Science.gov

Sample records for cigarette burley tobacco

  1. Novel approach for selective reduction of NNN in cigarette tobacco filler and mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Lusso, M; Gunduz, I; Kondylis, A; Jaccard, G; Ruffieux, L; Gadani, F; Lion, K; Adams, A; Morris, W; Danielson, T; Warek, U; Strickland, J

    2017-10-01

    Research conducted during past decades to reduce the level of the tobacco specific nitrosamine N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and its precursor nornicotine in tobacco yielded identification of three tobacco genes encoding for cytochrome P450 nicotine demethylases converting nicotine to nornicotine. We carried out trials to investigate the effect of using tobaccos containing three non-functional nicotine demethylase genes on the selective reduction of NNN in cigarette tobacco filler and mainstream smoke. Our results indicate that the presence of non-functional alleles of the three genes reduces the level of nornicotine and NNN in Burley tobacco by 70% compared to the level observed in currently available low converter (LC) Burley tobacco varieties. The new technology, named ZYVERT™, does not require a regular screening process, while a yearly selection process is needed to produce LC Burley tobacco seeds for NNN reduction. The reduction of NNN observed in smoke of blended prototype cigarettes is proportional to the inclusion level of tobacco having ZYVERT™ technology. Inclusion of Burley tobacco possessing the new trait into a typical American blend resulted in a selective reduction of NNN in cigarette smoke, while the levels of other Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHC) currently in the abbreviated list provided by the US Food and Drug Administration are statistically equivalent in comparison with the levels obtained in reference prototype cigarettes containing LC Burley. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... conclude and no additional tobacco shall be graded beyond that point. (4) Each warehouse operator shall... particular bale, in a lot of tobacco, chosen by a grader for inspection and reseal that bale after inspection. (7) Each seller, by offering burley tobacco for sale, certifies that the lot inspected by a grader...

  3. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conclude and no additional tobacco shall be graded beyond that point. (4) Each warehouse operator shall... particular bale, in a lot of tobacco, chosen by a grader for inspection and reseal that bale after inspection. (7) Each seller, by offering burley tobacco for sale, certifies that the lot inspected by a grader...

  4. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conclude and no additional tobacco shall be graded beyond that point. (4) Each warehouse operator shall... particular bale, in a lot of tobacco, chosen by a grader for inspection and reseal that bale after inspection. (7) Each seller, by offering burley tobacco for sale, certifies that the lot inspected by a grader...

  5. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... conclude and no additional tobacco shall be graded beyond that point. (4) Each warehouse operator shall... particular bale, in a lot of tobacco, chosen by a grader for inspection and reseal that bale after inspection. (7) Each seller, by offering burley tobacco for sale, certifies that the lot inspected by a grader...

  6. 7 CFR 29.75a - Display of burley tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conclude and no additional tobacco shall be graded beyond that point. (4) Each warehouse operator shall... particular bale, in a lot of tobacco, chosen by a grader for inspection and reseal that bale after inspection. (7) Each seller, by offering burley tobacco for sale, certifies that the lot inspected by a grader...

  7. Determination of free amino acids in burley tobacco by high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Yanqiu; Zhang, Baolin; Yuan, Xiuxiu; Gao, Yuzhen; Lu, Ping; Wang, Weifeng; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determining free amino acids in burley tobacco. The test was done by OPA/3-mercaptopropionic acid as the pre-column derivatizing reagent. Chromatographic column was Elitte C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm i.d., 5 μm). Mobile phase A was 18 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2) including 0.002%(v/v) triethylamine and 0.3%(v/v) furanidine. Mobile phase B was 100 mol/l NaAc (pH7.2)–acetonitrile–methanol (v/v = 1:2:2). The column temperature was 40 °C and the flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The fluorescence detector was used with 350 nm excitation wave length and 450 nm emission wave length. The average recoveries of the method ranged from 95.3–100.7% with the relative standard deviation of 2.32–9.24%. The method is simple, accurate and has good repeatability. The results of the determination of seventeen kinds of free amino acids in burley leaves were produced by the way of different ratios of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The results show that Aspartic acid has the highest content however ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The contents of most of the free amino acids are increased and then gradually decreased with the increase in organic manure. The contents of most of the free amino acids are very close at 15:85% ratio and 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. The total amount of free amino acids is the highest at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. Considering comprehensively, the quality of burley leaves is the best at 30:70% ratio of cake fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer. PMID:26858568

  8. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR-Based Strategy for Molecular Evaluation of Nicotine Conversion in Burley Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Xue, Sheng-Ling; Zhang, Fen; Luo, Zhao-Peng; Wu, Ming-Zhu; Chen, Qing; Tang, Hao-Ru; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Nornicotine production in Nicotiana tabacum is undesirable because it is the precursor of the carcinogen N′-nitrosonornicotine. In some individual burley tobacco plants, a large proportion of the nicotine can be converted to nornicotine, and this process of nicotine conversion is mediated primarily by enzymatic N-demethylation of nicotine which is controlled mainly by CYP82E4. Here we report a novel strategy based on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method, which analyzed the ratio of nicotine conversion through examining the transcript level of CYP82E4 in burley leaves and do not need ethylene induction before detected. The assay was linear in a range from 1 × 101 to 1 × 105 copies/mL of serially diluted standards, and also showed high specificity and reproducibility (93%–99%). To assess its applicability, 55 plants of burley cultivar Ky8959 at leaf maturing stage were analyzed, and the results were in accordance with those from gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Moreover, a linear correlation existed between conversion level and CYP82E4 transcript abundance. Taken together, the quantitative real-time PCR assay is standardized, rapid and reproducible for estimation of nicotine conversion level in vivo, which is expected to shed new light on monitoring of burley tobacco converter. PMID:26593897

  9. Respiratory effects of non-tobacco cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, J W; Kaltenborn, W T; Paoletti, P; Camilli, A; Lebowitz, M D

    1987-01-01

    Data from the Tucson epidemiological study of airways obstructive disease on smoking of non-tobacco cigarettes such as marijuana were analysed to determine the effect of such smoking on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function. Among adults aged under 40, 14% had smoked non-tobacco cigarettes at some time and 9% were current users. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was increased in smokers of non-tobacco cigarettes. After tobacco smoking had been controlled for men who smoked non-tobacco cigarettes showed significant decreases in expiratory flow rates at low lung volumes and in the ratio of the forced expiratory volume in one second to the vital capacity. This effect on pulmonary function in male non-tobacco cigarette smokers was greater than the effect of tobacco cigarette smoking. These data suggest that non-tobacco cigarette smoking may be an important risk factor in young adults with respiratory symptoms or evidence of airways obstruction. PMID:3122882

  10. What Are Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarette Products?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Street names: Chew, Dip, Snuff Print Expand All Revised July 2017 What are tobacco, nicotine, and e-cigarette products? Also known as: Cigarettes: ...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3005 - Burley, Type 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burley, Type 31. 29.3005 Section 29.3005 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3005 Burley, Type 31. That type of air-cured tobacco, commonly known as Burley, produced principally in...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3005 - Burley, Type 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burley, Type 31. 29.3005 Section 29.3005 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3005 Burley, Type 31. That type of air-cured tobacco, commonly known as Burley, produced principally in...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3006 - Burley, Type 93.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burley, Type 93. 29.3006 Section 29.3006 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3006 Burley, Type 93. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Foreign-grown Burley, produced in...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3006 - Burley, Type 93.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burley, Type 93. 29.3006 Section 29.3006 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3006 Burley, Type 93. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Foreign-grown Burley, produced in...

  15. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    PubMed

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  16. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-07

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

  18. Radiation Dose from Cigarette Tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv y-1 (average 79.7 μSv y-1), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv y-1 (average 67.1 μSv y-1) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv y-1 (average 104.7 μSv y-1), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv y-1 (average 251.5 μSv y-1). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y-1 (average 199.3 nSv y-1).

  19. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  20. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  1. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  2. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  3. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  4. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  5. Tobacco, e-cigarettes, and child health.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa A; Hecht, Stephen S

    2017-04-01

    The availability of the Children's Health Exposure Assessment Resource funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences provides new opportunities for exploring the role of tobacco smoke exposure in causing harm to children. Children of smokers are exposed to nicotine and other harmful tobacco smoke chemicals in utero as well as in their environment. This passive exposure to tobacco smoke has a variety of negative effects on children. In-utero exposure to tobacco smoke causes poor birth outcomes and influences lung, cardiovascular, and brain development, placing children at increased risk of a number of adverse health outcomes later in life, such as obesity, behavioral problems, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, most smokers start in their adolescence, an age of increased nicotine addiction risk. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure helps clarify the role tobacco chemicals play in influencing health both in childhood and beyond. Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) appear to be a nicotine delivery device of reduced harm, it appears to be a gateway to the use of combustible cigarette smoking in adolescents. Pediatric researchers interested in elucidating the role of tobacco smoke exposure in adverse outcomes in children should incorporate biomarkers of tobacco exposure in their studies.

  6. Shallow ground-water quality adjacent to burley tobacco fields in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia, spring 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.C.; Connell, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey began an assessment of the upper Tennessee River Basin as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. A ground-water land-use study conducted in 1996 focused on areas with burley tobacco production in northeastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia. Land-use studies are designed to focus on specific land uses and to examine natural and human factors that affect the quality of shallow ground water underlying specific types of land use. Thirty wells were drilled in shallow regolith adjacent to and downgradient of tobacco fields in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of the upper Tennessee River Basin. Ground-water samples were collected between June 4 and July 9, 1997, to coincide with the application of the majority of pesticides and fertilizers used in tobacco production. Ground-water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, 79 pesticides, 7 pesticide degradation products, 86 volatile organic compounds, and dissolved organic carbon. Nutrient concentrations were lower than the levels found in similar NAWQA studies across the United States during 1993-95. Five of 30 upper Tennessee River Basin wells (16.7 percent) had nitrate levels exceeding 10 mg/L while 19 percent of agricultural land-use wells nationally and 7.9 percent in the Southeast had nitrate concentrations exceeding 10 mg/L. Median nutrient concentrations were equal to or less than national median concentrations. All pesticide concentrations in the basin were less than established drinking water standards, and pesticides were detected less frequently than average for other NAWQA study units. Atrazine was detected at 8 of 30 (27 percent) of the wells, and deethylatrazine (an atrazine degradation product) was found in 9 (30 percent) of the wells. Metalaxyl was found in 17 percent of the wells, and prometon, flumetralin, dimethomorph, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, and silvex were detected once each (3 percent). Volatile organic compounds

  7. Behavioral economic substitutability of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew W; Johnson, Patrick S; Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R

    2017-07-01

    The public health impact of e-cigarettes may depend on their substitutability for tobacco cigarettes. Dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes completed purchasing tasks in which they specified daily use levels under hypothetical conditions that varied the availability and price of e-cigarettes, tobacco cigarettes, and nicotine gum (for those with nicotine gum experience). When either e-cigarettes or tobacco cigarettes were the only available commodity, as price per puff increased, purchasing decreased, revealing similar reinforcement profiles. When available concurrently, as the price of tobacco puffs increased, purchasing of tobacco puffs decreased while purchasing of fixed-price e-cigarette puffs increased. Among those with nicotine gum experience, when the price of tobacco puffs was closest to the actual market value of tobacco puffs, e-cigarette availability decreased median tobacco puff purchases by 44% compared to when tobacco was available alone. In contrast, nicotine gum availability caused no decrease in tobacco puff purchases. E-cigarettes may serve as a behavioral economic substitute for tobacco cigarettes, and may be a superior substitute compared to nicotine gum in their ability to decrease tobacco use. Although important questions remain regarding the health impacts of e-cigarettes, these data are consistent with the possibility that e-cigarettes may serve as smoking cessation/reduction aids.

  8. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  9. Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines NNN and NNK levels in cigarette brands between 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, I; Kondylis, A; Jaccard, G; Renaud, J-M; Hofer, R; Ruffieux, L; Gadani, F

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of the levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke is investigated based on smoke and tobacco chemistry data of cigarette brands sold by Philip Morris International (PMI) between 2000 and 2014. A total of 315 cigarette samples representing a wide range of product and design characteristics manufactured by PMI between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed and compared to a previously published dataset of PMI brands manufactured in 2000. The data indicate that there is a substantial reduction of NNN and NNK levels in tobacco fillers and MS cigarette smoke per mg of tar and per mg of nicotine using Health Canada Intense (HCI) machine-smoking regime. This observed reduction in NNN and NNK levels in MS cigarette smoke is also supported by the downward trend observed on NNN and NNK levels in USA flue-cured Virginia and Burley tobacco lots from 2000 to 2014 crops, reflecting effectiveness of measures taken on curing and agricultural practices designed to minimize TSNA formation in tobacco. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of the Flavored Cigarette Ban on Adolescent Tobacco Use.

    PubMed

    Courtemanche, Charles J; Palmer, Makayla K; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    This paper estimated the association between the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2009 ban on flavored cigarettes (which did not apply to menthol cigarettes or tobacco products besides cigarettes) and adolescents' tobacco use. Regression modeling was used to evaluate tobacco use before and after the ban. The analyses controlled for a quadratic time trend, demographic variables, prices of cigarettes and other tobacco products, and teenage unemployment rate. Data from the 1999-2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys were collected and analyzed in 2016. The sample included 197,834 middle and high schoolers. Outcomes were past 30-day cigarette use; cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days among smokers; rate of menthol cigarette use among smokers; and past 30-day use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipes, any tobacco products besides cigarettes, and any tobacco products including cigarettes. Banning flavored cigarettes was associated with reductions in the probability of being a cigarette smoker (17%, p<0.001) and cigarettes smoked by smokers (58%, p=0.005). However, the ban was positively associated with the use by smokers of menthol cigarettes (45%, p<0.001), cigars (34%, p<0.001), and pipes (55%, p<0.001), implying substitution toward the remaining legal flavored tobacco products. Despite increases in some forms of tobacco, overall there was a 6% (p<0.001) reduction in the probability of using any tobacco. The results suggest the 2009 flavored cigarette ban did achieve its objective of reducing adolescent tobacco use, but effects were likely diminished by the continued availability of menthol cigarettes and other flavored tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products.

  12. Constituents in tobacco and smoke emissions from Canadian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D; O'Connor, R J

    2008-09-01

    There is relatively little information available about the chemical constituents of tobacco and individual toxic emissions from cigarettes and other tobacco products. To characterise 21 constituents in whole tobacco and 41 constituents in the smoke emissions of Canadian cigarettes, as well as to compare differences between domestic and imported brands. All data were released as part of Canada's Tobacco Reporting Regulations. Data are reported for 247 brands tested in 2004. The results indicate significant differences in the constituent levels of domestic and imported cigarette tobacco. Levels of ammonia compounds were significantly higher in imported "US blended" tobacco compared to domestically manufactured brands. Toxic emissions for tobacco-specific nitrosamines were significantly higher for imported cigarettes under both the ISO and Canadian Intense testing methods; however domestic cigarettes had higher levels of other toxic constituents, including benzo[a]pyrene. The findings also highlight the extent to which nicotine, heavy metals and tobacco-specific nitrosamines are "transferred" from the whole tobacco to the smoke. The findings illustrate important differences between domestically manufactured Virginia flue-cured cigarettes and imported US blended cigarettes. Although the findings suggest that domestic cigarettes had lower levels of constituents such as ammonia, which are associated with increased "additives", Canadian cigarettes were by no means "additive-free." Overall, these findings provide important benchmarks for making historical and international comparisons across brands on key constituents.

  13. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  14. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  15. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  16. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  17. Adolescent cigarette smokers' and non-cigarette smokers' use of alternative tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Charles; Geletko, Karen

    2012-08-01

    This study uses the most recent data from the nationally representative National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to examine the use of alternative tobacco products among U.S. cigarette smokers and non-cigarette smokers aged 14-17. Alternative tobacco product use is defined as use of one or more of the following products: smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipes, bidis, or kreteks. Using the results from the 2004, 2006, and 2009 NYTS, multivariate logistic regressions were used to investigate separately the extent of alternative tobacco product use in current cigarette smokers and in those who reported not smoking cigarettes controlling for demographic and other independent influences. The results indicate that for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers, the use of one type of alternative tobacco product made it much more likely the individual would use one or more of the other alternative tobacco products. Non-cigarette smokers using these tobacco products appeared to exhibit symptoms of nicotine dependence comparable to those of cigarette smokers. More information on adolescent use of alternative tobacco products is needed. Current cigarette use declined 3.4% annually over 2004-2009 for the NYTS 14- to 17-year-old population, but this cohort's use of alternative tobacco products was unchanged. The number of adolescents aged 14-17 who did not smoke cigarettes but used alternative tobacco products increased 5.9% per year over the same period. Current surveillance measures need to be expanded in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of adolescent alternative tobacco use.

  18. 210Po concentration analysis on tobacco and cigarettes in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco or better known as the cigarette was smoked since ages. Although many efforts had been made by the Ministry of Health to prevent or reduce the cigarette problem, the smokers still consider that cigarette are not harmful to health. This work is conducted to study the concentration of radionuclides alpha in tobacco and tobacco products in Malaysia. The radionuclide sought in this study is 210Po which is an alpha emitter. The sample used are tobacco and cigarettes, the tobacco samples were taken from tobacco farms in Malaysia while the sample branded cigarettes Marlboro and Gudang Garam were bought in the supermarket. The objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of radionuclides 210Po in tobacco and tobacco products as well as to estimate the radioactivity doses contributing to the smokers in Malaysia. The results for Marlboro cigarettes and Gudang Garam were found to be on the average radionuclide concentration of 210Po is 13.3 mBq/g (Marlboro cigarettes) and 11.9 mBq/g (Gudang Garam). From the total concentration of the cigarette, the estimated annual contribution dose to smokers for every 20 cigarettes smoked per day are 111.9 ± 14.7 μSv/year for Marlboro cigarettes and 100.2 ± 3.3 μSv/year for Gudang Garam cigarettes. The average concentration of radionuclides for tobacco leaf tobacco for each area taken is 3.6 mBq / g for Bachok, 2.4 mBq / g for Tumpat and 3.1 mBq / g for Semerak district.

  19. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (<=3 months) users of gums or e-cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385

  20. Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes: "not medicine but less harmful"?

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiyin; Glantz, Stanton; Tong, Elisa

    2007-04-01

    To describe the development and health claims of Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes. Analysis of international news sources, company websites, and the transnational tobacco companies' (TTC) documents. PubMed searches of herbs and brands. Twenty-three brands were identified, mainly from China. Many products claimed to relieve respiratory symptoms and reduce toxins, with four herb-only products advertised for smoking cessation. No literature was found to verify the health claims, except one Korean trial of an herb-only product. Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes were initially produced by China by the 1970s and introduced to Japan in the 1980s. Despite initial news about research demonstrating a safer cigarette, the TTC analyses of these cigarettes suggest that these early products were not palatable and had potentially toxic cardiovascular effects. By the late 1990s, China began producing more herbal-tobacco cigarettes in a renewed effort to reduce harmful constituents in cigarettes. After 2000, tobacco companies from Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand began producing similar products. Tobacco control groups in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand voiced concern over the health claims of herbal-tobacco products. In 2005, China designated two herbal-tobacco brands as key for development. Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes claim to reduce harm, but no published literature is available to verify these claims or investigate unidentified toxicities. The increase in Asian herbal-tobacco cigarette production by 2000 coincides with the Asian tobacco companies' regular scientific meetings with TTCs and their interest in harm reduction. Asia faces additional challenges in tobacco control with these culturally concordant products that may discourage smokers from quitting.

  1. Exercise and Fitness: Association with Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Terry L.; Cronan, Terry A.

    This study examined the relationships among physical fitness, exercise activity, and both cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among 2,800 United States Navy men. Subgrouping individuals according to their self-reported use of tobacco resulted in maximum sample sizes of 1,406 nonusers, 161 smokeless tobacco users, and 1,233 cigarette…

  2. Dual Use of Smokeless Tobacco or E-cigarettes with Cigarettes and Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Grana, Rachel A.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate predictors of dual use of cigarettes with smokeless tobacco or e-cigarettes. Methods Adult smokers (N = 1324) completed online cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression evaluated predictors of dual use and cigarette quit attempts. Results Smokeless tobacco dual use was associated with past attempts to quit smoking by switching to smokeless products. E-cigarette dual use was associated with using stop-smoking medication and strong anti-tobacco industry attitudes. Ever use of stop-smoking medication was associated with quit attempts among dual e-cigarette users and cigarette-only users. Conclusions Dual users are more likely than cigarette-only users to endorse certain cessation-related attitudes and behaviors. This may provide an opportunity for clinicians or others to discuss evidence-based strategies for smoking cessation. PMID:25564840

  3. [Cigarette prices, tobacco taxes and the proportion of contraband cigarettes in Germany].

    PubMed

    Effertz, T; Schlittgen, R

    2013-06-01

    Taxes on tobacco products are among the most efficient instruments against tobacco consumption and the arising cost of illness associated with them. The main argument of the tobacco industry against increases of excise taxes on cigarettes is a presumed substitution effect of smokers turning from consumption of legal cigarettes to smuggled ones. Besides deriving this proposition from the tobacco industry's own funded research, it has never been tested empirically. This article analyses the interdependence between contraband cigarettes and cigarette prices in Germany. Using VAR-modelling on the time-series of the variables of interest, we find no empirically valid correlation or causation between prices and untaxed contraband cigarettes. Furthermore, we find a positive relationship between contraband and legal taxed cigarettes, i. e., when the demand for legal cigarettes decreased in amount, so did the quantity of untaxed cigarettes. We conclude that the proposed relationship between prices and smuggled cigarettes as well as an overall substitution effect among smokers is non-existent. This has important implications for public health policy. The proposition that higher taxes on tobacco products incur social costs from increased smuggling activity cannot be corroborated empirically. Furthermore, this finding should encourage public health policy to keep using tobacco taxes as an instrument for prevention.

  4. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Claims Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Withdrawn from the Market § 41.174 Disposition of tobacco products and...

  5. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Claims Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Withdrawn from the Market § 41.174 Disposition of tobacco products and...

  6. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Claims Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes Withdrawn from the Market § 41.174 Disposition of tobacco products and...

  7. Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: A review of published and other publicly available studies

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ewald; Schorp, Matthias K; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Seeman, Jeffrey I; Leyden, Donald E; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking. PMID:22263649

  8. Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: a review of published and other publicly available studies.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Ewald; Schorp, Matthias K; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Seeman, Jeffrey I; Leyden, Donald E; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2012-03-01

    Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking.

  9. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidence indicates that electronic cigarettes are by far a less harmful alternative to smoking and significant health benefits are expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to electronic cigarettes. Research will help make electronic cigarettes more effective as smoking substitutes and will better define and further reduce residual risks from use to as low as possible, by establishing appropriate quality control and standards. PMID:25083263

  10. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. Design: A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Methods: Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. Results: A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. Conclusions: These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions. PMID:12198271

  11. Associations of Adolescents' Cigarette, Waterpipe, and Dual Tobacco Use With Parental Tobacco Use.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Dierking, Leah; Kheriallah, Khalid; Mzayek, Fawaz; Pbert, Lori; Ward, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking on adolescents' cigarette smoking. Little is known, however, about how parental tobacco use is related to waterpipe and dual waterpipe/cigarette use, which is increasing dramatically in the Arab countries. Study data (n = 34 788, N = 6 109 572) were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in 17 Arab countries. Study outcome was adolescents' tobacco use categorized into none, cigarette smoking only, waterpipe smoking (WPS) only, and dual use. Primary exposure included parental tobacco use categorized into 10 groups-maternal (mother) cigarette smoking only, maternal WPS only, maternal dual use, paternal (father) cigarette smoking only, paternal WPS only, paternal dual use, parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking only, parental WPS only, parental dual use, and none. Weighted multinomial regression models were conducted to assess the relationships. Adolescents reported smoking WPS only (5.7%), cigarettes only (2.9%), and dual use (3.5%). Compared to adolescent with no exposure to parental tobacco use, adolescent exposure to parental dual use was associated with significant increase in WPS only (OR = 6.08, 95% CI = 2.38-15.51) and dual use (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.43-10.43). Effect modification of the relationship by adolescents' sex was observed. This is the first study to examine adolescent cigarette, waterpipe, and dual use with parental tobacco use. Study findings may help development of cessation interventions targeting parental tobacco use to prevent the rising waterpipe and dual use strain of the global tobacco epidemic. (1) Influence of parents' cigarette smoking on adolescents' smoking has been demonstrated in earlier studies, however, little is known about how tobacco use behaviors of mother and father influences an adolescent's cigarette, waterpipe and dual cigarette/waterpipe use. (2) Associations of parental (both

  12. Other tobacco product and electronic cigarette use among homeless cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Baggett, Travis P; Campbell, Eric G; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2016-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of other tobacco product and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in a clinic-based sample of homeless cigarette smokers. In April-July 2014, we used time-location sampling to conduct a cross-sectional, in-person survey of 306 currently homeless adult cigarette smokers recruited from 5 clinical sites at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. We assessed past-month use of large cigars, little cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Among those who had used e-cigarettes, we assessed the reasons for doing so. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the participant characteristics associated with the use of each product. Eighty-six percent of eligible individuals participated in the survey. In the past month, 37% of respondents used large cigars, 44% used little cigars, 8% used smokeless tobacco, 24% used an e-cigarette, and 68% used any of these products. Reasons for e-cigarette use included curiosity (85%) and to help quit conventional cigarettes (69%). In multivariable regression analyses, homeless smokers with greater subsistence difficulties were more likely to use little cigars (p=0.01) and less likely to use e-cigarettes (p=0.001). Non-Hispanic black (p=0.01), Hispanic (p<0.001), and rough-sleeping (p=0.04) participants were more likely to use large cigars. Readiness to quit was not associated with other tobacco product use but was significantly associated with e-cigarette use to help quit smoking (p=0.02). Health care providers who serve homeless people should consider routine screening for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes to help guide smoking cessation discussions and tobacco treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  14. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as "carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15- to 20-fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Time-resolved analysis of the emission of sidestream smoke (SSS) from cigarettes during smoking by photo ionisation/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-TOFMS): towards a better description of environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Streibel, T; Mitschke, S; Adam, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the chemical composition of sidestream smoke (SSS) emissions of cigarettes are characterised using a laser-based single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometer. SSS is generated from various cigarette types (2R4F research cigarette; Burley, Oriental and Virginia single-tobacco-type cigarettes) smoked on a single-port smoking machine and collected using a so-called fishtail chimney device. Using this setup, a puff-resolved quantification of several SSS components was performed. Investigations of the dynamics of SSS emissions show that concentration profiles of various substances can be categorised into several groups, either depending on the occurrence of a puff or uninfluenced by the changes in the burning zone during puffing. The SSS emissions occurring directly after a puff strongly resemble the composition of mainstream smoke (MSS). In the smouldering phase, clear differences between MSS and SSS are observed. The changed chemical profiles of SSS and MSS might be also of importance on environmental tobacco smoke which is largely determined by SSS. Additionally, the chemical composition of the SSS is strongly affected by the tobacco type. Hence, the higher nitrogen content of Burley tobacco leads to the detection of increased amounts of nitrogen-containing substances in SSS.

  16. 75 FR 35302 - Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco-Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... 20 Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco--Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail AGENCY... All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act, which restricts the mailability of cigarettes and smokeless..., including roll-your-own tobacco, and smokeless tobacco under the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT...

  17. Tobacco industry consumer research on socially acceptable cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ling, P M; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    To describe tobacco industry consumer research to inform the development of more "socially acceptable" cigarette products since the 1970s. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. 28 projects to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes were identified from Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, British American Tobacco, and Lorillard tobacco companies. Consumer research and concept testing consistently demonstrated that many smokers feel strong social pressure not to smoke, and this pressure increased with exposure to smoking restrictions. Tobacco companies attempted to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes with less visible sidestream smoke or less odour. When presented in theory, these product concepts were very attractive to important segments of the smoking population. However, almost every product developed was unacceptable in actual product tests or test markets. Smokers reported the complete elimination of secondhand smoke was necessary to satisfy non-smokers. Smokers have also been generally unwilling to sacrifice their own smoking satisfaction for the benefit of others. Many smokers prefer smoke-free environments to cigarettes that produce less secondhand smoke. Concerns about secondhand smoke and clean indoor air policies have a powerful effect on the social acceptability of smoking. Historically, the tobacco industry has been unable to counter these effects by developing more socially acceptable cigarettes. These data suggest that educating smokers about the health dangers of secondhand smoke and promoting clean indoor air policies has been difficult for the tobacco industry to counter with new products, and that every effort should be made to pursue these strategies.

  18. Tobacco industry consumer research on socially acceptable cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Ling, P; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe tobacco industry consumer research to inform the development of more "socially acceptable" cigarette products since the 1970s. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: 28 projects to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes were identified from Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, British American Tobacco, and Lorillard tobacco companies. Consumer research and concept testing consistently demonstrated that many smokers feel strong social pressure not to smoke, and this pressure increased with exposure to smoking restrictions. Tobacco companies attempted to develop more socially acceptable cigarettes with less visible sidestream smoke or less odour. When presented in theory, these product concepts were very attractive to important segments of the smoking population. However, almost every product developed was unacceptable in actual product tests or test markets. Smokers reported the complete elimination of secondhand smoke was necessary to satisfy non-smokers. Smokers have also been generally unwilling to sacrifice their own smoking satisfaction for the benefit of others. Many smokers prefer smoke-free environments to cigarettes that produce less secondhand smoke. Conclusions: Concerns about secondhand smoke and clean indoor air policies have a powerful effect on the social acceptability of smoking. Historically, the tobacco industry has been unable to counter these effects by developing more socially acceptable cigarettes. These data suggest that educating smokers about the health dangers of secondhand smoke and promoting clean indoor air policies has been difficult for the tobacco industry to counter with new products, and that every effort should be made to pursue these strategies. PMID:16183968

  19. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes....

  20. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes....

  1. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes....

  2. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. The...

  3. 27 CFR 44.65 - Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.65 Section 44.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX General § 44.65 Liability for tax on tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. The...

  4. [Electronic cigarette--a safe substitute for tobacco cigarette or a new threat?].

    PubMed

    Kośmider, Leon; Knysak, Jakub; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to summarize up-to-date data on the new emerging nicotine containing product 'electronic cigarette', commonly referred as e-cigarette. We presented data on prevalence and popularity of various brands and models on domestic markets. Development of the new products with technical and chemical modifications was also described. We reviewed studies on chemical composition and efficacy of nicotine delivery from e-cigarettes and discussed its potential use as nicotine replacement for tobacco cigarettes. Regulatory policies on e-cigarette sale as nicotine containing product were also discussed. We concluded that e-cigarette might be an effective harm reduction tool but little is known about its safety, especially when used for a long time. Despite many positive findings from surveys among e-cigarettes users, there is need for comprehensive state-of-the-at clinical trials to show efficacy of e-cigarette as smoking cessation tool.

  5. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels, health and lifestyle perceptions in smokers converting from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    van Staden, Sandri Rachelle; Groenewald, Marcelle; Engelbrecht, Rifke; Becker, Piet Johannes; Hazelhurst, Lynton Tempest

    2013-09-30

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer are diseases associated with smoking tobacco cigarettes. Smokers find cessation difficult. To determine whether smoking the Twisp electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), containing nicotine in a vegetable-based glycerine substance, would reduce carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in regular cigarette smokers by (i) comparing arterial and venous COHb levels before and after smoking the Twisp e-cigarette for 2 weeks; and (ii) evaluating changes in participants' perception of their health and lifestyle following the use of Twisp e-cigarettes. A single group within-subject design was used where tobacco cigarette smokers converted to Twisp e-cigarettes for 2 weeks. Prior to using the Twisp e-cigarette and after using this device for 2 weeks, arterial COHb, venous COHb and venous cotinine levels were determined. Additionally, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire outlining their perceptions on health and lifestyle. Thirteen participants of median age 38 years (range 23 - 46) with a smoking median of 20 cigarettes/day (range 12 - 30) completed the study. COHb levels (%) were significantly reduced after smoking Twisp e-cigarettes for 2 weeks (mean ± standard deviation (SD) arterial COHb before 4.66±1.99 v. after 2.46±1.35; p=0.014 and mean ±SD venous COHb before 4.37±2.1 v. after 2.50±1.23; p=0.018). There was excellent agreement between arterial and venous COHb levels (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.916). A decrease in cotinine levels (p=0.001) and an increase in oxygen saturation (p=0.002) were also observed. The majority of participants perceived improvements in their health and lifestyle parameters. Smoking the Twisp e-cigarette may be a healthier and more acceptable alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes.

  6. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm(2)), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products.

  7. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  8. Comparative 13-week inhalation study of cigarette smoke from cigarettes containing cast sheet tobacco.

    PubMed

    Potts, Ryan J; Meckley, Daniel R; Shreve, W Keith; Pence, Deborah H; Ayres, Paul H; Doolittle, David; Swauger, James E; Sagartz, John W

    2007-06-01

    A subchronic, nose-only inhalation study was conducted to compare the effects of mainstream smoke from a reference cigarette containing conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet at 30% of the finished blend to mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing 10% or 15% cast sheet (a specific type of reconstituted tobacco sheet) substituted for part of the conventional reconstituted tobacco. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 1 h/day, 5 d/wk, for 13 wk to mainstream smoke at 0, 0.06, 0.20, or 0.80 mg wet total particulate matter per liter of air. Clinical signs, body and organ weights, clinical chemistry, hematology, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), serum nicotine, plethysmography, gross pathology, and histopathology were determined. Exposure to cigarette smoke induced a number of changes in respiratory physiology, histopathology, and serum nicotine and COHb levels when compared to sham animals. When corresponding dose groups of reference and cast sheet mainstream smokes were compared, no biological differences were noted. At the end of the exposure period, subsets of rats from each group were maintained without smoke exposures for an additional 13 wk (recovery period). At the end of the recovery period, there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings observed between the reference and either cast sheet cigarette. Substitution of 10% or 15% cast sheet tobacco for conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet does not alter the inhalation toxicology of the mainstream smoke when compared to mainstream smoke from a reference cigarette containing conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet.

  9. [Advertising and promotion of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes].

    PubMed

    Canevascini, Michela; Kuendig Hervé; Véron, Claudia; Pasche, Myriam

    2015-06-10

    Switzerland is one of the least restrictive countries in Europe in terms of tobacco advertising. A study conducted between 2013 and 2014 documented the presence of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in western Switzerland. The first part of this article presents the results of the observations realized in points of sale, in private events sponsored by the tobacco industry and during daily itineraries of young people. The results show that tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship are omnipresent and mainly target young people. The second part of the article analyses the presence of electronic cigarette advertising and promotion, observed in points of sale and on online stores.

  10. [Tobacco industry strategies: marketing cigarettes to young people].

    PubMed

    Damphousse, François

    2005-01-01

    "Tobacco industry strategies: marketing cigarettes to young people" describres how tobacco manufacturers through their internal documents and litigation have been forced to admit or found to deliberately target young people in their marketing strategies to recruit new smokers, despite having denied it publicly for years. Given that most smokers start and get hooked on tobacco in their ealy years and that the link between advertising, promotion and tobacco initiation is well documented, countries should adopt a complete ban on advertising and promotion. The FCTC is the best avenue for a global ban.

  11. Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... initiation of tobacco use. Students who have used electronic cigarettes by the time they start ninth grade are ... facts and http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/electronic-cigarettes-e-cigarettes . This study was funded by NIH’s ...

  12. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe use and cigarette smoking must be compared directly. The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=31; M=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (M=5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (M=9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes, or a single cigarette. Outcome measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session's end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2009. On average, CO increased by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe use (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette smoking (SD=1.8), while peak waterpipe COHb levels (M=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for cigarette smoking (M=1.3%, SD=0.5; p's<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (waterpipe M=10.2 ng/mL, SD=7.0; cigarette M=10.6 ng/mL, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at 5-minute intervals during the waterpipe session (p's<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 L for waterpipe use as compared to 1.0 L for cigarette smoking (p<0.001). Relative to cigarette smoking, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco-smoking methods likely share

  13. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods

  14. Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn O; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2014-05-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular. Researchers need to understand multiple tobacco product use to assess the effects of these products on population health. We estimate national prevalence and examine risk factors for multiple product use. We calculated prevalence estimates of current use patterns involving cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus using data from the 2012 RTI National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=3627), a random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 and over. Associations between use patterns (exclusive single product and multiple products) and demographic characteristics were examined using Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression. 32.1% of adults currently use 1 or more tobacco products; 14.9% use cigarettes exclusively, and 6.6% use one noncigarette product exclusively, 6.9% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), 1.3% use two noncigarette products, and 2.4% use three or more products (polytobacco use). Smokers who are young adult, male, never married, reside in the West, and made prior quit attempts were at risk for multiple product use. Over 10% of U.S. adults use multiple tobacco products. A better understanding of multiple product use involving combustible products, like cigars and hookah, is needed. Multiple product use may be associated with past quit attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. All tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes forfeited under the internal revenue laws shall be sold at a price which will...

  16. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. All tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes forfeited under the internal revenue laws shall be sold at a price which will...

  17. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export...

  18. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export...

  19. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Removal of Shipments of Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes by Manufacturers and Export...

  20. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. All tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes forfeited under the internal revenue laws shall be sold at a price which will...

  1. [Determination of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamine and mutagenic activity of whole tobacco in Japanese cigarettes].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yohei; Ohkubo, Tadamichi; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Kunugita, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    To measure the nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) contents in whole tobacco from a variety of Japanese domestic cigarette brands and to determine mutagencity. The test cigarettes were the top ten best selling cigarette brands in Japan in 2006. The nicotine content in whole tobacco was measured by a modified version of the CORESTA Recommended method. The level of TSNA was measured by a modified version of the Health Canada method. Mutagenicity was assessed using the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100, TA98 and YG1024 with the metabolic activation system (S9mix) by preincubation assays. The nicotine content in the test cigarettes averaged 15.7±1.2 mg/g, and was in the range between 13.7 and 17.2 mg/g. The level of TSNA averaged 1,750 ng/g, and was in the range between 931 and 2,490 ng/g. Mutagenicity was pseudopositive in several samples of the YG1024 tester strain with and without S9mix. The cigarettes brands were categorized into four groups (Ultra-low, Low, Medium, and High) based on the nominal nicotine yield figures printed on the cigarette packets. The nicotine content in whole tobacco of the High group was the highest. However, the level of TSNA of the high group was the lowest. The analyses of hazardous chemical compounds in whole tobacco can contribute to the reduction and regulation of the toxicity of tobacco products.

  2. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

  3. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  4. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-05-01

    To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

  5. 27 CFR 41.85 - Release from customs custody of imported tobacco products or cigarette papers or tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... custody of imported tobacco products or cigarette papers or tubes. 41.85 Section 41.85 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, Imported Into or Returned to the United States Release...

  6. [Chemicals added to cigarettes and their effects on tobacco dependence].

    PubMed

    Gonseth, S; Cornuz, J

    2009-07-01

    This paper summarizes data on the factors involved in addiction and dependence to cigarettes. Nicotine has been intensively studied by the tobacco industry, for instance for its addictive effect at the lowest possible rates. The addition of diammonium phosphate and urea produces an alcalinization of the pH of cigarette smoke, and promotes the absorption and the trans-membrane passage of nicotine. The taste, the smell of smoke, and the visual aspect of the pack of cigarettes are also sensory components that promote addiction. Finally, menthol, sugar, cocoa and liquorice added to cigarettes also play a role in dependence and addiction to cigarettes by, for instance, making an anesthetic effect on the airways.

  7. Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, C L; Lemus-Olalde, R; Carmines, E L

    2008-01-01

    Potassium sorbate (PS) may be incorporated in blended cigarette tobacco either as a mold growth inhibitor in processed tobacco sheet material, or as a preservative in flavor systems or paper adhesives. To evaluate the effect of PS addition, neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and 90-day nose-only rat inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various measured levels of PS (0%, 0.15%, 1.6%, and 3.7%) were performed. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 1000 degrees C, neat PS completely pyrolyzed to form aromatic ring materials including benzene, toluene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene, and substituted naphthalenes. Under machine smoking conditions (FTC/ISO), high levels of PS may alter the burning characteristics of the cigarette leading to decreased puff count, total particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, 2-nitropropane, and tobacco specific nitrosamines yields in the smoke, while increasing the yield of nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and some PAHs. Biological studies indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke from cigarettes with or without added PS. Rats exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke developed respiratory tract changes consistent with those seen in previous smoke inhalation studies, with no relevant histopathological differences between the control and the PS test cigarette groups. These studies demonstrated that high levels of PS could alter the burning rate of the tobacco leading to alteration in the smoke chemistry profile. Yet, based on the panel of biological endpoints monitored here, it appeared that added PS produced little relevant change in the overall toxicity profile of smoke.

  8. Tobacco Marketing, E-cigarette Susceptibility, and Perceptions among Adults.

    PubMed

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Snell, L Morgan; Rudy, Alyssa K; Cobb, Caroline O; Barnes, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions. Among non-smokers, increased exposure to tobacco advertising and receiving tobacco coupons was significantly related to measures of EC and CC susceptibility (p < .05). Older, more educated non-smokers had decreased odds of EC susceptibility (p < .05). Additionally, increased exposure to tobacco advertising was significantly associated with the perceptions of EC not containing nicotine and being less addictive than CC among smokers (p < .05). Increased exposure to tobacco advertising outlets could influence future EC and CC use in non-smokers and perceptions in smokers, while receiving coupons could affect EC and CC susceptibility among non-smokers. Future research is needed to determine whether policies to minimize exposure to tobacco marketing reduce EC use by decreasing susceptibility.

  9. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and...

  10. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and...

  11. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  12. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  13. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  14. Characterizing use patterns and perceptions of relative harm in dual users of electronic and tobacco cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R; Johnson, Patrick S; Johnson, Matthew W

    2015-12-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing. Questions regarding positive (e.g., smoking reduction/cessation) and negative (e.g., delay of cessation) potential public health consequences of e-cigarettes may be informed by studying dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. A cross-sectional online survey assessed demographics, product use patterns, and beliefs about relative product benefits and harms among dual users (n = 350) in the United States using the website Amazon Mechanical Turk. Compared to tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes were used less often and were associated with lower dependence. Participants reported a 30% reduction in self-reported tobacco cigarette smoking since beginning to use e-cigarettes. Reported primary reasons for e-cigarette use were harm reduction and smoking cessation. E-cigarette use was reported as more likely in settings with smoking restrictions and when others' health could be adversely affected. Conversely, participants reported having used tobacco cigarettes more often than e-cigarettes in hedonic situations (e.g., after eating, drinking coffee or alcohol, or having sex), outdoors, or when stressed. Participants were twice as likely to report wanting to quit tobacco cigarettes compared to e-cigarettes in the next year and intended to quit tobacco cigarettes sooner. Tobacco cigarettes were described as more harmful and addictive, but also as more enjoyable than e-cigarettes. Participants provided evidence consistent with both positive and negative public health consequences of e-cigarettes, highlighting the need for experimental research, including laboratory studies and clinical trials. Policies should consider potential public health benefits of e-cigarettes, in addition to potential harms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Characterizing use patterns and perceptions of relative harm in dual users of electronic and tobacco cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Rass, Olga; Pacek, Lauren R.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing. Questions regarding positive (e.g., smoking reduction/cessation) and negative (e.g., delay of cessation) potential public health consequences of e-cigarettes may be informed by studying dual users of e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. A cross-sectional online survey assessed demographics, product use patterns, and beliefs about relative product benefits and harms among dual users (n = 350) in the United States using the website Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Compared to tobacco cigarettes, e-cigarettes were used less often and were associated with lower dependence. Participants reported a 30% reduction in self-reported tobacco cigarette smoking since beginning to use e-cigarettes. Reported primary reasons for e-cigarette use were harm reduction and smoking cessation. E-cigarette use was reported as more likely in settings with smoking restrictions and when others’ health could be adversely affected. Conversely, participants reported having used tobacco cigarettes more often than e-cigarettes in hedonic situations (e.g., after eating, drinking coffee or alcohol, or having sex), outdoors, or when stressed. Participants were twice as likely to report wanting to quit tobacco cigarettes compared to e-cigarettes in the next year and intended to quit tobacco cigarettes sooner. Tobacco cigarettes were described as more harmful and addictive, but also more enjoyable than e-cigarettes. Participants provided evidence consistent with both positive and negative public health consequences of e-cigarettes, highlighting the need for experimental research, including laboratory studies and clinical trials. Policies should consider potential public health benefits of e-cigarettes, in addition to potential harms. PMID:26389638

  16. How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G.; Wayne, G.; Lymperis, D.; Doherty, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
DATA SOURCES—Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.
STUDY SELECTION—Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data.
DATA EXTRACTION—Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS.
CONCLUSIONS—Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public, appropriate regulation of tobacco additives should be mandated.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco industry; additives; masking PMID:10982572

  17. "I always thought they were all pure tobacco": American smokers' perceptions of "natural" cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-12-01

    To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as "natural" and American smokers' views of the "naturalness" (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Cigarette advertisements have used the term "natural" since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that "natural" referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term "additive-free", introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term "natural" in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed "natural" cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable "regular" brands. Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of "natural" cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to "denaturalise" smoking.

  18. Exposure to nicotine and carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco users.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Neal L; Renner, Caroline C; Lanier, Anne P; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Lindgren, Bruce; Stepanov, Irina; Watson, Clifford H; Sosnoff, Connie S; Jacob, Peyton

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of tobacco use, both cigarette smoking and smokeless, including iqmik (homemade smokeless tobacco prepared with dried tobacco leaves mixed with alkaline ash), and of tobacco-related cancer is high in Alaskan Native people (AN). To investigate possible mechanisms of increased cancer risk we studied levels of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco products and biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure in Southwestern AN people. Participants included 163 cigarette smokers, 76 commercial smokeless tobacco, 20 iqmik, 31 dual cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco, and 110 nontobacco users. Tobacco use history, samples of tobacco products used, and blood and urine samples were collected. Nicotine concentrations were highest in cigarette tobacco and TSNAs highest in commercial smokeless tobacco products. The AN participants smoked on average 7.8 cigarettes per day. Nicotine exposure, assessed by several biomarker measures, was highest in iqmik users, and similar in smokeless tobacco and cigarette smokers. TSNA exposure was highest in smokeless tobacco users, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was highest in cigarette smokers. Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day, AN cigarette smokers had similar daily intake of nicotine compared to the general U.S. population. Nicotine exposure was greatest from iqmik, likely related to its high pH due to preparation with ash, suggesting high addiction potential compared to other smokeless tobacco products. TSNA exposure was much higher with smokeless tobacco than other product use, possibly contributing to the high rates of oral cancer. Our data contribute to an understanding of the high addiction risk of iqmik use and of the cancer-causing potential of various forms of tobacco use among AN people.

  19. Exposure to Nicotine and Carcinogens among Southwestern Alaskan Native Cigarette Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Renner, Caroline C.; Lanier, Anne P.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Lindgren, Bruce; Stepanov, Irina; Watson, Clifford H.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Jacob, Peyton

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of tobacco use, both cigarette smoking and smokeless, including iqmik (homemade smokeless tobacco prepared with dried tobacco leaves mixed with alkaline ash), and of tobacco-related cancer is high in Alaskan Native people (AN). To investigate possible mechanisms of increased cancer risk we studied levels of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco products and biomarkers of tobacco toxicant exposure in Southwestern AN people. Methods Participants included 163 cigarette smokers, 76 commercial smokeless tobacco, 20 iqmik, 31 dual cigarette smokers and smokeless tobacco, and 110 nontobacco users. Tobacco use history, samples of tobacco products used, and blood and urine samples were collected. Results Nicotine concentrations were highest in cigarette tobacco and TSNAs highest in commercial smokeless tobacco products. The AN participants smoked on average 7.8 cigarettes per day. Nicotine exposure, assessed by several biomarker measures, was highest in iqmik users, and similar in smokeless tobacco and cigarette smokers. TSNA exposure was highest in smokeless tobacco users, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was highest in cigarette smokers. Conclusions Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day, AN cigarette smokers had similar daily intake of nicotine compared to the general U.S. population. Nicotine exposure was greatest from iqmik, likely related to its high pH due to preparation with ash, suggesting high addiction potential compared to other smokeless tobacco products. TSNA exposure was much higher with smokeless tobacco than other product use, possibly contributing to the high rates of oral cancer. Impact Our data contribute to an understanding of the high addiction risk of iqmik use and of the cancer-causing potential of various forms of tobacco use among AN people. PMID:22490317

  20. 75 FR 24534 - Treatment of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco as Nonmailable Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... 111 Treatment of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco as Nonmailable Matter AGENCY: Postal Service TM... States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 601.11, pertaining to the mailing of tobacco cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. These provisions implement specific requirements to be in compliance with...

  1. Area Disparity in Children's Perceptions of Access to Tobacco and Cigarette Purchasing Experiences in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Fu-Li; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lin, Pi-Li; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Lee, Chien-Hung; Peng, Wu-Der; Chen, Ted; Lu, Di-Lin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents who perceive easy access to tobacco are more likely to acquire cigarettes and experience smoking. This study assesses area disparities in perceptions of access to tobacco and cigarette purchasing experiences among schoolchildren. Methods: Data on children's tobacco-related variables were obtained from the Control of…

  2. Area Disparity in Children's Perceptions of Access to Tobacco and Cigarette Purchasing Experiences in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Heng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Fu-Li; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lin, Pi-Li; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Lee, Chien-Hung; Peng, Wu-Der; Chen, Ted; Lu, Di-Lin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescents who perceive easy access to tobacco are more likely to acquire cigarettes and experience smoking. This study assesses area disparities in perceptions of access to tobacco and cigarette purchasing experiences among schoolchildren. Methods: Data on children's tobacco-related variables were obtained from the Control of…

  3. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF...

  4. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  5. 27 CFR 44.213 - Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.213 Section 44.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF...

  6. 27 CFR 41.174 - Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, and schedule. 41.174 Section 41.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  7. Measuring youth beliefs about the harms of e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco compared to cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Persoskie, Alexander; O'Brien, Erin Keely; Nguyen, Anh B; Tworek, Cindy

    2017-07-01

    This study examined validity of direct and indirect measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) compared to cigarettes. On direct measures, people compare one product to another, whereas on indirect measures, people rate each product separately and the researcher compares these ratings. Data from youth in Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013-2014) were analyzed (N=13,651 youth aged 12-17years). The study included direct measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and SLT compared to cigarettes, and indirect measures were created by comparing ratings of the products. Weighted multinomial logistic regressions tested criterion validity by assessing whether direct and indirect measures were associated with criterion variables, including use of e-cigarettes and SLT. Youth were more likely to rate e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes on the indirect measure (67.3%) than the direct measure (50.2%). The same pattern held for ratings of SLT as less harmful than cigarettes (indirect: 29.7%; direct: 11.7%). Direct measures explained unique variance in product use criterion variables even after adjusting for indirect measures, as did indirect measures after adjusting for direct measures. However, the criterion variables were more often associated with the direct measures than the indirect measures. Results offer preliminary support for using both direct and indirect measures when assessing youth's perceived relative harm of various types of products. However, if researchers cannot include both direct and indirect measures in a study, associations with product use criterion variables support prioritizing direct measures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. E-cigarette Dual Users, Exclusive Users and Perceptions of Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Maria; Case, Kathleen R.; Loukas, Alexandra; Creamer, MeLisa R.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined differences in the characteristics of youth non-users, cigarette-only, e-cigarette-only, and dual e-cigarette and cigarette users. Methods Using weighted, representative data, logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine differences in demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviors across tobacco usage groups. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine differences in harm perceptions of various tobacco products and perceived peer use of e-cigarettes by tobacco usage group. Results Compared to non-users, dual users were more likely to be white, male, and high school students. Dual users had significantly higher prevalence of current use of all products (except hookah) than e-cigarette-only users, and higher prevalence of current use of snus and hookah than the cigarette-only group. Dual users had significantly lower harm perceptions for all tobacco products except for e-cigarettes and hookah as compared to e-cigarette-only users. Dual users reported higher peer use of cigarettes as compared to both exclusive user groups. Conclusion Findings highlight dual users’ higher prevalence of use of most other tobacco products, their lower harm perceptions of most tobacco products compared to e-cigarette-only users, and their higher perceived peer use of cigarettes compared to exclusive users. PMID:26685819

  9. E-cigarette Dual Users, Exclusive Users and Perceptions of Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maria; Case, Kathleen R; Loukas, Alexandra; Creamer, Melisa R; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    We examined differences in the characteristics of youth non-users, cigarette-only, e-cigarette-only, and dual e-cigarette and cigarette users. Using weighted, representative data, logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine differences in demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviors across tobacco usage groups. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine differences in harm perceptions of various tobacco products and perceived peer use of e-cigarettes by tobacco usage group. Compared to non-users, dual users were more likely to be white, male, and high school students. Dual users had significantly higher prevalence of current use of all products (except hookah) than e-cigarette-only users, and higher prevalence of current use of snus and hookah than the cigarette-only group. Dual users had significantly lower harm perceptions for all tobacco products except for e-cigarettes and hookah as compared to e-cigarette-only users. Dual users reported higher peer use of cigarettes as compared to both exclusive user groups. Findings highlight dual users' higher prevalence of use of most other tobacco products, their lower harm perceptions of most tobacco products compared to e-cigarette-only users, and their higher perceived peer use of cigarettes compared to exclusive users.

  10. Tobacco flakes on cigarette filters grow bacteria: a potential health risk to the smoker?

    PubMed

    Pauly, J L; Waight, J D; Paszkiewicz, G M

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial growth from a single flake of tobacco was documented for cigarettes that had been purchased recently from local vendors and from cigarettes that had been stored for more than six years in a warehouse. In a novel tobacco flake assay, a pack of cigarettes was opened within the sterile environment of a laminar flow hood. A single flake of tobacco was collected randomly and aseptically from the middle of the cigarette column and placed onto the surface of a blood agar plate. The test cigarettes included eight different popular US brands, and these were from three different tobacco companies. After 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, the plates showed bacterial growth for tobacco from all brands of cigarettes. Further, more than 90% of the individual tobacco flakes of a given brand grew bacteria. Likewise, bacteria grew from microparticulate tobacco that had been sieved from cigarettes. Tobacco flakes were observed lying loosely on the cut surface of the filter of cigarettes in newly opened packs, and bacteria grew from cigarette filters that had been touched to the surface of a blood agar plate. In conclusion, the results of these studies predict that diverse microbes and microbial toxins are carried by tobacco microparticulates that are released from the cigarette during smoking, and carried into mainstream smoke that is sucked deep into the lung.

  11. Crushing virtual cigarettes reduces tobacco addiction and treatment discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Girard, Benoit; Turcotte, Vincent; Bouchard, Stéphane; Girard, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    Pilot studies revealed promising results regarding crushing virtual cigarettes to reduce tobacco addiction. In this study, 91 regular smokers were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions that differ only by the action performed in the virtual environment: crushing virtual cigarettes or grasping virtual balls. All participants also received minimal psychosocial support from nurses during each of 12 visits to the clinic. An affordable virtual reality system was used (eMagin HMD) with a virtual environment created by modifying a 3D game. Results revealed that crushing virtual cigarettes during 4 weekly sessions led to a statistically significant reduction in nicotine addiction (assessed with the Fagerström test), abstinence rate (confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide), and drop-out rate from the 12-week psychosocial minimal-support treatment program. Increased retention in the program is discussed as a potential explanation for treatment success, and hypotheses are raised about self-efficacy, motivation, and learning.

  12. Electronic cigarettes: a friend or foe in tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Versha; Pemberton, Michael N

    2014-08-01

    Many dental practitioners will be aware of patients using electronic cigarettes over the last few years. These products are now widely used, but are they of help in tobacco control? And what are the implications of their use? The regulatory framework concerning these products is evolving rapidly with many opinions on what their final legal status should be. This paper explains their origin, explores some of the arguments and looks at possible future developments.

  13. Tobacco toxicant exposure in cigarette smokers who use or do not use other tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Nollen, Nicole L; Mayo, Matthew S; Clark, Lauren; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Khariwala, Samir S; Pulvers, Kim; Benowitz, Neal L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-10-01

    Non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP; e.g., cigarillos, little cigars) are typically used in combination with cigarettes, but limited data exists on the tobacco toxicant exposure profiles of dual cigarette-OTP (Cig-OTP) users. This study examined biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in cigarette smokers who used or did not use OTP. 111 Cig-OTP and 111 cigarette only (Cig Only) users who smoked equivalent cigarettes per day were matched on age (< 40, >=40), race (African American, White), and gender. Participants reported past 7-day daily use of cigarettes and OTP and provided urine for nicotine, cotinine, total nicotine equivalents (TNE) and total NNAL concentrations. Cig-OTP users reported greater past 7-day tobacco use (15.9 versus 13.0 products/day, p<0.01) but had significantly lower creatinine-normalized nicotine (606 versus 1301ng/mg), cotinine (1063 versus 2125ng/mg), TNE (28 versus 57 nmol/mg) and NNAL (251 versus 343pg/mg) than Cig Only users (p<0.001). Cig-OTP users had lower levels of nicotine and metabolites of a lung carcinogen relative to Cig-Only users, but concentrations of toxicants among Cig-OTP users were still at levels that place smokers at great risk from the detrimental health effects of smoking. Our study finds that nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Cig-OTP users are lower compared to cigarette only users, but still likely to be associated with substantial harm. A better understanding of why toxicant levels may be lower in Cig-OTP is an important area for future study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. US consumer interest in non-cigarette tobacco products spikes around the 2009 federal tobacco tax increase.

    PubMed

    Jo, Catherine L; Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Emery, Sherry; Huang, Jidong; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-07-01

    This quasi-experimental longitudinal study monitored aggregate Google search queries as a proxy for consumer interest in non-cigarette tobacco products (NTP) around the time of the 2009 US federal tobacco tax increase. Query trends for searches mentioning common NTP were downloaded from Google's public archives. The mean relative increase was estimated by comparing the observed with expected query volume for the 16 weeks around the tax. After the tax was announced, queries spiked for chewing tobacco, cigarillos, electronic cigarettes ('e-cigarettes'), roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, snuff, and snus. E-cigarette queries were 75% (95% CI 70% to 80%) higher than expected 8 weeks before and after the tax, followed by RYO 59% (95% CI 53% to 65%), snus 34% (95% CI 31% to 37%), chewing tobacco 17% (95% CI 15% to 20%), cigarillos 14% (95% CI 11% to 17%), and snuff 13% (95% CI 10% to 14%). Unique queries increasing the most were 'ryo cigarettes' 427% (95% CI 308% to 534%), 'ryo tobacco' 348% (95% CI 300% to 391%), 'best electronic cigarette' 221% (95% CI 185% to 257%), and 'e-cigarette' 205% (95% CI 163% to 245%). The 2009 tobacco tax increase triggered large increases in consumer interest for some NTP, particularly e-cigarettes and RYO tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  16. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. Tobacco products,...

  17. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. Tobacco products,...

  18. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  19. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  20. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  1. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  2. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who,...

  3. 27 CFR 44.63 - Restrictions on disposal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. 44.63 Section 44.63 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... papers and tubes on vessels and aircraft. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes delivered to...

  4. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. Tobacco products,...

  5. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who, with...

  6. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. Tobacco products, and...

  7. 27 CFR 44.62 - Restrictions on deliveries of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. 44.62... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes to vessels and aircraft, as supplies. Tobacco products, and...

  8. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the...

  9. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for...

  10. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the...

  11. 27 CFR 44.226 - Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes for export by parcel post. 44.226 Section 44.226 Alcohol, Tobacco...) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.226 Delivery of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes for...

  12. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF..., possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. Any person who, with...

  13. Pig's blood in cigarette filters: how a single news release highlighted tobacco industry concealment of cigarette ingredients.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ross; Chapman, Simon

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco industry is not obligated to disclose ingredients and additives used in manufactured tobacco production. This paper describes global reaction to a press release highlighting evidence that porcine haemoglobin ("pig's blood") was sometimes used in cigarette manufacturing while never being disclosed to smokers. The case study illustrates the power of press releases to ignite major interest in tobacco control issues.

  14. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Avey, Jaedon P.; Trinidad, Susan B.; Beans, Julie A.; Robinson, Renee F.

    2015-01-01

    Background American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. Methods This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Results Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Conclusion Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes. PMID:26487575

  15. Views on electronic cigarette use in tobacco screening and cessation in an Alaska Native healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y; Avey, Jaedon P; Trinidad, Susan B; Beans, Julie A; Robinson, Renee F

    2015-01-01

    American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) communities confront some of the highest rates of tobacco use and its sequelae. This formative research project sought to identify the perspectives of 41 stakeholders (community members receiving care within the healthcare system, primary care providers, and tribal healthcare system leaders) surrounding the use of pharmacogenetics toward tobacco cessation treatment in the setting of an AI/AN owned and operated health system in south central Alaska. Interviews were held with 20 adult AI/AN current and former tobacco users, 12 healthcare providers, and 9 tribal leaders. An emergent theme from data analysis was that current tobacco screening and cessation efforts lack information on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use. Perceptions of the use of e-cigarettes role in tobacco cessation varied. Preventive screening for tobacco use and clinical cessation counseling should address e-cigarette use. Healthcare provider tobacco cessation messaging should similarly address e-cigarettes.

  16. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 2. Biomarkers of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Morgan, Walter T.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects’ experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings support differences in exposure from the use of various tobacco products and are relevant to the understanding of a risk continuum among tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26554277

  17. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 2. Biomarkers of exposure.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Morgan, Walter T; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) was conducted, and subjects' experience with the products was followed for 24 weeks. Differences in biomarkers of tobacco exposure between smokers and never smokers at baseline and among groups relative to each other and over time were assessed. Results indicated reduced exposure to many potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke following product switching. Findings support differences in exposure from the use of various tobacco products and are relevant to the understanding of a risk continuum among tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917).

  18. Economics of tobacco control in Pakistan: estimating elasticities of cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Nasir; Mushtaq, Saghir; Beebe, Laura A

    2011-11-01

    Despite ongoing global efforts for tobacco control, low-income countries with struggling economies have challenges to effectively implement tobacco policies and programs. Due to the complexity of the tobacco control issue and lack of comprehensive policies, tobacco use is increasing in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of taxes on tobacco demand in Pakistan. Various surveillance indicators of tobacco use were assessed from 2001 to 2009. Price elasticities of cigarette demand in Pakistan were investigated. During 2003-2009, annual per capita cigarette consumption increased by 30%. Analysis of economic data indicated that a 10% increase in cigarette prices would lead to 4.8% decrease in cigarette consumption while controlling for per capita income in the short term. The long-term price elasticities of cigarette demand were estimated at -1.17. The estimations provided support for myopic addiction model for cigarette consumption in Pakistan. Increasing tobacco taxes would have a significant impact on tobacco consumption in Pakistan. Cigarette consumption could decrease by 11.7% in the long term if there was a 10% increase in its price. The results of this study should benefit policymakers as it provides information on the characteristics of the cigarette consumption and cigarette demand function that may help in planning tobacco control strategies in low-income and middle-income countries.

  19. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposures in smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette or waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Ghada; Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005-2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78-2.58 in CS and 0.21-1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01-0.60 in CS wives, 0.05-0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day.

  1. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

  2. E-cigarette use among Texas youth: Results from the 2014 Texas Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Maria; Case, Kathleen R; Loukas, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    Several characteristics of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), such as candy flavorings, are worrisome for attracting youth. The current cross-sectional study uses data on e-cigarette use from the 2014 Texas Youth Tobacco Survey (TYTS), a representative statewide sample of Texas middle school and high school students. This study's aims are to determine the prevalence of e-cigarette use, including rates of concurrent use with other tobacco products among Texas youth and to describe the demographic and tobacco use differences between e-cigarette users and non-users. Participants were 13,602 6th through 12th grade students in Texas. Descriptive statistics were generated to determine the prevalence of current and lifetime e-cigarette use and to determine the prevalence of demographic characteristics across e-cigarette usage groups. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine differences in demographic characteristics, cigarette use in the home, and tobacco use behaviors for e-cigarette users versus non-users. Almost one quarter of all middle and high school students reported lifetime e-cigarette use and 14.0% were past 30-day users of these products. Current e-cigarette users were more likely to be high school students, white and male than non-current users. Both current and lifetime e-cigarette users were also more likely than their peers to use other tobacco products, although 24.2% of current e-cigarette users had never smoked conventional cigarettes, and 7.3% had never used any other type of tobacco product besides an e-cigarette. Findings highlight the urgency to regulate e-cigarettes as well as to include these products in tobacco prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceptions of e-Cigarettes and Noncigarette Tobacco Products Among US Youth.

    PubMed

    Amrock, Stephen M; Lee, Lily; Weitzman, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now the most commonly used tobacco product among US youth. The extent to which perceptions of e-cigarettes' harm and addictiveness differ from those of other products remains unknown, as does whether these perceptions have changed over time. Data from the 2012 and 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a repeated cross-sectional survey of grade 6 to 12 students, were used. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were used to describe correlates of perceptions of harm and addictiveness of e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco compared with cigarettes. Trends in perceptions of e-cigarettes' harm among different demographic groups were also assessed. In 2014, 73.0% believed that e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes, compared with 20.2% for smokeless tobacco and 25.8% for cigars. By comparison, 47.1% believed that e-cigarettes were less addictive than cigarettes, compared with only 14.0% for smokeless tobacco and 31.5% for cigars. Use of each product was associated with a perception of decreased harm and addictiveness in adjusted analyses, as was being male, being a non-Hispanic white, and residing with a household member who used that product. Between 2012 and 2014, increasing numbers of US youth thought they were able to assess the relative harm of e-cigarettes and increasingly believed that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Most US youth view e-cigarettes as less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. Far fewer think similarly about cigars and smokeless tobacco. Increases in e-cigarettes' perceived safety mirrors rapid increases observed in their use. Perceived safety correlates with use of each tobacco product. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Design and marketing features influencing choice of e-cigarettes and tobacco in the EU.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Anthony A; Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T

    2016-10-01

    Data were analysed from the 2014 Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. We estimated self-rated importance of various factors in the choice of both tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among tobacco smokers who had ever used an e-cigarette. Among ever users of tobacco and e-cigarettes (N = 2430), taste (39.4%), price (39.2%) and amount of nicotine (27.3%) were the most commonly cited reasons for choosing their brand of e-cigarettes. Those aged 15-24 were more likely to cite external packaging [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.00-4.23)] and design features (aPR = 1.99, 1.20-3.29) as important. As further legislation is debated and enacted enhanced regulation of price, design and marketing features of e-cigarettes may help to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes.

  5. Design and marketing features influencing choice of e-cigarettes and tobacco in the EU

    PubMed Central

    Vardavas, Constantine I.; Filippidis, Filippos T.

    2016-01-01

    Data were analysed from the 2014 Special Eurobarometer for Tobacco survey. We estimated self-rated importance of various factors in the choice of both tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among tobacco smokers who had ever used an e-cigarette. Among ever users of tobacco and e-cigarettes (N = 2430), taste (39.4%), price (39.2%) and amount of nicotine (27.3%) were the most commonly cited reasons for choosing their brand of e-cigarettes. Those aged 15–24 were more likely to cite external packaging [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.00–4.23)] and design features (aPR = 1.99, 1.20–3.29) as important. As further legislation is debated and enacted enhanced regulation of price, design and marketing features of e-cigarettes may help to reduce the appeal of e-cigarettes. PMID:27471217

  6. Youth curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars: prevalence and associations with advertising.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, David B; Wu, Charles C; Tworek, Cindy; Chen, Jiping; Borek, Nicolette

    2014-08-01

    Curiosity about cigarettes is a reliable predictor of susceptibility to smoking and established use among youth. Related research has been limited to cigarettes, and lacks national-level estimates. Factors associated with curiosity about tobacco products, such as advertising, have been postulated but rarely tested. To describe the prevalence of curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars among youth and explore the association between curiosity and self-reported tobacco advertising exposure. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative survey of 24,658 students, were used. In 2013, estimates weighted to the national youth school population were calculated for curiosity about cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigars among never users of any tobacco product. Associations between tobacco advertising and curiosity were explored using multivariable regressions. Curiosity about cigarettes (28.8%); cigars (19.5%); and smokeless tobacco (9.7%) was found, and many youth were curious about more than one product. Exposure to point-of-sale advertising (e.g., OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.19, 1.54 for cigarette curiosity); tobacco company communications (e.g., OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.38, 2.09 for cigarette curiosity); and tobacco products, as well as viewing tobacco use in TV/movies (e.g., OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.20, 1.58 for cigarette curiosity) were associated with curiosity about each examined tobacco product. Despite decreasing use of tobacco products, youth remain curious about them. Curiosity is associated with various forms of tobacco advertising. These findings suggest the importance of measuring curiosity as an early warning signal for potential future tobacco use and evaluating continued efforts to limit exposure to tobacco marketing among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Characterization of a gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) assay using cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Ewald; Lammerich, Hans-Peter; Conroy, Lynda L; Weisensee, Dirk

    2013-06-07

    Inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) via exposure to various toxic substances has been implicated in tumor promotion. In the present study, cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), a known inhibitor of GJIC, were used to characterize a new GJIC screening assay in three independent experiments. The main features of this assay were automated fluorescence microscopy combined with non-invasive parachute technique. Rat liver epithelial cells (WB-F344) were stained with the fluorescent dye Calcein AM (acetoxymethyl) and exposed to TPM from the Kentucky Reference Cigarette 2R4F (a blend of Bright and Burley tobaccos) and from two single-tobacco cigarettes (Bright and Burley) for 3h. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA) was used as positive control and 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent control. The transfer of dye to adjacent cells (percentage of stained cells) was used as a measure of cellular communication. A clear and reproducible dose-response of GJIC inhibition following TPM exposure was seen. Reproducibility and repeatability measurements for the 2R4F cigarette were 3.7% and 6.9%, respectively. The half-maximal effective concentration values were 0.34ng/ml for TPA, 0.050mg/ml for the 2R4F, 0.044mg/ml for the Bright cigarette, and 0.060mg/ml for the Burley cigarette. The assay was able to discriminate between the two single-tobacco cigarettes (P<0.0001), and between the single-tobacco cigarettes and the 2R4F (P=0.0008, 2R4F vs. Burley and P<0.0001, 2R4F vs. Bright). Thus, this assay can be used to determine the activity of complex mixtures such as cigarette smoke with high throughput and high precision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dual use of electronic and tobacco cigarettes among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Leigh, Noel J; Gawron, Michal; Nadolska, Justyna; Balwicki, Lukasz; McGuire, Connor; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are gaining in popularity among youth. While these products may be beneficial in adult smokers, the effect on young users of electronic and tobacco cigarettes (dual users) is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of dual use among adolescents and to compare tobacco cigarette consumption among dual and exclusive tobacco cigarette users. A cross-sectional survey of a sample of 2213 Polish students aged 16-18 conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. Overall, 21.8 % of students were dual users. Dual users were more likely to smoke tobacco cigarettes on a daily basis [adjusted odds ratio, AOR 3.54 (95 % CI 2.34-5.36) and less likely to smoke fewer cigarettes per day (AOR 0.27 (95 % CI 0.12-0.57)] than exclusive tobacco cigarette users. The frequency of dual use was higher than exclusive use of a single product among Polish adolescents. Young dual users do not smoke a lower number of tobacco cigarettes per day than exclusive tobacco cigarette users.

  9. Chemical and biological studies of a cigarette that heats rather than burns tobacco.

    PubMed

    deBethizy, J D; Borgerding, M F; Doolittle, D J; Robinson, J H; McManus, K T; Rahn, C A; Davis, R A; Burger, G T; Hayes, J R; Reynolds, J H

    1990-08-01

    Cigarettes can be developed that heat rather than burn tobacco. Such products would be expected to have less "tar" and other combustion products than cigarettes that burn tobacco. With one product of this type, benzo(a)pyrene, N-nitrosamines, phenolic compounds, acetaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, and N-heterocyclic compounds have been reduced 10- to 100-fold compared to the Kentucky reference (1R4F) cigarette, a representative low-tar cigarette. The yields of nicotine and carbon monoxide from this new cigarette are less than the yields of 95% and 75%, respectively, of the cigarettes sold in the United States during 1988. Nicotine absorption from smoking this new cigarette is not significantly different from that of tobacco-burning cigarettes yielding equivalent levels of nicotine. The urine mutagenicity of smokers of new cigarettes is significantly less (P less than .05) than that of smokers of tobacco-burning cigarettes and is not significantly different (P greater than .10) from that of nonsmokers. We conclude that cigarettes which heat rather than burn tobacco can reduce the yield of tobacco combustion products. This simplification of smoke chemistry had no effect on nicotine absorption in smokers and resulted in a reduction of biological activity in smokers as measured by urine mutagenicity.

  10. Nicotine delivery to the aerosol of a heat-not-burn tobacco product: comparison with a tobacco cigarette and e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Yannovits, Nikoletta; Sarri, Theoni; Voudris, Vassilis; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2017-06-16

    The purpose was to measure nicotine levels to the tobacco and levels emitted to the aerosol of a heat-not-burn product (HnB, IQOS) compared to e-cigarettes (ECs) and a tobacco cigarette. The HnB device and regular and menthol sticks were purchased from Italy. Three types of ECs (ciga-like, eGo-style and variable wattage) and a commercially-available tobacco cigarette were also tested. A custom-made liquid containing 2% nicotine was used with ECs. Products were tested using Health Canada Intense puffing regime while HnB and ECs were additionally tested using a 4 s puff duration regime while maintaining the same puff volume. Nicotine content in HnB regular and menthol tobacco sticks was 15.2 ± 1.1 mg/g and 15.6 ± 1.7 mg/g tobacco respectively. The levels of nicotine to the aerosol were similar for regular and menthol HnB products (1.40 ± 0.16 and 1.38 ± 0.11 mg/12 puffs respectively) and did not change significantly with prolonged puff duration. The tobacco cigarette delivered the highest level of nicotine (1.99 ± 0.20 mg/cigarette), with levels being higher than HnB and ECs under Health Canada Intense regime but similar to eGo-style and variable wattage ECs at prolonged puff duration regime. The HnB product delivers nicotine to the aerosol at levels higher than ECs but lower than a tobacco cigarette when tested using Health Canada Intense puffing regime. No change in HnB nicotine delivery was observed at prolonged puff duration with the same puff volume, unlike ECs which deliver more nicotine with longer puff duration. Nicotine delivery to the smoker is expected to play an important role in the ability to any harm reduction product to successfully substitute smoking. This study evaluated the content and nicotine delivery to the aerosol of a heat-not-burn tobacco product (IQOS) in comparison with e-cigarettes and a tobacco cigarette. The main findings were that the tobacco sticks contained similar nicotine concentration to tobacco cigarettes, and that the levels

  11. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES...

  12. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES...

  13. Criterion validity of measures of perceived relative harm of e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco compared to cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Persoskie, Alexander; Nguyen, Anh B; Kaufman, Annette R; Tworek, Cindy

    2017-04-01

    Beliefs about the relative harmfulness of one product compared to another (perceived relative harm) are central to research and regulation concerning tobacco and nicotine-containing products, but techniques for measuring such beliefs vary widely. We compared the validity of direct and indirect measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (SLT) compared to cigarettes. On direct measures, participants explicitly compare the harmfulness of each product. On indirect measures, participants rate the harmfulness of each product separately, and ratings are compared. The U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA-2015; N=3738) included direct measures of perceived harm of e-cigarettes and SLT compared to cigarettes. Indirect measures were created by comparing ratings of harm from e-cigarettes, SLT, and cigarettes on 3-point scales. Logistic regressions tested validity by assessing whether direct and indirect measures were associated with criterion variables including: ever-trying e-cigarettes, ever-trying snus, and SLT use status. Compared to the indirect measures, the direct measures of harm were more consistently associated with criterion variables. On direct measures, 26% of adults rated e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes, and 11% rated SLT as less harmful than cigarettes. Direct measures appear to provide valid information about individuals' harm beliefs, which may be used to inform research and tobacco control policy. Further validation research is encouraged.

  14. Cigarettes, social reinforcement, and culture: a commentary on "Tobacco as a social currency: cigarette gifting and sharing in China".

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-03-01

    As Rich and Xiao suggested, cigarette sharing and gifting play an important role in China's smoking epidemic. Understanding the cultural roots, history, and impacts of such practices should be emphasized in tobacco control efforts. "Tobacco as a social currency" is a consequence of the tobacco industry usurping traditional values and cultural customs to make cigarette gifting acceptable, desirable, and socially reinforcing. The cigarettes-social reinforcement link created by the tobacco industry can be broken by deglamorizing smoking and cigarette gifting and by reinforcing alternative healthful behaviors. A behavioral ecological perspective, with an emphasis of understanding and engineering cultures, should guide future health promotion efforts to reduce smoking and other risk practices in China.

  15. Explaining the effects of electronic cigarettes on craving for tobacco in recent quitters.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2015-03-01

    To explore how e-cigarettes attenuate craving for tobacco, in e-cigarette users who recently quit smoking. Cross-sectional survey of recent quitters, Internet (French and English), 2012-2014. Participants were 374 daily users of e-cigarettes who had quit smoking in the previous two months, enrolled on websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and to smoking cessation. We measured perception that e-cigarettes attenuate craving for tobacco cigarettes, characteristics of e-cigarettes, modifications of the devices, patterns of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, satisfaction with e-cigarettes, dependence on e-cigarettes, and personal characteristics. The strongest attenuation of craving for tobacco was obtained by using higher nicotine concentrations in refill liquids, modular systems (rather than unmodified devices), and high voltage batteries. The strength of the effect of e-cigarettes on craving was also associated with more intensive use (more puffs per day, more refill liquid). Stronger effects on craving were associated with satisfaction with e-cigarettes, and with reporting that e-cigarettes helped to quit smoking. Participants who reported the strongest effects on craving for tobacco were the most dependent on the e-cigarette and had the strongest urges to vape. From a public health perspective, there is a trade-off between e-cigarettes that provide high levels of nicotine, high satisfaction and more effects on craving for tobacco, but may also be addictive, and e-cigarettes that contain less nicotine and are less addictive, but are also less satisfactory and less efficient at relieving craving and at helping dependent smokers quit smoking. This trade-off must be kept in mind when regulating e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cigarette excise tax structure and cigarette prices: evidence from the global adult tobacco survey and the U.S. National Adult Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Kostova, Deliana; Shang, Ce

    2014-01-01

    The importance of tobacco tax structure in determining the relative prices of different tobacco products and brands has become increasingly recognized. The structuring of tobacco tax across products and brands within a country can impact the variability of prices within a country, shaping consumption and influencing tobacco users' incentives to switch down to cheaper alternatives in response to tax and price increases. Brand-specific data on the average prices paid for the top 5 cigarette brands in 13 countries were obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, and for the United States, data were obtained from the National Adult Tobacco Survey. The variability of cigarette prices paid across brands was analyzed in the context of each country's tobacco tax structure. Countries with simpler cigarette tax structures, particularly those that emphasize specific taxes and do not involve tier-based taxes, exhibit less variability in the prices smokers pay for cigarettes across brands. Increases in cigarette taxes in countries with simpler tax structures will be more effective in reducing cigarette smoking and its health and economic consequences than comparable tax increases in countries where tax structures are more complicated and there are greater opportunities for switching to cheaper brands in order to avoid a tax increase.

  17. Young adult smoker risk perceptions of traditional cigarettes and nontraditional tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Richter, Patricia A; Pederson, Linda L; O'Hegarty, Michelle M

    2006-01-01

    To explore risk perceptions of traditional and nontraditional tobacco products (NTPs) among young adult smokers. Focus groups with African Americans, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics. Risk ratings of light, regular, and menthol cigarettes and of NTPs and marijuana and cigarettes were compared. Participants tended to view light cigarettes as safer than regular cigarettes. Shisha and herbal products were rated as safer than traditional cigarettes, but there were differences in ratings by race/ethnicity, related to preferred cigarette variety. Health communication messages about the use of cigarettes and NTPs should consider risk perceptions about the products and racial/ethnic differences.

  18. Tobacco on the web: surveillance and characterisation of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertising.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Amanda; Ganz, Ollie; Vallone, Donna

    2015-07-01

    Despite the internet's broad reach and potential to influence consumer behaviour, there has been little examination of the volume, characteristics, and target audience of online tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. A full-service advertising firm was used to collect all online banner/video advertisements occurring in the USA and Canada between 1 April 2012 and 1 April 2013. The advertisement and associated meta-data on brand, date range observed, first market, and spend were downloaded and summarised. Characteristics and themes of advertisements, as well as topic area and target demographics of websites on which advertisements appeared, were also examined. Over a 1-year period, almost $2 million were spent by the e-cigarette and tobacco industries on the placement of their online product advertisements in the USA and Canada. Most was spent promoting two brands: NJOY e-cigarettes and Swedish Snus. There was almost no advertising of cigarettes. About 30% of all advertisements mentioned a price promotion, discount coupon or price break. e-Cigarette advertisements were most likely to feature messages of harm reduction (38%) or use for cessation (21%). Certain brands advertised on websites that contained up to 35% of youth (<18 years) as their audience. Online banner/video advertising is a tactic used mainly to advertise e-cigarettes and cigars rather than cigarettes, some with unproven claims about benefits to health. Given the reach and accessibility of online advertising to vulnerable populations such as youth and the potential for health claims to be misinterpreted, online advertisements need to be closely monitored. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Openness to Using Non-cigarette Tobacco Products Among U.S. Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Arrazola, René A; Tworek, Cindy; Rolle, Italia V; Neff, Linda J; Portnoy, David B

    2016-04-01

    National data indicate that the prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco product use is highest among young adults; however, little is known about their openness to use these products in the future and associated risk factors. This study sought to characterize openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products and associated factors among U.S. young adults. In 2014, National Adult Tobacco Survey data (2012-2013) were analyzed to characterize openness to using the following tobacco products among all young adults aged 18-29 years (N=5,985): cigars; electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes"); hookah; pipe tobacco; chew, snuff, or dip; snus; and dissolvables. Among those who were not current users of each product, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographics, cigarette smoking status, lifetime use of other non-cigarette products, perceived harm and addictiveness of smoking, and receipt of tobacco industry promotions and openness to using each product. Among all young adults, openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products was greatest for hookah (28.2%); e-cigarettes (25.5%); and cigars (19.1%). In multivariable analyses, which included non-current users of each product, non-current ever, current, and former smokers were more likely than never smokers to be open to using most examined products, as were men and adults aged 18-24 years. Receipt of tobacco industry promotions was associated with openness to using e-cigarettes; chew, snuff, or dip; and snus. There is substantial openness to trying non-cigarette tobacco products among U.S. young adults. Young adults are an important population to consider for interventions targeting non-cigarette tobacco product use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Exploring Exclusive and Poly-tobacco Use among Adult Cigarette Smokers in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    O'Gara, Erin; Sharma, Eva; Boyle, Raymond G; Taylor, Kristie A

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, the United States has seen dramatic reductions in cigarette smoking. In contrast, other tobacco products (OTPs) have increased in popularity, particularly electronic cigarettes. The availability of new OTPs also has led to the use of multiple tobacco products that includes combustible cigarettes (poly-use). This study examines patterns of exclusive cigarette and polyuse among adult smokers in Minnesota. Data from 5 rounds of the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) series 1999-2014 were analyzed. Weighted estimates of the prevalence of exclusive and poly-tobacco use were calculated. The use of multiple tobacco products was contrasted with past 30-day exclusive cigarette smoking. Poly-use was measured as the current use of combustible cigarettes plus past 30-day use of another tobacco product. The percentage of Minnesota adults who used at least 2 tobacco products increased from 3.2 in 1999 to 5.8 in 2014. The most common combination of products in 2014 was combustible cigarettes and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), a combination that increased significantly between 2010 and 2014. Compared to exclusive cigarette smoking, poly-users were more likely to be younger and male. In this state-based survey, the number of people using multiple tobacco products remains modest but nearly doubled from 1999 to 2014. Further surveillance should discern motivations and patterns of use among poly-users.

  2. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation

    PubMed Central

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771

  3. Area disparity in children's perceptions of access to tobacco and cigarette purchasing experiences in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Fu-Li; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lin, Pi-Li; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Lee, Chien-Hung; Peng, Wu-Der; Chen, Ted; Lu, Di-Lin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents who perceive easy access to tobacco are more likely to acquire cigarettes and experience smoking. This study assesses area disparities in perceptions of access to tobacco and cigarette purchasing experiences among schoolchildren. Data on children's tobacco-related variables were obtained from the Control of School-Aged Children Smoking Study Survey in Taiwan. A stratified random sample of 65 primary schools was included. Polytomous logistic regression analyzed factors associated with tobacco accessibility and purchasing experiences. More than half of the children reported that tobacco retailers often or always sold cigarettes to them. Rural and mountainous children were more likely to have access to cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.01 and 3.01, respectively) and have cigarette purchasing experiences (AOR = 3.06 and 13.76, respectively). Cigarette purchasing from retailers (AOR = 1.84) was significantly associated with children's perceptions of access to tobacco. The factors associated with cigarette purchasing experiences were families smoking (AOR = 8.90), peers smoking (AOR = 2.22), frequent exposure to entertainer smoking on TV and in films (AOR = 2.15), and perceived access to tobacco (AOR = 1.51). The health department should strictly enforce laws regarding retailers selling tobacco to underage, particularly in remote areas. Schools can reinforce tobacco-use prevention messages. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  4. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. Responsibility for compliance with the provisions of this...

  5. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. Responsibility for compliance with the provisions of this...

  6. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. Responsibility for compliance with the provisions of this...

  7. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. Responsibility for compliance with the provisions of this part...

  8. 27 CFR 44.64 - Responsibility for delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... delivery or exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes. 44.64 Section 44.64 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... products, and cigarette papers and tubes. Responsibility for compliance with the provisions of this part...

  9. 75 FR 51947 - Mailing of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products to APO/FPO/DPO Destination Addresses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... 111 Mailing of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products to APO/FPO/ DPO Destination Addresses AGENCY... of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco to APO/FPO/DPO destination addresses via Express Mail Military... eligibility requirements under which shipments of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco could be sent via U.S. mail...

  10. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Selvin H; Rossiter, Lana M; Taylor, Kenneth M; Holman, Matthew R; Zhang, Liqin; Ding, Yan S; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-02-20

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration's list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated HPLC/MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands, whereas NNK and NAB were present in lesser amounts. The average ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of individual TSNAs to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R(2) = 0.61-0.98, p < 0.0001), and all three TSNAs individually predict total TSNAs with minimal difference between measured and predicted total TSNA amounts (error < 7.4%). NNK has weaker correlation (R(2) = 0.56-0.82; p < 0.0001) and is a less reliable predictor of total TSNA quantities. Tobacco weight and levels of TSNAs in filler influence TSNA levels in smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine-smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands.

  11. Openness to Using Non-cigarette Tobacco Products Among U.S. Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Arrazola, René A.; Tworek, Cindy; Rolle, Italia V.; Neff, Linda J.; Portnoy, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction National data indicate that the prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco product use is highest among young adults; however, little is known about their openness to use these products in the future and associated risk factors. This study sought to characterize openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products and associated factors among U.S. young adults. Methods In 2014, National Adult Tobacco Survey data (2012–2013) were analyzed to characterize openness to using the following tobacco products among all young adults aged 18–29 years (N=5,985): cigars; electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”); hookah; pipe tobacco; chew, snuff, or dip; snus; and dissolvables. Among those who were not current users of each product, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographics, cigarette smoking status, lifetime use of other non-cigarette products, perceived harm and addictiveness of smoking, and receipt of tobacco industry promotions and openness to using each product. Results Among all young adults, openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products was greatest for hookah (28.2%); e-cigarettes (25.5%); and cigars (19.1%). In multivariable analyses, which included non-current users of each product, non-current ever, current, and former smokers were more likely than never smokers to be open to using most examined products, as were men and adults aged 18–24 years. Receipt of tobacco industry promotions was associated with openness to using e-cigarettes; chew, snuff, or dip; and snus. Conclusions There is substantial openness to trying non-cigarette tobacco products among U.S. young adults. Young adults are an important population to consider for interventions targeting non-cigarette tobacco product use. PMID:26549502

  12. Risk Factors for Exclusive E-Cigarette Use and Dual E-Cigarette Use and Tobacco Use in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Rebecca; Williams, Rebecca J.; Pagano, Ian; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and cigarette use among adolescents and determine whether established risk factors for smoking discriminate user categories. METHODS: School-based survey of 1941 high school students (mean age 14.6 years) in Hawaii; data collected in 2013. The survey assessed e-cigarette use and cigarette use, alcohol and marijuana use, and psychosocial risk and protective variables (eg, parental support, academic involvement, smoking expectancies, peer smoking, sensation seeking). Analysis of variance and multinomial regression examined variation in risk and protective variables across the following categories of ever-use: e-cigarette only, cigarette only, dual use (use of both products), and nonuser (never used either product). RESULTS: Prevalence for the categories was 17% (e-cigarettes only), 12% (dual use), 3% (cigarettes only), and 68% (nonusers). Dual users and cigarette-only users were highest on risk status (elevated on risk factors and lower on protective factors) compared with other groups. E-cigarette only users were higher on risk status than nonusers but lower than dual users. E-cigarette only users and dual users more often perceived e-cigarettes as healthier than cigarettes compared with nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports a US adolescent sample with one of the largest prevalence rates of e-cigarette only use in the existing literature. Dual use also had a substantial prevalence. The fact that e-cigarette only users were intermediate in risk status between nonusers and dual users raises the possibility that e-cigarettes are recruiting medium-risk adolescents, who otherwise would be less susceptible to tobacco product use. PMID:25511118

  13. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.

  14. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey J

    2011-05-01

    To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African-Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find 'regular' cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit.

  15. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 3. Biomarkers of biological effect

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Morgan, Walter T.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) for 24 weeks was conducted. Evaluation of biomarkers of biological effect (e.g. inflammation, lipids, hypercoaguable state) indicated that the majority of consistent and statistically significant improvements over time within each group were observed in markers of inflammation. Consistent and statistically significant differences in pairwise comparisons between product groups were not observed. These findings are relevant to the understanding of biomarkers of biological effect related to cigarette smoking as well as the risk continuum across various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525962

  16. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 3. Biomarkers of biological effect.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Michael W; Marano, Kristin M; Jones, Bobbette A; Morgan, Walter T; Stiles, Mitchell F

    2015-01-01

    A randomized, multi-center study of adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) for 24 weeks was conducted. Evaluation of biomarkers of biological effect (e.g. inflammation, lipids, hypercoaguable state) indicated that the majority of consistent and statistically significant improvements over time within each group were observed in markers of inflammation. Consistent and statistically significant differences in pairwise comparisons between product groups were not observed. These findings are relevant to the understanding of biomarkers of biological effect related to cigarette smoking as well as the risk continuum across various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917).

  17. Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes: “not medicine but less harmful”?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiyin; Glantz, Stanton; Tong, Elisa

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and health claims of Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes. Methods Analysis of international news sources, company websites, and the transnational tobacco companies' (TTC) documents. PubMed searches of herbs and brands. Results Twenty‐three brands were identified, mainly from China. Many products claimed to relieve respiratory symptoms and reduce toxins, with four herb‐only products advertised for smoking cessation. No literature was found to verify the health claims, except one Korean trial of an herb‐only product. Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes were initially produced by China by the 1970s and introduced to Japan in the 1980s. Despite initial news about research demonstrating a safer cigarette, the TTC analyses of these cigarettes suggest that these early products were not palatable and had potentially toxic cardiovascular effects. By the late 1990s, China began producing more herbal‐tobacco cigarettes in a renewed effort to reduce harmful constituents in cigarettes. After 2000, tobacco companies from Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand began producing similar products. Tobacco control groups in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand voiced concern over the health claims of herbal‐tobacco products. In 2005, China designated two herbal‐tobacco brands as key for development. Conclusion Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarettes claim to reduce harm, but no published literature is available to verify these claims or investigate unidentified toxicities. The increase in Asian herbal‐tobacco cigarette production by 2000 coincides with the Asian tobacco companies' regular scientific meetings with TTCs and their interest in harm reduction. Asia faces additional challenges in tobacco control with these culturally concordant products that may discourage smokers from quitting. PMID:17400933

  18. Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, P; Yu, L; Shulgin, A T; Benowitz, N L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:10224986

  19. Evaluation of factors influencing intention to quit smokeless and cigarette tobacco use among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel; Akinyele, Adisa O; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless and cigarette tobacco use is becoming increasingly popular among Nigerian adolescents. This study aimed to evaluate predictors of intention to quit tobacco use among adolescents that currently use tobacco products in Nigeria. A total of 536 male and female high school students in senior classes in Benue State, Nigeria were enrolled into the cross-sectional study. The survey instrument was adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) questionnaire. Among adolescents with tobacco habits, 80.5% of smokeless tobacco users and 82.8% of cigarette smokers intended to quit tobacco use within 12 months. After adjustment, significant predictors of intention to quit cigarette smoking were parents' smoking status (P<0.01), peers' smokeless use status (P<0.01) and perception that smoking made one comfortable at social events (P<0.01). For intention to quit smokeless tobacco use, significant predictors after adjustment were parents' smokeless use status, (P=0.03) perception that smokeless tobacco use made one more comfortable at social events (P=0.04) and perception of harm from smokeless use (P=0.02). This study demonstrates that the intention to quit smokeless and cigarette tobacco use is significantly predicted by perception about the societal acceptance of tobacco use at social events, parents and peers' tobacco use status as well as the perception of harm from use of tobacco products. Providing social support may increase quit attempts among youth smokers.

  20. Correlation between tobacco control policies, consumption of rolled tobacco and e-cigarettes, and intention to quit conventional tobacco, in Europe.

    PubMed

    Lidón-Moyano, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saliba, Patrick; Graffelman, Jan; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the correlation between the implementation of tobacco control policies and tobacco consumption, particularly rolling tobacco, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) users and the intent to quit smoking in 27 countries of the European Union. Ecological study with the country as the unit of analysis. We used the data from tobacco control activities, measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), in 27 European countries, in 2010, and the prevalence of tobacco consumption data from the Eurobarometer of 2012. Spearman correlation coefficients (rsp) and their 95% CIs. There was a negative correlation between TCS and prevalence of smoking (rsp=-0.41; 95% CI -0.67 to -0.07). We also found a negative correlation (rsp=-0.31) between TCS and the prevalence of ever e-cigarette users, but it was not statistically significant. Among former cigarette smokers, there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between TCS and the consumption of hand-rolled tobacco (rsp=0.46; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.70). We observed a similar correlation between TCS and other tobacco products (cigars and pipe) among former cigarette smokers. There was a significant positive correlation between TCS and intent to quit smoking in the past 12 months (rsp=0.66; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.87). The level of smoke-free legislation among European countries is correlated with a decrease in the prevalence of smoking of conventional cigarettes and an increase in the intent to quit smoking within the past 12 months. However, the consumption of other tobacco products, particularly hand-rolled tobacco, is positively correlated with TCS among former cigarette smokers. Therefore, tobacco control policies should also consider other tobacco products, such as rolling tobacco, cigars and pipes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Switching from usual brand cigarettes to a tobacco-heating cigarette or snus: Part 1. Study design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Michael W.; Marano, Kristin M.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Stiles, Mitchell F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A randomized, multi-center study was conducted to assess potential improvement in health status measures, as well as changes in biomarkers of tobacco exposure and biomarkers of biological effect, in current adult cigarette smokers switched to tobacco-heating cigarettes, snus or ultra-low machine yield tobacco-burning cigarettes (50/group) evaluated over 24 weeks. Study design, conduct and methodology are presented here along with subjects’ disposition, characteristics, compliance and safety results. This design and methodology, evaluating generally healthy adult smokers over a relatively short duration, proved feasible. Findings from this randomized study provide generalized knowledge of the risk continuum among various tobacco products (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02061917). PMID:26525849

  2. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO... tubes. When any Federal, State, or local officer having custody of forfeited, condemned, or...

  3. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO... tubes. When any Federal, State, or local officer having custody of forfeited, condemned, or...

  4. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO... tubes. When any Federal, State, or local officer having custody of forfeited, condemned, or...

  5. Nonsmokers' responses to new warning labels on smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-09-25

    Graphic warning labels are a tobacco control best practice that is mandated in the US for cigarettes under the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. However, smokeless tobacco products are not required to carry graphic warning labels, and as of September 2014, electronic cigarettes in the US carry no warning labels and are aggressively marketed, including with "reduced harm" or "FDA Approved" messages. In this online experiment, 483 US adult non-users of tobacco were randomized to view print advertisements for moist snuff, snus, and e-cigarettes with either warning labels (current warning label, graphic warning label) or "endorsements" (a "lower risk" label proposed by a tobacco company, an "FDA Approved" label) or control (tobacco advertisement with no label, advertisement for a non-tobacco consumer products). Main outcome measures included changes in perceived harm, positive attitudes towards, openness to using, and interest in a free sample of moist snuff, snus, and e-cigarettes. The graphic warning label increased perceived harm of moist snuff and e-cigarettes. "Lower risk" and "FDA Approved" labels decreased perceived harm of moist snuff and snus respectively. Current warning label and graphic warning label significantly lowered positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes. In this sample of non-users of tobacco, 15% were interested in a free sample of alternative tobacco products (predominantly e-cigarettes). Proportion of participants interested in a free sample did not differ significantly across the conditions, but those interested in a free sample had significantly lower perceptions of harm of corresponding tobacco products. Regulatory agencies should not allow "lower risk" warning labels, which have similar effects to the "FDA Approved" label, which is prohibited, and should consider implementing graphic warning labels for smokeless tobacco products and e-cigarettes.

  6. Does switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars reduce tobacco smoke exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Ockene, J K; Pechacek, T F; Vogt, T; Svendsen, K

    1987-01-01

    Cigarette smoking histories, reported depth of inhalation, number of pipe and cigars (PC) smoked, serum thiocyanate (SCN) and expired air carbon monoxide (CO) levels were examined in PC male smokers enrolled in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Serum SCN levels for all PC smokers were higher than for non-smokers and lower than for current cigarette smokers. Levels were related to the amount of product smoke. Prior cigarette smokers had higher SCN levels when compared to PC users who had never smoked cigarettes, smoked a larger number of tobacco products per day, and reported inhaling into the chest more often. Prospective data on baseline cigarette smokers demonstrated that smokers who stopped all tobacco products had a greater drop in SCN and CO than those who switched to PC. The findings strongly suggest that cessation of all tobacco products is the best strategy for decreasing exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:3499090

  7. 76 FR 19710 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette Per Unit Assessments; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AI12 Tobacco Transition... correction to the Request for Comments titled ``Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette Per... calculation of assessments to fund the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) as authorized by the Fair and...

  8. 78 FR 44484 - Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products.... Marthaler, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, 9200 Corporate Blvd., Rockville, MD... Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, enacted on June 22, 2009, amends the Federal Food...

  9. Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and lead in smoke from tobacco products other than cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Guirguis, G; Kim, I S; Garbin, O; Fracchia, M; Flessel, C P; Kizer, K W; Book, S A; Warriner, T E

    1990-01-01

    Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and lead in mainstream smoke from cigars, roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette and pipe tobaccos were sampled to evaluate their potential health significance. Results with reference cigarettes were consistent with published values, providing support for the methodology employed. The emissions of benzene and BaP, expressed as mass emitted per gram of tobacco consumed, were similar for all products evaluated; for benzene, the mean values for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos were 156 +/- 52, 68 +/- 11, and 242 +/- 126 micrograms/g, respectively. Mean values for BaP were 42 +/- 7 and 48 +/- 4 ng/g for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco, respectively. Lead values were below the limit of reliable quantitation in all cases. The mean benzene concentrations in a puff ranged from 1 to 2 x 10(5) micrograms/m3 for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos. For BaP, the puff concentration averaged about 60 micrograms/m3 for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco. The results suggest that smoking cigars, pipes or RYO cigarettes leads to potential exposures which exceed the No Significant Risk levels of benzene and BaP set pursuant to California's Proposition 65. These tobacco products are now required to bear a health hazard warning when sold in California. We recommend that this be adopted as national policy. PMID:2327532

  10. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, Erika B; Neilands, Torsten B; Dube, Shanta R; Kuiper, Nicole M; Arrazola, Rene A; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.

  11. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Erika B.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kuiper, Nicole M.; Arrazola, Rene A.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. Methods By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. Results In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising. PMID:26308217

  12. [Survey on the use of electronic cigarettes and tobacco among children in middle and high school].

    PubMed

    Stenger, N; Chailleux, E

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of electronic cigarette use among teenagers and its connection with the consumption of tobacco. In 2014 we conducted a survey of 3319 middle and high school students. Among the students, 56% had tried an electronic cigarette at least once (boys: 59.9%, girls: 49.3%; ranging from 31.3% for the 8th grade students to 66.1% for the 12th grades). However, only 3.4% reported that they used electronic cigarettes every day. Initiation of e-cigarette use in these teenagers was principally due to use by friends or triggered by curiosity and they usually choose fruit or sweet flavours initially. The majority could not give the concentration of nicotine in e-cigarettes that they used. Moreover, 61.5% of the students had ever tried tobacco and 22.3% were daily smokers. Our study found a strong link between vaping and smoking. 80% of the students who had ever tried conventional cigarettes (94% for the daily smokers) had also tried an electronic cigarette, versus 16% of the student who have never smoked. Few students (6.2%) used electronic cigarettes without smoking tobacco too. Usually, they have tried tobacco before trying an electronic cigarette. Only tobacco smokers seem to smoke electronic cigarettes with nicotine. Although our study shows that teenagers frequently try electronic cigarettes, it does not prove, for the moment, that vaping itself usually leads to nicotine addiction. However, as most of the teenagers are unable to tell if the electronic cigarette they are testing contains nicotine, it raises the possibility that they could be vulnerable to manipulation by the tobacco industry. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Changes in tobacco consumption: boom of roll-your-own cigarettes and emergence of e-cigarettes].

    PubMed

    Tarrazo, Marina; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María I; Malvar, Alberto; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    To assess changes in smoking prevalence and study roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco and e-cigarette use in the Galician population between 2007 and 2015. Data were obtained from five independent, cross-sectional studies carried out in Galicia (Spain) between 2007-2015 in the population aged 16 and over (n=8,000/year). Prevalence of use was estimated, with 95% confidence intervals, overall, according to sex and by age group, area of residence and level of education. Smoking prevalence decreased from 25.4% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2015. In 2007, 1.8% of current smokers declared that they had smoked RYO tobacco, compared to 18.6% in 2015. Among smokers, RYO tobacco consumption increased across all demographic groups. In both 2014 and 2015, ever use of e-cigarettes was 0.7%. E-cigarette use was more frequent in urban settings. Smoking prevalence decreased in Galicia between 2007 and 2015, and there has been rapid growth in the prevalence of RYO tobacco use. Although smokers are more likely to use e-cigarettes, both former and never smokers declared their use. The boom of RYO cigarettes and the emergence of e-cigarettes highlight the importance of having continuous surveillance systems to identify smoking behavioural changes. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the Arizona tobacco control program on cigarette consumption and healthcare expenditures.

    PubMed

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between per capita tobacco control expenditures, cigarette consumption, and healthcare expenditures in the state of Arizona. Arizona's tobacco control program, which was established in 1994, concentrates on youth uptake of smoking and avoids public policy and commentary on the tobacco industry. We use a cointegrating time series analysis using aggregate data on healthcare and tobacco control expenditures, cigarette consumption and prices and other data. We find there is a strong association between per capita healthcare expenditure and per capita cigarette consumption. In the long run, a marginal increase in annual cigarette consumption of one pack per capita increases per capita healthcare expenditure by $19.5 (SE $5.45) in Arizona. A cumulative increase of $1.00 in the difference between control state and Arizona per capita tobacco control expenditures increases the difference in cigarette consumption by 0.190 (SE 0.0780) packs per capita. Between 1996 and 2004, Arizona's tobacco control program was associated with a cumulative reduction in cigarette consumption of 200 million packs (95% CI 39.0 million packs, 364 million packs) worth $500 million (95% CI: $99 million, $896 million) in pre-tax cigarette sales to the tobacco industry. The cumulative healthcare savings was $2.33 billion (95% CI $0.37 billion, $5.00 billion) and the cumulative reduction in cigarette. Arizona's tobacco control expenditures are associated with reduced cigarette consumption and healthcare expenditures, amounting to about 10 times the cost of the program through 2004. This return on investment, while large, was less than the more aggressive California program, which did not limit its focus to youth and included tobacco industry denomalization messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in tobacco from U.S. brand and non-U.S. brand cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ashley, David L; Beeson, Michelle D; Johnson, Diana R; McCraw, Joan M; Richter, Patricia; Pirkle, James L; Pechacek, Terry F; Song, Siqing; Watson, Clifford H

    2003-06-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are one of the major classes of carcinogens found in tobacco products. As part of collaborative efforts to reduce tobacco use and resulting disease, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) carried out a two-phase investigation into the worldwide variation of the levels of TSNAs in cigarette tobacco. In the first phase, representatives of the World Health Organization (WHO) purchased cigarettes; scientists from the CDC subsequently measured the levels of TSNAs in tobacco from 21 different countries. Although the data collected from this initial survey suggested that globally marketed U.S.-brand cigarettes typically had higher TSNA levels than locally popular non-U.S. cigarettes in many countries, the number of samples limited the statistical power of the study. To improve statistical power and to ensure adequate sampling, the CDC conducted a second survey of 14 countries. In addition to the United States, the CDC selected the world's 10 most populous countries and three additional countries, so that at least two countries from each of the six WHO regions were represented. For each country, the CDC compared 15 packs of Marlboro cigarettes, which is the world's most popular brand of cigarettes, with 15 packs of a locally popular non-U.S. brand in the study country. Marlboro cigarettes purchased in 11/13 foreign countries had significantly higher tobacco TSNA levels than the locally popular non-U.S. brands purchased in the same country. The findings suggest that TSNA levels in tobacco can be substantially reduced in some cigarettes.

  16. Review of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: Their potential human health impact.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devised to deliver nicotine in a vapor rather than in smoke without tar. ECs are hence advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarette products as the chemical compounds inhaled in the former are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those of the latter. Hazardous chemicals (e.g., formaldehyde) are nonetheless found to be generated incidentally by contacting the heated wire (i.e., the oxidation of glycerol/glycol in e-liquid). Although the extent of their release varies by several variables (e.g., the type of e-liquid, puffing rate, and the battery voltage), their exposure may also contribute to negative health effects. As the use of ECs may be much safer than that of common tobacco products, the former can be used as an aid to cut down or quit the latter. However, relatively little is yet known about the health effects of the EC on a long-term basis. Moreover, the use of EC cannot be clearly substantiated for renormalizing smoking behavior by current evidence. Behavior studies of the EC consumer suggest that the sufficient data for aerosol generation and chemical analysis should be acquired to establish reliable guides for its composition and consumption. In light of the urgent demand for such guidelines, this review examines the basic aspects of EC-related pollutants and their health effects.

  17. Exposure and Engagement With Tobacco- and E-Cigarette-Related Social Media.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Emily T; Case, Kathleen R; Kelder, Steven H; Delk, Joanne; Perry, Cheryl L; Harrell, Melissa B

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the nature and extent of adolescents' exposure to tobacco- and e-cigarette-related communications on social media. In this study, we describe the prevalence and correlates of youth exposure and engagement with tobacco- and e-cigarette-related social media. Data are from the baseline survey of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance system, a cross-sectional sample of sixth, eighth, and 10th graders (n = 3907, N = 461,097). Weighted logistic regression models were used to examine associations between demographic characteristics, sensation seeking, tobacco use, and exposure and engagement with tobacco-related social media. Overall, 52.5% of students reported exposure to tobacco-related social media in the past month, whereas < 6% reported engagement. Exposure and some forms of engagement were more common among high school students, girls, those with friends who use tobacco, and high sensation seekers (p < .05). The odds of exposure were significantly higher among students susceptible to combustible tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.71, p < .05), e-cigarettes (AOR = 2.10, p < .01), and both combustible tobacco and e-cigarettes (AOR = 2.24, p < .001). The odds of engaging with social media was higher among those who were susceptible to, had ever, or currently use both combustible tobacco and e-cigarettes (AOR = 2.10-3.46, p < .05). About 1 in every 2 adolescents in Texas are exposed to tobacco-related social media. Adolescents who are susceptible to or use e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco are exposed to and engage with tobacco-related social media more than their peers. Social media appears to be an important venue when targeting vulnerable youth in prevention campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Slowing Menthol's Progress: Differential Impact of a Tobacco Tax Increase on Cigarette Sales.

    PubMed

    Amato, Michael S; D'Silva, Joanne; Boyle, Raymond G

    2016-05-01

    The proportion of smokers who use menthol cigarettes has increased nationally since 2004, while use of non-menthol cigarettes is declining, suggesting that menthol may be undermining the effectiveness of population level tobacco control efforts. In 2013 Minnesota passed a $1.75 cigarette tax increase. We investigated whether sales of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes were differentially affected by the price increase. Cigarette sales data from convenience stores in the Minneapolis, Minnesota, metro area from January 2012, through May 2015, were obtained. Proportion of sales accounted for by menthol cigarettes was analyzed with segmented regression. Before the price increase, menthol cigarettes gained 2.21% (1.17, 3.12) of market share annually. Following the price increase, the trend slowed to 0.26% (-0.78, 1.56) annually. The slope before the price increase was significantly positive; the slope following the price increase did not significantly differ from zero. Sales of menthol cigarettes declined less rapidly than non-menthol cigarettes before the price increase. Sales of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes declined at more comparable rates after the price increase. Increasing the price of tobacco may help ensure declines in consumption are more evenly distributed across menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Using sales data, we found that a trend of increasing market share for menthol cigarettes was significantly reduced by a $1.75 cigarette price increase. These results suggest that cigarette price increases, a core tobacco control policy, may have a greater effect on menthol smokers than non-menthol smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Tobacco Outlet Density, Retailer Cigarette Sales without ID Checks, and Enforcement of Underage Tobacco Laws: Associations with Youths’ Cigarette Smoking and Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.; Mair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Aims To estimate relationships of tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks, and local enforcement of underage tobacco laws with youth’s lifetime cigarette smoking, perceived availability of tobacco and perceived enforcement of underage tobacco laws and changes over time. Design The study involved: (a) three annual telephone surveys, (b) two annual purchase surveys in 2,000 tobacco outlets, and (c) interviews with key informants from local law enforcement agencies. Analyses were multilevel models (city, individual, time). Setting A sample of 50 mid-sized non-contiguous cities in California, USA. Participants 1,478 youths (aged 13–16 at Wave 1, 52.2% male). 1,061 participated in all waves. Measurements Measures at the individual-level included lifetime cigarette smoking, perceived availability, and perceived enforcement. City-level measures included tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks, and compliance checks. Findings Outlet density was positively associated with lifetime smoking (OR=1.12, p<.01). An interaction between outlet density and wave (OR=0.96, p<.05) suggested that higher density was more closely associated with lifetime smoking at the earlier waves when respondents were younger. Greater density was positively associated with perceived availability (β=0.02, p<.05) and negatively associated with perceived enforcement (β=−0.02, p<.01). Sales rate without checking IDs was related to greater perceived availability (β=0.01, p<.01) and less perceived enforcement (β=−0.01, p<.01). Enforcement of underage tobacco laws was positively related to perceived enforcement (β=0.06, p<.05). Conclusions Higher tobacco outlet density may contribute to lifetime smoking among youths. Density, sales without ID checks and enforcement levels may influence beliefs about access to cigarettes and enforcement of underage tobacco sales laws. PMID:26430730

  20. Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Cobb, Caroline O; Soule, Eric K

    2017-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and consequences of HTS, given its growing prevalence. This study examined whether the association between HTS and poly-tobacco use differed as a function of age and alcohol consumption within in a sample of 1223 adult cigarette smokers. Approximately 20% of participants reported HTS. Compared to non-users, hookah users were more likely to be male, highly educated, and to report drug and alcohol use, binge drinking, and poly-tobacco use but were less likely to be heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Regression analyses predicting number of tobacco products used (excluding cigarettes and HTS) indicated a three-way interaction of HTS, frequency of alcohol use, and age such that the association between HTS and number of tobacco products used was strongest for younger respondents who consumed alcohol more frequently. As observed in previous studies, alcohol is an important risk factor in the relationship between HTS and poly-tobacco use, particularly among younger cigarette smokers. The links between alcohol, HTS, and poly-tobacco use should be considered when developing HTS education and prevention materials directed toward younger cigarette smokers. Findings provide information relevant to FDA's interest in the addiction potential of HTS and its link to poly-tobacco use.

  1. Past Year Quit Attempts and Use of Cessation Resources Among Cigarette-Only Smokers and Cigarette Smokers Who Use Other Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Gillian L; Pederson, Linda L; Malarcher, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how use of other tobacco products impacts cigarette-smoking cessation. We assessed differences in past year cigarette smoking quit attempts and use of counseling and medication among current cigarette-only users, cigarette and cigar users, and cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT) users. Data came from 24 448 current cigarette-only, 1064 cigarette and cigar only, and 508 cigarette and SLT only users who responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Demographic, smoking, and cessation characteristics were computed by group. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models assessed the relationship of tobacco use group to making a past year quit attempt, and use of counseling or medication during the last quit attempt. Dual users of cigarettes and cigars or SLT had similar interest in quitting and prevalence of reported past year quit attempts compared to cigarette-only users. In unadjusted analyses, cigarette and SLT users had higher odds of trying to quit in the past year compared to cigarette-only users (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.64); no differences were found for cigarette and cigar users. However, adjusting for demographic and cigarette smoking variables, both groups of dual users had similar odds as cigarette-only users for having made a past year cigarette smoking quit attempt, and to have used counseling or medication during the last quit attempt. Dual tobacco use was not associated with decreased attempts to quit smoking cigarettes; however, use of evidence-based treatment was sub-optimal among cigarette-only and dual users, and should be increased. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China.

    PubMed

    Chu, Alexandria; Jiang, Nan; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-07-01

    To understand how British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris (PM) researched the role and popularity of cigarette gifting in forming relationships among Chinese customs and how they exploited the practice to promote their brands State Express 555 and Marlboro. Searches and analysis of industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library complemented by searches on LexisNexis Academic news, online search engines and information from the tobacco industry trade press. From 1980-1999, BAT and PM employed Chinese market research firms to gather consumer information about perceptions of foreign cigarettes and the companies discovered that cigarettes, especially prestigious ones, were gifted and smoked purposely for building relationships and social status in China. BAT and PM promoted their brands as gifts by enhancing cigarette cartons and promoting culturally themed packages, particularly during the gifting festivals of Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival to tie their brands in to festival values such as warmth, friendship and celebration. They used similar marketing in Chinese communities outside China. BAT and PM tied their brands to Chinese cigarette gifting customs by appealing to social and cultural values of respect and personal honour. Decoupling cigarettes from their social significance in China and removing their appeal would probably reduce cigarette gifting and promote a decline in smoking. Tobacco control efforts in countermarketing, large graphic warnings and plain packaging to make cigarette packages less attractive as gifts could contribute to denormalising cigarette gifting.

  3. Transnational tobacco industry promotion of the cigarette gifting custom in China

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Alexandria; Jiang, Nan; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand how British American Tobacco (BAT) and Philip Morris (PM) researched the role and popularity of cigarette gifting in forming relationships among Chinese customs and how they exploited the practice to promote their brands State Express 555 and Marlboro. Methods Searches and analysis of industry documents from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library complemented by searches on LexisNexis Academic news, online search engines and information from the tobacco industry trade press. Results From 1980–1999, BAT and PM employed Chinese market research firms to gather consumer information about perceptions of foreign cigarettes and the companies discovered that cigarettes, especially prestigious ones, were gifted and smoked purposely for building relationships and social status in China. BAT and PM promoted their brands as gifts by enhancing cigarette cartons and promoting culturally themed packages, particularly during the gifting festivals of Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival to tie their brands in to festival values such as warmth, friendship and celebration. They used similar marketing in Chinese communities outside China. Conclusions BAT and PM tied their brands to Chinese cigarette gifting customs by appealing to social and cultural values of respect and personal honour. Decoupling cigarettes from their social significance in China and removing their appeal would probably reduce cigarette gifting and promote a decline in smoking. Tobacco control efforts in countermarketing, large graphic warnings and plain packaging to make cigarette packages less attractive as gifts could contribute to denormalising cigarette gifting. PMID:21282136

  4. Differential use of other tobacco products among current and former cigarette smokers by income level.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Pierce, John P; White, Martha; Messer, Karen

    2014-10-01

    With the declining sales of cigarettes, the tobacco industry has been promoting other forms of combustible and smokeless tobacco to current and former cigarette smokers. Exposure to the promotion of tobacco products has been shown to vary by income level. We combined the 2006 through 2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health to compare the prevalence and patterns of other tobacco use (cigar, snuff, and chewing tobacco) between current and former cigarette smokers by income level. Other tobacco use was minimal among females and among male non-smokers. Approximately a third of both current and former male cigarette smokers reported past-year other tobacco use. Overall, current smokers were more likely than former smokers to have used cigars (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.69, 95% CI 1.50-1.92) or snuff (AOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) in the past year. The association of smoking status with other tobacco use differed by income level (interaction term p-value<0.001). Among lower income groups, current smokers were more likely to use cigars and snuff compared to former smokers. Among the highest income group, former smokers were just as likely to use smokeless tobacco as current smokers. The differing patterns of use of other tobacco between current and former smokers by income level highlight a need for studies to understand the motivations for the use of these products and their role in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety assessment of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as an ingredient added to cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Stavanja, Mari S; Ayres, Paul H; Meckley, Daniel R; Bombick, Elizabeth R; Borgerding, Michael F; Morton, Michael J; Garner, Charles D; Pence, Deborah H; Swauger, James E

    2006-03-01

    A tiered testing strategy has been developed to evaluate the potential for new ingredients, tobacco processes, and technological developments to alter the biological activity that results from burning tobacco. A series of studies was initially conducted with cigarettes containing 3% high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as an alternate tobacco casing material to corn syrup/invert sugar, including determination of selected mainstream cigarette smoke (MS) constituent yields, Ames assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a 30-week dermal tumor-promotion evaluation of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in SENCAR mice, and a 13-week subchronic inhalation study of MS in Sprague-Dawley rats. A second series of studies was conducted with cigarettes containing 3%, 4% and 5% HFCS including MS chemistry, Ames assay, SCE assay in CHO cells, and a neutral red cytotoxicity assays. Collectively, mainstream smoke chemistry, genotoxicity, dermal tumor-promotion, and inhalation toxicity studies demonstrated no differences between cigarettes with 3% HFCS and cigarettes with 3% corn syrup/invert sugar. Also, mainstream smoke chemistry and genotoxicity of cigarettes with 4% and 5% HFCS were not different from cigarettes with 3% HFCS. In conclusion, the addition of up to 5% HFCS to cigarette does not alter the mainstream smoke chemistry or biological activity of mainstream smoke or mainstream smoke condensate as compared to cigarettes with 3% corn syrup/invert sugar with regard to the parameters investigated and presented.

  6. New cigarette brands with flavors that appeal to youth: tobacco marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Pauly, John L; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco manufacturers have recently introduced a proliferation of exotic brands featuring candylike flavors. We reviewed internal tobacco industry documents and patents to assess the role of flavored cigarettes in the targeting of young smokers. This research revealed the development of flavor delivery technologies hidden from consumers and public health professionals, including the use of a plastic pellet placed in the cigarette filter. These findings raise concerns as to the potential added health risks associated with using new flavored tobacco products, and they underscore the need for effective assessment and monitoring of tobacco products.

  7. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains...

  8. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains...

  9. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains...

  10. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains the...

  11. 27 CFR 44.1 - Exportation of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. 44.1 Section 44... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, or with drawback of tax. This part contains the...

  12. US consumer interest in non-cigarette tobacco products spikes around the 2009 federal tobacco tax increase

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Catherine L; Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Emery, Sherry; Huang, Jidong; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This quasi-experimental longitudinal study monitored aggregate Google search queries as a proxy for consumer interest in non-cigarette tobacco products (NTP) around the time of the 2009 US federal tobacco tax increase. Methods Query trends for searches mentioning common NTP were downloaded from Google’s public archives. The mean relative increase was estimated by comparing the observed with expected query volume for the 16 weeks around the tax. Results After the tax was announced, queries spiked for chewing tobacco, cigarillos, electronic cigarettes (‘e-cigarettes’), roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco, snuff, and snus. E-cigarette queries were 75% (95% CI 70% to 80%) higher than expected 8 weeks before and after the tax, followed by RYO 59% (95% CI 53% to 65%), snus 34% (95% CI 31% to 37%), chewing tobacco 17% (95% CI 15% to 20%), cigarillos 14% (95% CI 11% to 17%), and snuff 13% (95% CI 10% to 14%). Unique queries increasing the most were ‘ryo cigarettes’ 427% (95% CI 308% to 534%), ‘ryo tobacco’ 348% (95% CI 300% to 391%), ‘best electronic cigarette’ 221% (95% CI 185% to 257%), and ‘e-cigarette’ 205% (95% CI 163% to 245%). Conclusions The 2009 tobacco tax increase triggered large increases in consumer interest for some NTP, particularly e-cigarettes and RYO tobacco. PMID:24500270

  13. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke.

  14. Consumption of cigarettes and combustible tobacco--United States, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-08-03

    Smoking cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products causes adverse health outcomes, particularly cancer and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. A priority of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is to develop innovative, rapid-response surveillance systems for assessing changes in tobacco use and related health outcomes. The two standard approaches for measuring smoking rates and behaviors are 1) surveying a representative sample of the public and asking questions about personal smoking behaviors and 2) estimating consumption based on tobacco excise tax data. Whereas CDC regularly publishes findings on national and state-specific smoking rates from public surveys, CDC has not reported consumption estimates. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which previously provided such estimates, stopped reporting on consumption in 2007. To estimate consumption for the period 2000-2011, CDC examined excise tax data from the U.S. Department of Treasury's Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB); consumption estimates were calculated for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, and small and large cigars. From 2000 to 2011, total consumption of all combustible tobacco decreased from 450.7 billion cigarette equivalents to 326.6, a 27.5% decrease; per capita consumption of all combustible tobacco products declined from 2,148 to 1,374, a 36.0% decrease. However, while consumption of cigarettes decreased 32.8% from 2000 to 2011, consumption of loose tobacco and cigars increased 123.1% over the same period. As a result, the percentage of total combustible tobacco consumption composed of loose tobacco and cigars increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 10.4% in 2011. The data suggest that certain smokers have switched from cigarettes to other combustible tobacco products, most notably since a 2009 increase in the federal tobacco excise tax that created tax disparities between product types.

  15. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Aim Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. Methods We used data (n = 2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID (‘In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?’). Results Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex $1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex $6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Conclusion Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected. PMID:22923478

  16. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. We used data (n=2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID ('In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?'). Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex$1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex$6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected.

  17. Pediatric Exposure to E-Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Tobacco Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Alisha; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of exposures to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), nicotine, and tobacco products among young children in the United States. A retrospective analysis of exposures associated with nicotine and tobacco products among children younger than 6 years old was conducted by using National Poison Data System data. From January 2012 through April 2015, the National Poison Data System received 29 141 calls for nicotine and tobacco product exposures among children younger than 6 years, averaging 729 child exposures per month. Cigarettes accounted for 60.1% of exposures, followed by other tobacco products (16.4%) and e-cigarettes (14.2%). The monthly number of exposures associated with e-cigarettes increased by 1492.9% during the study period. Children <2 years old accounted for 44.1% of e-cigarette exposures, 91.6% of cigarette exposures, and 75.4% of other tobacco exposures. Children exposed to e-cigarettes had 5.2 times higher odds of a health care facility admission and 2.6 times higher odds of having a severe outcome than children exposed to cigarettes. One death occurred in association with a nicotine liquid exposure. The frequency of exposures to e-cigarettes and nicotine liquid among young children is increasing rapidly and severe outcomes are being reported. Swift government action is needed to regulate these products to help prevent child poisoning. Prevention strategies include public education; appropriate product storage and use away from children; warning labels; and modifications of e-cigarette devices, e-liquid, and e-liquid containers and packaging to make them less appealing and less accessible to children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Guindon, G. Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes at reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. Objectives First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users’ tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of sixteen low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. Methods We use data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and the type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We use self-reported information about the source of a smoker’s last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We use generalized estimating equations (GEE) to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, United States, United Kingdom and France. Findings We find prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the United Kingdom, more than 10% of smokers report last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources while in Malaysia, some prevalence estimates suggest substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also find important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, vary both in

  19. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel; Driezen, Pete; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Decades of research have produced overwhelming evidence that tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use and increase government tax revenue. The magnitude and effectiveness of taxes in reducing tobacco use provide an incentive for tobacco users, manufacturers and others, most notably criminal networks, to devise ways to avoid or evade tobacco taxes. Consequently, tobacco tax avoidance and tax evasion can reduce the public health and fiscal benefit of tobacco taxes. First, this study aims to document, using data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC), levels and trends in cigarette users' tax avoidance and tax evasion behaviour in a sample of 16 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Second, this study explores factors associated with cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. We used data from ITC surveys conducted in 16 countries to estimate the extent and type of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion between countries and across time. We used self-reported information about the source of a smoker's last purchase of cigarettes or self-reported packaging information, or similar information gathered by the interviewers during face-to-face interviews to measure tax avoidance/evasion behaviours. We used generalised estimating equations to explore individual-level factors that may affect the likelihood of cigarette tax avoidance or evasion in Canada, the USA, the UK and France. We found prevalence estimates of cigarette tax avoidance/evasion vary substantially between countries and across time. In Canada, France and the UK, more than 10% of smokers reported last purchasing cigarettes from low or untaxed sources, while in Malaysia some prevalence estimates suggested substantial cigarette tax avoidance/evasion. We also found important associations between household income and education and the likelihood to engage in tax avoidance/evasion. These associations, however, varied both in direction and magnitude across countries.

  20. Public support in England for raising the price of cigarettes to fund tobacco control activities.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Benjamin; West, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces consumption, with a global price elasticity of approximately -0.4. In the UK where the cost of cigarettes is already relatively high, there is an issue surrounding public acceptance of further price rises ahead of the inflation rate. Previous research suggests that price increases may be supported where funds are dedicated to tobacco control. This study assessed public support in England for such a policy. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in England between August 2008 and January 2009. A representative sample of 8736 respondents aged 16+, of whom 1900 (22%) were cigarette smokers at the time of the survey, was recruited. The primary outcome measure was support for a 20p (4%) price increase on a pack of cigarettes with proceeds going to fund tobacco control activities. 6216 participants (71%), including half (47%) of current cigarette smokers, indicated that they would support a 20p price increase if funds were dedicated to tobacco control activities. Levels of support among smokers were similar across the social gradient and gender. Younger smokers were more likely to support the increase. Smokers who smoked 0-10 cigarettes per day were more supportive of the increase than heavier smokers. There is broad public support for raising the cost of cigarettes with funds being used for tobacco control activities. The absence of a social gradient among smokers concurs with other research showing that more disadvantaged smokers are as engaged with tobacco control objectives as more affluent smokers.

  1. 78 FR 55671 - Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products; Request for Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products... regulatory actions that FDA might take with respect to menthol in cigarettes. The Agency is taking this... other information that may inform regulatory actions FDA might take with respect to menthol in...

  2. Tobacco Use and Usual Source of Cigarettes among High School Students--United States, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that investigated the prevalence of tobacco use by high school students (n=10,904) and the usual source of cigarettes. Survey data indicated that smoking increased from 1991-95. Most students bought cigarettes from vending machines, one-third borrowed them from someone else, and 15% had someone else buy them. (SM)

  3. 75 FR 29662 - Treatment of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco as Nonmailable Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... purchased by, consumers as tobacco for making cigarettes or cigars, or for use as wrappers thereof. e..., lightweight shipments mailed between adult individuals; Consumer Testing: Shipments of cigarettes sent by verified and authorized manufacturers to adult smokers for consumer testing purposes; and Public Health...

  4. E-Cigarettes May Be Less Toxic Than Tobacco, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163433.html E-Cigarettes May Be Less Toxic Than Tobacco, Study Suggests ... 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Smokers who switch to e-cigarettes can substantially reduce their intake of toxic chemicals ...

  5. Denicotinized versus average nicotine tobacco cigarette smoking differentially releases striatal dopamine.

    PubMed

    Domino, Edward F; Ni, Lisong; Domino, Joseph S; Yang, Wendy; Evans, Catherine; Guthrie, Sally; Wang, Heng; Koeppe, Robert A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine has long been recognized as a necessary but insufficient component of tobacco cigarettes to maintain a psychophysiological need to smoke. This study examined venous plasma concentrations effects of nicotine in cigarette smoking after overnight abstinence to release striatal dopamine (DA). Twenty-two male smokers smoked either denicotinized (denic) or average nicotine (nic) cigarettes under single blind conditions. Each was given [(11)C]raclopride and scanned in a positron emission tomography (PET) facility. Smoking either denic or nic cigarettes released striatal DA. Denic cigarette smoking released DA primarily in the right striatum, whereas nic cigarette smoking released DA in both striata, but especially in the left. Increases in venous plasma nicotine concentrations correlated positively with increased DA release in the left caudate nucleus. Smoking denic cigarettes reduced craving as much as smoking nic cigarettes. Craving reduction after nic tobacco smoking correlated with increases in plasma nicotine. Nonnicotine factors in tobacco smoking produce important right brain effects. Nicotine is a pharmacological factor during tobacco smoking that releases bilateral striatal DA, but more in the left brain.

  6. The cigarette pack as image: new evidence from tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, M; Morley, C; Horan, J; Cummings, K

    2002-01-01

    Methods: A search of tobacco company document sites using a list of specified search terms was undertaken during November 2000 to July 2001. Results: Documents show that, especially in the context of tighter restrictions on conventional avenues for tobacco marketing, tobacco companies view cigarette packaging as an integral component of marketing strategy and a vehicle for (a) creating significant in-store presence at the point of purchase, and (b) communicating brand image. Market testing results indicate that such imagery is so strong as to influence smoker's taste ratings of the same cigarettes when packaged differently. Documents also reveal the careful balancing act that companies have employed in using pack design and colour to communicate the impression of lower tar or milder cigarettes, while preserving perceived taste and "satisfaction". Systematic and extensive research is carried out by tobacco companies to ensure that cigarette packaging appeals to selected target groups, including young adults and women. Conclusions: Cigarette pack design is an important communication device for cigarette brands and acts as an advertising medium. Many smokers are misled by pack design into thinking that cigarettes may be "safer". There is a need to consider regulation of cigarette packaging. PMID:11893817

  7. Denicotinized Versus Average Nicotine Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Differentially Releases Striatal Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wendy; Evans, Catherine; Guthrie, Sally; Wang, Heng; Koeppe, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine has long been recognized as a necessary but insufficient component of tobacco cigarettes to maintain a psychophysiological need to smoke. This study examined venous plasma concentrations effects of nicotine in cigarette smoking after overnight abstinence to release striatal dopamine (DA). Methods: Twenty-two male smokers smoked either denicotinized (denic) or average nicotine (nic) cigarettes under single blind conditions. Each was given [11C]raclopride and scanned in a positron emission tomography (PET) facility. Results: Smoking either denic or nic cigarettes released striatal DA. Denic cigarette smoking released DA primarily in the right striatum, whereas nic cigarette smoking released DA in both striata, but especially in the left. Increases in venous plasma nicotine concentrations correlated positively with increased DA release in the left caudate nucleus. Smoking denic cigarettes reduced craving as much as smoking nic cigarettes. Craving reduction after nic tobacco smoking correlated with increases in plasma nicotine. Conclusions: Nonnicotine factors in tobacco smoking produce important right brain effects. Nicotine is a pharmacological factor during tobacco smoking that releases bilateral striatal DA, but more in the left brain. PMID:22491891

  8. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10-13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007-2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. In 2007-2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Chemical, physical, and in vitro characterization of research cigarettes containing denicotinized tobacco.

    PubMed

    Coffa, Bonnie G; Coggins, Christopher R E; Werley, Michael S; Oldham, Michael J; Fariss, Marc W

    2016-08-01

    The use of very low nicotine tobacco cigarettes is currently being investigated as a possible harm reduction strategy. Here, we report the smoke chemistry, toxicity, and physical characteristics of very low nicotine cigarettes that were made using blended tobacco processed through a supercritical CO2 fluid extraction, which resulted in elimination of 96% of nicotine content (denicotinized (denic) tobacco). Three types of test cigarettes (TCs) were manufactured with tobacco filler containing 100% denic tobacco (TC100), 50% denic tobacco and 50% unextracted tobacco (TC50/50), and 100% unextracted tobacco (TC0). Mainstream smoke (MS) was generated for measurement of 46 analytes and cytotoxicity and mutagenicity determination. Analysis of physical characteristics of TCs demonstrated they were well made with <5% variability among cigarettes for most parameters measured. We observed significant changes in the levels of smoke constituents, including decreases in formaldehyde, nitrosamines, and phenol, and increases in aliphatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic nitrogen compounds, aromatic amines, halogen compounds, and metals. Use of denic tobacco resulted in changes in the chemical composition of MS, but these changes did not modify biological activity as measured in the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity assays.

  11. Impact of CVS Pharmacy's Discontinuance of Tobacco Sales on Cigarette Purchasing (2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Polinski, Jennifer M; Howell, Benjamin; Gagnon, Michael A; Kymes, Steven M; Brennan, Troyen A; Shrank, William H

    2017-04-01

    To assess the impact of CVS Health's discontinuation of tobacco sales on cigarette purchasing. We used households' purchasing data to assess rates at which households stopped cigarette purchasing for at least 6 months during September 2014 to August 2015 among 3 baseline groups: CVS-exclusive cigarette purchasers, CVS+ (CVS and other retailers), and other-exclusive (only non-CVS retailers). In state-level analyses using retailers' point-of-sale purchase data, an interrupted time series compared cigarette purchasing before (January 2012 to August 2014) and after (September 2014 to April 2015) tobacco removal in 13 intervention states with CVS market share of at least 15% versus 3 control states with no CVS stores. Compared with other-exclusive purchasers, CVS-exclusive purchasers were 38% likelier (95% confidence interval = 1.06, 1.81) to stop cigarette purchasing after tobacco removal. Compared with control states, intervention states had a significant mean decrease of 0.14 (95% confidence interval = 0.06, 0.22) in packs per smoker per month. After CVS's tobacco removal, household- and population-level cigarette purchasing declined significantly. Private retailers can play a meaningful role in restricting access to tobacco. This highlights one approach to reducing tobacco use and improving public health.

  12. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Customs' Collection of Taxes § 41.62 Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  13. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes imported or brought into the... PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Customs' Collection of Taxes § 41.62 Customs collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes imported or brought into...

  14. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Customs' Collection of Taxes § 41.62 Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  15. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  16. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  17. Establishment of toxic metal reference range in tobacco from US cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, Mark R; Pappas, R Steven; Watson, Clifford H

    2013-06-01

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. There are numerous harmful substances in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Among the more than 4,000 identified compounds in smoke, many metals contribute to the health risks associated with tobacco use. Specific metals found in tobacco and tobacco smoke have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Exposure to toxic metals can cause outcomes including inflammation, sensitization and carcinogenesis. Metals in tobacco are transported in tobacco smoke proportionally with their concentrations in tobacco filler for a given cigarette design. To quantitatively examine the metal content in numerous tobacco products, high throughput methods are desired. This study developed a simple, rapid tobacco digestion method coupled with a sensitive analytical method using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Because of known memory effects and volatility of mercury, quantitative determinations of mercury were made with a direct combustion analyzer. The methods were utilized to examine arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury and nickel contents in cigarette tobacco and to establish a reference range for the metals in 50 varieties of cigarettes available in the US. These results are comparable to the limited data sets reported by others and with available standard reference material values.

  18. Establishment of Toxic Metal Reference Range in Tobacco from U.S. Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Fresquez, Mark R.; Pappas, R. Steven; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. There are numerous harmful substances in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Among the more than 4,000 identified compounds in smoke, many metals contribute to the health risks associated with tobacco use. Specific metals found in tobacco and tobacco smoke have been classified as carcinogens by the IARC. Exposures to toxic metals can cause outcomes including inflammation, sensitization, and carcinogensis. Metals in tobacco are transported in tobacco smoke proportionally with their concentrations in tobacco filler for a given cigarette design. To quantitatively examine metal content in numerous tobacco products, high throughput methods are desired. We developed a simple, rapid tobacco digestion method coupled with a sensitive analytical method using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Because of mercury's known memory effects and volatility, quantitative determinations of mercury were made with a direct combustion analyzer. The methods were utilized to examine arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, and nickel content in cigarette tobacco and to establish a reference range for the metals in 50 varieties of cigarettes available in the U.S. Our results are comparable to the limited datasets reported by others and with available standard reference material (SRM) values. PMID:23548667

  19. Correlates of exclusive or combined use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Simon, T R; Sussman, S; Dent, C W; Burton, D; Flay, B R

    1993-01-01

    Past studies which examined correlates of smokeless tobacco or cigarette use have investigated use of one tobacco product regardless of use of the other product. Thus, the etiology of exclusive use of the two tobacco products is not clear. The present study investigated the relationship of problem-prone-related variables to exclusive versus overlapping use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes. Two samples of southern California male students (eighth-grade and high school) were divided into groups according to their tobacco use status: neither product, cigarettes only, smokeless tobacco only, or both tobacco products. Generally, triers and monthly users of both tobacco products reported a higher risk-taking preference, greater susceptibility to peer social influence to use tobacco products, and greater likelihood to have tried marijuana and alcohol than did subjects who were not users of either tobacco product. Adolescents who used either product, but not both, reported similar scores on most of the variables examined, which fell in between combined or nonuse categories. These results suggest that the number of tobacco products used, not the specific product, is associated with problem-prone attributes.

  20. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999-2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. UK. UK smokers. Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and 'ultra-low price' (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Design Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999–2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. Setting UK. Participants UK smokers. Measurements Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. Findings TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and ‘ultra-low price’ (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Conclusions Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. PMID:23445255

  2. Acute Impact of Tobacco vs Electronic Cigarette Smoking on Oxidative Stress and Vascular Function.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Roberto; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Violi, Francesco; Nocella, Cristina; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Peruzzi, Mariangela; Marullo, Antonino G M; De Falco, Elena; Chimenti, Isotta; Valenti, Valentina; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    The vascular safety of electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) must still be clarified. We compared the impact of e-Cigarettes vs traditional tobacco cigarettes on oxidative stress and endothelial function in healthy smokers and nonsmoker adults. A crossover, single-blind study was performed in 40 healthy subjects (20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers, matched for age and sex). First, all subjects smoked traditional tobacco cigarettes. One week later, the same subjects smoked an e-Cigarette with the same nominal nicotine content. Blood samples were drawn just before and after smoking, and markers of oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, and vitamin E levels were measured. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was also measured. Smoking both e-Cigarettes and traditional cigarettes led to a significant increase in the levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and a significant decrease in nitric oxide bioavailability, vitamin E levels, and FMD. Generalized estimating equation analysis confirmed that all markers of oxidative stress and FMD were significantly affected by smoking and showed that the biologic effects of e-Cigarettes vstraditional cigarettes on vitamin E levels (P = .413) and FMD (P = .311) were not statistically different. However, e-Cigarettes seemed to have a lesser impact than traditional cigarettes on levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (P = .001), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (P = .046), and nitric oxide bioavailability (P = .001). Our study showed that both cigarettes have unfavorable effects on markers of oxidative stress and FMD after single use, although e-Cigarettes seemed to have a lesser impact. Future studies are warranted to clarify the chronic vascular effects of e-Cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Results Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African–Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. Conclusions The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find ‘regular’ cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit. PMID:21504928

  4. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

  5. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults --- United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-11-05

    The health consequences of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use both have been well documented, including increased risk for lung, throat, oral, and other types of cancers. To assess state-specific current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation in self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence (range: 6.4% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)] to 25.6% [Kentucky and West Virginia]) and smokeless tobacco use (range: 0.8% [USVI] to 9.1% [Wyoming]). For 15 of the states, Puerto Rico, and Guam, smoking prevalence was significantly higher among men than among women. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was higher among men than women in all states and territories. Smokeless tobacco use was highest among persons aged 18--24 years and those with a high school education or less. From 0.9% (Puerto Rico) to 13.7% (Wyoming) of current smokers reported also using smokeless tobacco. Clinicians should identify all tobacco use in their patients and advise those who use any tobacco product to quit. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends implementing this approach in combination with other measures, including raising excise taxes on tobacco and strengthening smoke-free policies to prevent tobacco-related deaths.

  6. False promises: the tobacco industry, "low tar" cigarettes, and older smokers.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Janine K; Malone, Ruth E

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging baby boomers, We performed archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis was done using iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. "Low tar" cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing "low tar" or "light" cigarettes to older smokers "at risk" of quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer, although "light" cigarettes may make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers, and families about the tobacco industry's influence may decrease the tendency to "blame the victim," thereby enhancing the likelihood of older adults receiving tobacco addiction treatment. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers.

  7. What is the impact of e-cigarette adverts on children's perceptions of tobacco smoking? An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Petrescu, D C; Vasiljevic, M; Pepper, J K; Ribisl, K M; Marteau, T M

    2017-01-01

    Objective Exposure to e-cigarette adverts increases children's positive attitudes towards using them. Given the similarity in appearance between e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes, we examined whether exposure to e-cigarette adverts has a cross-product impact on perceptions and attitudes towards smoking tobacco cigarettes. Methods Children aged 11–16 (n=564) were interviewed in their homes and randomised to one of three groups: two groups saw different sets of 10 images of e-cigarette adverts and one group saw no adverts. Of the 20 e-cigarette adverts, 10 depicted the product as glamorous and 10 depicted it as healthy. The children then self-completed a questionnaire assessing perceived appeal, harms and benefits of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Results The analyses were conducted on 411 children who reported never having smoked tobacco cigarettes or used e-cigarettes. Exposure to the adverts had no impact on the appeal or perceived benefits of smoking tobacco cigarettes. While the perceived harm of smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day was similar across groups, those exposed to either set of adverts perceived the harms of smoking one or two tobacco cigarettes occasionally to be lower than those in the control group. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that exposure to e-cigarette adverts might influence children's perceptions of smoking tobacco cigarettes, reducing their perceived harm of occasional smoking. These results suggest the potential for e-cigarette adverts to undermine tobacco control efforts by reducing a potential barrier (ie, beliefs about harm) to occasional smoking. PMID:27601455

  8. Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    In addition to some electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), new heat-not-burn tobacco products Ploom and iQOS have recently begun to be sold by tobacco companies. These products are regulated differently in Japan, depending on whether the contents are liquid or tobacco leaf. Our objective was to estimate percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products among the Japanese population, including minors. An internet survey (randomly sampled research agency panellists) with a propensity score adjustment for "being a respondent in an internet survey" using a nationally representative sample in Japan. A total of 8240 respondents aged 15-69 years in 2015 (4084 men and 4156 women). Adjusted percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes (nicotine or non-nicotine e-cigarettes) and heat-not-burn products among total participants; product types and percentages ever used among e-cigarettes ever users. Of respondents in Japan, 48% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 47-49] were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products, 6.6% (95% CI = 6.1-7.1) had ever used, 1.3% (95% CI = 1.0-1.5) had used in the last 30 days and 1.3% (95% CI = 1.1-1.6) had experience of > 50 sessions. Seventy-two per cent (95% CI = 69-76) of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, while 33% (95% CI = 30-37) of them used nicotine e-cigarettes, which has the majority share world-wide; 7.8% (95% CI = 5.5-10.0) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.1-10.7) of them used the new devices, Ploom and iQOS, respectively, with a relatively higher percentage among the younger population. Approximately half the respondents in a Japanese internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products, 6.6% had ever used. More than 70% of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, the sale of which is not legally prohibited, even to minors, in Japan, and 33% of them used nicotine e-cigarettes; 3.5% of never smoking men and 1.3% of never smoking women had ever

  9. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  10. The influence of electronic cigarette age purchasing restrictions on adolescent tobacco and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Pesko, Michael F; Hughes, Jenna M; Faisal, Fatima S

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, many states have established minimum legal purchase ages for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to ban adolescent purchases, but these policies may also affect other related substance use. We explore whether ENDS are substitutes or complements for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and marijuana among adolescents by using variation in state-level implementation of ENDS age purchasing restrictions. We linked data on ENDS age purchasing restrictions to state- and year-specific rates of adolescent tobacco and marijuana use in 2007-2013 from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. This data provides a nationally representative sample of adolescents who attend public and private schools. We performed a fixed effect regression analysis exploring the influence of ENDS age purchasing restrictions on outcomes of tobacco use and marijuana use, controlling for state and year fixed characteristics, age-race cohorts, cigarette excise taxes, and cigarette indoor use restrictions. For cigarette use, we separate our results into cigarette use frequency. We found causal evidence that ENDS age purchasing restrictions increased adolescent regular cigarette use by 0.8 percentage points. ENDS age purchasing restrictions were not associated with cigar use, smokeless tobacco use, or marijuana use. We document a concerning trend of cigarette smoking among adolescents increasing when ENDS become more difficult to purchase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Do Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Cigarette Smoking Extend to Smokeless Tobacco Use?

    PubMed

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Bunn, Janice Y; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking. Less research has been conducted characterizing the relationship between SES and risk of using of other tobacco products. The present study examined SES as a risk factor for smokeless tobacco (ST) use in a US nationally representative sample, utilizing data from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Odds were generated for current cigarette smoking and ST use among adults (≥18 years) based on SES markers (educational attainment, income, blue-collar employment, and unemployment) after controlling for the influence of demographics and other substance dependence. Odds of current cigarette smoking increased as a graded, inverse function of educational attainment as well as lower income and being unemployed. Odds of current ST use also increased as a function of lower educational attainment, although not in the linear manner seen with cigarette smoking. Odds of ST use but not cigarette smoking also increased with blue-collar employment. In contrast to patterns seen with cigarette smoking, ST use did not change in relation to income or unemployment. Markers of SES are significantly associated with odds of cigarette smoking and ST use, but which indicators are predictive and the shape of their relationship to use differs across the two tobacco products. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Case in Favor of E-Cigarettes for Tobacco Harm Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Nitzkin, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs. PMID:25003176

  13. Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

  14. Tobacco control policy and adolescent cigarette smoking status in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Haynie, Denise L.; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Wang, Jing; Gase, Lauren; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco policies that limit the sale of cigarettes to minors and restrict smoking in public places are important strategies to deter youth from accessing and consuming cigarettes. Methods: We examined the relationship of youth cigarette smoking status to state-level youth access and clean indoor air laws, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and cigarette price. Data were analyzed from the 2001 to 2002 U.S. Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted with a nationally representative sample of 13,339 students in the United States. Results: Compared with students living in states with strict regulations, those living in states with no or minimal restrictions, particularly high school students, were more likely to be daily smokers. These effects were somewhat reduced when logistic regressions were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and cigarette price, suggesting that higher cigarette prices may discourage youth to access and consume cigarettes independent of other tobacco control measures. Discussion: Strict tobacco control legislation could decrease the potential of youth experimenting with cigarettes or becoming daily smokers. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that smoking policies, particularly clean indoor air provisions, reduce smoking prevalence among high school students. PMID:19443786

  15. Spectrofluorometric method for measuring tobacco smoke particulate matter on cigarette filters and Cambridge pads.

    PubMed

    Paszkiewicz, G M; Pauly, J L

    2008-09-01

    Almost all cigarettes sold have a filter (United States, >98%; worldwide, >95%). In the last 25 years cigarette manufacturers have introduced diverse filters designed to reduce components in tobacco smoke. Today, there exists a need to establish assays to assess the efficacy of cigarette filters to retain total particulate matter (TPM), particularly unique filters of cigarettes that are being marketed as potential reduced exposure products (PREPs). We report the results of studies that were undertaken to test the hypothesis that a technique could be established for dissolving cigarette filters, and that the TPM in the fluid could be quantified by spectrofluorometry. Described here are procedures for assaying TPM on both Cambridge filter pads (glass fibres) of smoking machines and on cigarette filters (cellulose acetate fibres). The principle of the assays is based upon the observation that there exists a direct correlation between the amount of tobacco product emission TPM and fluorescence. In the absence of a tobacco tar or TPM standard, the fluorescent dye acridine orange was confirmed as a useful surrogate. Filters assayed included those of Kentucky reference cigarettes 2R4F and popular US brand cigarettes. The proposed assays are inexpensive, expedient, reproducible and amendable for large-scale studies.

  16. Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy; von Soest, Tilmann

    2014-07-01

    To: (i) investigate the development of smoking and snus use among Norwegian adolescents, and (ii) describe the users in each group. Two population-based surveys with identical procedures in 2002 (response rate 91.0%) and 2010 (response rate 84.3%). Norway. A total of 6217 respondents, aged 16-17 years. Data were collected on smoking and snus use, socio-demographic factors, school adjustment, social network, sport activities, alcohol and cannabis use and depression symptoms. Prevalence of daily smoking fell from 23.6% in 2002 to 6.8% in 2010 (P < 0.001), while the prevalence of daily snus use increased from 4.3 to 11.9% (P < 0.001). Dual daily use of cigarettes and snus remained at 1%. The relative proportion of non-daily smokers using snus increased steeply. Both snus users and smokers reported more adverse socio-economic backgrounds, less favourable school adjustment and higher levels of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use than non-users of tobacco. However, snus users were better adjusted to school and used cannabis less often than smokers. Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use. Young snus users in Norway have many of the same risk factors as smokers, but to a lesser degree. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Willy; von Soest, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    Aims To: (i) investigate the development of smoking and snus use among Norwegian adolescents, and (ii) describe the users in each group. Design Two population-based surveys with identical procedures in 2002 (response rate 91.0%) and 2010 (response rate 84.3%). Setting Norway. Participants A total of 6217 respondents, aged 16–17 years. Measurements Data were collected on smoking and snus use, socio-demographic factors, school adjustment, social network, sport activities, alcohol and cannabis use and depression symptoms. Findings Prevalence of daily smoking fell from 23.6% in 2002 to 6.8% in 2010 (P < 0.001), while the prevalence of daily snus use increased from 4.3 to 11.9% (P < 0.001). Dual daily use of cigarettes and snus remained at 1%. The relative proportion of non-daily smokers using snus increased steeply. Both snus users and smokers reported more adverse socio-economic backgrounds, less favourable school adjustment and higher levels of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use than non-users of tobacco. However, snus users were better adjusted to school and used cannabis less often than smokers. Conclusions Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use. Young snus users in Norway have many of the same risk factors as smokers, but to a lesser degree. PMID:24521070

  18. Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ajab, Huma; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

  19. Characterization of toxic metals in tobacco, tobacco smoke, and cigarette ash from selected imported and local brands in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ajab, Huma; Yaqub, Asim; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals.

  20. Cigarette smoking cessation attempts among current US smokers who also use smokeless tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Messer, Karen; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; White, Martha M.; Shi, Yuyan; Chang, Cindy; Conway, Kevin P.; Hartman, Anne; Schroeder, Megan J.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco is common, but little is known regarding the association of smokeless tobacco use with cigarette smoking cessation. Dual users may have lower cigarette consumption levels, which may also play a role in smoking cessation. Methods The 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey included 26,760 current cigarette smokers, of which 675 concurrently used smokeless tobacco. We compared characteristics of the most recent cigarette smoking quit attempt of the past year between dual users and exclusive smokers, using multivariate regression. Results Dual users (45%) were more likely than exclusive smokers (37%) to have made a cigarette smoking quit attempt during the previous year (p<0.01), even after adjusting for demographic differences and cigarette dependence levels (ORadj 1.33, 95% CI 1.15–1.53). Half (48%) of dual users who made a quit attempt tried to quit “by switching to smokeless tobacco”. However, once in a quit attempt, dual users relapsed more quickly than exclusive smokers (Cox regression HRadj 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26). There was no difference in 30-day abstinence rates on the most recent quit attempt (ORadj 1.09, 95% CI 0.88–1.37). For both groups, the best predictor of past 30-day abstinence was cigarette consumption level. Conclusions Current cigarette smokers who also use smokeless tobacco are more likely to have tried to quit, but relapse more quickly than exclusive smokers, and are not more likely to have attained 30 day smoking cessation. Prospective studies at the population level are needed. PMID:26253939

  1. Options for state and local governments to regulate non-cigarette tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Most tobacco control laws were written to address the scourge of smoking--particularly smoking cigarettes. As a result, these laws frequently exclude non-cigarette tobacco products, which are becoming more prevalent on the market. These regulatory gaps jeopardize public health by increasing the possibility that these products will be used--particularly by minors and young adults. This article examines gaps in regulation using five products as case studies: dissolvable tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, little cigars, snus, and water pipes. In addition, this article presents policy options that state and local governments can adopt to regulate these products more effectively, including regulations relating to price, flavors, youth access, use in public places, point-of-sale warnings, and marketing. Furthermore, this article contains extensive discussion of the recently adopted federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which both limits and expands the power of state and local governments.

  2. State-Specific Prevalence of Current Cigarette Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Adults - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; Marshall, LaTisha; Brown, Susan; Neff, Linda

    2016-10-07

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). In recent years, cigarette smoking prevalence has declined in many states; however, there has been relatively little change in the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use or concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in most states, and in some states prevalence has increased (2). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess state-specific prevalence estimates of current use of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco (any cigarette/smokeless tobacco use) among U.S. adults. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 9.7% (Utah) to 26.7% (West Virginia); current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 1.4% (Hawaii) to 8.8% (Wyoming); current use of any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco product ranged from 11.3% (Utah) to 32.2% (West Virginia). Disparities in tobacco use by sex and race/ethnicity were observed; any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco use was higher among males than females in all 50 states. By race/ethnicity, non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence of any cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco use in eight states, followed by non-Hispanic other races in six states, non-Hispanic blacks in five states, and Hispanics in two states (p<0.05); the remaining states did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity. Evidence-based interventions, such as increasing tobacco prices, implementing comprehensive smoke-free policies, conducting mass media anti-tobacco use campaigns, and promoting accessible smoking cessation assistance, are important to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest use prevalence (3).

  3. The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace I: Substitutability as a Function of the Price of Conventional Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Quisenberry, Amanda J; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hatz, Laura E; Epstein, Leonard H; Bickel, Warren K

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral economic studies of nicotine product consumption have traditionally examined substitution between two products and rarely examined substitution with more products. Increasing numbers of tobacco products available for commercial sale leads to more possible cross-product interactions, indicating a need to examine substitution in more complex arrangements that closely mirror the tobacco marketplace. The experimental tobacco marketplace (ETM) is an experimental online store that displays pictures, information, and prices for several tobacco products. Smokers were endowed with an account balance based on their weekly tobacco purchases. Participants then made potentially real purchases for seven (Experiment 1) or six (Experiment 2) tobacco/nicotine products under four price conditions for conventional cigarettes while prices for other products remained constant. Smokers returned 1 week later to report tobacco/nicotine use and return unused products for a refund. In Experiment 1 (n = 22), cigarette purchasing decreased as a function of price. Substitution was greatest for electronic cigarettes and cigarillos and significant for electronic cigarettes. Experiment 2 (n = 34) was a replication of Experiment 1, but with cigarillos unavailable in the ETM. In Experiment 2, cigarette purchases decreased as a function of price. Substitution was robust and significant for electronic cigarettes and Camel Snus. The ETM is a novel, practical assay that mimics the real-world marketplace, and functions as a simple research tool for both researchers and participants. Across the two experiments the product mix in the ETM altered which products functioned as substitutes suggesting complex interactions between purchasing and product availability. This article adds a novel method of collecting purchasing data that mimics real world purchasing to the existing literature. The ETM is a practical avenue by which to study both hypothetical and potentially real purchasing. © The Author

  4. Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O’Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

  5. DECOY: Documenting Experiences with Cigarettes and Other Tobacco in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Haardörfer, Regine; Lewis, Michael; Getachew, Betelihem; Lloyd, Steven A.; Thomas, Sarah Fretti; Lanier, Angela; Trepanier, Kelleigh; Johnston, Teresa; Grimsley, Linda; Foster, Bruce; Benson, Stephanie; Smith, Alicia; Barr, Dana Boyd; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined psychographic characteristics associated with tobacco use among Project DECOY participants. Methods Project DECOY is a 2-year longitudinal mixed-methods study examining risk for tobacco use among 3418 young adults across 7 Georgia colleges/universities. Baseline measures included sociodemographics, tobacco use, and psychographics using the Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyle Scale. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of tobacco use. Results Past 30-day use prevalence was: 13.3% cigarettes; 11.3% little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs); 3.6% smokeless tobacco; 10.9% e-cigarettes; and 12.2% hookah. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of cigarette use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and intellectual curiosity (p = .010) and less interest in tangible creation (p = .002) and social conservatism (p < .001). Correlates of LCC use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and greater fashion orientation (p = .007). Correlates of smokeless tobacco use included greater novelty seeking (p = .006) and less intellectual curiosity (p < .001). Correlates of e-cigarette use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001) and less social conservatism (p = .002). Correlates of hookah use included greater novelty seeking (p < .001), fashion orientation (p = .044), and self-focused thinking (p = .002), and less social conservatism (p < .001). Conclusions Psychographic characteristics distinguish users of different tobacco products. PMID:27103410

  6. A rapid method for the chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of tobacco cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O

    2015-09-04

    A method for the rapid analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in smoke from tobacco and electronic cigarettes and in exhaled breath of users of these smoking systems has been developed. Both disposable and rechargeable e-cigarettes were considered. Smoke or breath were collected in Bio-VOCs. VOCs were then desorbed in Tenax cartridges which were subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method provides consistent results when comparing the VOC compositions from cigarette smoke and the equivalent exhaled breath of the smokers. The differences in composition of these two sample types are useful to ascertain which compounds are retained in the respiratory system after tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette smoking. Strong differences were observed in the VOC composition of tobacco cigarette smoke and exhaled breath when comparing with those of e-cigarette smoking. The former involved transfers of a much larger burden of organic compounds into smokers, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other pollutants of general concern. e-Cigarettes led to strong absorptions of propylene glycol and glycerin in the users of these systems. Tobacco cigarettes were also those showing highest concentration differences between nicotine concentrations in smoke and exhaled breath. The results from disposable e-cigarettes were very similar to those from rechargeable e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Efficacy and security of electronic cigarette for tobacco harm reduction: Systematic review and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Vanderkam, Paul; Boussageon, Rémy; Underner, Michel; Langbourg, Nicolas; Brabant, Yann; Binder, Philippe; Freche, Bernard; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is the first cause of preventable death in France and in the world. Without help, it was shown that 80 % of smokers who try to quit smoking relapse after one month with a low long-term success rate. Smoking reduction can concern smokers who did not want to quit or failed in their attempt to weaning. The final aim is to increase attractiveness of drug therapies by developing new products, such as electronic cigarettes, that can compete cigarette without reproducing its harmful effects. Assess the capacity of electronic cigarettes to reduce or stop tobacco use among regular smokers. Consultations MEDLINE and COCHRANE databases. e-cigarette; electronic cigarettes; ENDD (electronic nicotine delivery system); ENDS (electronic nicotine delivery device); vaping were used. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the electronic cigarette with nicotine versus placebo device. Two randomized controlled trials were included in the quantitative analysis. The nicotine electronic cigarette users have tobacco consumption significantly decreased compared to the placebo group (RR: 1.30, 95 % CI [1.02 to 1.66]) at 6 months. Smoking cessation rate at 3 months was greater with the electronic cigarette contains nicotine (RR: 2.55, 95 % CI [1.31 to 4.98]). The small number of RCTs included does not allow definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of electronic cigarettes, especially in the medium to long term. The use of electronic cigarette with nicotine decreases tobacco consumption among regular smokers. Further studies are needed to specify electronic cigarettes safety profile and its ability to cause a reduction in consumption and a long-term cessation in smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chaloupka, F; Cummings, K; Morley, C.; Horan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Methods: Data for this study come from tobacco industry documents contained in the Youth and Marketing database created by the Roswell Park Cancer Institute and available through http:// roswell.tobaccodocuments.org, supplemented with documents obtained from http://www.tobaccodocuments.org. Results: Tobacco company documents provide clear evidence on the impact of cigarette prices on cigarette smoking, describing how tax related and other price increases lead to significant reductions in smoking, particularly among young persons. This information was very important in developing the industry's pricing strategies, including the development of lower price branded generics and the pass through of cigarette excise tax increases, and in developing a variety of price related marketing efforts, including multi-pack discounts, couponing, and others. Conclusions: Pricing and price related promotions are among the most important marketing tools employed by tobacco companies. Future tobacco control efforts that aim to raise prices and limit price related marketing efforts are likely to be important in achieving reductions in tobacco use and the public health toll caused by tobacco. PMID:11893816

  9. e-Cigarette Use and Perceived Harm Among Women of Childbearing Age Who Reported Tobacco Use During the Past Year.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Kristin; Wiggins, Amanda; Butler, Karen; Ickes, Melinda; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of electronic cigarette use grows. Amid increased e-cigarette use nationwide, this paper attempts to identify underlying risk factors for the most vulnerable populations. The purpose of the study was to assess predictors of e-cigarette use among female current and former tobacco users of childbearing age-specifically to determine whether demographic factors, pregnancy status, conventional cigarette smoking, and perceived e-cigarette harm are associated with e-cigarette use. Reasons for using e-cigarettes were also measured. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used; 194 current and former female tobacco users, 18-45 years of age, from two university-affiliated prenatal clinics and one women's health clinic in Kentucky took part. Slightly more than half were pregnant. Age, race/ethnicity, education, pregnancy status, use history for cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and perception of health hazard from e-cigarettes were measured, and associations with e-cigarette use were made with Mann-Whitney U-tests or Spearman's rank correlations. Predictors of e-cigarette use were determined using proportional odds modeling. Most current e-cigarette users were also current cigarette smokers (88%). Nearly half of current and former e-cigarette users were pregnant. Most women perceived e-cigarettes as a minor (38%) or moderate (31%) health hazard. In the proportional odds model, younger women were at greater risk for e-cigarette use, whereas minority women and those who were pregnant were less likely to be e-cigarette users. Pregnant women were less likely to be more recent e-cigarette users, compared with nonpregnant women. However, nearly all current e-cigarette users were dual tobacco users, including pregnant women. It is both imperative and timely to determine the impact of e-cigarette use on maternal and infant health, thus improving healthcare provider confidence to discuss the health implications of e-cigarette use with their patients.

  10. Ever-Use and Curiosity About Cigarettes, Cigars, Smokeless Tobacco, and Electronic Cigarettes Among US Middle and High School Students, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A.; King, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among young people, curiosity about tobacco products is a primary reason for tobacco experimentation and is a risk factor for future use. We examined whether curiosity about and ever-use of tobacco products among US middle and high school students changed from 2012 to 2014. Methods Data came from the 2012 and 2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys, nationally representative surveys of US students in grades 6 through 12. For cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes (2014 only), students were classified as ever-users or never-users of each product. Among never-users, curiosity about using each product was assessed by asking participants if they had “definitely,” “probably,” “probably not,” or “definitely not” been curious about using the product. Results From 2012 to 2014, there were declines in ever-use of cigarettes (26% to 22%; P = .005) and cigars (21% to 18%; P = .003) overall and among students who were Hispanic (cigarettes, P = .001; cigars, P = .001) or black (cigarettes, P = .004; cigars, P = .01). The proportion of never-users reporting they were “definitely not” curious increased for cigarettes (51% to 54%; P = .01) and cigars (60% to 63%; P = .03). Ever-use and curiosity about smokeless tobacco did not change significantly from 2012 to 2014. In 2014, the proportion of young people who were “definitely” or “probably” curious never-users of each product was as follows: cigarettes, 11.4%; e-cigarettes, 10.8%; cigars, 10.3%; and smokeless tobacco, 4.4%. Conclusion The proportion of US students who are never users and are not curious about cigarettes and cigars increased. However, many young people remain curious about tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. Understanding factors driving curiosity can inform tobacco use prevention for youth. PMID:27657506

  11. Tobacco outlet density, retailer cigarette sales without ID checks and enforcement of underage tobacco laws: associations with youths' cigarette smoking and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B; Mair, Christina

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the relationships of tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and local enforcement of underage tobacco laws with youth's life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability of tobacco and perceived enforcement of underage tobacco laws and changes over time. The study involved: (a) three annual telephone surveys, (b) two annual purchase surveys in 2000 tobacco outlets and (c) interviews with key informants from local law enforcement agencies. Analyses were multi-level models (city, individual, time). A sample of 50 mid-sized non-contiguous cities in California, USA. A total of 1478 youths (aged 13-16 at wave 1, 52.2% male); 1061 participated in all waves. Measures at the individual level included life-time cigarette smoking, perceived availability and perceived enforcement. City-level measures included tobacco outlet density, cigarette sales without ID checks and compliance checks. Outlet density was associated positively with life-time smoking [OR = 1.12, P < 0.01]. An interaction between outlet density and wave (OR = 0.96, P < 0.05) suggested that higher density was associated more closely with life-time smoking at the earlier waves when respondents were younger. Greater density was associated positively with perceived availability (β = 0.02, P < 0.05) and negatively with perceived enforcement (β = -0.02, P < 0.01). Sales rate without checking IDs was related to greater perceived availability (β = 0.01, P < 0.01) and less perceived enforcement (β = -0.01, P < 0.01). Enforcement of underage tobacco laws was related positively to perceived enforcement (β = 0.06, P < 0.05). Higher tobacco outlet density may contribute to life-time smoking among youths. Density, sales without ID checks and enforcement levels may influence beliefs about access to cigarettes and enforcement of underage tobacco sales laws. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Pyrolysis and combustion of tobacco in a cigarette smoking simulator under air and nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin G; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis.

  13. Do electronic cigarettes impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional tobacco cigarettes? Review on E-cigarette vapor versus tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Oh, Anne Y; Kacker, Ashutosh

    2014-12-01

    Development and utilization of electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted from the search for healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes (TCs) and the search for alternative methods for quitting TCs. This review compares the potential disease burden presented by TC smoke to that of EC vapor. Potential disease burden of EC vapor versus TC smoke was assessed by reviewing clinical studies that measured inhaled components. Chemicals and carcinogens produced by vapor versus smoke were compared. Studies show that EC vapors contain far less carcinogenic particles than TC smoke. Whereas ECs have the ability to reach peak serum cotinine/nicotine levels comparable to that of TCs, ECs do not cause an increase in total white blood cell count; thus, ECs have the potential to lower the risk of atherosclerosis and systemic inflammation. Use of ECs has been shown to improve indoor air quality in a home exposed to TC smoke. This reduces secondhand smoke exposure, thus having the potential to decrease respiratory illness/asthma, middle-ear disease, sudden infant death syndrome, and more. However, some studies claim that propylene glycol (PG) vapor can induce respiratory irritation and increase chances for asthma. To minimize risks, EC manufacturers are replacing PG with distilled water and glycerin for vapor production. Based on the comparison of the chemical analysis of EC and TC carcinogenic profiles and association with health-indicating parameters, ECs impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional TCs. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Metals transfer from tobacco to cigarette smoke: Evidences in smokers' lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Edgar; Cruz, Mariana; Ramos, Patrícia; Santos, Agostinho; Almeida, Agostinho

    2017-03-05

    Tobacco use kills millions of people every year around the world. The current level of 11 metals in tobacco was determined and their transfer rate to cigarette smoke was calculated as the difference between the total metal content in cigarettes and the amount present in its ashes. The metals content was also determined in the lung tissue of smokers and non-smokers in order to evaluate the marks that smoking leaves in this tissue. Metals content in tobacco ranged from less than 1μg/g (Co, Cd, Pb, As and Tl) to several hundreds of μg/g (Al, Mn and Ba). The highest transfer rate from tobacco to cigarette smoke was found for Tl (85-92%) and Cd (81-90%), followed by Pb (46-60%) and As (33-44%). Significantly higher levels of As, Cd and Pb were found in the lung tissue of smokers compared to non-smokers, showing that smoking results in an increase of these metals in the lungs and that they contribute to the carcinogenic potential of cigarette smoke. This study presents important data on current metals content in tobacco and its transference to cigarette smoke and provides evidence of their accumulation in smokers' lung tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  16. 27 CFR 41.25 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 41.25 Section 41.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  17. Do Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Cigarette Smoking Extend to Smokeless Tobacco Use?

    PubMed Central

    White, Thomas J.; Redner, Ryan; Bunn, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals with lower socioeconomic status (SES) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking. Less research has been conducted characterizing the relationship between SES and risk of using of other tobacco products. The present study examined SES as a risk factor for smokeless tobacco (ST) use in a US nationally representative sample, utilizing data from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Methods: Odds were generated for current cigarette smoking and ST use among adults (≥18 years) based on SES markers (educational attainment, income, blue-collar employment, and unemployment) after controlling for the influence of demographics and other substance dependence. Results: Odds of current cigarette smoking increased as a graded, inverse function of educational attainment as well as lower income and being unemployed. Odds of current ST use also increased as a function of lower educational attainment, although not in the linear manner seen with cigarette smoking. Odds of ST use but not cigarette smoking also increased with blue-collar employment. In contrast to patterns seen with cigarette smoking, ST use did not change in relation to income or unemployment. Conclusions: Markers of SES are significantly associated with odds of cigarette smoking and ST use, but which indicators are predictive and the shape of their relationship to use differs across the two tobacco products. PMID:26503735

  18. Use of electronic cigarettes and alternative tobacco products among Romanian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Foley, Kristie L; Pénzes, Melinda; Paulik, Edit; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan; Ábrám, Zoltán; Bálint, Jozsef; Urbán, Robert

    2016-03-01

    To assess socio-demographic and smoking-related correlates of e-cigarette and alternative tobacco products (ATPs) use in a multi-ethnic group of adolescents in Tîrgu Mures, Romania. The cross-sectional study included 1835 high school students from Tirgu Mures, Romania. Socio-demographic variables and data about smoking and e-cigarettes and ATP use were collected using an online questionnaire. Chi-square tests or one-way ANOVA were applied to compare never smokers, non-current smokers, and current smokers. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine the correlates of e-cigarettes and ATP use. The most frequently tried non-cigarette nicotine and tobacco products were e-cigarette (38.5 %), cigar (31.4 %) and waterpipe (21.1 %). Ever trying and current use of cigarettes were the most important correlates of e-cigarette and ATPs use. Sex, ethnicity, sensation seeking and perceived peer smoking were correlates of several ATPs use. The results of this study may inform the development of tailored tobacco control programs.

  19. The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace I: Substitutability as a Function of the Price of Conventional Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Quisenberry, Amanda J.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Hatz, Laura E.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Behavioral economic studies of nicotine product consumption have traditionally examined substitution between two products and rarely examined substitution with more products. Increasing numbers of tobacco products available for commercial sale leads to more possible cross-product interactions, indicating a need to examine substitution in more complex arrangements that closely mirror the tobacco marketplace. Methods: The experimental tobacco marketplace (ETM) is an experimental online store that displays pictures, information, and prices for several tobacco products. Smokers were endowed with an account balance based on their weekly tobacco purchases. Participants then made potentially real purchases for seven (Experiment 1) or six (Experiment 2) tobacco/nicotine products under four price conditions for conventional cigarettes while prices for other products remained constant. Smokers returned 1 week later to report tobacco/nicotine use and return unused products for a refund. Results: In Experiment 1 (n = 22), cigarette purchasing decreased as a function of price. Substitution was greatest for electronic cigarettes and cigarillos and significant for electronic cigarettes. Experiment 2 (n = 34) was a replication of Experiment 1, but with cigarillos unavailable in the ETM. In Experiment 2, cigarette purchases decreased as a function of price. Substitution was robust and significant for electronic cigarettes and Camel Snus. Conclusions: The ETM is a novel, practical assay that mimics the real-world marketplace, and functions as a simple research tool for both researchers and participants. Across the two experiments the product mix in the ETM altered which products functioned as substitutes suggesting complex interactions between purchasing and product availability. Implications: This article adds a novel method of collecting purchasing data that mimics real world purchasing to the existing literature. The ETM is a practical avenue by which to study both

  20. Use of flavoured cigarettes in Poland: data from the global adult tobacco survey (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nowadays the European Union faces a debate on the ban of sale of flavoured cigarettes. There is growing evidence that certain subgroups of smokers are more vulnerable to the use of flavoured cigarettes. However in some European countries, figures on the use of these cigarettes are still scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of flavoured cigarettes use in Poland, and examine whether its use among adults varies by socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data on tobacco use including flavoured cigarettes and other characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS provided data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals covering 2,254 current smokers. Logistic regression model was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the selected socio-economic variables on the use of flavoured cigarettes. Results Among females the aromatized cigarettes use was 26.1% compared to 10.5% in males (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.62–3.2; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aged 20–29 years had an increased likelihood of using flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects aged 60 years or older (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.5; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aware of negative health consequences of smoking had OR = 1.4 95% CI: 1.1–2.1 (p ≤ 0.05) of smoking aromatized cigarettes compared to those who were unaware. Participants who perceived some kinds of cigarettes less harmful than others were also more likely to use flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects who were convinced that all cigarettes are equally harmful (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1–1.8; p ≤ 0.01). High educational attainment, living in large cities, being non-economically active was also associated with use of flavoured cigarettes. Conclusion Our results are consistent with majority of epidemiology studies on this topic to date and

  1. Use of flavoured cigarettes in Poland: data from the global adult tobacco survey (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Usidame, Bukola; Szosland-Fałtyn, Anna; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa

    2014-02-06

    Nowadays the European Union faces a debate on the ban of sale of flavoured cigarettes. There is growing evidence that certain subgroups of smokers are more vulnerable to the use of flavoured cigarettes. However in some European countries, figures on the use of these cigarettes are still scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of flavoured cigarettes use in Poland, and examine whether its use among adults varies by socio-demographic characteristics. Data on tobacco use including flavoured cigarettes and other characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS provided data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals covering 2,254 current smokers. Logistic regression model was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the selected socio-economic variables on the use of flavoured cigarettes. Among females the aromatized cigarettes use was 26.1% compared to 10.5% in males (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.62-3.2; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aged 20-29 years had an increased likelihood of using flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects aged 60 years or older (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5; p ≤ 0.001). Respondents aware of negative health consequences of smoking had OR = 1.4 95% CI: 1.1-2.1 (p ≤ 0.05) of smoking aromatized cigarettes compared to those who were unaware. Participants who perceived some kinds of cigarettes less harmful than others were also more likely to use flavoured cigarettes compared to subjects who were convinced that all cigarettes are equally harmful (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.8; p ≤ 0.01). High educational attainment, living in large cities, being non-economically active was also associated with use of flavoured cigarettes. Our results are consistent with majority of epidemiology studies on this topic to date and should be considered in the enactment of tobacco

  2. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products—A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13–19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products. PMID:27608034

  3. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products-A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2016-09-06

    The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13-19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products.

  4. Non-cigarette tobacco products: what have we learnt and where are we headed?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    A wide variety of non-cigarette forms of tobacco and nicotine exist, and their use varies regionally and globally. Smoked forms of tobacco such as cigars, bidis, kreteks and waterpipes have high popularity and are often perceived erroneously as less hazardous than cigarettes, when in fact their health burden is similar. Smokeless tobacco products vary widely around the world in form and the health hazards they present, with some clearly toxic forms (eg, in South Asia) and some forms with far fewer hazards (eg, in Sweden). Nicotine delivery systems not directly reliant on tobacco are also emerging (eg, electronic nicotine delivery systems). The presence of such products presents challenges and opportunities for public health. Future regulatory actions such as expansion of smoke-free environments, product health warnings and taxation may serve to increase or decrease the use of non-cigarette forms of tobacco. These regulations may also bring about changes in non-cigarette tobacco products themselves that could impact public health by affecting attractiveness and/or toxicity.

  5. Prospects for a nicotine-reduction strategy in the cigarette endgame: Alternative tobacco harm reduction scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2015-06-01

    Some major national and international tobacco control organisations favour mandating a reduction in nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addictive levels as a tobacco control tool. Reducing nicotine content, it is argued, will make tobacco smoking less attractive. The 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulation of cigarettes appears to have the power to reduce nicotine to non-addictive levels provided it is not taken to zero. A consideration of the U.S. context, however, raises doubts about (a) whether this will ever be practicable and (b), if practicable, how long it will take to implement. Current versions of the nicotine-reducing strategy propose the systematic, incentivised use of less harmful nicotine/tobacco products as elements of the mandatory cigarette nicotine-reduction strategy. Time will tell if and when mandatory nicotine reduction in tobacco cigarettes will occur and what impact it might have on smoking prevalence. The question posed here is "Why wait?" Resources used in implementing reduction in nicotine content have an opportunity cost. In the meantime, nicotine-maintaining harm reduction strategies can have nearer term effects on tobacco use as an individual and a public health issue.

  6. Non-cigarette tobacco products: What have we learned and where are we headed?

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of non-cigarette forms of tobacco and nicotine exists and their use varies regionally and globally. Smoked forms of tobacco such as cigars, bidis, kreteks, and waterpipes have high popularity and are often perceived erroneously as less hazardous than cigarettes, when in fact their health burden is similar. Smokeless tobacco products vary widely around the world in both form and health hazards, with some clearly toxic forms (e.g. South Asia), and some forms with far fewer hazards (e.g., Sweden). There are also emerging nicotine delivery systems not directly reliant on tobacco (e.g. electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]). The presence of such products presents both challenges and opportunities for public health. Future regulatory actions such as expansion of smokefree environments, product health warnings, and taxation may serve to increase or decrease the use of non-cigarette forms of tobacco. These regulations may also bring about changes in non-cigarette tobacco products themselves that could impact public health by affecting attractiveness and/or toxicity. PMID:22345243

  7. Tobacco use and usual source of cigarettes among high school students--United States, 1995.

    PubMed

    1996-05-24

    Approximately 90% of all initiation of tobacco use occurs among persons aged < or = 18 years, and the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents is increasing. Despite laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors in all states and the District of Columbia, most minors are able to purchase tobacco products. To determine current prevalences of the use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (i.e., chewing tobacco and snuff) by high school students, the usual source of cigarettes among those who smoked, and the percentage of students who were asked to show proof of age when buying cigarettes, CDC analyzed data from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). This report summarizes the results of the analysis, which indicate a higher prevalence of smoking among high school students in 1995 than in 1993 and 1991, a doubling of the prevalence of current smoking among non-Hispanic black male students during 1991-1995, and that most high school students aged < or = 17 years who buy cigarettes from stores are not asked to show proof of age.

  8. Polytobacco Use of Cigarettes, Cigars, Chewing Tobacco, and Snuff Among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hai-Yen; Wang, Yingning; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use prevalence has been commonly estimated on a product by product basis and the extent of polytobacco use among current users of each tobacco product is not well understood. This study aimed to examine the prevalence, trends, and correlates of polytobacco use among current users of cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, and snuff in US adults aged ≥18. We used pooled data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 Cancer Control Supplements of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 123 399 adults). Multivariate logistic regression models were estimated to determine significant factors associated with polytobacco use. In 2010, the prevalence of polytobacco use was 8.6% among current cigarette smokers, 50.3% among current cigar users, 54.8% among current chewing tobacco users, and 42.5% among current snuff users. After controlling for other covariates, gender and race/ethnicity did not show consistent associations with poly-use across these four groups of current tobacco users; however, a positive association of young adulthood, less than high school education, and binge drinking with poly-use was consistently found among all these groups. Polytobacco use is extremely popular among current users of non-cigarette tobacco products. Polytobacco use patterns differ across sociodemographic subpopulations, and the gender and racial/ethnic profiles in poly-users vary across different groups of current tobacco users. Tobacco control strategies need to consider the interrelationships in the use of different tobacco products and the diverse profiles of poly-users in order to develop tailored tobacco prevention and intervention policies to further reduce the burden of tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Impact of cigarette price differences across the entire European Union on cross-border purchase of tobacco products among adult cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; Blecher, Evan; Filippidis, Filippos T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Vozikis, Athanassios; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the impact of cigarette price differences across the European Union (EU) on cross-border tobacco purchasing because of cheaper price among current cigarette smokers. Individual-level tobacco-related data (including cross-border tobacco purchasing behavior) were from the Special Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1), a cross-sectional survey of persons aged ≥15 years from 27 EU Member States during 2012. Country-specific weighted average prices (WAP) per 1000 cigarettes (as of 1 July 2012) were obtained from the European Commission, and divided by 50 to yield WAP per cigarette pack. The dispersion in EU cigarette prices was measured with the coefficient of variation. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to measure the relationship between EU-wide cigarette price differential and cross-border tobacco purchasing because of cheaper price among current cigarette smokers (n=6896). The coefficient of variation for cigarette WAP within the EU was 0.39 (mean price=€3.99/pack). Of all current cigarette smokers in the EU, 26.2% (27.5 million persons) engaged in a cross-border tobacco purchase within the past 12 months, of which 56.3% did so because of cheaper price in another country. EU-wide cigarette price differential was significantly associated with making a cross-border tobacco purchase because of cheaper price (adjusted OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.47). Reducing differences in cigarette tax and price within the EU, coupled with a stricter limitation on the quantity of cigarettes that it is possible to carry from one Member State to another, may help reduce cross-border tax avoidance strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Marijuana and tobacco cigarettes: Estimating their behavioral economic relationship using purchasing tasks.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Rosenberry, Zachary R; Schauer, Gillian L; O'Grady, Kevin E; Johnson, Patrick S

    2017-06-01

    Although marijuana and tobacco are commonly coused, the nature of their relationship has not been fully elucidated. Behavioral economics has characterized the relationship between concurrently available commodities but has not been applied to marijuana and tobacco couse. U.S. adults ≥18 years who coused marijuana and tobacco cigarettes were recruited via Mechanical Turk, a crowdsourcing service by Amazon. Participants (N = 82) completed online purchasing tasks assessing hypothetical marijuana or tobacco cigarette puff consumption across a range of per-puff prices; 2 single-commodity tasks assessed these when only 1 commodity was available, and 2 cross-commodity tasks assessed these in the presence of a concurrently available fixed-price commodity. Purchasing tasks generated measures of demand elasticity, that is, sensitivity of consumption to prices. In single-commodity tasks, consumption of tobacco cigarette puffs (elasticity of demand: α = 0.0075; 95% confidence interval [0.0066, 0.0085], R² = 0.72) and of marijuana puffs (α = .0044; 95% confidence interval [0.0038, 0.0049], R² = 0.71) declined significantly with increases in price per puff. In cross-commodity tasks when both tobacco cigarette puffs and marijuana puffs were available, demand for 1 commodity was independent of price increases in the other commodity (ps > .05). Results revealed that, in this small sample, marijuana and tobacco cigarettes did not substitute for each other and did not complement each other; instead, they were independent of each other. These preliminary results can inform future studies assessing the economic relationship between tobacco and marijuana in the quickly changing policy climate in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Implementation of graphic health warning labels on tobacco products in India: the interplay between the cigarette and the bidi industries

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Sujatha; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To understand the competition between and among tobacco companies and health groups that led to graphical health warning labels (GHWL) on all tobacco products in India. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library, documents obtained through Indias Right to Information ‘ Act, and news reports. Results Implementation of GHWLs in India reflects a complex interplay between the government and the cigarette and bidi industries, who have shared as well as conflicting interests. Joint lobbying by national-level tobacco companies (that are foreign subsidiaries of multinationals) and local producers of other forms of tobacco blocked GHWLs for decades and delayed the implementation of effective GHWLs after they were mandated in 2007. Tobacco control activists used public interest lawsuits and the Right to Information Act to win government implementation of GHWLs on cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco packs in May 2009 and rotating GHWLs in December 2011. Conclusions GHWLs in India illustrate how the presence of bidis and cigarettes in the same market creates a complex regulatory environment. The government imposing tobacco control on multinational cigarette companies led to the enforcement of regulation on local forms of tobacco. As other developing countries with high rates of alternate forms of tobacco use establish and enforce GHWL laws, the tobacco control advocacy community can use pressure on the multinational cigarette industry as an indirect tool to force implementation of regulations on other forms of tobacco. PMID:24950697

  12. Nicotine levels and presence of selected tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco flavoured electronic cigarette refill liquids.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Gillman, I Gene; Melvin, Matt S; Paolantonio, Amelia R; Gardow, Wendy J; Humphries, Kathy E; Brown, Sherri E; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-03-24

    Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids. Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products. Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from -21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200-300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products. NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products.

  13. Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids

    PubMed Central

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Gillman, I. Gene; Melvin, Matt S.; Paolantonio, Amelia R.; Gardow, Wendy J.; Humphries, Kathy E.; Brown, Sherri E.; Poulas, Konstantinos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids. Methods. Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products. Results. Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from −21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200–300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products. Conclusions. NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2–3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products. PMID:25811768

  14. Minimum Age of Sale for Tobacco Products and Electronic Cigarettes: Ethical Acceptability of US "Tobacco 21 Laws".

    PubMed

    Morain, Stephanie Rubino; Malek, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have recently passed laws that raise the minimum age of sale for tobacco products and electronic cigarettes to 21 years (Tobacco 21 laws). Although these laws have been demonstrated to be an effective means to reduce youth smoking initiation, their passage and potential expansion have provoked controversy. Critics have objected to these laws, claiming that they unduly intrude on individual freedom and that they irrationally and paternalistically restrict the freedom of those aged 18 to 20 years, who were previously able to legally purchase tobacco products. We have examined the ethical acceptability of Tobacco 21 laws. First, we have described ethical support for such a restriction grounded in its public health benefit. We have then offered arguments that raise doubts about the soundness of critics' objections to these regulations and described an additional ethical justification arising from concern about preventing harm to others. On the basis of this analysis, we conclude that Tobacco 21 laws are ethically justifiable.

  15. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS): a case for change in definition, analysis and interpretation of "cigarettes" and "cigarettes per day" in completed and future surveys.

    PubMed

    Jena, Pratap Kumar; Kishore, Jugal; Sarkar, Bidyut K

    2013-01-01

    The Global Adult Tobacco Survey has 15 key indicators, cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) among daily smokers being one of them. The first wave of GATS in 14 countries indicated that mean CPD use is higher in women than men in India only, which is contrary to the current understanding of tobacco use globally. This study was undertaken to understand the unusual findings for mean CPD use in the GATS-India survey. Items B06a and B06b of the GATS India survey questionnaire that collected information on daily consumption of manufactured and rolled cigarettes were analyzed using SPSS software. Exclusive users were identified from these items after excluding the concurrent users of other tobacco products. Cigarette type, exclusive use and gender stratified analyses were made. Consumption of different types of cigarettes among the mixed users of manufactured and rolled cigarettes were correlated. Higher mean number of CPD use among male daily-smokers was observed than their female counterparts in product specific analysis. Mean CPD as per GATS cigarette definition was higher in males than females for exclusive users but a reverse trend was observed in case of non-exclusive users. Use of manufactured cigarettes increased with increase in use of rolled cigarette among the mixed users and around half of these users reported equal CPD frequency for the both types of cigarettes. The anomaly in mean CPD estimate in GATS-India data was due to inclusion of two heterogeneous products to define cigarettes, variation in cigarette product specific user proportions contributing to the average and non-exclusive concurrent use of other tobacco products. The consumption pattern of cigarettes among the mixed users highlights bias in CPD reporting. Definition, analysis and interpretation of 'cigarettes per day' in the GATS India survey need to be improved by redefining cigarettes and making product specific analyses.

  16. Quit_line treatment protocols for users of non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine containing products.

    PubMed

    Linde, Brittany D; Ebbert, Jon O; Talcott, G Wayne; Klesges, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    Use of non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine containing products (TNCPs) is increasing in the US. Telephone tobacco quit lines (QLs) are one of the most widely disseminated tools for providing cessation services to cigarette smokers, but the range of QL treatment services offered to non-cigarette TNCP users needs to be determined. We surveyed QLs across 50 US states, Washington D.C., and Guam for the number of treatment protocols offered, products they were intended to treat, and how telephone counselors triaged patients reporting the use of non-cigarette TNCPs. Thirteen organizations provided US QL interventions of which eleven agreed to be interviewed regarding their treatment services (84.6%). Seven of the eleven QL providers (63.6%) used a single intervention protocol adapted to the type of non-cigarette TNCP used. Two of the eleven QLs (18.2%) referred hookah users to another provider and one QL (9.1%) referred electronic cigarette users to third party resources for cessation support; otherwise a single intervention protocol was used for all other TNCP users. Only one QL (9.1%) had a specialized protocol for smokeless tobacco users in addition to a standard protocol for all other callers. QL providers do not have access to tailored protocols for non-cigarette TNCP users, and it remains uncertain whether a common tobacco protocol will be efficacious for these users. Future research should both validate potential common protocols for non-cigarette TNCP users and address the need for and the development of specialized QL interventions for TNCP users to help them quit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or...

  18. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Drawback of Tax § 44.225 Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or...

  19. Big tobacco, E-cigarettes, and a road to the smoking endgame.

    PubMed

    Branston, J Robert; Sweanor, David

    2016-03-01

    The provision of the extraordinarily deadly product of cigarettes is dominated by a small number of large and incredibly profitable shareholder owned companies that are focussed on cigarettes. The legal duty of their managers to maximise shareholder wealth means that such companies vigorously fight any new public health measures that have the potential to disrupt their massive profit making, and have the resources to do so. Protecting the public health is therefore made a lot more difficult and expensive. We suggest that one way to counter this would be to actively design future tobacco control policies so that tobacco companies face mechanisms and incentives to develop in such a way that they no longer achieve the greatest shareholder value by focusing on cigarettes. A proper tobacco diversification and exit strategy for the shareholders of the profit-seeking tobacco industry would protect the public health by addressing the current addiction to the continuation of the cigarette market. The increasing popularity of e-cigarettes presents a particular opportunity in this regard, and we therefore suggest a possible policy response in order to start discussion in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766,571 metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, 'filter', 'biodegradable', 'butts'). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959-2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20 years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste.

  1. Whose butt is it? tobacco industry research about smokers and cigarette butt waste

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette filters are made of non-biodegradable cellulose acetate. As much as 766 571 metric tons of butts wind up as litter worldwide per year. Numerous proposals have been made to prevent or mitigate cigarette butt pollution, but none has been effective; cigarette butts are consistently found to be the single most collected item in beach clean-ups and litter surveys. Methods We searched the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) and http://tobaccodocuments.org using a snowball strategy beginning with keywords (eg, ‘filter’, ‘biodegradable’, ‘butts’). Data from approximately 680 documents, dated 1959–2006, were analysed using an interpretive approach. Results The tobacco industry has feared being held responsible for cigarette litter for more than 20 years. Their efforts to avoid this responsibility included developing biodegradable filters, creating anti-litter campaigns, and distributing portable and permanent ashtrays. They concluded that biodegradable filters would probably encourage littering and would not be marketable, and that smokers were defensive about discarding their tobacco butts and not amenable to anti-litter efforts. Conclusions Tobacco control and environmental advocates should develop partnerships to compel the industry to take financial and practical responsibility for cigarette butt waste. PMID:21504919

  2. A nicotine delivery device without the nicotine? Tobacco industry development of low nicotine cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Dunsby, J; Bero, L

    2004-12-01

    Defining harm reduction and regulating potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), including low nicotine products, are key issues in tobacco control policy. The US Congress has been considering legislation authorising the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate tobacco products. To investigate tobacco industry perceptions, interests, motivations, and knowledge regarding the marketability of low nicotine tobacco products. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents identified in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library between February 2002 and June 2004. Search terms included low-, no-, reduced-nicotine; denicotinization; low-, reduced- alkaloids; Next; de-nic; and key names of people, organisations, projects, and their common abbreviations and acronyms. The tobacco industry has made repeated efforts to develop low nicotine cigarettes. Reasons for doing so include consumer appeal and economic importance in a highly competitive cigarette market for "healthier" products. The industry considered the development of a new "denic" market segment a critical challenge. The tobacco industry exploits consumer misunderstanding of the health effects of nicotine in development and marketing efforts. The industry has risked the development of a less addictive product to expand the market reach of tobacco products based on perceived health benefits and appeal to quitters.

  3. A nicotine delivery device without the nicotine? Tobacco industry development of low nicotine cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Dunsby, J; Bero, L

    2004-01-01

    Background: Defining harm reduction and regulating potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), including low nicotine products, are key issues in tobacco control policy. The US Congress has been considering legislation authorising the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to regulate tobacco products. Objective: To investigate tobacco industry perceptions, interests, motivations, and knowledge regarding the marketability of low nicotine tobacco products. Methods: Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents identified in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library between February 2002 and June 2004. Search terms included low-, no-, reduced-nicotine; denicotinization; low-, reduced- alkaloids; Next; de-nic; and key names of people, organisations, projects, and their common abbreviations and acronyms. Results: The tobacco industry has made repeated efforts to develop low nicotine cigarettes. Reasons for doing so include consumer appeal and economic importance in a highly competitive cigarette market for "healthier" products. The industry considered the development of a new "denic" market segment a critical challenge. Conclusions: The tobacco industry exploits consumer misunderstanding of the health effects of nicotine in development and marketing efforts. The industry has risked the development of a less addictive product to expand the market reach of tobacco products based on perceived health benefits and appeal to quitters. PMID:15564619

  4. Evaluation of Dual Tobacco Smoking (Water Pipe and Cigarettes) and Associated Factors in Adults in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Hessami, Zahra; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Mortaz, Esmael; Heydari, Gholamreza; Kazempour-Dizaji, Mehdi; Sharifi, Hooman; Jamaati, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent use of tobacco products such as cigarettes and water pipes may be associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence and smoking-related complications. Accurate statistics are not available regarding the prevalence of water pipe use or concurrent use of cigarettes and water pipe in the Iranian population. Thus, this study sought to assess the prevalence of concurrent use of cigarettes and water pipes and their related factors in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Tehran residents over 15 years of age, who were selected via cluster, multi-stage randomized sampling, from different geographical districts of Tehran between November and December 2014. The data were collected using the water pipe section of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) questionnaire. A total of 1,830 individuals participated in this study, 243 (13.3%) of which exclusively used water pipes, 76 (4.2%) used both cigarettes and water pipes, and 120 (6.6%) exclusive smoked cigarettes. Of those who used both cigarettes and water pipes, 86.8% were men and 13.2% were women (P < 0.001). The mean age of those who only used water pipes was 28.01 ± 8.7 years while the mean age of those who used both water pipes and cigarettes was 33.1 ± 1.1 (P < 0.001). Male sex (adj. OR: 3.8) and older age (adj. OR: 1.06) increased the odds of using both tobacco products. The prevalence of concurrent use of cigarettes and water pipes and that of exclusive water pipe use were 4.2% and 13.3%, respectively. The prevalence of exclusive cigarette smoking was 6.1%. Those who smoked both cigarettes and water pipes had a higher mean age than those who exclusively used water pipes and they were mostly men. Among those who used cigarettes and water pipes, the mean age at which they began using water pipes was lower than the mean age at which they began smoking cigarettes. In other words, dual smokers started water pipe smoking sooner than cigarette smoking. Future studies with different methodologies

  5. Evaluation of Dual Tobacco Smoking (Water Pipe and Cigarettes) and Associated Factors in Adults in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Hessami, Zahra; Mortaz, Esmael; Heydari, Gholamreza; Kazempour-Dizaji, Mehdi; Sharifi, Hooman; Jamaati, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concurrent use of tobacco products such as cigarettes and water pipes may be associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence and smoking-related complications. Accurate statistics are not available regarding the prevalence of water pipe use or concurrent use of cigarettes and water pipe in the Iranian population. Thus, this study sought to assess the prevalence of concurrent use of cigarettes and water pipes and their related factors in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on Tehran residents over 15 years of age, who were selected via cluster, multi-stage randomized sampling, from different geographical districts of Tehran between November and December 2014. The data were collected using the water pipe section of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) questionnaire. Results: A total of 1,830 individuals participated in this study, 243 (13.3%) of which exclusively used water pipes, 76 (4.2%) used both cigarettes and water pipes, and 120 (6.6%) exclusive smoked cigarettes. Of those who used both cigarettes and water pipes, 86.8% were men and 13.2% were women (P < 0.001). The mean age of those who only used water pipes was 28.01 ± 8.7 years while the mean age of those who used both water pipes and cigarettes was 33.1 ± 1.1 (P < 0.001). Male sex (adj. OR: 3.8) and older age (adj. OR: 1.06) increased the odds of using both tobacco products. Conclusion: The prevalence of concurrent use of cigarettes and water pipes and that of exclusive water pipe use were 4.2% and 13.3%, respectively. The prevalence of exclusive cigarette smoking was 6.1%. Those who smoked both cigarettes and water pipes had a higher mean age than those who exclusively used water pipes and they were mostly men. Among those who used cigarettes and water pipes, the mean age at which they began using water pipes was lower than the mean age at which they began smoking cigarettes. In other words, dual smokers started water pipe smoking sooner than

  6. Assessing contraband tobacco in two jurisdictions: a direct collection of cigarette butts.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Julie; Shiplo, Samantha; Ward, Megan; Babayan, Alexey; Stevens, Adam; Edwards, Sarah

    2016-07-22

    The sale of contraband tobacco allows for tobacco tax evasion, which can undermine the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies in reducing the number of smokers. Estimates of the proportion of contraband vary widely as do the methods used to measure the proportion of contraband being smoked. The purpose of this study is to determine the proportion of contraband use in two different jurisdictions. A cross-sectional direct collection of cigarette butts was conducted in Peel and Brantford, Ontario, Canada in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Cigarette butts were collected from a variety of locations within both regions. Cigarette butts were assessed and classified into one of the following categories: contraband, legal Canadian, legal Native, International, unknown, and discards. The overall proportion of contraband cigarettes in Peel was 5.3 %, ranging from 2.8 to 8.6 % by location. In Brantford, the proportion of contraband was 33.0 %, with a range from 32.8 to 33.1 % by location. The direct collection of cigarette butts was determined to be a feasible method for a local public health unit in determining the proportion of contraband cigarettes. This approach showed that Brantford has a higher proportion of contraband consumption compared to Peel, which may be due to geographic location and proximity to the United States (US)-Canada border and Native Reserves. More research is needed to confirm this geographic association with other jurisdictions.

  7. Higher Price, Fewer Packs: Evaluating a Tobacco Tax Increase With Cigarette Sales Data

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Raymond G.; Brock, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, Minnesota increased cigarette taxes by $1.75, the largest US state increase since 2000. We obtained convenience store data of cigarette sales from January 2012 to December 2013 from the Nielsen Company. Analysis revealed significantly greater year-to-year reductions in numbers of packs purchased during posttax (−12.1%) than pretax (−3.2%; P < .001) periods. The results provide contemporary evidence that, despite reduced prevalence and increased tobacco control efforts, tax increases remain an effective tobacco control strategy. PMID:25602874

  8. Higher price, fewer packs: evaluating a tobacco tax increase with cigarette sales data.

    PubMed

    Amato, Michael S; Boyle, Raymond G; Brock, Betsy

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, Minnesota increased cigarette taxes by $1.75, the largest US state increase since 2000. We obtained convenience store data of cigarette sales from January 2012 to December 2013 from the Nielsen Company. Analysis revealed significantly greater year-to-year reductions in numbers of packs purchased during posttax (-12.1%) than pretax (-3.2%; P<.001) periods. The results provide contemporary evidence that, despite reduced prevalence and increased tobacco control efforts, tax increases remain an effective tobacco control strategy.

  9. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed.

  10. Contraband tobacco on post-secondary campuses in Ontario, Canada: analysis of discarded cigarette butts.

    PubMed

    Barkans, Meagan; Lawrance, Kelli-an

    2013-04-11

    No studies to date have assessed young adults' use of First Nations/Native tobacco, a common form of contraband tobacco in Canada. This study examined the proportion of First Nations/Native cigarette butts discarded on post-secondary campuses in the province of Ontario, and potential differences between colleges and universities and across geographical regions. In 2009, discarded cigarette butts were collected from high-traffic smoking locations at 12 universities and 13 colleges purposively selected to represent a variety of institutions from all 7 health service regions across Ontario. Cigarette butts were identified as First Nations/Native tobacco if they were: known First Nations/Native brands; had names not matching domestic and international legally-manufactured cigarettes; had no visible branding or logos. Of 36,355 butts collected, 14% (95% CI = 9.75-19.04) were First Nations/Native. Use of this tobacco was apparent on all campuses, accounting for as little as 2% to as much as 39% of cigarette consumption at a particular school. Proportions of First Nations/Native butts were not significantly higher on colleges (M = 17%) than universities (M = 12%), but were significantly higher in the North region. The presence of cheap First Nations/Native (contraband) tobacco on post-secondary campuses suggests the need for regulation and public education strategies aimed to reduce its use. Strategies should account for regional variations, and convey messages that resonate with young adults. Care must be taken to present fair messages about First Nations/Native tobacco, and avoid positioning regulated tobacco as a healthier option than contraband.

  11. Contraband tobacco on post-secondary campuses in Ontario, Canada: analysis of discarded cigarette butts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed young adults’ use of First Nations/Native tobacco, a common form of contraband tobacco in Canada. This study examined the proportion of First Nations/Native cigarette butts discarded on post-secondary campuses in the province of Ontario, and potential differences between colleges and universities and across geographical regions. Methods In 2009, discarded cigarette butts were collected from high-traffic smoking locations at 12 universities and 13 colleges purposively selected to represent a variety of institutions from all 7 health service regions across Ontario. Cigarette butts were identified as First Nations/Native tobacco if they were: known First Nations/Native brands; had names not matching domestic and international legally-manufactured cigarettes; had no visible branding or logos. Results Of 36,355 butts collected, 14% (95% CI = 9.75–19.04) were First Nations/Native. Use of this tobacco was apparent on all campuses, accounting for as little as 2% to as much as 39% of cigarette consumption at a particular school. Proportions of First Nations/Native butts were not significantly higher on colleges (M = 17%) than universities (M = 12%), but were significantly higher in the North region. Conclusions The presence of cheap First Nations/Native (contraband) tobacco on post-secondary campuses suggests the need for regulation and public education strategies aimed to reduce its use. Strategies should account for regional variations, and convey messages that resonate with young adults. Care must be taken to present fair messages about First Nations/Native tobacco, and avoid positioning regulated tobacco as a healthier option than contraband. PMID:23577796

  12. How did the Master Settlement Agreement change tobacco industry expenditures for cigarette advertising and promotions?

    PubMed

    Pierce, John P; Gilpin, Elizabeth A

    2004-07-01

    The 1998 multistate Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with the tobacco industry restricted cigarette advertising and promotions. The MSA monetary settlement was also associated with an average cigarette price increase of U.S.$1.19/pack between 1998 and 2001 to fund, in part, industry payments to the states. We examined Federal Trade Commission reports on how the tobacco industry spends its cigarette advertising and promotional dollars to see if changes expected as a result of the MSA occurred. Expected changes included reduced total expenditures and reductions for outdoor advertising, specialty promotional items identified with a brand (e.g., caps, t-shirts, lighters), and public entertainment. However, tobacco industry spending for advertising and promotions increased 96% between 1995 and 2001, with large increases in 1998 and 1999, as the MSA took effect. Between 1997 and 2001, outdoor advertising declined 98%, expenditures for specialty promotional items decreased 41%, although public entertainment increased 45%. However, in 2001, these categories represented only a small fraction of the total budget. Expenditures for retail-value-added increased 344% between 1997 and 2001 (to 42.5% of total), perhaps to mitigate increased cigarette prices. In 2001, the incentives-to-merchants and retail-value-added categories comprised more than 80% of total expenditures. To adequately monitor tobacco industry expenditures as they adapt to the MSA and other tobacco control efforts, more refined reporting categories are essential.

  13. On the Origins of the Electronic Cigarette: British American Tobacco's Project Ariel (1962-1967).

    PubMed

    Risi, Stephan

    2017-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes are advertised as the latest technological gadget-the smoking equivalent of smart phones. I challenge this sense of novelty by tracing their history to the 1960s, when researchers at British American Tobacco first recognized that smokers' brains were dependent on nicotine. This discovery enabled British American Tobacco to develop a novel kind of smoking device under the codename "Ariel" between 1962 and 1967. Whereas filters were meant to eliminate specific harmful constituents of tobacco smoke, Project Ariel tried to reduce smoking to its alkaloid essence: nicotine. By heating instead of burning tobacco, the scientists working on Ariel managed to produce an aerosol smoking device that delivered nicotine with very little tar while retaining the look and feel of a cigarette. However, after receiving two patents for Ariel, British American Tobacco ultimately decided to abandon the project to avoid endangering cigarettes, its main product. Today, as e-cigarettes are surging in popularity, it is worth revisiting Ariel because it is not just an episode in the history of aerosol smoking devices but its starting point.

  14. Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking. PMID:19440266

  15. Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

    2011-01-01

    Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment. PMID:21504918

  16. History of childhood candy cigarette use is associated with tobacco smoking by adults.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jonathan D; Thomas, Randall K; Sutter, Erika J

    2007-07-01

    We examined whether childhood candy cigarette use was associated with adult tobacco smoking. 25,887 U.S. adults from the Harris Poll Online (HPOL) were surveyed about current smoking status from November 2005 to May 2006. Respondents were randomly assigned to a yes/no item or a dose-response scale to assess candy cigarette use. Data were weighted to reflect the U.S. adult population. 26.4% of respondents reported current smoking and 29.4% reported former smoking. Candy cigarette use was reported by 88% of both current and former smokers and 78% of never smokers (pcigarettes was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.77, 2.21) for ever (current plus former) smokers and 1.83 (1.59, 2.10) for current smokers, compared to those who had not used candy cigarettes. Odds for current and ever smoking increased with increasing candy cigarette use. History of candy cigarette use was associated with increased risk of ever and current smoking among this nationally representative online sample of adults. Odds of smoking increased as candy cigarette use increased; these relationships persisted when controlled for sociodemographics. Elimination of candy cigarettes may protect children from products that promote the social acceptability of smoking.

  17. [History of cigarette smoking. The effect of tobacco smoking on women's health].

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Marta; Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemińska, Anita; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szymański, Wiesław

    2009-01-01

    History of cigarette smoking started on XV century, when Columb imported tobacco to Europe. Popular using of tobacco we are indebted Jaen Nicot Villeman, the name of nicotine originate from his surname. Tobacco first was exploited like a drug, however now it is a very harmful stimulant. Cigarette smoking is still an actual problem and increased risk of many diseases. Very toxic components of smoke get inside all the organs and upsetting their activities and proper running of the life processes. It is common knowledge that smoking badly influences women's health. Nicotine makes the negative influence on function of ovaries metabolism of hormones and state of osseous tissue. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with obstetrical and pediatrician complication with fetus, newborn and child. The aim of the article is to summarize the role of tobacco smoking on women's health.

  18. Regulations restricting the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco to protect children and adolescents. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-03-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reissuing a final rule restricting the sale, distribution, and use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. As required by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act), FDA is issuing a final rule that is identical to the provisions of the final rule on cigarettes and smokeless tobacco published by FDA in 1996, with certain required exceptions. The rule prohibits the sale of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco to individuals under the age of 18 and imposes specific marketing, labeling, and advertising requirements. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is issuing an advance notice of proposed rulemaking to obtain information related to the regulation of outdoor advertising of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco.

  19. Current Use of E-Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes Among US High School Students in Urban and Rural Locations: 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Noland, Melody; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T; Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Rayens, Emily A; Howard, Tiffany; Hahn, Ellen J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent tobacco use is higher in rural than in urban areas. While e-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among this age group, differences in prevalence between rural versus urban populations for this relatively novel product have not been explored. The purpose is to investigate whether location of school (rural-urban) is associated with e-cigarette use and dual use (defined as the use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes) among high school students. Cross-sectional survey obtained using a stratified, 3-stage cluster sample design. United States. A nationally representative sample of US high school students (N = 11 053) who completed the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS); slightly more than half were urban (54%). The NYTS measures tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and use behavior and demographics of students in the United States. Weighted logistic regression assessed the relationships of urban-rural location with current e-cigarette use and dual use, adjusting for demographic factors, perceived risk, and social norms. There were clear differences in patterns of adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette use in rural versus urban areas. Social norms and perceptions may play a role in understanding these differences. Urban youth current cigarette smokers were nearly twice as likely as rural cigarette smokers to also use e-cigarettes. Reasons for urban-rural differences need to be taken into account when designing prevention programs and policy changes.

  20. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5±0.4×10(9), 5.1±0.1×10(9), and 3.1±0.6×10(9) part. cm(-3) for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8×10(10), 5.2×10(10) and 2.3×10(10) particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2ppb, 2.7ppb and 2.8ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. False promises: The tobacco industry, “low-tar” cigarettes, and older smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of the tobacco industry in marketing to and sustaining tobacco addiction among older smokers and aging Baby Boomers. Methods Archival searches of electronic archives of internal tobacco company documents using a snowball sampling approach. Analysis utilizing iterative and comparative review of documents, classification by themes, and a hermeneutic interpretive approach to develop a case study. Results Based on extensive marketing research, tobacco companies aggressively targeted older smokers and sought to prevent them from quitting. Innovative marketing approaches were used. “Low tar” cigarettes were developed in response to the health concerns of older smokers, despite industry knowledge that such products had no health advantage and did not help smokers quit. Conclusion Tobacco industry activities influence the context of cessation for older smokers in several ways. Through marketing “low-tar” or “light” cigarettes to older smokers at risk at quitting, the industry contributes to the illusion that such cigarettes are safer; however, “light” cigarettes may actually make it harder for addicted smokers to quit. Through targeted mailings of coupons and incentives, the industry discourages older smokers from quitting. Through rhetoric aimed at convincing addicted smokers that they alone are responsible for their smoking, the industry contributes to self-blame, a documented barrier to cessation. Educating practitioners, older smokers and families about the tobacco industry’s influence may decrease the tendency to “blame the victim,” thereby enhancing the likelihood of tobacco addiction treatment for older adults. Comprehensive tobacco control measures must include a focus on older smokers. PMID:18691279

  2. Trends in annual sales and current use of cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco among US adults, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; Alpert, Hillel R

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory imbalances exist in the treatment of cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products in the USA. We assessed whether declines in cigarette consumption during 2002-2012 were offset by increased use of non-cigarette tobacco products-cigars, pipes, roll-your-own (RYO) and smokeless tobacco. Industry-reported taxable removals (actual sales) were converted into packs for cigarettes and cigarette pack equivalents (CPEs) for loose tobacco (RYO plus pipe tobacco) and moist snuff. Cigars were not converted to CPEs because of their heterogeneity in size/tobacco content. Per capita sales were calculated for the US adult population aged ≥18 years based on the US Census Bureau data. Self-reported data on current (past 30-day) tobacco use among US adults aged ≥18 years were from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Joinpoint and logistic regression were used to assess linear trends during 2002-2012. During 2002-2012, cigarette sales declined from 96.91 to 59.85 cigarette packs per capita; increases occurred for sale of cigars (30.51-57.42 cigars per capita), loose tobacco (2.50-5.63 CPEs per capita) and moist snuff (10.64-14.58 CPEs per capita; all p<0.05 for trend). Self-reported current cigarette smoking declined during 2002-2012 (27.4-23.6%); increases were noted for current RYO (2.6-3.6%) and smokeless tobacco use (3.5-3.7%; all p<0.05 for trend). The increase in non-cigarette tobacco consumption is a public health concern because all tobacco products are harmful. Eliminating imbalances in tax structure and regulations between cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products may help reduce aggregate tobacco consumption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  4. Price increase causes fewer sales of factory-made cigarettes and higher sales of cheaper loose tobacco in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Radden, Christian; Rosenkranz, Tobias

    2008-06-01

    Aim of this study is the analysis of the price responsiveness of demand for cigarettes and loose tobacco in Germany over the period 1991--2006. In this period the average consumption of all kinds of cigarettes per capita (German population > or = 15 years) declined from 634 pieces/quarter to 457pieces/quarter (-28%). Consumption of factory-made cigarettes decreased from about 545 pieces/quarter to 330 pieces/quarter in 2006 (-39%). In the same time consumption of self-made cigarettes increased from 89 pieces/quarter to 127 pieces/quarter (+42%). A one Euro Cent increase in price is associated with 28 cigarettes of all kinds consumed less per quarter. Data indicate that the different types of cigarettes are substitutes, e.g. there is evidence for a positive relationship between the price of factory-made cigarettes and the consumption of hand-made cigarettes. Thus, the increase in such consumption is rather driven by a positive cross-price effect of 17.01. Data indicate additionally an overall decrease in the cigarette consumption and a partial switch to cheaper loose tobacco. The availability of low-taxed loose tobacco may undermine the public health benefits of higher cigarette prices. Price differentials between tobacco products should be reduced in order to maximize the public health benefits of high cigarette prices.

  5. Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools?

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Cowling, David W; Kline, Randolph S; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-08-01

    To examine the quantity (density) and location (proximity) of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in high school neighborhoods and their association with school smoking prevalence. Data from the 135 high schools that participated in the 2005-2006 California Student Tobacco Survey were combined with retailer licensing data about the location of tobacco outlets within walking distance (1/2 mi or 805 m) of the schools and with observations about the quantity of cigarette advertising in a random sample of those stores (n=384). Multiple regressions, adjusting for school and neighborhood demographics, tested the associations of high school smoking prevalence with the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising and with the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools. The prevalence of current smoking was 3.2 percentage points higher at schools in neighborhoods with the highest tobacco outlet density (>5 outlets) than in neighborhoods without any tobacco outlets. The density of retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods was similarly associated with high school smoking prevalence. However, neither the presence of a tobacco outlet within 1000 ft of a high school nor the distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from school was associated with smoking prevalence. Policy efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should aim to reduce the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods. This may be achieved through local zoning ordinances, including limiting the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools.

  6. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.

  7. Flavoured non-cigarette tobacco product use among US adults: 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Michèle G; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Ambrose, Bridget K; Tworek, Cindy; Feirman, Shari P; King, Brian A; Apelberg, Benjamin J

    2016-11-01

    Limited data exist on flavoured non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) use among US adults. Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=75 233), a landline and cellular telephone survey of US adults aged ≥18, were assessed to estimate past 30-day NCTP use, flavoured NCTP use and flavour types using bivariate analyses. During 2013-2014, 14.4% of US adults were past 30-day NCTP users. Nationally, an estimated 10.2 million e-cigarette users (68.2%), 6.1 million hookah users (82.3%), 4.1 million cigar smokers (36.2%) and 4.0 million smokeless tobacco users (50.6%) used flavoured products in the past 30 days. The most prevalent flavours reported were menthol/mint (76.9%) for smokeless tobacco; fruit (74.0%) for hookah; fruit (52.4%), candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (22.0%) and alcohol (14.5%) for cigars/cigarillos/filtered little cigars; fruit (44.9%), menthol/mint (43.9%) and candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (25.7%) for e-cigarettes and fruit (56.6%), candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (26.5%) and menthol/mint (24.8%) for pipes. Except for hookah and pipes, past 30-day flavoured product use was highest among 18-24-year olds. By cigarette smoking, never smoking e-cigarette users (84.8%) were more likely to report flavoured e-cigarette use, followed by recent former smokers (78.1%), long-term former smokers (70.4%) and current smokers (63.2%). Flavoured NCTP use is prominent among US adult tobacco users, particularly among e-cigarette, hookah and cigar users. Flavoured product use, especially fruit and sweet-flavoured products, was higher among younger adults. It is important for tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavoured tobacco products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Young adults’ risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to cigarettes – results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Methods We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (ages 18–34)(n=2871)(including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to non-combustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22–33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and non-users of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being “less risky” and rate cigars and SLT as being “more risky” than older young adults. Conclusion The public’s views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type, and age group. While “less risky” perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are “more risky” than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  10. Is roll-your-own tobacco substitute for manufactured cigarettes: evidence from Ireland?

    PubMed

    Cornelsen, L; Normand, C

    2014-03-01

    When tax policies increase tobacco prices some smokers may switch to smoking cheaper roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco. To reduce the harm from smoking, this substitution effect should be avoided. This study analyses whether RYO tobacco is a substitute for manufactured cigarettes (MCs) in Ireland, a country with relatively high price for both products. Data on duty-paid consumption of RYO tobacco from 1978 to 2011 are used to estimate the demand by applying seemingly unrelated regression and error correction models. Covariates include prices of tobacco in Ireland and in the UK, income and a variable describing tobacco-related health policies. We failed to find evidence of RYO tobacco being a substitute for MC due to price differences. However, an increase in incomes (1%) is associated with a reduction in the consumption of RYO tobacco (-0.4%), which can be due to substitution towards MCs in addition to quitting or cutting back. Also, an increase in the price of RYO tobacco (1%) is associated with a reduction in its consumption (-1%). Increasing prices via taxation is an effective way of reducing the consumption of RYO tobacco but due to associations between RYO tobacco smoking and lower incomes, these policies should be accompanied by measures aimed at helping smokers to quit.

  11. E-cigarette aerosols induce lower oxidative stress in vitro when compared to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark; Carr, Tony; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Jaunky, Tomasz; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. After exposure to AqE concentrations of 0.063-0.500 puffs/mL, we measured the intracellular glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), intracellular generation of oxidant species, and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant response elements (ARE) to characterize oxidative stress. Apoptotic and necrotic responses were characterized by increases in caspase 3/7 activity and reductions in viable cell protease activities. Concentration-dependent responses indicative of oxidative stress were obtained for all endpoints following exposure to cigarette smoke AqE: intracellular generation of oxidant species increased by up to 83%, GSH:GSSG reduced by 98.6% and transcriptional activation of ARE increased by up to 335%. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased by up to 37% and the viable cell population declined by up to 76%. No cellular stress responses were detected following exposure to e-cigarette AqE. The methods used were suitably sensitive to be employed for comparative studies of tobacco and nicotine products.

  12. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behaviour: a review of tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol's relation to smoking cessation behaviour. Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 15 May to 1 August 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. A final collection of 509 documents relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) perceived sensory and taste rewards of menthol and potential relation to quitting; and (2) motivation to quit among menthol users. Results Menthol's cooling and anaesthetic effects mask the short-term negative physiological effects of smoking such as throat pain, burning and cough. This provides superficial physical relief as well as psychological assurance against concerns about the health dangers of smoking that would otherwise motivate smokers to quit. Menthol smokers, particularly women, perceive the minty aroma of menthol cigarettes to be more socially acceptable than non-menthol cigarettes. Discussion Consumers believe menthol's sensory effects equate to health protections and that menthol cigarettes are more socially acceptable than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol in cigarettes may encourage experimenters who find non-mentholated cigarettes too harsh, including young or inexperienced users, to progress to regular smoking rather than quitting, and may lessen the motivation to quit among established menthol smokers. The perception of menthol cigarettes as more socially acceptable lessens the impact of smoking denormalisation on quitting motivation. Menthol makes cigarettes easier and more palatable to smoke and less desirable to quit among established smokers. Fewer smokers quitting contributes to the incidence of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:21504932

  13. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Initiation of Combustible Tobacco Product Smoking in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Stone, Matthew D; Khoddam, Rubin; Samet, Jonathan M; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-08-18

    Exposure to nicotine in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is becoming increasingly common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco. To evaluate whether e-cigarette use among 14-year-old adolescents who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of 3 combustible tobacco products (ie, cigarettes, cigars, and hookah). Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, mean age = 14.1 years) and at a 6-month follow-up (spring 2014, 9th grade) and a 12-month follow-up (fall 2014, 10th grade). Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and completed follow-up assessments at 6 or 12 months (N = 2530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections. Student self-report of whether he or she ever used e-cigarettes (yes or no) at baseline. Six- and 12-month follow-up reports on use of any of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes or no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes or no), (3) cigars (yes or no); (4) hookah (yes or no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0-3). Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever users (n = 222) than never users (n = 2308) at the 6-month follow-up (30.7% vs 8.1%, respectively; difference between groups in prevalence rates, 22.7% [95% CI, 16.4%-28.9%]) and at the 12-month follow-up (25.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; difference between groups, 15.9% [95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%]). Baseline e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of use of any combustible tobacco product averaged across the 2 follow-up periods in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 4.27 [95% CI, 3.19-5.71]) and in the analyses adjusted

  14. Disparities in cigarette smoking and use of other tobacco products in Minnesota, 2003-14.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Raymond G; D'silva, Joanne; Stanton, Cassandra A; Carusi, Charles; Tang, Zhiqun

    2017-06-17

    Despite efforts to reduce disadvantages across society, widening health disparities have been observed in Minnesota. This research examined whether observed declines in state-wide smoking prevalence were experienced equally by all adults with varying educational attainment. Serial cross-sectional data from the 2003, 2007, 2010 and 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey (MATS) were analyzed. Weighted regression analyses for smoking status, time to first cigarette, cigarettes per day and non-cigarette other tobacco products (OTP) were conducted across education levels. Controlling for age and gender, a decreased rate of smoking among high and middle education groups was offset by an increase in the low education group. Dependence (time to first cigarette) was twice as high in the lowest education group compared to highest, yet dependence did not decline over time for any group. There was a decline in cigarettes per day in all education groups, but an increase in OTP use in the lowest and middle education groups. Given existing smoking disparities, novel efforts are urgently needed. Complementing known population-level strategies with community and individual-level approaches will be necessary to eliminate the widening gap in smoking disparities and to end the burden of tobacco-related disease.

  15. 75 FR 37308 - Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco-Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco--Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail; Correction AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Postal Service published...

  16. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  17. Increasing popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking and electronic cigarette use: Implications for oral healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ramôa, C P; Eissenberg, T; Sahingur, S E

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing several systemic conditions including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Cigarette smoking is also detrimental to oral health as it increases the incidence and severity of oral cancer, periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis, as well as impacting negatively on the dental patients' response to therapy. Therefore, consideration of smoking behavior and recommendation of smoking cessation are important parts of dental treatment planning. However, cigarettes are no longer the most popular form of tobacco use among adolescents in the United States and globally. In recent years, tobacco smoking using a waterpipe ("hookah," "shisha") and use of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) has increased significantly. Thus, dental clinicians likely will treat more patients who are waterpipe and/or ECIG users. Yet, the literature on the health effects of waterpipe and ECIGs use is sparse. Both waterpipe and ECIGs deliver the dependence-producing drug nicotine. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been associated with periodontitis, dry socket, premalignant lesions, and oral and esophageal cancer. The health effects of long-term ECIG use are unknown. The purpose of this review is to inform healthcare professionals about waterpipes and ECIGs, highlight emerging evidence on the biological effects of these increasingly popular tobacco products, and introduce perspectives for dental patient management and future research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. “Key to the Future”: British American Tobacco and Cigarette Smuggling in China

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Background Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. Methods and Findings This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Conclusions Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling. PMID:16834455

  19. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  20. "Key to the future": British American tobacco and cigarette smuggling in China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-07-01

    Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling.

  1. Marketing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes is a key strategy of the industry to counter tobacco control in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-03-01

    While the 'low-tar' scheme has been widely recognised as a misleading tactic used by the tobacco industry to deceive the public about the true risks of cigarette smoking, a similar campaign using the slogan of 'less harmful, low tar' was launched by the Chinese tobacco industry, that is, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration/China National Tobacco Corporation and began to gain traction during the last decade. Despite the fact that no sufficient research evidence supports the claims made by the industry that these cigarettes are safer, the Chinese tobacco industry has continued to promote them using various health claims. As a result, the production and sales of 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes have increased dramatically since 2000. Recently, a tobacco industry senior researcher, whose main research area is 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes, was elected as an Academician to the prestigious Chinese Academy of Engineering for his contribution to developing 'less harmful, low-tar' cigarettes. The tobacco researcher's election caused an outcry from the tobacco control community and the general public in China. This paper discusses the Chinese tobacco industry's 'less harmful, low-tar' initiatives and calls for the Chinese government to stop the execution of this deceptive strategy for tobacco marketing.

  2. The relation between cigarette price and hand-rolling tobacco consumption in the UK: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, Lucas; Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2015-06-15

    Cigarette price increases reduce smoking prevalence but as a tobacco control policy are undermined by the availability of lower cost alternatives such as hand-rolling tobacco. The aim of this descriptive study is to explore time trends in the price of manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco, and in the numbers of people who smoke these products, over recent years in the UK. UK. Trends in the most popular price category (MPPC) data for cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco from 1983 to 2012 adjusted for inflation using the Retail Price Index, and trends in smoking prevalence and the proportion of smokers using hand-rolling tobacco from 1974 to 2010. After adjustment for inflation, there was an increase in prices of manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco between 1983 and 2012. Between 1974 and 2010, the prevalence of smoking fell from 45% to 20%, and the estimated total number of smokers from 25.3 to 12.4 million. However the number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco increased from 1.4 to 3.2 million, and MPPC cigarette price was strongly correlated with number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco. Although the ecological study design precludes conclusions on causality, the association between increases in manufactured cigarette price and the number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco suggests that the lower cost of smoking hand-rolling tobacco encourages downtrading when cigarette prices rise. The magnitude of this association indicates that the lower cost of hand-rolling tobacco seriously undermines the use of price as a tobacco control measure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The relation between cigarette price and hand-rolling tobacco consumption in the UK: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Lucas; Britton, John; Bogdanovica, Ilze

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette price increases reduce smoking prevalence but as a tobacco control policy are undermined by the availability of lower cost alternatives such as hand-rolling tobacco. The aim of this descriptive study is to explore time trends in the price of manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco, and in the numbers of people who smoke these products, over recent years in the UK. Settings and participants UK. Outcome measures Trends in the most popular price category (MPPC) data for cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco from 1983 to 2012 adjusted for inflation using the Retail Price Index, and trends in smoking prevalence and the proportion of smokers using hand-rolling tobacco from 1974 to 2010. Results After adjustment for inflation, there was an increase in prices of manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco between 1983 and 2012. Between 1974 and 2010, the prevalence of smoking fell from 45% to 20%, and the estimated total number of smokers from 25.3 to 12.4 million. However the number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco increased from 1.4 to 3.2 million, and MPPC cigarette price was strongly correlated with number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco. Conclusions Although the ecological study design precludes conclusions on causality, the association between increases in manufactured cigarette price and the number of people smoking hand-rolling tobacco suggests that the lower cost of smoking hand-rolling tobacco encourages downtrading when cigarette prices rise. The magnitude of this association indicates that the lower cost of hand-rolling tobacco seriously undermines the use of price as a tobacco control measure. PMID:26078312

  4. Impact of Tobacco Control on Adult per Capita Cigarette Consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Donald W.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Levy, David T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of tobacco control on adult per capita cigarette consumption in the United States from 1964 to 2011. Methods. We used logit regression to model the diffusion of smoking from 1900 to 2011. We also projected hypothetical cigarette consumption after 1963 in the absence of tobacco control. Model predictors included historical events such as wars, specific tobacco control interventions, and other influences. Results. Per capita consumption increased rapidly through 1963, consistent with S-shaped (sigmoid) diffusion. The course reversed beginning in 1964, the year of publication of the first surgeon general’s report on smoking and health. Subsequent tobacco control policy interventions significantly reduced consumption. Had the tobacco control movement never occurred, per capita consumption would have been nearly 5 times higher than it actually was in 2011. Conclusions. Tobacco control has been one of the most successful public health endeavors of the past half century. Still, the remaining burden of smoking in the United States augurs hundreds of thousands of deaths annually for decades to come. Reinvigorating the tobacco control movement will require novel interventions as well as stronger application of existing evidence-based policies. PMID:24228645

  5. Cigarette smokers' use of unconventional tobacco products and associations with quitting activity: findings from the ITC-4 U.S. cohort.

    PubMed

    Kasza, Karin A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Compton, Wilson M; Kettermann, Anna; Borek, Nicolette; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of use of nicotine-containing tobacco products such as cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarettes that promise less exposure to toxins; e-cigarettes; and smokeless tobacco products among a cohort of conventional cigarette smokers followed over the past decade. We also evaluated associations between use of such products and cigarette quitting. Participants were 6,110 adult smokers in the United States, who were interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey between 2002 and 2011. Respondents reported their concurrent use of other smoked tobacco products (including cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarillos), smokeless tobacco products (including chewing tobacco, snus, and snuff), unconventional cigarettes (including Omni, Accord, and Eclipse), and electronic cigarettes. Prevalence and correlates of use and associations between use and cigarette quitting were assessed using regression analyses via generalized estimating equations. Most cigarette smokers did not use unconventional tobacco products, although use of any of these products started to rise at the end of the study period (2011). For each type of tobacco product evaluated, use was most prevalent among those aged 18-24 years. Smokers who did use unconventional tobacco products did not experience a clear cessation advantage. During the past decade, relatively few cigarette smokers reported also using other tobacco products. Those that did use such products were no more likely to stop using conventional cigarettes compared with those who did not use such products.

  6. Cigarette Smokers’ Use of Unconventional Tobacco Products and Associations With Quitting Activity: Findings From the ITC-4 U.S. Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of use of nicotine-containing tobacco products such as cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarettes that promise less exposure to toxins; e-cigarettes; and smokeless tobacco products among a cohort of conventional cigarette smokers followed over the past decade. We also evaluated associations between use of such products and cigarette quitting. Methods: Participants were 6,110 adult smokers in the United States, who were interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey between 2002 and 2011. Respondents reported their concurrent use of other smoked tobacco products (including cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarillos), smokeless tobacco products (including chewing tobacco, snus, and snuff), unconventional cigarettes (including Omni, Accord, and Eclipse), and electronic cigarettes. Prevalence and correlates of use and associations between use and cigarette quitting were assessed using regression analyses via generalized estimating equations. Results: Most cigarette smokers did not use unconventional tobacco products, although use of any of these products started to rise at the end of the study period (2011). For each type of tobacco product evaluated, use was most prevalent among those aged 18–24 years. Smokers who did use unconventional tobacco products did not experience a clear cessation advantage. Conclusions: During the past decade, relatively few cigarette smokers reported also using other tobacco products. Those that did use such products were no more likely to stop using conventional cigarettes compared with those who did not use such products. PMID:24376276

  7. Tobacco and e-cigarette products initiate Kupffer cell inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, David A; Hom, Sarah; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Kupffer cells are liver resident macrophages that are responsible for screening and clearing blood of pathogens and foreign particles. It has recently been shown that Kupffer cells interact with platelets, through an adhesion based mechanism, to aid in pathogen clearance and then these platelets re-enter the general systemic circulation. Thus, a mechanism has been identified that relates liver inflammation to possible changes in the systemic circulation. However, the role that Kupffer cells play in cardiovascular disease initiation/progression has not been elucidated. Thus, our objective was to determine whether or not Kupffer cells are responsive to a classical cardiovascular risk factor and if these changes can be transmitted into the general systemic circulation. If Kupffer cells initiate inflammatory responses after exposure to classical cardiovascular risk factors, then this provides a potential alternative/synergistic pathway for cardiovascular disease initiation. We aimed to elucidate the prevalence of this potential pathway. We hypothesized that Kupffer cells would initiate a robust inflammatory response after exposure to tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette products and that the inflammatory response would have the potential to antagonize other salient cells for cardiovascular disease progression. To test this, Kupffer cells were incubated with tobacco smoke extracts, e-cigarette vapor extracts or pure nicotine. Complement deposition onto Kupffer cells, Kupffer cell complement receptor expression, oxidative stress production, cytokine release and viability and density were assessed after the exposure. We observed a robust inflammatory response, oxidative stress production and cytokine release after Kupffer cells were exposed to tobacco or e-cigarette extracts. We also observed a marginal decrease in cell viability coupled with a significant decrease in cell density. In general, this was not a function of the extract formulation (e.g. tobacco vs. e-cigarette

  8. Secret science: tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and cigarette toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Collishaw, Neil E; Callard, Cynthia

    2006-03-04

    A lack of scientific data remains the principal obstacle to regulating cigarette toxicity. In particular, there is an immediate need to improve our understanding of the interaction between smoking behaviour and product design, and its influence on cigarette deliveries. This article reviews internal tobacco industry documents on smoking behaviour research undertaken by Imperial Tobacco Limited (ITL) and British-American Tobacco (BAT). BAT documents indicate that smokers vary their puffing behaviour to regulate nicotine levels and compensate for low-yield cigarettes by smoking them more intensely. BAT research also shows that the tar and nicotine delivered to smokers is substantially greater than the machine-smoked yields reported to consumers and regulators. Internal documents describe a strategy to maximise this discrepancy through product design. In particular, BAT developed elastic cigarettes that produced low yields under standard testing protocols, whereas in consumers' hands they elicited more intensive smoking and provided higher concentrations of tar and nicotine to smokers. Documents also show that BAT pursued this product strategy despite the health risks to consumers and ethical concerns raised by senior scientists, and paired it with an equally successful marketing campaign that promoted these cigarettes as low-tar alternatives for health-concerned smokers. Overall, the documents seem to reveal a product strategy intended to exploit the limitations of the testing protocols and to intentionally conceal from consumers and regulators the potential toxicity of BAT products revealed by BAT's own research. Tobacco industry research underscores the serious limitations of the current cigarette testing protocols and the documents describe deceptive business practices that remain in place.

  9. Effect of tobacco and electronic cigarette use on cough reflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2017-02-06

    Multiple previous studies have shown that otherwise healthy tobacco cigarette smokers have suppressed cough reflex sensitivity compared with nonsmokers and furthermore, that smoking cessation, even after years of tobacco use, leads to prompt enhancement of cough reflex sensitivity. Thus, cough reflex sensitivity is demonstrated to be a dynamic phenomenon, responding to the presence or absence of influences such as tobacco smoke. These studies, however, were unable to identify whether it was the influence of nicotine, or one or more of the numerous components of tobacco cigarette smoke, that were responsible for this effect. More recently, it has been shown that a single exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapor causes inhibition of cough reflex sensitivity in healthy lifetime nonsmokers. An identical study employing a non-nicotine containing e-cig confirmed an absence of effect on cough reflex sensitivity, thus implicating nicotine as the causative agent of these findings. Recent animal studies demonstrate cough suppression after injection of nicotine into the brains of cats, thus supporting a centrally-mediated antitussive effect of nicotine to explain the results of the aforementioned studies of tobacco smoke and e-cig vapor exposure in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-02-01

    PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF TWO NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NICOTINE ADDICTION AND SMOKING CESSATION: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as "thirdhand smoke". The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking.

  11. Tobacco and e-cigarette use amongst illicit drug users in Australia.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Rachel; Sindicich, Natasha; Entwistle, Gavin; Whittaker, Elizabeth; Peacock, Amy; Matthews, Allison; Bruno, Raimondo; Alati, Rosa; Burns, Lucy

    2016-02-01

    To examine the rates and patterns of tobacco and e-cigarette use amongst two samples of illicit drug users in Australia. Data were obtained from the 2015 Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) and the 2015 Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS). These studies comprised cross-sectional samples of 888 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 763 regular psychostimulant users (RPU). Tobacco was consumed by the majority of both samples, however, use in the 6 months preceding interview was significantly higher amongst PWID (92.2%) than RPU (82.4% [OR 2.53 95% CI 1.86-3.44]). Inversely, PWID were less likely to have a history of e-cigarette use: 31.5% of PWID reported lifetime use of e-cigarettes (vs. 57.0% of RPU [OR 0.35 95% CI 0.28-0.42]) and 18.1% reported use in the 6 months preceding interview (vs. 33.7% of RPU [OR 0.44 95% CI 0.35-0.55]). PWID were more than three times as likely than RPU to report using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool (OR 3.09 95% CI 2.03-4.71), but were less likely to use e-liquids that contained nicotine (OR 0.52 95% CI 0.32-0.83). Higher levels of poly drug use, daily tobacco use, recent use of synthetic cannabinoids and employment status were found to be significantly associated with e-cigarette use. The use of e-cigarettes was relatively common amongst Australian samples of PWID and RPU. Whilst the majority of PWID reported using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool, it appears that RPU are using them for experimental or recreational purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p < .001), and lights as having lower health risks and carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p <.001). The average PREP rating for level of tar (5.3) was not significantly less than the light mean of 5.4, but both were significantly less than the regular mean of 8.4 (p <.001). Although no advertisements explicitly said that the products were healthy or safe, advertisements for PREP products and light cigarettes were interpreted as conveying positive messages about health and safety. Most smokers believed that claims made in cigarette advertisements must be approved by a government agency. The results indicate that advertisements can and do leave consumers with perceptions of the health and safety of tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text.

  13. Hiding the Tobacco Power Wall Reduces Cigarette Smoking Risk in Adolescents: Using an Experimental Convenience Store to Assess Tobacco Regulatory Options at Retail Point-of-Sale

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven; Setodji, Claude; Scharf, Deborah; Kusuke, Daniela; Sicker, Angela; Gong, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This experiment tested whether changing the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall in a life sized replica of a convenience store had any effect on adolescents’ susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. Methods The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab (RSL), a life sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail point-of-sale environments influences tobacco use risk and behavior. A randomized, between-subjects experimental design with three conditions that varied the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall within the RSL was used. The conditions were: cashier (the tobacco power wall was located in its typical position behind the cash register counter); sidewall (the tobacco power wall was located on a sidewall away from the cash register); or hidden (the tobacco power wall was located behind the cashier but was hidden behind an opaque wall). The sample included 241 adolescents. Results Hiding the tobacco power wall significantly reduced adolescents’ susceptibility to future cigarette smoking compared to leaving it exposed (i.e., the cashier condition; p = .02). Locating the tobacco power wall on a sidewall away from the cashier had no effect on future cigarette smoking susceptibility compared to the cashier condition (p = 0.80). Conclusions Hiding the tobacco power wall at retail point-of-sale locations is a strong regulatory option for reducing the impact of the retail environment on cigarette smoking risk in adolescents. PMID:26598502

  14. The extent of cigarette brand and company switching: results from the Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Siegel, M; Nelson, D E; Peddicord, J P; Merritt, R K; Giovino, G A; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette advertising on brand switching, an accurate estimate of the extent of cigarette brand and company switching among current smokers is needed. Data from the 1986 Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey were analyzed to estimate the percentage of adult smokers who switched cigarette brands and companies in the previous year. Approximately 9.2% of adult smokers (4.2 million) switched cigarette brands in 1986, and 6.7% (3.1 million) switched cigarette companies. The aggregate profitability of brand switching in 1986 was approximately $362 million. Based on this analysis, brand switching alone justifies only a small percentage of a cigarette company's advertising and promotion expenditures, suggesting that future research should address other potential effects of advertising, including maintenance of brand loyalty and expanding the cigarette market. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): addictive behavior, advertising, smoking, tobacco.

  15. Non-cigarette tobacco and poly-tobacco use among persons living with HIV drawn from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Pacek, Lauren R; Sweitzer, Maggie M; McClernon, F Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Smoking is more prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLWH) than the general population. Little is known about the prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco and poly-tobacco use (PTU; using multiple tobacco products) among this population, which, in the general population is associated with poor health and cessation outcomes. We aimed to characterize the prevalence of cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco use, PTU, and correlates of tobacco use status among a nationally-representative sample of PLWH. Data came from 472 HIV-positive adults from the 2005-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The prevalence of PTU overall was 8.7% (95% CI=5.6-13.2), and 16.6% (95% CI=10.2-25.7) among past-year tobacco users. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, participants with a high school education or greater (aRRR=2.03, 95% CI=1.03-4.00) were more likely to be non-tobacco users than single product users. Past year drug users (aRRR=0.35, 95% CI=0.19-0.66) and past month binge drinkers (aRRR=0.24, 95% CI=0.12-0.50) were less likely to be non-tobacco users than single product users. Compared to 18-25 year olds, individuals age 26-34 (aRRR=0.13, 95% CI=0.03-0.65) and 35+ (aRRR=0.24, 95% CI=0.09-0.63), and with lifetime anxiety disorder(s) (aRRR=0.18, 95% CI=0.06-0.57) were less likely to be PTUs as compared to single product users. Individuals who reported liking to test themselves by doing risky things were more likely to be PTUs than single product users (aRRR=2.95, 95% CI=1.27-6.84). PTU was slightly higher than in the general population, and should be taken into account when developing cessation interventions tailored to tobacco users living with HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marijuana and tobacco co-administration in blunts, spliffs, and mulled cigarettes: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Gillian L; Rosenberry, Zachary R; Peters, Erica N

    2017-01-01

    Blunts and spliffs/mulled cigarettes combine marijuana and tobacco for co-administration (use at the same time, in the same product). Co-administration of marijuana and tobacco presents significant potential for nicotine exposure, and may lead to exclusive tobacco use patterns, nicotine addiction, and compounded health effects. No review articles have summarized the number and nature of studies published on these co-administered products. Keywords "(blunt* OR spliff OR mull* OR joint) AND (tobacco OR smok* OR cigarette) AND (cannabis OR marijuana OR hashish)" were searched in the published literature. A total of 220 articles were considered for inclusion, 49 were reviewed by two independent qualitative coders, and 45 were included in this review. Of the 45 articles, most (n=27) of studies were observational or descriptive; ten were qualitative, five employed causal designs, and three were mixed methods. A majority of the studies assessed blunts; only 11 studies assessed spliffs/mulled cigarettes. Many studies focused on sub-populations of youth, males, and African Americans. Use of co-administered marijuana and tobacco products was associated with several indicators of problematic use patterns, including perceptions of less risk, dependence on nicotine and marijuana, and greater subjective effects related to marijuana. Literature on marijuana and tobacco co-administration comes largely from qualitative and observational/descriptive studies. In addition to continued surveillance, experimental research that directly assesses the smoking patterns of co-administered marijuana and tobacco products as compared with to those of marijuana and tobacco only products is needed to determine the potential long-term health consequences of using blunts, spliffs, or other co-administered products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cigarettes Become a Dangerous Product: Tobacco in the Rearview Mirror, 1952–1965

    PubMed Central

    Cheyne, Andrew; Gottlieb, Mark A.; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Friedman, Lissy C.; Daynard, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control’s unparalleled success comes partly from advocates broadening the focus of responsibility beyond the smoker to include industry and government. To learn how this might apply to other issues, we examined how early tobacco control events were framed in news, legislative testimony, and internal tobacco industry documents. Early debate about tobacco is stunning for its absence of the personal responsibility rhetoric prominent today, focused instead on the health harms from cigarettes. The accountability of government, rather than the industry or individual smokers, is mentioned often; solutions focused not on whether government had a responsibility to act, but on how to act. Tobacco lessons can guide advocates fighting the food and beverage industry, but must be reinterpreted in current political contexts. PMID:24228675

  18. Unplanned cigarette purchases and tobacco point of sale advertising: a potential barrier to smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Clattenburg, Eben J; Elf, Jessica L; Apelberg, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    In the USA, tobacco marketing expenditure is increasingly concentrated at the point of sale (POS). Previous studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to tobacco POS advertising and increased smoking initiation, but limited evidence is available on adult smokers' decisions and behaviours. An immediate post-cigarette purchase survey was administered to 301 cigarette purchasers outside of two grocery stores in Vermont to assess the prevalence of unplanned purchases and opinions about POS tobacco advertising and displays. In total, 11.3% of purchases were reported as unplanned. Certain groups were more likely to make unplanned purchases including: 18-24-year-olds (OR: 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.4), less than daily smokers (OR: 5.6, 95% CI 1.9 to 16.9), smokers who made 3+ quit attempts in the previous year (OR: 2.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 6.0), those who plan to quit in the next month (OR: 3.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.0), and those who agreed that tobacco POS advertising makes quitting smoking harder (OR: 2.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.8). Overall, 31.2% of participants agreed that tobacco POS advertising makes quitting smoking harder. Individuals who intended to quit within the next month, made 3+ quit attempts in the last year, or made an unplanned cigarette purchase were the most likely to agree. Young adults and individuals making multiple quit attempts or planning to quit in the next month are more likely to make unplanned cigarette purchases. Reducing unplanned purchases prompted by tobacco POS advertising could improve the likelihood of successful cessation among smokers.

  19. Plain cigarette packs do not exert Pavlovian to instrumental transfer of control over tobacco-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Lee; Maynard, Olivia M; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-01-01

    Aims To gain insight into the potential impact of plain tobacco packaging policy, two experiments were undertaken to test whether ‘prototype’ plain compared with branded UK cigarette pack stimuli would differentially elicit instrumental tobacco-seeking in a nominal Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure. Design, Setting and Participants Two experiments were undertaken at the University of Bristol UK, with a convenience sample of adult smokers (experiment 1, n = 23, experiment 2, n = 121). Measurement In both experiments, smokers were trained on a concurrent choice procedure in which two responses earned points for cigarettes and chocolate, respectively, before images of branded and plain packs were tested for capacity to elicit the tobacco-seeking response in extinction. The primary outcome was percentage choice of the tobacco- over the chocolate-seeking response in plain pack, branded pack and no-stimulus conditions. Findings Both experiments found that branded packs primed a greater percentage of tobacco-seeking (overall mean = 62%) than plain packs (overall mean = 53%) and the no-stimulus condition (overall mean = 52%; Ps ≤ 0.01, ŋp2s ≥ 0.16), and that there was no difference in percentage tobacco-seeking between plain packs and the no-stimulus condition (Ps ≥ 0.17, ŋp2s ≤ 0.04). Plain tobacco packs showed an overall 9% reduction in the priming of a tobacco choice response compared to branded tobacco packs. Conclusions Plain packaging may reduce smoking in current smokers by degrading cue-elicited tobacco-seeking. PMID:25292280

  20. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers' beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Emery, Sherry L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Rini, Christine M; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-04-01

    We sought to understand smokers' perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p < .001). This finding was robust for all demographic groups. Participants viewed using NCTPs other than e-cigarettes as more likely to cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use.

  1. How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers’ beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Rini, Christine M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand smokers’ perceived likelihood of health problems from using cigarettes and four non-cigarette tobacco products (NCTPs: e-cigarettes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and smokeless tobacco). A US national sample of 6,607 adult smokers completed an online survey in March 2013. Participants viewed e-cigarette use as less likely to cause lung cancer, oral cancer, or heart disease compared to smoking regular cigarettes (all p < .001). This finding was robust for all demographic groups. Participants viewed using NCTPs other than e-cigarettes as more likely to cause oral cancer than smoking cigarettes but less likely to cause lung cancer. The dramatic increase in e-cigarette use may be due in part to the belief that they are less risky to use than cigarettes, unlike the other NCTPs. Future research should examine trajectories in perceived likelihood of harm from e-cigarette use and whether they affect regular and electronic cigarette use. PMID:25348584

  2. Does the use of ingredients added to tobacco increase cigarette addictiveness?: A detailed analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Edward; Weitkunat, Rolf; Utan, Aneli; Dempsey, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that ingredients added to tobacco contribute to the addictiveness of cigarette smoking was evaluated by comparing cessation rates of smokers of traditional blended cigarettes to those of smokers of flue-cured cigarettes. Such a comparison is a valid means of assessing cigarette ingredients as traditional blended cigarettes contain ingredients (>20), whereas flue-cured cigarettes contain no or very few ingredients. Separate analysis of 108 treatment groups and 108 control groups from randomized clinical trials of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were performed by multiple logistic regressions. The results of these analyses demonstrated slightly higher quit rates for smokers of blended cigarettes (OR = 1.90, 95% Cl 1.70–2.13 and OR = 1.32, 95% Cl 1.14–1.53 for treatment and control groups, respectively).The control groups were also investigated using classification tree analysis from which no difference in quit rates were observed for smokers of either type of cigarette. Further analyses showed that studies that utilized a high level of psychological support in conjunction with NRT produced at least a two-fold increase in quit rates compared to studies that utilized a low level of psychological support. It was also demonstrated that there is a large difference when results were reported by sustained abstinence compared to point prevalence. Additional meta-analyses found the pooled OR for NRT treatment to be in exact agreement with a recent review that assessed the effectiveness of NRT. Overall these results strongly suggest that ingredients used in the manufacture of traditional blended cigarettes do not increase the inherent addictiveness of cigarettes. PMID:22429143

  3. Advertising exposure and use of e-cigarettes among female current and former tobacco users of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Kristin; Rayens, Emily; Wiggins, Amanda T; Rayens, Mary Kay; Fallin, Amanda; Sayre, Molly Malany

    2017-09-01

    The study examined the relationship between exposure to e-cigarette advertising and e-cigarette use by pregnancy status, including use of flavored e-cigarette products, among women of childbearing age. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Female current or former tobacco users in Central and Eastern Kentucky, 18-45 years old (N = 194, 52% pregnant). Demographics, pregnancy status, cigarette and e-cigarette use, and exposure to e-cigarette advertising. Younger age, white non-Hispanic race, and greater exposure to e-cigarette advertising were associated with a higher likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes (p < .05 for each variable). Pregnancy was not associated with ever use (p = .11). Younger age was associated with use of flavored e-cigarettes (p = .0027). Among e-cigarette users, those who used flavored products were more likely to have seen advertisements or information about e-cigarettes on social media, compared to those who used unflavored e-cigarettes only (p = .016). There is a link between advertising exposure and ever use of e-cigarettes. Pregnancy status is not significantly associated with ever use. Use of flavored e-cigarettes is associated with younger age. E-cigarette users with greater exposure to advertising on social media were more likely to use flavored products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Use of cigarettes and other tobacco products among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    2006-05-26

    The use of tobacco in any form is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease. Globally, nearly 5 million persons die every year from tobacco-related illnesses, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in developing countries. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, is a school-based survey that includes questions on prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use; attitudes toward tobacco; access to tobacco products; exposure to secondhand smoke, school curricula on tobacco, media, and advertising; and smoking cessation. This report presents estimates of self-reported cigarette and other tobacco-product use during 1999-2005 in 132 different countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank. The data are aggregated within each of the six WHO regions. GYTS data indicate that nearly two of every 10 students reported currently using a tobacco product, with no statistically significant difference between the proportion of those reporting cigarette smoking (8.9%) and other tobacco use (11.2%). Use of tobacco by adolescents is a major public health problem in all six WHO regions. Worldwide, more countries need to develop, implement, and evaluate their tobacco-control programs to address the use of all types of tobacco products, especially among girls.

  5. Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Marini, Sara; Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Ficco, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 9}, 5.1 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 9}, and 3.1 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 9} part. cm{sup −3} for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8 × 10{sup 10}, 5.2 × 10{sup 10} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2 ppb, 2.7 ppb and 2.8 ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received. - Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes (with and without nicotine) mainstream aerosols were analyzed; • Particle number

  6. Acrolein Yields in Mainstream Smoke From Commercial Cigarette and Little Cigar Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Todd L; Brewer, Tim M; Young, Mimy; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    Many carbonyls are produced from the combustion of tobacco products and many of these carbonyls are harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke. One carbonyl of particular interest is acrolein, which is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and the most significant contributor to non-cancer respiratory effects from cigarette smoke. Sheet-wrapped cigars, also known as "little cigars," are a type of tobacco products that have not been extensively investigated in literature. This study uses standard cigarette testing protocols to determine the acrolein yields from sheet-wrapped cigars. Sheet-wrapped cigar and cigarette products were tested by derivatizing the mainstream smoke with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution and then quantifying the derivatives using conventional analytical systems. The results demonstrate that sheet-wrapped cigars can be tested for acrolein yields in mainstream smoke using the same methods used for the evaluation of cigarettes. The variability in the sheet-wrapped cigars and cigarettes under the International Organization for Standardization smoking regimen is statistically similar at the 95% confidence interval; however, increased variability is observed for sheet-wrapped cigar products under the Health Canada Intense (CI) smoking regimen. The amount of acrolein released by smoking sheet-wrapped cigars can be measured using standard smoking regimen currently used for cigarettes. The sheet-wrapped cigars were determined to yield similar quantity of acrolein from commercial cigarette products using two standard smoking regimens. This article reports on the measured quantity of acrolein from 15 commercial sheet-wrapped cigars using a validated standard smoking test method that derivatizes acrolein in the mainstream smoke with DNPH solution, and uses Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Detection (LC/UV) for separation and detection. These acrolein yields were similar to the levels found in

  7. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that <24 % of smokers actually reduced their cigarette consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  8. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, does changing from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes decrease the incidence of negative health effects associated with smoking tobacco? A Clin-IQ

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jennifer; Brown, Brandon; Schwiebert, Peter; Ramakrisnan, Kalyanakrishnan; McCarthy, Laine H.

    2016-01-01

    Data from a randomized controlled trial and systematic review support the claim that switching from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can reduce the short-term negative health effects of smoking. In adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, exhaled carbon monoxide levels, total number of cigarettes smoked, and exposure to nitrosamine chemicals were reduced within a 12-month period. While the electronic cigarette industry remains largely unregulated thus far, these studies provide encouraging hope in the uphill battle toward helping patients make informed and healthy choices. PMID:26855963

  9. Waterpipe use and cognitive susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth: analysis of the 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Kheirallah, Khalid A; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Ward, Kenneth D

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as lack of a firm decision to not initiate smoking, predicts youth smoking initiation and experimentation and is a first step in the transition to regular smoking. This study investigated whether waterpipe (WP) smoking, an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use among Arab adolescents, was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Jordan Global Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted to assess the association between WP use and cigarette susceptibility, after adjusting for important confounders. A total of 1,476 youth aged 13-15 years old who had never smoked cigarettes were identified and represented 166,593 never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth. We found 40% of boys and 29% of girls were susceptible to cigarette smoking, and both boys (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.54) and girls (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.83-2.04) who had ever smoked WP were more susceptible to cigarette smoking than those who never smoked WP. This is the first study to report that WP use may increase youth's susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-03-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active.

  11. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-07-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active.

  12. Monitoring of Non-cigarette Tobacco Use using Google Trends

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Lowery, Ashley; Grucza, Richard A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Google Trends is an innovative monitoring system with unique potential to monitor and predict important phenomena that may be occurring at a population-level. We sought to validate whether Google Trends can additionally detect regional trends in youth and adult tobacco use. Methods We compared 2011 Google Trends relative search volume data for cigars, cigarillos, little cigars and smokeless tobacco with state prevalence of youth (grades 9–12) and adult (age 18 and older) use of these products using data from the 2011 United States state-level Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System and the 2010–2011 United States National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), respectively. We used the Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the associations. Results We found significant positive correlations between state Google Trends cigar relative search volume and prevalence of cigar use among youth (r=0.39, R-square=0.154, p= .018) and adults (r=0.49, R-square=0.243, p<.001). Similarly, we found that the correlations between state Google trends smokeless tobacco relative search volume and prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among youth and adults were both positive and significant (r=0.46, R-square=0.209, p=.003 and r=0.48, R-square=0.226, p<.001, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study validate that Google Trends has the potential to be a valuable monitoring tool for tobacco use. The near real-time monitoring features of Google Trends may complement traditional surveillance methods and lead to faster and more convenient monitoring of emerging trends in tobacco use. What this paper adds Efforts to promptly track tobacco use at a population-level are an important endeavor that could assist key stakeholders with making informed decisions about prevention plans and policies. Our findings establish the validity of Google Trends as an indicator of cigar and smokeless tobacco use by demonstrating that states with higher relative volumes of Google

  13. Assessing modified risk tobacco and nicotine products: Description of the scientific framework and assessment of a closed modular electronic cigarette.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James; Gaca, Marianna; Lowe, Frazer; Minet, Emmanuel; Breheny, Damien; Prasad, Krishna; Camacho, Oscar; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Wright, Christopher; McAdam, Kevin; Proctor, Christopher

    2017-09-22

    Cigarette smoking causes many human diseases including cardiovascular disease, lung disease and cancer. Novel tobacco products with reduced yields of toxicants compared to cigarettes, such as tobacco-heating products, snus and electronic cigarettes, hold great potential for reducing the harms associated with tobacco use. In the UK several public health agencies have advocated a potential role for novel products in tobacco harm reduction. Public Health England has stated that "The current best estimate is that e-cigarettes are around 95% less harmful than smoking" and the Royal College of Physicians has urged public health to "Promote e-cigarettes widely as substitute for smoking". Health related claims on novel products such as 'reduced exposure' and 'reduced risk' should be substantiated using a weight of evidence approach based on a comprehensive scientific assessment. The US FDA, has provided draft guidance outlining a framework to assess novel products as Modified Risk Tobacco Products (MRTP). Based on this, we now propose a framework comprising pre-clinical, clinical, and population studies to assess the risk profile of novel tobacco products. Additionally, the utility of this framework is assessed through the pre-clinical and part of the clinical comparison of a commercial e-cigarette (Vype ePen) with a scientific reference cigarette (3R4F) and the results of these studies suggest that ePen has the potential to be a reduced risk product. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Variation in tobacco and mainstream smoke toxicant yields from selected commercial cigarette products.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, A; Betson, T R; Gama, M Vinicius; McAdam, K

    2015-04-01

    There is a drive toward the mandated lowering and reporting of selected toxicants in tobacco smoke. Several studies have quantified the mainstream cigarette emissions of toxicants, providing benchmark levels. Few, however, have examined how measured toxicant levels within a single product vary over time due to natural variation in the tobacco, manufacturing and measurement. In a single centre analysis, key toxicants were measured in the tobacco blend and smoke of 3R4F reference cigarette and three commercial products, each sampled monthly for 10 months. For most analytes, monthly variation was low (coefficient of variation <15%); but higher (⩾ 20%) for some compounds present at low (ppb) levels. Reporting toxicant emissions as a ratio to nicotine increased the monthly variation of the 9 analytes proposed for mandated lowering, by 1-2 percentage points. Variation in toxicant levels was generally 1.5-1.7-fold higher in commercial cigarettes compared with 3R4F over the 10-month period, but increased up to 3.5-fold for analytes measured at ppb level. The potential error (2CV) associated with single-point-in-time sampling averaged ∼ 20%. Together, these data demonstrate that measurement of emissions from commercial cigarettes is associated with considerable variation for low-level toxicants. This variation would increase if the analyses were conducted in more than one laboratory.

  15. A cross-country study of cigarette prices and affordability: evidence from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Deliana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Ross, Hana; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of two primary determinants of cigarette consumption: cigarette affordability and the range of prices paid for cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in a set of 15 countries. From this cross-country comparison, identify places where opportunities may exist for reducing consumption through tax adjustments. Self-response data from 45,838 smokers from 15 countries, obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) 2008-2011. Using self-response data on individual cigarette expenditure and consumption, we construct a measure of the average cigarette price smokers pay for manufactured cigarettes (and bidis, where applicable) in 15 countries. We use these prices to evaluate cigarette affordability and the range of prices available in each country. These survey-derived measures of cigarette price and affordability are uniquely suited for cross-country comparison because they represent each country's distinctive mix of individual consumption characteristics such as brand choice, intensity of consumption, and purchasing behavior. In this sample of countries, cigarettes are most affordable in Russia, which has the most room for tobacco tax increase. Affordability is also relatively high in Brazil and China for cigarettes, and in India and Bangladesh for bidis. Although the affordability of cigarettes in India is relatively low, the range of cigarette prices paid is relatively high, providing additional evidence to support the call for simplifying the existing tax structure and reducing the width of price options. China has both high affordability and wide price ranges, suggesting multiple opportunities for reducing consumption through tax adjustments.

  16. Pattern of inhalation of tobacco smoke in pipe, cigarette, and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Rodenstein, D O; Stănescu, D C

    1985-09-01

    There is controversy on whether both primary and secondary pipe smokers do inhale tobacco smoke. We studied inhalation of tobacco smoke in 6 primary and 6 secondary pipe smokers and compared it with that in 20 cigarette smokers and 11 never smokers. Respiratory movements were assessed with inductive plethysmography, nasal flow through measurements of nasal pressure, oral flow with an oral thermistor, puffing through pressure measurements in the cigarette holder or the pipe, and upper airways by fluoroscopy. In all pipe smokers except 1, breathing and smoking appeared as independent activities. The former was exclusively nasal, whereas the latter was exclusively oral. Smoke was sucked and puffed by a to-and-fro movement of the tongue sliding along the soft palate. The oropharyngeal isthmus was closed (or only intermittently opened) by the apposition of the soft palate and the tongue, thus preventing overt inhalation of smoke. In most cigarette smokers, smoking interfered with the breathing route. Once smoke was sucked into the mouth, the oropharyngeal isthmus opened and inspiration proceeded through both mouth (with inhalation of smoke) and nose. Cigarette smoking interfered also with the evenness of ventilation. Never smokers avoided inhalation by oropharyngeal closure followed by oral expiration. We conclude that the oropharyngeal isthmus is the essential gate controlling smoke inhalation. Most secondary pipe smokers are able to change their smoking pattern and avoid overt inhalation when switching from cigarette to pipe smoking. The inhalation pattern appears to be acquired in the course of the smoking history.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).

    PubMed

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke.

  18. Relationships Among Chewing Tobacco, Cigarette Smoking, and Chronic Health Conditions in Males 18-44 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Shanda L; Banks, Haley E; Bailey, Adrianne E; Bachman, Melissa J; Kane, John; Hartos, Jessica L

    2017-08-07

    As more public places are designated "non-smoking," chewing tobacco could be an alternative choice for tobacco use; however, controversy exists over the long-term health effects associated with it. This study assessed the relationship between chewing tobacco, cigarette smoking, and chronic health conditions in a representative sample of males 18-44 years of age, while controlling for other variables known to be related to tobacco use. This cross sectional analysis used 2013 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The results indicated that about 41% of males reported one or more chronic health conditions, and that about 15% used chewing tobacco only, 21% smoked cigarettes only, and 6% did both. From adjusted analyses, those who chewed tobacco only were 49% more likely to report one or more health conditions; those who smoked cigarettes only were 34% more likely to report one or more health conditions; and those who did both were 95% more likely to report at least one health condition. Overall, any combination of tobacco use was significantly and similarly related to the increased prevalence of chronic health conditions in males aged 18-44 years. Although chewing tobacco use may not be as prevalent in the general population as cigarette smoking, clinicians should be aware of the similar health risks associated with all tobacco use at ages younger than may be expected, and encourage cessation of any tobacco use.

  19. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Methods Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students’ current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. Results The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%–10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29–0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49–0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21–0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09–0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29–0.74). Conclusion Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users. PMID:27490368

  20. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This...

  1. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This...

  2. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1 Section 45... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF... cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This part contains...

  3. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This part...

  4. 27 CFR 45.1 - Removal of tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. 45.1... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... products, and cigarette papers and tubes, without payment of tax, for use of the United States. This part...

  5. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: Sidestream cigarette smoke literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, M. R.; Higgins, C. E.; Jenkins, R. A.

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A literature review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. The ratio method can yield misleading results because of the sensitivity of mainstream deliveries to cigarette and burn characteristics.

  6. Particulate metals and organic compounds from electronic and tobacco-containing cigarettes: comparison of emission rates and secondhand exposure.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Arian; Daher, Nancy; Ruprecht, Ario; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto; Hamad, Samera H; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Westerdahl, Dane; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes have gained increasing popularity as alternatives to normal (tobacco-containing) cigarettes. In the present study, particles generated by e-cigarettes and normal cigarettes have been analyzed and the degree of exposure to different chemical agents and their emission rates were quantified. Despite the 10-fold decrease in the total exposure to particulate elements in e-cigarettes compared to normal cigarettes, specific metals (e.g. Ni and Ag) still displayed a higher emission rate from e-cigarettes. Further analysis indicated that the contribution of e-liquid to the emission of these metals is rather minimal, implying that they likely originate from other components of the e-cigarette device or other indoor sources. Organic species had lower emission rates during e-cigarette consumption compared to normal cigarettes. Of particular note was the non-detectable emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-cigarettes, while substantial emission of these species was observed from normal cigarettes. Overall, with the exception of Ni, Zn, and Ag, the consumption of e-cigarettes resulted in a remarkable decrease in secondhand exposure to all metals and organic compounds. Implementing quality control protocols on the manufacture of e-cigarettes would further minimize the emission of metals from these devices and improve their safety and associated health effects.

  7. Impact of advertisements promoting candy-like flavoured e-cigarettes on appeal of tobacco smoking among children: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Petrescu, Dragos C; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Background There are concerns that the marketing of e-cigarettes may increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. We examined this concern by assessing the impact on appeal of tobacco smoking after exposure to advertisements for e-cigarettes with and without candy-like flavours, such as, bubble gum and milk chocolate. Methods We assigned 598 English school children (aged 11–16 years) to 1 of 3 different conditions corresponding to the adverts to which they were exposed: adverts for flavoured e-cigarettes, adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes or a control condition in which no adverts were shown. The primary endpoint was appeal of tobacco smoking. Secondary endpoints were: appeal of using e-cigarettes, susceptibility to tobacco smoking, perceived harm of tobacco, appeal of e-cigarette adverts and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Results Tobacco smokers and e-cigarette users were excluded from analyses (final sample=471). Exposure to either set of adverts did not increase the appeal of tobacco smoking, the appeal of using e-cigarettes, or susceptibility to tobacco smoking. Also, it did not reduce the perceived harm of tobacco smoking, which was high. Flavoured e-cigarette adverts were, however, more appealing than adverts for non-flavoured e-cigarettes and elicited greater interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Conclusions Exposure to adverts for e-cigarettes does not seem to increase the appeal of tobacco smoking in children. Flavoured, compared with non-flavoured, e-cigarette adverts did, however, elicit greater appeal and interest in buying and trying e-cigarettes. Further studies extending the current research are needed to elucidate the impact of flavoured and non-flavoured e-cigarette adverts. PMID:26781305

  8. Did the tobacco industry inflate estimates of illicit cigarette consumption in Asia? An empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; McGhee, Sarah M; Townsend, Joy; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of illicit cigarette consumption are limited and the data obtained from studies funded by the tobacco industry have a tendency to inflate them. This study aimed to validate an industry-funded estimate of 35.9% for Hong Kong using a framework taken from an industry-funded report, but with more transparent data sources. Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated as the difference between total cigarette consumption and the sum of legal domestic sales and legal personal imports (duty-free consumption). Reliable data from government reports and scientifically valid routine sources were used to estimate the total cigarette consumption by Hong Kong smokers and legal domestic sales in Hong Kong. Consumption by visitors and legal duty-free consumption by Hong Kong passengers were estimated under three scenarios for the assumptions to examine the uncertainty around the estimate. A two-way sensitivity analysis was conducted using different levels of possible undeclared smoking and under-reporting of self-reported daily consumption. Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated to be about 8.2-15.4% of the total cigarette consumption in Hong Kong in 2012 with a midpoint estimate of 11.9%, as compared with the industry-funded estimate of 35.9% of cigarette consumption. The industry-funded estimate was inflated by 133-337% of the probable true value. Only with significant levels of under-reporting of daily cigarette consumption and undeclared smoking could we approximate the value reported in the industry-funded study. The industry-funded estimate inflates the likely levels of illicit cigarette consumption. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Implementation of graphic health warning labels on tobacco products in India: the interplay between the cigarette and the bidi industries.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Sujatha; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-11-01

    To understand the competition between and among tobacco companies and health groups that led to graphical health warning labels (GHWL) on all tobacco products in India. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library, documents obtained through India's Right to Information Act, and news reports. Implementation of GHWLs in India reflects a complex interplay between the government and the cigarette and bidi industries, who have shared as well as conflicting interests. Joint lobbying by national-level tobacco companies (that are foreign subsidiaries of multinationals) and local producers of other forms of tobacco blocked GHWLs for decades and delayed the implementation of effective GHWLs after they were mandated in 2007. Tobacco control activists used public interest lawsuits and the Right to Information Act to win government implementation of GHWLs on cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco packs in May 2009 and rotating GHWLs in December 2011. GHWLs in India illustrate how the presence of bidis and cigarettes in the same market creates a complex regulatory environment. The government imposing tobacco control on multinational cigarette companies led to the enforcement of regulation on local forms of tobacco. As other developing countries with high rates of alternate forms of tobacco use establish and enforce GHWL laws, the tobacco control advocacy community can use pressure on the multinational cigarette industry as an indirect tool to force implementation of regulations on other forms of tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Direct Marketing Promotion and Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adults, National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-09-21

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US adults has increased since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of direct marketing promotion of e-cigarettes and its association with e-cigarette use among US adults. We used using data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) to estimate prevalence of e-cigarette promotions received by mail or email. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between e-cigarette promotions and the prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use among US adults. In the 2013-2014 survey period, 7.1% of adults (about 16.0 million) reported receiving mail or email e-cigarette promotions in the previous 6 months; 3.2% received mail promotions, and 5.1% received email promotions. A higher prevalence of promotions was found among men versus women, adults aged under 65 years versus those older, current e-cigarette users, current smokers, and people with no smoking restriction rules in their homes or vehicles. In the multivariable analysis, receiving mail or email e-cigarette promotions was associated with higher odds of being current e-cigarette users (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.0; P < .001) than being noncurrent e-cigarette users. Receiving promotions was also associated with higher odds of using e-cigarettes some days (aOR = 1.6; P = .006) or every day (aOR = 1.7; P = .008) than using e-cigarettes rarely. Receipt of e-cigarette direct marketing promotions was prevalent among US adults. Receiving e-cigarette promotions was associated with increased odds of both prevalence and frequency of e-cigarette use. Future longitudinal studies are needed to measure causal effects of e-cigarette promotions on e-cigarette use among adults.

  11. Movie moguls: British American Tobacco's covert strategy to promote cigarettes in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    LeGresley, Eric M; Muggli, Monique E; Hurt, Richard D

    2006-10-01

    Though the cigarette companies have long publicly denied paying for product placement in films, the documentary evidence from the 1950s-1980s overwhelmingly suggests otherwise. Approximately 800,000 pages of previously secret internal corporate British American Tobacco Company documents were reviewed at the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository from March 2003 through May 2005. Documents were also searched online at the various tobacco document collections between February 2004 and November 2004. A small collection of internal corporate documents from British American Tobacco show that in the late 1990s the company evaluated investing in a movie destined for Eastern Europe. By being an investor, BAT could influence the alteration of the movie script to promote BAT's brands, thus providing marketing opportunities without a clear violation of movie product placement restrictions. Future protocols to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should seek to curtail more than just payment for tobacco product placement. More restrictive provisions will be needed to hinder creative strategies by the tobacco industry to continue tobacco promotion and trademark diversification through movies.

  12. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Cendrowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a "probably human carcinogen" monomer that can form in heated starchy food as a result of a reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars via Maillard reaction. The main source of acrylamide in human diet are potato products, cereal products and coffee. Tobacco smoke may be another significant source of exposure to acrylamide. The aim of our study was to determine acrylamide content in cigarettes available on the Polish market and to estimate the exposure to acrylamide originating from tobacco smoke in smokers in Poland. The material was cigarettes of the top five brands bought in Poland and tobacco from non-smoked cigarettes. Acrylamide content in cigarettes mainstream smoke was determined by LC-MS/MS. Exposure assessment was carried out using analytical data of acrylamide content in cigarettes and the mean quantity of cigarettes smoked daily by smokers in Poland, assuming body weight at 70 kg. The mean content of acrylamide was 679.3 ng/cigarette (range: 455.0 - 822.5 ng/cigarette). The content of acrylamide was evidenced to correlate positively with total particulate matter (TPM) content in cigarettes. The estimated average exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in adult smokers in Poland is 0.17 μg/kg b.w./day. Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  13. Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarette use in a southeast London adult sample: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Mohammed; Power, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) share several features: rising popularity, use of product flavourings and concerns about marketing to youth. We sought to compare prevalence and predictors of waterpipe tobacco and e-cigarette use, and explore knowledge of waterpipe tobacco and support for interventions. We used convenience sampling methods to conduct a cross-sectional survey among adults in the ethnically diverse southeast London area. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of waterpipe and e-cigarette use. Predictor variables were age, gender, ethnicity and current (past 30-day) cigarette use. Of 1176 respondents (23.0% aged 25-34 years, 56.0% male, 57.4% white ethnicity and 30.4% current cigarette smokers), 31.0% had tried waterpipe tobacco and 7.4% had tried e-cigarettes. Both products were significantly associated with younger age groups, non-white ethnicities and use of each other. Waterpipe tobacco was independently associated with consumption of cigarettes while e-cigarettes were not. Among those aware of waterpipe, a third answered incorrectly to knowledge questions. Among those self-identified as coming from a traditional waterpipe-using community, two-thirds supported further legislative and health promotion waterpipe interventions. Waterpipe tobacco was common and more prevalent than e-cigarettes in this population. Interventions to prevent and control waterpipe are unlikely to marginalize traditional waterpipe-using communities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  15. Monitoring of non-cigarette tobacco use using Google Trends.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Lowery, Ashley; Grucza, Richard A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2015-05-01

    Google Trends is an innovative monitoring system with unique potential to monitor and predict important phenomena that may be occurring at a population level. We sought to validate whether Google Trends can additionally detect regional trends in youth and adult tobacco use. We compared 2011 Google Trends relative search volume data for cigars, cigarillos, little cigars and smokeless tobacco with state prevalence of youth (grades 9-12) and adult (age 18 and older) use of these products using data from the 2011 United States state-level Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance System and the 2010-2011 United States National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), respectively. We used the Pearson correlation coefficient to measure the associations. We found significant positive correlations between state Google Trends cigar relative search volume and prevalence of cigar use among youth (r=0.39, R(2) = 0.154, p=0.018) and adults (r=0.49, R(2) = 0.243, p<0.001). Similarly, we found that the correlations between state Google Trends smokeless tobacco relative search volume and prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among youth and adults were both positive and significant (r=0.46, R(2) = 0.209, p=0.003 and r=0.48, R(2) = 0.226, p<0.001, respectively). The results of this study validate that Google Trends has the potential to be a valuable monitoring tool for tobacco use. The near real-time monitoring features of Google Trends may complement traditional surveillance methods and lead to faster and more convenient monitoring of emerging trends in tobacco use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Predictors of chewing tobacco and cigarette use in a multiethnic public school population.

    PubMed

    Elder, J P; Molgaard, C A; Gresham, L

    1988-01-01

    Smoking and tobacco-chewing habits of sixth and seventh graders were investigated. Four hundred thirty-three white, black, Mexican-American, and Oriental students in San Diego public schools self-reported their tobacco use as well as perceptions of use among their peers and friends, parental socio-economic status, and other variables. One-third of the respondents had used some form of tobacco at least once, with cigarette smoking more common than chewing. Norm perceptions and best friend's habits predicted both smoking and chewing experimentation and prevalence. White males were more frequent "chewers," while blacks and Mexican-Americans were more frequent smokers. Significant associations between the two types of tobacco use were also found.

  17. Development of a Cigarette Tobacco Filler Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Sander, Lane C; Pritchett, Jeanita S; Daniels, Yasmine C; Wood, Laura J; Lang, Brian E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; Johnson, Tricia L; Walters, Matthew J; Phillips, Tracy; Holman, Matthew R; Lee, Grace E; Lisko, Joseph G; Lane, Brian; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford

    2017-10-03

    A new tobacco filler Standard Reference Material (SRM) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in September 2016 with certified and reference mass fraction values for nicotine, N-nitrosonornicotine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, and volatiles. The constituents have been determined by multiple analytical methods with measurements at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and with confirmatory measurements by commercial laboratories. This effort highlights the development of the first SRM for reduced nicotine and reduced tobacco-specific nitrosamines with certified values for composition.

  18. Ninety-day inhalation study in rats, comparing smoke from cigarettes that heat tobacco with those that burn tobacco.

    PubMed

    Coggins, C R; Ayres, P H; Mosberg, A T; Sagartz, J W; Burger, G T; Hayes, A W

    1989-10-01

    Eight groups of 30 male and 30 female rats were exposed 1 hr per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks, to smoke from reference (tobacco burned) or test (tobacco only heated) cigarettes, at nicotine concentrations of 5, 15, or 30 micrograms/liter of air. Similar smoke concentrations of wet total particulate matter and carbon monoxide were produced in each of the test/reference comparisons. There was a pronounced depression of minute ventilation of animals in the reference groups, but not in the test animals. Blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations were similar in animals exposed to smoke from test and reference cigarettes. Plasma concentrations of nicotine and cotinine in the test groups were higher than in the reference groups. There were no differences between the smoke-exposed groups in terms of body weight or feed consumption. At necropsy, an increase in heart weight was noted in both high exposure groups. There were notable differences in histopathology, with fewer and less-pronounced changes in the test groups than in the reference groups. Many of the histopathological responses induced in the reference groups were absent in the test groups. Overall, the study demonstrated a substantial reduction in the biological activity of smoke from the test cigarette when compared with the reference.

  19. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    PubMed

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Prohibiting juvenile access to tobacco: Violation rates, cigarette sales, and youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Andrew L; Monnat, Shannon M

    2015-09-01

    Scholars who examine the efficacy of juvenile tobacco sales restrictions, especially the 1992 "Synar Amendment" that led all of fifty U.S. states to enact prohibitions on tobacco sales to minors, are notably divided as to impact on youth smoking. Some researchers claim that such policies have failed and ought to be abandoned (Craig & Boris, 2007; Etter, 2006; Glantz, 2002), while others insist that enforcement has indeed led to reduced tobacco use (DiFranza, 2011b; SAMHSA, 2011). The present study is the first to combine data on Synar violation rates from all states and years available since the amendment's implementation, assessing the connection to national rates of cigarette sales and youth smoking behavior. Using national data from the United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the Tobacco Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control's Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System across all U.S. states between 1996 and 2007, we employ hierarchical linear modeling to examine the connection between retailer Synar violations and youth smoking. Controlling for state-level demographic variables, results indicate that retailer violation rates are significantly associated with greater youth smoking prevalence, as well as higher overall cigarette sales. While critiques of Synar policies are substantive and should be addressed, laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to juveniles appear to have had some degree of success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of cigarette pack shape, size and opening: evidence from tobacco company documents.

    PubMed

    Kotnowski, Kathy; Hammond, David

    2013-09-01

    To use tobacco industry documents on cigarette pack shape, size and openings to identify industry findings on associations with brand imagery, product attributes, consumer perceptions and behaviour. Internal tobacco industry research and marketing documents obtained through court disclosure contained in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library were searched using keywords related to pack shapes, sizes and opening methods. The search identified 66 documents related to consumer research and marketing plans on pack shape, size and openings, drawn from 1973 to 2002. Industry research consistently found that packs that deviated from the traditional flip-top box projected impressions of 'modern', 'elegant' and 'unique' brand imagery. Alternative pack shape and openings were identified as an effective means to communicate product attributes, particularly with regard to premium quality and smooth taste. Consumer studies consistently found that pack shape, size and opening style influenced perceptions of reduced product harm, and were often used to communicate a 'lighter' product. Slim, rounded, oval and booklet packs were found to be particularly appealing among young adults, and several studies demonstrated increased purchase interest for tobacco products presented in novel packaging shape or opening. Evidence from consumer tracking reports and company presentations indicate that pack innovations in shape or opening method increased market share of brands. Consumer research by the tobacco industry between 1973 and 2002 found that variations in packaging shape, size and opening method could influence brand appeal and risk perceptions and increase cigarette sales. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Effect of ammonia in cigarette tobacco on nicotine absorption in human smokers.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Sleijffers, Annemarie; van Spiegel, Paul; Blom, Roos; Witte, Maarten; van de Kassteele, Jan; Blokland, Marco; Steerenberg, Peter; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2011-12-01

    The function of ammonia as tobacco additive is subject of scientific debate. It is argued that ammonia, by increasing the proportion of free nicotine, increases the absorption of nicotine in smokers. As a result of the addition of ammonia to cigarettes, smokers get exposed to higher internal nicotine doses and become more addicted to the product. On two occasions, the nicotine absorption in blood was measured after smoking a commercial cigarette of either brand 1 or brand 2, which differed 3.8-fold in ammonium salt content. Using a standardized smoking regime (six puffs, 30 s puff interval, 7 s breath hold before exhalation), 51 regular smokers smoked brand 1 (Caballero Smooth Flavor; 0.89 mg ammonium per gram tobacco) and brand 2 (Gauloise Brunes; 3.43 mg ammonium per gram tobacco). Puff volumes and cardiovascular parameters were monitored during and following smoking, respectively. Measurement of serum nicotine level in the blood samples collected over time following smoking of the two brands, showed that total amount of nicotine absorbed did not differ between the two brands. Present results demonstrate that smoking tobacco containing a higher amount of the tobacco additive ammonium does not increase the absorption of nicotine in the smoker's body.

  3. Maternal use of cigarettes, pipes, and smokeless tobacco associated with higher infant mortality rates in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Eng, Carlin; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S; Kanal, Koum

    2013-09-01

    In the Western Pacific Region, rural women use loose tobacco in betel quid chewing and pipe smoking. We examined the relation between maternal use of tobacco and infant mortality (IM) in a national sample of 24 296 birth outcomes in adult women (n = 6013) in Cambodia. We found that (1) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for maternal use of any tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-2.26); (2) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for cigarette use (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.54- 4.1), use of pipes (OR = 3.09; [95% CI = 1.86-5.11]), and betel quid chewing (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.10-2.17); and (3) these associations remained after multivariable adjustment for environmental tobacco smoke, malnutrition, ethnicity, religion, marital status, education, income, occupation, and urban/rural dwelling. In addition to finding the established association with cigarettes, we also found that maternal use of smokeless tobacco and pipes was associated with higher rates of infant death in Cambodia.

  4. The effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and healthcare costs: 1989-2008.

    PubMed

    Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion.

  5. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  6. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  7. 27 CFR 44.225 - Delivery of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, or cigarette papers or tubes for export other than by parcel post. 44.225 Section 44.225 Alcohol... (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX... tubes for export other than by parcel post. The claimant, upon release of the tobacco products,...

  8. [Excise taxes on tobacco and the problem of smuggling - concerning the credibility of the tobacco industry's "Discarded-Cigarette-Packages-Study"].

    PubMed

    Adams, M; Effertz, T

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of tobacco products is one of the main causes of illnesses. An often neglected but highly effective instrument for fiscal and preventive purposes is higher taxes on tobacco products. The tobacco industry however claims that higher taxes have tremendous effects on smuggling activity with additional costs with regard to law enforcement. The claim appears to be substantiated by a study which collects and documents the amounts of discarded empty cigarette packs, and which is used to estimate the fraction of illegally imported cigarettes. We show that this study makes use of systematic misspecifications and impreciseness and thus seems to pursue the aim of showing an exaggerated high amount of illegally imported cigarettes. The industry's claim that two thirds of non-taxed cigarettes in Germany are imported illegally, thus lacks any sound, well-grounded empirical corroboration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. The development of tobacco use in adolescence among "snus starters" and "cigarette starters": an analysis of the Swedish "BROMS" cohort.

    PubMed

    Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Wickholm, Seppo

    2008-02-01

    Whether the use of smokeless tobacco can facilitate the transition to cigarette smoking and/or to prolonged tobacco use in adolescence is unclear. We analyzed data from a cohort of 2,938 Swedish adolescents, with six follow-up assessments of tobacco use between the ages of 11 and 18 years. The majority of tobacco users (70%) started by smoking cigarettes, 11% took up snus before smoking, and 19% used both tobacco types close in time. Ever users of tobacco at baseline had a higher risk of being current smokers and/or smokeless tobacco users at the end of follow-up compared with never users, with the highest excess relative risk for "mixed users." Adolescents who initiated tobacco use with cigarettes had a non-significantly increased probability to end up as current smokers compared with snus starters (adjusted OR=1.42; 95% CI 0.98-2.10) The OR of smoking for "mixed starters" was 2.54 (95% CI 1.68-3.91). The risk of becoming current user of any tobacco was also significantly enhanced for "mixed starters." Marked sex differences were observed in these associations, as initiation with cigarettes rather than with snus predicted current smoking or tobacco use only among females. Progression of tobacco use in adolescence is not predicted by onset with snus or cigarettes, but rather by initiation with both tobacco types close in time and/or at young age. The proportion of adolescent smoking prevalence attributable to a potential induction effect of snus is likely small.

  10. Patterns of Alternative Tobacco Product Use: Emergence of Hookah and E-cigarettes as Preferred Products Amongst Youth.

    PubMed

    Gilreath, Tamika D; Leventhal, Adam; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Berhane, Kiros; Huh, Jimi; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Chou, Chih Ping; McConnell, Rob

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing public health concern related to the rapid increase in the use of multiple tobacco products among adolescents. This study examined patterns of adolescent use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillo, hookah/waterpipe, and smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco in a population of southern California adolescents. Data from 2,097 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children's Health Study were collected via self-report in 2014. Study participants were asked about lifetime and current (past 30 days) use of cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe, and smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns of tobacco use. Hookah/waterpipe tobacco use had the highest current prevalence (10.7%) followed by e-cigarettes (9.6%). The prevalence of use of smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco was lowest, with 2.2% of adolescents reporting current use. The LCA suggested four distinct classes, comprising nonusers (72.3% of the sample), polytobacco experimenters (13.9%), e-cigarette/hookah users (8.2%), and polytobacco users (5.6%). Multinomial logistic regression based on these four classes found that males had double the odds to be polytobacco users relative to nonusers compared to females (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-4.25). By identifying naturally occurring configurations of tobacco product use in teens, these findings may be useful to practitioners and policymakers to identify the need for tobacco control interventions that address specific tobacco products and particular combinations of polytobacco use. LCA can be used to identify segments of the population overrepresented among certain tobacco use classes (e.g., boys) that may benefit most from targeted polyproduct intervention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Patterns of Alternative Tobacco Product Use: Emergence of Hookah and E-cigarettes as Preferred Products Amongst Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gilreath, Tamika D.; Leventhal, Adam; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Berhane, Kiros; Huh, Jimi; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Chou, Chih Ping; McConnell, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is a growing public health concern related to the rapid increase in the use of multiple tobacco products among adolescents. This study examined patterns of adolescent use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillo, hookah/waterpipe, and smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco in a population of southern California adolescents. Methods Data from 2,097 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study were collected via self-report in 2014. Study participants were asked about lifetime and current (past 30 days) use of cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe, and smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns of tobacco use. Results Hookah/waterpipe tobacco use had the highest current prevalence (10.7%) followed by e-cigarettes (9.6%). The prevalence of use of smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco was lowest, with 2.2% of adolescents reporting current use. The LCA suggested four distinct classes, comprising nonusers (72.3% of the sample), polytobacco experimenters (13.9%), e-cigarette/hookah users (8.2%), and polytobacco users (5.6%). Multinomial logistic regression based on these four classes found that males had double the odds to be polytobacco users relative to nonusers compared to females (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–4.25). Conclusions By identifying naturally occurring configurations of tobacco product use in teens, these findings may be useful to practitioners and policymakers to identify the need for tobacco control interventions that address specific tobacco products and particular combinations of polytobacco use. LCA can be used to identify segments of the population overrepresented among certain tobacco use classes (e.g., boys) that may benefit most from targeted polyproduct intervention approaches. PMID:26598059

  12. The Effects of Alcohol on Cigarette Craving in Heavy Smokers and Tobacco Chippers

    PubMed Central

    Sayette, Michael A.; Martin, Christopher S.; Wertz, Joan M.; Perrott, Michael A.; Peters, Annie R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of alcohol consumption on cigarette craving in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (n = 138) who were instructed not to smoke for 12 hr. Participants were exposed to both smoking cues (a lit cigarette) and control cues. Half received a moderate dose of alcohol, adjusted for gender, and half received a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol consumption produced an increase in urge-to-smoke ratings before smoking cue exposure. Moreover, during cue exposure, alcohol consumption produced a sharper increase in urge ratings than did the placebo. In addition, during smoking cue exposure, alcohol increased the likelihood of displaying facial expressions associated with positive affect. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption influences both the magnitude and the emotional valence of cigarette cravings. PMID:16187804

  13. Tobacco harm reduction: the need for new products that can compete with cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, Karl Olov; Bridgman, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the concept of tobacco harm reduction has been well established. It is now understood that nicotine itself is not very harmful and nicotine replacement therapy products have been widely used as an aid to quit, reduce to quit or temporarily abstain from smoking for many years. The popularity of the unlicensed electronic cigarette has increased despite an unknown risk profile and sinus use in Sweden provides strong evidence in support of a harm reduction strategy. The regulatory environment around harm reduction has changed in the UK and is continuing to evolve across the globe. The need for more appealing, licensed nicotine products capable of competing with cigarettes sensorially, pharmacologically and behaviourally is considered by many to be the way forward. The significant positive impact on public health that could be gained from encouraging people to switch from cigarettes to licensed medicinal nicotine products cannot be ignored.

  14. "Tobacco Truths": Health Magazine, Clinical Epidemiology, and the Cigarette Connection.

    PubMed

    Wilmshurst, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In the 1950s, Health, a magazine published by the Health League of Canada, was nonchalant about the risks of smoking and largely ignored early epidemiological studies of lung cancer. In the 1960s the magazine stopped accepting cigarette advertising and began to oppose smoking. Health's writers adjusted to new knowledge; the magazine gradually accepted clinical epidemiology as a source of medical knowledge and recognized smoking as a public health risk. As Canada's only devoted health publication for a lay audience at the time, Health provides a unique window into ways that smoking and health were portrayed to its readers.

  15. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J; Glantz, S; Ling, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Methods: Analysis of internal company documents. Findings: Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution networks and eliminate advertising restrictions. US cigarette exports to Japan increased 10-fold between 1985 and 1996. Television advertising was central to opening the market by projecting a popular image (despite a small actual market share) to attract existing smokers, combined with hero-centred advertisements to attract new smokers. Philip Morris's campaigns featured Hollywood movie personalities popular with young men, including James Coburn, Pierce Brosnan, Roger Moore, and Charlie Sheen. Event sponsorships allowed television access despite restrictions. When reinstatement of television restrictions was threatened in the late 1980s, Philip Morris more than doubled its television advertising budget and increased sponsorship of televised events. By adopting voluntary advertising standards, transnational companies delayed a television advertising ban for over a decade. Conclusions: Television image advertising was important to establish a market, and it has been enhanced using Hollywood personalities. Television advertising bans are essential measures to prevent industry penetration of new markets, and are less effective without concurrent limits on sponsorship and promotion. Comprehensive advertising restrictions, as included in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, are vital for countries where transnational tobacco companies have yet to penetrate the market. PMID:15564622

  16. The use of a novel tobacco treatment process to reduce toxicant yields in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; DeGrandpré, Yves; Porter, Andrew; Griffiths, Alexander; McAdam, Kevin; Voisine, Richard; Côté, France; Proctor, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    The US Institute of Medicine has encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) - tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One potential approach is to reduce levels of some smoke toxicant precursors, such as proteins and polyphenols, in tobacco. We describe a treatment process involving aqueous tobacco extraction and treatment with protease; filtration of the extract to remove peptides, amino acids and polyphenols, and recombination of extract and treated tobacco. The process reduced levels of protein nitrogen (59%), polyphenols (33-78%) and nicotine (12%) while sugars increased 16%. ISO mainstream smoke yields of 43 toxicants were measured from cigarettes containing treated tobaccos; lower yields of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide (16-20%), acrylonitrile, ammonia, aromatic amines, pyridine, quinolene and hydrogen cyanide (33-51%), tobacco specific nitrosamines (25-32%); phenolics (24-56%), benzene (16%), toluene (25%) and cadmium (34%) were obtained. There were significantly increased yields of formaldehyde (49%) and isoprene (17%). Reductions in sidestream yields of nitrogenous smoke toxicants and increases in sidestream yields of several carbonyls, benzo(a)pyrene and isoprene were also observed.

  17. How Philip Morris unlocked the Japanese cigarette market: lessons for global tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Lambert, A; Sargent, J D; Glantz, S A; Ling, P M

    2004-12-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control includes tobacco advertising restrictions that are strongly opposed by the tobacco industry. Marketing strategies used by transnational tobacco companies to open the Japanese market in the absence of such restrictions are described. Analysis of internal company documents. Between 1982 and 1987 transnational tobacco companies influenced the Japanese government through the US Trade Representative to open distribution networks and eliminate advertising restrictions. US cigarette exports to Japan increased 10-fold between 1985 and 1996. Television advertising was central to opening the market by projecting a popular image (despite a small actual market share) to attract existing smokers, combined with hero-centred advertisements to attract new smokers. Philip Morris's campaigns featured Hollywood movie personalities popular with young men, including James Coburn, Pierce Brosnan, Roger Moore, and Charlie Sheen. Event sponsorships allowed television access despite restrictions. When reinstatement of television restrictions was threatened in the late 1980s, Philip Morris more than doubled its television advertising budget and increased sponsorship of televised events. By adopting voluntary advertising standards, transnational companies delayed a television advertising ban for over a decade. Television image advertising was important to establish a market, and it has been enhanced using Hollywood personalities. Television advertising bans are essential measures to prevent industry penetration of new markets, and are less effective without concurrent limits on sponsorship and promotion. Comprehensive advertising restrictions, as included in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, are vital for countries where transnational tobacco companies have yet to penetrate the market.

  18. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

    PubMed

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-06-12

    Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Nicotine replacement therapy, tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes in pharmacies in St. Louis, Missouri.

    PubMed

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Jin, Linda; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Schootman, Mario

    2015-01-01

    To compare availability of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), tobacco products, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in pharmacies in St. Louis, MO. Cross-sectional study, on-site store audits of 322 pharmacies. St. Louis, MO. 242 eligible community pharmacies located in the study area. Pharmacies were visited by trained research assistants who conducted a 5- to 10-minute store audit using a paper-based data collection tool. Availability, accessibility, and pricing of NRT as a function of neighborhood poverty rate and proportion of black residents as well as availability of tobacco products and e-cigarettes. NRT availability decreased as neighborhood poverty rate increased (P = 0.02). Availability without pharmacy personnel assistance also decreased with increasing poverty rate (r = -0.19; 95% CI = -0.06, -0.31) and higher percentage of black residents (r = -0.18; 95% CI = -0.06, -0.31). Prices were lower in neighborhoods with higher poverty rates (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage of black residents (P = 0.03). E-cigarettes were available in 43% of pharmacies, and their availability and price did not differ by poverty rate or percentage of black residents. Low access to NRT might perpetuate smoking disparities in disadvantaged and racially diverse neighborhoods. Study data support policies to ensure equal NRT access to reduce disparities.

  20. Designing cigarettes for women: new findings from the tobacco industry documents.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Carrie Murray; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-06-01

    To examine internal tobacco industry research on female smoking patterns and product preferences, and how this research has informed the design of female-targeted cigarettes and impacted smoking behavior among this target population. Research was conducted through a systematic web-based search of previously secret industry documents made publicly available through the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study provides evidence that the tobacco industry has conducted extensive research on female smoking patterns, needs and product preferences, and has intentionally modified product design for promotion of cigarette smoking among women. Cigarette manufacturers responded to changing female trends by focusing on social and health concerns as well as promoting dual-sex brands that also featured traditional female style characteristics. Product features responsive to female-identified needs and preferences may contribute to differences in female smoking patterns. Assessment of female-targeted product differences should inform smoking cessation and prevention programs tailored to women. Overall, these findings underscore the need for further investigation of effects of targeting on smoking behavior, health outcomes and regulation of tobacco products by public health agencies.

  1. The use of legal, illegal and roll-your-own cigarettes to increasing tobacco excise taxes and comprehensive tobacco control policies: findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey.

    PubMed

    Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers' exposure to antismoking messaging, health warning labels and tobacco marketing. Generalised estimating equations were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with a 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO cigarettes over manufactured legal cigarettes (p≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to antismoking messaging is associated with a lower odds of choosing RYO cigarettes over manufactured legal cigarettes (p≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. To improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policymakers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing antismoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-07-01

    Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers' withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called 'pyrazines', which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in 'lights' and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance 'light' cigarette products' acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first 'full-flavour, low-tar' product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  4. Assessment of chlorinated pesticide residues in cigarette tobacco based on supercritical fluid extraction and GC-ECD.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, M V; Fan, J; Hoffmann, D

    1995-11-01

    It has been established that the organochlorinated compounds (OCC) DDT and DDE are xenoestrogens which influence both normal and neoplastic estrogen-responsive tissues. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that OCC contribute to the risk for breast cancer. Although the food chain has been recognized as a major source of human exposure to these compounds, tobacco and tobacco smoke were also considered as sources of exposure to OCC. This study was aimed at quantifying OCC in tobacco and cigarette smoke and at documenting changes in the concentrations of these pesticides in tobacco products since 1970 when OCC were banned for use on tobacco. To determine the levels of OCC residues on tobacco, we developed a new method based on superficial fluid extraction, followed by clean-up on an alumina column, and analysis by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The detection limit for an individual OCC is 1 ng/g tobacco, the relative SD is < 10% for each analyte and the new method compares well with the standardized method that involves conventional organic solvent extraction. The major OCC determined in the tobaccos and in cigarette smoke of US commercial brands that were manufactured in the proceeding three decades were p.p'-isomers of DDD (1540-20 220 ng/g tobacco), DDT (720-13 390 ng) and DDE (58-730 ng). Since 1970, the concentrations of individual OCC in tobacco have gradually decreased by > 98%. The transfer rate from tobacco into mainstream smoke amounts to 22% for DDD, 19% for DDT and 27% for DDE. Today, the concentrations of the OCC in US tobacco are below the maximum permissible limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency. While until 1970 the OCC in tobacco and tobacco smoke contributed significantly to the bioaccumulation of the pesticides in smokers, at this time tobacco and cigarette smoke are a minor source of human exposure.

  5. Dependence measures for non-cigarette tobacco products within the context of the global epidemic: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Elaine; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Cohen, Joanna E

    2014-05-01

    Validated metrics of tobacco dependence exist, but their value for global surveillance of tobacco dependence and development of tobacco control interventions is not well understood. This paper reviews tobacco dependence metrics for non-cigarette products, and whether measures of tobacco dependence have been validated in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and Global Health databases using variant terms for types of tobacco, dependence, measures and validity/reliability. Articles discussing dependence theories and/or metrics were fully reviewed and synthesised. Searches yielded 2702 unique articles. Two independent coders identified 587 articles for abstract review, and 229 were subsequently fully reviewed. Findings from 50 eligible papers are summarised. An initial thematic analysis concentrated on four concepts: general tobacco dependence, dependence metrics, tobacco dependence in LMIC and dependence on non-cigarette tobacco. Analysis identified 14 distinct tobacco dependence instruments. Existing metrics treat tobacco dependence as multifaceted. Measures have been developed almost exclusively around cigarette smoking, although some validation and application across products has occurred. Where cross-national validation has occurred, however, this has rarely included LMIC. For purposes of global surveillance of tobacco dependence, there is a compelling need for validated measures to apply universally across social contexts and a multitude of tobacco products. Alternatively, effective tobacco control interventions require validated dependence measures that integrate specific behavioural elements and social context of product use. While different measures of dependence are required to fulfil each of these goals, both have value in addressing the global tobacco epidemic.

  6. Tobacco control policies are egalitarian: a vulnerabilities perspective on clean indoor air laws, cigarette prices, and tobacco use disparities.

    PubMed

    Dinno, Alexis; Glantz, Stanton

    2009-04-01

    This study models independent associations of state or local strong clean indoor air laws and cigarette prices with current smoker status and consumption in a multilevel framework, including interactions with educational attainment, household income and race/ethnicity and the relationships of these policies to vulnerabilities in smoking behavior. Cross sectional survey data are employed from the February 2002 panel of the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (54,024 individuals representing the US population aged 15-80). Non-linear relationships between both outcome variables and the predictors were modeled. Independent associations of strong clean indoor air laws were found for current smoker status (OR 0.66), and consumption among current smokers (-2.36 cigarettes/day). Cigarette price was found to have independent associations with both outcomes, an effect that saturated at higher prices. The odds ratio for smoking for the highest versus lowest price over the range where there was a price effect was 0.83. Average consumption declined (-1.16 cigarettes/day) over the range of effect of price on consumption. Neither policy varied in its effect by educational attainment, or household income. The association of cigarette price with reduced smoking participation and consumption was not found to vary with race/ethnicity. Population vulnerability in consumption appears to be structured by non-white race categories, but not at the state and county levels at which the policies we studied were enacted. Clean indoor air laws and price increases appear to benefit all socio-economic and race/ethnic groups in our study equally in terms of reducing smoking participation and consumption.

  7. Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Riley, William T; Le, Chap; Luo, Xianghua; Mooney, Marc; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-08-01

    Smokeless tobacco has been proposed as a reduced risk substitute for smoking, but no large studies have investigated exposure to the powerful carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokeless tobacco users versus smokers. The purpose of this study was to carry out such a comparison. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of NNK exposure, and cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, were quantified in the urine of 420 smokers and 182 smokeless tobacco users who were participants in studies designed to reduce their use of these products. The measurements were taken at baseline, before intervention. Levels of total NNAL per milliliter of urine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.0001). When adjusted for age and gender, levels of total NNAL per milligram of creatinine were also significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.001). Levels of cotinine per milliliter of urine and per milligram of creatinine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P < 0.001). These results show similar exposures to the potent tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK in smokeless tobacco users and smokers. These findings do not support the use of smokeless tobacco as a safe substitute for smoking.

  8. Fiscal and Policy Implications of Selling Pipe Tobacco for Roll-Your-Own Cigarettes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel S.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as “dual purpose" or “dual use" pipe tobacco. Methods Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Results Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Conclusions Marketing pipe tobacco as “dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements. PMID:22567159

  9. Fiscal and policy implications of selling pipe tobacco for roll-your-own cigarettes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel S; Tynan, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as "dual purpose" or "dual use" pipe tobacco. Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Marketing pipe tobacco as "dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

  10. The impact of product information and trials on demand for smokeless tobacco and cigarettes: Evidence from experimental auctions

    PubMed Central

    Rousu, Matthew C.; O'Connor, Richard; Thrasher, James F; June, Kristie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Pitcavage, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological and toxicological evidence suggests lower risk of smokeless tobacco (ST) products compared to cigarettes. Less is known, however, about consumer perceptions and use of novel forms of ST, including snus and dissolvable tobacco. Methods In this study, we conducted in-person experimental auctions in Buffalo, NY, Columbia, SC, and Selinsgrove, PA with 571 smokers to test the impact of information and product trials on smokers’ preferences. Auctions were conducted between November 2010-November 2011. Results We found no evidence of an impact of product trials on demand in our auctions. Anti-ST information increased demand for cigarettes when presented alone, but when presented with Pro-ST information it decreased demand for cigarettes. It did not decrease demand for ST products. Anti-smoking information increased demand for ST products, but did not affect cigarette demand. Conclusions These findings suggest that credible and effective communications about tobacco harm reduction should reinforce the negative effects of smoking. PMID:24321456

  11. The Master Settlement Agreement with the tobacco industry and cigarette advertising in magazines.

    PubMed

    King, C; Siegel, M

    2001-08-16

    In 1998, the attorneys general of 46 states signed a Master Settlement Agreement with the four largest tobacco companies in the United States. The agreement prohibits tobacco advertising that targets people younger than 18 years of age. We analyzed the trends in expenditures for advertising for 15 specific brands of cigarettes and the exposure of young people to cigarette advertising in 38 magazines between 1995 and 2000. We defined cigarette brands as "youth" brands if they were smoked by more than 5 percent of the smokers in the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades in 1998; all others were considered to be "adult" brands. We classified magazines as youth-oriented magazines if at least 15 percent of their readers or at least 2 million of their readers were 12 to 17 years old. "Reach," a standard measure of exposure to advertising, was defined as the number of young persons who read at least one issue of a magazine containing an advertisement for a particular brand of cigarette during a given year. In 2000 dollars, the overall advertising expenditures for the 15 brands of cigarettes in the 38 magazines were $238.2 million in 1995, $219.3 million in 1998, $291.1 million in 1999, and $216.9 million in 2000. Expenditures for youth brands in youth-oriented magazines were $56.4 million in 1995, $58.5 million in 1998, $67.4 million in 1999, and $59.6 million in 2000. Expenditures for adult brands in youth-oriented magazines were $72.2 million, $82.3 million, $108.6 million, and $67.6 million, respectively. In 2000, magazine advertisements for youth brands of cigarettes reached more than 80 percent of young people in the United States an average of 17 times each. The Master Settlement Agreement with the tobacco industry appears to have had little effect on cigarette advertising in magazines and on the exposure of young people to these advertisements.

  12. Associations between initial water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use and subsequent cigarette smoking: results from a longitudinal study of US adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D; Tanski, Susanne E; Primack, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non-cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non-cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. Among baseline non-cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current

  13. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  14. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  15. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  16. Estimating missed government tax revenue from foreign tobacco: survey of discarded cigarette packs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G; Edwards, R; Peace, J

    2009-10-01

    To clarify the extent of use of foreign (including duty free, foreign normal retail and smuggled) tobacco, and to estimate missed government tax revenue in a geographically isolated country. Discarded cigarette packs were collected on the streets of four cities and six New Zealand towns/rural locations between November 2008 and January 2009. Out of a total of 1310 packs collected, 42 foreign packs were identified (3.2%, 95% CI 2.4% to 4.3%). Overall, the distribution of packs by country and company was not suggestive of any clustering that might indicate smuggling. At 3.2% of packs being "foreign", the New Zealand government is losing around $36 million per year in tobacco-related tax relative to if all this tobacco was purchased in New Zealand. For various reasons (including that it was not possible to identify packs bought duty free within New Zealand, and other New Zealand survey data indicating duty free product use at 3.8% of packs), the figure reached is probably an underestimate of the true level. The New Zealand government is missing out on revenue that could be used for improving the funding of tobacco control, and smokers are being exposed to cheaper tobacco thus increasing their risk of continuing to smoke. This government and other governments can and should act at the international and national levels to end the sales of duty free tobacco.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers on a silica surface for the adsorption of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-ting; Zhu, Yong-yan; Li, Li; Wang, Wen-na; Yin, Yong-guan; Zhu, Quan-hong

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products. Using adsorbents as filter additives is an effective way to reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using nicotinamide as template were grafted on the silica gel surface to obtain MIP@SiO2 and employed as filter additives to absorb tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Four milligrams of MIP@SiO2 per cigarette was added to the interface between filter and tobacco rod to prepare a binary filter system. The mainstream smoke was collected on an industry-standard Cambridge filter pad and extracted with ammonium acetate aqueous solution before analysis. Compared to the cigarette smoke of the control group, the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were both reduced, and the adsorption rates of N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanabasine, N-nitrosoanatabine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridine)-1-butanone with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were 20.76, 15.32, 18.79, and 18.01%, and 41.33, 34.04, 37.86, and 35.53%, respectively. Furthermore the content of total particle materials in cigarette smoke with silica gel was decreased evidently but showed no observable change with MIP@SiO2 . It indicated MIP@SiO2 could selectively reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the mainstream cigarette smoke with no change to the cigarette flavor.

  18. Vaping as a Catalyst for Smoking? An Initial Model on the Initiation of Electronic Cigarette Use and the Transition to Tobacco Smoking Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina

    2016-05-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents is growing worldwide. A more accurate model than the much discussed but inadequate Gateway Hypothesis is needed to explain some adolescents' initial preference for e-cigarettes over tobacco cigarettes, as well as any transition from e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking. Our aim was to summarize the diffuse fear that adolescents will be indirectly encouraged to begin smoking tobacco via the use of e-cigarettes and to systematize the disparate causal hypotheses used thus far in relevant literature. We summarized the vague and fragmented hypotheses formulated thus far in literature on both trajectories from abstinence to e-cigarette use and from there to tobacco smoking into a set of empirically testable hypotheses and organized them into a comprehensive model. Our results indicate that the perceived health risks, specific product characteristics (such as taste, price and inconspicuous use), and higher levels of acceptance among peers and others potentially make e-cigarettes initially more attractive to adolescents than tobacco cigarettes. Later, increasing familiarity with nicotine could lead to the reevaluation of both electronic and tobacco cigarettes and subsequently to a potential transition to tobacco smoking. The suggested "catalyst model" takes variations in the nicotine content of e-cigarettes as well as the dual use of different substances into account. Our model provides causal hypotheses for the initiation of e-cigarette use and for the potential transition to tobacco smoking which, after being tested in empirical studies, could lead to the formulation of concrete recommendations for healthcare intervention and prevention measures. We developed a model that provides causal hypotheses for the initiation of e-cigarette use and for the potential transition to tobacco smoking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

  19. [Smoking of non-cigarette tobacco products by students in three Brazilian cities: should we be worried?].

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Sampaio, Mariana Miranda Autran; Fernandes, Elaine Masson; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2011-11-01

    Smoking of non-cigarette tobacco products is increasing worldwide because of their high social acceptability, misperceptions about their purported harmlessness, and globalization of the tobacco industry. In Brazil, tobacco control experts have recently focused their attention on the importance of monitoring the use of such products. We analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2009) in three cities. Prevalence rates of non-cigarette tobacco smoking in the previous 30 days among students 13 to 15 years of age were high in Campo Grande (18.3%; 95%CI: 14.4%-22.9%) and São Paulo (22.1%; 95%CI: 19.0%-25.6%), while Vitória showed comparatively lower prevalence (4.3%; 95%CI: 3.1%-5.7%). No statistical differences were observed in prevalence rates according to gender. Water pipes were the most frequent form of non-cigarette tobacco smoking. The decline in cigarette smoking in Brazil in recent years may have contributed to other forms of tobacco smoking, especially among students.

  20. Contrasting academic and tobacco industry estimates of illicit cigarette trade: evidence from Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2014-05-01

    To compare two different methods for estimating the size of the illicit cigarette market with each other and to contrast the estimates obtained by these two methods with the results of an industry-commissioned study. We used two observational methods: collection of data from packs in smokers' personal possession, and collection of data from packs discarded on streets. The data were obtained in Warsaw, Poland in September 2011 and October 2011. We used tests of independence to compare the results based on the two methods, and to contrast those with the estimate from the industry-commissioned discarded pack collection conducted in September 2011. We found that the proportions of cigarette packs classified as not intended for the Polish market estimated by our two methods were not statistically different. These estimates were 14.6% (95% CI 10.8% to 19.4%) using the survey data (N=400) and 15.6% (95% CI 13.2% to 18.4%) using the discarded pack data (N=754). The industry estimate (22.9%) was higher by nearly a half compared with our estimates, and this difference is statistically significant. Our findings are consistent with previous evidence of the tobacco industry exaggerating the scope of illicit trade and with the general pattern of the industry manipulating evidence to mislead the debate on tobacco control policy in many countries. Collaboration between governments and the tobacco industry to estimate tobacco tax avoidance and evasion is likely to produce upward-biased estimates of illicit cigarette trade. If governments are presented with industry estimates, they should strictly require a disclosure of all methodological details and data used in generating these estimates, and should seek advice from independent experts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF BURLEY SUBSTATION, SECOND STORY, LOOKING EAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF BURLEY SUBSTATION, SECOND STORY, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING PARTITIONS, POURED-IN-PLACE CONCRETE ROOF AND WATER- DAMAGED SOUTH WALL (BREAK BETWEEN 1913-1914 AND 1921 CONSTRUCTION PHASES IN FOREGROUND) - Bonneville Power Administration Burley Substation, 1221 Albion Avenue, Burley, Cassia County, ID

  2. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as “natural” and American smokers' views of the “naturalness” (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results Cigarette advertisements have used the term “natural” since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that “natural” referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term “additive‐free”, introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term “natural” in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed “natural” cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable “regular” brands. Conclusion Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of “natural” cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to “denaturalise” smoking. PMID:18048597

  3. Descriptive evaluation of cigarettes and other tobacco products act in a North Indian city.

    PubMed

    Goel, Sonu; Sardana, Mohini; Jain, Nisha; Bakshi, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    India is a signatory to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and also enacted cigarettes and other tobacco products Act (COTPA) in 2003. To undertake a comprehensive assessment (Section 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 under COTPA) of legislation against tobacco products in a North Indian city. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at 108 public places which included educational institutions, offices, health institutes, transit sites, and hotels/restaurants. Structured checklists with compliance indicators for various sections under COTPA were used. Different brands of tobacco products were observed for pictorial warnings. No active smoking was observed at 80.5% public places, while 54.6% places had displayed "No smoking" signage. About 68.5% public places were found free of evidence of smell/ashes of recent smoking, and 86.1% places had no smoking aids. Merely, one-third public places (36.1%) were complying with all Section 4 indicators. Around 42.3% point of sale had advertisements of tobacco products, and 73.1% had a display of tobacco products visible to minors. Around 60% educational institutions displayed signages as per Section 6b of COTPA, and 32.5% had tobacco shops being run within 100 yards of institution's radius. There was minimal smoking activity within the campus. Health warnings were present in 80.8% of tobacco products, more with Indian brands as compared to foreign brands. The city of Chandigarh, which was declared the first smoke-free city of India, showed poor compliance with COTPA.

  4. The Use of Legal, Illegal, and Roll-you-own Cigarettes to Increasing Tobacco Excise Taxes and Comprehensive Tobacco Control Policies-Findings from the ITC Uruguay Survey

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Dardo; Shang, Ce; Ridgeway, William; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-01-01

    Background Little research has been done to examine whether smokers switch to illegal or roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes in response to a change in their relative price. Objective This paper explores how relative prices between three cigarette forms (manufactured legal, manufactured illegal, and RYO cigarettes) are associated with the choice of one form over another after controlling for covariates, including sociodemographic characteristics, smokers’ exposure to anti-smoking messaging, health warning labels, and tobacco marketing. Methods Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to analyse the association between the price ratio of two different cigarette forms and the usage of one form over the other. Findings A 10% increase in the relative price ratio of legal to RYO cigarettes is associated with 4.6% increase in the probability of consuming RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). In addition, more exposure to anti-smoking messaging is associated with lower odds of choosing RYO over manufactured legal cigarettes (P≤0.05). Non-significant associations exist between the manufactured illegal to legal cigarette price ratios and choosing manufactured illegal cigarettes, suggesting that smokers do not switch to manufactured illegal cigarettes as prices of legal ones increase. However, these non-significant findings may be due to lack of variation in the price ratio measures. In order to improve the effectiveness of increased taxes and prices in reducing smoking, policy makers need to narrow price variability in the tobacco market. Moreover, increasing anti-smoking messaging reduces tax avoidance in the form of switching to cheaper RYO cigarettes in Uruguay. PMID:25740084

  5. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D.; Cooper, Bethany T.; Bennett, Melanee B.; Brown, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic. PMID:25361047

  6. Comparative in vitro toxicity profile of electronic and tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy products: e-liquids, extracts and collected aerosols.

    PubMed

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D; Cooper, Bethany T; Bennett, Melanee B; Brown, Steven E

    2014-10-30

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  7. Cigarette Smoking, Desire to Quit, and Tobacco-Related Counseling Among Patients at Adult Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Fiore, Michael C.; Tomoyasu, Naomi; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined cigarette smoking prevalence, desire to quit, and tobacco-related counseling among a national sample of patients at health centers. Methods. Data came from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey and the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample included 3949 adult patients at health centers and 27 731 US adults. Results. Thirty-one percent of health center patients were current smokers, compared with 21% of US adults in general. Among currently smoking health center patients, 83% desired to quit and 68% received tobacco counseling. In multivariable models, patients had higher adjusted odds of wanting to quit if they had indications of severe mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 8.97) and lower odds if they had health insurance (AOR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.22, 0.86). Patients had higher odds of receiving counseling if they had 2 or more chronic conditions (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.11, 3.78) and lower odds if they were Hispanic (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96). Conclusions. Cigarette smoking prevalence is substantially higher among patients at health centers than US adults in general. However, most smokers at health centers desire to quit. Continued efforts are warranted to reduce tobacco use in this vulnerable group. PMID:24625147

  8. British American Tobacco and the “insidious impact of illicit trade” in cigarettes across Africa

    PubMed Central

    LeGresley, E; Lee, K; Muggli, M E; Patel, P; Collin, J; Hurt, R D

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in the illicit trade of cigarettes across the African continent in terms of rationale, supply routes and scale. Methods: Analysis of internal BAT documents and industry publications. Results: BAT has relied on illegal channels to supply markets across Africa since the 1980s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy in order to gain leverage in negotiating with governments for tax concessions, compete with other transnational tobacco companies, circumvent local import restrictions and unstable political and economic conditions and gain a market presence. BAT worked through distributors and local agents to exploit weak government capacity to gain substantial market share in major countries. Conclusions: Documents demonstrate that the complicity of BAT in cigarette smuggling extends to Africa, which includes many of the poorest countries in the world. This is in direct conflict with offers by the company to contribute to stronger international cooperation to tackle the illicit tobacco trade. PMID:18617598

  9. The Cigarette and Smokeless Tobacco Markets in Texas Relative to the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller Lo, Erin J; Giovenco, Daniel P; Wackowski, Olivia A; Harrell, Melissa B; Perry, Cheryl L; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2017-04-01

    This study compares the cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT) markets in Texas and the United States (US) as a whole. Nielsen convenience store sales data from 2014 were obtained for Dallas, Houston, San Antonio/Austin, and the total US. Descriptive statistics highlighted market share differences in Texas compared to the US overall. Marlboro and Copenhagen dominated the cigarette (58.9%) and SLT markets (44.8%) in Texas and had substantially higher relative market shares in Texas than nationally (46.7% and 29.8%, respectively). Camel, with sales driven largely by its Camel Crush variety, held second place in Texas (9.8%), outselling Newport (6.6%), despite Newport's status as second best-selling brand in the US (11.5%). Copenhagen led the SLT market in Texas, outselling Grizzly 2 to 1, yet the brands hold roughly equivalent shares nationally. Whereas flavored SLT products made up nearly 60% of the US SLT market, unflavored SLT (58.6%) dominated in Texas markets. Finally, sales of fine-cut SLT in Texas were more than triple their national market share. Regional tobacco market share differences are likely influenced by multiple factors such as marketing, population demographics, culture, and neighboring communities. Policymakers are encouraged to develop local tobacco control policies and programs within the context of this knowledge.

  10. Revising the machine smoking regime for cigarette emissions: implications for tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Wiebel, Friedrich; Kozlowski, Lynn T; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J; McNeill, Ann; Connolly, Greg N; Arnott, Deborah; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2007-01-01

    Background The WHO Framework Convenion on Tobacco Control includes provisions for testing and regulating cigarette emissions. However, the current international standard for generating cigarette emissions—the ISO machine smoking regime—is widely acknowledged to be inappropriate for purposes of setting regulatory restrictions. Objective To review alternatives to the ISO machine smoking regime and the extent to which they: 1) Represent human smoking behaviour, 2) Reduce the potential for industry exploitation, particularly in the area of risk communication, and 3) Serve as suitable measures for product regulation. Methods Emissions data from 238 Canadian cigarette brands tested under the ISO and “Canadian Intense” machine smoking regimes. Results None of the alternative smoking regimes, including the Canadian Intense method, are more “representative” of human smoking behaviour and none provide better predictors of human exposure. Conclusions Given that alternatives such as the Canadian Intense regime are subject to the same fundamental limitations as the ISO regime, key questions need to be addressed before any smoking regime should be used to set regulatory limits on smoke emissions. In the meantime, regulators should remove quantitative emission values from cigarette packages and more work should be done on alternative machine smoking methods. PMID:17297067

  11. Measurement of Multiple Nicotine Dependence Domains Among Cigarette, Non-cigarette and Poly-tobacco Users: Insights from Item Response Theory*