for the TJ-II stellarator has been developed/constructed as part of a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Centro de Investigaciones Energ ticas, Medioambientales y Tecnol gicas (CIEMAT). ORNL is providing most of the injector hardware and instrumentation, the pellet diagnostics, and the pellet transport tubes; CIEMAT is responsible for the injector stand/interface to the stellarator, cryogenic refrigerator, vacuum pumps/ballast volumes, gas manifolds, remote operations, plasma diagnostics, and data acquisition. The pellet injector design is an upgraded version of that used for the ORNL injector installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). It is a four-barrel system equipped with a cryogenic refrigerator for in situ hydrogen pellet formation and a combined mechanical punch/propellant valve system for pellet acceleration (speeds ~100 to 1000 m/s). On TJ-II, it will be used as an active diagnostic and for fueling. To accommodate the plasma experiments planned for TJ-II, pellet sizes significantly smaller than those typically used for the MST application are required. The system will initially be equipped with four different pellet sizes, with the gun barrel bores ranging between ~0.5 to 1.0 mm. The new system is almost complete and is described briefly here, highlighting the new features added since the original MST injector was constructed. Also, the future installation on TJ-II is reviewed.

  7. Association of type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci with one-year weight loss in the look AHEAD clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Kopin, Alan S; Huggins, Gondon S

    2012-08-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss.

  8. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci With One-Year Weight Loss in the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Kopin, Alan S.; Huggins, Gondon S.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

  9. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  10. CYBA (p22phox) variants associate with blood pressure and oxidative stress markers in hypertension: a replication study in populations of diverse altitudes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Kohli, Samantha; Ali, Zahara; Duhan, Kanika; Ram, Rekhbala; Gupta, Mohit; Tyagi, Sanjay; Mohammad, Ghulam; Pasha, Ma Qadar

    2015-07-01

    CYBA (p22(phox)) is an integral constituent of the NADPH oxidases and is consequently a main component of oxidative stress, which is strongly associated with hypertension. This study investigates the contribution of CYBA polymorphisms toward the complex etiology of hypertension in two ethnically different populations, one located at a high altitude and the other at a low altitude. The significance of CYBA single nucleotide polymorphisms and their correlation with clinical and biochemical phenotypes were investigated in age- and ethnicity-matched unrelated permanent high-altitude residents (>3500 m) comprising 245 controls and 241 patients. The results were replicated in a second population comprising 935 controls and 545 patients who lived at a low altitude (<200 m). The analysis of covariance revealed that CYBA risk alleles and their haplotypes, rs8854A/rs9932581G/rs4873C and rs8854G/rs9932581G/rs4873C, were positively correlated with clinical parameters, for example, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and biochemical parameters, for example, 8-isoPGF2α level, and inversely correlated with catalase activity in patients compared with controls (P⩽0.01, each). Conversely, the protective alleles and their haplotype, rs8854G/rs9932581A/rs4873T, were inversely correlated with SBP, DBP, MAP and 8-isoPGF2α level, and positively correlated with catalase activity (P⩽0.001, each). Furthermore, correlation analysis between the clinical and biochemical parameters revealed a positive correlation of SBP, DBP and MAP with 8-isoPGF2α levels and a negative correlation with catalase activity in both populations (P<0.0001, each). CYBA (p22(phox)) variants influence the markers of oxidative stress and are associated with hypertension.

  11. The Goals and Approach of the Phoenix Mission for Evaluating the Habitabiity of the Northern Plains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2006-01-01

    The first goal of the Mars Exploration program, as defined by the Mars Exploration Payload Analysis Group (MEPAG) is to determine if life ever arose on Mars [1]. The Phoenix landing site was chosen to sample near surface ground ice in the Northern Plains discovered by the GRS experiment on Mars Odyssey [2]. A goal of Phoenix is to determine whether this environment was habitable for life at some time in its history.

  12. The Vertical Structure of Major Meteorological Features on Jupiter: The Great Red Spot and White Ovals BC and DE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Carlson, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    Multi-spectral imagery of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and two White ovals acquired by the Galileo/NIMS are used to constrain the spatial variability of the vertical aerosol structure and the distribution of ammonia in and around these most-prominent anti-cyclonic features. All three features exhibit a high-altitude core spanning about 3/4 of their visual size when viewed with moderate absorption wavelengths, indicating a bulk elliptical, "wedding cake" shape in their overall three-dimensional cloud structure. A distinctive spiral pattern within the GRS core is seen in moderate methane and hydrogen absorption bandpasses. This pattern - which has been modelled to show a 2 km variation in cloudtop pressure within the GRS - is inconsistent with a different spiral-shaped pattern observed in ammonia-sensitive wavelengths, thus indicating spatial variability not only in the column abundance of ammonia within the GRS, but in its mixing ratio as well. White Ovals BC and DE were observed in February 1997, just a year before their unusual merger into a single feature. At the time of these observations, the centers of the two anti-cyclones were about 16 degrees apart, separated by a complex cyclonic feature which exhibited unusual spatial variability in its appearance in images acquired at ammonia-sensitive wavelengths. In particular, the northern half of this feature has the largest ammonia column abundance seen within the environs around the white ovals, indicating unusual variability in either cloud structure/altitude and/or ammonia humidity within the cyclone.

  13. Probing the depth of Jupiter's Great Red Spot with the Juno gravity experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M.; Galanti, E.; Finocchiaro, S.; Iess, L.; Kaspi, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is the most dominant and long-lived feature in Jupiter's atmosphere. However, whether this is a shallow atmospheric feature or a deeply rooted vortex has remained an open question. In this study, we assess the possibility of inferring the depth of the GRS by the upcoming Juno gravity experiment. This is achieved by an exploration of the possible gravitational signature of the vortex by systematically extending the surface winds into the interior and analyzing the resulting gravity signal. The gravity anomaly is then compared to the expected accuracy in the retrieval of the surface gravity at the GRS location obtained with numerical simulations of the Doppler data inversion based on the expected trajectory of the spacecraft. Starting from observations of the atmospheric velocity at the cloud level, we project the wind using a decay scale height along coaxial cylinders parallel to the spin axis and explore a wide range of decay scale heights in the radial direction. Assuming the large scale vortex dynamics are geostrophic, and therefore thermal wind balance holds, the density anomaly distribution due to Jupiter's winds can be derived from the velocity maps. The novelty of this approach is in the integration of thermal wind relations over a three-dimensional grid, and in the inclusion of the observed meridional velocity as measured during the Cassini flyby of Jupiter. The perturbations in the mean zonal flow give rise to non zero tesseral spherical harmonics in Jupiter's gravitational potential. We provide an estimate of this asymmetric gravity coefficients for different values of the wind decay scale height. We conclude that the mass anomaly associated with the GRS is detectable by the Juno gravity experiment if the vortex is deep, characterized by a vertical height larger than 2,000 km below the cloud level of Jupiter, and that the large mass involved with deep winds does not render much the ability to measure the feature.

  14. A Genetic Risk Score for Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies Associates With Clinical Thyroid Disease in Community-Based Populations

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiss, Ulla T.; Teumer, Alexander; Medici, Marco; Li, Yong; Daya, Natalie; Chaker, Layal; Homuth, Georg; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Nauck, Matthias; Hofman, Albert; Selvin, Elizabeth; Völzke, Henry; Peeters, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) are detected in 90% of all patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. The current knowledge of its genetic underpinnings is limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify novel genetic variants associated with TPOAb concentrations and positivity using genome-wide association data and to characterize their association with thyroid function and disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: We studied European ancestry participants of 3 independent prospective population-based studies: Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities study (n = 7524), Study of Health in Pomerania (n = 3803), and Study of Health in Pomerania-TREND (n = 887). Exposure: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), individually and combined into a genetic risk score (GRS), were examined. Main Outcomes: The main outcomes were TPOAb concentrations and positivity, thyroid hormone concentrations (TSH, free T4), and clinical thyroid diseases (subclinical and overt hypothyroidism and goiter). Results: Significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (P < 5 · 10−8) mapped into 4 genomic regions not previously implicated for TPOAbs (RERE, extended HLA region) and into 5 previously described loci. A higher Genetic Risk Score (GRS) based on these 9 SNPs showed strong and graded associations with higher TPOAb, TSH, and lower free T4 concentrations (P < .001). Compared with individuals in the lowest GRS quartile, those in the highest quartile had 1.80-fold higher odds of subclinical hypothyroidism (95% confidence interval, 1.27–2.55) and 1.89-fold higher odds of overt hypothyroidism (95% confidence interval, 1.24–2.87). Conclusion: The identification of 4 novel genetic loci associated with TPOAb concentrations and positivity gives further insight into the genetic underpinnings of hypothyroidism. A GRS showed strong and graded associations

  15. Influence of sub-inhibitory antibiotics and flow condition on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 biofilm development and biofilm growth rate: BioTimer assay as a study model.

    PubMed

    Berlutti, Francesca; Frioni, Alessandra; Natalizi, Tiziana; Pantanella, Fabrizio; Valenti, Piera

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus biofilm exhibits high antibiotic resistance and therapeutic doses of antibiotics are often sub-inhibitory. Whereas data are available on the effect of sub-inhibitory antibiotics on matrix formation, little is known on their influence on biofilm population. Here, using BioTimer Assay (BTA), a method developed to quantify biofilm population, the influence of sub-inhibitory gentamicin, ofloxacin and azithromycin on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 biofilm population in flow with respect to static condition was assessed. Antibiotics and flow condition increased biofilm population even if at different extent, depending on the antibiotic molecule. The greatest bacterial population was found in biofilm developed under flow condition in the presence of azithromycin. A significant increase in biofilm matrix was recorded for biofilm developed in the presence of antibiotics in flow with respect to static condition. The growth rates (GRs) of 24-h biofilm developed under the influence of antibiotics and flow condition were also evaluated using BTA and a specific mathematical model. Antibiotics and flow condition affected the GRs of 24-h biofilm even if at different extent. The lowest GR value was recorded for biofilm developed under flow condition in the presence of ofloxacin. Although further studies are needed, our data indicate that antibiotics and flow condition influenced biofilm development by increasing both bacterial population and matrix formation and affected the GRs of the developed biofilm. To the best of our knowledge, BTA is unique in allowing the calculation of the GRs of biofilm and it may be considered to be a useful study model to evaluate the activity of antibiofilm molecules. PMID:24865865

  16. Genetic variation of fasting glucose and changes in glycemia in response to 2-year weight-loss diet intervention: the POUNDS Lost trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiange; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Yan; Rood, Jennifer; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Weight loss intervention through diet modification has been widely used to improve obesity-related hyperglycemia; however, little is known about whether genetic variation modifies the intervention effect. We examined the interaction between weight-loss diets and genetic variation of fasting glucose on changes in glycemic traits in a dietary intervention trial. Research Design and Methods The Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial is a randomized, controlled 2-year weight-loss trial. We assessed overall genetic variation of fasting glucose by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 14 fasting glucose-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, and examined the progression in fasting glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in 733 adults from this trial. Results The GRS was associated with 6-month changes in fasting glucose (P<0.001), fasting insulin (P=0.042), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, P=0.009) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S, P=0.043). We observed significant interaction between the GRS and dietary fat on 6-month changes in fasting glucose, HOMA-IR and HOMA-S after multivariable adjustment (P-interaction=0.007, 0.045, and 0.028, respectively). After further adjustment for weight loss, the interaction remained significant on change in fasting glucose (P=0.015). In the high-fat diet group, participants in the highest GRS tertile showed increased fasting glucose, whereas participants in the lowest tertile showed decreased fasting glucose (P-trend<0.001); in contrast, the genetic association was not significant in the low-fat diet group (P-trend=0.087). Conclusions Our data suggest that participants with a higher genetic risk may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet to improve glucose metabolism. PMID:27113490

  17. Stabilization of microorganisms for in situ degradation of toxic chemicals. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.L.; Stormo, K.

    1990-12-31

    In our initial work, we have developed methods to microencapsulate cells within beads of 5--100,{mu}m diameter, and we have examined these entrapped cells for their abilities to mineralize specific chemicals in the presence of subsurface soils and waters obtained from the University of Idaho Groundwater Research Site (GRS). We have employed a pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading Flavobacterium and a toluene-degrading Pseudomonas. Cells were immobilized within one of three polymeric matrixes: alginate, agarose, or polyurethane.

  18. Cannabinoids prevent the effects of a footshock followed by situational reminders on emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Korem, Nachshon; Akirav, Irit

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Hence, what we do in the first few hours after trauma exposure may alter the trajectory of PTSD. We examined whether cannabinoids can prevent the effects of a single footshock followed by situational reminders (SRs) on emotional processing. Rats were exposed to a footshock (1.5 mA, 10 s) on day 1 followed by exposure to SRs of the shock on days 3 and 5. The CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 or vehicle were injected intraperitoneally 2 h after the shock. After 1 week, PTSD-like symptoms were examined. Exposure to SRs exacerbated the effects of the shock as rats exposed to shock and SRs, but not shock alone, showed impaired extinction of the traumatic event, impaired plasticity in the hippocmapal-accumbens pathway, enhanced latency to startle, and altered expression of CB1 receptors (CB1r) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the CA1, basolateral amygdala (BLA) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). WIN55,212-2 prevented the effects of the shock and SRs on extinction, plasticity, and startle response. WIN55,212-2 normalized the shock/SR-induced upregulation in CB1r in the PFC, and CA1 and GRs in the CA1, with no effect on BLA downregulation of CB1r and GRs. Shock and SRs caused lasting (1 week) alterations in emotional processing associated with changes in GR and CB1r expression in brain areas related to PTSD. WIN55,212-2 administered after trauma exposure prevented these alterations via PFC- and CA1-CB1r and CA1-GRs.

  19. Evaluation of a Genetic Risk Score to Improve Risk Prediction for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chouraki, Vincent; Reitz, Christiane; Maury, Fleur; Bis, Joshua C.; Bellenguez, Celine; Yu, Lei; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Adams, Hieab H.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Larson, Eric B.; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; de Jager, Philip L.; Hofman, Albert; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Vardarajan, Badri; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla; van der Lee, Sven J.; Lopez, Oscar; Dartigues, Jean-François; Berr, Claudine; Amouyel, Philippe; Bennett, David A.; van Duijn, Cornelia; DeStefano, Anita L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Crane, Paul K.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Mayeux, Richard; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requires the development of risk prediction tools permitting preclinical intervention. We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising common genetic variants associated with AD, evaluated its association with incident AD and assessed its capacity to improve risk prediction over traditional models based on age, sex, education, and APOE ε4. In eight prospective cohorts included in the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project (IGAP), we derived weighted sum of risk alleles from the 19 top SNPs reported by the IGAP GWAS in participants aged 65 and older without prevalent dementia. Hazard ratios (HR) of incident AD were estimated in Cox models. Improvement in risk prediction was measured by the difference in C-index (Δ–C), the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI>0). Overall, 19,687 participants at risk were included, of whom 2,782 developed AD. The GRS was associated with a 17% increase in AD risk (pooled HR = 1.17; 95%CI = [1.13–1.21] per standard deviation increase in GRS; p-value = 2.86 × 10−16). This association was stronger among persons with at least one APOE ε4 allele (HRGRS = 1.24; 95%CI = [1.15–1.34]) than in others (HRGRS = 1.13; 95%CI = [1.08–1.18]; pinteraction = 3.45 × 10−2). Risk prediction after seven years of follow-up showed a small improvement when adding the GRS to age, sex, APOE ε4, and education (Δ–Cindex = 0.0043 [0.0019–0.0067]). Similar patterns were observed for IDI and NRI>0. In conclusion, a risk score incorporating common genetic variation outside the APOE ε4 locus improved AD risk prediction and may facilitate risk stratification for prevention trials. PMID:27340842

  20. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia: a report from the female lung cancer consortium in Asia.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-07-15

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of seven telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from a previously reported genome-wide association study. Using a group of 1,536 individuals with phenotypically measured telomere length in WBCs in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health study, we demonstrated the utility of a genetic risk score (GRS) of seven telomere-length associated variants to predict telomere length in an Asian population. We then found that GRSs used as instrumental variables to predict longer telomere length were associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.34-1.69) for upper vs. lower quartile of the weighted GRS, p value = 4.54 × 10(-14) ) even after removing rs2736100 (p value = 4.81 × 10(-3) ), a SNP in the TERT locus robustly associated with lung cancer risk in prior association studies. Stratified analyses suggested the effect of the telomere-associated GRS is strongest among younger individuals. We found no difference in GRS effect between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell subtypes. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase lung cancer risk, which is consistent with earlier prospective studies relating longer telomere length with increased lung cancer risk.

  1. Gene × dietary pattern interactions in obesity: analysis of up to 68 317 adults of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Follis, Jack L; Ngwa, Julius S; Smith, Caren E; Ahmad, Shafqat; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wojczynski, Mary K; Voortman, Trudy; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Houston, Denise K; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Qi, Qibin; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Mikkilä, Vera; North, Kari E; Siscovick, David S; Harald, Kennet; Mckeown, Nicola M; Johansson, Ingegerd; Rissanen, Harri; Liu, Yongmei; Lahti, Jari; Hu, Frank B; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rukh, Gull; Rich, Stephen; Booij, Lisanne; Dmitriou, Maria; Ax, Erika; Raitakari, Olli; Mukamal, Kenneth; Männistö, Satu; Hallmans, Göran; Jula, Antti; Ericson, Ulrika; Jacobs, David R; Van Rooij, Frank J A; Deloukas, Panos; Sjögren, Per; Kähönen, Mika; Djousse, Luc; Perola, Markus; Barroso, Inês; Hofman, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Viikari, Jorma; Uitterlinden, André G; Kalafati, Ioanna P; Franco, Oscar H; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Salomaa, Veikko; Borecki, Ingrid B; Knekt, Paul; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Eriksson, Johan G; Dedoussis, George V; Qi, Lu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Orho-Melander, Marju; Zillikens, M Carola; Ingelsson, Erik; Lehtimäki, Terho; Renström, Frida; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J F; Franks, Paul W

    2015-08-15

    Obesity is highly heritable. Genetic variants showing robust associations with obesity traits have been identified through genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether a composite score representing healthy diet modifies associations of these variants with obesity traits. Totally, 32 body mass index (BMI)- and 14 waist-hip ratio (WHR)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, and genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated in 18 cohorts of European ancestry (n = 68 317). Diet score was calculated based on self-reported intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and fried potatoes (unfavorable). Multivariable adjusted, linear regression within each cohort followed by inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to characterize: (a) associations of each GRS with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR and (b) diet score modification of genetic associations with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR. Nominally significant interactions (P = 0.006-0.04) were observed between the diet score and WHR-GRS (but not BMI-GRS), two WHR loci (GRB14 rs10195252; LYPLAL1 rs4846567) and two BMI loci (LRRN6C rs10968576; MTIF3 rs4771122), for the respective BMI-adjusted WHR or BMI outcomes. Although the magnitudes of these select interactions were small, our data indicated that associations between genetic predisposition and obesity traits were stronger with a healthier diet. Our findings generate interesting hypotheses; however, experimental and functional studies are needed to determine their clinical relevance. PMID:25994509

  2. Global Elemental Maps of the Moon Using Gamma Rays Measured by the Kaguya (SELENE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, Robert C.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Hayatsu, K.; Okudaira, O.; Kobayashi, M.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Kim, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Kaguya spacecraft was in a circular polar lunar orbit from 17 October 2007 until 10 June 2009 as part of JAXA's SELENE lunar exploration program. Among the 13 instruments, an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) studied the distributions of many elements. The gamma rays were from the decay of the naturally-radioactive elements K, Th, and U and from cosmic-ray interactions with H, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and other elements. They are emitted from the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface. The main detector of the GRS was high-purity germanium, which was surrounded by bismuth germanate and plastic scintillators to reduce backgrounds. Gamma-ray spectra were sent to the Earth every 17 seconds (1 degree of the lunar surface) with energies from 0-12 MeV. These spectra were adjusted to a standard gain and then summed over many lunar regions. Background spectra were also determined. Over 200 gamma rays have been observed, with most being backgrounds but many being from the lunar surface, an order more gamma rays than from any previous lunar GRS missions. Elemental results have been determined for K, Th, and U. Results for K and Th are consistent with those from the GRS on Apollo and Lunar Prospector. The first lunar global maps for U have been determined. These 3 elements show strong correlations among themselves, which implies that the Moon is homogeneous in these elements over the entire Moon. Their elemental ratios agree well with those measured in lunar samples and meteorites. Preliminary maps for Fe are consistent with earlier maps. Other elements, including O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, are being mapped, and their distributions vary over the lunar surface and appear consistent with previous lunar elemental results. This work was supported by JAXA, NASA, and CNRS, France.

  3. Petrology and U/Pb geochronology of the Santa Maria Ipalapa region in the southeastern part of the Xolapa Complex, Mexico: Constrains of the metamorphic evolution of the Xolapa Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez Aguilar, F.; Victoria Morales, A.; Maldonado, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Xolapa Complex is a metamorphic-plutonic basement that forms a large belt with more than 600 km length and 50-100 km wide along the Pacific coast of southeastern Mexico. This Complex is constituted by a high grade sequence of meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks, locally migmatisized, and which are intruded by strongly deformed plutonic rocks. Because of their representative characteristics, two samples were analyzed: 1) Para-schist: this rocks present a mineral assemblage composed of biotite, sillimanite, plagioclase, k-feldspar and garnet, and 2) Amphibolite: which are constituted by amphibole, plagioclase, biotite and garnet. The garnet porphydoblasts in the para-schist are subhedral, presents retrograde compositional zoning, with almandine and pyrope rich core (Alm74-75Sps7.-10.1Pyr12.1-12.5Grs3.8-3.9) and spessartine rich rim (Alm69-71Sps14-19Pyr7.9-9.6Grs3.6-3.7). The garnet in amphibolite, presents a prograde growth zoning with a slight increase in spessartine in the core (Alm59-60Grs24-25Pyr8.0-8.3Sps7.3-7.6), and low content of spessartine component toward the rim (Alm60-62Grs23-24Pyr8.8-9.6Sps5.4-5.5). In order to constrain the P-T evolution of the region, multiequilibria thermobarometry was applied to both samples, the para-schist unit presents P-T data from 706 (ºC) and 7.5 (kbar), in the other hand the garnet amphibolite unit shows P-T data from 734 (ºC) and 7 (kbar). This study provides new geochronological data (U/Pb in zircons) for the amphibolite facies metamorphism and for the migmatitic event in the region that contributes to the understanding of the tectonic evolution of southeastern Mexico.

  4. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  5. Gene × dietary pattern interactions in obesity: analysis of up to 68 317 adults of European ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Follis, Jack L.; Ngwa, Julius S.; Smith, Caren E.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Voortman, Trudy; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Houston, Denise K.; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Qi, Qibin; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Mikkilä, Vera; North, Kari E.; Siscovick, David S.; Harald, Kennet; Mckeown, Nicola M.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Rissanen, Harri; Liu, Yongmei; Lahti, Jari; Hu, Frank B.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rukh, Gull; Rich, Stephen; Booij, Lisanne; Dmitriou, Maria; Ax, Erika; Raitakari, Olli; Mukamal, Kenneth; Männistö, Satu; Hallmans, Göran; Jula, Antti; Ericson, Ulrika; Jacobs,, David R.; Van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Deloukas, Panos; Sjögren, Per; Kähönen, Mika; Djousse, Luc; Perola, Markus; Barroso, Inês; Hofman, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Viikari, Jorma; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Franco, Oscar H.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Salomaa, Veikko; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Knekt, Paul; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Dedoussis, George V.; Qi, Lu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Orho-Melander, Marju; Zillikens, M. Carola; Ingelsson, Erik; Lehtimäki, Terho; Renström, Frida; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Franks, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is highly heritable. Genetic variants showing robust associations with obesity traits have been identified through genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether a composite score representing healthy diet modifies associations of these variants with obesity traits. Totally, 32 body mass index (BMI)- and 14 waist–hip ratio (WHR)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, and genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated in 18 cohorts of European ancestry (n = 68 317). Diet score was calculated based on self-reported intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and fried potatoes (unfavorable). Multivariable adjusted, linear regression within each cohort followed by inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to characterize: (a) associations of each GRS with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR and (b) diet score modification of genetic associations with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR. Nominally significant interactions (P = 0.006–0.04) were observed between the diet score and WHR-GRS (but not BMI-GRS), two WHR loci (GRB14 rs10195252; LYPLAL1 rs4846567) and two BMI loci (LRRN6C rs10968576; MTIF3 rs4771122), for the respective BMI-adjusted WHR or BMI outcomes. Although the magnitudes of these select interactions were small, our data indicated that associations between genetic predisposition and obesity traits were stronger with a healthier diet. Our findings generate interesting hypotheses; however, experimental and functional studies are needed to determine their clinical relevance. PMID:25994509

  6. Advances in Exercise, Fitness, and Performance Genomics in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Loos, Ruth J. F.; Hagberg, James M.; Pérusse, Louis; Roth, Stephen M.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Wolfarth, Bernd; Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This is the annual review of the exercise genomics literature in which we report on the highest quality papers published in 2014. We identified a number of noteworthy papers across a number of fields. In 70 to 89 years old, only 19% of ACE II homozygotes exhibited significant improvement in gait speed in response to a year-long physical activity program compared to 30% of ACE D-allele carriers. New studies continue to support the notion that the genetic susceptibility to obesity, as evidenced by a genomic risk score (GRS; based on multiple SNPs), is attenuated by 40-50% in individuals who are physically active, compare to those who are sedentary. One study reported that the polygenic risk for hypertriglyceridemia was reduced by 30-40% in individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. One report showed that there was a significant interaction of a type 2 diabetes GRS with physical activity, with active individuals having the lowest risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect of was most pronounced in the low GRS tertile (HR=0.82). The interaction observed with the diabetes GRS appeared to be dependent on a genetic susceptibility to insulin resistance and not insulin secretion. A significant interaction between PPARα sequence variants and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk was observed, with higher activity levels associated with lower risk only in carriers of specific genotypes and haplotypes. The review concludes with a discussion of the importance of replication studies when very large population or intervention discovery studies are not feasible or are cost prohibitive. PMID:25706296

  7. Advances in exercise, fitness, and performance genomics in 2014.

    PubMed

    Loos, Ruth J F; Hagberg, James M; Pérusse, Louis; Roth, Stephen M; Sarzynski, Mark A; Wolfarth, Bernd; Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-06-01

    This is the annual review of the exercise genomics literature in which we report on the highest quality papers published in 2014. We identified a number of noteworthy papers across a number of fields. In 70-89 yr olds, only 19% of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) II homozygotes exhibited significant improvement in gait speed in response to a yearlong physical activity program compared to 30% of ACE D-allele carriers. New studies continue to support the notion that the genetic susceptibility to obesity, as evidenced by a genomic risk score (GRS; based on multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms), is attenuated by 40%-50% in individuals who are physically active, compared to those who are sedentary. One study reported that the polygenic risk for hypertriglyceridemia was reduced by 30%-40% in individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness. One report showed that there was a significant interaction of a type 2 diabetes GRS with physical activity, with active individuals having the lowest risk of developing diabetes. The protective effect of physical activity was most pronounced in the low GRS tertile (hazard ratio, 0.82). The interaction observed with the diabetes GRS seemed to be dependent on a genetic susceptibility to insulin resistance and not insulin secretion. A significant interaction between PPARα sequence variants and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk was observed, with higher activity levels associated with lower risk only in carriers of specific genotypes and haplotypes. The review concludes with a discussion of the importance of replication studies when very large population or intervention discovery studies are not feasible or are cost prohibitive. PMID:25706296

  8. Multiple sclerosis risk loci and disease severity in 7,125 individuals from 10 studies

    PubMed Central

    George, Michaela F.; Briggs, Farren B.S.; Shao, Xiaorong; Gianfrancesco, Milena A.; Kockum, Ingrid; Harbo, Hanne F.; Celius, Elisabeth G.; Bos, Steffan D.; Hedström, Anna; Shen, Ling; Bernstein, Allan; Alfredsson, Lars; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; De Jager, Philip L.; Oturai, Annette B.; Søndergaard, Helle B.; Sellebjerg, Finn; Sorensen, Per S.; Gomez, Refujia; Caillier, Stacy J.; Cree, Bruce A.C.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Hauser, Stephen L.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Leone, Maurizio A.; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Sorosina, Melissa; van der Mei, Ingrid; Taylor, Bruce V.; Zhou, Yuan; Schaefer, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between 52 risk variants identified through genome-wide association studies and disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Ten unique MS case data sets were analyzed. The Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) was calculated using the Expanded Disability Status Scale at study entry and disease duration. MSSS was considered as a continuous variable and as 2 dichotomous variables (median and extreme ends; MSSS of ≤5 vs >5 and MSSS of <2.5 vs ≥7.5, respectively). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined individually and as both combined weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) for association with disease severity. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted and adjusted for cohort, sex, age at onset, and HLA-DRB1*15:01. Results: A total of 7,125 MS cases were analyzed. The wGRS and GRS were not strongly associated with disease severity after accounting for cohort, sex, age at onset, and HLA-DRB1*15:01. After restricting analyses to cases with disease duration ≥10 years, associations were null (p value ≥0.05). No SNP was associated with disease severity after adjusting for multiple testing. Conclusions: The largest meta-analysis of established MS genetic risk variants and disease severity, to date, was performed. Results suggest that the investigated MS genetic risk variants are not associated with MSSS, even after controlling for potential confounders. Further research in large cohorts is needed to identify genetic determinants of disease severity using sensitive clinical and MRI measures, which are critical to understanding disease mechanisms and guiding development of effective treatments. PMID:27540591

  9. Stabilization of microorganisms for in situ degradation of toxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.L.; Stormo, K.

    1990-01-01

    In our initial work, we have developed methods to microencapsulate cells within beads of 5--100,{mu}m diameter, and we have examined these entrapped cells for their abilities to mineralize specific chemicals in the presence of subsurface soils and waters obtained from the University of Idaho Groundwater Research Site (GRS). We have employed a pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading Flavobacterium and a toluene-degrading Pseudomonas. Cells were immobilized within one of three polymeric matrixes: alginate, agarose, or polyurethane.

  10. Placental genetic variations in circadian clock-related genes increase the risk of placental abruption

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chunfang; Gelaye, Bizu; Denis, Marie; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Ananth, Cande V; Pacora, Percy N; Salazar, Manuel; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of placental abruption (PA) remains poorly understood. We examined variations in SNPs of circadian clock-related genes in placenta with PA risk. We also explored placental and maternal genomic contributions to PA risk. Placental genomic DNA samples were isolated from 280 PA cases and 244 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina Cardio-MetaboChip. We examined 116 SNPs in 13 genes known to moderate circadian rhythms. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The combined effect of multiple SNPs on PA risk was estimated using a weighted genetic risk score. We examined independent and joint associations of wGRS derived from placental and maternal genomes with PA. Seven SNPs in five genes (ARNTL2, CRY2, DEC1, PER3 and RORA), in the placental genome, were associated with PA risk. Each copy of the minor allele (G) of a SNP in the RORA gene (rs2899663) was associated with a 30% reduced odds of PA (95% CI 0.52-0.95). The odds of PA increased with increasing placental-wGRS (Ptrend<0.001). The ORs were 1.00, 2.16, 3.24 and 4.48 across quartiles. Associations persisted after the maternal-wGRS was included in the model. There was evidence of an additive contribution of placental and maternal genetic contributions to PA risk. Participants with placental- and maternal-wGRS in the highest quartile, compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a 15.57-fold (95% CI 3.34-72.60) increased odds of PA. Placental variants in circadian clock-related genes are associated with PA risk; and the association persists after control of genetic variants in the maternal genome. PMID:27186326

  11. Ammonia plumes in the Great Red Spot turbulent wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.; de Pater, I.

    2005-08-01

    We acquired HST/NICMOS near-infrared images of Jupiter on 25 March, 2005, with spatial resolutions of about 245 km/pixel (NIC2 camera) and 140 km/pixel (NIC1). We achieve full coverage of latitudes ± 26 deg. in NIC2 (± 14 deg. in NIC1) and longitudes 100 deg. to 325 deg. (System III; the GRS was visible in the first of two orbits). A preliminary analysis suggests: (1) The tops of convective plumes in the GRS turbulent wake show significant NH3 absorption. A linear correlation between 1.66 micron and 2.04 micron images indicates comparable continuum (H2 and CH4) absorption in these filters, but the correlation breaks down mainly in the convective plumes, where NH3 absorption at 2.04 micron is stronger. (2) At the time of our observations, the GRS turbulent wake was organized into three lozenge-shaped cells on the order of 5000 x 13000 km, with tall cloud formation in the centers and reduced upper-level cloud opacity and/or NH3 gas abundance in the narrow cell borders. Future modeling of these data will help increase our understanding of the formation and maintenance of the globally-averaged subsaturated ammonia gas profile on Jupiter, and perhaps also the upper-tropospheric haze, which seems to be optically thicker in the GRS turbulent wake cell centers than in the borders. Near-simultaneous observations were taken at 5 micron at the IRTF and at 2 and 3.6 cm at the VLA, in order to eventually correlate our results with deeper cloud and NH3-gas opacity. This work was supported by the Space Telescope Science Institute, under contract with NASA.

  12. Crystal Structure of the GerBC Component of a Bacillus Subtilis Spore Germinant Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Setlow, B; Setlow, P; Hao, B

    2010-01-01

    The nutrient germinant receptors (nGRs) of spores of Bacillus species are clusters of three proteins that play a critical role in triggering the germination of dormant spores in response to specific nutrient molecules. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C protein of the GerB germinant receptor, so-called GerBC, of Bacillus subtilis spores at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The GerBC protein adopts a previously uncharacterized type of protein fold consisting of three distinct domains, each of which is centered by a beta sheet surrounded by multiple alpha helices. Secondary-structure prediction and structure-based sequence alignment suggest that the GerBC structure represents the prototype for C subunits of nGRs from spores of all Bacillales and Clostridiales species and defines two highly conserved structural regions in this family of proteins. GerBC forms an interlocked dimer in the crystalline state but is predominantly monomeric in solution, pointing to the possibility that GerBC oligomerizes as a result of either high local protein concentrations or interaction with other nGR proteins in spores. Our findings provide the first structural view of the nGR subunits and a molecular framework for understanding the architecture, conservation, and function of nGRs.

  13. Expression of the fructose receptor BmGr9 and its involvement in the promotion of feeding, suggested by its co-expression with neuropeptide F1 in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Tanaka, Shiho; Nagata, Shinji; Takada, Tomoyuki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-08-01

    Insect gustatory receptors (Grs) are members of a large family of proteins with seven transmembrane domains that provide insects with the ability to detect chemical signals critical for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, 69 Bombyx mori Grs (BmGrs) genes have been identified via genome studies. BmGr9 has been shown to respond specifically to fructose and to function as a ligand-gated ion channel selectively activated by fructose. However, the sites where this Gr are expressed remain unclear. We demonstrated using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR that BmGr9 is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as oral sensory organs. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-BmGr9 antiserum to show that BmGr9 is expressed in cells of the oral sensory organs, including the maxillary galea, maxillary palps, labrum, and labium, as well as in putative neurosecretory cells of the CNS. Furthermore, double immunohistochemical analysis showed that most BmGr9-expressing cells co-localized with putative neuropeptide F1-expressing cells in the brain, suggesting that BmGr9 is involved in the promotion of feeding behaviors. In addition, a portion of BmGr9-expressing cells in the brain co-localized with cells expressing BmGr6, a molecule of the sugar receptor clade, suggesting that sugars other than fructose are involved in the regulation of feeding behaviors in B. mori larvae. PMID:27288056

  14. A Drosophila Gustatory Receptor Required for Strychnine Sensation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngseok; Moon, Seok Jun; Wang, Yijin; Montell, Craig

    2015-09-01

    Strychnine is a potent, naturally occurring neurotoxin that effectively protects plants from animal pests by deterring feeding behavior. In insects, such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, bitter-tasting aversive compounds are detected primarily through a family of gustatory receptors (GRs), which are expressed in gustatory receptor neurons. We previously described multiple GRs that eliminate the behavioral avoidance to all bitter compounds tested, with the exception of strychnine. Here, we report the identity of a strychnine receptor, referred to as GR47a. We generated a mutation in Gr47a and found that it eliminated strychnine repulsion and strychnine-induced action potentials. GR47a was narrowly tuned, as the responses to other avoidance compounds were unaffected in the mutant animals. This analysis supports an emerging model that Drosophila GRs fall broadly into two specificity classes-one class is comprised of core receptors that are broadly required, whereas the other class, which includes GR47a, consists of narrowly tuned receptors that define chemical specificity. PMID:26187906

  15. A Drosophila Gustatory Receptor Required for Strychnine Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youngseok; Moon, Seok Jun; Wang, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Strychnine is a potent, naturally occurring neurotoxin that effectively protects plants from animal pests by deterring feeding behavior. In insects, such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, bitter-tasting aversive compounds are detected primarily through a family of gustatory receptors (GRs), which are expressed in gustatory receptor neurons. We previously described multiple GRs that eliminate the behavioral avoidance to all bitter compounds tested, with the exception of strychnine. Here, we report the identity of a strychnine receptor, referred to as GR47a. We generated a mutation in Gr47a and found that it eliminated strychnine repulsion and strychnine-induced action potentials. GR47a was narrowly tuned, as the responses to other avoidance compounds were unaffected in the mutant animals. This analysis supports an emerging model that Drosophila GRs fall broadly into two specificity classes—one class is comprised of core receptors that are broadly required, whereas the other class, which includes GR47a, consists of narrowly tuned receptors that define chemical specificity. PMID:26187906

  16. Thermal Design and Performance of the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer for the MESSENGER Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, M; Cork, C P; Eckels, D; Hull, E; Madden, N W; Miller, W; Goldsten, J; Rhodes, E; Williams, B

    2004-10-13

    A gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) has been built and delivered to the Mercury MESSENGER spacecraft which launched on August 3, 2004, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The GRS, a part of seven scientific instruments on board MESSENGER, is based on a coaxial high-purity germanium detector. Gamma-ray detectors based on germanium have the advantage of providing excellent energy resolution, which is critical to achieving the science goals of the mission. However, germanium has the disadvantage that it must operate at cryogenic temperatures (typically {approx}80 K). This requirement is easy to satisfy in the laboratory but difficult near Mercury, which has an extremely hot thermal radiation environment. To cool the detector, a Stirling cycle mechanical cooler is employed. In addition, radiation and conduction techniques a are used to reduce the GRS heat load. Before delivering the flight sensor, a complete thermal prototype was built and tested. The results of these test, including thermal design, radiative and conductive heat loads, and cooler performance are described.

  17. Expansion of a bitter taste receptor family in a polyphagous insect herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Anderson, Alisha

    2016-01-01

    The Insect taste system plays a central role in feeding behaviours and co-evolution of insect-host interactions. Gustatory receptors form the interface between the insect taste system and the environment. From genome and transcriptome sequencing we identified 197 novel gustatory receptor (GR) genes from the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera. These GRs include a significantly expanded bitter receptor family (180 GRs) that could be further divided into three categories based on polypeptide lengths, gene structure and amino acid sequence. Type 1 includes 29 bitter Gr genes that possess introns. Type 2 includes 13 long intronless bitter Gr genes, while Type 3 comprises 131 short intronless bitter Gr genes. Calcium imaging analysis demonstrated that three Type 3 GRs (HarmGR35, HarmGR50 and HarmGR195) can be activated by a crude extract of cotton leaves. HarmGR195, a GR specifically and selectively expressed in adult tarsi, showed a specific response to proline, an amino acid widely present in plant tissues. We hypothesise that the expansion in the H. armigera GR family may be functionally tied to its polyphagous behavior. Understanding the molecular basis of polyphagy may provide opportunities for the development of new environmentally friendly pest control strategies. PMID:27032373

  18. Physical activity and genetic predisposition to obesity in a multiethnic longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Reddon, Hudson; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Engert, James C.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Bosch, Jackie; Desai, Dipika; Bailey, Swneke D.; Diaz, Rafael; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S.; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce the impact of FTO variation and obesity genetic risk scores (GRS) on BMI. We examined this interaction using a quantitative measure of PA and two adiposity indexes in a longitudinal multi-ethnic study. We analyzed the impact of PA on the association between 14 obesity predisposing variants (analyzed independently and as a GRS) and baseline/follow-up obesity measures in the multi-ethnic prospective cohort EpiDREAM (17423 participants from six ethnic groups). PA was analyzed using basic (low-moderate-high) and quantitative measures (metabolic equivalents (METS)), while BMI and the body adiposity index (BAI) were used to measure obesity. Increased PA was associated with decreased BMI/BAI at baseline/follow-up. FTO rs1421085, CDKAL1 rs2206734, TNNl3K rs1514176, GIPR rs11671664 and the GRS were associated with obesity measures at baseline and/or follow-up. Risk alleles of three SNPs displayed nominal associations with increased (NTRK2 rs1211166, BDNF rs1401635) or decreased (NPC1 rs1805081) basic PA score independently of BMI/BAI. Both basic and quantitative PA measures attenuated the association between FTO rs1421085 risk allele and BMI/BAI at baseline and follow-up. Our results show that physical activity can blunt the genetic effect of FTO rs1421085 on adiposity by 36–75% in a longitudinal multi-ethnic cohort. PMID:26727462

  19. Expansion of a bitter taste receptor family in a polyphagous insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Anderson, Alisha

    2016-01-01

    The Insect taste system plays a central role in feeding behaviours and co-evolution of insect-host interactions. Gustatory receptors form the interface between the insect taste system and the environment. From genome and transcriptome sequencing we identified 197 novel gustatory receptor (GR) genes from the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera. These GRs include a significantly expanded bitter receptor family (180 GRs) that could be further divided into three categories based on polypeptide lengths, gene structure and amino acid sequence. Type 1 includes 29 bitter Gr genes that possess introns. Type 2 includes 13 long intronless bitter Gr genes, while Type 3 comprises 131 short intronless bitter Gr genes. Calcium imaging analysis demonstrated that three Type 3 GRs (HarmGR35, HarmGR50 and HarmGR195) can be activated by a crude extract of cotton leaves. HarmGR195, a GR specifically and selectively expressed in adult tarsi, showed a specific response to proline, an amino acid widely present in plant tissues. We hypothesise that the expansion in the H. armigera GR family may be functionally tied to its polyphagous behavior. Understanding the molecular basis of polyphagy may provide opportunities for the development of new environmentally friendly pest control strategies. PMID:27032373

  20. Health planners and local public finance--the case for revenue sharing.

    PubMed Central

    Rocheleau, B; Warren, S

    1980-01-01

    Little attention has been paid by health planners or researchers to questions of local public finance. However, a review of the literature concerning general revenue sharing (GRS) funds indicated that about $400 million per year from this source is spent on health services and resources. GRS funds, about $6.4 billion per year, are distributed to more than 39,000 State, county, and city governments. The 1976 amendments to the General Revenue Sharing Act eliminated restrictions on the use of the funds, and they can be employed as matching funds for other Federal monies. An exploratory study of the use of GRS funds for health purposes was conducted in several localities, with particular attention to the health systems agencies. Its results confirmed that there are wide variations among localities in the use of revenue-sharing funds to support health services. Also, not only did the health systems agencies' officials have little impact on the allocation of revenue sharing funds, but only in one locale had an HSA official taken a direct role in the budgetary process. Health planners, who were interviewed during the study, described what they considered their agencies' proper role in local budgetary matters. PMID:6775344

  1. Mechanical design of the University of Florida Torsion Pendulum for testing the LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Tawio; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido; Conklin, John

    2014-03-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) requires free falling test masses, whose acceleration must be below 3 fm/s2/rtHz in the lower part of LISA's frequency band ranging from 0.1 to 100 mHz. Gravitational reference sensors (GRS) house the test masses, shield them from external disturbances, control their orientation, and sense their position at the nm/rtHz level. The GRS torsion pendulum is a laboratory test bed for GRS technology. By decoupling the system of test masses from the gravity of the Earth, it is possible to identify and quantify many sources of noise in the sensor. The mechanical design of the pendulum is critical to the study of the noise sources and the development of new technologies that can improve performance and reduce cost. The suspended test mass is a hollow, gold-coated, aluminum cube which rests inside a gold-coated, aluminum housing with electrodes for sensing and actuating all six degrees of freedom. This poster describes the design, analysis, and assembly of the mechanical subsystems of the UF Torsion Pendulum.

  2. Structure-function analysis of the Bacillus megaterium GerUD spore germinant receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Srishti; Zhou, Ke Xu; Bailey, David M D; Christie, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Germination of Bacillus spores is triggered by the interaction of germinant molecules with specialized receptor proteins localized to the spore inner membrane. Germinant receptors (GRs) are comprised typically of three interacting protein subunits, each of which is essential for receptor function. At least some GRs appear to have a fourth component, referred to as a D-subunit protein. A number of D-subunit proteins were shown previously to be capable of modulating the activity of associated GRs. Here, we investigate the topology and structure-function relationships of the Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 GerUD protein, which is associated with the GerU GR. The presented data demonstrate that GerUD can be subjected to relatively extensive structural modifications while retaining function. Indeed, the presence of either of the two transmembrane spanning domains is sufficient to modulate an efficient GerU-mediated germinative response. The precise function of D-subunit proteins has yet to be established, although they may act as molecular chaperones within the spore inner-membrane environment.

  3. Blocking Mineralocorticoid Receptors Impairs, Blocking Glucocorticoid Receptors Enhances Memory Retrieval in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Memory retrieval is impaired at very low as well as very high cortisol levels, but not at intermediate levels. This inverted-U-shaped relationship between cortisol levels and memory retrieval may originate from different roles of the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that bind cortisol with distinctly different affinity. Here, we examined the role of MRs and GRs in human memory retrieval using specific receptor antagonists. In two double-blind within-subject, cross-over designed studies, young healthy men were asked to retrieve emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learnt 3 days earlier) between 0745 and 0915 hours in the morning, either after administration of 400 mg of the MR blocker spironolactone vs placebo (200 mg at 2300 hours and 200 mg at 0400 hours, Study I) or after administration of the GR blocker mifepristone vs placebo (200 mg at 2300 hours, Study II). Blockade of MRs impaired free recall of both texts and pictures particularly for emotional material. In contrast, blockade of GRs resulted in better memory retrieval for pictures, with the effect being more pronounced for neutral than emotional materials. These findings indicate indeed opposing roles of MRs and GRs in memory retrieval, with optimal retrieval at intermediate cortisol levels likely mediated by high MR but concurrently low GR activation. PMID:23303058

  4. Nitrate reduction by green rusts modified with trace metals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongyun; Batchelor, Bill; Won, Chanhee; Chung, Jinwook

    2012-02-01

    A kinetic study of nitrate reduction by green rust (GR), a group of layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxide solids, was performed using a batch reactor system. The reduction rate of nitrate by GRs was affected by the anion content in the interlayer of GRs. GR containing F(-) (GR-F) showed the fastest reduction rate while GR-SO(4) showed 9 times slower reaction rate than GR-F. The addition of 1mM Pt or Cu to GR that contained 85 mM Fe(II) improved the reduction kinetics of nitrate by up to 200 times. Pt was an effective activating agent for all GRs. The sequential step reaction model that we proposed appropriately simulated the experimental data. The fastest nitrate reduction by GR-F with Pt was achieved at pH 9 among 7.5 to 11. At that condition, 1mM nitrate transformed completely into ammonium within 23 min. PMID:22154340

  5. Nitrate reduction by green rusts modified with trace metals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongyun; Batchelor, Bill; Won, Chanhee; Chung, Jinwook

    2012-02-01

    A kinetic study of nitrate reduction by green rust (GR), a group of layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxide solids, was performed using a batch reactor system. The reduction rate of nitrate by GRs was affected by the anion content in the interlayer of GRs. GR containing F(-) (GR-F) showed the fastest reduction rate while GR-SO(4) showed 9 times slower reaction rate than GR-F. The addition of 1mM Pt or Cu to GR that contained 85 mM Fe(II) improved the reduction kinetics of nitrate by up to 200 times. Pt was an effective activating agent for all GRs. The sequential step reaction model that we proposed appropriately simulated the experimental data. The fastest nitrate reduction by GR-F with Pt was achieved at pH 9 among 7.5 to 11. At that condition, 1mM nitrate transformed completely into ammonium within 23 min.

  6. Genetic risk and longitudinal disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus using targeted maximum likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, M A; Balzer, L; Taylor, K E; Trupin, L; Nititham, J; Seldin, M F; Singer, A W; Criswell, L A; Barcellos, L F

    2016-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with genetic and environmental risk factors. However, the extent to which genetic risk is causally associated with disease activity is unknown. We utilized longitudinal-targeted maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the causal association between a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 41 established SLE variants and clinically important disease activity as measured by the validated Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) in a multiethnic cohort of 942 individuals with SLE. We did not find evidence of a clinically important SLAQ score difference (>4.0) for individuals with a high GRS compared with those with a low GRS across nine time points after controlling for sex, ancestry, renal status, dialysis, disease duration, treatment, depression, smoking and education, as well as time-dependent confounding of missing visits. Individual single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses revealed that 12 of the 41 variants were significantly associated with clinically relevant changes in SLAQ scores across time points eight and nine after controlling for multiple testing. Results based on sophisticated causal modeling of longitudinal data in a large patient cohort suggest that individual SLE risk variants may influence disease activity over time. Our findings also emphasize a role for other biological or environmental factors. PMID:27467283

  7. Holographic renormalization group and cosmology in theories with quasilocalized gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csáki, Csaba; Erlich, Joshua; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Terning, John

    2001-03-01

    We study the long distance behavior of brane theories with quasilocalized gravity. The five-dimensional (5D) effective theory at large scales follows from a holographic renormalization group flow. As intuitively expected, the graviton is effectively four dimensional at intermediate scales and becomes five dimensional at large scales. However, in the holographic effective theory the essentially 4D radion dominates at long distances and gives rise to scalar antigravity. The holographic description shows that at large distances the Gregory-Rubakov-Sibiryakov (GRS) model is equivalent to the model recently proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati (DGP), where a tensionless brane is embedded into 5D Minkowski space, with an additional induced 4D Einstein-Hilbert term on the brane. In the holographic description the radion of the GRS model is automatically localized on the tensionless brane, and provides the ghostlike field necessary to cancel the extra graviton polarization of the DGP model. Thus, there is a holographic duality between these theories. This analysis provides physical insight into how the GRS model works at intermediate scales; in particular it sheds light on the size of the width of the graviton resonance, and also demonstrates how the holographic renormalization group can be used as a practical tool for calculations.

  8. Contributions to the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Pimentel-Rodrigues, Carla; Silva-Afonso, Armando; Castro, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs (GRs) are becoming a trend in urban areas, favouring thermal performance of buildings, promoting removal of atmospheric pollutants, and acting as possible water collection spots. Rainwater harvesting systems in buildings can also contribute to the management of stormwater runoff reducing flood peaks. These technologies should be enhanced in Mediterranean countries where water scarcity is increasing and the occurrence of extreme events is becoming very significant, as a result of climate change. An extensive pilot GR with three aromatic plant species, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and Thymus pseudolanuginosus, designed to study several parameters affecting rainwater runoff, has been in operation for 12 months. Physico-chemical analyses of roof water runoff (turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH4(+), NO3(-), PO4(3-), chemical oxygen demand) have shown that water was of sufficient quality for non-potable uses in buildings, such as toilet flushing. An innovative approach allowed for the development of an expression to predict a 'monthly runoff coefficient' of the GR system. This parameter is essential when planning and designing GRs combined with rainwater harvesting systems in a Mediterranean climate. This study is a contribution to improving the basis for the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with extensive GRs under a Mediterranean climate. PMID:27120638

  9. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Marcus, Philip S.

    2014-12-20

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  10. Contributions to the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Pimentel-Rodrigues, Carla; Silva-Afonso, Armando; Castro, Paula M L

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs (GRs) are becoming a trend in urban areas, favouring thermal performance of buildings, promoting removal of atmospheric pollutants, and acting as possible water collection spots. Rainwater harvesting systems in buildings can also contribute to the management of stormwater runoff reducing flood peaks. These technologies should be enhanced in Mediterranean countries where water scarcity is increasing and the occurrence of extreme events is becoming very significant, as a result of climate change. An extensive pilot GR with three aromatic plant species, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and Thymus pseudolanuginosus, designed to study several parameters affecting rainwater runoff, has been in operation for 12 months. Physico-chemical analyses of roof water runoff (turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH4(+), NO3(-), PO4(3-), chemical oxygen demand) have shown that water was of sufficient quality for non-potable uses in buildings, such as toilet flushing. An innovative approach allowed for the development of an expression to predict a 'monthly runoff coefficient' of the GR system. This parameter is essential when planning and designing GRs combined with rainwater harvesting systems in a Mediterranean climate. This study is a contribution to improving the basis for the design of rainwater harvesting systems in buildings with extensive GRs under a Mediterranean climate.

  11. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot from Spacecraft Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; de Pater, Imke; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Carlson, Robert W.; Marcus, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nanometers, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nanometers. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  12. Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone: Part 2, A preliminary sample survey, Kapoho, Kamaili and Kilauea geothermal subzones, Puna District, Hawaii island

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.T.K.; Burtchard, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a preliminary sample inventory and offers an initial evaluation of settlement and land-use patterns for the Geothermal Resources Subzones (GRS) area, located in Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The report is the second of a two part project dealing with archaeology of the Puna GRS area -- or more generally, the Kilauea East Rift Zone. In the first phase of the project, a long-term land-use model and inventory research design was developed for the GRS area and Puna District generally. That report is available under separate cover as Archaeology in the Kilauea East Rift Zone, Part I: Land-Use Model and Research Design. The present report gives results of a limited cultural resource survey built on research design recommendations. It offers a preliminary evaluation of modeled land-use expectations and offers recommendations for continuing research into Puna`s rich cultural heritage. The present survey was conducted under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy, and subcontracted to International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (IARII) by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. The purpose of the archaeological work is to contribute toward the preparation of an environmental impact statement by identifying cultural materials which could be impacted through completion of the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project.

  13. Use of Multivariate Analysis Techniques to Form a Comparison of Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Elemental Data to Neutron Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbazia, Paul

    2009-03-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) primary mission is exploration. Additional science falls to a secondary focus. LRO does not possess a gamma ray spectrometer, but it has the collimated neutron detector LEND (Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector). It is of interest to determine as much as possible about the moon's elemental composition using LEND. To do so, data from a similar instrument on Mars Odyssey, HEND (High Energy Neutron Detector), was compared to data from Mars Odyssey's gamma ray spectrometer (GRS). Elemental maps were previously derived from the GRS data, and a relation to HEND would allow for LEND to fulfill this role on LRO. Toward this purpose, different multivariate analysis techniques were used to compare GRS and HEND data, including Principal Components Analysis (PCA), K-means clustering, and Pearson product-moment correlation. Results indicate that two elements well known to effect neutron counts, hydrogen and iron, can be identified by these techniques. Further analysis may find additional relations, which would have benefits to the fields of geochemistry and neutron spectroscopy.

  14. Toward shrimp consumption without chemicals: Combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) during storage.

    PubMed

    Bono, Gioacchino; Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Alberio, Giuseppina R A; Messina, Concetta M; Santulli, Andrea; Giacalone, Gabriele; Spagna, Giovanni

    2016-04-15

    The combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (100% N2 and 50% N2+50% CO2) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (GRS) (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) was studied during 12-month storage. In particular, the quality characteristics determined proximal and gas compositions, melanosis scores, pH, total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as well as free amino acid (FAA). In addition, the emergent data were compared to those subject to vacuum packaging as well as conventional preservative method of sulphite treatment (SUL). Most determined qualities exhibited quantitative differences with storage. By comparisons, while pH and TVB-N statistically varied between treatments (P<0.05) and TBA that ranged between ∼0.15 and 0.30 mg MDA/kg appeared least at end of storage for 100% N2 treated-group, the latter having decreased melanosis scores showed such treatments with high promise to keep the colour of GRS sample hence, potential replacement for SUL group. By comparisons also, while some individual FAA values showed increases especially at the 100% N2-treated group, the total FAAs statistically differed with storage (P<0.05). The combination of freezing and MAP treatments as preservative treatment method shows high promise to influence some quality characteristics of GRS samples of this study. PMID:26616991

  15. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanni; Wang, Fengzhu; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhang, Suhua; Guo, Shilong; Zhu, Gengping; Liu, Qiang; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury), an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions. PMID:26841106

  16. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanni; Wang, Fengzhu; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhang, Suhua; Guo, Shilong; Zhu, Gengping; Liu, Qiang; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury), an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions. PMID:26841106

  17. Blockage of glucocorticoid receptors during memory acquisition, retrieval and reconsolidation prevents the expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preferences in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yao-Dong; Niu, Hai-Chen; Huma, Tanzeel; Li, Ling; Wang, Gui-Mei; Xu, Li-Qi; Ren, He; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Yu, Hua-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Association between the reward caused by consuming drugs and the context in which they are consumed is essential in the formation of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Glucocorticoid receptor (GRs) activation in different regions of the brain affects reward-based reinforcement and memory processing. A wide array of studies have demonstrated that blockage of GRs in some brain areas can have an effect on reward-related memory; however, to date there have been no systematic studies about the involvement of glucocorticoids (GCs) in morphine-related reward memory. Here, we used the GR antagonist RU38486 to investigate how GRs blockage affects the sensitization and CPP behavior during different phases of reward memory included acquisition, retrieval and reconsolidation. Interestingly, our results showed RU38486 has the ability to impair the acquisition, retrieval and reconsolidation of reward-based memory in CPP and sensitization behavior. But RU38486 by itself cannot induce CPP or conditioned place aversion (CPA) behavior. Our data provide a much more complete picture of the potential effects that glucocorticoids have on the reward memory of different phases and inhibit the sensitization behavior.

  18. In situ characterization of mercury-resistant growth-promoting fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Rai, Vivek; Bagdwal, Nidhi; Goel, Reeta

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains PRS9 and GRS1 (wild type) were made mercury resistant PRS9Hg(r) (147 microM HgCl2) and GRS1Hg(r) (55 microM HgCl2), respectively, in King's medium by enrichment selection and their in situ root colonization studies were carried out. Mercury resistant mutant of PRS9 was stable and resulted in significant increase in root and shoot fresh weight (P < 0.05). Both the mutants are positive for indoleacetic acid (IAA), 'P' solubilization and siderophore production. PRS9, potent 'P' solubilizer, exhibited higher 'P' solubilization as compared to GRS1. After 2 weeks of inoculation, the population level of wild type PRS9 and its mercury resistant mutants has increased (50 fold). Mercury resistance has no adverse effect on the growth promoting properties of mutants besides being comparable in its morphological and physiological properties with their wild type counterpart. Furthermore, mercury resistant character facilitates rhizospheric competition and thus helpful for establishment of growth promoting strains where metal ions are either limiting and/or present at toxic level. PMID:16255143

  19. Morphine conditioned place preference depends on glucocorticoid receptors in both hippocampus and nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili; Wang, Meina; Xu, Lin; Hao, Wei; Cao, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Learned association between drugs of abuse and context is essential for the formation of drug conditioned place preference (CPP), which is believed to engage many brain regions including hippocampus and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we examined whether glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) of hippocampus and NAc influenced the formation of morphine CPP in Sprague Dawley rats. We found that systemic or intrahippocampal infused DMSO vehicle (DMSO 20% in saline) 30 min before daily morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) conditioning did not affect the formation of morphine CPP. In contrast, systemic administration (5 mg/kg, s.c.) or intrahippocampal infusion (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 20 microg per side) of the GR antagonist RU38486 blocked or impaired the formation of CPP in a dose-dependent manner, respectively. Furthermore, intra-NAc infused RU38486 (10 microg per side) but not DMSO vehicle also prevented the formation of CPP. These results demonstrate that both the GRs of hippocampus and NAc are necessary for the formation of morphine CPP, suggesting a neural network function of the GRs in forming the opiate-associated memory.

  20. Slaking characteristics of unsaturated granite residual soils based on a modified slaking test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2012-12-01

    Slaking is one of the distinct process involved in the structural breakdown that occurs when soils are suddenly immersed in, or placed in contact with, water. The process occurs because the tensile stress of soil skeleton cannot withstand the stresses caused by rapid water uptake. Some instability problems caused by slaking process were found on subway tunnels and engineered slopes excavated in granite residual soils (GRS) in Guangzhou, south China. A serious of experimental laboratory studies were carried out in order to get better understanding about the slaking characteristics of GRS. Unsaturated GRS samples with different initial moisture content and different degree of compaction were made for test using homemade apparatus. We proposed a modified slaking test mothod to obtain slaking curves so as to reflect the actual slaking process on the basis of experimental observation and mechanism analysis as much as possible. The method considerred air escape process during water uptaking which combined the two extremes involved in water uptaking with free escape of displaced air and with no air escape. Subsequently, a modified slaking velocity index based on the the slaking curve was calculated and utilized for further data processing and analysis. We discussed the relationship between two main control factors (fillable porosity of soil and initial matric suction of soil) and slaking velocity as well. The results reveal that it has exponential function relationship for fillable porosity of soil and logarithm function relationship for initial matric suction of soil.

  1. Adiposity significantly modifies genetic risk for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Cole, Christopher B; Nikpay, Majid; Lau, Paulina; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Davies, Robert W; Wells, George A; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci robustly associated with plasma lipids, which also contribute to extreme lipid phenotypes. However, these common genetic variants explain <12% of variation in lipid traits. Adiposity is also an important determinant of plasma lipoproteins, particularly plasma TGs and HDL cholesterol (HDLc) concentrations. Thus, interactions between genes and clinical phenotypes may contribute to this unexplained heritability. We have applied a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for both plasma TGs and HDLc in two large cohorts at the extremes of BMI. Both BMI and GRS were strongly associated with these lipid traits. A significant interaction between obese/lean status and GRS was noted for each of TG (P(Interaction) = 2.87 × 10(-4)) and HDLc (P(Interaction) = 1.05 × 10(-3)). These interactions were largely driven by SNPs tagging APOA5, glucokinase receptor (GCKR), and LPL for TG, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), GalNAc-transferase (GALNT2), endothelial lipase (LIPG), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) for HDLc. In contrast, the GRSLDL cholesterol × adiposity interaction was not significant. Sexual dimorphism was evident for the GRSHDL on HDLc in obese (P(Interaction) = 0.016) but not lean subjects. SNP by BMI interactions may provide biological insight into specific genetic associations and missing heritability. PMID:25225679

  2. Measuring planetary neutron albedo fluxes by remote gamma-ray sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Metzger, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    In order to measure the planetary neutron albedo fluxes, a neutron-absorbing shield which emits gamma rays of characteristic energy and serves as a neutron detector, is added to a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). The gamma rays representing the neutron flux are observed against interference consisting of cosmic gamma rays, planetary continuum and line emission, and gamma rays arising from the interaction of cosmic rays with the GRS and the spacecraft. The uncertainty and minimum detection limits in neutron albedo fluxes are calculated for two missions, a lunar orbiter and a comet nucleus rendezvous. A GRS on a lunar orbiter at 100 km altitude detects a thermal neutron albedo flux as low as 0.002/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.6/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.001/sq cm/s, for a 100 h observation period. For the comet nucleus, again in a 100 h observing period, a thermal neutron albedo flux is detected at a level of 0.006/sq cm/s and an expected flux of about 0.4/sq cm/s is measured with an uncertainty of 0.004/sq cm/s. The expanded geological capabilities made possible by this technique include improvements in H sensitivity, spatial resolution, and measurement depth; and an improved model of induced gamma-ray emission.

  3. Toward shrimp consumption without chemicals: Combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) during storage.

    PubMed

    Bono, Gioacchino; Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Alberio, Giuseppina R A; Messina, Concetta M; Santulli, Andrea; Giacalone, Gabriele; Spagna, Giovanni

    2016-04-15

    The combined effects of freezing and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (100% N2 and 50% N2+50% CO2) on some quality characteristics of Giant Red Shrimp (GRS) (Aristaeomorpha foliacea) was studied during 12-month storage. In particular, the quality characteristics determined proximal and gas compositions, melanosis scores, pH, total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as well as free amino acid (FAA). In addition, the emergent data were compared to those subject to vacuum packaging as well as conventional preservative method of sulphite treatment (SUL). Most determined qualities exhibited quantitative differences with storage. By comparisons, while pH and TVB-N statistically varied between treatments (P<0.05) and TBA that ranged between ∼0.15 and 0.30 mg MDA/kg appeared least at end of storage for 100% N2 treated-group, the latter having decreased melanosis scores showed such treatments with high promise to keep the colour of GRS sample hence, potential replacement for SUL group. By comparisons also, while some individual FAA values showed increases especially at the 100% N2-treated group, the total FAAs statistically differed with storage (P<0.05). The combination of freezing and MAP treatments as preservative treatment method shows high promise to influence some quality characteristics of GRS samples of this study.

  4. Characterization of uncultured giant rod-shaped magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria from a freshwater pond in Kanazawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Taoka, Azuma; Kondo, Junya; Oestreicher, Zachery; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are widespread aquatic bacteria, and are a phylogenetically, physiologically and morphologically heterogeneous group, but they all have the ability to orientate and move along the geomagnetic field using intracellular magnetic organelles called magnetosomes. Isolation and cultivation of novel MTB are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of magnetosome formation and function in divergent MTB. In this study, we enriched a giant rod-shaped magnetotactic bacterium (strain GRS-1) from a freshwater pond in Kanazawa, Japan. Cells of strain GRS-1 were unusually large (~13×~8 µm). They swam in a helical trajectory towards the south pole of a bar magnet by means of a polar bundle of flagella. Another striking feature of GRS-1 was the presence of two distinct intracellular biomineralized structures: large electron-dense granules composed of calcium and long chains of magnetosomes that surround the large calcium granules. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that this strain belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria and represents a new genus of MTB. PMID:25028459

  5. [Correlation between legal protection of the environment and health].

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Guglielmo; Rinaldi, Alessandro; D'Andrea, Elvira; Lucchetti, Pietro; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; d'Alessandro, Eugenia De Luca

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion is a priority of our time and planning and the evaluation of health and hygiene should be directed towards strategies to improve the well-being and lifestyles of the community. At the legislative level in Italy, the Ministry of Health, was established in 1958 with the task of providing for the collective health of the whole nation and in 1978, with Law 833, the National Health Service (NHS) was created which secured assistance and healthcare to all Italian citizens. The most important component of the entire health system is the Local Health Unit (USL) which has responsibility for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation, and highlights the importance of safeguarding the health, hygiene and safely at home and at work and the "hygiene of urban settlements and communities", ie environmental protection. One of the reasons for the delays in the promotion of environmental protection initiatives in Italy is to be found in the referendums of 1993, including the one which removed the tasks regarding environmental controls from the NHS. The temporary skills gap in the environmental field was filled with the 'National Agency for Environmental Protection (ANPA), which later became the Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services (APAT), and the regional level, the Regional Agencies Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA). Law 61/21 January 1994 joined the ARPA to the National Institute for Environmental Research and Protection (ISPRA). It is now necessary to implement a program that takes account of the damage caused to the environment and consequently the individual, which is totally committed the combination of the environment and human health and not, as in the recent past, as two distinct entities. In this sense, it is of fundamental importance the role of prevention departments to promote the organization networking and of individual companies' and individuals' skills, in fact. The integration of planning processes, environmental monitoring

  6. Accurate Spectral Fits of Jupiter's Great Red Spot: VIMS Visual Spectra Modelled with Chromophores Created by Photolyzed Ammonia Reacting with Acetyleneχ±

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Kevin; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Carlson, Robert W.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2016-10-01

    We report results incorporating the red-tinted photochemically-generated aerosols of Carlson et al (2016, Icarus 274, 106-115) in spectral models of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Spectral models of the 0.35-1.0-micron spectrum show good agreement with Cassini/VIMS near-center-meridian and near-limb GRS spectra for model morphologies incorporating an optically-thin layer of Carlson (2016) aerosols at high altitudes, either at the top of the tropospheric GRS cloud, or in a distinct stratospheric haze layer. Specifically, a two-layer "crème brûlée" structure of the Mie-scattering Carlson et al (2016) chromophore attached to the top of a conservatively scattering (hereafter, "white") optically-thick cloud fits the spectra well. Currently, best agreement (reduced χ2 of 0.89 for the central-meridian spectrum) is found for a 0.195-0.217-bar, 0.19 ± 0.02 opacity layer of chromophores with mean particle radius of 0.14 ± 0.01 micron. As well, a structure with a detached stratospheric chromophore layer ~0.25 bar above a white tropospheric GRS cloud provides a good spectral match (reduced χ2 of 1.16). Alternatively, a cloud morphology with the chromophore coating white particles in a single optically- and physically-thick cloud (the "coated-shell model", initially explored by Carlson et al 2016) was found to give significantly inferior fits (best reduced χ2 of 2.9). Overall, we find that models accurately fit the GRS spectrum if (1) most of the optical depth of the chromophore is in a layer near the top of the main cloud or in a distinct separated layer above it, but is not uniformly distributed within the main cloud, (2) the chromophore consists of relatively small, 0.1-0.2-micron-radius particles, and (3) the chromophore layer optical depth is small, ~ 0.1-0.2. Thus, our analysis supports the exogenic origin of the red chromophore consistent with the Carlson et al (2016) photolytic production mechanism rather than an endogenic origin, such as upwelling of material

  7. Prediction of blood pressure changes over time and incidence of hypertension by a genetic risk score in Swedes.

    PubMed

    Fava, Cristiano; Sjögren, Marketa; Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Almgren, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Peter; Hedblad, Bo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Minuz, Pietro; Melander, Olle

    2013-02-01

    Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have pinpointed different single nucleotide polymorphisms consistently associated with blood pressure (BP) and hypertension prevalence. However, little data exist regarding single nucleotide polymorphisms predicting BP variation over time and hypertension incidence. The aim of this study was to confirm the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), based on 29 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms, with cross-sectional BP and hypertension prevalence and to challenge its prediction of BP change over time and hypertension incidence in >17 000 middle-aged Swedes participating in a prospective study, the Malmö Preventive Project, investigated at baseline and over a 23-year average period of follow-up. The GRS was associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP values both at baseline (β ± SEM, 0.968 ± 0.102 mm Hg and 0.585 ± 0.064 mm Hg; P<1E-19 for both) and at reinvestigation (β ± SEM, 1.333 ± 0.161 mm Hg and 0.724 ± 0.086 mm Hg; P<1E-15 for both) and with increased hypertension prevalence (odds ratio [95% CI], 1.192 [1.140-1.245] and 1.144 [1.107-1.183]; P<1E-15 for both). The GRS was positively associated with change (Δ) in BP (β ± SEM, 0.033 ± 0.008 mm Hg/y and 0.023 ± 0.004 mm Hg/y; P<1E-04 for both) and hypertension incidence (odds ratio [95% CI], 1.110 [1.065-1.156]; P=6.7 E-07), independently from traditional risk factors. The relative weight of the GRS was lower in magnitude than obesity or prehypertension, but comparable with diabetes mellitus or a positive family history of hypertension. A C-statistics analysis does not show any improvement in the prediction of incident hypertension on top of traditional risk factors. Our data from a large cohort study show that a GRS is independently associated with BP increase and incidence of hypertension.

  8. Expert Facilitated Development of an Objective Assessment Tool for Point-of-Care Ultrasound Performance in Undergraduate Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Black, Holly; Sheppard, Gillian; Metcalfe, Brian; Stone-McLean, Jordan; McCarthy, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background: With the various applications of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) steadily increasing, many medical schools across North America are incorporating PoCUS training into their undergraduate curricula. The Faculty of Medicine at Memorial University also intends to introduce PoCUS training into its own undergraduate medical program. The proposed approach is to introduce a PoCUS curriculum focusing on anatomy and physiology while developing cognitive and psychomotor skills that are later transferred into clinical applications. This has been the common approach taken by most undergraduate ultrasound programs in the United States. This project highlights the development and the challenges involved in creating an objective assessment tool that meets the unique needs of this proposed undergraduate ultrasound curriculum. Methods: After a thorough review of existing literature and input from experts in PoCUS, a prototype global rating scale (GRS) and three exam-specific checklists were created by researchers. The exam-specific checklists include aorta exam, subxiphoid cardiac exam, and focused abdominal exam. A panel of 18 emergency room physicians certified in PoCUS were recruited to evaluate the GRS and three checklists. This was accomplished using a modified Delphi technique. The items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale. If an item received a mean score of less than 4, it was deemed unimportant for the assessment of PoCUS performance in undergraduate medical learners and was excluded. Experts were also encouraged to provide comments and suggest further items to be added to the GRS or checklists. Items were modified according to these comments. All of the edits were then sent back to the experts for revisions. Results: A consensus was achieved after three rounds of surveys, with the final GRS containing nine items. The final aorta checklist contained nine items, and the subxiphoid cardiac and focused abdominal checklists each contained 11 items. Conclusion: By

  9. Changes in Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (1979-2006) and Oval BA (2000-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Sushil; Marcus, Philip S.

    2010-11-01

    We analyze velocity fields of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and Oval BA that were previously extracted from Cassini, Galileo, and Hubble Space Telescope images (Asay-Davis, X.S., Marcus, P.S., Wong, M., de Pater, I. [2009]. Icarus 203, 164-188). Our analyses use reduced-parameter models in which the GRS, Oval BA, and surrounding zonal (east-west) flows are assumed to have piece-wise-constant potential vorticity (PV), but with finite-sized transition regions between the pieces of constant PV rather than sharp steps. The shapes of the regions of constant PV are computed such that the flow is a steady, equilibrium solution of the 2D quasigeostrophic equations when viewed in a frame translating uniformly in the east-west direction. All parameter values of the models, including the magnitudes of the PV, areas of the regions with constant PV, locations of the transition regions, widths of the transition regions, and the value of the Rossby deformation radius, are found with a genetic algorithm such that the velocity produced by the equilibrium solution is a "best-fit" to the observed velocity fields. A Monte Carlo method is used to estimate the uncertainties in the best-fit parameter values. The best-fit results show that there were significant changes (greater than the uncertainties) in the PV of the GRS between Galileo in 1996 and Hubble in 2006. In particular, the shape of the PV anomaly of the GRS became rounder, and the area of the PV anomaly of the GRS decreased by 18%, although the magnitudes of PV in the anomaly remained constant. In contrast, neither the area nor the magnitude of the PV anomaly of the Oval BA changed from 2000, when its cloud cover was white, to 2006, when its cloud cover was red. The best-fit results also show that the areas of the PV anomalies of the GRS and of the Oval BA are smaller than the areas of their corresponding cloud covers at all times. Using the best-fit values of the Rossby deformation radius, we show that the Brunt

  10. Iron Abundances on the Moon as Seen by the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, D. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A. B.; Lucey, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of global-Fe abundances on the Moon are important because Fe is a key element that is used in models of lunar formation and evolution. Previous measurements of lunar Fe abundances have been made by the Apollo Gamma-Ray (AGR) experiment and Clementine spectral reflectance (CSR) experiment. The AGR experiment made direct elemental measurements for about 20% of the Moon. However, these measurements had large uncertainties due mostly to low statistics and an absence of thermal neutron data (see below). The CSR-derived Fe data has much better coverage (100% coverage equatorward of +/-70 deg. latitude) and spatial resolution (about 100-m surface resolution vs. about 150-km surface resolution for the AGR data), but there have been questions regarding the accuracy of these data far from the Apollo landing sites. Here we present preliminary estimates of the relative Fe abundances using the Lunar Prospector (LP) gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). While these data are important and useful by themselves, the ultimate goal of this study is to combine the LP Fe data with the CSR data to obtain a better calibrated and more accurate picture of the Fe abundances on the Moon. To derive Fe abundances, we are using two gamma ray lines near 7.6 MeV. These gamma-rays are produced by thermal neutron capture. Here, Fe nuclei absorb thermal neutrons, become energetically excited, and then de-excite with the production of gamma-rays. Because this process depends upon thermal neutrons, the measured flux of 7.6 MeV gamma-rays is proportional not only to the Fe abundances, but also to the thermal neutron number density. Here, we use measurements from the LP neutron spectrometer (NS) to correct for this thermal neutron effect. As seen elsewhere, this correction is quite large as the thermal neutron count rate varies over the Moon by a factor of 3. Many considerations need to be taken into account to make sure an appropriate correction is applied. These include (1) converting the

  11. A Very Massive Stellar Black Hole in the Milky Way Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    VLT ISAAC Uncovers an Enigmatic Microquasar Summary One of the most enigmatic stellar systems in our Milky Way Galaxy has been shown to harbour a very massive black hole. With 14 times more mass than the Sun [1], this is the heaviest known stellar black hole in the Galaxy. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , an international team of astronomers [2] peered into a remote area of the Milky Way to probe the binary system GRS 1915+105 , located almost 40,000 light-years away. They were able to identify the low-mass star that feeds the black hole by means of a steady flow of stellar material. A detailed follow-up study revealed how this star revolves around its hungry companion. The analysis of the orbital motion then made it possible to estimate the mass of the black hole. The observation of the heavy black hole in GRS 1915+105 is opening up fundamental questions about how massive stellar black holes form, and whether or not such objects rotate around their own axes. PR Photo 31a/01 : Schematic drawing of the GRS 1915+105 binary system . PR Photo 31b/01 : ISAAC spectrum of the companion star . PR Photo 31c/01 : The velocity curve from which the mass of the black hole was derived . Miniature Quasars in our Galaxy ESO PR Photo 31a/01 ESO PR Photo 31a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 399 pix - 44k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 797 pix - 192k] Caption : PR Photo 31a/01 shows an artist's impression of the binary stellar system GRS 1915+105 in which a heavy black hole is present. The distance between the donor star and the accreting black hole is about half the distance between the Earth and the Sun. The drawing illustrates how the donor star feeds the black hole via an accretion disk , and also the emergence of jets perpendicular to the disk. In the lower panel the blue colour denotes matter that spirals in the accretion disk, while in the orange region matter is freely falling radially into the black hole. Technical information

  12. Standardization of 134Cs by three methods.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Rodríguez, Barquero L; Roteta, M

    2002-01-01

    The nuclide 34Cs decays by beta-emission followed by gamma-deexcitation to 134Ba with a half-life T(1/2) = 2.065 a. It has been standardized by three methods: liquid scintillation counting (LSC), 4pi beta-gamma coincidence counting and 4pi gamma counting. In the LSC measurements, the CIEMAT/NIST method was used to calculate the efficiency. For the coincidence measurements, a conventional 4pi beta (proportional counter)-gamma(NaI) system was used. For the 4pi gamma standardization, a well-type Nal(Tl) detector was modeled with the Monte Carlo package PENELOPE, and the counting efficiency obtained by calculation. Results of the three methods agree within 0.65%.

  13. Analysis of 161Tb by radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.; Arrigo, L.; Friese, J.; Seiner, B. N.; Greenwood, L.; Finch, Z.

    2015-12-05

    The determination of 161Tb activity is problematic due to its very low fission yield, short half-life, and the complication of its gamma spectrum. At AWE, radiochemically purified 161Tb solution was measured on a PerkinElmer 1220 QuantulusTM Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. Since there was no 161Tb certified standard solution available commercially, the counting efficiency was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST Efficiency Tracing method. The method was validated during a recent inter-laboratory comparison exercise involving the analysis of a uranium sample irradiated with thermal neutrons. Lastly, the measured 161Tb result was in excellent agreement with the result using gamma spectrometry and the result obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  14. Analysis of 161Tb by radiochemical separation and liquid scintillation counting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.; Arrigo, L.; Friese, J.; Seiner, B. N.; Greenwood, L.; Finch, Z.

    2015-12-05

    The determination of 161Tb activity is problematic due to its very low fission yield, short half-life, and the complication of its gamma spectrum. At AWE, radiochemically purified 161Tb solution was measured on a PerkinElmer 1220 QuantulusTM Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer. Since there was no 161Tb certified standard solution available commercially, the counting efficiency was determined by the CIEMAT/NIST Efficiency Tracing method. The method was validated during a recent inter-laboratory comparison exercise involving the analysis of a uranium sample irradiated with thermal neutrons. Lastly, the measured 161Tb result was in excellent agreement with the result using gamma spectrometry and the result obtainedmore » by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.« less

  15. Performance demonstration of 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M S; Tomar, B S

    2016-02-01

    A standardization of (134)Cs and (131)I was carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. The coincidence analyzer, capable of analyzing coincidence between beta and two gamma windows simultaneously, was developed and used for the standardization. The use of this dual coincidence analyzer has reduced the total experimental time by half. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, a 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system, and the CIEMAT/NIST method are in excellent agreement with each other within uncertainty limits and hence demonstrates its performance for standardization of radionuclides decaying with complex decay scheme. Hence use of this 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system can be an alternative method suitable to standardize radionuclides with complex decay scheme with acceptable precision.

  16. Performance demonstration of 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, D B; Anuradha, R; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M S; Tomar, B S

    2016-02-01

    A standardization of (134)Cs and (131)I was carried out in order to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for standardization of radionuclides with complex decay scheme. The coincidence analyzer, capable of analyzing coincidence between beta and two gamma windows simultaneously, was developed and used for the standardization. The use of this dual coincidence analyzer has reduced the total experimental time by half. The activity concentrations obtained using the 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system, a 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system, and the CIEMAT/NIST method are in excellent agreement with each other within uncertainty limits and hence demonstrates its performance for standardization of radionuclides decaying with complex decay scheme. Hence use of this 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system can be an alternative method suitable to standardize radionuclides with complex decay scheme with acceptable precision. PMID:26678524

  17. Determination of selected polycyclic aromatic compounds in particulate matter: a validation study of an agitation extraction method for samples with low mass loadings using reduced volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alonso, S.; Pérez-Pastor, R. M.; Archilla-Prat, V.; Rodríguez-Maroto, J.; Izquierdo-Díaz, M.; Rojas, E.; Sanz, D.

    2015-12-01

    A simple analytical method using low volumes of solvent for determining selected PAHs and NPAHs in PM samples is presented. The proposed extraction method was compared with pressurized fluid (PFE) and microwave (MC) extraction techniques and intermediate precision associated to analytical measurements were estimated. Extraction by agitation with 8 mL of dichloromethane yielded recoveries above 80% compared to those obtained from PFE extraction. Regarding intermediate precision results, values between 10-20% were reached showing increases of dispersion for compounds with high volatility and low levels of concentration. Within the framework of the INTA/CIEMAT research agreement for the PM characterization in gas turbine exhaust, the method was applied for analysis of aluminum foil substrates and quartz filters with mass loading ranged from 0.02 to 2 mg per sample.

  18. Test benches facilities for PAUCam: CCDs and filters characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Casas, Ricard; Castilla, Javier; Grañena, Ferran; de Vicente, Juan; Maiorino, Marino; Sevilla, Ignacio

    2012-09-01

    The PAUCam [1] is an optical camera with a 18 CCDs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) mosaic and up to 42 narrow- and broad-band filters. It is foreseen to install it at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain. As required by the camera construction, a couple of test bench facilities were developed, one in Madrid (CIEMAT) that is mainly devoted to CCDs read-out electronics development and filter characterization [2], and another in Barcelona (IFAE-ICE) that has as its main task to characterize the scientific CCDs in terms of Dark Current, CTE, QE, RON and many other parameters demanded by the scientific performance required. The full CCDs characterization test bench layout, its descriptions and some optical and mechanical characterization results are summarized in this paper.

  19. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  20. Quench calculations for the superconducting dipole magnet of CBM experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilkin, P.; Akishin, P.; Bychkov, A.; Floch, E.; Gusakov, Yu.; Ladygin, V.; Malakhov, A.; Moritz, G.; Ramakers, H.; Senger, P.; Shabunov, A.; Szwangruber, P.; Toral, F.

    2016-08-01

    The scientific mission of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is the study of the nuclear matter properties at the high baryon densities in heavy ion collisions at the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. The 5.15 MJ superconducting dipole magnet will be used in the silicon tracking system of the CBM detector. It will provide a magnetic field integral of 1 Tm which is required to obtain a momentum resolution of 1% for the track reconstruction. This paper presents quench modeling and evaluation of candidate protection schemes for the CBM dipole magnet. Two quench programs based on finite-difference method were used in simulation. One of them is currently used at GSI, and the other based on CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) was modified to perform quench calculation for the CBM magnet.

  1. High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry of ²³⁸U.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; García-Toraño, E; Marouli, M; Crespo, M T; Jobbágy, V; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Stroh, H

    2014-05-01

    The alpha-particle emission probabilities associated with the three main alpha transitions of (238)U were measured by high-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry. Highly enriched (238)U material was used and its isotopic composition characterised by mass spectrometry. Source production through electrodeposition was optimised to reconcile conflicting demands for good spectral resolution and statistical precision. Measurements were performed at IRMM and CIEMAT for 1-2 years in three different set-ups. A new magnet system was put into use to largely eliminate true coincidence effects with low-energy conversion electrons. Finally the accuracy and precision of the relative emission probabilities for the three transitions - 77.01 (10)%, 22.92 (10)% and 0.068 (10)%, respectively - have been improved significantly.

  2. The implementation of cosmic radiation monitoring in routine flight operation of IBERIA airline of Spain: 1 y of experience of in-flight permanent monitoring.

    PubMed

    Vergara, J C Sáez; Román, R Dominguez-Mompell

    2009-10-01

    Since 2000 IBERIA and CIEMAT have been collaborating in experimental measurements of onboard radiation doses received by the crew of IBERIA commercial flights. As part of the IBERIA radiation protection program for aircrew members, a monitoring system for routine aircrew dosimetry has been implemented based on the conclusions from the experimental work and the code EPCARD 3.2. The system feeds the computer code with the predicted flight plans and registers the route dose in the corresponding file for each aircrew member. The radiation protection program also includes a validation of the computed doses with experimental tissue equivalent proportional counter measurements, which in 2008 had been extended with the permanent installation and continuous operation of MDU-Liulin Si spectrometers in eight A-340-300 aircraft. It is expected that these instruments would provide experimental data on the radiation received for 4500 flights per year, which is of special value to detect unpredictable solar particle events.

  3. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  4. Results of the EURAMET.RI(II)-S6.I-129 supplementary comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Toraño, Eduardo; Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Auerbach, Pavel; Bé, Marie-Martine; Lourenço, Valérie; Bobin, Christophe; Cassette, Philippe; Dersch, Rainer; Kossert, Karsten; Nähle, Ole; Peyrés, Virginia; Pommé, Stefaan; Rozkov, Andrej; Sanchez-Cabezudo, Anabel; Sochoro&vacute; , Jana

    2015-01-01

    An international comparison of the long-lived gamma-ray emitter 129I has been recently completed. A total of 5 laboratories measured a solution prepared by Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT). Aliquots of the master solution were standardized in terms of activity per mass unit by participant laboratories using 4 different techniques. The results of the comparison can be used as the basis for establishing the equivalence among the laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Development and application of a safety assessment methodology for waste disposals

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.H.; Torres, C.; Schaller, K.H.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a European Commission funded research programme, QuantiSci (formerly the Environmental Division of Intera Information Technologies) and Instituto de Medio Ambiente of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (IMA/CIEMAT) have developed and applied a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment methodology for post-disposal safety assessment of land-based disposal facilities. This Safety Assessment Comparison (SACO) Methodology employs a systematic approach to the collection, evaluation and use of waste and disposal system data. It can be used to assess engineered barrier performance, the attenuating properties of host geological formations, and the long term impacts of a facility on the environment and human health, as well as allowing the comparison of different disposal options for radioactive, mixed and non-radioactive wastes. This paper describes the development of the methodology and illustrates its use.

  6. Continuous Scintillator Detector Blocks for Simultaneous Pet-Mr Imaging of the Human Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Continuous scintillator detector blocks have several advantages over pixelated designs, presenting a larger active volume and a lower cost with comparable or better energy and spatial resolutions. In this paper we describe the operation of continuous detector blocks for positron emission tomography (PET) and their suitability for multimodality imaging operating inside a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. This detector technology is being used on a full-scale clinical scanner for human brain PET studies presently under development at Ciemat. Results will be presented on the laboratory characterization of monolithic scintillators coupled to APD matrices with ASIC readout, including images of point sources from a prototype dual-head demonstrator illustrating the potential of continuous scintillator detector blocks for high-resolution PET-MR imaging.

  7. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-09

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  8. Standardization of Sm-153 solution by absolute methods.

    PubMed

    Dziel, T; Broda, R; Ziemek, T; Muklanowicz, A; Listkowska, A

    2014-05-01

    Standardization of (153)Sm by 4π(LS)-γ coincidence and anticoincidence counting and the CIEMAT/NIST method in three LS-counters is presented. This short half-life radionuclide is applied in tumor therapy and bone pain palliation. A simplified disintegration scheme of (153)Sm was applied in the calculation of the counting efficiency. Standard uncertainties of 0.4% for the (153)Sm measurements by the 4π(LS)-γ coincidence and anticoincidence techniques and 0.7% by the C/N method were evaluated, respectively. An agreement of the standardization results by both methods within the respective uncertainties was obtained. The half-life of (153)Sm of (1.92895±0.00024) days was determined during one month of measurements and correction for europium isotope impurities by the C/N method in the TriCarb 2910 LS-counter.

  9. A new NIST primary standardization of 18F.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, R; Zimmerman, B E; Bergeron, D E; Cessna, J C; Pibida, L; Moreira, D S

    2014-02-01

    A new primary standardization of (18)F by NIST is reported. The standard is based on live-timed beta-gamma anticoincidence counting with confirmatory measurements by three other methods: (i) liquid scintillation (LS) counting using CIEMAT/NIST (3)H efficiency tracing; (ii) triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) counting; and (iii) NaI integral counting and HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The results are reported as calibration factors for NIST-maintained ionization chambers (including some "dose calibrators"). The LS-based methods reveal evidence for cocktail instability for one LS cocktail. Using an ionization chamber to link this work with previous NIST results, the new value differs from the previous reports by about 4%, but appears to be in good agreement with the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of 2005. PMID:24384397

  10. High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry of ²³⁸U.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; García-Toraño, E; Marouli, M; Crespo, M T; Jobbágy, V; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Stroh, H

    2014-05-01

    The alpha-particle emission probabilities associated with the three main alpha transitions of (238)U were measured by high-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry. Highly enriched (238)U material was used and its isotopic composition characterised by mass spectrometry. Source production through electrodeposition was optimised to reconcile conflicting demands for good spectral resolution and statistical precision. Measurements were performed at IRMM and CIEMAT for 1-2 years in three different set-ups. A new magnet system was put into use to largely eliminate true coincidence effects with low-energy conversion electrons. Finally the accuracy and precision of the relative emission probabilities for the three transitions - 77.01 (10)%, 22.92 (10)% and 0.068 (10)%, respectively - have been improved significantly. PMID:24355304

  11. RETROSPECTIVE METHOD VALIDATION AND UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATION FOR ACTINIDES DETERMINATION IN EXCRETA BY ALPHA SPECTROMETRY.

    PubMed

    Hernández, C; Sierra, I

    2016-09-01

    Two essential technical requirements of ISO 17025 guide for accreditation of testing and calibration laboratories are the validation of methods and the estimation of all sources of uncertainty that may affect the analytical result. Bioelimination Laboratory from Radiation Dosimetry Service of CIEMAT (Spain) uses alpha spectrometry to quantify alpha emitters (Pu, Am, Th, U and Cm isotopes) in urine and faecal samples from workers exposed to internal radiation. Therefore and as a step previous to achieving the ISO 17025 accreditation, the laboratory has performed retrospective studies based on the obtained results in the past few years to validate the analytical method. Uncertainty estimation was done identifying and quantifying all the contributions, and finally the overall combined standard uncertainty was calculated. PMID:26424133

  12. Conference report on the 3rd International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mazzitelli, Guiseppe; Hirooka, Y.; Hu, J. S.; Mirnov, S. V.; Nygren, R.; Shimada, M.; Ono, M.; Tabares, F. L.

    2015-01-14

    The third International Symposium on Lithium Application for Fusion Device (ISLA-2013) was held on 9-11 October 2013 at ENEA Frascati Centre with growing participation and interest from the community working on more general aspect of liquid metal research for fusion energy development. ISLA-2013 has been confirmed to be the largest and the most important meeting dedicated to liquid metal application for the magnetic fusion research. Overall, 45 presentation plus 5 posters were given, representing 28 institutions from 11 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were presented in 16 presentations from NSTX (PPPL, USA), FTU (ENEA, Italy),more » T-11M (Trinity, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST(ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), RFX (Padova, Italy), KTM (NNC RK, Kazakhstan). Sessions were devoted to the following: (I) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), (II) lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), (III) special session on liquid lithium technology, (IV) lithium laboratory test stands, (V) Lithium theory/modelling/comments, (VI) innovative lithium applications and (VII) special Session on lithium-safety and lithium handling. There was a wide participation from the fusion technology communities, including IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchange with the physics oriented magnetic confinement liquid metal research groups. Furthermore, this international workshop will continue on a biennial basis (alternating with the Plasma-Surface Interactions (PSI) Conference) and the next workshop will be held at CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain, in 2015.« less

  13. Association of interleukin 22 polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shan-yu; Yang, Xian-wen; Luo, Wei; Chen, Mei; Liu, Zhi-ling; Su, Si-biao; Jiang, Hai-xing

    2015-03-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22 has been implicated in inflammation and tumorigenesis. To date, no studies have investigated the role of IL-22 polymorphism in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of IL-22 polymorphisms with the risk of GC in a Chinese population. One hundred eight GC patients and 110 healthy controls were included in the study. IL-22 rs1179251, rs2227485, and rs2227473 polymorphisms were determined by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Haplotypes were constructed, and a possible association of these haplotypes with GC was assessed. The distribution of IL-22 rs1179251 polymorphism with clinical parameters was also analyzed. The IL-22 rs1179251 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (p < 0.05). Stratified analysis revealed that rs1179251 was associated with advanced stages, lymph node metastases, and distant metastases of GC (p < 0.05). No associations were found between rs2227485 and rs2227473 and the risk of GC (p > 0.05). Three possible haplotypes (C(rs1179251)-C(rs2227485)-G(rs2227485), C(rs1179251)-T(rs2227485)-G(rs2227485), and G(rs1179251)-T(rs2227485)-A(rs2227485)) were identified, but no associations were found between these and the risk of GC (p > 0.05). In summary, our study demonstrates that the rs1179251 polymorphism of IL-22 was associated with an increased risk of GC and may influence the progression of GC. Future larger studies with other ethnic populations are required to confirm these findings.

  14. Technology development for the LISA using the UF Torsion Pendulu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John W.; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Apple, Stephen; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Space-based gravitational wave observatories like LISA measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers caused by gravitational waves. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). LISA will observe gravitational wave sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries in the millihertz region, and LISA science has consistently been ranked in the top two for future large space missions in the last two NASA astrophysics decadal reviews. With the 2015 launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) and the expected detection of gravitational waves by aLIGO and/or Pulsar Timing Arrays within in the next several years, this can arguably be called the decade of gravitational waves. Following a successful demonstration of the baseline LISA GRS by LPF, the measurement principle will be carried forward, but improvements in several GRS components are possible over the next ten years that will lead to cost savings and potential noise reductions. The UF LISA group has constructed the UF Torsion Pendulum to increase U.S. competency in this critical area and to have a facility where new technologies can be developed and evaluated. This experimental facility is based on the design of a similar facility at the University of Trento, and consists of a vacuum enclosed torsion pendulum that suspends mock-ups of the LISA test masses, surrounded by electrode housings. This presentation will describe this facility, focusing on its mechanical design, capacitive sensing and electrostatic actuation systems, and overall acceleration noise performance

  15. Genome-wide association study of the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation[S

    PubMed Central

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Guénard, Frédéric; Julien, Pierre; Couture, Patrick; Lemieux, Simone; Barbier, Olivier; Calder, Philip C.; Minihane, Anne Marie; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown a large interindividual variability in plasma TG response to long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may likely be attributable to genetic variability within the populations studied. The objective is to compare the frequency of SNPs in a genome-wide association study between responders (reduction in plasma TG levels ≥0.01 mM) and nonresponders (increase in plasma TG of ≥0 mM) to supplementation. Genomic DNA from 141 subjects who completed a 2-week run-in period followed by 6-week supplementation with 5 g of fish oil daily (1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA daily) were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmni-5-QuadBeadChip. Thirteen loci had frequency differences between responders and nonresponders (P < 1 × 10−5), including SNPs in or near IQCJ-SCHIP1, MYB, NELL1, NXPH1, PHF17, and SLIT2 genes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. This GRS explained 21.53% of the variation in TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.0002). Using Fish Oil Intervention and Genotype as a replication cohort, the GRS was able to explain 2% of variation in TG response when adjusted. In conclusion, subjects who decrease their plasma TG levels following n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a different genetic profile than individuals who do not respond. PMID:24847101

  16. A Possibly Universal Red Chromophore for Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Baines, Kevin; Fry, Patrick M.

    2016-10-01

    A new laboratory-generated chemical compound made from photodissociated ammonia (NH3) molecules reacting with acetylene (C2H2) was suggested as a possible coloring agent for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) by Carlson et al. (2016, Icarus 274, 106-115). Baines et al. (2016, AAS/DPS Meeting abstract) showed that the GRS spectrum measured by the visual channels of the Cassini VIMS instrument in 2000 could be accurately fit by a cloud model in which the chromophore appeared as small particles in a physically thin layer immediately above the main cloud layer of the GRS. Here we show that the same chromophore and similar layer structure can also provide close matches to the 0.4-1 micron spectra of many other cloud features on Jupiter, suggesting that this material may be a nearly universal chromophore responsible for the various degrees of red coloration on Jupiter. This is a robust conclusion, even for 12 percent changes in VIMS calibration and large uncertainties in the refractive index of the main cloud layer due to uncertain fractions of NH4SH and NH3 in its cloud particles. The chromophore layer can account for color variations among north and south equatorial belts, equatorial zone, and the Great Red Spot, by varying particle size from 0.12 to 0.29 micron and optical depth from 0.06 to 0.76. The total mass of the chromophore layer is much less variable than its optical depth, staying mainly within 6-10 micrograms/cm2 range, but is only about half that amount in the equatorial zone. We also found a depression of the ammonia volume mixing ratio in the two belt regions, which averaged 0.4-0.5 × 10-4 immediately below the ammonia condensation level, while the other regions averaged twice that value.LAS and PMF acknowledge support from NASA Grant NNX14AH40G.

  17. Search for massive resonances in dijet systems containing jets tagged as W or Z boson decays in pp collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s} $$ = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-08-29

    Our search is reported for massive resonances decaying into a quark and a vector boson (W or Z), or two vector bosons (WW, WZ, or ZZ). The analysis is performed on an inclusive sample of multijet events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1, collected in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. We found that the search uses novel jet-substructure identification techniques that provide sensitivity to the presence of highly boosted vector bosons decaying into a pair of quarks. Exclusion limits are set at a confidence level of 95%more » on the production of: (i) excited quark resonances q*decaying to qW and qZ for masses less than 3.2 TeV and 2.9 TeV, respectively, (ii) a Randall-Sundrum graviton GRS decaying into WW for masses below 1.2 TeV, and (iii) a heavy partner of the W boson W' decaying into WZ for masses less than 1.7 TeV. For the first time mass limits are set on W' → WZ and GRS → WW in the all-jets final state. The mass limits on q* → qW, q* → qZ, W' → WZ, GRS → WW are the most stringent to date. A model with a “bulk” graviton Gbulk that decays into WW or ZZ bosons is also studied.« less

  18. Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species: What We Know and Do Not Know

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus species can remain in their dormant and resistant states for years, but exposure to agents such as specific nutrients can cause spores' return to life within minutes in the process of germination. This process requires a number of spore-specific proteins, most of which are in or associated with the inner spore membrane (IM). These proteins include the (i) germinant receptors (GRs) that respond to nutrient germinants, (ii) GerD protein, which is essential for GR-dependent germination, (iii) SpoVA proteins that form a channel in spores' IM through which the spore core's huge depot of dipicolinic acid is released during germination, and (iv) cortex-lytic enzymes (CLEs) that degrade the large peptidoglycan cortex layer, allowing the spore core to take up much water and swell, thus completing spore germination. While much has been learned about nutrient germination, major questions remain unanswered, including the following. (i) How do nutrient germinants penetrate through spores' outer layers to access GRs in the IM? (ii) What happens during the highly variable and often long lag period between the exposure of spores to nutrient germinants and the commitment of spores to germinate? (iii) What do GRs and GerD do, and how do these proteins interact? (iv) What is the structure of the SpoVA channel in spores' IM, and how is this channel gated? (v) What is the precise state of the spore IM, which has a number of novel properties even though its lipid composition is very similar to that of growing cells? (vi) How is CLE activity regulated such that these enzymes act only when germination has been initiated? (vii) And finally, how does the germination of spores of clostridia compare with that of spores of bacilli? PMID:24488313

  19. Cannabinoids reverse the effects of early stress on neurocognitive performance in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alteba, Shirley; Korem, Nachshon; Akirav, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Early life stress (ES) significantly increases predisposition to psychopathologies. Cannabinoids may cause cognitive deficits and exacerbate the effects of ES. Nevertheless, the endocannabinoid system has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of stress- and anxiety-related disorders. Here we examined whether cannabinoids administered during "late adolescence" (extensive cannabis use in humans at the ages 18-25) could reverse the long-term adverse effects of ES on neurocognitive function in adulthood. Male and female rats were exposed to ES during post-natal days (P) 7-14, injected with the cannabinoid CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 wk during late adolescence (P45-60) and tested in adulthood (P90) for working memory, anxiety, and alterations in CB1 receptors (CB1r), and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the stress circuit [hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA)]. ES males and females exhibited impaired performance in short-term memory in adulthood in the spatial location and social recognition tasks; males were also impaired in the novel object recognition task. WIN administered during late adolescence prevented these stress-induced impairments and reduced anxiety levels. WIN normalized the ES-induced up-regulation in PFC-GRs and CA1-CB1r in females. In males, WIN normalized the ES-induced up-regulation in PFC-GR and down-regulation in BLA-CB1r. There is a crucial role of the endocannabinoid system in the effects of early life stress on behavior at adulthood. Differences in recognition memory and in the expression of GRs and CB1r in the fear circuit suggest sex differences in the mechanism underlying coping with stress. PMID:27317195

  20. Revisiting the Interpretation of Thorium Abundances at Hansteen Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, D. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Vaniman, D. T.

    2004-01-01

    Hansteen Alpha is one of the few remaining locations on the Moon thought to be formed by highlands volcanism. Hansteen Alpha is a triangular shaped feature located in the southern portion of Oceanus Procellarum (12 degrees W, 50 degrees S) and its size is approximately 25 km on each side. As described by Hawke et al., there is clear evidence that: 1) Hansteen Alpha was emplaced by extrusive volcanic processes; and 2) it was formed by a viscous lava that should be enriched in Th. However, in the study of Hawke et al. using available Lunar Prospector (LP) Th data, it was concluded that the Hansteen Alpha region was not greatly enriched in Th as would be expected for a highly evolved, viscous lava. It was further concluded based on other compositional data that the magma that formed Hansteen Alpha did not correspond to any known rock type. Here we revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at Hansteen Alpha for a couple of reasons. First, the size of Hansteen Alpha is smaller than the spatial resolution of the LP Gamma-ray Spectrometer (LP-GRS) from which the Th abundances were derived. Therefore, the LP-GRS pixels covering Hansteen Alpha may not truly represent the Th abundance of the Hansteen Alpha feature. Second, recent work has led to a much greater understanding of the Th spatial distribution for small-area features on the lunar surface. In particular, using forward modeling techniques, we have developed the ability to obtain information about Th abundances for features that are at or smaller than the FWHM spatial resolution (approximately [80 square kilometers]) of the LP-GRS data.

  1. Mendelian randomization supports causality between maternal hyperglycemia and epigenetic regulation of leptin gene in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Allard, C; Desgagné, V; Patenaude, J; Lacroix, M; Guillemette, L; Battista, MC; Doyon, M; Ménard, J; Ardilouze, JL; Perron, P; Bouchard, L; Hivert, MF

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine that acts in the central nervous system and regulates energy balance. Animal models and human observational studies have suggested that leptin surge in the perinatal period has a critical role in programming long-term risk of obesity. In utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia has been associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are suspected to be involved in fetal programming of long term metabolic diseases. We investigated whether DNA methylation levels near LEP locus mediate the relation between maternal glycemia and neonatal leptin levels using the 2-step epigenetic Mendelian randomization approach. We used data and samples from up to 485 mother-child dyads from Gen3G, a large prospective population-based cohort. First, we built a genetic risk score to capture maternal glycemia based on 10 known glycemic genetic variants (GRS10) and showed it was an adequate instrumental variable (β = 0.046 mmol/L of maternal fasting glucose per additional risk allele; SE = 0.007; P = 7.8 × 10−11; N = 467). A higher GRS10 was associated with lower methylation levels at cg12083122 located near LEP (β = −0.072 unit per additional risk allele; SE = 0.04; P = 0.05; N = 166). Direction and effect size of association between the instrumental variable GRS10 and methylation at cg12083122 were consistent with the negative association we observed using measured maternal glycemia. Lower DNA methylation levels at cg12083122 were associated with higher cord blood leptin levels (β = −0.17 log of cord blood leptin per unit; SE = 0.07; P = 0.01; N = 170). Our study supports that maternal glycemia is part of causal pathways influencing offspring leptin epigenetic regulation. PMID:25800063

  2. Effects of Fatigue and Sleep Deprivation on Microvascular Anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Basaran, Karaca; Mercan, Ebru Sen; Aygit, Ahmet Cemal

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of various human-based factors, such as tremor, exercise, and posture, on microsurgical performance. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of sleep deprivation and fatigue on microsurgery. A total of 48 Wistar Hannover rats were divided into 3 groups (16 anastomoses in each group) to be operated on at 3 different times: in the morning at 08:00 hours (group I), at night on the same day (01:00 h, group II), and the next morning at 09:00 hours (group III) following a night with no sleep. The blindly evaluated parameters were anastomotic times, error score (ES), global rating scale (GRS), autopsy scores (ASs), and patency. There was progressive decrease in the anastomosis times between the groups (P > 0.05). The patency rates were 93% in group I, 81% in group II, and 81% in group III (P > 0.05). The ES (P < 0.01), AS (P < 0.001), and GRS (P < 0.001) revealed significant results. Comparison between the groups showed that other than the anastomosis time, the night group (group II) showed a significant drop when compared with the preceding morning group (group I) (ES P < 0.01, AS P < .001, and GRS P < 0.001). In most of the parameters, the errors occurred with fatigue after the day and reached a maximum at the end of the day (group II). This study provides valuable data that might have significant medicolegal implications for controversial issues. More studies, however, including multiple surgeons with different experience levels, might be required to fully elucidate the overall effects of fatigue and sleep deprivation on microsurgery.

  3. A Family of Chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-latief, Mohatmed

    2007-01-01

    Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs) and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors) was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs) and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b), which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO2 receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species. PMID:18091992

  4. Fundamental properties of accreting compact objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Jennifer L.

    Galactic accreting compact objects, such as stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars, can give us a unique perspective into the behavior of matter in extreme conditions. However, the exact nature of accretion onto these objects is not yet well understood. X-ray studies provide us with a means to observe the innermost regions around these objects and to explore our theories of general relativistic physics. Through X-ray analyses we can constrain the physical parameters necessary to make logical deductions regarding compact object properties, such as disk winds, relativistic jets, the Kerr metric, and the neutron star equation of state. Here we present spectral modeling results from three accreting X-ray binaries. Specifically, we analyze Suzaku spectra from two stellar-mass black hole X-ray binaries, GRS 1915+105 and H1743-322, and one neutron star X-ray binary, 4U 1636-53. For GRS 1915+105 and 4U 1636-53, we use the relativistic iron line, which is part of a reflection spectrum, as a diagnostic for measuring black hole spin and neutron star radius, respectively. We find that while we can exclude a spin of zero at the 2σ level of confidence for GRS 1915+105, data selection and disk reflection modeling nuances can be important when estimating the spin value. For 4U 1636-53, we provide upper limits on the neutron star radius by estimating the radial extent of the inner accretion disk, which are important for constraining models for the neutron star equation of state. Moreover, when testing for the presence of disk winds in H1743-322 (which are key to understanding the nature of accretion disk outflow), we do not detect Fe XXV or Fe XXVI absorption lines in its spectra of H1743-322; implying that disk winds may be state dependent.

  5. Fundamental Properties of Accreting Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Galactic accreting compact objects, such as stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars can give us a unique perspective into the behavior of matter in extreme conditions. However, the exact nature of accretion onto these objects is not yet well understood. X-ray studies provide us with a means to observe the innermost regions around these objects and to test our theories of general relativistic physics. Through X-ray analyses we can constrain the physical parameters necessary to make logical deductions regarding compact object properties, such as disk winds, relativistic jets, the Kerr metric, and the neutron star equation of state. Here we present spectral modeling results from three accreting X-ray binaries. Specifically, we analyze Suzaku spectra from two stellar-mass black hole X-ray binaries, GRS 1915+105 and H1743-322, and one neutron star X-ray binary, 4U 1636-53. For GRS 1915+105 and 4U 1636-53, we use the relativistic iron line, which is part of a reflection spectrum, as a diagnostic for measuring black hole spin and neutron star radius, respectively. We find that while we can exclude a spin of zero at the 2 sigma level of confidence for GRS 1915+105, data selection and disk reflection modeling nuances can be important when estimating the spin value. For 4U 1636-53, we provide upper limits on the neutron star radius by estimating the radial extent of the inner accretion disk, which are important for constraining models for the neutron star equation of state. Moreover, when testing for the presence of disk winds in H1743-322 (which are key to understanding the nature of accretion disk outflow), we do not detect Fe XXV or Fe XXVI absorption lines in its spectra of H1743-322; implying that disk winds may be state dependent.

  6. Mendelian randomization supports causality between maternal hyperglycemia and epigenetic regulation of leptin gene in newborns.

    PubMed

    Allard, C; Desgagné, V; Patenaude, J; Lacroix, M; Guillemette, L; Battista, M C; Doyon, M; Ménard, J; Ardilouze, J L; Perron, P; Bouchard, L; Hivert, M F

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an adipokine that acts in the central nervous system and regulates energy balance. Animal models and human observational studies have suggested that leptin surge in the perinatal period has a critical role in programming long-term risk of obesity. In utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia has been associated with increased risk of obesity later in life. Epigenetic mechanisms are suspected to be involved in fetal programming of long term metabolic diseases. We investigated whether DNA methylation levels near LEP locus mediate the relation between maternal glycemia and neonatal leptin levels using the 2-step epigenetic Mendelian randomization approach. We used data and samples from up to 485 mother-child dyads from Gen3G, a large prospective population-based cohort. First, we built a genetic risk score to capture maternal glycemia based on 10 known glycemic genetic variants (GRS10) and showed it was an adequate instrumental variable (β = 0.046 mmol/L of maternal fasting glucose per additional risk allele; SE = 0.007; P = 7.8 × 10(-11); N = 467). A higher GRS10 was associated with lower methylation levels at cg12083122 located near LEP (β = -0.072 unit per additional risk allele; SE = 0.04; P = 0.05; N = 166). Direction and effect size of association between the instrumental variable GRS10 and methylation at cg12083122 were consistent with the negative association we observed using measured maternal glycemia. Lower DNA methylation levels at cg12083122 were associated with higher cord blood leptin levels (β = -0.17 log of cord blood leptin per unit; SE = 0.07; P = 0.01; N = 170). Our study supports that maternal glycemia is part of causal pathways influencing offspring leptin epigenetic regulation. PMID:25800063

  7. Chromophores from Photolyzed Ammonia Reacting with Acetylene: Application to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Robert W.; Baines, K. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Filacchione, G.

    2012-10-01

    The production mechanisms of chromophores at Jupiter, and notably at the Great Red Spot (GRS), have been long-standing puzzles. A clue to the formation of the GRS coloring agent may be the great height of this storm, which can upwell ammonia to pressure levels of a few hundred mbar where solar photons capable of dissociating NH3 penetrate. Acetylene formed at higher altitudes can diffuse down and react with the NH3 photodissociation products, forming a deposit that absorbs in the ultraviolet and visible region (Ferris and Ishikawa, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 110, 4306-4312, 1988). We have investigated the system NH3 + C2H2 + CH4 using a Zn lamp emitting at 214 nm to produce NH2 + H and subsequent reaction products. The deposits produced in these reactions were analyzed by optical and infrared spectroscopy and soft-ionization (He*) time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The combination of NH3 + CH4 produced no visibly absorbing material, but NH3 + C2H2 and NH3 + C2H2 + CH4 mixtures both produced a yellow-orange film whose transmission spectra are similar to that of the GRS obtained by Cassini VIMS. Infrared spectra show a strong band at 2056 wavenumbers which may arise from nitrile (-CN), isonitrile (-NC), or diazide (-CNN) functional groups. The high-resolution mass spectra are consistent with compounds of the form CnH2n+1Nm, similar to the products formed in NH3 + CH4 spark discharges (Molton and Ponnamperuma, Icarus 21, 166-174, 1974). We thank NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program for support.

  8. Gene-carbohydrate and gene-fiber interactions and type 2 diabetes in diverse populations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both environmental and genetic factors impact type 2 diabetes (T2D). To identify such modifiers, we genotyped 15 T2D-associated variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 6,414 non-Hispanic whites, 3,073 non-Hispanic blacks, and 3,633 Mexican American participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and evaluated interactions between these variants and carbohydrate intake and fiber intake. Results We calculated a genetic risk score (GRS) with the 15 SNPs. The odds ratio for T2D with each GRS point was 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) for non-Hispanic whites, 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13) for non-Hispanic blacks, and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.17) for Mexican Americans. We identified two gene-carbohydrate interactions (P < 0.05) in non-Hispanic whites (with CDKAL1 rs471253 and FTO rs8050136), two in non-Hispanic blacks (with IGFBP2 rs4402960 and THADA rs7578597), and two in Mexican Americans (with NOTCH2 rs1092398 and TSPAN8-LGRS rs7961581). We found three gene-fiber interactions in non-Hispanic whites (with ADAMT59 rs4607103, CDKN2A/2B rs1801282, and FTO rs8050136), two in non-Hispanic blacks (with ADAMT59 rs4607103 and THADA rs7578597), and two in Mexican Americans (with THADA rs7578597 and TSPAN8-LGRS rs796158) at the P < 0.05 level. Interactions between the GRS and nutrients failed to reach significance in all the racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary carbohydrates and fiber may modify T2D-associated variants, highlighting the importance of dietary nutrients in predicting T2D risk. PMID:24929251

  9. Numbers of individual nutrient germinant receptors and other germination proteins in spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kerry-Ann V; Setlow, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Germination of dormant Bacillus subtilis spores with specific nutrient germinants is dependent on a number of inner membrane (IM) proteins, including (i) the GerA, GerB, and GerK germinant receptors (GRs) that respond to nutrient germinants; (ii) the GerD protein, essential for optimal GR function; and (iii) SpoVA proteins, essential for the release of the spore-specific molecule dipicolinic acid (DPA) during spore germination. Levels of GR A and C subunit proteins, GerD, and SpoVAD in wild-type spores were determined by Western blot analysis of spore fractions or total disrupted spores by comparison with known amounts of purified proteins. Surprisingly, after disruption of decoated B. subtilis spores with lysozyme and fractionation, ∼90% of IM fatty acids and GR subunits remained with the spores' insoluble integument fraction, indicating that yields of purified IM are low. The total lysate from disrupted wild-type spores contained ∼2,500 total GRs/spore: GerAA and GerAC subunits each at ∼1,100 molecules/spore and GerBC and GerKA subunits each at ∼700 molecules/spore. Levels of the GerBA subunit determined previously were also predicted to be ∼700 molecules/spore. These results indicate that the A/C subunit stoichiometry in GRs is most likely 1:1, with GerA being the most abundant GR. GerD and SpoVAD levels were ∼3,500 and ∼6,500 molecules/spore, respectively. These values will be helpful in formulating mathematic models of spore germination kinetics as well as setting lower limits on the size of the GR-GerD complex in the spores' IM, termed the germinosome.

  10. Preparation for Retrievals from Sellafield Legacy Ponds Installation of the Gantry Refurbishment System

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, M.

    2008-07-01

    Retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond, and its safe long term storage is one of the NDA's top priorities in the UK clean up programme. The plant is currently undergoing a series of major modifications in preparation for the retrievals operations. The most visible example of these modifications is the Gantry Refurbishment System (GRS), a major work platform which has recently been lifted onto the pond long travel girders used by the Skip Handler. This paper describes the design, manufacture, works test, and site installation of this major piece of equipment. The installation lift, involving the use of an 800Te crane was one of the largest lifts undertaken at Sellafield. The GRS is a mobile platform structure which is designed to be pushed or pulled along the long travel girders by the Skip Handler. Its principle function is to provide a safe and shielded working platform from which to undertake refurbishment of the Skip Handler long travel girders and support structure. The potential hazards and consequences resulting from the modification were fully understood and controls were put in place to ensure that the risk of carrying out the work was as low as reasonably practicable. The work was authorised by the NII, Sellafield Nuclear Safety Committee and an independent readiness review panel. Despite less than perfect weather in the run up to the lift, the GRS was successfully and safely lifted onto the pond on 18 October 2006, the culmination of three years of planning, engineering and construction. (authors)

  11. Decompression versus decompression and fusion for degenerative lumbar stenosis: analysis of the factors influencing the outcome of back pain and disability

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Roberto; Nigro, Lorenzo; Rullo, Marika; Messina, Domenico; Diacinti, Daniele; Delfini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to evaluate the factors influencing the outcome of back pain and disability in patients operated for lumbar stenosis without instability and deformity using two classical surgical techniques: decompression alone and decompression plus fusion. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent lumbar surgery with standard posterior decompression or standard posterior decompression plus pedicle screw fixation for degenerative lumbar stenosis without deformity, spondylolisthesis or instability at our department from June 2010 to January 2014. They were divided into two groups: decompression group (D) and decompression-fusion group (F). We analyzed the following factors: age, gender, levels of stenosis, pre-surgical “micro-instability”, and post-surgical “micro-instability”. Results A total of 174 patients were enrolled in the study. Both Graphic Rating Scale (GRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were significantly decreased after surgery (P<0.001). Female patients appeared to have lesser improvements from surgery, for both D and F groups. An analysis of variance using the decrease of pain (GRS pre-post) as dependent variable and type of surgery, age, gender and their interaction as factors showed that the main effects of type of surgery and gender were significant. The analysis of variance for the decrease of pain (GRS) and disability (ODI) according to the levels of stenosis showed a significant interaction for GRS scores. Female patients that underwent fixation surgery reported the least improvement in disability. A significant interaction was found on the one-way analysis of variance for the D group without pre-surgical micro-instability using post-surgical micro-instability as factor. Conclusions Our study supports posterior decompression alone as the gold standard option as treatment for lumbar stenosis without instability and deformity. Additional fusion should be considered only to

  12. Metabolic engineering of raffinose-family oligosaccharides in the phloem reveals alterations in carbon partitioning and enhances resistance to green peach aphid

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Te; Lahiri, Ipsita; Singh, Vijay; Louis, Joe; Shah, Jyoti; Ayre, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    Many plants employ energized loading strategies to accumulate osmotically-active solutes into the phloem of source organs to accentuate the hydrostatic pressure gradients that drive the flow of water, nutrients and signals from source to sinks. Proton-coupled symport of sugars from the apoplasm into the phloem symplasm is the best studied phloem-loading mechanism. As an alternative, numerous species use a polymer trapping mechanism to load through symplasm: sucrose enters the phloem through specialized plasmodesmata and is converted to raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs) which accumulate because of their larger size. In this study, metabolic engineering was used to generate RFOs at the inception of the translocation stream of Arabidopsis thaliana, which loads from the apoplasm and transports predominantly sucrose, and the fate of the sugars throughout the plant determined. Three genes, GALACTINOL SYNTHASE, RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE and STACHYOSE SYNTHASE, were expressed from promoters specific to the companion cells of minor veins. Two transgenic lines homozygous for all three genes (GRS63 and GRS47) were selected for further analysis. Three-week-old plants of both lines had RFO levels approaching 50% of total soluble sugar. RFOs were also identified in exudates from excised leaves of transgenic plants whereas levels were negligible in exudates from wild type (WT) leaves. Differences in starch accumulation between WT and GRS63 and GRS47 lines were not observed. Similarly, there were no differences in vegetative growth between WT and engineered plants, but the latter flowered slightly earlier. Finally, since the sugar composition of the translocation stream appeared altered, we tested for an impact on green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) feeding. When given a choice between WT and transgenic plants, green peach aphids preferred settling on the WT plants. Furthermore, green peach aphid fecundity was lower on the transgenic plants compared to the WT plants. When

  13. Accretion disk dynamics in X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peris, Charith Srian

    Accreting X-ray binaries consist of a normal star which orbits a compact object with the former transferring matter onto the later via an accretion disk. These accretion disks emit radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. This thesis exploits two regions of the spectrum, exploring the (1) inner disk regions of an accreting black hole binary, GRS1915+105, using X-ray spectral analysis and (2) the outer accretion disks of a set of neutron star and black hole binaries using Doppler Tomography applied on optical observations. X-ray spectral analysis of black hole binary GRS1915+105: GRS1915+105 stands out as an exceptional black hole primarily due to the wild variability exhibited by about half of its X-ray observations. This study focused on the steady X-ray observations of the source, which were found to exhibit significant curvature in the harder coronal component within the RXTE/PCA band-pass. The roughly constant inner-disk radius seen in a majority of the steady-soft observations is strongly reminiscent of canonical soft state black-hole binaries. Remarkably, the steady-hard observations show the presence of growing truncation in the inner-disk. A majority of the steady observations of GRS1915+105 map to the states observed in canonical black hole binaries which suggests that within the complexity of this source is a simpler underlying basis of states. Optical tomography of X-ray binary systems: Doppler tomography was applied to the strong line features present in the optical spectra of X-ray binaries in order to determine the geometric structure of the systems' emitting regions. The point where the accretion stream hits the disk, also referred to as the "hotspot'', is clearly identified in the neutron star system V691 CrA and the black hole system Nova Muscae 1991. Evidence for stream-disk overflows exist in both systems, consistent with relatively high accretion rates. In contrast, V926 Sco does not show evidence for the presence of a hotspot which

  14. A Chandra survey of quiescent black hole X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Albert

    2009-09-01

    We propose to detect quiescent X-ray emission and jets from three quiescent black holes, H 1705-250, GRS 1009-45, 4U 1543-47, with ACIS-S observations. Our proposed observations will allow us: 1) to test the prediction of the ADAF model to distinguish black hole and neutron star systems, and strengthen the evidence of the existence of event horizon; 2) to provide strong proof that accretion continues in quiescent black hole, and 3) to test if black hole systems require outflows.

  15. Major element chemistry and inclusion/lamella mineralogy of garnets from the Garnet Ridge in the Colorado Plateau, northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Koga, I.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Various garnets with diverse features and origins occur in the Garnet Ridge. These were transported from upper mantle to crustal depths underneath the Colorado Plateau by a kimberlitic diatreme (ca. 30 Ma) as xenocrysts and xenoliths. On the basis of major element chemistry, inclusion/lamella mineralogy, color, and host rocks of garnets, the Garnet Ridge garnets were classified into the following ten groups (Table) using 495 analyzed grains: A. Cr and pyrope-rich garnet, B. pyrope-rich reddish brown garnet, C. garnet aggregate, D. garnet megacryst, E. garnet in eclogite, F. garnet in metasomatized eclogite, G. quartz lamellae-bearing garnet, H. garnet in metasomatic rock I, I. garnet in metasomatic rock II, J. almandine-rich garnet. A and B are of mantle peridotite origins. Both garnets were characterized by Cr-Spl lamellae for A, and Cpx/Amp lamellae for B, respectively. B is subdivided into 2 types by lamellae and inclusions: (Prp 49-66, Grs 16-26 mol%) lamellae of Rt, Ilm, Cpx, Amp, and Chl, and (Prp 47-66, Grs 11-24 mol%) lamellae of Ilm and fluid inclusions. C and D have similar chemistry and inclusion/lamella mineralogy. The chemistry (Prp 22-53, Grs 11-41, Alm 26-50 mol%) and the wide variation suggest metasomatism at mantle depths. E includes Rt, Omp, Zrn, Ap, Kfs, and simplectite of Zo + Ab. F contains Rt, Omp, and Ap. Both E and F have chemical zonation from core to rim in Alm component. These garnets are of subducted oceanic slab origins, probably Fallaron plate. G includes Cpx, Zrn, and fluid, and oriented lamellae of Rt, Ap, and Qtz. Oriented Qtz lamellae characterize this group. The host rock of H is of metasomatism origin at crustal depths. H has Grs-rich composition and inclusions of Mt, Zo, Ttn, Ap and fluid. I has lamellae of Rt and crichtonites, and includes Qtz and Zrn. The host rock of I was strongly altered. J shows chemical zonation from core to rim in Alm component. This garnet includes Pl, Qtz, Ilm with Mt lamellae, and Rt lamella. The

  16. 3D neutronic codes coupled with thermal-hydraulic system codes for PWR, and BWR and VVER reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K.; Lizorkin, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the objectives of code development for coupling 3D neutronics codes with thermal-hydraulic system codes. The present status of coupling ATHLET with three 3D neutronics codes for VVER- and LWR-reactors is presented. After describing the basic features of the 3D neutronic codes BIPR-8 from Kurchatov-Institute, DYN3D from Research Center Rossendorf and QUABOX/CUBBOX from GRS, first applications of coupled codes for different transient and accident scenarios are presented. The need of further investigations is discussed.

  17. Regional and global crustal context of soil and rock chemistry from ChemCam and APXS at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Gordon, S.; Jackson, R.; Agee, C. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Clegg, S. M.; Lanza, N.; Cousin, A.; Gasnault, O.; Meslin, P. Y.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S. M.; Mangold, N.; Sautter, V.; Clark, B. C.; Anderson, R. B.; Gellert, R.; Schmidt, M. E.; Ollila, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Martín-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The chemistry of rocks and soils analyzed by Curiosity represent a diverse population including mafic and felsic compositions. The data from Gale Crater can be compared with the accumulated data for martian materials from other landing sites, the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) experiment on the Mars Odyssey Spacecraft, and the data for martian meteorites. Variations in the CaO/Al2O3 ratio in primitive igneous rocks can provide a fundamental signature of crustal formation on Mars. Abundances of other elements like Fe in the surface rocks can reflect later differentiation effects. Comparing the chemistry of Gale samples with other martian data must take into account the different geochemical components in the samples. The most important distinction is between the volatile elements including H, C, Cl, S, and the lithophile elements including Al, Si, Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, Mg, etc. The large enrichments of the volatile elements SO3, Cl, and H2O in the soils may represent contributions from volcanic aerosols or other local sources of volatiles. Alteration and transport of fluid mobile major elements by aqueous or hydrothermal processes could complicate the estimation of crustal abundances of elements such as Ca but early results suggest little or no chemical fractionation attributable to alteration. Other clues to the role of fluids can come from the ChemCam data for the highly fluid mobile elements lithium and manganese. Regional comparisons of chemistry only make sense when considering the absolute abundances and elemental ratios within the different component classes. The use of elemental ratios avoids the problem of the correction required to get volatile-free abundance data for comparison of GRS data with meteorites and landing site rocks measured by the ChemCam Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) experiment and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). The huge size of the GRS footprint makes it especially difficult to make the required corrections. Eventually data

  18. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora, consisting of Brochothrix spp., isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculated (co-cultured) onto cooked ham slices. The growth characteristics, lag phase duration (LPD, h), growth rate (GR, log(10) cfu/h), and maximum population density (MPD, log(10) cfu/g), of L. monocytogenes and the native microflora in vacuum-packed ham slices stored at 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 °C for up to 5 weeks were determined. At 4-12 °C, the LPDs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes were not significantly different from those of monocultured L. monocytogenes in ham, indicating the LPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-12 °C were not influenced by the presence of the native microflora. At 4-8 °C, the GRs of co-cultured L. monocytogenes (0.0114-0.0130 log(10) cfu/h) were statistically but marginally lower than those of monocultured L. monocytogenes (0.0132-0.0145 log(10) cfu/h), indicating the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were reduced by the presence of the native microflora. The GRs of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 8-7% with the presence of the native microflora at 4-8 °C, whereas there was less influence of the native microflora on the GRs of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 12 °C. The MPDs of L. monocytogenes at 4-8 °C were also reduced by the presence of the native microflora. Data from this study provide additional information regarding the growth suppression of L. monocytogenes by the native microflora for assessing the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products.

  19. Mapping Lunar global chemical composition from Chang'E-1 IIM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bokun; Xiong, Sheng Qing; Wu, Yunzhao; Wang, Zhenchao; Dong, Lina; Gan, Fuping; Yang, Suming; Wang, Runsheng

    2012-07-01

    The global distribution of the chemical composition of the lunar surface is an important factor helping us to understand the formation and evolution of the Moon. In this paper, formulas were established for deriving FeO, TiO2, Al2O3 and MnO abundances from Chang'E-1 (CE-1) Interference Imaging Spectrometer (IIM) data on the basis of the method "color ratio of UV/VIS and NIR/VIS versus VIS reflectance diagram" which was put forward by Lucey and Blewett. Global high-resolution maps (200 m/pixel) of FeO, TiO2, Al2O3 and MnO were produced, and then compared qualitatively with results from Clementine UVVIS, Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) and Neutron Prospector (NS) data. The abundance ranges of the above four elements are 0-21.0 wt%, 0-9.5 wt%, 5.4-32.1 wt%, and 0.015-0.28 wt% respectively. The abundance range of FeO is consistent with the results from LP-GRS data reported by Gillis et al. (2004), and the abundance range of TiO2 is consistent with the results from LP-NS data reported by Elphic et al. (2002). Relative abundance distributions of FeO and TiO2 from Clementine and IIM data are slightly different from those from LP-GRS and LP-NS data. In map from the LP-GRS data, FeO abundances are the highest at Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium. However, in the map from CE-1 IIM data they are the highest at Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Tranquillitatis. Although the spatial resolution of these maps is high, caution must be taken when the maps in this paper are used at the crater scale because they suffer from errors owing to topographically induced shading. In future work, a high-accuracy DEM from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data coupled with a photometric model can probably be used to resolve this problem.

  20. Induced Background in the Mars Observer Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, William V.; Evans, Larry G.; Starr, Richard; Bruekner, Johnnes; Bailey, S. H.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Spectrometers in space must necessarily work in an environment of a background of lines due to natural and cosmic-ray induced radioactivity and lines due to prompt emission following nuclear reactions caused by primary and secondary cosmic rays. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Mar Observer mission has provided important data allowing one to estimate for future missions the extent of the background due to cosmic rays. These data will help in the design of instruments and in calculation of realistic background intensities that may effect the sensitivity of determining the intensity of lines of interest.

  1. Uncertainty Propagation with Fast Monte Carlo Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochman, D.; van der Marck, S. C.; Koning, A. J.; Sjöstrand, H.; Zwermann, W.

    2014-04-01

    Two new and faster Monte Carlo methods for the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties in Monte Carlo nuclear simulations are presented (the "Fast TMC" and "Fast GRS" methods). They are addressing the main drawback of the original Total Monte Carlo method (TMC), namely the necessary large time multiplication factor compared to a single calculation. With these new methods, Monte Carlo simulations can now be accompanied with uncertainty propagation (other than statistical), with small additional calculation time. The new methods are presented and compared with the TMC methods for criticality benchmarks.

  2. Ecological modelling of convergence patterns between European and African `whip' snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luiselli, Luca

    2006-07-01

    The concept of evolutionary convergence in morphological traits among phylogenetically unrelated organisms because of their ecological similarities is one of the most venerable in evolutionary ecology, and indeed has attracted the attention of ecologists for a long time. The 'whip snakes' are phylogenetically unrelated, morphologically and ecologically convergent species, which are characterized by slender bodies, long tails, large eyes, alertness, diurnality, saurophagy, oviparity, and rapid movement. It has been hypothesized that their morphology has evolved as a response preying on quick-running diurnal prey, mainly lizards. Here I compared two species of saurophagous whip snakes, the European Coluber ( Hierophis) viridiflavus and the African Psammophis phillipsii. I explored whether the proximate factors which influence the presence of the two species in their natural habitat are the same in both Mediterranean central Italy ( Coluber viridiflavus) and in tropical Nigeria ( Psammophis phillipsii). I also used as control two other species of colubrids, Natrix natrix in Italy and Lamprophis fuliginosus in Nigeria. I selected 11 independent variables that are general for both study systems, and that are easily identified for their presence/absence in/around the site of capture of each snake specimen, and then explored the effects of these variables on the presence of the two species using a robust statistical design, i.e. a forward stepwise logistic regression model. My modelling analyses indicated that two variables influenced positively (i.e. the presence of lizards (LIZ) and of tall grass (GRS)), and one influenced negatively (the presence of water bodies (WBS)), the African species' presence. With regard to the European species, only two variables influenced positively and significantly the snakes presence, i.e. LIZ and GRS. Overall, the comparison of the two models clearly showed that both species' presence was influenced exactly by the same variables, despite

  3. The Combined Effect of Common Genetic Risk Variants on Circulating Lipoproteins Is Evident in Childhood: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    PubMed

    Buscot, Marie-jeanne; Magnussen, Costan G; Juonala, Markus; Pitkänen, Niina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S A; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Schork, Nicholas J; Raitakari, Olli T; Thomson, Russell J

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Several genetic loci for predisposition to abnormal LDL-C, HDL-C and TG have been identified. However, it remains unclear whether these loci are consistently associated with serum lipid levels at each age or with unique developmental trajectories. Therefore, we assessed the association between genome wide association studies (GWAS) derived polygenic genetic risk scores and LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride trajectories from childhood to adulthood using data available from the 27-year European 'Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns' Study. For 2,442 participants, three weighted genetic risk scores (wGRSs) for HDL-C (38 SNPs), LDL-C (14 SNPs) and triglycerides (24 SNPs) were computed and tested for association with serum lipoprotein levels measured up to 8 times between 1980 and 2011. The categorical analyses revealed no clear divergence of blood lipid trajectories over time between wGRSs categories, with participants in the lower wGRS quartiles tending to have average lipoprotein concentrations 30 to 45% lower than those in the upper-quartile wGRS beginning at age 3 years and continuing through to age 49 years (where the upper-quartile wGRS have 4-7 more risk alleles than the lower wGRS group). Continuous analyses, however, revealed a significant but moderate time-dependent genetic interaction for HDL-C levels, with the association between HDL-C and the continuous HDL-C risk score weakening slightly with age. Conversely, in males, the association between the continuous TG genetic risk score and triglycerides levels tended to be lower in childhood and become more pronounced after the age of 25 years. Although the influence of genetic factors on age-specific lipoprotein values and developmental trajectories is complex, our data show that wGRSs are highly predictive of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels

  4. The Combined Effect of Common Genetic Risk Variants on Circulating Lipoproteins Is Evident in Childhood: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Buscot, Marie-jeanne; Magnussen, Costan G.; Juonala, Markus; Pitkänen, Niina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Schork, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Several genetic loci for predisposition to abnormal LDL-C, HDL-C and TG have been identified. However, it remains unclear whether these loci are consistently associated with serum lipid levels at each age or with unique developmental trajectories. Therefore, we assessed the association between genome wide association studies (GWAS) derived polygenic genetic risk scores and LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride trajectories from childhood to adulthood using data available from the 27-year European ‘Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns’ Study. For 2,442 participants, three weighted genetic risk scores (wGRSs) for HDL-C (38 SNPs), LDL-C (14 SNPs) and triglycerides (24 SNPs) were computed and tested for association with serum lipoprotein levels measured up to 8 times between 1980 and 2011. The categorical analyses revealed no clear divergence of blood lipid trajectories over time between wGRSs categories, with participants in the lower wGRS quartiles tending to have average lipoprotein concentrations 30 to 45% lower than those in the upper-quartile wGRS beginning at age 3 years and continuing through to age 49 years (where the upper-quartile wGRS have 4–7 more risk alleles than the lower wGRS group). Continuous analyses, however, revealed a significant but moderate time-dependent genetic interaction for HDL-C levels, with the association between HDL-C and the continuous HDL-C risk score weakening slightly with age. Conversely, in males, the association between the continuous TG genetic risk score and triglycerides levels tended to be lower in childhood and become more pronounced after the age of 25 years. Although the influence of genetic factors on age-specific lipoprotein values and developmental trajectories is complex, our data show that wGRSs are highly predictive of HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglyceride

  5. Proposed plan/Statement of basis for the Grace Road Site (631-22G) operable unit: Final action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-08-19

    This Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is being issued by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), which functions as the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS) remedial activities, with concurrence by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The purpose of this Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan is to describe the preferred alternative for addressing the Grace Road site (GRS) located at the Savannah River Site (SRS), in Aiken, South Carolina and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process.

  6. Orbital Measurement of Bulk Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Sulfur of Carbonaceous Asteroids via High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Starr, Richard D.; Evans, Larry G.; Parsons, Ann M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Boynton, William V.; Thomas, Cristina A.

    2014-11-01

    Various populations of low-albedo asteroids (C-complex, D, and P spectral types) dominate the outer Main Asteroid Belt, Hildas, and Trojan clouds and are thought to be related to carbonaceous meteorites. However, carbonaceous meteorites are themselves a diverse group and it remains unclear which types represent which asteroids or asteroid populations. A high-energy-resolution (HPGe) gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS) experiment on an asteroid orbiter would be sensitive to many of the elements that differentiate carbonaceous chondrite subclasses from each other and from the ureilites, including H, C, O, and S, in the outer ~20-50 cm of the asteroid surface. We have therefore conducted new simulations of the performance of a GRS experiment in orbit around asteroids with carbonaceous chondriticcompositions at levels of hydration ranging from CI-like 17 wt% structural water) to CO-like (<2 wt% structural water). Cosmic-ray interactions with the asteroid surfaces were modeled using the MCNPX Monte-Carlo radiation transport code. A spacecraft background (based on a Dawn-like spacecraft model) was also modeled using MCNPX: this included background due to direct GCR/spacecraft interactions as well as background due to asteroidal neutron flux on the spacecraft. A Dawn-like mission scenario was modeled withthe altitude equal to the asteroid radius for a 4.5-month low-orbit phase. The detector model was based on Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (MOGRS), the largest and most sensitive HPGe GRS flown to date. The spectra from the MCNPX output were broadened to a resolution based on the in-flight performance of MOGRS, FWHM = 4.1 keV at 1332 keV. Doppler broadening was also modeled where applicable. Line fluxes were then extracted from the combined background + asteroid spectrum and statistical uncertainties evaluated.We find that within 4.5 months the GRS can measure H/Si, O/Si, C/Si, and S/Si with sufficient precision to distinguish OH-rich CI and CM chondrites from drier CO

  7. Analysis of Gamma-Ray Data from Solar Flares in Cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vestrand, W. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    One of our primary accomplishments under grant NAGW-35381 was the systematic derivation and compilation, for the first time, of physical parameters for all gamma-ray flares detected by the SMM GRS during its ten year lifetime. The flare parameters derived from the gamma-ray spectra include: bremsstrahlung fluence and best-fit power-law parameters, narrow nuclear line fluence, positron annihilation line fluence, neutron capture line fluence, and an indication of whether or not greater than 10 MeV emissions were present. We combined this compilation of flare parameters with our plots of counting rate time histories and flare spectra to construct an atlas of gamma-ray flare characteristics. The atlas time histories display four energy bands: 56-199 kev, 298526 keV, 4-8 MeV, and 10-25 MeV. These energy bands respectively measure nonrelativistic bremsstrahlung, trans-relativistic bremsstrahlung, nuclear de-excitation, and ultra-relativistic bremsstrahlung. The atlas spectra show the integrated high-energy spectra measured for all GRS flares and dissects them into electron bremsstrahlung, positron annihilation and nuclear emission components. The atlas has been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Supplements and is currently in press. The atlas materials were also supplied to the Solar Data Analysis Center at Goddard Space Flight Center and were made available through a web site at the University of New Hampshire. Since a uniform methodology was adopted for deriving the flare parameters, this atlas will be very useful for future statistical and correlative studies of solar flares-three independent groups are presently using it to correlate interplanetary energetic particle measurements with our gamma-ray measurements. A better model for the response of the GRS instrument to high energy radiation was also developed. A refined response model was needed because the old model was not adequate for predicting the first and second escape peaks associated with

  8. Decompression versus decompression and fusion for degenerative lumbar stenosis: analysis of the factors influencing the outcome of back pain and disability

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Roberto; Nigro, Lorenzo; Rullo, Marika; Messina, Domenico; Diacinti, Daniele; Delfini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to evaluate the factors influencing the outcome of back pain and disability in patients operated for lumbar stenosis without instability and deformity using two classical surgical techniques: decompression alone and decompression plus fusion. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent lumbar surgery with standard posterior decompression or standard posterior decompression plus pedicle screw fixation for degenerative lumbar stenosis without deformity, spondylolisthesis or instability at our department from June 2010 to January 2014. They were divided into two groups: decompression group (D) and decompression-fusion group (F). We analyzed the following factors: age, gender, levels of stenosis, pre-surgical “micro-instability”, and post-surgical “micro-instability”. Results A total of 174 patients were enrolled in the study. Both Graphic Rating Scale (GRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were significantly decreased after surgery (P<0.001). Female patients appeared to have lesser improvements from surgery, for both D and F groups. An analysis of variance using the decrease of pain (GRS pre-post) as dependent variable and type of surgery, age, gender and their interaction as factors showed that the main effects of type of surgery and gender were significant. The analysis of variance for the decrease of pain (GRS) and disability (ODI) according to the levels of stenosis showed a significant interaction for GRS scores. Female patients that underwent fixation surgery reported the least improvement in disability. A significant interaction was found on the one-way analysis of variance for the D group without pre-surgical micro-instability using post-surgical micro-instability as factor. Conclusions Our study supports posterior decompression alone as the gold standard option as treatment for lumbar stenosis without instability and deformity. Additional fusion should be considered only to

  9. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abele, Hartmut; Jenke, Tobias; Konrad, Gertrud

    2015-05-01

    We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron β-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10-4 level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS) allows to test Newton's gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  10. A Combined Analysis of 48 Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Risk Variants Shows No Discriminative Value to Predict Time to First Prescription of a Glucose Lowering Drug in Danish Patients with Screen Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hornbak, Malene; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Jensen, Majken Linnemann; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Witte, Daniel; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Sandbæk, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Andersson, Åsa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the genetic influence of 48 type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on disease progression measured as risk of early prescription redemption of glucose lowering drugs in screen-detected patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied type 2 diabetes progression in 1,480 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-Denmark study using information of redeemed prescriptions from the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics from 2001–2009 in Denmark. Patients were cluster randomized by general practitioners, who were randomized to treat type 2 diabetes according to either a conventional or a multifactorial intensive treatment algorithm. We investigated the genetic influence on diabetes progression by constructing a genetic risk score (GRS) of all 48 validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, a GRS of 11 variants linked to β-cell function and a GRS of 3 variants linked to insulin sensitivity and assessed the association between number of risk alleles and time from diagnosis until first redeemed prescription of either any glucose lowering drug or an insulin drug. Results The GRS linked to insulin sensitivity only nominally increased the risk of an early prescription redemption with an insulin drug by 39% (HR [95% C.I.] = 1.39 [1.09–1.77], p = 0.009] in patients randomized to the intensive treatment group. Furthermore, the strongest univariate predictors of diabetes progression for the intensive treatment group (measured as time to first insulin) were younger age (HR [95% C.I.] = 0.96 [0.93–0.99]), increased BMI (1.05 [1.01–1.09]), increased HbA1c (1.50 [1.36–.66]), increased TG (1.24 [1.11–1.39]) and reduced fasting serum HDL (0.37 [0.17–0.80]) at baseline. Similar results were obtained for the conventional treatment group. Conclusion Higher levels of HbA1c, fasting circulating levels of triglyceride, lower HDL, larger BMI and younger age are significant determinants of early

  11. Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kathleen A.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Florez, Jose C.; Bray, George A.; Culbert, Iris W.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Eberhardt, Barbara; Greenway, Frank; Guillory, Fonda G.; Herbert, April A.; Jeffirs, Michael L.; Kennedy, Betty M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Morris, Laura H.; Melancon, Lee E.; Ryan, Donna; Sanford, Deborah A.; Smith, Kenneth G.; Smith, Lisa L.; Amant, Julia A. St.; Tulley, Richard T.; Vicknair, Paula C.; Williamson, Donald; Zachwieja, Jeffery J.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Tobian, Janet; Ehrmann, David; Matulik, Margaret J.; Clark, Bart; Czech, Kirsten; DeSandre, Catherine; Hilbrich, Ruthanne; McNabb, Wylie; Semenske, Ann R.; Caro, Jose F.; Watson, Pamela G.; Goldstein, Barry J.; Smith, Kellie A.; Mendoza, Jewel; Liberoni, Renee; Pepe, Constance; Spandorfer, John; Donahue, Richard P.; Goldberg, Ronald B.; Prineas, Ronald; Rowe, Patricia; Calles, Jeanette; Cassanova-Romero, Paul; Florez, Hermes J.; Giannella, Anna; Kirby, Lascelles; Larreal, Carmen; McLymont, Valerie; Mendez, Jadell; Ojito, Juliet; Perry, Arlette; Saab, Patrice; Haffner, Steven M.; Montez, Maria G.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Martinez, Arlene; Hamman, Richard F.; Nash, Patricia V.; Testaverde, Lisa; Anderson, Denise R.; Ballonoff, Larry B.; Bouffard, Alexis; Calonge, B. Ned; Delve, Lynne; Farago, Martha; Hill, James O.; Hoyer, Shelley R.; Jortberg, Bonnie T.; Lenz, Dione; Miller, Marsha; Price, David W.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Seagle, Helen; Smith, Carissa M.; Steinke, Sheila C.; VanDorsten, Brent; Horton, Edward S.; Lawton, Kathleen E.; Arky, Ronald A.; Bryant, Marybeth; Burke, Jacqueline P.; Caballero, Enrique; Callaphan, Karen M.; Ganda, Om P.; Franklin, Therese; Jackson, Sharon D.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Jacobsen, Alan M.; Kula, Lyn M.; Kocal, Margaret; Malloy, Maureen A.; Nicosia, Maryanne; Oldmixon, Cathryn F.; Pan, Jocelyn; Quitingon, Marizel; Rubtchinsky, Stacy; Seely, Ellen W.; Schweizer, Dana; Simonson, Donald; Smith, Fannie; Solomon, Caren G.; Warram, James; Kahn, Steven E.; Montgomery, Brenda K.; Fujimoto, Wilfred; Knopp, Robert H.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Marr, Michelle; Trence, Dace; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Murphy, Mary E.; Applegate, William B.; Bryer-Ash, Michael; Frieson, Sandra L.; Imseis, Raed; Lambeth, Helen; Lichtermann, Lynne C.; Oktaei, Hooman; Rutledge, Lily M.K.; Sherman, Amy R.; Smith, Clara M.; Soberman, Judith E.; Williams-Cleaves, Beverly; Metzger, Boyd E.; Johnson, Mariana K.; Behrends, Catherine; Cook, Michelle; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Giles, Mimi M.; Heard, Deloris; Johnson, Cheryl K.H.; Larsen, Diane; Lowe, Anne; Lyman, Megan; McPherson, David; Molitch, Mark E.; Pitts, Thomas; Reinhart, Renee; Roston, Susan; Schinleber, Pamela A.; Nathan, David M.; McKitrick, Charles; Turgeon, Heather; Abbott, Kathy; Anderson, Ellen; Bissett, Laurie; Cagliero, Enrico; Florez, Jose C.; Delahanty, Linda; Goldman, Valerie; Poulos, Alexandra; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Carrion-Petersen, Mary Lou; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Edelman, Steven V.; Henry, Robert R.; Horne, Javiva; Janesch, Simona Szerdi; Leos, Diana; Mudaliar, Sundar; Polonsky, William; Smith, Jean; Vejvoda, Karen; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Lee, Jane E.; Allison, David B.; Aronoff, Nancy J.; Crandall, Jill P.; Foo, Sandra T.; Pal, Carmen; Parkes, Kathy; Pena, Mary Beth; Rooney, Ellen S.; Wye, Gretchen E.H. Van; Viscovich, Kristine A.; Marrero, David G.; Prince, Melvin J.; Kelly, Susie M.; Dotson, Yolanda F.; Fineberg, Edwin S.; Guare, John C; Hadden, Angela M.; Ignaut, James M.; Jackson, Marcia L.; Kirkman, Marion S.; Mather, Kieren J.; Porter, Beverly D.; Roach, Paris J.; Rowland, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Madelyn L.; Ratner, Robert E.; Youssef, Gretchen; Shapiro, Sue; Bavido-Arrage, Catherine; Boggs, Geraldine; Bronsord, Marjorie; Brown, Ernestine; Cheatham, Wayman W.; Cola, Susan; Evans, Cindy; Gibbs, Peggy; Kellum, Tracy; Levatan, Claresa; Nair, Asha K.; Passaro, Maureen; Uwaifo, Gabriel; Saad, Mohammed F.; Budget, Maria; Jinagouda, Sujata; Akbar, Khan; Conzues, Claudia; Magpuri, Perpetua; Ngo, Kathy; Rassam, Amer; Waters, Debra; Xapthalamous, Kathy; Santiago, Julio V.; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; White, Neil H.; Das, Samia; Santiago, Ana; Brown, Angela; Fisher, Edwin; Hurt, Emma; Jones, Tracy; Kerr, Michelle; Ryder, Lucy; Wernimont, Cormarie; Saudek, Christopher D.; Bradley, Vanessa; Sullivan, Emily; Whittington, Tracy; Abbas, Caroline; Brancati, Frederick L.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Charleston, Jeanne B.; Freel, Janice; Horak, Katherine; Jiggetts, Dawn; Johnson, Deloris; Joseph, Hope; Loman, Kimberly; Mosley, Henry; Rubin, Richard R.; Samuels, Alafia; Stewart, Kerry J.; Williamson, Paula; Schade, David S.; Adams, Karwyn S.; Johannes, Carolyn; Atler, Leslie F.; Boyle, Patrick J.; Burge, Mark R.; Canady, Janene L.; Chai, Lisa; Gonzales, Ysela; Hernandez-McGinnis, Doris A.; Katz, Patricia; King, Carolyn; Rassam, Amer; Rubinchik, Sofya; Senter, Willette; Waters, Debra; Shamoon, Harry; Brown, Janet O.; Adorno, Elsie; Cox, Liane; Crandall, Jill; Duffy, Helena; Engel, Samuel; Friedler, Allison; Howard-Century, Crystal J.; Kloiber, Stacey; Longchamp, Nadege; Martinez, Helen; Pompi, Dorothy; Scheindlin, Jonathan; Violino, Elissa; Walker, Elizabeth; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Zimmerman, Elise; Zonszein, Joel; Orchard, Trevor; Wing, Rena R.; Koenning, Gaye; Kramer, M. Kaye; Barr, Susan; Boraz, Miriam; Clifford, Lisa; Culyba, Rebecca; Frazier, Marlene; Gilligan, Ryan; Harrier, Susan; Harris, Louann; Jeffries, Susan; Kriska, Andrea; Manjoo, Qurashia; Mullen, Monica; Noel, Alicia; Otto, Amy; Semler, Linda; Smith, Cheryl F.; Smith, Marie; Venditti, Elizabeth; Weinzierl, Valarie; Williams, Katherine V.; Wilson, Tara; Arakaki, Richard F.; Latimer, Renee W.; Baker-Ladao, Narleen K.; Beddow, Ralph; Dias, Lorna; Inouye, Jillian; Mau, Marjorie K.; Mikami, Kathy; Mohideen, Pharis; Odom, Sharon K.; Perry, Raynette U.; Knowler, William C.; Cooeyate, Norman; Hoskin, Mary A.; Percy, Carol A.; Acton, Kelly J.; Andre, Vickie L.; Barber, Rosalyn; Begay, Shandiin; Bennett, Peter H.; Benson, Mary Beth; Bird, Evelyn C.; Broussard, Brenda A.; Chavez, Marcella; Dacawyma, Tara; Doughty, Matthew S.; Duncan, Roberta; Edgerton, Cyndy; Ghahate, Jacqueline M.; Glass, Justin; Glass, Martia; Gohdes, Dorothy; Grant, Wendy; Hanson, Robert L.; Horse, Ellie; Ingraham, Louise E.; Jackson, Merry; Jay, Priscilla; Kaskalla, Roylen S.; Kessler, David; Kobus, Kathleen M.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Manus, Catherine; Michaels, Sara; Morgan, Tina; Nashboo, Yolanda; Nelson, Julie A.; Poirier, Steven; Polczynski, Evette; Reidy, Mike; Roumain, Jeanine; Rowse, Debra; Sangster, Sandra; Sewenemewa, Janet; Tonemah, Darryl; Wilson, Charlton; Yazzie, Michelle; Bain, Raymond; Fowler, Sarah; Brenneman, Tina; Abebe, Solome; Bamdad, Julie; Callaghan, Jackie; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Gao, Yuping; Grimes, Kristina L.; Grover, Nisha; Haffner, Lori; Jones, Steve; Jones, Tara L.; Katz, Richard; Lachin, John M.; Mucik, Pamela; Orlosky, Robert; Rochon, James; Sapozhnikova, Alla; Sherif, Hanna; Stimpson, Charlotte; Temprosa, Marinella; Walker-Murray, Fredricka; Marcovina, Santica; Strylewicz, Greg; Aldrich, F. Alan; O'Leary, Dan; Stamm, Elizabeth; Rautaharju, Pentti; Prineas, Ronald J.; Alexander, Teresa; Campbell, Charles; Hall, Sharon; Li, Yabing; Mills, Margaret; Pemberton, Nancy; Rautaharju, Farida; Zhang, Zhuming; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Moran, Robert R.; Ganiats, Ted; David, Kristin; Sarkin, Andrew J.; Eastman, R.; Fradkin, Judith; Garfield, Sanford; Gregg, Edward; Zhang, Ping; Herman, William; Florez, Jose C.; Altshuler, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Jablonski, Kathleen; Knowler, William C.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04–1×10−17). Except for total HDL particles (r = −0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07–0.17, P = 5×10−5–1×10−19). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8×10−5, Pinteraction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = −0.03, SEE±0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; Pinteraction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE±0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, Pinteraction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = −0.002, SEE±0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE±0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; Pinteraction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss. PMID:22951888

  12. Genetic modulation of lipid profiles following lifestyle modification or metformin treatment: the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    PubMed

    Pollin, Toni I; Isakova, Tamara; Jablonski, Kathleen A; de Bakker, Paul I W; Taylor, Andrew; McAteer, Jarred; Pan, Qing; Horton, Edward S; Delahanty, Linda M; Altshuler, David; Shuldiner, Alan R; Goldberg, Ronald B; Florez, Jose C; Franks, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1 × 10(-17)). Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P = 5 × 10(-5)-1 10(-19)). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (β = +0.87, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 8 × 10(-5), P(interaction) = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (β = +0.20, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (β = -0.03, SEE ± 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P(interaction) = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (β = +0.30, SEE ± 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P(interaction) = 0.01) but not in the placebo (β = -0.002, SEE ± 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (β = +0.013, SEE ± 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P(interaction) = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.

  13. Using soccer to build confidence and increase HCT uptake among adolescent girls: A mixed-methods study of an HIV prevention programme in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gannett, Katherine; Merrill, Jamison; Kaufman, Braunschweig Elise; Barkley, Chris; DeCelles, Jeff; Harrison, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    HIV prevalence is eight times higher in young South African women compared to men. Grassroot Soccer (GRS) developed SKILLZ Street (SS), a single-sex intervention using soccer to improve self-efficacy, HIV-related knowledge, and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) uptake among girls ages 12–16. Female community leaders—“coaches”—deliver ten 2-hour sessions bi-weekly. Attendance and HCT data were collected at 38 programmes across 5 GRS sites during 24 months in 2011–2012. 514 participants completed a 16-item pre/post questionnaire. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with participants (n=11 groups) and coaches (n=5 groups), and coded for analysis using NVivo. Of 1,953 participants offered HCT, 68.5% tested. Overall, significant pre/post improvement was observed (p<0.001). FGDs suggest participants: valued coach-participant relationship; improved self-efficacy, HIV-related knowledge, communication, and changed perception of soccer as a male-only sport; and increased awareness of testing’s importance. Results suggest SS helps at-risk girls access HCT and HIV-related knowledge while promoting self-confidence. PMID:26997967

  14. MESSENGER observations of energetic electron acceleration in Mercury's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Ryan; Slavin, James A.; Baker, Daniel; Raines, Jim; Lawrence, David

    2016-10-01

    Energetic particle bursts within Mercury's magnetosphere have been a source of curiosity and controversy since Mariner 10's flybys. Unfortunately, instrumental effects prevent an unambiguous determination of species, flux, and energy spectrum for the Mariner 10 events. MESSENGER data taken by the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) have now shown that these energetic particle bursts are composed entirely of electrons. EPS made directional measurements of these electrons from ~30 to 300 keV at 3 s resolution, and while the energy of these electrons sometimes exceeded 200 keV, the energy distributions usually exhibited a cutoff near 100 keV. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has also provided measurements of these electron events, at higher time resolution (10 ms) and energetic threshold (> 50 keV) compared to EPS. We focus on GRS electron events near the plasma sheet in Mercury's magnetotail to identify reconnection-associated acceleration mechanisms. We present observations of acceleration associated with dipolarization events (betratron acceleration), flux ropes (Fermi acceleration), and tail loading/unloading (X-line acceleration). We find that the most common source of energetic electron events in Mercury's magnetosphere are dipolarization events similar to those first observed by Mariner 10. Further, a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry is found with dipolarization-associated energetic particle bursts being more common on the dawn side of the magnetotail.

  15. Genome-Wide Interaction with Insulin Secretion Loci Reveals Novel Loci for Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Keaton, Jacob M.; Hellwege, Jacklyn N.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Pankow, James S.; Fornage, Myriam; Wilson, James G.; Correa, Adolfo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rich, Stephen S.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, yet most T2D loci identified to date influence insulin secretion. We hypothesized that T2D loci, particularly those affecting insulin sensitivity, can be identified through interaction with insulin secretion loci. To test this hypothesis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), a dynamic measure of first-phase insulin secretion, were identified in African Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS; n = 492 subjects). These SNPs were tested for interaction, individually and jointly as a genetic risk score (GRS), using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from five cohorts (ARIC, CARDIA, JHS, MESA, WFSM; n = 2,725 cases, 4,167 controls) with T2D as the outcome. In single variant analyses, suggestively significant (Pinteraction<5×10−6) interactions were observed at several loci including LYPLAL1 (rs10746381), CHN2 (rs7796525), and EXOC1 (rs4289500). Notable AIRg GRS interactions were observed with SAMD4A (rs11627203) and UTRN (rs17074194). These data support the hypothesis that additional genetic factors contributing to T2D risk can be identified by interactions with insulin secretion loci. PMID:27448167

  16. Heterogeneous expression of Drosophila gustatory receptors in enteroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Ho; Kwon, Jae Young

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is emerging as a major site of chemosensation in mammalian studies. Enteroendocrine cells are chemosensory cells in the gut which produce regulatory peptides in response to luminal contents to regulate gut physiology, food intake, and glucose homeostasis, among other possible functions. Increasing evidence shows that mammalian taste receptors and taste signaling molecules are expressed in enteroendocrine cells in the gut. Invertebrate models such as Drosophila can provide a simple and genetically tractable system to study the chemosensory functions of enteroendocrine cells in vivo. To establish Drosophila enteroendocrine cells as a model for studying gut chemosensation, we used the GAL4/UAS system to examine the expression of all 68 Gustatory receptors (Grs) in the intestine. We find that 12 Gr-GAL4 drivers label subsets of enteroendocrine cells in the midgut, and examine colocalization of these drivers with the regulatory peptides neuropeptide F (NPF), locustatachykinin (LTK), and diuretic hormone 31 (DH31). RT-PCR analysis provides additional evidence for the presence of Gr transcripts in the gut. Our results suggest that the Drosophila Grs have chemosensory roles in the intestine to regulate physiological functions such as food uptake, nutrient absorption, or sugar homeostasis. PMID:22194978

  17. A Drosophila gustatory receptor essential for aversive taste and inhibiting male-to-male courtship.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seok Jun; Lee, Youngseok; Jiao, Yuchen; Montell, Craig

    2009-10-13

    Contact chemosensation is required for several behaviors that promote insect survival. These include evasive behaviors such as suppression of feeding on repellent compounds, known as antifeedants, and inhibition of male-to-male courtship. However, the gustatory receptors (GRs) required for responding to nonvolatile avoidance chemicals are largely unknown. Exceptions include Drosophila GR66a and GR93a, which are required to prevent ingestion of caffeine, and GR32a, which is necessary for inhibiting male-to-male courtship. However, GR32a is dispensable for normal taste. Thus, distinct GRs may function in sensing avoidance pheromones and antifeedants. Here, we describe the requirements for GR33a, which is expressed widely in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that respond to aversive chemicals. Gr33a mutant flies were impaired in avoiding all nonvolatile repellents tested, ranging from quinine to denatonium, lobeline, and caffeine. Gr33a mutant males also displayed increased male-to-male courtship, implying that it functioned in the detection of a repulsive male pheromone. In contrast to the broadly required olfactory receptor (OR) OR83b, which is essential for trafficking other ORs, GR66a and GR93a are localized normally in Gr33a mutant GRNs. Thus, rather than regulating GR trafficking, GR33a may be a coreceptor required for sensing all nonvolatile repulsive chemicals, including tastants and pheromones. PMID:19765987

  18. A cnidarian homologue of an insect gustatory receptor functions in developmental body patterning

    PubMed Central

    Saina, Michael; Busengdal, Henriette; Sinigaglia, Chiara; Petrone, Libero; Oliveri, Paola; Rentzsch, Fabian; Benton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Insect Gustatory and Odorant Receptors (GRs and ORs) form a superfamily of novel transmembrane proteins, which are expressed in chemosensory neurons that detect environmental stimuli. Here we identify homologues of GRs (Gustatory receptor-like (Grl) genes) in genomes across Protostomia, Deuterostomia and non-Bilateria. Surprisingly, two Grls in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, NvecGrl1 and NvecGrl2, are expressed early in development, in the blastula and gastrula, but not at later stages when a putative chemosensory organ forms. NvecGrl1 transcripts are detected around the arboral pole, considered the equivalent to the head-forming region of Bilateria. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of NvecGrl1 causes developmental patterning defects of this region, leading to animals lacking the apical sensory organ. A deuterostome Grl from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus displays similar patterns of developmental expression. These results reveal an early evolutionary origin of the insect chemosensory receptor family, and raise the possibility that their ancestral role was in embryonic development. PMID:25692633

  19. The BU-FCRAO Milky Way Galactic Ring Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R. Y.; Simon, R.; Flynn, E.; Jackson, J. M.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Heyer, M. H.; Johnson, A.; Kolpak, M.; McQuinn, K.; Fox, O.; Kubiszewski, I.; Nero, D.; Rogers, K.; Veach, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Milky Way Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) continues to map J=1-> 0 13CO emission in the First Galactic Quadrant with an excellent combination of sensitivity (0.2 K), angular resolution (45''), and spectral resolution (0.2 km/s). Here we present the integrated intensity image and channel maps of our Second Release data (www.bu.edu/grs), covering 16 square degrees from l=40o to 51o and b=-1o to 0.5o. We also display maps of the 12CO/13CO intensity ratio using the UMASS-Stony Brook 12CO survey. In addition to confirming the widely accepted 12CO/13CO intensity ratio for the CO isotopes of 5-6 for the bulk of the Galactic emission seen from molecular clouds, we also find a significantly lower value of I(12CO)/I(13CO)=3 toward infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) identified by Simon et al. Such low values suggest very large CO opacities and molecular column densities for the IRDCs. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation via grants AST-9800334 and AST-0098562 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration via grant NAG5-10808.

  20. Abundance and distribution of radioelements in lunar terranes: Results of Chang'E-1 gamma ray spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Ling, Zongcheng; Li, Bo; Zhang, Jiang; Sun, Lingzhi; Liu, Jianzhong

    2016-02-01

    The gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) onboard Chang'E-1 has acquired valuable datasets recording the gamma ray intensities from radioelements (Potassium (K), Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U), etc.) on lunar surface. We extracted the elemental concentrations from the GRS data with spectral fitting techniques and mapped the global absolute abundance of radioelements in terms of the ground truths from lunar samples and meteorites. The obtained global concentration maps of these radioelements indicate heterogeneous distribution among three major lunar crustal terranes (i.e., Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT), and South Pole Aitken Terrane (SPAT)) in relation with their origin and distinct geologic history. The majority of radioelements are restricted in PKT, approving the scenario of KREEP (Potassium (K), rare earth elements (REE), Phosphorus (P)) residua concentrating under the Procellarum region. Moreover, we found the consistency of distribution for radioelements and basalts, concluding that the subsequent volcanism might be associated with local concentrations of radioelements in western Oceanus Procellarum and northwestern South Pole Aitken Basin. The prominent and asymmetric radioactive signatures were confirmed in SPAT comparing to FHT dominated by low level radioactivity, while the magnitudes are much lower than that of PKT, indicating a primary geochemical heterogeneity for the Moon.

  1. [Clinical guideline for the treatment of lupus nephritis and single-centre results of mycofenolate mofetil among patients with lupus nephritis in the National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Melinda Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Emese

    2016-08-01

    The authors present the latest guideline for the treatment of lupus nephritis and their own single-centre results with mycofenolate mofetil treated lupus nephritis. Lupus nephritis and mainly its proliferative form is a frequent and potentially life-threatening manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus that can lead to end-stage renal disease. The treatment of lupus nephritis greatly improved in the last decades; mycofenolate mofetil has become an alternative of cyclophosphamide both in remission induction and as a maintenance regimen as well in the treatment of Class III and IV glomerulonephritis. The authors ordered mycofenolate mofetil for 25 patients with lupus nephritis so far. Histologically most of them had Class III (A/C) or IV (A) glomerulonephritis (30-30%), and only 16% of the patients had renal impairment at that time. Mycofenolate mofetil given after glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide induction therapy reduced the daily proteinuria from 3.18 grs to 1.06 grs. Complete remission could be achieved in 24% and partial remission in 48% of the patients. The authors conclude that mycofenolate mofetil is effective in the therapy of lupus nephritis. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(35), 1385-1393. PMID:27569461

  2. The UF torsion pendulum and its role in space-based gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John; Shelley, Ryan; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Ciani, Giacomo; Mueller, Guido

    2014-03-01

    Space-based gravitational wave observatories like LISA measure picometer changes in the distances between free falling test masses separated by millions of kilometers caused by gravitational waves from sources ranging from super-massive black hole mergers to compact galactic binaries. A test mass and its associated sensing, actuation, charge control and caging subsystems are referred to as a gravitational reference sensor (GRS). LISA has consistently been ranked in the top two of future space missions in the last two Decadal Reviews. With the 2015 launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the expected detection of gravitational waves by aLIGO, and the selection of The Gravitational Universe for the European Space Agency's L3 science theme, LISA is one of the strongest candidates for the next Decadal. Following a successful demonstration of the baseline LISA GRS by LPF, the measurement principle will be carried forward, but improvements in the electronic and optical sensing and control system, the charge control system, and many other components are possible over the next ten years. These improvements will lead to cost savings and potential noise reductions. The UF LISA group has constructed the UF Torsion Pendulum to increase U.S. competency in this critical area and to have a facility where these new technologies can be developed and evaluated. This presentation will introduce this facility and its future role in LISA.

  3. A low-order coupled chemistry meteorology model for testing online and offline data assimilation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussaire, J.-M.; Bocquet, M.

    2015-08-01

    Bocquet and Sakov (2013) have introduced a low-order model based on the coupling of the chaotic Lorenz-95 model which simulates winds along a mid-latitude circle, with the transport of a tracer species advected by this zonal wind field. This model, named L95-T, can serve as a playground for testing data assimilation schemes with an online model. Here, the tracer part of the model is extended to a reduced photochemistry module. This coupled chemistry meteorology model (CCMM), the L95-GRS model, mimics continental and transcontinental transport and the photochemistry of ozone, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. Its numerical implementation is described. The model is shown to reproduce the major physical and chemical processes being considered. L95-T and L95-GRS are specifically designed and useful for testing advanced data assimilation schemes, such as the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS) which combines the best of ensemble and variational methods. These models provide useful insights prior to the implementation of data assimilation methods on larger models. We illustrate their use with data assimilation schemes on preliminary, yet instructive numerical experiments. In particular, online and offline data assimilation strategies can be conveniently tested and discussed with this low-order CCMM. The impact of observed chemical species concentrations on the wind field can be quantitatively estimated. The impacts of the wind chaotic dynamics and of the chemical species non-chaotic but highly nonlinear dynamics on the data assimilation strategies are illustrated.

  4. Thorium abundances on the aristarchus plateau: Insights into the composition of the aristarchus pyroclastic glass deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagerty, J.J.; Lawrence, D.J.; Hawke, B.R.; Gaddis, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thorium (Th) data from the Lunar Prospector gamma ray spectrometer (LP-GRS) are used to constrain the composition of lunar pyroclastic glass deposits on top of the Aristarchus plateau. Our goal is to use forward modeling of LP-GRS Th data to measure the Th abundances on the plateau and then to determine if the elevated Th abundances on the plateau are associated with the pyroclastic deposits or with thorium-rich ejecta from Aristarchus crater. We use a variety of remote sensing data to show that there is a large, homogenous portion of the pyroclastics on the plateau that has seen little or no contamination from the Th-rich ejecta of Aristarchus crater. Our results show that the uncontaminated pyroclastic glasses on Aristarchus plateau have an average Th content of 6.7 ppm and ???7 wt % TiO2. These Th and Ti values are consistent with Th-rich, intermediate-Ti yellow glasses from the lunar sample suite. On the basis of this information, we use petrologic equations and interelement correlations for the Moon to estimate the composition of the source region from which the Aristarchus glasses were derived. We find that the source region for the Aristarchus glasses contained high abundances of heat-producing elements, which most likely served as a thermal driver for the prolonged volcanic activity in this region of the Moon. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. The GIS-based geologic investigation of the South Pole-Aitken basin region of the Moon using SELENE elemental information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Williams, J.; Ruiz, J.; Yu, B.; Hare, T. M.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Shibamura, E.; Kobayashi, M.; D'Uston, C.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Reedy, R. C.

    2010-12-01

    Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we performed comparative analysis among stratigraphic information and the Kaguya (SELENE) GRS data of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin and its surroundings. Results indicate that the rock materials up to ~ 1m depth (including ancient crater materials, mare basalts, and possible SPA impact melt) are average to slightly above average in K and Th with respect to the rest of the Moon. The heavily cratered highlands outside of SPA represent ancient deep-seated crustal and possibly mantle igneous materials harvested in part from the giant SPA impact event as ejecta, as well as subsequent impact cratering events up until the end of the Late Heavy Bombardment, which includes intensive impact-related mixing of ejecta materials and lava flows. The geologic history of the SPA basin is distinct from the Procellarum-Imbrium region. The former records mainly pre-Nectarian activity such as the giant impact with minor mare volcanism during the Upper Imbriam, whereas the latter was largely resurfaced by activity such as the Imbrium impact event and subsequent emplacement of voluminous mare-forming lavas during the Lower Imbriam and Upper Imbriam, Eraatosthenian, and Copernican, respectively. These distinct geologic histories bear on the mineralogic and elemental abundances, as shown in our investigation through this GIS-based comparative analysis among the stratigraphic and Kaguya (SELENE) GRS data.

  6. Obliquity, Ice Sheets, and Layered Sediments on Mars: What Spacecraft Observations and Climate Models are Telling Us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, M. I.; McCleese, Daniel J.; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data present a quandary: On the one hand, large deposits of (inferred) water ice are located where thermal models suggest they would form and best be protected, e.g., if deposited during periods of higher obliquity. On the other hand, the volume mixing ratios (approx. 70%) are so high that diffusive deposition of water in regolith pore space (which is the process assumed by these models) cannot be the primary formation mechanism. Furthermore, given that the water is inferred to be so close to the surface (less than a few 10's of cm's), it must be in communication with the atmosphere on time scales that are geologically relatively short (10(exp 3)-10(exp 6) years); therefore the water cannot be archaic. Considering the GRS data, images of mantled, fretted, and disaggregated terrain, and new climate modeling of Mars orbital cycles, we are led to an alternate conclusion about the ice deposits: that they form as subaerial ice sheets. This scenario not only provides a simple explanation for these observations, but may also help explain the formation of globally distributed, sedimentary layered deposits.

  7. Jupiter's Tropospheric Temperature Structure in 1996 and 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B. M.; Orton, G. S.

    2000-10-01

    We have produced temperature maps of Jupiter's tropospheric temperature at four pressure levels, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mbar, for five epochs in 1996 and 1997: June-July, 1996, September, 1996, April, 1997, September, 1997, and November, 1997. The temperature maps were produced from ground-based mid-infrared imaging observations. All five periods have good longitudinal coverage, with three having 90% or greater coverage. The zonal mean structure is constant during the span of the data sets, showing a warm North and South Equatorial Belts, a cool equator, and a warm southern hemisphere. All dates show longitudinal structure with little consistency between dates. The pre-merger white ovals can bee seen along with the Great Red Spot(GRS). The GRS and the white ovals are the only distinct features identifiable across the time span of the data sets. Very little power is seen longitudinal power spectra above wavenumber 10 but there are many peaks below 10. In November 1997, the spectrum is dominated by a wavenumber 3 peak with almost no other wavenumbers present for latitudes within 30o of the equator. The general temperature structure at 100 and 400 mbar is similar, however, longitudinal spectra show much less similarity between the two levels. This suggests that the longitudinal structure is not constant with height. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA, and supported in part by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program and the Galileo Project.

  8. Medusae Fossae-Elysium Region, Mars: Depression in the HEND/Odyssey Map of Mars Epithermal Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first data from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) onboard Mars Odyssey spacecraft showed that the low neutron fluxes characterize both subpolar regions of Mars. The low neutron fluxes mean the presence of hydrogen-rich soils and have been interpreted as an indication on abundant water ice in these areas. The equatorial region of Mars (equatorward of approx. 50 deg) is characterized by higher fluxes of both epithermal (0.4 eV-100 keV, come from depth 1-2 m) and fast (3.4-7.3 MeV, come from depth 0.2-0.3 m) neutrons meaning that this area is mostly dry. The pattern of distribution of the neutron fluxes is in a good agreement with the theoretical predictions on the stability of ground ice on present Mars. The actual distribution of the ice, however, depends on variations of thermal inertia of soils and albedo of the surface. The flux of the epithermal neutrons detected by the HEND instrument, which is part of GRS, has two noticeable depressions in the equatorial region, one in Arabia Terra and another in the Medusae Fossae-Elysium region (MFER). Here we present the initial results of analysis of characteristics of the neutron fluxes and regional geological setting of the epithermal neutron depression in this area. The main goal of our study was to put some constraints on the time of the anomaly formation and to assess possible form of hydrogen (ground ice vs. chemically bound water) there.

  9. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  10. Lunar prospector measurements of the distribution of incompatible elements gadolinium, samarium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    1999-04-01

    Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (NS) and gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) observations have been used to map out the distribution of incompatible elements on the lunar surface. Specifically, the GRS data provide maps of the distribution of thorium and potassium while the NS data provide information on the distribution of iron and titanium, and the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium. Using results of analysis of Celementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data, the Fe- and Ti-contributions to the NS data can be removed, leaving primarily rare earth element contributions from Gd and Sm. The Th and K maps correlate with the inferred Gd and Sm maps (r {approximately} 0.93), but there are regions of significant disagreement. One of these is in the KREEP-rich circum-Imbrium ring. No clear explanation has emerged for this disagreement, though Th, K, Gd and Sm have differing degrees of incompatibility. These results clearly are important to discussions of the geochemistry of the Procellarum-Imbrium Th-rich Terrane and the South-Pole-Aitken Terrane.

  11. SMAD7 loci contribute to risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and clinicopathologic development among Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chenying; Song, Jingjing; Chen, Weiqian; Chen, Minjiang; Fan, Xiaoxi; Cheng, Xingyao; Lan, Xilin; Li, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified three loci at 18q21 (rs4939827, rs7240004, and rs7229639), which maps to SMAD7 loci, were associated with risk of diseases of the digestive system. However, their associations with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk remain unknown. A case-control study was conducted to assess genetic associations with HCC risk and clinicopathologic development among Chinese Han population. Three SNPs were genotyped among 1,000 HCC cases and 1,000 controls using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. We observed statistically significant associations for the three SMAD7 loci and HCC risk. Each copy of minor allele was associated with a 1.24–1.36 fold increased risk of HCC. We also found that significant differences were observed between rs4939827 and clinical TNM stage and vascular invasion, as well as rs7240004 and vascular invasion. We also established a genetic risk score (GRS) by summing the risk alleles. The GRS was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC and vascular invasion. Our data revealed the SMAD7 loci is associated with HCC susceptibility and its clinicopathologic development. PMID:26989026

  12. Constraints on the abundance of carbon in near-surface materials on Mercury: Results from the MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peplowski, Patrick N.; Lawrence, David J.; Evans, Larry G.; Klima, Rachel L.; Blewett, David T.; Goldsten, John O.; Murchie, Scott L.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Nittler, Larry R.; Solomon, Sean C.; Starr, Richard D.; Weider, Shoshana Z.

    2015-04-01

    Mercury's low surface reflectance and the low surface abundances of iron and titanium have led to the suggestion that carbon (C) may serve as the dominant darkening agent on Mercury's surface. Estimates of the amount of carbon required to achieve the observed surface darkening are within the sensitivity range of measurements by MESSENGER's Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS). We use GRS measurements to constrain the C content of Mercury's surface, the first such use of gamma-ray spectroscopy data. Our methodology includes techniques for removing background contributions to the measured signal and is broadly applicable to any gamma-ray spectroscopy dataset. The measured C content for Mercury's surface, 1.4±0.9 wt%, is consistent with 0-4.1 wt% C at the three-standard-deviation level and therefore does not represent a definitive detection of C at the surface. Possible mechanisms for providing up to 4.1 wt% C on Mercury's surface include primordial and exogenous sources. Additional measurements at low altitude made with MESSENGER's Neutron Spectrometer can yield further constraints on the C content of Mercury's surface.

  13. Evaluation of Psoriasis Genetic Risk Based on Five Susceptibility Markers in a Population from Northern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Stawczyk-Macieja, Marta; Rębała, Krzysztof; Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Wysocka, Joanna; Cybulska, Lidia; Kapińska, Ewa; Haraś, Agnieszka; Miniszewska, Paulina; Nowicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis genetic background depends on polygenic and multifactorial mode of inheritance. As in other complex disorders, the estimation of the disease risk based on individual genetic variants is impossible. For this reason, recent investigations have been focused on combinations of known psoriasis susceptibility markers in order to improve the disease risk evaluation. Our aim was to compare psoriasis genetic risk score (GRS) for five susceptibility loci involved in the immunological response (HLA-C, ERAP1, ZAP70) and in the skin barrier function (LCE3, CSTA) between patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (n = 148) and the control group (n = 146). A significantly higher number of predisposing alleles was observed in patients with psoriasis in comparison to healthy individuals (6.1 vs. 5.2, respectively; P = 8.8×10−7). The statistical significance was even more profound when GRS weighted by logarithm odds ratios was evaluated (P = 9.9×10−14). Our results demonstrate the developed panel of five susceptibility loci to be more efficient in predicting psoriasis risk in the Polish population and to possess higher sensitivity and specificity for the disease than any of the markers analyzed separately, including the most informative HLA-C*06 allele. PMID:27658291

  14. Soluble carbohydrates and relative growth rates in chloro-, cyano- and cephalolichens: effects of temperature and nocturnal hydration.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Azharul; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2015-11-01

    This growth chamber experiment evaluates how temperature and humidity regimes shape soluble carbohydrate pools and growth rates in lichens with different photobionts. We assessed soluble carbohydrates, relative growth rates (RGRs) and relative thallus area growth rates (RTA GRs) in Parmelia sulcata (chlorolichen), Peltigera canina (cyanolichen) and Peltigera aphthosa (cephalolichen) cultivated for 14 d (150 μmol m(-2) s(-1) ; 12-h photoperiod) at four day : night temperatures (28 : 23°C, 20 : 15°C, 13 : 8°C, 6 : 1°C) and two hydration regimes (hydration during the day, dry at night; hydration day : night). The major carbohydrates were mannitol (cephalolichen), glucose (cyanolichen) and arabitol (chlorolichen). Mannitol occurred in all species. During cultivation, total carbohydrate pools decreased in cephalo-/cyanolichens, but increased in the chlorolichen. Carbohydrates varied less than growth with temperature and humidity. All lichens grew rapidly, particularly at 13 : 8°C. RGRs and RTA GRs were significantly higher in lichens hydrated for 24 h than for 12 h. Strong photoinhibition occurred in cephalo- and cyanolichens kept in cool dry nights, resulting in positive relationships between RGR and dark-adapted photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (Fv /Fm ). RGR increased significantly with the photobiont-specific carbohydrate pools within all species. Average RGR peaked in the chlorolichen lowest in total and photobiont carbohydrates. Nocturnal hydration improved recovery from photoinhibition and/or enhanced conversion rates of photosynthates into growth. PMID:26017819

  15. A new explained-variance based genetic risk score for predictive modeling of disease risk.

    PubMed

    Che, Ronglin; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A

    2012-09-25

    The goal of association mapping is to identify genetic variants that predict disease, and as the field of human genetics matures, the number of successful association studies is increasing. Many such studies have shown that for many diseases, risk is explained by a reasonably large number of variants that each explains a very small amount of disease risk. This is prompting the use of genetic risk scores in building predictive models, where information across several variants is combined for predictive modeling. In the current study, we compare the performance of four previously proposed genetic risk score methods and present a new method for constructing genetic risk score that incorporates explained variance information. The methods compared include: a simple count Genetic Risk Score, an odds ratio weighted Genetic Risk Score, a direct logistic regression Genetic Risk Score, a polygenic Genetic Risk Score, and the new explained variance weighted Genetic Risk Score. We compare the methods using a wide range of simulations in two steps, with a range of the number of deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explaining disease risk, genetic modes, baseline penetrances, sample sizes, relative risks (RR) and minor allele frequencies (MAF). Several measures of model performance were compared including overall power, C-statistic and Akaike's Information Criterion. Our results show the relative performance of methods differs significantly, with the new explained variance weighted GRS (EV-GRS) generally performing favorably to the other methods.

  16. Longitudinal relationships between glycemic status and body mass index in a multiethnic study: evidence from observational and genetic epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ishola, Adeola F.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Engert, James C.; Mohan, Viswanathan; Diaz, Rafael; Anand, Sonia S.; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between glycemic status and BMI and its interaction with obesity single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort at high-risk for dysglycemia. We studied 17 394 participants from six ethnicities followed-up for 3.3 years. Twenty-three obesity SNPs were genotyped and an unweighted genotype risk score (GRS) was calculated. Glycemic status was defined using an oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, sex and population stratification. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to dysglycemia transition was associated with baseline BMI and BMI change. Impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes transition was associated with baseline BMI but not BMI change. No simultaneous significant main genetic effects and interactions between SNPs/GRS and glycemic status or transition on BMI level and BMI change were observed. Our data suggests that the interplay between glycemic status and BMI trajectory may be independent of the effects of obesity genes. This implies that individuals with different glycemic statuses may be combined together in genetic association studies on obesity traits, if appropriate adjustments for glycemic status are performed. Implementation of population-wide weight management programs may be more beneficial towards individuals with NGT than those at a later disease stage. PMID:27480816

  17. A new capability for ANTARES: 7Be by AMS for ice samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.; Simon, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    ANSTO, in collaboration with the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) and the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), has an on-going program of 10Be (t½ = 1.39 × 106 a) concentration measurement in firn and ice at Law Dome, Antarctica. In recent years snow pit samples have also been measured for 7Be (t½ = 53.28 d) concentration as this isotope has the potential to give further insight into the transport and deposition of cosmogenic beryllium to Law Dome and so improve the use of 10Be as a proxy for solar activity. Early 7Be measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) with typical counting times of 3 days. In 2010, we developed the capability for 7Be/9Be measurement on the 10 MV ANTARES (Australian National Tandem Accelerator for Applied Research) accelerator using carbon foil post-stripping of 7Be3+ to 7Be4+ to eliminate the 7Li isobar. We describe the method and explain the advantages of using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) over GRS for 7Be analysis.

  18. Abiotic process for Fe(II) oxidation and green rust mineralization driven by a heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (Klebsiella mobilis).

    PubMed

    Etique, Marjorie; Jorand, Frédéric P A; Zegeye, Asfaw; Grégoire, Brian; Despas, Christelle; Ruby, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Green rusts (GRs) are mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides with a high reactivity toward organic and inorganic pollutants. GRs can be produced from ferric reducing or ferrous oxidizing bacterial activities. In this study, we investigated the capability of Klebsiella mobilis to produce iron minerals in the presence of nitrate and ferrous iron. This bacterium is well-known to reduce nitrate using an organic carbon source as electron donor but is unable to enzymatically oxidize Fe(II) species. During incubation, GR formation occurred as a secondary iron mineral precipitating on cell surfaces, resulting from Fe(II) oxidation by nitrite produced via bacterial respiration of nitrate. For the first time, we demonstrate GR formation by indirect microbial oxidation of Fe(II) (i.e., a combination of biotic/abiotic processes). These results therefore suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can potentially contribute to the formation of GR in natural environments. In addition, the chemical reduction of nitrite to ammonium by GR is observed, which gradually turns the GR into the end-product goethite. The nitrogen mass-balance clearly demonstrates that the total amount of ammonium produced corresponds to the quantity of bioreduced nitrate. These findings demonstrate how the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria in ferrous environments may provide a direct link between the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and iron. PMID:24605878

  19. Abiotic process for Fe(II) oxidation and green rust mineralization driven by a heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (Klebsiella mobilis).

    PubMed

    Etique, Marjorie; Jorand, Frédéric P A; Zegeye, Asfaw; Grégoire, Brian; Despas, Christelle; Ruby, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Green rusts (GRs) are mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides with a high reactivity toward organic and inorganic pollutants. GRs can be produced from ferric reducing or ferrous oxidizing bacterial activities. In this study, we investigated the capability of Klebsiella mobilis to produce iron minerals in the presence of nitrate and ferrous iron. This bacterium is well-known to reduce nitrate using an organic carbon source as electron donor but is unable to enzymatically oxidize Fe(II) species. During incubation, GR formation occurred as a secondary iron mineral precipitating on cell surfaces, resulting from Fe(II) oxidation by nitrite produced via bacterial respiration of nitrate. For the first time, we demonstrate GR formation by indirect microbial oxidation of Fe(II) (i.e., a combination of biotic/abiotic processes). These results therefore suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can potentially contribute to the formation of GR in natural environments. In addition, the chemical reduction of nitrite to ammonium by GR is observed, which gradually turns the GR into the end-product goethite. The nitrogen mass-balance clearly demonstrates that the total amount of ammonium produced corresponds to the quantity of bioreduced nitrate. These findings demonstrate how the activity of nitrate-reducing bacteria in ferrous environments may provide a direct link between the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and iron.

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy and spectral mapping of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites: results from Galileo's initial orbit.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R; Smythe, W; Baines, K; Barbinis, E; Becker, K; Burns, R; Calcutt, S; Calvin, W; Clark, R; Danielson, G; Davies, A; Drossart, P; Encrenaz, T; Fanale, F; Granahan, J; Hansen, G; Herrera, P; Hibbitts, C; Hui, J; Irwin, P; Johnson, T; Kamp, L; Kieffer, H; Leader, F; Weissman, P

    1996-10-18

    The Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer performed spectral studies of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites during the June 1996 perijove pass of the Galileo spacecraft. Spectra for a 5-micrometer hot spot on Jupiter are consistent with the absence of a significant water cloud above 8 bars and with a depletion of water compared to that predicted for solar composition, corroborating results from the Galileo probe. Great Red Spot (GRS) spectral images show that parts of this feature extend upward to 240 millibars, although considerable altitude-dependent structure is found within it. A ring of dense clouds surrounds the GRS and is lower than it by 3 to 7 kilometers. Spectra of Callisto and Ganymede reveal a feature at 4. 25 micrometers, attributed to the presence of hydrated minerals or possibly carbon dioxide on their surfaces. Spectra of Europa's high latitudes imply that fine-grained water frost overlies larger grains. Several active volcanic regions were found on Io, with temperatures of 420 to 620 kelvin and projected areas of 5 to 70 square kilometers.

  1. Prospecting for Martian Ice from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, L. C.; Bell, M. S.; Allen, C. C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent data from the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on Mars Odyssey indicate the presence of a hydrogen-rich layer tens of centimeters thick in high latitudes on Mars. This hydrogen-rich layer correlates to previously determined regions of ice stability. It has been suggested that the subsurface hydrogen is ice and constitutes 35 plus or minus 15% by weight near the north and south polar regions. This study constrains the location of subsurface ice deposits on the scale of kilometers or smaller by combining GRS data with surface features indicative of subsurface ice. The most recognizable terrestrial geomorphic indicators of subsurface ice, formed in permafrost and periglacial environments, include thermokarst pits, pingos, pseudocraters and patterned ground. Patterned ground features have geometric forms such as circles, polygons, stripes and nets. This study focuses on the polygonal form of patterned ground, selected for its discernable shape and subsurface implications. Polygonal features are typically demarcated by troughs, beneath which grow vertical ice-wedges. Ice-wedges form in thermal contraction cracks in ice-rich soil and grow with annual freezing and thawing events repeated over tens of years. Ice wedges exist below the depth of seasonal freeze-thaw. Terrestrial ice wedges can be several meters deep and polygons can be tens of meters apart, and, on rare occasions, up to 1 km. The crack spacing of terrestrial polygons is typically 3 to 10 times the crack depth.

  2. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development.

  3. Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiao; Guo, Xiaobo; Tideman, J Willem L; Williams, Katie M; Yazar, Seyhan; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Howe, Laura D; Pourcain, Beaté St; Evans, David M; Timpson, Nicholas J; McMahon, George; Hysi, Pirro G; Krapohl, Eva; Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B; Baird, Paul Nigel; Wang, Jie Jin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ding, Xiaohu; Wojciechowski, Robert; Young, Terri L; Pärssinen, Olavi; Oexle, Konrad; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Paterson, Andrew D; Klaver, Caroline C W; Plomin, Robert; Hammond, Christopher J; Mackey, David A; He, Mingguang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A

    2016-01-01

    Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 children assessed longitudinally across ages 7-15 years, along with gene-environment interactions involving the major environmental risk-factors, nearwork and time outdoors. Specific variants could be categorized as showing evidence of: (a) early-onset effects remaining stable through childhood, (b) early-onset effects that progressed further with increasing age, or (c) onset later in childhood (N = 10, 5 and 11 variants, respectively). A genetic risk score (GRS) for all 39 variants explained 0.6% (P = 6.6E-08) and 2.3% (P = 6.9E-21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. Replication in multi-ancestry samples (combined N = 5599) yielded evidence of childhood onset for 6 of 12 variants present in both Asians and Europeans. There was no indication that variant or GRS effects altered depending on time outdoors, however 5 variants showed nominal evidence of interactions with nearwork (top variant, rs7829127 in ZMAT4; P = 6.3E-04). PMID:27174397

  4. Recovery of consciousness and an injured ascending reticular activating system in a patient who survived cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Hyun, Yi Ji; Lee, Han Do

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on a patient who survived cardiac arrest and showed recovery of consciousness and an injured ARAS at the early stage of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI- BI) for 3 weeks, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 52-year-old male patient who had suffered cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome was resuscitated immediately by a layman and paramedics for ∼25 minutes. He was then transferred immediately to the emergency room of a local medical center. When starting rehabilitation at 2 weeks after onset, his consciousness was impaired, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (GRS-R) score of 8. He underwent comprehensive rehabilitative therapy, including drugs for recovery of consciousness. He recovered well and rapidly so that his consciousness had recovered to full scores in terms of GCS:15 and GRS-R:23 at 5 weeks after onset. The left lower dorsal and right lower ventral ARAS had become thicker on 5-week DTT compared with 2-week DTT (Fig. 1B). Regarding the change of neural connectivity of the thalamic ILN, increased neural connectivity to the basal forebrain and prefrontal cortex was observed in both hemispheres on 5-week DTT compared with 2-week DTT. Recovery of an injured ARAS was demonstrated in a patient who survived cardiac arrest and his consciousness showed rapid and good recovery for 3 weeks at the early stage of HI-BI. PMID:27368033

  5. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  6. Using MCNPX for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, G. W.; Hendricks, J. S.; Waters, L. S.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2002-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Monte Carlo N-Particle, eXtended-energy radiation transport code MCNPX is rapidly becoming an international standard for a wide spectrum of high-energy radiation transport applications. One such application includes the study of gamma rays produced by cosmic-ray interactions within a planetary surface. Such studies can be used to determine surface elemental composition. This paper presents various MCNPX enhancements that make these gamma ray spectroscopy (GRS) simulations possible, gives elemental spectra results for a specific lunar material, provides a comparison between various high-energy physics models, and shows results of an elemental least squares analysis using Lunar Prospector measurements. The analysis documented here demonstrates the usefulness of MCNPX in planetary gamma ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, new MCNPX features developed over the course of this analysis will prove extremely useful for other applications as well. Comparisons of MCNPX results to lunar GRS measurements are better than expected and have lead to the identification of spectral features previously unknown. Through a library least squares analysis, these simulation spectra have resulted in detailed maps of lunar composition.

  7. Characterization of the LISA Pathfinder Drag Reduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsky, Jacob; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2016-03-01

    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission launched in December 2015 with operations beginning March 2016. LPF is a technology demonstration mission built to prove and fully characterize the performance of the use of drag free test masses as Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRS) for future space based gravitational-wave observatories. As a joint ESA-NASA mission, LPF is comprised of both European and NASA payloads, the LISA Technology Package (LTP) and Disturbance Reduction System (DRS), respectively. DRS includes Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) systems, to precisely maneuver the spacecraft without disturbing the GRS, and a control system that directs spacecraft and test mass actuation. In order to fully characterize DRS/CMNT performance, we have developed a series of experiments, to take place during DRS operations beginning later this year. We have built analysis pipelines, validated on simulated data, to rapidly process experimental data and to identify any performance issues as they occur. European partners have developed the LTP Data Analysis (LTPDA) Matlab extension, and we have adapted and expanded this to DRS missions as the basis of our analysis pipelines. I will discuss the anticipated DRS performance and measurement accuracy, illustrated on simulated data.

  8. Genome-Wide Interaction with Insulin Secretion Loci Reveals Novel Loci for Type 2 Diabetes in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Keaton, Jacob M; Hellwege, Jacklyn N; Ng, Maggie C Y; Palmer, Nicholette D; Pankow, James S; Fornage, Myriam; Wilson, James G; Correa, Adolfo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Freedman, Barry I; Bowden, Donald W

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the result of metabolic defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, yet most T2D loci identified to date influence insulin secretion. We hypothesized that T2D loci, particularly those affecting insulin sensitivity, can be identified through interaction with insulin secretion loci. To test this hypothesis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), a dynamic measure of first-phase insulin secretion, were identified in African Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS; n = 492 subjects). These SNPs were tested for interaction, individually and jointly as a genetic risk score (GRS), using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from five cohorts (ARIC, CARDIA, JHS, MESA, WFSM; n = 2,725 cases, 4,167 controls) with T2D as the outcome. In single variant analyses, suggestively significant (Pinteraction<5×10-6) interactions were observed at several loci including LYPLAL1 (rs10746381), CHN2 (rs7796525), and EXOC1 (rs4289500). Notable AIRg GRS interactions were observed with SAMD4A (rs11627203) and UTRN (rs17074194). These data support the hypothesis that additional genetic factors contributing to T2D risk can be identified by interactions with insulin secretion loci. PMID:27448167

  9. Gene Expression Control by Glucocorticoid Receptors during Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Andre Machado; Anunciato, Aparecida Kataryna Olimpio; Rosenstock, Tatiana Rosado; Glezer, Isaias

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory compounds that have been extensively used in clinical practice for several decades. GC’s effects on inflammation are generally mediated through GC receptors (GRs). Signal transduction through these nuclear receptors leads to dramatic changes in gene expression programs in different cell types, typically due to GR binding to DNA or to transcription modulators. During the last decade, the view of GCs as exclusive anti-inflammatory molecules has been challenged. GR negative interference in pro-inflammatory gene expression was a landmark in terms of molecular mechanisms that suppress immune activity. In fact, GR can induce varied inhibitory molecules, including a negative regulator of Toll-like receptors pathway, or subject key transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP-1, to a repressor mechanism. In contrast, the expression of some acute-phase proteins and other players of innate immunity generally requires GR signaling. Consequently, GRs must operate context-dependent inhibitory, permissive, or stimulatory effects on host defense signaling triggered by pathogens or tissue damage. This review aims to disclose how contradictory or comparable effects on inflammatory gene expression can depend on pharmacological approach (including selective GC receptor modulators; SEGRMs), cell culture, animal treatment, or transgenic strategies used as models. Although the current view of GR-signaling integrated many advances in the field, some answers to important questions remain elusive. PMID:27148162

  10. Cannabinoid receptors activation and glucocorticoid receptors deactivation in the amygdala prevent the stress-induced enhancement of a negative learning experience.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Assaf; Akirav, Irit

    2012-05-01

    The enhancement of emotional memory is clearly important as emotional stimuli are generally more significant than neutral stimuli for surviving and reproduction purposes. Yet, the enhancement of a negative emotional memory following exposure to stress may result in dysfunctional or intrusive memory that underlies several psychiatric disorders. Here we examined the effects of stress exposure on a negative emotional learning experience as measured by a decrease in the magnitude of the expected quantity of reinforcements in an alley maze. In contrast to other fear-related negative experiences, reward reduction is more associated with frustration and is assessed by measuring the latency to run the length of the alley to consume the reduced quantity of reward. We also examined whether the cannabinoid receptors agonist WIN55,212-2 (5 μg/side) and the glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) antagonist RU-486 (10 ng/side) administered into the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) could prevent the stress-induced enhancement. We found that intra-BLA RU-486 or WIN55,212 before stress exposure prevented the stress-induced enhancement of memory consolidation for reduction in reward magnitude. These findings suggest that cannabinoid receptors and GRs in the BLA are important modulators of stress-induced enhancement of emotional memory.

  11. Transport properties of nanoconstrictions in armchair graphene ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, Igor; Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi

    2014-03-01

    The transport properties of nanoconstrictions and quantum-point contacts formed in atomically precise segmented armchair graphene nanoribbons (SaGRs) are investigated using a tight-binding non-equilibrium Green's function (TB-NEGF) approach and relativistic quantum-field theory modeling.[2] The TB behavior is accounted for by a one-dimensional Dirac-transfer-matrix (DTM) model using variable-mass (scalar-field) barriers assigned to the junctions between the nanoribbon segments. It is shown that the topology of the junctions (sharp versus smooth) and the ratio of length over width of the constriction are the principal factors influencing the height of the mass barriers, and thus they control the extent of trapping and confinement by the constriction of graphene's relativistic carriers, even in the case of all-metallic SaGRs. A rich variety of transport patterns ensues, ranging from ballistic quantized conductance to resonant tunneling associated with Coulomb blockade. Supported by the U.S. D.O.E. (FG05-86ER-45234).

  12. Gr33a modulates Drosophila male courtship preference.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yujia; Han, Yi; Shao, Yingyao; Wang, Xingjun; Ma, Yeqing; Ling, Erjun; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In any gamogenetic species, attraction between individuals of the opposite sex promotes reproductive success that guarantees their thriving. Consequently, mate determination between two sexes is effortless for an animal. However, choosing a spouse from numerous attractive partners of the opposite sex needs deliberation. In Drosophila melanogaster, both younger virgin females and older ones are equally liked options to males; nevertheless, when given options, males prefer younger females to older ones. Non-volatile cuticular hydrocarbons, considered as major pheromones in Drosophila, constitute females' sexual attraction that act through males' gustatory receptors (Grs) to elicit male courtship. To date, only a few putative Grs are known to play roles in male courtship. Here we report that loss of Gr33a function or abrogating the activity of Gr33a neurons does not disrupt male-female courtship, but eliminates males' preference for younger mates. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Gr33a neurons abolishes males' preference behavior. Such function of APP is mediated by the transcription factor forkhead box O (dFoxO). These results not only provide mechanistic insights into Drosophila male courtship preference, but also establish a novel Drosophila model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:25586066

  13. The HEROES Balloon-borne Hard X-ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2014-08-01

    The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) payload flew on a balloon from Ft. Sumner, NM, September 21-22, 2013. HEROES is sensitive from about 20-75 keV and comprises 8 optics modules (HP 33"), each consisting of 13-14 nickel replicated optics shells and 8 matching Xenon-filled position-sensitive proportional counter detectors (dE/E=0.05 @ 60 keV). Our targets included the Sun, the Crab Nebula and pulsar and the black hole binary GRS 1915+105. HEROES was pointed using a day/night star camera system for astrophysical observations and a newly developed Solar Aspect System for solar observations (with a shutter protecting the star camera.) We have successfully imaged the Crab Nebula. Analyses for GRS 1915+105 and the Sun are ongoing. In this presentation, I will describe the HEROES mission, the data analysis pipeline and calibrations, preliminary results, and plans for follow-on missions.

  14. Gr33a Modulates Drosophila Male Courtship Preference

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yujia; Han, Yi; Shao, Yingyao; Wang, Xingjun; Ma, Yeqing; Ling, Erjun; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In any gamogenetic species, attraction between individuals of the opposite sex promotes reproductive success that guarantees their thriving. Consequently, mate determination between two sexes is effortless for an animal. However, choosing a spouse from numerous attractive partners of the opposite sex needs deliberation. In Drosophila melanogaster, both younger virgin females and older ones are equally liked options to males; nevertheless, when given options, males prefer younger females to older ones. Non-volatile cuticular hydrocarbons, considered as major pheromones in Drosophila, constitute females' sexual attraction that act through males' gustatory receptors (Grs) to elicit male courtship. To date, only a few putative Grs are known to play roles in male courtship. Here we report that loss of Gr33a function or abrogating the activity of Gr33a neurons does not disrupt male-female courtship, but eliminates males' preference for younger mates. Furthermore, ectopic expression of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Gr33a neurons abolishes males' preference behavior. Such function of APP is mediated by the transcription factor forkhead box O (dFoxO). These results not only provide mechanistic insights into Drosophila male courtship preference, but also establish a novel Drosophila model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:25586066

  15. Obesity susceptibility loci and uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and cognitive restraint behaviors in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Curhan, Gary C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Hu, Frank B.; van Dam, Rob M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many confirmed genetic loci for obesity are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate energy intake and reward-seeking behavior. Whether these loci contribute to the development of specific eating behaviors has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between a genetic susceptibility to obesity and cognitive restraint, uncontrolled and emotional eating. Design and Methods Eating behavior and body mass index (BMI) were determined by questionnaires for 1471 men and 2381 women from two U.S cohorts. Genotypes were extracted from genome-wide scans and a genetic-risk score (GRS) derived from 32 obesity-loci was calculated. Results The GRS was positively associated with emotional and uncontrolled eating(P<0.002). In exploratory analysis, BMI-increasing variants of MTCH2, TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with emotional eating and those of TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with uncontrolled eating. The BMI-increasing variant of FTO was positively and those of LRP1B and TFAP2B were inversely associated with cognitive restraint. These associations for single SNPs were independent of BMI but were not significant after multiple-testing correction. Conclusions An overall genetic susceptibility to obesity may also extend to eating behaviors. The link between specific loci and obesity may be mediated by eating behavior but larger studies are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23929626

  16. Replication of established common genetic variants for adult BMI and childhood obesity in Greek adolescents: the TEENAGE study.

    PubMed

    Ntalla, Ioanna; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Vlachou, Panagiota; Southam, Lorraine; William Rayner, Nigel; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Dedoussis, George V

    2013-05-01

    Multiple genetic loci have been associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of established adult BMI and childhood obesity loci in a Greek adolescent cohort. For this purpose, 34 variants were selected for investigation in 707 (55.9% females) adolescents of Greek origin aged 13.42 ± 0.88 years. Cumulative effects of variants were assessed by calculating a genetic risk score (GRS-34) for each subject. Variants at the FTO, TMEM18, FAIM2, RBJ, ZNF608 and QPCTL loci yielded nominal evidence for association with BMI and/or overweight risk (p < 0.05). Variants at TFAP2B and NEGR1 loci showed nominal association (p < 0.05) with BMI and/or overweight risk in males and females respectively. Even though we did not detect any genome-wide significant associations, 27 out of 34 variants yielded directionally consistent effects with those reported by large-scale meta-analyses (binomial sign p = 0.0008). The GRS-34 was associated with both BMI (beta = 0.17 kg/m(2) /allele; p < 0.001) and overweight risk (OR = 1.09/allele; 95% CI: 1.04-1.16; p = 0.001). In conclusion, we replicate associations of established BMI and childhood obesity variants in a Greek adolescent cohort and confirm directionally consistent effects for most of them.

  17. Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiao; Guo, Xiaobo; Tideman, J Willem L; Williams, Katie M; Yazar, Seyhan; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Howe, Laura D; Pourcain, Beaté St; Evans, David M; Timpson, Nicholas J; McMahon, George; Hysi, Pirro G; Krapohl, Eva; Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B; Baird, Paul Nigel; Wang, Jie Jin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ding, Xiaohu; Wojciechowski, Robert; Young, Terri L; Pärssinen, Olavi; Oexle, Konrad; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Paterson, Andrew D; Klaver, Caroline C W; Plomin, Robert; Hammond, Christopher J; Mackey, David A; He, Mingguang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A

    2016-05-13

    Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 children assessed longitudinally across ages 7-15 years, along with gene-environment interactions involving the major environmental risk-factors, nearwork and time outdoors. Specific variants could be categorized as showing evidence of: (a) early-onset effects remaining stable through childhood, (b) early-onset effects that progressed further with increasing age, or (c) onset later in childhood (N = 10, 5 and 11 variants, respectively). A genetic risk score (GRS) for all 39 variants explained 0.6% (P = 6.6E-08) and 2.3% (P = 6.9E-21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. Replication in multi-ancestry samples (combined N = 5599) yielded evidence of childhood onset for 6 of 12 variants present in both Asians and Europeans. There was no indication that variant or GRS effects altered depending on time outdoors, however 5 variants showed nominal evidence of interactions with nearwork (top variant, rs7829127 in ZMAT4; P = 6.3E-04).

  18. Position determination and measurement error analysis for the spherical proof mass with optical shadow sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    To meet the very demanding requirements for space gravity detection, the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as the key payload needs to offer the relative position of the proof mass with extraordinarily high precision and low disturbance. The position determination and error analysis for the GRS with a spherical proof mass is addressed. Firstly the concept of measuring the freely falling proof mass with optical shadow sensors is presented. Then, based on the optical signal model, the general formula for position determination is derived. Two types of measurement system are proposed, for which the analytical solution to the three-dimensional position can be attained. Thirdly, with the assumption of Gaussian beams, the error propagation models for the variation of spot size and optical power, the effect of beam divergence, the chattering of beam center, and the deviation of beam direction are given respectively. Finally, the numerical simulations taken into account of the model uncertainty of beam divergence, spherical edge and beam diffraction are carried out to validate the performance of the error propagation models. The results show that these models can be used to estimate the effect of error source with an acceptable accuracy which is better than 20%. Moreover, the simulation for the three-dimensional position determination with one of the proposed measurement system shows that the position error is just comparable to the error of the output of each sensor.

  19. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella–expression in larvae and adults

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William B.; Gonzalez, Francisco; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Witzgall, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire. We identified 58 ORs, 20 GRs and 21 IRs, and provide a revised nomenclature that is consistent with homologous sequences in related species. Importantly, we have identified several OR transcripts displaying sex-biased expression in adults, as well as larval-enriched transcripts. Our analyses have expanded annotations of the chemosensory receptor gene families, and provide first-time transcript abundance estimates for codling moth. The results presented here provide a strong foundation for future work on codling moth behavioral physiology and ecology at the molecular level, and may lead to the development of more precise biorational control strategies. PMID:27006164

  20. Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qiao; Guo, Xiaobo; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Williams, Katie M.; Yazar, Seyhan; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Howe, Laura D.; Pourcain, Beaté St; Evans, David M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; McMahon, George; Hysi, Pirro G.; Krapohl, Eva; Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B.; Baird, Paul Nigel; Wang, Jie Jin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Teo, Yik-Ying; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ding, Xiaohu; Wojciechowski, Robert; Young, Terri L.; Pärssinen, Olavi; Oexle, Konrad; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Plomin, Robert; Hammond, Christopher J.; Mackey, David A.; He, Mingguang; Saw, Seang-Mei; Williams, Cathy; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Meguro, Akira; Wright, Alan F.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Young, Alvin L.; Veluchamy, Amutha Barathi; Metspalu, Andres; Paterson, Andrew D.; Döring, Angela; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Klein, Barbara E.; Pourcain, Beate St; Fleck, Brian; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Hayward, Caroline; Williams, Cathy; Delcourt, Cécile; Pang, Chi Pui; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gieger, Christian; Hammond, Christopher J.; Simpson, Claire L.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Mackey, David A.; Evans, David M.; Stambolian, Dwight; Chew, Emily; Tai, E-Shyong; Krapohl, Eva; Mihailov, Evelin; Smith, George Davey; McMahon, George; Biino, Ginevra; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Seppälä, Ilkka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F.; Craig, Jamie E.; Tideman, J. Willem L.; Ried, Janina S.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Wang, Jie Jin; Liao, Jiemin; Zhao, Jing Hua; Xie, Jing; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Kemp, John P.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Jonas, Jost B.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Wedenoja, Juho; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Williams, Katie M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Yamashiro, Kenji; Oexle, Konrad; Howe, Laura D.; Chen, Li Jia; Xu, Liang; Farrer, Lindsay; Ikram, M. Kamran; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Schache, Maria; Pirastu, Mario; Miyake, Masahiro; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Fossarello, Maurizio; Kähönen, Mika; Tedja, Milly S.; He, Mingguang; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Martin, Nicholas G.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Wareham, Nick J.; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Pärssinen, Olavi; Raitakari, Olli; Polasek, Ozren; Tam, Pancy O.; Foster, Paul J.; Mitchell, Paul; Baird, Paul Nigel; Chen, Peng; Hysi, Pirro G.; Cumberland, Phillippa; Gharahkhani, Puya; Fan, Qiao; Höhn, René; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Luben, Robert N.; Igo Jr, Robert P.; Plomin, Robert; Wojciechowski, Robert; Klein, Ronald; Mohsen Hosseini, S.; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Saw, Seang-Mei; Yazar, Seyhan; Ping Yip, Shea; Feng, Sheng; Vaccargiu, Simona; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; MacGregor, Stuart; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Rantanen, Taina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Young, Terri L.; Meitinger, Thomas; Wong, Tien-Yin; Aung, Tin; Haller, Toomas; Vitart, Veronique; Nangia, Vinay; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Jhanji, Vishal; Zhao, Wanting; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Xiangtian; Guo, Xiaobo; Ding, Xiaohu; Wang, Ya Xing; Lu, Yi; Teo, Yik-Ying; Vatavuk, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 children assessed longitudinally across ages 7–15 years, along with gene-environment interactions involving the major environmental risk-factors, nearwork and time outdoors. Specific variants could be categorized as showing evidence of: (a) early-onset effects remaining stable through childhood, (b) early-onset effects that progressed further with increasing age, or (c) onset later in childhood (N = 10, 5 and 11 variants, respectively). A genetic risk score (GRS) for all 39 variants explained 0.6% (P = 6.6E–08) and 2.3% (P = 6.9E–21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. Replication in multi-ancestry samples (combined N = 5599) yielded evidence of childhood onset for 6 of 12 variants present in both Asians and Europeans. There was no indication that variant or GRS effects altered depending on time outdoors, however 5 variants showed nominal evidence of interactions with nearwork (top variant, rs7829127 in ZMAT4; P = 6.3E–04). PMID:27174397

  1. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes the recently completed Phase I of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Project FALSIRE). Project FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of Principal Working Group No. 3 (PWG/3) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency`s (NEA`s) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). Motivation for the project was derived from recognition by the CSNI-PWG/3 that inconsistencies were being revealed in predictive capabilities of a variety of fracture assessment methods, especially in ductile fracture applications. As a consequence, the CSNI/FAG was formed to evaluate fracture prediction capabilities currently used in safety assessments of nuclear components. Members are from laboratories and research organizations in Western Europe, Japan, and the United States of America (USA). On behalf of the CSNI/FAG, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen--und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Koeln, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had responsibility for organization arrangements related to Project FALSIRE. The group is chaired by H. Schulz from GRS, Koeln, FRG.

  2. The Lukewarm Absorber in the Microquasar Cir X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Galloway, D. K.; Brandt, W. N.

    2006-09-01

    Through many observations in the last decades the extreme and violent X-ray binary Cir X-1 has been classified as a microquasar, Z-source, X-ray burster, and accreting neutron star exhibiting ultrarelativistic jets. Since the launch of Chandra the source underwent a dramatic change from a high flux (1.5 Crab) source to a rather low persistent flux ( 30 mCrab) in the last year. Spectra from Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) taken during this transformation have revealed many details besides the large overall flux change ranging from blue-shifted absorption lines indicating high-velocity (< 2000 km/s) outflows during high flux, persistently bright lines emission throughout all phases to some form of warm absorption in the low flux phase. Newly released atomic data allows us to analyse specifically the Fe K line region with unprecedented detail for all flux phases observed so far. We also compare these new results with recently released findings of warm absorbers and outflow signatures observed in other microqasars such as GX 339+4, GRS J1655-40, and GRS1915+115.

  3. Infrared Spectroscopy of Black Hole Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, S. W. J.; Cotera, A. S.; Maloney, P. R.; Hollenbach, D. J.

    2000-05-01

    ISO LWS and SWS observations of the solar mass black hole candidates 1E1740.7-2942 and GRS1758-258 are presented. For 1E1740.7-2942, it has been suggested that the luminosity is provided in whole or part by Bondi-Hoyle accretion from a surrounding black hole (Bally & Leventhal 1991, Nat, 353, 234). Maloney etal. (1997, ApJ 482, L41) have predicted that detectable far-infrared line emission from [OI] (63 microns), [CII] (158 microns), [SiII] (35 microns) and other lines will arise from black holes which are embedded in molecular clouds. No strong line emission associated with either 1E1740.7-2942 or GRS1758-258 was detected, implying either that 1) these sources are not embedded in dense molecular clouds, or 2) that their average X-ray luminosity over the past 100 years is significantly lower than its current value. The measured upper limits to the line fluxes are compared with the models of Maloney etal. to constrain the properties of the ISM in the vicinity of these X-ray sources. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  4. Longitudinal relationships between glycemic status and body mass index in a multiethnic study: evidence from observational and genetic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Adeola F; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Engert, James C; Mohan, Viswanathan; Diaz, Rafael; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between glycemic status and BMI and its interaction with obesity single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a multi-ethnic longitudinal cohort at high-risk for dysglycemia. We studied 17 394 participants from six ethnicities followed-up for 3.3 years. Twenty-three obesity SNPs were genotyped and an unweighted genotype risk score (GRS) was calculated. Glycemic status was defined using an oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, sex and population stratification. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to dysglycemia transition was associated with baseline BMI and BMI change. Impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes transition was associated with baseline BMI but not BMI change. No simultaneous significant main genetic effects and interactions between SNPs/GRS and glycemic status or transition on BMI level and BMI change were observed. Our data suggests that the interplay between glycemic status and BMI trajectory may be independent of the effects of obesity genes. This implies that individuals with different glycemic statuses may be combined together in genetic association studies on obesity traits, if appropriate adjustments for glycemic status are performed. Implementation of population-wide weight management programs may be more beneficial towards individuals with NGT than those at a later disease stage. PMID:27480816

  5. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D B; Backeljauw, P; Bidlingmaier, M; Biller, B M K; Boguszewski, M; Burman, P; Butler, G; Chihara, K; Christiansen, J; Cianfarani, S; Clayton, P; Clemmons, D; Cohen, P; Darendeliler, F; Deal, C; Dunger, D; Erfurth, E M; Fuqua, J S; Grimberg, A; Haymond, M; Higham, C; Ho, K; Hoffman, A R; Hokken-Koelega, A; Johannsson, G; Juul, A; Kopchick, J; Lee, P; Pollak, M; Radovick, S; Robison, L; Rosenfeld, R; Ross, R J; Savendahl, L; Saenger, P; Toft Sorensen, H; Stochholm, K; Strasburger, C; Swerdlow, A; Thorner, M

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that ‘for approved indications, GH is safe’; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement. PMID:26563978

  6. A subdomain swap strategy for reengineering nonribosomal peptides.

    PubMed

    Kries, Hajo; Niquille, David L; Hilvert, Donald

    2015-05-21

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) protect microorganisms from environmental threats by producing diverse siderophores, antibiotics, and other peptide natural products. Their modular molecular structure is also attractive from the standpoint of biosynthetic engineering. Here we evaluate a methodology for swapping module specificities of these mega-enzymes that takes advantage of flavodoxin-like subdomains involved in substrate recognition. Nine subdomains encoding diverse specificities were transplanted into the Phe-specific GrsA initiation module of gramicidin S synthetase. All chimeras could be purified as soluble protein. One construct based on a Val-specific subdomain showed sizable adenylation activity and functioned as a Val-Pro diketopiperazine synthetase upon addition of the proline-specific GrsB1 module. These results suggest that subdomain swapping could be a viable alternative to previous NRPS design approaches targeting binding pockets, domains, or entire modules. The short length of the swapped sequence stretch may facilitate straightforward exploitation of the wealth of existing NRPS modules for combinatorial biosynthesis. PMID:26000750

  7. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Hägg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=−0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: −0.0035, −0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ∼6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  8. Recovery of consciousness and an injured ascending reticular activating system in a patient who survived cardiac arrest: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Hyun, Yi Ji; Lee, Han Do

    2016-06-01

    We report on a patient who survived cardiac arrest and showed recovery of consciousness and an injured ARAS at the early stage of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI- BI) for 3 weeks, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 52-year-old male patient who had suffered cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome was resuscitated immediately by a layman and paramedics for ∼25 minutes. He was then transferred immediately to the emergency room of a local medical center. When starting rehabilitation at 2 weeks after onset, his consciousness was impaired, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (GRS-R) score of 8. He underwent comprehensive rehabilitative therapy, including drugs for recovery of consciousness. He recovered well and rapidly so that his consciousness had recovered to full scores in terms of GCS:15 and GRS-R:23 at 5 weeks after onset.The left lower dorsal and right lower ventral ARAS had become thicker on 5-week DTT compared with 2-week DTT (Fig. 1B). Regarding the change of neural connectivity of the thalamic ILN, increased neural connectivity to the basal forebrain and prefrontal cortex was observed in both hemispheres on 5-week DTT compared with 2-week DTT.Recovery of an injured ARAS was demonstrated in a patient who survived cardiac arrest and his consciousness showed rapid and good recovery for 3 weeks at the early stage of HI-BI. PMID:27368033

  9. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=-0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: -0.0035, -0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ~6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  10. Uncertainty of modelled urban peak O3 concentrations and its sensitivity to input data perturbations based on the Monte Carlo analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.; Mazzeo, Nicolás A.

    2016-09-01

    A simple urban air quality model [MODelo de Dispersión Atmosférica Ubana - Generic Reaction Set (DAUMOD-GRS)] was recently developed. One-hour peak O3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA) during the summer estimated with the DAUMOD-GRS model have shown values lower than 20 ppb (the regional background concentration) in the urban area and levels greater than 40 ppb in its surroundings. Due to the lack of measurements outside the MABA, these relatively high ozone modelled concentrations constitute the only estimate for the area. In this work, a methodology based on the Monte Carlo analysis is implemented to evaluate the uncertainty in these modelled concentrations associated to possible errors of the model input data. Results show that the larger 1-h peak O3 levels in the MABA during the summer present larger uncertainties (up to 47 ppb). On the other hand, multiple linear regression analysis is applied at selected receptors in order to identify the variables explaining most of the obtained variance. Although their relative contributions vary spatially, the uncertainty of the regional background O3 concentration dominates at all the analysed receptors (34.4-97.6%), indicating that their estimations could be improved to enhance the ability of the model to simulate peak O3 concentrations in the MABA.

  11. Expression of a sugar clade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-03-01

    Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar clade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae. PMID:26721200

  12. Kinetics profiling of gramicidin S synthetase A, a member of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xun; Li, Hao; Alfermann, Jonas; Mootz, Henning D; Yang, Haw

    2014-12-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) incorporate assorted amino acid substrates into complex natural products. The substrate is activated via the formation of a reactive aminoacyl adenylate and is subsequently attached to the protein template via a thioester bond. The reactive nature of such intermediates, however, leads to side reactions that also break down the high-energy anhydride bond. The off-pathway kinetics or their relative weights compared to that of the on-pathway counterpart remains generally elusive. Here, we introduce multiplatform kinetics profiling to quantify the relative weights of on- and off-pathway reactions. Using the well-defined stoichiometry of thioester formation, we integrate a mass spectrometry (MS) kinetics assay, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay, and an ATP-pyrophosphate (PPi) exchange assay to map out a highly efficient on-pathway kinetics profile of the substrate activation and intermediate uploading (>98% relative weight) for wide-type gramicidin S synthetase A (GrsA) and a 87% rate profile for a cysteine-free GrsA mutant. Our kinetics profiling approach complements the existing enzyme-coupled byproduct-release assays, unraveling new mechanistic insights of substrate activation/channeling in NRPS enzymes.

  13. Identification of Putative Chemosensory Receptor Genes from the Athetis dissimilis Antennal Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Junfeng; Song, Yueqin; Li, Wenliang; Shi, Jie; Wang, Zhenying

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction plays a crucial role in insect population survival and reproduction. Identification of the genes associated with the olfactory system, without the doubt will promote studying the insect chemical communication system. In this study, RNA-seq technology was used to sequence the antennae transcriptome of Athetis dissimilis, an emerging crop pest in China with limited genomic information, with the purpose of identifying the gene set involved in olfactory recognition. Analysis of the transcriptome of female and male antennae generated 13.74 Gb clean reads in total from which 98,001 unigenes were assembled, and 25,930 unigenes were annotated. Total of 60 olfactory receptors (ORs), 18 gustatory receptors (GRs), and 12 ionotropic receptors (IRs) were identified by Blast and sequence similarity analyzes. One obligated olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco) and four conserved sex pheromone receptors (PRs) were annotated in 60 ORs. Among the putative GRs, five genes (AdisGR1, 6, 7, 8 and 94) clustered in the sugar receptor family, and two genes (AdisGR3 and 93) involved in CO2 detection were identified. Finally, AdisIR8a.1 and AdisIR8a.2 co-receptors were identified in the group of candidate IRs. Furthermore, expression levels of these chemosensory receptor genes in female and male antennae were analyzed by mapping the Illumina reads. PMID:26812239

  14. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Allen, D B; Backeljauw, P; Bidlingmaier, M; Biller, B M K; Boguszewski, M; Burman, P; Butler, G; Chihara, K; Christiansen, J; Cianfarani, S; Clayton, P; Clemmons, D; Cohen, P; Darendeliler, F; Deal, C; Dunger, D; Erfurth, E M; Fuqua, J S; Grimberg, A; Haymond, M; Higham, C; Ho, K; Hoffman, A R; Hokken-Koelega, A; Johannsson, G; Juul, A; Kopchick, J; Lee, P; Pollak, M; Radovick, S; Robison, L; Rosenfeld, R; Ross, R J; Savendahl, L; Saenger, P; Toft Sorensen, H; Stochholm, K; Strasburger, C; Swerdlow, A; Thorner, M

    2016-02-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement.

  15. Design of a Free and Open Source Data Processing, Archiving, and Distribution Subsystem for the Ground Receiving Station of the Philippine Scientific Earth Observation Micro-Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranas, R. K. D.; Jiao, B. J. D.; Magallon, B. J. P.; Ramos, M. K. F.; Amado, J. A.; Tamondong, A. M.; Tupas, M. E. A.

    2016-06-01

    The Philippines's PHL-Microsat program aims to launch its first earth observation satellite, DIWATA, on the first quarter of 2016. DIWATA's payload consists of a high-precision telescope (HPT), spaceborne multispectral imager (SMI) with liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), and a wide field camera (WFC). Once launched, it will provide information about the Philippines, both for disaster and environmental applications. Depending on the need, different remote sensing products will be generated from the microsatellite sensors. This necessitates data processing capability on the ground control segment. Rather than rely on commercial turnkey solutions, the PHL-Microsat team, specifically Project 3:DPAD, opted to design its own ground receiving station data subsystems. This paper describes the design of the data subsystems of the ground receiving station (GRS) for DIWATA. The data subsystems include: data processing subsystem for automatic calibration and georeferencing of raw images as well as the generation of higher level processed data products; data archiving subsystem for storage and backups of both raw and processed data products; and data distribution subsystem for providing a web-based interface and product download facility for the user community. The design covers the conceptual design of the abovementioned subsystems, the free and open source software (FOSS) packages used to implement them, and the challenges encountered in adapting the existing FOSS packages to DIWATA GRS requirements.

  16. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis

    2006-01-01

    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  17. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=-0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: -0.0035, -0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ~6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals.

  18. The selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34116 decreases immobility time in the forced swim test and affects cAMP-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Cornelius G; Bilang-Bleuel, Alicia; De Carli, Sonja; Linthorst, Astrid C E; Reul, Johannes M H M

    2005-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonists can block the retention of the immobility response in the forced swimming test. Recently, we showed that forced swimming evokes a distinct spatiotemporal pattern of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus (DG) and neocortex. In the present study, we found that chronic treatment of rats with the selective GR antagonist ORG 34116 decreased the immobility time in the forced swim test, increased baseline levels of phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) in the DG and neocortex and affected the forced swimming-induced changes in P-CREB levels in a time- and site-specific manner. Overall, we observed that, in control rats, forced swimming evoked increases in P-CREB levels in the DG and neocortex, whereas in ORG 34116-treated animals a major dephosphorylation of P-CREB was observed. These observations underscore an important role of GRs in the control of the phosphorylation state of CREB which seems to be of significance for the immobility response in the forced swim test and extend the molecular mechanism of action of GRs in the brain.

  19. Coronal geometry at low mass-accretion rates from XMM and NuSTAR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, F.; NuSTAR Binaries Team; NuSTAR AGN Team

    2016-06-01

    At very low Eddington luminosities the structure and physics of the accretion flow around a black hole are still debated, in particular in the inner most regions. By making sensitive measurements of the relativistic blurring of the X-ray reflection spectrum we investigate these physics, a task for which XMM-Newton, in combination with hard X-ray coverage provided by NuSTAR or Hitomi, is ideally suited and will continue to be unique for years to come. I will present results from XMM and NuSTAR observations of the radio-galaxy Cen A and of the X-ray binary GRS 1739-278 during the decline of its outburst. While Cen A shows a prominent iron line, the broad-band spectrum shows no evidence of reflection. This lack of reflection can best be explained by a jet origin of the hard X-rays or a significantly truncated accretion disk. The iron line can be self-consistently explained when assuming an optically thick torus surrounding the super-massive black-hole. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of GRS 1739-278 can be well described by a simple power-law or Comptonization continuum. A weak relativistic reflection model results in a small but significant improvement of the statistical quality of the fit. This relativistic model indicates a strongly truncated disk.

  20. Assessing chemistry schemes and constraints in air quality models used to predict ozone in London against the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Heard, Dwayne E; Hood, Christina; Stocker, Jenny; Carruthers, David; MacKenzie, Ian A; Doherty, Ruth M; Vieno, Massimo; Lee, James; Kleffmann, Jörg; Laufs, Sebastian; Whalley, Lisa K

    2016-07-18

    Air pollution is the environmental factor with the greatest impact on human health in Europe. Understanding the key processes driving air quality across the relevant spatial scales, especially during pollution exceedances and episodes, is essential to provide effective predictions for both policymakers and the public. It is particularly important for policy regulators to understand the drivers of local air quality that can be regulated by national policies versus the contribution from regional pollution transported from mainland Europe or elsewhere. One of the main objectives of the Coupled Urban and Regional processes: Effects on AIR quality (CUREAIR) project is to determine local and regional contributions to ozone events. A detailed zero-dimensional (0-D) box model run with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2) is used as the benchmark model against which the less explicit chemistry mechanisms of the Generic Reaction Set (GRS) and the Common Representative Intermediates (CRIv2-R5) schemes are evaluated. GRS and CRI are used by the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) and the regional chemistry transport model EMEP4UK, respectively. The MCM model uses a near-explicit chemical scheme for the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and is constrained to observations of VOCs, NOx, CO, HONO (nitrous acid), photolysis frequencies and meteorological parameters measured during the ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) campaign. The sensitivity of the less explicit chemistry schemes to different model inputs has been investigated: Constraining GRS to the total VOC observed during ClearfLo as opposed to VOC derived from ADMS-Urban dispersion calculations, including emissions and background concentrations, led to a significant increase (674% during winter) in modelled ozone. The inclusion of HONO chemistry in this mechanism, particularly during wintertime when other radical sources are limited, led to substantial increases in the ozone levels predicted

  1. Garnets in porphyry-skarn systems: A LA-ICP-MS, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of garnets from the Hongniu-Hongshan copper deposit, Zhongdian area, NW Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hui-juan; Zhang, Chang-qing; Mao, Jing-wen; Santosh, M.; Zhou, Yun-man; Hou, Lin

    2015-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Hongniu-Hongshan porphyry-skarn copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian area of northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Garnets from the deposit have compositions that range from Adr14Grs86 to almost pure andradite (Adr98Grs2) and display two different styles of zoning. The garnets are predominantly of magmatic-hydrothermal origin, as is evidenced by their 18Ofluid (5.4-6.9‰) and low Dfluid (-142‰ to -100‰) values, both of which likely result from late-stage magmatic open-system degassing. Three generations of garnet have been identified in this deposit: (1) Al-rich garnets (Grt I; Adr22-57Grs78-43) are anisotropic, have sector dodecahedral twinning, are slightly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) compared with the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs), have negative or negligible Eu anomalies, and contain high concentrations of F. Fluid inclusions within these Al-rich garnets generally have salinities of 12-39 wt.% NaCl eq. and have liquid-vapor homogenization temperatures (Th) of 272-331 °C. The Grt I are most likely associated with low- to medium-salinity fluids that were generated by the contraction of an ascending vapor phase and that formed during diffusive metasomatism caused by pore fluids equilibrating with the host rocks at low W/R (water/rock) ratios. These garnets formed as a result of the high F activity of the system, which increased the solubility of Al within the magmato-hydrothermal fluids in the system. (2) Fe-rich garnets (Adr75-98Grs25-2) have trapezohedral faces, and are both anisotropic with oscillatory zoning and isotropic. These second-generation Fe-rich garnets (Grt II) have high ΣREE concentrations, are LREE-enriched and HREE-depleted, and generally have positive but variable Eu anomalies. All of the Fe-rich garnets contain high-salinity fluid inclusions with multiple daughter minerals with salinities of 33-80 wt.% NaCl eq. Some of them show higher temperatures of halite dissolution (465-591 °C) than

  2. Assessing chemistry schemes and constraints in air quality models used to predict ozone in London against the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Tamsin L; Heard, Dwayne E; Hood, Christina; Stocker, Jenny; Carruthers, David; MacKenzie, Ian A; Doherty, Ruth M; Vieno, Massimo; Lee, James; Kleffmann, Jörg; Laufs, Sebastian; Whalley, Lisa K

    2016-07-18

    Air pollution is the environmental factor with the greatest impact on human health in Europe. Understanding the key processes driving air quality across the relevant spatial scales, especially during pollution exceedances and episodes, is essential to provide effective predictions for both policymakers and the public. It is particularly important for policy regulators to understand the drivers of local air quality that can be regulated by national policies versus the contribution from regional pollution transported from mainland Europe or elsewhere. One of the main objectives of the Coupled Urban and Regional processes: Effects on AIR quality (CUREAIR) project is to determine local and regional contributions to ozone events. A detailed zero-dimensional (0-D) box model run with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.2) is used as the benchmark model against which the less explicit chemistry mechanisms of the Generic Reaction Set (GRS) and the Common Representative Intermediates (CRIv2-R5) schemes are evaluated. GRS and CRI are used by the Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS-Urban) and the regional chemistry transport model EMEP4UK, respectively. The MCM model uses a near-explicit chemical scheme for the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and is constrained to observations of VOCs, NOx, CO, HONO (nitrous acid), photolysis frequencies and meteorological parameters measured during the ClearfLo (Clean Air for London) campaign. The sensitivity of the less explicit chemistry schemes to different model inputs has been investigated: Constraining GRS to the total VOC observed during ClearfLo as opposed to VOC derived from ADMS-Urban dispersion calculations, including emissions and background concentrations, led to a significant increase (674% during winter) in modelled ozone. The inclusion of HONO chemistry in this mechanism, particularly during wintertime when other radical sources are limited, led to substantial increases in the ozone levels predicted

  3. Orbital Normalization of MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. A.; Peplowski, P. N.; Evans, L. G.; Hamara, D. K.; Boynton, W. V.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    The MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) measures energy spectra of gamma rays emanating from the surface of Mercury. Analysis of these spectra provides elemental abundances of surface material. The MESSENGER mission necessarily provides some data normalization challenges for GRS analysis. So as to keep the spacecraft cool while orbiting the dayside of the planet, the orbits are highly eccentric, with altitudes varying from 200-500 km to ~ 15,000 km. A small fraction of time is spent at the low altitudes where gamma-ray signals are largest, requiring a large number of orbits to yield sufficient counting statistics for elemental analysis. Also, the sunshade must always shield the spacecraft from the Sun, which causes the orientation of the GRS often to be far from nadir-pointing, so the detector efficiency and attenuation of gamma rays from the planet must be known for a wide range of off-nadir orientations. An efficiency/attenuation map for the expected ranges of orientations and energies was constructed in a ground calibration experiment for a limited range of orientations using a nuclear reactor and radioisotope sources, and those results were extended to other orientations by radiation transport computations using as input a computer-aided design model of the spacecraft and its composition. This normalization has allowed abundance determinations of elements K, Th, and U from radioisotopes of these elements in the Mercury regolith during the first quarter of the year-long mission. These results provide constraints on models of Mercury's chemical and thermal evolution. The normalization of gamma-ray spectra for surface elements not having radioisotopes is considerably more complex; these gamma rays come from neutron inelastic-scatter and capture reactions in the regolith, where the neutrons are generated by cosmic ray impact onto the planet. A radiation transport computation was performed to generate the expected count rates in the neutron-generated gamma

  4. Inverse relationship between a genetic risk score of 31 BMI loci and weight change before and after reaching middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rukh, G; Ahmad, S; Ericson, U; Hindy, G; Stocks, T; Renström, F; Almgren, P; Nilsson, P M; Melander, O; Franks, P W; Orho-Melander, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: Genome-wide-association studies have identified numerous body mass index (BMI)-associated variants, but it is unclear how these relate to weight gain in adults at different ages. Methods: We examined the association of a genetic risk score (GRS), consisting of 31 BMI-associated variants, with an annual weight change (AWC) and a substantial weight gain (SWG) of 10% by comparing self-reported weight at 20 years (y) with baseline weight (mean: 58 y; s.d.: 8 y) in 21407 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), and comparing baseline weight to weight at follow-up (mean: 73 y; s.d.: 6 y) among 2673 participants. Association between GRS and AWG and SWG was replicated in 4327 GLACIER (Gene x Lifestyle interactions And Complex traits Involved in Elevated disease Risk) participants (mean: 45 y; s.d.: 7 y) with 10 y follow-up. Cohort-specific results were pooled by fixed-effect meta-analyses. Results: In MDCS, the GRS was associated with increased AWC (β: 0.003; s.e: 0.01; P: 7 × 10−8) and increased odds for SWG (odds ratio (OR) 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.02); P: 0.013) per risk-allele from age 20y, but unexpectedly with decreased AWC (β: −0.006; s.e: 0.002; P: 0.009) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98); P: 0.001) between baseline and follow-up. Effect estimates from age 20 y to baseline differed significantly from those from baseline to follow-up (P: 0.0002 for AWC and P: 0.0001 for SWG). Similar to MDCS, the GRS was associated with decreased odds for SWG OR 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.00); P: 0.029) from baseline to follow-up in GLACIER. In meta-analyses (n=7000), the GRS was associated with decreased AWC (β: −0.005; s.e.m. 0.002; P: 0.002) and decreased odds for SWG OR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96, 0.99); P: 0.001) per risk-allele. Conclusions: Our results provide convincing evidence for a paradoxical inversed relationship between a high number of BMI-associated risk-alleles and less

  5. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  6. Corticosterone, brain mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: the Lewis rat as an example of increased central MR capacity and a hyporesponsive HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Oitzl, M S; van Haarst, A D; Sutanto, W; de Kloet, E R

    1995-01-01

    In this study we report a series of differences in brain and peripheral elements regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis between male LEW and Wistar rats. We found: (i) differential properties of mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the brain (hippocampus, hypothalamus) and pituitary: LEW rats displayed an increased capacity of MRs in the hippocampus and hypothalamus and a decreased capacity of glucocorticoid receptors GRs in the pituitary. The binding affinity (Kd) for MRs and GRs in the hippocampus was comparable. (ii) Lower concentrations of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA were detected in the nucleus paraventricularis of the hypothalamus of LEW rats. (iii) Adrenal weight was similar in LEW and Wistar rats; however, LEW rats had about 30% less adrenocortical cells. Subjecting adrenocortical cells to increasing doses of ACTH1-24 in vitro resulted in about a 60% smaller release of corticosterone in LEW rats. (iv) LEW rats escaped dexamethasone suppression showing increased basal levels of endogenous ACTH, but responded with a comparable release of corticosterone to the IV injection of 5 ng ACTH1-24. (v) LEW rats responded to a variety of stimuli: adrenalectomy under ether anaesthesia, a novel environment, a tail nick and restraint or an immunological challenge, with lower circulating ACTH and corticosterone plasma levels than Wistar rats. (vi) Evening levels of ACTH and corticosterone were lower in LEW than Wistar rats but did not differ in the morning. Blockade of brain MRs in the evening by a central injection of the specific MR antagonist RU28318 in LEW rats resulted in increased circulating levels of ACTH and corticosterone. (vii) Levels of corticosteroid-binding proteins were lower in one-day adrenalectomized LEW rats, indicating higher levels of free corticosterone. (viii) LEW rats had a smaller thymus than Wistar rats. Taken together, the receptor binding data correspond to a decreased

  7. Genetic variants associated with lean and obese type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaomu; Xing, Xiaoyan; Hong, Jing; Zhang, Xuelian; Yang, Wenying

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is highly phenotypically heterogeneous. Genetics of the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D is not clear. The aim of the present study was to identify the associations of T2D-related genetic variants with the risks for lean and obese T2D among the Chinese Han population. A case-control study consisting of 5338 T2D patients and 4663 normal glycemic controls of Chinese Han recruited in the Chinese National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study was conducted. T2D cases were identified according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Lean T2D was defined as T2D patient with a body mass index (BMI) <23 kg/m, whereas obese T2D was defined as T2D patient with a BMI ≥28 kg/m. Twenty-five genome-wide association studies previously validated T2D-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. A genotype risk score (GRS) based on the 25 SNPs was created. After adjusting for multiple covariates, SNPs in or near CDKAL1, CDKN2BAS, KCNQ1, TCF7L2, CDC123/CAMK1D, HHEX, and TCF2 were associated with the risk for lean T2D, and SNPs in or near KCNQ1 and FTO were associated with the risk for obese T2D. The results showed that the GRS for 25 T2D-related SNPs was more strongly associated with the risk for lean T2D (Ptrend = 2.66 × 10) than for obese T2D (Ptrend = 2.91 × 10) in our study population. Notably, the T2D GRS contributed to lower obesity-related measurements and greater β-cell dysfunction, including lower insulin levels in oral glucose tolerance test, decreased insulinogenic index, and Homeostasis Model Assessment for β-cell Function. In conclusion, our findings identified T2D-related genetic loci that contribute to the risk of lean and obese T2D individually and additively in a Chinese Han population. Moreover, the study highlights the contribution of known T2D genomic loci to the heterogeneity of lean and obese T2D in Chinese Hans. PMID:27281091

  8. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and genetic predisposition to obesity in 2 Swedish cohorts12

    PubMed Central

    Brunkwall, Louise; Chen, Yan; Hindy, George; Rukh, Gull; Ericson, Ulrika; Barroso, Inês; Johansson, Ingegerd; Franks, Paul W; Orho-Melander, Marju; Renström, Frida

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which has increased substantially during the last decades, has been associated with obesity and weight gain. Objective: Common genetic susceptibility to obesity has been shown to modify the association between SSB intake and obesity risk in 3 prospective cohorts from the United States. We aimed to replicate these findings in 2 large Swedish cohorts. Design: Data were available for 21,824 healthy participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study and 4902 healthy participants from the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Complex Traits Involved in Elevated Disease Risk Study. Self-reported SSB intake was categorized into 4 levels (seldom, low, medium, and high). Unweighted and weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) were constructed based on 30 body mass index [(BMI) in kg/m2]-associated loci, and effect modification was assessed in linear regression equations by modeling the product and marginal effects of the GRS and SSB intake adjusted for age-, sex-, and cohort-specific covariates, with BMI as the outcome. In a secondary analysis, models were additionally adjusted for putative confounders (total energy intake, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and physical activity). Results: In an inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis, each SSB intake category increment was associated with a 0.18 higher BMI (SE = 0.02; P = 1.7 × 10−20; n = 26,726). In the fully adjusted model, a nominal significant interaction between SSB intake category and the unweighted GRS was observed (P-interaction = 0.03). Comparing the participants within the top and bottom quartiles of the GRS to each increment in SSB intake was associated with 0.24 (SE = 0.04; P = 2.9 × 10−8; n = 6766) and 0.15 (SE = 0.04; P = 1.3 × 10−4; n = 6835) higher BMIs, respectively. Conclusions: The interaction observed in the Swedish cohorts is similar in magnitude to the previous analysis in US cohorts and indicates that the relation of SSB

  9. Heart rate, anxiety and performance of residents during a simulated critical clinical encounter: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-fidelity patient simulation has been praised for its ability to recreate lifelike training conditions. The degree to which high fidelity simulation elicits acute emotional and physiologic stress among participants – and the influence of acute stress on clinical performance in the simulation setting – remain areas of active exploration. We examined the relationship between residents’ self-reported anxiety and a proxy of physiologic stress (heart rate) as well as their clinical performance in a simulation exam using a validated assessment of non-technical skills, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study of emergency medicine residents at a single academic center. Participants managed a simulated clinical encounter. Anxiety was assessed using a pre- and post-simulation survey, and continuous cardiac monitoring was performed on each participant during the scenario. Performance in the simulation scenario was graded by faculty raters using a critical actions checklist and the Ottawa GRS instrument. Results Data collection occurred during the 2011 academic year. Of 40 eligible residents, 34 were included in the analysis. The median baseline heart rate for participants was 70 beats per minute (IQR: 62 – 78). During the simulation, the median maximum heart rate was 140 beats per minute (IQR: 137 – 151). The median minimum heart rate during simulation was 81 beats per minute (IQR: 72 – 92), and mean heart rate was 117 beats per minute (95% CI: 111 – 123). Pre- and post-simulation anxiety scores were equal (mean 3.3, IQR: 3 to 4). The minimum and maximum Overall Ottawa GRS scores were 2.33 and 6.67, respectively. The median Overall score was 5.63 (IQR: 5.0 to 6.0). Of the candidate predictors of Overall performance in a multivariate logistic regression model, only PGY status showed statistical significance (P = 0.02). Conclusions Simulation is associated

  10. Jupiter - Solid or Gaseous? Ask Juno

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, J. A., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Data from Cassini, Galileo, S-L 9 and Ulysses suggest Jupiter and Saturn are solid, frozen, Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) planets. The bulk of these giants formed slow and cold by the natural accretion of snowflakes at their current orbital radii in the presence of methane, forming rigid incompressible bodies. MGH, (CH4)8(H2O)46 (d=0.9), is consistent with the abundances of the elements comprising the Earth (H>O>C). Their combined MGH comprises >250 earth-masses of H2O. Jupiter (d=1.33) incorporated most of the heavy elements in the nascent solar system, exemplified by an enormously enhanced D/H. The temperature excess of Jupiter's atmosphere is the result of an impact ~6,000 years BP, triggering an incredibly energetic fusion explosion which ejected the masses of the proto-Galilean moons. It also initiated a continuing fusion furnace in the crater producing a jet of hot gases extending >2x106 km, beyond Callisto. The jet has slowly diminished over 6,000 years, resulting in the differences in the four Galilean Moons. The mass ejection (ang. mom.) slowed Jupiter's rotation until ~1930, currently interpreted as a drift of the Great Red Spot. A diminishing fusion reaction (D + p → 3He + γ) continues to this day, producing Jupiter's atmospheric 'temperature excess'. Jupiter's rapid rotation deflects the rising vortex of hot gases from the fusion reaction horizontally, driving multiple zonal vortices, constrained by the frozen MGH surface <1000 km below the cloud tops. It appears as the tilted Great Red Spot (GRS), ~30,000 km to the west of the crater at 22 o S Lat., which has remained unchanged in the last 350 years - impossible due to the enormous Coliolis effect. Streams of 3He produced in the fusion reaction exiting Jupiter through the center of the GRS have been detected by the Galileo probe and orbiter, Ulysses, and Cassini. The fusion releases methane, also heavy elements which oxidize as they rise, producing the cloud-top colors. The MGH hypothesis explains the

  11. Cycle-Powered Short Radius (1.9 m) Centrifuge: Effect of Exercise Versus Passive Acceleration on Heart Rate in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Gundo, D. P.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Mulenburg, G. M.; Mckenzie, M. A.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to extensive use of lower extremity physical exercise training as a countermeasure for the work capacity component of spaceflight deconditioning, some form of additional head-to-foot (+Gz) gravitational (orthostatic) stress may be required to further attenuate or prevent the signs and symptoms (nausea, vertigo, instability, fatigue) of the general reentry syndrome (GRS) that can reduce astronaut performance during landing. Orthostatic (head-to-foot) stress can be induced by standing, by lower body negative pressure, and by +Gz acceleration. One important question is whether acceleration training alone or with concurrent leg exercise would provide sufficient additive stimulation to attenuate the GRS. Use of a new human-powered centrifuge may be the answer. Thus, the purpose for this study was to compare heart rate (HR), i.e., a stress response during human-powered acceleration, in four men (35-62 yr) and two women (30-31 yr) during exercise acceleration versus passive acceleration (by an off-board operator) at 100% (maximal acceleration = A(max)), and at 25%, 50%, and 75% of A(max). Mean (+/-SE) A(max) was 43.7 +/- 1.3 rpm (+3.9 +/- 0.2Gz). Mean HR at exercise A(max) was 189 +/- 13 b/min (50-70 sec run time), and 142 +/- 22 b/min at passive A(max) (40-70 sec run time). Regression of mean HR on the various +Gz levels indicated explained variance (correlations squared) of r(exp 2) = 0.88 (exercise) and r(exp 2) = 0.96 (passive): exercise HR of 107 +/- 4 (25%) to 189 +/- 13 (100%) b/min were 43-50 b/min higher (p less than 0.05) than comparable passive HR of 64 +/- 2 to 142 +/- 22 b/min. Thus, exercise adds significant physiological stress during +Gz acceleration. Inflight use of this combined exercise and acceleration countermeasure may maintain work capacity as well as normalize acceleration and orthostatic tolerances which could attenuate or perhaps eliminate the GRS.

  12. Pseudo-first-order reaction of chemically and biologically formed green rusts with HgII and C₁₅H₁₅N₃O₂: effects of pH and stabilizing agents (phosphate, silicate, polyacrylic acid, and bacterial cells).

    PubMed

    Remy, P-Ph; Etique, M; Hazotte, A A; Sergent, A-S; Estrade, N; Cloquet, C; Hanna, K; Jorand, F P A

    2015-03-01

    The kinetics of Hg(II) and methyl red (MR) reduction by hydroxycarbonate green rust (GR1) and by hydroxysulfate green rust (GR2) were studied in the presence of naturally occurring organic and inorganic ligands (phosphate, polyacrylic acid, bacterial cells, silicate). The reducing ability of biogenic hydroxycarbonate green rust (GR1bio), obtained after microbial reduction of lepidocrocite by Shewanella putrefaciens, was also investigated and compared to those of chemically synthesized GR1 and GR2 (GR1ab and GR2ab). Pseudo first-order rate constants (kobs) of Hg(II) reduction (at pH 7.0, 8.2, and 9.5) and MR reduction (at pH 7.0) were determined and were normalized to the structural Fe(II) content of GRs (kFeII) and to the estimated concentration of surface Fe(II) sites (kS). The kS values ranged from 0.3 L mmol(-1) min(-1) to 43 L mmol(-1) min(-1) for the Hg reduction, and from 0