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Sample records for cigarette flavoring ingredient

  1. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  2. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  3. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  4. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  5. 7 CFR 58.718 - Flavor ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.718 Flavor ingredients. Flavor ingredients used in process cheese and related products shall... types of flavoring materials should be uniform in color and should impart the characteristic...

  6. Toxicological evaluation of glycerin as a cigarette ingredient.

    PubMed

    Carmines, E L; Gaworski, C L

    2005-10-01

    Glycerin is applied to cigarette tobacco at levels in the range of about 1-5% to improve moisture holding characteristics of tobacco and act as a surface active agent for flavor application. Neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and sub-chronic rodent inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various target levels (5%, 10%, and 15%) of the glycerin were performed to provide data for an assessment of the use of glycerin as a cigarette tobacco ingredient. The actual levels of glycerin in the respective test cigarettes were determined to be 3.2%, 6.2% and 8.4% after cigarette production. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 900 degrees C, neat glycerin did not pyrolyze extensively suggesting that glycerin would transfer intact to mainstream smoke (smoke was not analyzed for glycerin in this study). On a tar basis, nicotine in smoke was significantly decreased at 10% and 15% glycerin while water was increased at all addition levels. Addition of 10% or 15% glycerin also resulted in a statistically significant increase in acrolein (9%) and a decrease in acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, aromatic amines, nitrogen oxides, tobacco specific nitrosamines, and phenols. Addition of 5% glycerin produced the same decrease in smoke constituents as the 10% and 15% groups but there was no concomitant increase in acrolein. Biological tests indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke (or smoke preparations) from cigarettes with added glycerin compared to control cigarettes. Cigarette smoke atmosphere dilution, coupled with the lower nicotine delivery in the test cigarettes containing glycerin resulted in a lower nicotine delivery to the glycerin cigarette smoke exposed rats of the 90-day inhalation study. Smoke atmosphere acrolein was also reduced in a concentration

  7. Electronic Cigarettes on Twitter – Spreading the Appeal of Flavors

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Soto, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Social media platforms are used by tobacco companies to promote products. This study examines message content on Twitter from e-cigarette brands and determines if messages about flavors are more likely than non-flavor messages to be passed along to other viewers. Methods We examined Twitter data from 2 e-cigarette brands and identified messages that contained terms related to e-cigarette flavors. Results Flavor-related posts were retweeted at a significantly higher rate by e-cigarette brands (p = .04) and other Twitter users (p < .01) than non-flavor posts. Conclusions E-cigarette brands and other Twitter users pay attention to flavor-related posts and retweet them often. These findings suggest flavors continue to be an attractive characteristic and their marketing should be monitored closely. PMID:27853734

  8. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Yongcheng; Li, Qiudan; Zeng, Daniel D; Leischow, Scott J; Okamoto, Janet

    2015-11-20

    In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720) among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902) used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers' interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers' view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers.

  9. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Yongcheng; Li, Qiudan; Zeng, Daniel D.; Leischow, Scott J.; Okamoto, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720) among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902) used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers’ interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers’ view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers. PMID:26610541

  10. Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette Vaping.

    PubMed

    Khlystov, Andrey; Samburova, Vera

    2016-12-06

    The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.

  11. Adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Gorukanti, Anuradha; Delucchi, Kevin; Ling, Pamela; Fisher-Travis, Raymond; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents' attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from California (63.21% females; mean age=16.10years [SD=1.6]; 26.61% White, 21.98% Asian/Pacific Islander, 29.82% Hispanic, and 21.59% other). Results indicated that 19.05% of participants believed smoke from e-cigarettes is water; 23.03% believed e-cigarettes aren't a tobacco product; 40.36% considered e-cigarettes to be for cessation, and 43.13% felt they were safer than cigarettes. Participants felt it was more acceptable to use e-cigarettes indoors and outdoors compared to cigarettes (p<0.0001), 23.13% felt raising e-cigarette taxes is a bad idea, 63.95% thought e-cigarettes were easier to get than cigarettes, 54.42% felt e-cigarettes cost too much, 64.33% felt the age for buying e-cigarettes should be raised, and 64.37% favored e-cigarette regulation. Adolescents who used e-cigarettes and/or cigarettes had significantly more favorable e-cigarette attitudes than non-users. This study indicates that adolescents are aware of some of the risks of e-cigarettes, although many harbor misperceptions and hold more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Of concern is the relationship between favorable e-cigarette attitudes and use. Findings suggest the need to provide adolescents with correct information about e-cigarette ingredients, risks, and the insufficient evidence of their role in cigarette cessation.

  12. Invited review: The effect of native and nonnative enzymes on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are used in a wide array of foods from soups to bars to beverages. The popularity of dried dairy ingredients, including but not limited to sweet whey powder, whey proteins and milk powders, is increasing. Dried dairy ingredient flavor can carry through into the finished product and influence consumer liking; thus, it is imperative to produce a consistent product with bland flavor. Many different chemical compounds, both desirable and undesirable, contribute to the overall flavor of dried dairy ingredients, making the flavor very complex. Enzymatic reactions play a major role in flavor. Milk contains several native (indigenous) enzymes, such as lactoperoxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase, proteinases, and lipases, which may affect flavor. In addition, other enzymes are often added to milk or milk products for various functions such as milk clotting (chymosin), bleaching of whey products (fungal peroxidases, catalase to deactivate hydrogen peroxide), flavor (lipases in certain cheeses), or produced during the cheesemaking process from starter culture or nonstarter bacteria. These enzymes and their possible contributions will be discussed in this review. Understanding the sources of flavor is crucial to produce bland, flavorless ingredients.

  13. Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: a review of published and other publicly available studies.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Ewald; Schorp, Matthias K; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Seeman, Jeffrey I; Leyden, Donald E; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2012-03-01

    Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking.

  14. Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: A review of published and other publicly available studies

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ewald; Schorp, Matthias K; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Seeman, Jeffrey I; Leyden, Donald E; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking. PMID:22263649

  15. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph G.; Flanigan, Skye S.; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “popcorn lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. Methods: We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. Results: At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Conclusion: Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Citation: Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733–739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185 PMID:26642857

  16. New cigarette brands with flavors that appeal to youth: tobacco marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Pauly, John L; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco manufacturers have recently introduced a proliferation of exotic brands featuring candylike flavors. We reviewed internal tobacco industry documents and patents to assess the role of flavored cigarettes in the targeting of young smokers. This research revealed the development of flavor delivery technologies hidden from consumers and public health professionals, including the use of a plastic pellet placed in the cigarette filter. These findings raise concerns as to the potential added health risks associated with using new flavored tobacco products, and they underscore the need for effective assessment and monitoring of tobacco products.

  17. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes. Part 7: the impact of ingredients added to kretek cigarettes on inhalation toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schramke, H; Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Hirter, J; Meurrens, K; Berges, A; Weiler, H; Vanscheeuwijck, P; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    The biological activity of mainstream smoke from experimental kretek cigarettes with and without three mixes of ingredients was assessed in a 90-day rat inhalation study and in a 4-day in vivo micronucleus assay. 350 ingredients, commonly used in various combinations and in a limited number in a given brand in the manufacture of marketed kretek cigarettes, were applied at a low and a high target level to test cigarettes with a typical Indonesian blend of tobaccos and cloves. In the 90-day inhalation study, effects commonly seen in rat inhalation studies with mainstream smoke were observed. In general, no ingredients-related histopathological changes were found in the respiratory tract. In the 4-day micronucleus assay exposure of male rats to mainstream smoke from the test cigarettes containing any of the three mixes did not increase the proportions of micronucleated cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow over the proportion of micronucleated cells in the control group. Based on the results of these studies, it can be concluded that the addition of ingredients commonly used in the manufacture of kretek cigarettes did not change the overall in vivo toxicity profile of the mainstream smoke.

  18. The FEMA GRAS assessment of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons used as flavor ingredients.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Gavin, C Lucas; McGowen, M M; Waddell, W J; Cohen, S M; Feron, V J; Marnett, L J; Munro, I C; Portoghese, P S; Rietjens, I M C M; Smith, R L

    2011-10-01

    This publication is the thirteenth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2600 substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic and aromatic terpene hydrocarbons was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic potential.

  19. Pig's blood in cigarette filters: how a single news release highlighted tobacco industry concealment of cigarette ingredients.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ross; Chapman, Simon

    2011-03-01

    The tobacco industry is not obligated to disclose ingredients and additives used in manufactured tobacco production. This paper describes global reaction to a press release highlighting evidence that porcine haemoglobin ("pig's blood") was sometimes used in cigarette manufacturing while never being disclosed to smokers. The case study illustrates the power of press releases to ignite major interest in tobacco control issues.

  20. Preferred Flavors and Reasons for E-cigarette Use and Discontinued Use Among Never, Current, and Former Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare e-cigarette flavors preferred and reasons for use and discontinued use across never, current, and former e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers. Methods We recruited 1,567 participants age 18–34 years through Facebook ads targeting tobacco users and nonusers in August 2014 to complete an online survey. We assessed tobacco use, preferred flavors, and reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use. Results Our sample was 49% male, 87% White; 56% current cigarette smokers; and 53% e-cigarette users. Current e-cigarette users used an average of 20.9 days in the past 30 (SD=11.7) and 55.2 puffs/day (SD=37.3). Compared to never and current smokers, former smokers used e-cigarettes more frequently (p’s<.001). Among users and nonusers, the most preferred was fruit flavors, and the most commonly reported reason for e-cigarette use was “they might be less harmful than cigarettes”. The most endorsed reason for discontinued e-cigarette use was “using other tobacco products instead”. Never, current, and former smokers had distinct reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use and differed in flavor preferences. Conclusions Regulating marketing and flavors may impact e-cigarette uptake by young adults. PMID:26582009

  1. Quantification of flavor-related compounds in the unburned contents of bidi and clove cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Stanfill, Stephen B; Brown, Candace R; Yan, Xizheng Jane; Watson, Clifford H; Ashley, David L

    2006-11-01

    Bidi cigarettes, small hand-rolled cigarettes produced primarily in India, are sold in the United States in a wide variety of candy-like flavors (e.g. dewberry, chocolate, clove) and are popular with adolescents. Many flavored bidis contain high concentrations of compounds such as eugenol, anethole, methyleugenol, pulegone, and estragole; several of these compounds have known toxic or carcinogenic properties. Clove cigarettes, or kreteks, are another highly flavored tobacco product with high levels of eugenol due to clove buds present in the tobacco filler. In this study, compounds in the burnable portion-the filler and wrapper material actually consumed during the smoking of bidis, kreteks, and U.S. cigarettes-were analyzed. Flavor-related compounds were solvent extracted from the burnable portion of each cigarette with methanol. An aliquot of the methanol extract was heated, and the sample headspace was sampled with a solid-phase microextraction fiber and introduced into a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer for analysis in selected-ion monitoring mode. High levels of eugenol were detected in five clove-flavored bidi brands ranging from 78.6 to 7130 microg/cigarette (microg/cig), whereas diphenyl ether (128-3550 microg/cig) and methyl anthranilate (154-2360 microg/cig) were found in one grape-flavored bidi brand. A nontobacco herbal bidi brand contained the greatest variety of compounds, including anethole (489-665 microg/cig), eugenol (1670-2470 microg/cig), methyleugenol (27.7-36.6 microg/cig), safrole (32.4-34.4 microg/cig), myristicin (170-247 microg/cig), and elemicin (101-109 microg/cig). Filler from kreteks was found to contain high levels of eugenol, anethole, and coumarin. Flavored bidis and clove cigarettes contain a number of compounds that are present at levels far exceeding those reported in U.S. cigarette tobacco. Research is underway to determine the levels of these compounds delivered in smoke. It is not known what effect inhalation of these

  2. GRASr2 evaluation of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances used as flavoring ingredients.

    PubMed

    Marnett, Lawrence J; Cohen, Samuel M; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J; Hecht, Stephen S; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L; Adams, Timothy B; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L; McGowen, Margaret M; Taylor, Sean V

    2014-04-01

    This publication is the 1st in a series of publications by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Assoc. summarizing the Panel's 3rd re-evaluation of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status referred to as the GRASr2 program. In 2011, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 2700 flavor ingredients that have previously met the criteria for GRAS status under conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr2) based, in part, on their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

  3. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 6: the impact of ingredients added to kretek cigarettes on smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Hirter, J; Deger Evans, A; Weber, S; Ode, A; Wittke, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    Mainstream smoke (MS) from experimental kretek cigarettes with three ingredient mixes at low (typical use level) and high (2.5 or 3 times that level) inclusion rates was compared to a control kretek cigarette of identical construction (cloves and humectants), but without the addition of ingredients. 350 ingredients, commonly used in various combinations and in a limited number in a given brand in the manufacture of marketed kretek cigarettes were assessed. The MS composition of the kretek cigarettes was characterized by a comprehensive set of analytes (55 smoke constituents). Furthermore, the smoke was assessed in vitro for its cytotoxicity in the Neutral Red Uptake assay (particle phase and gas/vapor phase separately) in mouse embryo BALB/c 3T3 cells, and for mutagenicity/genotoxicity in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay and the mammalian cell mouse lymphoma TK assay in L5178Y cells, the latter with and without metabolic activation. There were some statistically significant differences in the yield of smoke constituents (increases as well as decreases, nearly all of them less than ± 20%) as a result of the addition of the ingredient mixes. However, the addition of the three different mixes of ingredients to the experimental kreteks did not change the in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity/genotoxicity of the smoke, when compared to the control kretek cigarette.

  4. EVALUATION OF ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE MIXING OF FLAVORINGS CONTAINING DIACETYL AND OTHER VOLATILE INGREDIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Deborah V.L.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Hammond, Duane R.; Sestito, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to diacetyl, a primary ingredient of butter flavoring, have been shown to cause respiratory disease among workers who mix flavorings. This study focused on evaluating ventilation controls designed to reduce emissions from the flavor mixing tanks, the major source of diacetyl in the plants. Five exhaust hood configurations were evaluated in the laboratory: standard hinged lid-opened, standard hinged lid-closed, hinged lid-slotted, dome with 38-mm gap, and dome with 114-mm gap. Tracer gas tests were performed to evaluate quantitative capture efficiency for each hood. A perforated copper coil was used to simulate an area source within the 1.2-meter diameter mixing tank. Capture efficiencies were measured at four hood exhaust flow rates (2.83, 5.66, 11.3, and 17.0 cubic meters per minute) and three cross draft velocities (0, 30, and 60 meters per minute). All hoods evaluated performed well with capture efficiencies above 90% for most combinations of exhaust volume and cross drafts. The standard hinged lid was the least expensive to manufacture and had the best average capture efficiency (over 99%) in the closed configuration for all exhaust flow rates and cross drafts. The hinged lid-slotted hood had some of the lowest capture efficiencies at the low exhaust flow rates compared to the other hood designs. The standard hinged lid performed well, even in the open position, and it provided a flexible approach to controlling emissions from mixing tanks. The dome hood gave results comparable to the standard hinged lid but it is more expensive to manufacture. The results of the study indicate that emissions from mixing tanks used in the production of flavorings can be controlled using simple inexpensive exhaust hoods. PMID:24649880

  5. Dealing with an innovative industry: a look at flavored cigarettes promoted by mainstream brands.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M Jane; Wackowski, Olivia

    2006-02-01

    Product and marketing innovation is key to the tobacco industry's success. One recent innovation was the development and marketing of flavored cigarettes as line extensions of 3 popular brands (Camel, Salem, and Kool). These products have distinctive blends and marketing as well as innovative packaging and have raised concerns in the public health community that they are targeted at youths. Several policy initiatives have aimed at banning or limiting these types of products on that basis. We describe examples of the products and their marketing and discuss their potential implications (including increased smoking experimentation, consumption, and "someday smoking"), as well as their potential impact on young adults.

  6. Identification of Toxicants in Cinnamon-Flavored Electronic Cigarette Refill Fluids.

    PubMed

    Behar, R Z; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P

    2013-10-25

    In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users.

  7. Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluids.

    PubMed

    Behar, R Z; Davis, B; Wang, Y; Bahl, V; Lin, S; Talbot, P

    2014-03-01

    In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users.

  8. The FEMA GRAS assessment of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Gavin, C Lucas; Taylor, S V; Waddell, W J; Cohen, S M; Feron, V J; Goodman, J; Rietjens, I M C M; Marnett, L J; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L

    2008-09-01

    This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of intended use. Since then, the number of flavoring substances has grown to more than 2200 chemically-defined substances. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, toxicodynamics and toxicology. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation for the use of aliphatic, linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) based, in part, on their self-limiting properties as flavoring substances in food; their low level of flavor use; the rapid absorption and metabolism of low in vivo concentrations by well-recognized biochemical pathways; adequate metabolic detoxication at much higher levels of exposure in humans and animals; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic and chronic studies. While some of the compounds described here have exhibited positive in vitro genotoxicity results, evidence of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity occurs only under conditions in which animals are repeatedly and directly exposed to high irritating concentrations of the aldehyde. These conditions are not relevant to humans who consume alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as flavor ingredients at low concentrations distributed in a food or beverage matrix.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of flavoring ingredients against Bacillus cereus in a milk-based beverage.

    PubMed

    Pina-Pérez, Maria C; Rodrigo, Dolores; Martínez-López, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Natural ingredients--cinnamon, cocoa, vanilla, and anise--were assessed based on Bacillus cereus vegetative cell growth inhibition in a mixed liquid whole egg and skim milk beverage (LWE-SM), under different conditions: ingredient concentration (1, 2.5, and 5% [wt/vol]) and incubation temperature (5, 10, and 22 °C). According to the results obtained, ingredients significantly (p<0.05) reduced bacterial growth when supplementing the LWE-SM beverage. B. cereus behavior was mathematically described for each substrate by means of a modified Gompertz equation. Kinetic parameters, lag time, and maximum specific growth rate were obtained. Cinnamon was the most bacteriostatic ingredient and cocoa the most bactericidal one when they were added at 5% (wt/vol) and beverages were incubated at 5 °C. The bactericidal effect of cocoa 5% (wt/vol) reduced final B. cereus log10 counts (log Nf, log10 (colony-forming units/mL)) by 4.10 ± 0.21 log10 cycles at 5 °C.

  10. Mass Spectrometric Approaches to the Identification of Potential Ingredients in Cigarette Smoke Causing Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Horiyama, Shizuyo; Kunitomo, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Nakamura, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many harmful chemicals that contribute to the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies have been done to identify cytotoxic chemicals in cigarette smoke and elucidate the onset of the above-mentioned diseases caused by smoking. However, definitive mechanisms for cigarette smoke toxicity remain unknown. As candidates for cytotoxic chemicals, we have recently found methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and acetic anhydride in nicotine/tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) using L-tyrosine (Tyr), an amino acid with highly reactive hydroxyl group. The presence of MVK and acetic anhydride in CSE was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We also found new reaction products formed in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma (B16-BL6) cells treated with CSE using LC/MS. These were identified as glutathione (GSH) conjugates of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, MVK, crotonaldehyde (CA), and acrolein (ACR), by the mass value and product ion spectra of these new products. ACR and MVK are type-2 alkenes, which are well known as electron acceptors and form Michael-type adducts to nucleophilic side chain of amino acids on peptides. These α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds may have a key role in CSE-induced cell death.

  11. E-cigarettes and flavorings induce inflammatory and pro-senescence responses in oral epithelial cells and periodontal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Isaac K; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E; Rahman, Irfan

    2016-11-22

    Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigs) represent a significant and increasing proportion of tobacco product consumption, which may pose an oral health concern. Oxidative/carbonyl stress via protein carbonylation is an important factor in causing inflammation and DNA damage. This results in stress-induced premature senescence (a state of irreversible growth arrest which re-enforces chronic inflammation) in gingival epithelium, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of oral diseases. We show that e-cigs with flavorings cause increased oxidative/carbonyl stress and inflammatory cytokine release in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, Human Gingival Epithelium Progenitors pooled (HGEPp), and epigingival 3D epithelium. We further show increased levels of prostaglandin-E2 and cycloxygenase-2 are associated with upregulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) by e-cig exposure-mediated carbonyl stress in gingival epithelium/tissue. Further, e-cigs cause increased oxidative/carbonyl and inflammatory responses, and DNA damage along with histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) reduction via RAGE-dependent mechanisms in gingival epithelium. A greater response is elicited by flavored e-cigs. Increased oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory and pro-senescence responses (DNA damage and HDAC2 reduction) can result in dysregulated repair due to proinflammatory and pro-senescence responses in periodontal cells. These data highlight the pathologic role of e-cig aerosol and its flavoring to cells and tissues of the oral cavity in compromised oral health.

  12. E-cigarettes and flavorings induce inflammatory and pro-senescence responses in oral epithelial cells and periodontal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E.; Rahman, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigs) represent a significant and increasing proportion of tobacco product consumption, which may pose an oral health concern. Oxidative/carbonyl stress via protein carbonylation is an important factor in causing inflammation and DNA damage. This results in stress-induced premature senescence (a state of irreversible growth arrest which re-enforces chronic inflammation) in gingival epithelium, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of oral diseases. We show that e-cigs with flavorings cause increased oxidative/carbonyl stress and inflammatory cytokine release in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, Human Gingival Epithelium Progenitors pooled (HGEPp), and epigingival 3D epithelium. We further show increased levels of prostaglandin-E2 and cycloxygenase-2 are associated with upregulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) by e-cig exposure-mediated carbonyl stress in gingival epithelium/tissue. Further, e-cigs cause increased oxidative/carbonyl and inflammatory responses, and DNA damage along with histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) reduction via RAGE-dependent mechanisms in gingival epithelium. A greater response is elicited by flavored e-cigs. Increased oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory and pro-senescence responses (DNA damage and HDAC2 reduction) can result in dysregulated repair due to proinflammatory and pro-senescence responses in periodontal cells. These data highlight the pathologic role of e-cig aerosol and its flavoring to cells and tissues of the oral cavity in compromised oral health. PMID:27791204

  13. Genetic toxicology and toxicogenomic analysis of three cigarette smoke condensates in vitro reveals few differences among full-flavor, blonde, and light products.

    PubMed

    Yauk, Carole L; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie K; Chen, Guosheng; Maertens, Rebecca M; Halappanavar, Sabina; White, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to various detrimental health outcomes. Tobacco companies produce different brands of cigarettes that are marketed as reduced harm tobacco products. Early examples included "light" cigarettes, which differ from regular cigarettes due to filter ventilation and/or differences in chemical constituents. In order to establish baseline similarities and differences among different tobacco brands available in Canada, the present study examined the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, clastogenicity, and gene expression profiles of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from three tobacco products, encompassing a full-flavor, blonde, and "light" variety. Using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, we confirmed that the three CSCs are mutagenic, and that the potency is related to the presence of aromatic amines. Using the Muta™Mouse FE1 cell line we determined that the CSCs were clastogenic and cytotoxic, but nonmutagenic, and the results showed few differences in potencies among the three brands. There were no clear brand-specific changes in gene expression; each brand yielded highly similar expression profiles within a time point and concentration. The molecular pathways and biological functions affected by exposure included xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inflammation. Thus, there was no appreciable difference in toxicity or gene expression profiles between regular brands and products marketed as "light," and hence no evidence of reduced harm. The work establishes baseline CSC cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and expression profiles that can be used as a point of reference for comparison with data generated for products marketed as reduced harm and/or modified risk tobacco products.

  14. Genetic toxicology and toxicogenomic analysis of three cigarette smoke condensates in vitro reveals few differences among full-flavor, blonde, and light products

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole L; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie K; Chen, Guosheng; Maertens, Rebecca M; Halappanavar, Sabina; White, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to various detrimental health outcomes. Tobacco companies produce different brands of cigarettes that are marketed as reduced harm tobacco products. Early examples included “light” cigarettes, which differ from regular cigarettes due to filter ventilation and/or differences in chemical constituents. In order to establish baseline similarities and differences among different tobacco brands available in Canada, the present study examined the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, clastogenicity, and gene expression profiles of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from three tobacco products, encompassing a full-flavor, blonde, and “light” variety. Using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, we confirmed that the three CSCs are mutagenic, and that the potency is related to the presence of aromatic amines. Using the Muta™Mouse FE1 cell line we determined that the CSCs were clastogenic and cytotoxic, but nonmutagenic, and the results showed few differences in potencies among the three brands. There were no clear brand-specific changes in gene expression; each brand yielded highly similar expression profiles within a time point and concentration. The molecular pathways and biological functions affected by exposure included xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inflammation. Thus, there was no appreciable difference in toxicity or gene expression profiles between regular brands and products marketed as “light,” and hence no evidence of reduced harm. The work establishes baseline CSC cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and expression profiles that can be used as a point of reference for comparison with data generated for products marketed as reduced harm and/or modified risk tobacco products. Mol. Mutagen. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.† PMID:22431010

  15. Incorporation of cigarette butts into nests reduces nest ectoparasite load in urban birds: new ingredients for an old recipe?

    PubMed

    Suárez-Rodríguez, Monserrat; López-Rull, Isabel; Garcia, Constantino Macías

    2013-02-23

    Birds are known to respond to nest-dwelling parasites by altering behaviours. Some bird species, for example, bring fresh plants to the nest, which contain volatile compounds that repel parasites. There is evidence that some birds living in cities incorporate cigarette butts into their nests, but the effect (if any) of this behaviour remains unclear. Butts from smoked cigarettes retain substantial amounts of nicotine and other compounds that may also act as arthropod repellents. We provide the first evidence that smoked cigarette butts may function as a parasite repellent in urban bird nests. The amount of cellulose acetate from butts in nests of two widely distributed urban birds was negatively associated with the number of nest-dwelling parasites. Moreover, when parasites were attracted to heat traps containing smoked or non-smoked cigarette butts, fewer parasites reached the former, presumably due to the presence of nicotine. Because urbanization changes the abundance and type of resources upon which birds depend, including nesting materials and plants involved in self-medication, our results are consistent with the view that urbanization imposes new challenges on birds that are dealt with using adaptations evolved elsewhere.

  16. Popcorn worker's lung: In vitro exposure to diacetyl, an ingredient in microwave popcorn butter flavoring, increases reactivity to methacholine

    SciTech Connect

    Fedan, J.S. . E-mail: jsf2@cdc.gov; Dowdy, J.A.; Fedan, K.B.; Hubbs, A.F.

    2006-08-15

    Workers who inhale microwave popcorn butter flavorings experience decrements in lung function and can develop clinical bronchiolitis obliterans, i.e., 'popcorn worker's lung' (Kreiss, K., Gomaa, A., Kullman, G., Fedan, K., Simoes, E.J., Enright, P.L., 2002. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 330-338.). In a rat inhalation model, vapors of an artificial butter flavoring damaged the epithelium of the upper and lower airways (Hubbs, A.F., Battelli, L.A., Goldsmith, W.T., Porter, D.W., Frazer, D., Friend, S., Schwegler-Berry, D., Mercer, R.R., Reynolds, J.S., Grote, A., Castranova, V., Kullman, G., Fedan, J.S., Dowdy, J., Jones, W.G., 2002. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 185, 128-135.). Diacetyl, a butter flavoring component, is a major volatile ketone in the popcorn-processing workplace. We investigated the effects of diacetyl on epithelium of guinea pig isolated airway preparations and the effects of diacetyl in vitro on reactivity to bronchoactive agents. In the isolated, perfused trachea preparation, diacetyl added to the intraluminal (mucosal) bath elicited responses that began with contraction (threshold ca. 3 mM) and ended with relaxation. After a 4-h incubation with intraluminal diacetyl (3 mM), contractions to extraluminal (serosal) methacholine (MCh) were slightly increased; however, sensitivity to intraluminally (mucosally) applied MCh was increased by 10-fold. Relaxation responses of MCh (3 x 10{sup -7} M)-contracted tracheas to extraluminally applied terbutaline and intraluminally applied 120 mM KCl, to evoke epithelium-derived relaxing factor release, were unaffected by diacetyl. Exposure of the tracheal epithelium in Ussing chambers to diacetyl decreased transepithelial potential difference and resistance. These findings suggest that diacetyl exposure compromised epithelial barrier function, leading to

  17. Vapors Produced by Electronic Cigarettes and E-Juices with Flavorings Induce Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Response in Lung Epithelial Cells and in Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Chad A.; Sundar, Isaac K.; Yao, Hongwei; Gerloff, Janice; Ossip, Deborah J.; McIntosh, Scott; Robinson, Risa; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly into the lung during a “vaping” session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used), and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292) in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that could lead to

  18. Glyceryl Tribenzoate: A Flavoring Ingredient, Inhibits the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis via TGF-β: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Susanta; Dasarathi, Sridevi; Pahan, Kalipada

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we have explored a novel use of glyceryl tribenzoate (GTB), a flavoring ingredient, in ameliorating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, via TGF-β. Oral feeding of GTB suppressed clinical symptoms of adoptively-transferred relapsing-remitting (RR) EAE in recipient mice and suppressed the generation of encephalitogenic T cells in donor mice. GTB also attenuated clinical symptoms of RR-EAE in PLP-TCR transgenic mice and chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Accordingly, GTB also suppressed perivascular cuffing, preserved the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, inhibited inflammation, and stopped demyelination in the CNS of EAE mice. Interestingly, GTB treatment upregulated TGF-β and enriched regulatory T cells (Tregs) in splenocytes as well as in vivo in EAE mice. Blocking TGF-β by neutralizing antibodies abrogated GTB-mediated enrichment of Tregs and protection of EAE. These results suggest that oral GTB may be considered as a possible therapy for MS patients. PMID:28367355

  19. Flavored E-Cig Liquids May Contain Toxic Substances

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) -- Some of the liquid flavorings heated in e-cigarettes appear to break down into potentially dangerous compounds, ... health of electronic cigarette users. Whatever the case, e-cigarettes are popular. A 2015 federal survey suggested that ...

  20. Inflammatory Response and Barrier Dysfunction by Different e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals Identified by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry in e-Liquids and e-Vapors on Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, Janice; Sundar, Isaac K.; Freter, Robert; Sekera, Emily R.; Friedman, Alan E.; Robinson, Risa; Pagano, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies suggest that electronic cigarette (e-cig) flavors can be harmful to lung tissue by imposing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The potential inflammatory response by lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts exposed to e-cig flavoring chemicals in addition to other risk-anticipated flavor enhancers inhaled by e-cig users is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the release of the proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and epithelial barrier function in response to different e-cig flavoring chemicals identified in various e-cig e-liquid flavorings and vapors by chemical characterization using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Flavorings, such as acetoin (butter), diacetyl, pentanedione, maltol (malt), ortho-vanillin (vanilla), coumarin, and cinnamaldehyde in comparison with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), were used in this study. Human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B), human mucoepidermoid carcinoma epithelial cells (H292), and human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) were treated with each flavoring chemical for 24 hours. The cells and conditioned media were then collected and analyzed for toxicity (viability %), lung epithelial barrier function, and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 release. Cell viability was not significantly affected by any of the flavoring chemicals tested at a concentration of 10 μM to 1 mM. Acetoin and diacetyl treatment induced IL-8 release in Beas2B cells. Acetoin- and pentanedione-treated HFL-1 cells produced a differential, but significant response for IL-8 release compared to controls and TNFα. Flavorings, such as ortho-vanillin and maltol, induced IL-8 release in Beas2B cells, but not in H292 cells. Of all the flavoring chemicals tested, acetoin and maltol were more potent inducers of IL-8 release than TNFα in Beas2B and HFL-1 cells. Flavoring chemicals rapidly impaired epithelial barrier function in human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) as measured by electric cell

  1. Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for Use in Electronic Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Butler, Karen E; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings. A significant active ingredient of C. sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), has been purported to have anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychotic properties. These properties have potential medical therapies such as intervention of addictive behaviors, treatments for epilepsy, management of pain for cancer patients, and treatments for schizophrenia. However, CBD extracted from C. sativa remains a DEA Schedule I drug since it has not been approved by the FDA for medical purposes. Two commercially available e-cigarette liquid formulations reported to contain 3.3 mg/mL of CBD as the active ingredient were evaluated. These products are not regulated by the FDA in manufacturing or in labeling of the products and were found to contain 6.5 and 7.6 mg/mL of CBD in VG and PG with a variety of flavoring agents. Presently, while labeled as to content, the quality control of manufacturers and the relative safety of these products is uncertain.

  2. Evaluation of Two Commercially Available Cannabidiol Formulations for Use in Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Michelle R.; Butler, Karen E.; Wolf, Carl E.; Poklis, Justin L.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-01-01

    Since 24 states and the District of Columbia have legalized marijuana in some form, suppliers of legal marijuana have developed Cannabis sativa products for use in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Personal battery powered vaporizers, or e-cigarettes, were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. The liquid formulations used in these devices are comprised of an active ingredient such as nicotine mixed with vegetable glycerin (VG) and/or propylene glycol (PG) and flavorings. A significant active ingredient of C. sativa, cannabidiol (CBD), has been purported to have anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, and anti-psychotic properties. These properties have potential medical therapies such as intervention of addictive behaviors, treatments for epilepsy, management of pain for cancer patients, and treatments for schizophrenia. However, CBD extracted from C. sativa remains a DEA Schedule I drug since it has not been approved by the FDA for medical purposes. Two commercially available e-cigarette liquid formulations reported to contain 3.3 mg/mL of CBD as the active ingredient were evaluated. These products are not regulated by the FDA in manufacturing or in labeling of the products and were found to contain 6.5 and 7.6 mg/mL of CBD in VG and PG with a variety of flavoring agents. Presently, while labeled as to content, the quality control of manufacturers and the relative safety of these products is uncertain. PMID:27621706

  3. 75 FR 29662 - Treatment of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco as Nonmailable Matter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... tobacco conducted by mail. One of the commenters further suggested that clove cigarettes, which the... tobacco products marketed as cigarettes, including those with clove flavoring, are prohibited in...

  4. Ethanol Concentration in 56 Refillable Electronic Cigarettes Liquid Formulations Determined by Headspace Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (HS-GC-FID).

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; Peace, Michelle R

    2017-03-23

    Personal battery powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed as an alternative to traditional cigarettes. The modern electronic cigarettes were patented in 2004 by Hon Lik in China. In May 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed regulatory statutes on e-cigarettes and their liquid formulations (e-liquids); prior to that, they were unregulated. E-liquids are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavoring component(s), and active ingredient(s), such as nicotine. Fifty-six commercially available e-liquids, purchased from various sources, contained a variety of flavors and active ingredients. A headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector HS-GC-FID method was used to analyze these e-liquids for volatiles content. Only one of the e-liquids listed ethanol as a component. A headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector HS-GC-FID method was used to analyze the e-liquids. The chromatographic separation of volatiles was performed on a Restek BAC-1 column. A linear calibration was generated for ethanol with limits of detection and quantification (LOD/LOQ) of 0.05 mg/mL. Ethanol concentrations in the fifty-six e-liquids ranged from none detected to 206 mg/mL. The ethanol determined in these products may have been used in flavorants or a solvent; the reason for inclusion cannot be fully ascertained. The implications of vaporizing ethanol as an e-liquid component are unknown.

  5. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2016-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in refill bottles from local ‘vape’ shops and online retailers. Results In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1–4% range (10–40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6–2.4% (6 to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a compound class recognised as ‘primary irritants’ of mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals: vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL. Conclusions The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient labeling should also be required. PMID:25877377

  6. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  7. Peanut composition, flavor, and nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts are an important source of nutrition worldwide. They are used as food, as an ingredient and as an important source of cooking oil. They are usually roasted before consumption which results in changes in nutrition, texture and flavor. The flavor is important for repeat purchases. This cha...

  8. Identification of MDMB-FUBINACA in commercially available e-liquid formulations sold for use in electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Krakowiak, Rose I; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Alphonse; Poklis, Justin L

    2017-02-01

    MDMB-FUBINACA (aka MDMB(N)-Bz-F), chemical name Methyl (S)-2-(1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate, a designer drug or a new psychoactive substance (NPS), was identified in three commercially available e-liquids formulated for electronic cigarette use. The e-liquids were evaluated using direct analysis in real time ion source attached to a time of flight mass spectrometer (DART-MS) and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to identify active ingredients/drugs, flavorants, and other possible constituents. The e-liquids were also evaluated for alcohol content by headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID). The aerosol produced from the e-liquids by use of an e-cigarette was analyzed by solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) to ensure delivery of the active ingredient/drug. Propylene glycol, vegetable glycerin, MDMB-FUBINACA, alcohol content and a flavor profile were determined for each of the e-liquids. MDMB-FUBINACA was determined to be the major active ingredient in all three e-liquids and was successfully detected by SPME-GC-MS in the aerosol generated by a KangerTech Aerotank clearomizer/electronic cigarette.

  9. E-cigarettes: promise or peril?

    PubMed

    Riker, Carol A; Lee, Kiyoung; Darville, Audrey; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use a heating element to vaporize nicotine and other ingredients, simulating the visual, sensory, and behavioral aspects of smoking without the combustion of tobacco. An ever-growing number of companies around the world manufacture a wide variety of e-cigarette brands, despite scant information on the safety of the ingredients for human inhalation. This article provides an overview of the history, production, and marketing of e-cigarettes, the contents of e-cigarettes and vapor, how they are used, public health concerns, and implications for nursing practice, research, and policy development.

  10. 21 CFR 169.178 - Concentrated vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated vanilla flavoring. 169.178 Section... Food Dressings and Flavorings § 169.178 Concentrated vanilla flavoring. (a) Concentrated vanilla... statement of ingredients prescribed for vanilla flavoring by § 169.177, except that it is concentrated...

  11. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  12. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  13. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  14. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  15. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  16. 7 CFR 58.639 - Addition of flavor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Addition of flavor. 58.639 Section 58.639 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.639 Addition of flavor. The addition of flavoring ingredients to semi-frozen mix just prior... flavor injection equipment has been properly cleaned and sanitized prior to use and that the...

  17. The distribution of fat in dried dairy particles determines flavor release and flavor stability.

    PubMed

    Park, C W; Drake, M A

    2014-04-01

    Dried dairy ingredients are utilized in various food and beverage applications for their nutritional, functional, and sensory properties. Dried dairy ingredients include milk powders of varying fat content and heat treatment and buttermilk powder, along with both milk and whey proteins of varying protein contents. The flavor of these ingredients is the most important characteristic that determines consumer acceptance of the ingredient applications. Lipid oxidation is the main mechanism for off-flavor development in dried dairy ingredients. The effects of various unit operations on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients have been investigated. Recent research documented that increased surface free fat in spray dried WPC80 was associated with increased lipid oxidation and off-flavors. Surface free fat in spray-dried products is fat on the surface of the powder that is not emulsified. The most common emulsifiers present in dried dairy ingredients are proteins and phospholipids. Currently, only an association between surface free fat and lipid oxidation has been presented. The link between surface free fat in dried dairy ingredients and flavor and flavor stability has not been investigated. In this review, some hypotheses for the role of surface free fat on the flavor of dried dairy ingredients are presented along with proposed mechanisms.

  18. Chemical hazards present in liquids and vapors of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Christoph; Paschke, Meike; Kruschinski, Svetlana; Henkler, Frank; Hahn, Jürgen; Luch, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Electronic (e-)cigarettes have emerged in recent years as putative alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. These products do not contain typical carcinogens that are present in tobacco smoke, due to the lack of combustion. However, besides nicotine, hazards can also arise from other constituents of liquids, such as solvents, flavors, additives and contaminants. In this study, we have analyzed 28 liquids of seven manufacturers purchased in Germany. We confirm the presence of a wide range of flavors to enhance palatability. Although glycerol and propylene glycol were detected in all samples, these solvents had been replaced by ethylene glycol as dominant compound in five products. Ethylene glycol is associated with markedly enhanced toxicological hazards when compared to conventionally used glycerol and propylene glycol. Additional additives, such as coumarin and acetamide, that raise concerns for human health were detected in certain samples. Ten out of 28 products had been declared "free-of-nicotine" by the manufacturer. Among these ten, seven liquids were identified containing nicotine in the range of 0.1-15 µg/ml. This suggests that "carry over" of ingredients may occur during the production of cartridges. We have further analyzed the formation of carbonylic compounds in one widely distributed nicotine-free brand. Significant amounts of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were only found at 150 °C by headspace GC-MS analysis. In addition, an enhanced formation of aldehydes was found in defined puff fractions, using an adopted machine smoking protocol. However, this effect was delayed and only observed during the last third of the smoking procedure. In the emissions of these fractions, which represent up to 40 % of total vapor volume, similar levels of formaldehyde were detected when compared to conventional tobacco cigarettes. By contrast, carbonylic compounds were hardly detectable in earlier collected fractions. Our data demonstrate the

  19. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  20. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Ahnert, Sebastian; Bagrow, James; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2011-03-01

    We construct and investigate a flavor network capturing the chemical similarity between the culinary ingredients. We found that Western cuisines have a statistically significant tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, in line with the food pairing hypothesis used by some chefs and molecular gastronmists. By contrast, East Asian cuisine tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. We identify key ingredients in each cuisine that help us to explore the differences and similarities between regional cuisines.

  1. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  2. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  3. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  4. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  5. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring... “Artificial Smoke Flavoring Added” or “Smoke Flavoring Added,” as applicable, and the ingredient...

  6. Perceptions and Experiences with Flavored Non-Menthol Tobacco Products: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies.

    PubMed

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Osman, Amira; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-03-23

    Although a few countries have banned flavored cigarettes (except menthol), flavors in most tobacco products remain unregulated across the globe. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies examining perceptions of and experiences with flavored non-menthol tobacco products. Of 20 studies on flavored tobacco products included in our qualitative systematic review, 10 examined hookah, six examined e-cigarettes, two examined little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), and three examined other tobacco products, including cigarettes. The majority of studies, regardless of product type, reported positive perceptions of flavored tobacco products, particularly among young adults and adolescents. In six studies that assessed perceptions of harm (including hookah, LCCs, and other flavored tobacco products), participants believed flavored tobacco products to be less harmful than cigarettes. In studies that examined the role of flavors in experimentation and/or initiation (including three studies on e-cigarettes, one hookah study and one LCC study), participants mentioned flavors as specifically leading to their experimentation and/or initiation of flavored tobacco products. Given that many countries have not yet banned flavors in tobacco products, these findings add to existing research on why individuals use flavored tobacco products and how they perceive harm in flavored tobacco products, providing further support for banning non-menthol flavors in most tobacco products.

  7. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.

  8. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Bagrow, James P.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-12-01

    The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice.

  9. Determining flavor and flavor variability in commercially produced liquid cheddar whey.

    PubMed

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Parker, J D; Drake, M A; Larick, D K

    2003-02-01

    Dried whey and whey protein are important food ingredients. Functionality of whey products has been studied extensively. Flavor inconsistency and flavors which may carry through to the finished product can limit whey ingredient applications in dairy and nondairy foods. The goal of this research was to determine the flavor and flavor variability of commercially produced liquid Cheddar cheese whey. Liquid Cheddar cheese whey from five culture blends from two different stirred-curd Cheddar cheese manufacturing facilities was collected. Whey flavor was characterized using instrumental and sensory methods. Wide variation in whey headspace volatiles was observed between different manufacturing facilities (P < 0.05). Hexanal and diacetyl were two key volatiles that varied widely (P < 0.05). FFA profiles determined by solid-phase microextraction and degree of proteolysis of the whey samples were also different (P < 0.05). Differences in whey flavor profiles were also confirmed by descriptive sensory analysis (P < 0.05). Differences in liquid whey flavor were attributed to differences in milk source, processing and handling and starter culture blend. The flavor of liquid Cheddar cheese whey is variable and impacted by milk source and starter culture rotation. Results from this study will aid future studies that address the impact of liquid whey flavor variability on flavor of dried whey ingredients.

  10. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beverages; processing of malt beverages. (a) Use of flavors and other nonbeverage ingredients containing alcohol— (1) General. Flavors and other nonbeverage ingredients containing alcohol may be used in... overall alcohol content of the finished product may be derived from the addition of flavors and...

  11. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  12. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    PubMed

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  14. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, S.; Izaguirre, I.; Raffelt, G.G.; Hansen, R. S. E-mail: rasmus@mpi-hd.mpg.de E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-03-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency Δ m{sup 2}/2E. However, even in the simple case of a ν{sub e} beam interacting with an opposite-moving ν-bar {sub e} beam, and allowing for spatial inhomogeneities, the growth rate of the fastest-growing Fourier mode is of order μ=√2 G{sub F} n{sub ν}, a typical ν–ν interaction energy. This growth rate is much larger than the vacuum oscillation frequency and gives rise to flavor conversion on a much shorter time scale. This phenomenon of 'fast flavor conversion' occurs even for vanishing Δ m{sup 2}/2E and thus does not depend on energy, but only on the angle distributions. Moreover, it does not require neutrinos to mix or to have masses, except perhaps for providing seed disturbances. We also construct a simple homogeneous example consisting of intersecting beams and study a schematic supernova model proposed by Ray Sawyer, where ν{sub e} and ν-bar {sub e} emerge with different zenith-angle distributions, the key ingredient for fast flavor conversion. What happens in realistic astrophysical scenarios remains to be understood.

  15. Benzene formation in electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Pankow, James F.; Kim, Kilsun; McWhirter, Kevin J.; Luo, Wentai; Escobedo, Jorge O.; Strongin, Robert M.; Duell, Anna K.; Peyton, David H.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) used to create “vaping” aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (GL), benzoic acid, the flavor chemical benzaldehyde, and nicotine. Methods/Main results Three e-cigarette devices were used: the JUULTM “pod” system (provides no user accessible settings other than flavor cartridge choice), and two refill tank systems that allowed a range of user accessible power settings. Benzene in the e-cigarette aerosols was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Benzene formation was ND (not detected) in the JUUL system. In the two tank systems benzene was found to form from propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GL), and from the additives benzoic acid and benzaldehyde, especially at high power settings. With 50:50 PG+GL, for tank device 1 at 6W and 13W, the formed benzene concentrations were 1.9 and 750 μg/m3. For tank device 2, at 6W and 25W, the formed concentrations were ND and 1.8 μg/m3. With benzoic acid and benzaldehyde at ~10 mg/mL, for tank device 1, values at 13W were as high as 5000 μg/m3. For tank device 2 at 25W, all values were ≤~100 μg/m3. These values may be compared with what can be expected in a conventional (tobacco) cigarette, namely 200,000 μg/m3. Thus, the risks from benzene will be lower from e-cigarettes than from conventional cigarettes. However, ambient benzene air concentrations in the U.S. have typically been 1 μg/m3, so that benzene has been named the largest single known cancer-risk air toxic in the U.S. For non-smokers, chronically repeated exposure to benzene from e-cigarettes at levels such as 100 or higher μg/m3 will not be of negligible risk. PMID:28273096

  16. Heavy Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B.; Soni, A.

    This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

  17. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Bagrow, James P.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice. PMID:22355711

  18. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  19. Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Kawatra, Pallavi; Rajagopalan, Rathai

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios. PMID:26109781

  20. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis to cigarettes: smoked/unsmoked components and formaldehyde factors.

    PubMed

    Carew, Benjamin; Muir, Jim

    2014-08-01

    A patient with hand dermatitis reported that switching her smoking hand resulted in reduced symptoms. When allergy to cigarettes is suspected the literature supports standard allergy testing as well as testing the individual components of cigarettes. Initial standard patch testing revealed an allergy to formaldehyde and the formaldehyde releasing agent, quaternium-15. The patient did not react to her usual roll-your-own cigarette components but reacted to the smoked filter paper of a particular brand of cigarette she frequently borrowed from a friend. Possible explanations include either a variation of ingredients between cigarettes that alters the formaldehyde concentration or another unidentified allergen in the branded cigarette causing allergic contact dermatitis.

  1. Gauged flavor, supersymmetry and grand unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2012-07-01

    I review a recent work on gauged flavor with left-right symmetry, where all masses and all Yukawa couplings owe their origin to spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. This is suggested as a precursor to a full understanding of flavor of quarks and leptons. An essential ingredient of this approach is the existence of heavy vector-like fermions, which is the home of flavor, which subsequently gets transmitted to the familiar quarks and leptons via the seesaw mechanism. I then discuss implications of extending this idea to include supersymmetry and finally speculate on a possible grand unified model based on the gauge group SU(5)L×SU(5)R which provides a group theoretic origin for the vector-like fermions.

  2. NIH Electronic Cigarette Workshop: Developing a Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, David B.; Bailey, William C.; Clark, David; Connolly, Gregory N.; Djordjevic, Mirjana V.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Haverkos, Lynne; Hecht, Stephen S.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Hughes, John R.; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Postow, Lisa; Rose, Jed E.; Wanke, Kay L.; Yang, Lucie; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) represent an emerging public health issue. These devices deliver nicotine along with other constituents, including flavorants, via an inhalable aerosol. Their uptake is rapidly increasing in both adults and youths, primarily among current smokers. Public debate is increasing on how these devices should be regulated and used, yet only limited peer-reviewed research exists. To develop a informed policy for e-cigarettes, their effects on human behavior, physiology, and health need to be understood. Purpose: This paper describes proceedings from a National Institutes of Health–sponsored workshop, which was held in November 2013, to identify research needs related to the effects of e-cigarettes. Discussion topics included e-cigarette risks and abuse potential; the potential role for e-cigarettes in harm reduction and smoking cessation; unintended consequences of e-cigarette use, such as becoming a gateway to conventional cigarettes; and dual use of both e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes. Results and Conclusions: The research needs identified by the workshop participants included the following: standards to measure the contents and emissions of e-cigarettes; biomarkers of exposure; physiological effects of e-cigarettes on tissues and organ systems, including pulmonary and cardiovascular; information on e-cigarette users, how the devices are used, and identification of the best tools to assess these measures; factors that drive use and influence patterns of use; and appropriate methods for evaluating a potential role for e-cigarettes in smoking or nicotine cessation. To understand fully the challenges and the opportunities that e-cigarettes represent, expertise will be needed in basic, behavioral, translational, and clinical sciences. PMID:25335949

  3. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J; Li, Q; Abrams, S; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Background: Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Methods: Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. Results: 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Conclusion: Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts. PMID:15791017

  4. Insights in Public Health Electronic Cigarettes: Marketing to Hawai‘i's Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rebecca J; Knight, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents. Current e-cigarette use among adolescents has more than doubled in the past few years nationally and more than tripled in Hawai‘i, despite the fact that safety in terms of health and injury from use is widely unknown. The use of e-cigarettes among adolescents is of particular concern because they may act as a gateway to smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes, substitute for cigarettes where smoking would normally not be allowed, and weaken the effect of clean air policies, and displace effective smoking cessation treatments. Additionally, the use of e-cigarettes may lead to the use of conventional cigarettes. There is special concern that e-cigarette companies are recruiting adolescents who would not have otherwise tried smoking by using tactics such as offering e-cigarettes in attractive flavorings and using the same successful strategies to market their product as tobacco companies have used for conventional cigarettes in past decades. It has been shown that exposure to cigarette marketing is related to initiation and progression in adolescent smoking. Yet, there remains no regulation on the marketing of e-cigarettes to adolescents. It can be extrapolated that expanded regulation that includes limits on the marketing of e-cigarettes may help decrease use among adolescents and prevent the possible increase of smoking rates. PMID:25755916

  5. Insights in public health: Electronic cigarettes: marketing to Hawai'i's adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Knight, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an emerging phenomenon that is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents. Current e-cigarette use among adolescents has more than doubled in the past few years nationally and more than tripled in Hawai'i, despite the fact that safety in terms of health and injury from use is widely unknown. The use of e-cigarettes among adolescents is of particular concern because they may act as a gateway to smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes, substitute for cigarettes where smoking would normally not be allowed, and weaken the effect of clean air policies, and displace effective smoking cessation treatments. Additionally, the use of e-cigarettes may lead to the use of conventional cigarettes. There is special concern that e-cigarette companies are recruiting adolescents who would not have otherwise tried smoking by using tactics such as offering e-cigarettes in attractive flavorings and using the same successful strategies to market their product as tobacco companies have used for conventional cigarettes in past decades. It has been shown that exposure to cigarette marketing is related to initiation and progression in adolescent smoking. Yet, there remains no regulation on the marketing of e-cigarettes to adolescents. It can be extrapolated that expanded regulation that includes limits on the marketing of e-cigarettes may help decrease use among adolescents and prevent the possible increase of smoking rates.

  6. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Real-World Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Measurement and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An understanding of the real-world use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is needed to inform surveillance efforts and future state and federal regulation. This study investigates the behavioral aspects of e-cigarette use. Methods We used qualitative methods to examine salient characteristics of e-cigarette use. The lead investigator (M.C.) conducted in-depth, semistructured individual interviews to explore patterns and behaviors associated with e-cigarette use among a purposive sample of 50 current adult users. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data and document themes. Results Several important themes emerged. Although most users started with “closed system” products, the majority switched from that type of e-cigarette to “open system” devices. Responses were diverse on preferred flavors, although mixing flavors was a common practice. Many users had difficulty estimating the total amount of e-liquid they used within a given period and described an iterative process in which they experimented with different nicotine levels to determine their preferred concentration. Reported frequency of use and puffing behaviors varied greatly between users and also differed from the way traditional cigarettes are smoked. Conclusion Results from this study have implications for developing appropriate survey metrics for e-cigarette surveillance, the regulation of flavorings, and reporting of e-cigarette product constituents. PMID:26766848

  7. Effect of warning statements in e-cigarette advertisements: an experiment with young adults in the US

    PubMed Central

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Henriksen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims This on-line experiment examined whether the addition of ingredient- or industry-themed warning statements in television advertisements for e-cigarettes would affect young adults’ craving for and risk perceptions of e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes, as well as intent to purchase e-cigarettes. Design Advertisements for two leading e-cigarette brands were edited to contain a warning statement about product ingredients or about the tobacco industry. Participants were assigned randomly to one of eight treatments or one of two brand-specific control conditions without any warning statement. Participants Young adults (n=900, ages 18–34 years) in a web panel were recruited from three groups: recent e-cigarette users, current smokers who used combustible cigarettes exclusively and non-users of either product. Measurements Craving and risk perceptions (addictiveness, harmful to health in general, harmful to others) were measured separately for e-cigarettes and combustible cigarettes. The Juster scale measured intention to purchase e-cigarettes. Findings Exposure to both types of warnings was associated with lower craving for e-cigarettes among e-cigarette users and smokers who experienced any craving (P <0.01) and lower intention to purchase among all participants (P <0.001). Only exposure to ingredient-themed warnings was associated with lower craving for combustible cigarettes (P<0.05). Participants who saw industry-themed warnings reported greater perceptions of general harm (P<0.001), but also rated e-cigarettes as less addictive than the control conditions (P<0.05). Conclusion The addition of ingredient- or industry-themed warning statements to e-cigarette television advertising similarly reduces craving and purchase intent for e-cigarettes, but has inconsistent effects on perceived risks. PMID:25557128

  8. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms asmore » triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.« less

  9. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-10-13

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator Φ with a coupling λ. We identify a number of “flavor-safe” scenarios for the structure of λ which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of λ turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed.

  10. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  11. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  12. E-cigarette use in adults: a qualitative study of users' perceptions and future use intentions

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Harrell, Paul T.; Meltzer, Lauren R.; Correa, John B.; Unrod, Marina; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been an exponential increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use, particularly among youth. However, adult use is also rising, and there have been relatively few qualitative studies with adult users to understand their reasons for use and future use intentions. Such information is needed to inform both prevention and cessation approaches. Method Thirty-one e-cigarette users participated in one of several focus groups assessing the appeal of e-cigarettes as well as comparisons to combustible cigarettes and approved smoking cessation aids. We also obtained perspectives on future use intentions and interest in e-cigarette cessation interventions. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results Participants reported several aspects of e-cigarette appeal as compared to approved cessation treatment options. These included similarities to combustible cigarettes, fewer side effects, and control of e-cigarettes to suit personal preferences. Participants were split on whether they preferred flavors that mimicked or contrasted with their combustible cigarettes (i.e., tobacco vs. alternative flavors, such as candy). Some participants who were unmotivated to quit smoking reported an unanticipated disinterest in continuing use of combustible cigarettes shortly after initiating e-cigarettes. Despite strong interest in reducing nicotine dosage, the majority did not intend to fully discontinue e-cigarettes. Conclusions Understanding e-cigarette users' perspectives can inform policy and treatment development. Regulatory and policy initiatives will need to balance the appealing characteristics of e-cigarettes with the potential for negative public health outcomes. PMID:27725794

  13. The search for new amber ingredients.

    PubMed

    Narula, Anubhav P S

    2014-10-01

    There is a constant need for developing new fragrance ingredients in the flavor and fragrance industry, as it allows perfumers to create unique and differentiating perfumes for fine as well as functional products. Among all the categories of notes used in perfume creation, amber notes are indispensible and ubiquitous in their presence in all perfumes. Not only amber notes impart high performance and substantivity to fragrances, but they are paramount in the development of classic and legendary fragrances. This article is based on the plenary lecture delivered at the flavor & fragrance 2013 conference of the German Chemical Society in Leipzig, Germany. The strategy, rationale, and the various synthetic approaches that led to the discovery of two new very powerful, woody, amber materials, Amber Xtreme(®) (1) and Trisamber(®) (2), are delineated.

  14. A New Ingredient for Simulating B Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingate, Matthew; Shigemitsu, Junko; Lepage, Peter; Davies, Christine

    2002-08-01

    The fundamental states of QCD, quarks and gluons, are experimentally inaccessible due to confinement. Furthermore, the properties of bound states (e.g. hadrons) cannot be computed perturbatively due to the strength of the color force, so instead we employ Monte Carlo simulation of QCD on a spacetime lattice. Some quantities of particular interest to particle physicists are those necessary to connect flavor-changing decays of hadrons created in experiments to the flavor-changing interactions of the Standard Model quarks. Recently we have been investigating a new technique for simulating heavy-light bound states which should both decrease the computational burden and increase the numerical accuracy compared to present calculations. The new ingredient is the use of so-called staggered fermions as the light quark. Details and results for B meson energies and decay constants will be shown.

  15. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... health consequences of smoking, cigarette manufacturers began heavily marketing cigarettes labeled "light," "low," and "mild" (or similar ... the implied promise of reduced toxicity underlying the marketing of such brands. 1,5,6 Information on ...

  16. Criteria for the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert L; Cohen, Samuel M; Doull, John; Feron, Victor J; Goodman, Jay I; Marnett, Lawrence J; Munro, Ian C; Portoghese, Philip S; Waddell, William J; Wagner, Bernard M; Adams, Timothy B

    2005-08-01

    The current status of the GRAS evaluation program of flavoring substances operated by the Expert Panel of FEMA is discussed. The Panel maintains a rigorous rotating 10-year program of continuous review of scientific data related to the safety evaluation of flavoring substances. The Panel concluded a comprehensive review of the GRAS (GRASa) status of flavors in 1985 and began a second comprehensive review of the same substances and any recently GRAS materials in 1994. This second re-evaluation program of chemical groups of flavor ingredients, recognized as the GRAS reaffirmation (GRASr) program, is scheduled to be completed in 2005. The evaluation criteria used by the Panel during the GRASr program reflects the significant impact of advances in biochemistry, molecular biology and toxicology that have allowed for a more complete understanding of the molecular events associated with toxicity. The interpretation of novel data on the relationship of dose to metabolic fate, formation of protein and DNA adducts, enzyme induction, and the cascade of cellular events leading to toxicity provides a more comprehensive basis upon which to evaluate the safety of the intake of flavor ingredients under conditions of intended use. The interpretation of genotoxicity data is evaluated in the context of other data such as in vivo animal metabolism and lifetime animal feeding studies that are more closely related to actual human experience. Data are not viewed in isolation, but comprise one component that is factored into the Panel's overall safety assessment. The convergence of different methodologies that assess intake of flavoring substances provides a greater degree of confidence in the estimated intake of flavor ingredients. When these intakes are compared to dose levels that in some cases result in related chemical and biological effects and the subsequent toxicity, it is clear that exposure to these substances through flavor use presents no significant human health risk.

  17. The Role of Cocoa as a Cigarette Additive: Opportunities for Product Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibited the use of characterizing flavors in cigarettes; however, some of these flavors are still used in cigarettes at varying levels. We reviewed tobacco industry internal documents to investigate the role of one of these flavors, cocoa, with the objective of understanding its relationship to sensory and risk perception, promotion of dependence, and enhancement of attractiveness and acceptability. Methods: We used the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library to identify documents relevant to our research questions. Initial search terms were generated following an examination of published literature on cocoa, other cigarette additives, and sensory and risk perception. Further research questions and search terms were generated based on review of documents generated from the initial search terms. Results: Cocoa is widely applied to cigarettes and has been used by the tobacco industry as an additive since the early 20th century. Cocoa can alter the sensory properties of cigarette smoke, including by providing a more appealing taste and decreasing its harshness. The tobacco industry has experimented with manipulating cocoa levels as a means of achieving sensory properties that appeal to women and youth. Conclusions: Although cocoa is identified as a flavor on tobacco industry Web sites, it may serve other sensory purposes in cigarettes as well. Eliminating cocoa as an additive from tobacco products may affect tobacco product abuse liability by altering smokers’ perceptions of product risk, and decreasing product appeal, especially among vulnerable populations. PMID:24610479

  18. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  19. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  20. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  1. No sisyphean task: how the FDA can regulate electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Paradise, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of smoking have fostered a natural market for smoking cessation and smoking reduction products. Smokers attempting to quit or reduce consumption have tried everything: "low" or "light" cigarettes; nicotine-infused chewing gum, lozenges, and lollipops; dermal patches; and even hypnosis. The latest craze in the quest to find a safer source of nicotine is the electronic cigarette. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have swept the market, reaching a rapidly expanding international consumer base. Boasting nicotine delivery and the tactile feel of a traditional cigarette without the dozens of other chemical constituents that contribute to carcinogenicity, e-cigarettes are often portrayed as less risky, as a smoking reduction or even a complete smoking cessation product, and perhaps most troubling for its appeal to youth, as a flavorful, trendy, and convenient accessory. The sensationalism associated with e-cigarettes has spurred outcry from health and medical professional groups, as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), because of the unknown effects on public health. Inhabiting a realm of products deemed "tobacco products" under recent 2009 legislation, e-cigarettes pose new challenges to FDA regulation because of their novel method of nicotine delivery, various mechanical and electrical parts, and nearly nonexistent safety data. Consumer use, marketing and promotional claims, and technological characteristics of e-cigarettes have also raised decades old questions of when the FDA can assert authority over products as drugs or medical devices. Recent case law restricting FDA enforcement efforts against e-cigarettes further confounds the distinction among drugs and medical devices, emerging e-cigarette products, and traditional tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. This Article investigates the e-cigarette phenomenon in the wake of the recently enacted Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009

  2. Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide products contain both active and inert ingredients. An “active ingredient” prevents, destroys, repels, or mitigates a pest. All other ingredients are called inert ingredients by federal law. They aid product performance and usability.

  3. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  4. Notes from the field: electronic cigarette use among middle and high school students - United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-09-06

    Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are battery-powered devices that provide doses of nicotine and other additives to the user in an aerosol. Depending on the brand, e-cigarette cartridges typically contain nicotine, a component to produce the aerosol (e.g., propylene glycol or glycerol), and flavorings (e.g., fruit, mint, or chocolate). Potentially harmful constituents also have been documented in some e-cigarette cartridges, including irritants, genotoxins, and animal carcinogens. E-cigarettes that are not marketed for therapeutic purposes are currently unregulated by the Food and Drug Administration, and in most states there are no restrictions on the sale of e-cigarettes to minors. Use of e-cigarettes has increased among U.S. adult current and former smokers in recent years; however, the extent of use among youths is uncertain.

  5. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  6. Botanical ingredients in cosmeceuticals.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Leslie

    2007-11-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular in the US. Within this realm of health care, oral and topical herbal supplements have become some of the most frequently used alternative therapies. Most herbal supplements are based on, or include, several botanical ingredients with long histories of traditional or folk medicine usage. Among the numerous botanical ingredients available on the market today, several are believed to confer dermatologic benefits. This article will focus on a select group of botanical compounds, many of which have long traditions in Asian medicine, with potential or exhibited dermatologic applications, including curcumin, Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, silymarin, soy, and tea tree oil. Other botanical agents, such as arnica, bromelain, chamomile, pomegranate, caffeine, green tea, licorice, and resveratrol, are also briefly considered. Some of these ingredients have been incorporated into topical formulations.

  7. [Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha].

    PubMed

    Bertholon, J-F; Becquemin, M H; Roy, M; Roy, F; Ledur, D; Annesi Maesano, I; Dautzenberg, B

    2013-11-01

    In previous studies of the smoke from regular cigarettes and water pipes, we measured aerosol particle sizes in three streams; S1, inhaled by the smoker, S2, released by the device itself and S3, exhaled by the smoker. We used an electrostatic low-pressure impactor (ELPI), giving particle size distributions in real time and calculated median diameters, D50, and dispersion (σg). This allowed us to predict airway deposition. In addition, the aerosol particle half-life in the air was used as a measure of the risk to others from passive smoking. With the same equipment, we measured the particle sizes and persistence in air of the liquid aerosol generated by e-cigarettes (Cigarettec®) containing water, propylene glycol and flavorings with or without nicotine. Aerosol generation was triggered by a syringe or by the inspiration of volunteer smokers. The D50 data obtained in S1, were 0.65 μm with nicotine and 0.60 μm without nicotine. Deposition in the airways could then be calculated: 26% of the total would deposit, of which 14% would reach the alveoli. These data are close to those found with regular cigarettes. For S3, D50 data were 0.34 μm and 0.29 μm with or without nicotine. The half-life in air of the S3 stream was 11 seconds due to a rapid evaporation. The-e-cigarette aerosol, as measured here, is made of particles bigger than those of cigarette and water pipe aerosols. Their deposition in the lung depends on their fate in the airways, which is unknown. Contrary to tobacco smoke, which has a half-life in air of 19 to 20 minutes, the risk of passive "smoking" exposure from e-cigarettes is modest.

  8. On neutrino flavor states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chiu Man

    2012-12-01

    We review the issues associated with the construction of neutrino flavor states. We then provide a consistent proof that the flavor states are approximately well-defined only if neutrinos are ultra-relativistic or the mass differences are negligible compared to energy. However, we show that weak interactions can be consistently described by only neutrino mass eigenstates. Meanwhile, the second quantization of neutrino flavor fields generally has no physical relevance as their masses are indefinite. Therefore, the flavor states are not physical quantum states and they should simply be interpreted as definitions to denote specific linear combinations of mass eigenstates involved in weak interactions. We also briefly discuss the implication of this work for the mixing between active and heavy sterile neutrinos.

  9. E-Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... that are known to be harmful. Scientists are studying the health effects of using e-cigarettes. New information is coming in, but they don't have the answers yet. Although FDA is working to regulate e-cigarettes, currently they are not ...

  10. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  11. Active Ingredient - AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Pesticide Chemical Search allows a user to easily find the pesticide chemical or active ingredient that they are interested in by using an array of simple to advanced search options. Chemical Search provides a single point of reference for easy access to information previously published in a variety of locations, including various EPA web pages and Regulations.gov.

  12. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety ... Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure Environmental Incident Illegal Pesticide Activity Problem With Labels or ...

  13. Concentration of Nicotine and Glycols in 27 Electronic Cigarette Formulations.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Baird, Tyson R; Smith, Nathaniel; Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-07-01

    Personal battery-powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. Electronic cigarettes and their e-cigarette liquid formulations are virtually unregulated. These formulations are typically composed of propylene glycol and/or glycerin, flavoring components and an active drug, such as nicotine. Twenty-seven e-cigarette liquid formulations that contain nicotine between 6 and 22 mg/L were acquired within the USA and analyzed by various methods to determine their contents. They were screened by Direct Analysis in Real Time™ Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS). Nicotine was confirmed and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the glycol composition was confirmed and quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The DART-MS screening method was able to consistently identify the exact mass peaks resulting from the protonated molecular ion of nicotine, glycol and a number of flavor additives within 5 mmu. Nicotine concentrations were determined to range from 45 to 131% of the stated label concentration, with 18 of the 27 have >10% variance. Glycol composition was generally accurate to the product description, with only one exception where the propylene glycol to glycerin percentage ratio was stated as 50:50 and the determined concentration of propylene glycol to glycerin was 81:19 (% v/v). No unlabeled glycols were detected in these formulations.

  14. Ending the cigarette pandemic.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J B

    1983-12-01

    1 year after the issuance of the original Surgeon General's report, Congress passed the Federal Cigarette Labeling Advertising Act, requiring all cigarette packages distributed in the US to carry a Surgeon General's warning that smoking may be hazardous to health. Congress pased the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1969. This banned cigarette advertising from radio and television. The Surgeon General published the most comprehensive volume on smoking ever issued in the US in 1979, the 15th anniversary of the 1st report. The data on cigarette smoking's adverse effects on health were overwhelming, and the press recognized this. No longer able to rely on journalists to cast doubt on the reliability of the data, the industry changed its strategy by attempting to portray smoking as a civil rights issue. The tobacco industry began to pour millions of dollars into campaigns to prevent the passage of municipal, state, and federal legislation that would ban cigarette advertising or restrict smoking in public places and at the work site. "Healthy People," the Surgeon General's 1st report on health promotion and disease prevention, emphasized the necessary future direction of medicine: prevention. Efforts to end the cigarette pandemic will need to focus on the following in the future: an end to the victimization of women; a greater focus on adolescents; more effective strategies for smoking cessation; more attention to clean indoor air rights; abandonment of recommendations to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes; and revelation of chemical additives in cigarettes. The epidemiologists have now documented the devastating nature of the health problems attributable to cigarette smoking, but the minimal budgetary allocations to fight smoking testify to the lack of political will on the part of government.

  15. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views

    PubMed Central

    Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-01-01

    Objective Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. Design 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14–17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Results Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as ‘fun’ and having ‘great flavourings’. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube ‘vaping tricks’, prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Conclusions Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. PMID:27852721

  16. Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2016-04-01

    Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential inhalation toxicity of this compound, we measured benzaldehyde in aerosol generated in a laboratory setting from flavoured e-cigarettes purchased online and detected benzaldehyde in 108 out of 145 products. The highest levels of benzaldehyde were detected in cherry-flavoured products. The benzaldehyde doses inhaled with 30 puffs from flavoured e-cigarettes were often higher than doses inhaled from a conventional cigarette. Levels in cherry-flavoured products were >1000 times lower than doses inhaled in the workplace. While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. Given the uncertainty surrounding adverse health effects stemming from long-term inhalation of flavouring ingredients such as benzaldehyde, clinicians need to be aware of this emerging risk and ask their patients about use of flavoured e-cigarettes.

  17. Characterization of dried whey protein concentrate and isolate flavor.

    PubMed

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Croissant, A E; Drake, M A

    2005-11-01

    The flavor of whey protein concentrates (WPC 80) and whey protein isolates (WPI) was studied using instrumental and sensory techniques. Four WPC 80 and 4 WPI, less than 3 mo old, were collected in duplicate from 6 manufacturers in the United States. Samples were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Duplicate samples with internal standards were extracted with diethyl ether. Extracts were then distilled to remove nonvolatile material using high vacuum distillation. Volatile extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography/olfactometry with post peak intensity analysis and aroma extract dilution analysis. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry against reference standards. Whey proteins exhibited sweet aromatic, cardboard/wet paper, animal/wet dog, soapy, brothy, cucumber, and cooked/milky flavors, along with the basic taste bitter, and the feeling factor astringency. Key volatile flavor compounds in WPC 80 and WPI were butanoic acid (cheesy), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn), 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (brothy/burnt), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone (maple/spicy), 2-nonenal (fatty/old books), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber), and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal (fatty/oxidized). This baseline data on flavor and flavor sources in whey proteins will aid ongoing and future research and will help to identify the most appropriate whey ingredients to use to control or minimize flavor variability in whey enhanced products.

  18. Inert Ingredients Overview and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page provides information on inert ingredients approved for use in pesticide products and the guidance documents that are available to assist in obtaining approval for a new inert ingredient.

  19. Flavor physics: The flavor physics (P2) working group

    SciTech Connect

    Marina Artuso et al.

    2002-12-10

    Flavor physics has recently made striking advances. The Snowmass Flavor Physics Working Group has attempted to identify the important open questions in this field, and to describe the diverse future program that would address them.

  20. Glycerol, an underestimated flavor precursor in the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice; Matthey-Doret, Walter; Devaud-Goumoens, Stéphanie; Viton, Florian

    2013-10-30

    The objective of the present work was to investigate in depth the role of glycerol in Maillard reactions and its potential to act as an active flavor precursor. Reactions using isotopically labeled compounds (various reducing sugars, proline, and glycerol) unambiguously demonstrated that, in addition to its role of solvent, glycerol actively contributes to the formation of proline-specific compounds in Maillard model systems. Additionally, rhamnose and fucose/proline/glycerol systems generated the 2-propionyl-1(3),4,5,6-tetrahydropyridines, known for their roasty, popcorn aroma. Their formation from such systems is unprecedented. The results presented here have direct implications for flavor generation during thermal processing of foods containing glycerol, which is a ubiquitous food ingredient and an underestimated flavor precursor.

  1. Multisensory flavor perception.

    PubMed

    Spence, Charles

    2015-03-26

    The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design.

  2. Purely flavored leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, D. Aristizabal; Nardi, Enrico; Munoz, Luis Alfredo

    2009-07-01

    We study a model for leptogenesis in which the total CP asymmetries in the decays and scatterings involving the SU(2) singlet seesaw neutrinos N{sub {alpha}} vanish ({epsilon}{sub N{sub {alpha}}}=0). Leptogenesis is possible due to nonvanishing CP violating lepton flavor asymmetries, realizing a situation in which the baryon asymmetry is due exclusively to flavor effects. We study the production of a net lepton asymmetry by solving the Boltzmann equations specific to this model, and we show that successful leptogenesis can be obtained at a scale as low as the TeV. We also discuss constraints on the model parameter space arising from current experimental upper limits on lepton flavor violating decays.

  3. The Super Flavor Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

    2007-01-26

    The main physics goals of a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} flavor factory are discussed, including the possibilities to perform detailed studies of the CKM mechanism of quark mixing, and constrain virtual Higgs and Non-Standard Model particle contributions to the dynamics of rare B{sub u,d,s} decays. The large samples of D mesons and {tau} leptons produced at a flavor factory will result in improved sensitivities on D mixing and lepton flavor violation searches, respectively. One can also test fundamental concepts such as lepton universality to much greater precision than existing constraints and improve the precision on tests of CPT from B meson decays. Recent developments in accelerator physics have demonstrated the feasibility to build an accelerator that can achieve luminosities of {Omicron}(10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}).

  4. Discrete minimal flavor violation

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicky, Roman; Fischbacher, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    We investigate the consequences of replacing the global flavor symmetry of minimal flavor violation (MFV) SU(3){sub Q}xSU(3){sub U}xSU(3){sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} by a discrete D{sub Q}xD{sub U}xD{sub D}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} symmetry. Goldstone bosons resulting from the breaking of the flavor symmetry generically lead to bounds on new flavor structure many orders of magnitude above the TeV scale. The absence of Goldstone bosons for discrete symmetries constitute the primary motivation of our work. Less symmetry implies further invariants and renders the mass-flavor basis transformation observable in principle and calls for a hierarchy in the Yukawa matrix expansion. We show, through the dimension of the representations, that the (discrete) symmetry in principle does allow for additional {delta}F=2 operators. If though the {delta}F=2 transitions are generated by two subsequent {delta}F=1 processes, as, for example, in the standard model, then the four crystal-like groups {sigma}(168){approx_equal}PSL(2,F{sub 7}), {sigma}(72{phi}), {sigma}(216{phi}) and especially {sigma}(360{phi}) do provide enough protection for a TeV-scale discrete MFV scenario. Models where this is not the case have to be investigated case by case. Interestingly {sigma}(216{phi}) has a (nonfaithful) representation corresponding to an A{sub 4} symmetry. Moreover we argue that the, apparently often omitted, (D) groups are subgroups of an appropriate {delta}(6g{sup 2}). We would like to stress that we do not provide an actual model that realizes the MFV scenario nor any other theory of flavor.

  5. Wine flavor and aroma.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  6. Antibotulinal activity of process cheese ingredients.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; Johnson, Eric A

    2004-08-01

    Ingredients used in the manufacture of reduced-fat process cheese products were screened for their ability to inhibit growth of Clostridium botulinum serotypes A and B in media. Reinforced clostridial medium (RCM) supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10% (wt/vol) of various ingredients, including a carbohydrate-based fat replacer, an enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) derived from a Blue cheese, sweet whey, modified whey protein, or whey protein concentrate, did not inhibit botulinal growth and toxin production when stored at 30 degrees C for 1 week. In contrast, RCM supplemented with 10% soy-based flavor enhancer, 10% Parmesan EMC, or 5 or 10% Cheddar EMC inhibited botulinal toxin production in media for at least 6 weeks of storage at 30 degrees C. Subsequent trials revealed that the antibotulinal effect varied significantly among 13 lots of EMC and that the antimicrobial effect was not correlated with the pH or water activity of the EMC.

  7. SPICE: Simulation Package for Including Flavor in Collider Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhard, Guy; Feng, Jonathan L.; Galon, Iftah; Sanford, David; Yu, Felix

    2010-01-01

    We describe SPICE: Simulation Package for Including Flavor in Collider Events. SPICE takes as input two ingredients: a standard flavor-conserving supersymmetric spectrum and a set of flavor-violating slepton mass parameters, both of which are specified at some high "mediation" scale. SPICE then combines these two ingredients to form a flavor-violating model, determines the resulting low-energy spectrum and branching ratios, and outputs HERWIG and SUSY Les Houches files, which may be used to generate collider events. The flavor-conserving model may be any of the standard supersymmetric models, including minimal supergravity, minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, and anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking supplemented by a universal scalar mass. The flavor-violating contributions may be specified in a number of ways, from specifying charges of fields under horizontal symmetries to completely specifying all flavor-violating parameters. SPICE is fully documented and publicly available, and is intended to be a user-friendly aid in the study of flavor at the Large Hadron Collider and other future colliders. Program summaryProgram title: SPICE Catalogue identifier: AEFL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8153 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 67 291 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Personal computer Operating system: Tested on Scientific Linux 4.x Classification: 11.1 External routines: SOFTSUSY [1,2] and SUSYHIT [3] Nature of problem: Simulation programs are required to compare theoretical models in particle physics with present and future data at particle colliders. SPICE determines the masses and decay branching ratios of

  8. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exceptions of onions, garlic and celery, whose primary function in food is seasoning rather than nutritional... flavoring, flavor or flavoring may also be used to designate spices, powdered onion, powdered garlic,...

  9. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... aromatic vegetable substance in the whole, broken, or ground form, with the exceptions of onions, garlic... flavoring, flavor or flavoring may also be used to designate spices, powdered onion, powdered garlic,...

  10. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exceptions of onions, garlic and celery, whose primary function in food is seasoning rather than nutritional... flavoring, flavor or flavoring may also be used to designate spices, powdered onion, powdered garlic,...

  11. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exceptions of onions, garlic and celery, whose primary function in food is seasoning rather than nutritional... flavoring, flavor or flavoring may also be used to designate spices, powdered onion, powdered garlic,...

  12. 9 CFR 381.118 - Ingredients statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... aromatic vegetable substance in the whole, broken, or ground form, with the exceptions of onions, garlic... flavoring, flavor or flavoring may also be used to designate spices, powdered onion, powdered garlic,...

  13. Sampling and analysis of cigarette smoke using the solid adsorbent Tenax

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The commercial introduction of ultra-low-tar delivery cigarette products has posed challenges in the analysis of their smoke constituents. The application of solid sorbent trapping and thermal desorption, programmed-temperature glass-capillary-column gas chromatography has proven useful for both gas phase and particulate matter analyses. In gas phase analysis the cigarette is smoked directly through a Cambridge filter and Tenax trap, and in whole smoke analysis through the Tenax trap alone. For cigarettes having deliveries of < 1 mg tar/cigarette the entire trap content, or a fraction thereof, is desorbed at 250/sup 0/C in the injection port of the gas chromatograph, and the cryothermally trapped organic desorbate is separated by programmed temperature gas chromatography. Tenax used to trap smoke from higher tar delivery cigarettes is duluted with clean Tenax and homogenized before analysis. Quantitation is made by the method of external standards, the RSD for smoke components averaging generally +-20%. Higher RSD's of +-60% in the case of some ultra-low cigarette smoke components may be influenced by mainstream enrichment by sidestream smoke drifting near the air dilution vents in the filter rod. This method of analysis when applied to whole smoke can determine the entire cigarette delivery of many gas phase and particulate matter components, and has sufficient sensitivity that flavor related components in cigarette smoke are analyzable. The distribution of some semivolatile components between gas and particulate phases has been determined by application of this method and is reported.

  14. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors.

  15. Sterile particles from the flavor gauge model of masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smetana, Adam

    2013-04-01

    Our motivation is to study a dynamics which has the ambition to underlie models of the electroweak symmetry breaking via the condensation of known fermions. The right-handed neutrinos and the seesaw mechanism are necessary ingredients for viability of this scenario. The existence of right-handed neutrinos follows from theoretical consistence of a model based on dynamical flavor gauge symmetry breaking. The model is defined by a particular flavor representation setting of electroweakly charged fermions. Only finite number of versions of the model exists. They differ by the number and the flavor structure of the right-handed neutrino sector. We choose for inspection one of them, the non-minimal version with right-handed neutrinos in one sextet and four anti-triplet flavor representations. We show that a Majorana pairing of the sextet right-handed neutrinos is responsible for the flavor symmetry breaking and for the seesaw pattern of the neutrino mass matrix. The dynamically generated neutrino mass matrix spontaneously breaks the lepton number and the chiral sterility symmetry of the right-handed neutrino sector. As a result, a spectrum of majorons, neutrino composites, manifests. We study main characteristics of both massive sterile neutrinos and majorons.

  16. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  17. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  18. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nicotine — a highly addictive drug — into your body. Electronic cigarettes are battery-powered smoking devices often designed ... an unhealthy dose of nicotine and other chemicals. Electronic cigarettes have been marketed to smokers as a ...

  19. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nicotine — a highly addictive drug — into the body. Electronic cigarettes are battery-powered smoking devices often designed ... an unhealthy dose of nicotine and other chemicals. Electronic cigarettes have been marketed to smokers as a ...

  20. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nicotine — a highly addictive drug — into the body. Electronic cigarettes are battery-powered smoking devices often designed to ... an unhealthy dose of nicotine and other chemicals. Electronic cigarettes have been marketed to smokers as a way ...

  1. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nicotine — a highly addictive drug — into your body. Electronic cigarettes are battery-powered smoking devices often designed to ... an unhealthy dose of nicotine and other chemicals. Electronic cigarettes have been marketed to smokers as a way ...

  2. Flavor deterioration in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Harasawa, N; Tateba, H; Ishizuka, N; Wakayama, T; Kishino, K; Ono, M

    1998-01-01

    Volatile components of flavored yogurt preserved at 5 degrees C in the dark for 0 day, 3 days and 10 days were recovered by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and headspace (HS) procedures. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of those samples showed remarkable changes in some compounds. Aldehydes which contribute to expressing citrusy notes were reduced to alcohols during fermentation process and storage. As a result, the strength of flavors which expressed well-balanced citrusy notes in yogurt were weakened, and fatty or oily notes mainly caused from alcohols were strengthened reversely. Hydrocarbons were also digested by bacteria during a fermentation process. A small amount of other compounds, such as esters and terpene alcohols changed. Fewer effects of sorption into a package material and chemical reactions, such as hydrolysis esters, hydration or oxidation of hydrocarbons, were observed.

  3. Flavored quantum Boltzmann equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Lee, Christopher; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J.; Tulin, Sean

    2010-05-15

    We derive from first principles, using nonequilibrium field theory, the quantum Boltzmann equations that describe the dynamics of flavor oscillations, collisions, and a time-dependent mass matrix in the early universe. Working to leading nontrivial order in ratios of relevant time scales, we study in detail a toy model for weak-scale baryogenesis: two scalar species that mix through a slowly varying time-dependent and CP-violating mass matrix, and interact with a thermal bath. This model clearly illustrates how the CP asymmetry arises through coherent flavor oscillations in a nontrivial background. We solve the Boltzmann equations numerically for the density matrices, investigating the impact of collisions in various regimes.

  4. Model of flavor unity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.E.

    1980-12-15

    An SU(7) model is presented toward a flavor unification for known particles. The t quark is not a partner of the b quark. There are three types of neutrinos and several: so far unobserved: light detectable particles (masses <300 GeV): a doubly charged lepton T/sup - -/, a Q=-4/3 quark x, and a Q=5/3 quark y. An intermediate mass scale is a necessity and there is no problem of magnetic monopoles.

  5. “I always thought they were all pure tobacco”: American smokers' perceptions of “natural” cigarettes and tobacco industry advertising strategies

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine how the US tobacco industry markets cigarettes as “natural” and American smokers' views of the “naturalness” (or unnaturalness) of cigarettes. Methods Internal tobacco industry documents, the Pollay 20th Century Tobacco Ad Collection, and newspaper sources were reviewed, themes and strategies were categorised, and the findings were summarised. Results Cigarette advertisements have used the term “natural” since at least 1910, but it was not until the 1950s that “natural” referred to a core element of brand identity, used to describe specific product attributes (filter, menthol, tobacco leaf). The term “additive‐free”, introduced in the 1980s, is now commonly used to define natural cigarettes. Tobacco company market research, available from 1970 to 1998, consistently revealed that within focus group sessions, smokers initially had difficulty interpreting the term “natural” in relation to cigarettes; however, after discussion of cigarette ingredients, smokers viewed “natural” cigarettes as healthier. Tobacco companies regarded the implied health benefits of natural cigarettes as their key selling point, but hesitated to market them because doing so might raise doubts about the composition of their highly profitable “regular” brands. Conclusion Although our findings support the idea advanced by some tobacco control advocates that informing smokers of conventional cigarettes' chemical ingredients could promote cessation, they also suggest that such a measure could increase the ubiquity and popularity of “natural” cigarettes. A more effective approach may be to “denaturalise” smoking. PMID:18048597

  6. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products☆

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Pathak, Sarita; Nyman, Amy L.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products have proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE) model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June–August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS) around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Descriptive analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% was e-cigarettes and 29.6% was e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products. PMID:26740911

  7. “Smoking Revolution” A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Retail Websites

    PubMed Central

    Grana, Rachel A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. Purpose To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Methods Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Results Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%), increased social status (44%), enhanced social activity (32%), romance (31%), and use by celebrities (22%). Conclusions Health claims and smoking cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. PMID:24650842

  8. Study of production and pyrolysis characteristics of sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangyong; Xiao, Zuobing; Zhou, Rujun; Zhu, Yalun

    2014-05-25

    Flavor plays an important role and has been widely used in foods. Encapsulation can prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients, provide protection and enhance the stability of the flavor. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are helpful in understanding the mechanism of molecular recognition between hosts and guests. This work focused on the study of production of a sweet orange flavor-β-cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complex, and investigated the combination of flavor and β-CD by thermogravimetric analysis. Pyrolysis characteristics, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the flavor-β-CD inclusion complex were determined. The results showed that the flavor-β-CD inclusion complexes can form large aggregates in water. During thermal degradation of blank β-CD and flavor-β-CD inclusion complex, three main stages can be distinguished. The thermogravimetric (TG) curve of blank β-CD shows a leveling-off from room temperature to 250°C, while the TG curve of flavor-β-CD inclusion complex is downward sloping in this temperature range.

  9. Cigarette company trade secrets are not secret: an analysis of reverse engineering reports in internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation

    PubMed Central

    Velicer, Clayton; Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Use previously secret tobacco industry documents to assess tobacco companies’ routine claims of trade secret protection for information on cigarette ingredients, additives and construction made to regulatory agencies, as well as the companies’ refusal to publicly disclose this information. Methods We analysed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) to identify 100 examples of seven major tobacco companies’ reverse engineering of their competitors’ brands between 1937 and 2001. Results These reverse engineering reports contain detailed data for 142 different measurements for at least two companies, including physical parameters of the cigarettes, tobacco types, humectants, additives, flavourings, and smoke constituents of competitors’ cigarettes. These 100 documents were distributed to 564 employees, including top managers in domestic and foreign offices across multiple departments, including executive leadership, research and design, product development, marketing and legal. These documents reported new competitors’ products, measured ingredient changes over time, and informed companies’ decisions regarding ingredients in their own products. Conclusions Because cigarette companies routinely analyse their competitors’ cigarettes in great detail, this information is neither secret nor commercially valuable and, thus, does not meet the legal definition of a ‘trade secret.’ This information is only being kept ‘secret’ from the people consuming cigarettes and the scientific community. Public agencies should release this detailed information because it would provide valuable information about how ingredients affect addictiveness and toxicity, and would help the public health community and consumers better understand the impact of cigarette design on human health. PMID:24920577

  10. Toxicological evaluation of potassium sorbate added to cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, C L; Lemus-Olalde, R; Carmines, E L

    2008-01-01

    Potassium sorbate (PS) may be incorporated in blended cigarette tobacco either as a mold growth inhibitor in processed tobacco sheet material, or as a preservative in flavor systems or paper adhesives. To evaluate the effect of PS addition, neat material pyrolysis studies, smoke chemistry and biological activity studies (bacterial mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, in vivo micronucleus, and 90-day nose-only rat inhalation) with mainstream smoke, or mainstream smoke preparations from cigarettes containing various measured levels of PS (0%, 0.15%, 1.6%, and 3.7%) were performed. At simulated tobacco burning temperatures up to 1000 degrees C, neat PS completely pyrolyzed to form aromatic ring materials including benzene, toluene, substituted benzenes, naphthalene, and substituted naphthalenes. Under machine smoking conditions (FTC/ISO), high levels of PS may alter the burning characteristics of the cigarette leading to decreased puff count, total particulate matter, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, 2-nitropropane, and tobacco specific nitrosamines yields in the smoke, while increasing the yield of nicotine, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and some PAHs. Biological studies indicated no relevant differences in the genotoxic or cytotoxic potential of either mainstream smoke from cigarettes with or without added PS. Rats exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke developed respiratory tract changes consistent with those seen in previous smoke inhalation studies, with no relevant histopathological differences between the control and the PS test cigarette groups. These studies demonstrated that high levels of PS could alter the burning rate of the tobacco leading to alteration in the smoke chemistry profile. Yet, based on the panel of biological endpoints monitored here, it appeared that added PS produced little relevant change in the overall toxicity profile of smoke.

  11. Lung cancer specialist physicians’ attitudes towards e-cigarettes: A nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Joon; Kim, Jung Soo; Chong, SeMin; Park, Young Sik; Song, Sang-Yun; Lee, Jin Han; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Cho, Deog Gon; Jang, Tae Won; Son, Ji Woong; Cho, Moon-June

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Despite a sharp increase in e-cigarette use, there is debate about whether e-cigarettes are a viable alternative for harm reduction, and the forms that regulation should take. Healthcare providers can be effective in offering guidance to patients and their families and shaping regulatory policy. We described lung cancer specialists’ attitudes toward e-cigarettes and its regulation. Methods We undertook a nationwide survey of pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons, medical and radiological oncologists who are members of Korean Association for Lung Cancer. Survey items included beliefs and attitudes toward e-cigarettes, attitudes toward e-cigarette regulation and preparedness on discussing e-cigarettes with their patients. Results Most respondents believed that e-cigarettes are not safer than conventional tobacco cigarettes (75.7%) or smokeless tobacco (83.2%), and feared that discussing e-cigarettes with the patients would encourage use (65.4%). They did not consider it a smoking cessation treatment (78.3%), and thus would not recommend it to smokers who do not want to quit (82.2%) or who failed to quit with conventional smoking cessation treatment (74.1%). Most respondents supported all examples of e-cigarette regulations, including the safety and quality check (97.8%), warning label (97.8%), advertisement ban (95.1%), restriction of flavoring (78.4%), minimum purchasing age (99.5%), and restriction of indoor use (94.6%). Most learned about e-cigarettes from media and advertisements, or conversation with patients rather than through professional scientific resources, and reported discomfort when discussing e-cigarette with patients. Conclusion Lung cancer specialist physicians in Korea doubt the safety of e-cigarette and use of e-cigarette as smoking cessation treatment, and supported strict regulation. However, only 20% reported that they obtained information on e-cigarettes from the scientific literature and many lacked adequate knowledge based on

  12. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:26729142

  13. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    PubMed

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  14. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  15. Encapsulation of new active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Onwulata, C I

    2012-01-01

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components and protect the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organs. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in processed foods. Microencapsulation efficiency is balanced against the need to access the entrapped nutrients in bioavailable forms. Encapsulated ingredients boosted with bioactive nutrients are intended for improved health and well-being and to prevent future health problems. Presently, active ingredients are delivered using new techniques, such as hydrogels, nanoemulsions, and nanoparticles. In the future, nutraceuticals and functional foods may be tailored to individual metabolic needs and tied to each person's genetic makeup. Bioactive ingredients provide health-enhancing nutrients and are protected through encapsulation processes that shield the active ingredients from deleterious environments.

  16. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages.

    PubMed

    Lauterstein, Dana E; Tijerina, Pamella B; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2016-04-12

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13-16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4-6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology.

  17. Frontal Cortex Transcriptome Analysis of Mice Exposed to Electronic Cigarettes During Early Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    Lauterstein, Dana E.; Tijerina, Pamella B.; Corbett, Kevin; Akgol Oksuz, Betul; Shen, Steven S.; Gordon, Terry; Klein, Catherine B.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), battery-powered devices containing nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, flavorings, and other substances, are increasing in popularity. They pose a potential threat to the developing brain, as nicotine is a known neurotoxicant. We hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes during early life stages induce changes in central nervous system (CNS) transcriptome associated with adverse neurobiological outcomes and long-term disease states. To test the hypothesis, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily (via whole body inhalation) throughout gestation (3 h/day; 5 days/week) to aerosols produced from e-cigarettes either with nicotine (13–16 mg/mL) or without nicotine; following birth, pups and dams were exposed together to e-cigarette aerosols throughout lactation beginning at postnatal day (PND) 4–6 and using the same exposure conditions employed during gestational exposure. Following exposure, frontal cortex recovered from ~one-month-old male and female offspring were excised and analyzed for gene expression by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq). Comparisons between the treatment groups revealed that e-cigarette constituents other than nicotine might be partly responsible for the observed biological effects. Transcriptome alterations in both offspring sexes and treatment groups were all significantly associated with downstream adverse neurobiological outcomes. Results from this study demonstrate that e-cigarette exposure during early life alters CNS development potentially leading to chronic neuropathology. PMID:27077873

  18. E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: E-cigarette sales continue to increase in the United States. To date, little surveillance research has documented the specific product attributes driving growth. This study uses national market scanner data to describe sales trends in traditional U.S. tobacco retail channels between 2012 and 2013 and identifies product features associated with sales increases. Methods: Data on e-cigarette sales in convenience stores, drug stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers in the United States were obtained from the Nielsen Company. Each product was coded for attributes such as brand, flavor, and unit size. Total sales volume, market share, and percent growth were calculated for various product attributes. Results: E-cigarette sales more than doubled between 2012 and 2013, from $273.6 million to $636.2 million, respectively. Growth was particularly strong in the convenience store channel. Blu eCigs quickly emerged as the best-selling brand and in 2013 constituted nearly half (44.1%) of overall sales. Although fruit-flavored and other flavored products experienced marked growth, unflavored and menthol e-cigarettes overwhelmingly dominated the market. Sales of single unit products (likely disposable e-cigarettes) increased by 216.4%, a much faster rate than multi-unit packs and cartridge refills. Conclusions: In traditional U.S. retail channels, particularly the convenience store channel, sales of e-cigarettes continue to grow, with brands like blu and disposable products as the likely drivers. Given the rapidly-changing market, expanded surveillance is needed to monitor sales not only in traditional retail locations, but sales online and in specialty “vape shops,” as well. PMID:25542918

  19. Flavor changing nucleon decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Muramatsu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    Recent discovery of neutrino large mixings implies the large mixings in the diagonalizing matrices of 5 bar fields in SU (5) grand unified theory (GUT), while the diagonalizing matrices of 10 fields of SU (5) are expected to have small mixings like Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. We calculate the predictions of flavor changing nucleon decays (FCND) in SU (5), SO (10), and E6 GUT models which have the above features for mixings. We found that FCND can be the main decay mode and play an important role to test GUT models.

  20. Evaluation of tomato germplasm for flavor and flavor contributing components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavor is one of the most highly demanded consumer traits of tomato at present; poor flavor is one of the most commonly heard complaints associated with modern varieties of tomato. Research in the past has identified reducing sugars, organic acids and approximately 30 plant volatiles as either direc...

  1. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  2. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  3. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  4. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  5. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  6. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  7. The impact of antioxidant addition on flavor of cheddar and mozzarella whey and cheddar whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Liaw, I W; Eshpari, H; Tong, P S; Drake, M A

    2010-08-01

    Lipid oxidation products are primary contributors to whey ingredient off-flavors. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of antioxidant addition in prevention of flavor deterioration of fluid whey and spray-dried whey protein. Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses were manufactured in triplicate. Fresh whey was collected, pasteurized, and defatted by centrifugal separation. Subsequently, 0.05% (w/w) ascorbic acid or 0.5% (w/w) whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) were added to the pasteurized whey. A control with no antioxidant addition was also evaluated. Wheys were stored at 3 degrees C and evaluated after 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 d. In a subsequent experiment, selected treatments were then incorporated into liquid Cheddar whey and processed into whey protein concentrate (WPC). Whey and WPC flavors were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were evaluated by solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in fluid wheys with storage. Liquid wheys with ascorbic acid or WPH had lower cardboard flavor across storage compared to control whey. Lipid oxidation products, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal increased in liquid whey during storage, but liquid whey with added ascorbic acid or WPH had lower concentrations of these products compared to untreated controls. Mozzarella liquid whey had lower flavor intensities than Cheddar whey initially and after refrigerated storage. WPC with added ascorbic acid or WPH had lower cardboard flavor and lower concentrations of pentanal, heptanal, and nonanal compared to control WPC. These results suggest that addition of an antioxidant to liquid whey prior to further processing may be beneficial to flavor of spray-dried whey protein. Practical Application: Lipid oxidation products are primary contributors to whey ingredient off-flavors. Flavor plays a critical and limiting role in widespread use of dried whey ingredients, and enhanced understanding

  8. Skew-flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.

  9. Skew-flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; ...

    2016-05-10

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in whichmore » dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. In conclusion, these events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.« less

  10. Combatting wintertime off-flavors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-flavored catfish are not acceptable for harvest, which disrupts the orderly flow of product from farm to processing plant. Most summertime off-flavors are caused when odorous substances produced by blue-green algae are absorbed from water and deposited in the fish’s flesh. Fish can also become o...

  11. The effect of prime emulsion components as a function of equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop flavor compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Perceptions of food products start when flavor compounds are released from foods, transported and appropriate senses in the oral and nose are triggered. However, the long-term stability of flavor compounds in food product has been a major concern in the food industry due to the complex interactions between key food ingredients (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins). Hence, this study was conducted to formulate emulsion-based beverage using natural food emulsifiers and to understand the interactions between emulsion compositions and flavor compounds. Results The influences of modified starch (x 1 ), whey protein isolate (x 2 ), soursop flavor oil (x 3 ) and deionized water (x 4 ) on the equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop volatile flavor compounds were evaluated using a four-component with constrained extreme vertices mixture design. The results indicated that the equilibrium headspace concentration of soursop flavor compounds were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the matrix and structural compositions of the beverage emulsions. Interface formed using modified starch and whey protein isolate (WPI) proved to be capable of inhibiting the release of volatile flavor compounds from the oil to the aqueous phase. Modified starch could retard the overall flavor release through its hydrophobic interactions with volatile flavor compounds and viscosity enhancement effect. Excessive amount of modified starch was also shown to be detrimental to the stability of emulsion system. However, both modified starch and WPI showed to be a much more effective barrier in inhibiting the flavor release of flavor compounds when used as individual emulsifier than as a mixture. Conclusions Overall, the mixture design can be practical in elucidating the complex interactions between key food components and volatile flavor compounds in an emulsion system. These studies will be useful for the manufacturers for the formulation of an optimum beverage emulsion with

  12. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  13. Skin-Applied Repellent Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Active ingredients in EPA-registered insect repellents include catnip oil, oil of citronella, DEET, IR 3535, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, and 2-undecanone. Find fact sheets and pesticide regulatory information.

  14. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  15. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  16. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    MedlinePlus

    Electronic cigarettes; Electronic hookahs; Vaping; Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Smoking - electronic cigarettes ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 46. Callahan-Lyon P. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects. Tob Control . 2014;23( ...

  17. Why public health people are more worried than excited over e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Pisinger, Charlotta

    2014-12-09

    The research field on e-cigarettes is characterized by severe methodological problems, severe conflicts of interest, relatively few and often small studies, inconsistencies and contradictions in results, and a lack of long-term follow-up. Therefore, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the harm of e-cigarettes, but they can hardly be called safe. Experimental studies indicate negative health effects and, amongst others, the major ingredient propylene glycol warrants concern. Growing evidence raises doubt about the efficacy of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid. Unfortunately, it seems that many smokers use e-cigarettes with the intention to quit but switch to long-term use of e-cigarettes or dual use. Use is spreading rapidly to minors, ex-smokers, and never-smokers. It is questionable whether the potential health benefits obtained by some smokers outweigh the potential harm by use of non-smokers, of undermining of complete cessation, smokers' dual use, and of eventual re-normalization of smoking. Even if e-cigarettes are significantly less harmful than conventional cigarettes, the product may have a very negative impact on public health if its use is spread to a large part of the population.

  18. “It’s not smoke. It’s not tar. It’s not 4000 chemicals. Case closed”: Exploring attitudes, beliefs, and perceived social norms of e-cigarette use among adult users

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Blair N.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Tessman, Greta K.; Tworek, Cindy; Alexander, Jennifer; Dickinson, Denise M.; Rath, Jessica; Green, Kerry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing among adults in the U.S. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore consumer perceptions about e-cigarettes, including knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceived social norms. Methods A total of 14 focus groups (N = 116) were conducted with current adult e-cigarette users in five U.S. cities from March through May, 2014. Focus groups were segmented by age (young adults aged 18–29 and older adults aged 30 and older) as well as by e-cigarette use status (exclusive e-cigarette users and non-exclusive e-cigarette users). Focus group discussions lasted approximately 60-min and were audio-recorded and transcribed; data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Results Participants expressed many positive attitudes towards e-cigarettes and simultaneously reported a lack of information and knowledge about the products. Focus group participants overwhelmingly felt as though the ingredients of e-cigarettes were likely less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Additionally, many described positive reactions from family and friends, especially when e-cigarettes were used in place of conventional cigarettes. Conclusions Findings from this qualitative study provide insight into consumer knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about e-cigarettes increasing our understanding of why and how they are being used. Such information will help provide insight into the potential public health impact of these emerging products. PMID:26708706

  19. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Conclusions Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732157

  20. Color-Flavor Locked Strangelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Jes

    2001-10-01

    Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange-quark matter (CFL strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number Amin. Whereas bulk CFL strange-quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL strangelets are positively charged, with Z~0.3A2/3. This is quite different from ``ordinary'' strangelets and may provide a possible test of color-flavor locking if strangelets are detected in upcoming cosmic-ray space experiments.

  1. Electronic cigarettes in the media

    PubMed Central

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a “healthier alternative” to traditional cigarettes and their use as a “smoking cessation aid” are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  2. France acts on electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    France is deciding how to regulate electronic cigarettes. I first consider the French approach and how it contrasts with other attempts at electronic cigarette regulation globally. Next, I critique the individual elements of the French proposal. The overall approach taken by France is a positive development, but banning indoor use appears unnecessary and banning advertising may be counterproductive.

  3. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated. Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article. Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field. PMID:23113130

  4. Options for state and local governments to regulate non-cigarette tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Freiberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Most tobacco control laws were written to address the scourge of smoking--particularly smoking cigarettes. As a result, these laws frequently exclude non-cigarette tobacco products, which are becoming more prevalent on the market. These regulatory gaps jeopardize public health by increasing the possibility that these products will be used--particularly by minors and young adults. This article examines gaps in regulation using five products as case studies: dissolvable tobacco products, electronic cigarettes, little cigars, snus, and water pipes. In addition, this article presents policy options that state and local governments can adopt to regulate these products more effectively, including regulations relating to price, flavors, youth access, use in public places, point-of-sale warnings, and marketing. Furthermore, this article contains extensive discussion of the recently adopted federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which both limits and expands the power of state and local governments.

  5. Safety assessment of Ylang-Ylang (Cananga spp.) as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2008-02-01

    Ylang-Ylang oil is used in the food industry as a flavor ingredient. It is a complex chemical mixture in the form of an essential oil extracted by water or water-and-steam distillation from the fresh flowers of Cananga odorata Hook. f. & Thomson. Ylang-Ylang oil has been reported to cause dermal sensitization reactions in animals and humans, but it is unclear what constituent(s) within the essential oil comprise the offending agent(s) and whether some Ylang-Ylang oils that have had certain constituent(s) removed are any less prone to cause such allergic reactions. There is no indication in the literature that food exposure to Ylang-Ylang oil has caused allergic reactions. One subchronic inhalation toxicity study, involving Ylang-Ylang oil as part of a larger fragrance raw materials mixture, gave no indication of causing adverse effects, but the relevance to risk assessment of oral food flavoring use exposures is likely minimal. No further toxicity data for Ylang-Ylang oil have been reported. Notwithstanding the foregoing, Ylang-Ylang oil has a long history of fragrance and food flavoring use, with no indication that its estimated consumption from food flavoring use (0.0001 mg/kg/day) has led to any adverse human health effects. These data indicate that at the current level of intake as a food ingredient, Ylang-Ylang oil does not pose a health risk to humans.

  6. Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of Youth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have become popular and are heavily promoted as a safer cigarette and an aid to quit smoking. Although they may have value in reducing cigarette use among smokers, they are of limited value in smoking cessation and pose many problems, particularly in children. Nicotine is highly addictive and affects virtually all cells in the body. It is particularly harmful to developing brains and other organs. The electronic nicotine delivery systems are largely uncontrolled and safety risks are manifold. Initiating nicotine use and increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does. PMID:25830075

  7. A Domino Theory of Flavor

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2009-08-03

    We argue that the fermion masses and mixings are organized in a specific pattern. The approximately equal hierarchies between successive generations, the sizes of the mixing angles, the heaviness of just the top quark, and the approximate down-lepton equality can all be accommodated by many flavor models but can appear ad hoc. We present a simple, predictive mechanism to explain these patterns. All generations are treated democratically and the flavor symmetries are broken collectively by only two allowed couplings in flavor-space, a vector and matrix, with arbitrary {Omicron}(1) entries. Repeated use of these flavor symmetry breaking spurions radiatively generates the Yukawa couplings with a natural hierarchy. We demonstrate this idea with two models in a split supersymmetric grand unified framework, with minimal additional particle content at the unification scale. Although flavor is generated at the GUT scale, there are several potentially testable predictions. In our minimal model the usual prediction of exact b-{tau} unification is replaced by the SU(5) breaking relation m{sub {tau}}/m{sub b} = 3/2, in better agreement with observations. Other SU(5) breaking effects in the fermion masses can easily arise directly from the flavor model itself. The symmetry breaking that triggers the generation of flavor necessarily gives rise to an axion, solving the strong CP problem. These theories contain long-lived particles whose decays could give striking signatures at the LHC and may solve the primordial Lithium problems. These models also give novel proton decay signatures which can be probed by the next generation of experiments. Measurement of the various proton decay channels directly probes the flavor symmetry breaking couplings. In this scenario the Higgs mass is predicted to lie in a range near 150 GeV.

  8. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Cigarette Design Feature Influence on ISO TNCO Yields.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Heard, Kimberly A; Lancaster, Vicki A; Bravo, Roberto; Watson, Clifford; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-20

    The aim of this study is to explore how differences in cigarette physical design parameters influence tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (TNCO) yields in mainstream smoke (MSS) using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) smoking regimen. Standardized smoking methods were used to evaluate 50 U.S. domestic brand cigarettes and a reference cigarette representing a range of TNCO yields in MSS collected from linear smoking machines using a nonintense smoking regimen. Multivariate statistical methods were used to form clusters of cigarettes based on their ISO TNCO yields and then to explore the relationship between the ISO generated TNCO yields and the nine cigarette physical design parameters between and within each cluster simultaneously. The ISO generated TNCO yields in MSS are 1.1-17.0 mg tar/cigarette, 0.1-2.2 mg nicotine/cigarette, and 1.6-17.3 mg CO/cigarette. Cluster analysis divided the 51 cigarettes into five discrete clusters based on their ISO TNCO yields. No one physical parameter dominated across all clusters. Predicting ISO machine generated TNCO yields based on these nine physical design parameters is complex due to the correlation among and between the nine physical design parameters and TNCO yields. From these analyses, it is estimated that approximately 20% of the variability in the ISO generated TNCO yields comes from other parameters (e.g., filter material, filter type, inclusion of expanded or reconstituted tobacco, and tobacco blend composition, along with differences in tobacco leaf origin and stalk positions and added ingredients). A future article will examine the influence of these physical design parameters on TNCO yields under a Canadian Intense (CI) smoking regimen. Together, these papers will provide a more robust picture of the design features that contribute to TNCO exposure across the range of real world smoking patterns.

  9. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Curwin, Brian D.; Deddens, Jim A.; McKernan, Lauralynn T.

    2015-01-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25–3124 ppb and 15–172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous. PMID:25052692

  10. Flavoring exposure in food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Curwin, Brian D; Deddens, Jim A; McKernan, Lauralynn T

    2015-05-01

    Flavorings are substances that alter or enhance the taste of food. Workers in the food-manufacturing industry, where flavorings are added to many products, may be exposed to any number of flavoring compounds. Although thousands of flavoring substances are in use, little is known about most of these in terms of worker health effects, and few have occupational exposure guidelines. Exposure assessment surveys were conducted at nine food production facilities and one flavor manufacturer where a total of 105 area and 74 personal samples were collected for 13 flavoring compounds including five ketones, five aldehydes, and three acids. The majority of the samples were below the limit of detection (LOD) for most compounds. Diacetyl had eight area and four personal samples above the LOD, whereas 2,3-pentanedione had three area samples above the LOD. The detectable values ranged from 25-3124 ppb and 15-172 ppb for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione respectively. These values exceed the proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit for these compounds. The aldehydes had the most detectable samples, with each of them having >50% of the samples above the LOD. Acetaldehyde had all but two samples above the LOD, however, these samples were below the OSHA PEL. It appears that in the food-manufacturing facilities surveyed here, exposure to the ketones occurs infrequently, however levels above the proposed NIOSH REL were found. Conversely, aldehyde exposure appears to be ubiquitous.

  11. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  12. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70-28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04-19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  14. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  15. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  16. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  17. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  18. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  19. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  20. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  1. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  2. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  3. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Cigarette Pica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with mental retardation and autism found that pica of cigarette butts was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when cigarettes contained nicotine but not when cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. A procedure based on stimulus control, which reduced cigarette consumption to zero, is described.…

  4. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  5. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  6. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  7. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  8. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  9. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  10. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  11. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  12. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  13. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  14. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  15. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  16. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  17. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  18. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  19. Encapsulation of new active ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organic construct consumed as food comes packaged in units that carry the active components, protects the entrapped active materials until delivered to targeted human organ. The packaging and delivery role is mimicked in the microencapsulation tools used to deliver active ingredients in process...

  20. Systematic mining of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) flavor chemicals for bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Mayorga, Karina; Peppard, Terry L; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Yongye, Austin B; Medina-Franco, José L

    2013-08-07

    Bioactive food compounds can be both therapeutically and nutritionally relevant. Screening strategies are widely employed to identify bioactive compounds from edible plants. Flavor additives contained in the so-called FEMA GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list of approved flavoring ingredients is an additional source of potentially bioactive compounds. This work used the principles of molecular similarity to identify compounds with potential mood-modulating properties. The ability of certain GRAS molecules to inhibit histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), proposed as an important player in mood modulation, was assayed. Two GRAS chemicals were identified as HDAC1 inhibitors in the micromolar range, results similar to what was observed for the structurally related mood prescription drug valproic acid. Additional studies on bioavailability, toxicity at higher concentrations, and off-target effects are warranted. The methodology described in this work could be employed to identify potentially bioactive flavor chemicals present in the FEMA GRAS list.

  1. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    PubMed

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  2. Lepton-flavor violating mediators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galon, Iftah; Kwa, Anna; Tanedo, Philip

    2017-03-01

    We present a framework where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model through a light, spin-0 mediator that couples chirally to pairs of different-flavor leptons. This flavor violating final state weakens bounds on new physics coupled to leptons from terrestrial experiments and cosmic-ray measurements. As an example, we apply this framework to construct a model for the Fermi-LAT excess of GeV γ-rays from the galactic center. We comment on the viability of this portal for self-interacting dark matter explanations of small scale structure anomalies and embeddings in flavor models. Models of this type are shown to be compatible with the muon anomalous magnetic moment anomaly. We review current experimental constraints and identify possible future theoretical and experimental directions.

  3. Simulating nonlinear neutrino flavor evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, H.; Fuller, G. M.; Carlson, J.

    2008-10-01

    We discuss a new kind of astrophysical transport problem: the coherent evolution of neutrino flavor in core collapse supernovae. Solution of this problem requires a numerical approach which can simulate accurately the quantum mechanical coupling of intersecting neutrino trajectories and the associated nonlinearity which characterizes neutrino flavor conversion. We describe here the two codes developed to attack this problem. We also describe the surprising phenomena revealed by these numerical calculations. Chief among these is that the nonlinearities in the problem can engineer neutrino flavor transformation which is dramatically different to that in standard Mikheyev Smirnov Wolfenstein treatments. This happens even though the neutrino mass-squared differences are measured to be small, and even when neutrino self-coupling is sub-dominant. Our numerical work has revealed potential signatures which, if detected in the neutrino burst from a Galactic core collapse event, could reveal heretofore unmeasurable properties of the neutrinos, such as the mass hierarchy and vacuum mixing angle θ13.

  4. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, Andrija

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, Vub/Vcb = √mu/mc and Vtd/Vts = √md/ms, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanβ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  5. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  6. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  7. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  8. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  9. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of The Food Chemical Codex. (c) Other ingredients. Other... Material § 58.520 Nondairy ingredients. (a) Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall be of...

  10. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers. PMID:21624148

  11. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  12. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  13. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  14. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  15. Expectancies for Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Nicotine Replacement Therapies Among E-Cigarette Users (aka Vapers)

    PubMed Central

    Marquinez, Nicole S.; Correa, John B.; Meltzer, Lauren R.; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K.; Simmons, Vani N.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Methods: Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Results: Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. Conclusions: The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. PMID:25168035

  16. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  17. Familiarity, perception, and reasons for electronic-cigarette experimentation among the general public in Malaysia: Preliminary insight

    PubMed Central

    Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Bhagavathul, Akshaya Srikanth; Ya’u, Adamu; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Elsayed, Tarek M.; Ahmad, Akram; Mohamed, Wael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia. Methodology: A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (version 17.0). Results: From 400 participants, a total number of 277 (160, 57.7% men and 117, 42.4% women) respondents completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 26.89 ± 9.8 years old. The majority of the study participants were male (57.7%), Malay (83.8%), Muslims (83.8%), singles (69%), and employed (75.8%), with about 83 (29.9%) of the respondents were smokers. The prevalence of e-cigarettes smokers was found to be only 1.4% (n = 4). About one-third of the respondents (n = 72, 26%) have tried e-cigarette before. Job status was significantly associated with smoking e-cigarette among the population (P = 0.02). Main factors for a person to start e-cigarette smoking were curiosity (37.5%) and cheaper price (40.8%). Majority of respondents agreed that e-cigarette would not affect health as normal cigarette, and that variety of flavors contribute to better enjoyment (51.6% and 66.7%, respectively). Conclusion: The results of the current study demonstrate that the prevalence of e-cigarettes smoking and its popularity, familiarity, and knowledge are still insufficient among Kuantan population. Further studies should be done to tackle this problem before it getting worse. PMID:27413354

  18. Minimum Risk Pesticides - Inert Ingredient and Active Ingredient Eligibility under 40 CFR 152.25(f)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ingredients found on both the Minimum Risk Active Ingredient and List 4A Inert Ingredients of Minimal Concern lists may be used either as an active or an inert ingredient. Otherwise, it can only be used based on the list it appears on.

  19. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-04-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle ``massless'' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tanβ ~ mt/mb ~ 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ``massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

  20. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    DOE PAGES

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter spacemore » that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.« less

  1. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  2. Physics Labs with Flavor II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrest, Mikhail M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the numerous requests from "TPT" readers to expand the number of examples of "recurrent study" lab exercises described in my previous paper "Physics Labs with Flavor." I recommend that readers examine it first in order to better understand this one as my attempt here is to be brief. In that paper, one can find details…

  3. Flavor from the electroweak scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Martin; Carena, Marcela; Gemmler, Katrin

    2015-11-04

    We discuss the possibility that flavor hierarchies arise from the electroweak scale in a two Higgs doublet model, in which the two Higgs doublets jointly act as the flavon. Quark masses and mixing angles are explained by effective Yukawa couplings, generated by higher dimensional operators involving quarks and Higgs doublets. Modified Higgs couplings yield important effects on the production cross sections and decay rates of the light Standard Model like Higgs. In addition, flavor changing neutral currents arise at tree-level and lead to strong constraints from meson-antimeson mixing. Remarkably, flavor constraints turn out to prefer a region in parameter space that is in excellent agreement with the one preferred by recent Higgs precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Direct searches for extra scalars at the LHC lead to further constraints. Precise predictions for the production and decay modes of the additional Higgs bosons are derived, and we present benchmark scenarios for searches at the LHC Run II. As a result, flavor breaking at the electroweak scale as well as strong coupling effects demand a UV completion at the scale of a few TeV, possibly within the reach of the LHC.

  4. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-04-23

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan{beta} {approx_equal} mt/mb {approx_equal} 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models.

  5. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  6. Sleep deprivation increases cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-09-01

    Loss of sleep may impair the ability to abstain from drug use, through any of a number of mechanisms. Sleep loss may increase drug use by impairing attention and inhibitory control, increasing the value of drug rewards over other rewards, or by inducing mood states that facilitate use of a drug. In the present study, we examined whether sleep deprivation (SD) would increase smoking in cigarette smokers, and whether it would do so by impairing attention or inhibitory control. Healthy cigarette smokers (N=14) were tested in a two-session within subject study, after overnight SD or after a normal night's sleep. Subjects were tested in both conditions in randomized order, after abstaining from cigarettes for 48 hours. The procedure was designed to model the human relapse situation. On each 6-h laboratory session after sleep or no sleep, subjects completed mood and craving questionnaires, tasks measuring behavioral inhibition and attention, and a choice procedure in which they chose between money and smoking cigarettes. SD increased self-reported fatigue and decreased arousal, it increased the number of cigarettes subjects chose to smoke, impaired behavioral inhibition and attention. However, the impairments in inhibition or attention were not related to the increase in smoking. It is possible that SD increases smoking because smokers expect that it will reduce sleepiness. Thus, the findings suggest that sleep loss may increase the likelihood of smoking during abstinence not through inhibitory or attentional mechanisms but because of the potential of nicotine to reduce subjective sleepiness.

  7. Advances in assessing ingredient safety.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael L; York, Raymond G

    2016-08-01

    The safety of food ingredients will be assessed in the 21st century by mixture of traditional methods, such as the "safe" dose concept, which is thought to be an accurate but imprecise estimation of dose below the population threshold for adverse effect, and contemporary methods, such as the Benchmark Dose (BMD), Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF), physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models, and biologically-informed dose response modeling. New research on the horizon related to toxicology 21 may also improve these risk assessment methods, or suggest new ones. These traditional, contemporary and new methods and research will be briefly described.

  8. Fluorinated Desensitizing Ingredients for Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-24

    Entered) 19. KEY WORDS (Continued) 20 ABSTRACT (Continued) Compound Structure 3-Fluoro-1,2- propanediol dinitrate FCH2CH(ONO2 )CH2ONO2 FDNP 3,3,3...Trifluoro-1,2- propanediol dinitrate F3 CCH(ONO2 )CH2ONO2 TFDNP 4,4,4-Trifluoro-l,2,3-butanetriol F3CCH(ONO 2 )CH(ONO2)CH2ONO 2 Trinitrate TFBTTN Preliminary...are potentially useful propellant ingredients. When compared with 1,2- propanediol dinitrate (DNP), which is currently used in Otto Fuel II, FDNP has a

  9. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  10. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  11. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  12. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  13. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  14. Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; ...

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however,more » no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.« less

  15. Dark matter and gauged flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Bishara, Fady; Greljo, Admir; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Stamou, Emmanuel; Zupan, Jure

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the phenomenology of flavored dark matter (DM). DM stability is guaranteed by an accidental Z3 symmetry, a subgroup of the standard model (SM) flavor group that is not broken by the SM Yukawa interactions. We consider an explicit realization where the quark part of the SM flavor group is fully gauged. If the dominant interactions between DM and visible sector are through flavor gauge bosons, as we show for Dirac fermion flavored DM, then the DM mass is bounded between roughly 0.5 TeV and 5 TeV if the DM multiplet mass is split only radiatively. In general, however, no such relation exists. We demonstrate this using scalar flavored DM where the main interaction with the SM is through the Higgs portal. For both cases we derive constraints from flavor, cosmology, direct and indirect DM detection, and collider searches.

  16. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2011-03-01

    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

  17. Supersymmetry: Compactification, flavor, and dualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, Benjamin Jones

    We describe several new research directions in the area of supersymmetry. In the context of low-energy supersymmetry, we show that the assumption of R-parity can be replaced with the minimal flavor violation hypothesis, solving the issue of nucleon decay and the new physics flavor problem in one stroke. The assumption of minimal flavor violation uniquely fixes the form of the baryon number violating vertex, leading to testable predictions. The NLSP is unstable, and decays promptly to jets, evading stringent bounds on vanilla supersymmetry from LHC searches, whereas the gravitino is long-lived, and can be a dark matter component. In the case of a sbottom LSP, neutral mesinos can form and undergo oscillations before decaying, leading to same sign tops, and allowing us to place constraints on the model in this case. We show that this well-motivated phenomenology can be naturally explained by spontaneously breaking a gauged flavor symmetry at a high scale in the presence of additional vector-like quarks, leading to mass mixings which simultaneously generate the flavor structure of the baryon-number violating vertex and the Standard Model Yukawa couplings, explaining their minimal flavor violating structure. We construct a model which is robust against Planck suppressed corrections and which also solves the mu problem. In the context of flux compactifications, we begin a study of the local geometry near a stack of D7 branes supporting a gaugino condensate, an integral component of the KKLT scenario for Kahler moduli stabilization. We obtain an exact solution for the geometry in a certain limit using reasonable assumptions about symmetries, and argue that this solution exhibits BPS domain walls, as expected from field theory arguments. We also begin a larger program of understanding general supersymmetric compactifications of type IIB string theory, reformulating previous results in an SL(2, R ) covariant fashion. Finally, we present extensive evidence for a new class of

  18. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described.

  19. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  20. Aldehyde Detection in Electronic Cigarette Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde are the principal toxic aldehydes present in cigarette smoke and contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease and noncancerous pulmonary disease. The rapid growth of the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has raised concerns over emissions of these harmful aldehydes. This work determines emissions of these aldehydes in both free and bound (aldehyde–hemiacetal) forms and other carbonyls from the use of e-cigarettes. A novel silicon microreactor with a coating phase of 4-(2-aminooxyethyl)-morpholin-4-ium chloride (AMAH) was used to trap carbonyl compounds in the aerosols of e-cigarettes via oximation reactions. AMAH–aldehyde adducts were measured using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to analyze hemiacetals in the aerosols. These aldehydes were detected in the aerosols of all e-cigarettes. Newer-generation e-cigarette devices generated more aldehydes than the first-generation e-cigarettes because of higher battery power output. Formaldehyde–hemiacetal was detected in the aerosols generated from some e-liquids using the newer e-cigarette devices at a battery power output of 11.7 W and above. The emission of these aldehydes from all e-cigarettes, especially higher levels of aldehydes from the newer-generation e-cigarette devices, indicates the risk of using e-cigarettes. PMID:28393137

  1. Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Sun, Jessica Y; Bonnevie, Erika; Cummins, Sharon E; Gamst, Anthony; Yin, Lu; Lee, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction E-cigarettes are largely unregulated and internet sales are substantial. This study examines how the online market for e-cigarettes has changed over time: in product design and in marketing messages appearing on websites. Methods Comprehensive internet searches of English-language websites from May–August 2012 and December 2013–January 2014 identified brands, models, flavours, nicotine strengths, ingredients and product claims. Brands were divided into older and newer groups (by the two searches) for comparison. Results By January 2014 there were 466 brands (each with its own website) and 7764 unique flavours. In the 17 months between the searches, there was a net increase of 10.5 brands and 242 new flavours per month. Older brands were more likely than newer brands to offer cigalikes (86.9% vs 52.1%, p<0.01), and newer brands more likely to offer the more versatile eGos and mods (75.3% vs 57.8%, p<0.01). Older brands were significantly more likely to claim that they were healthier and cheaper than cigarettes, were good substitutes where smoking was banned and were effective smoking cessation aids. Newer brands offered more flavours per brand (49 vs 32, p<0.01) and were less likely to compare themselves with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions The number of e-cigarette brands is large and has been increasing. Older brands tend to highlight their advantages over conventional cigarettes while newer brands emphasise consumer choice in multiple flavours and product versatility. These results can serve as a benchmark for future research on the impact of upcoming regulations on product design and advertising messages of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935895

  2. Physical Point Simulation in 2+1 Flavor Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, S.; Ishikawa, K.; Ishizuka, N.; Izubuchi, T.; Kadoh, D.; Kanaya, K.; Kuramashi, Y.; Namekawa, Y.; Okawa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Ukita, N.; Yamazaki, T.; Yoshie, T.

    2010-04-14

    We present the results of the physical point simulation in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD with the nonperturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson quark action and the Iwasaki gauge action at {beta} = 1.9 on a 32{sup 3} x 64 lattice. The physical quark masses together with the lattice spacing is determined with m{sub {pi}}, m{sub K} and m{sub {Omega}} as physical inputs. There are two key algorithmic ingredients to make possible the direct simulation at the physical point: One is the mass-preconditioned domain-decomposed HMC algorithm to reduce the computational cost. The other is the reweighting technique to adjust the hopping parameters exactly to the physical point. The physics results include the hadron spectrum, the quark masses and the pseudoscalar meson decay constants. The renormalization factors are nonperturbatively evaluated with the Schroedinger functional method. The results are compared with the previous ones obtained by the chiral extrapolation method.

  3. A Practitioner's Guide to Electronic Cigarettes in the Adolescent Population.

    PubMed

    Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Pesko, Michael F; Shearer, Lee; Hughes, Jenna M; Chang, Jane; Loughlin, Gerald M; Ipp, Lisa S

    2015-12-01

    We present guidance on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for health care professionals who care for adolescents. ENDS provide users with inhaled nicotine in an aerosolized mist. Popular forms of ENDS include e-cigarettes and vape-pens. ENDS range in disposability, customization, and price. Growth of ENDS usage has been particularly rapid in the adolescent population, surpassing that of conventional cigarettes in 2014. Despite surging use throughout the United States, little is known about the health risks posed by ENDS, especially in the vulnerable adolescent population. These products may potentiate nicotine addiction in adolescents and have been found to contain potentially harmful chemicals. The growth in these products may be driven by relaxed purchasing restrictions for minors, lack of advertising regulations, and youth friendly flavors. Taken together, ENDS represent a new and growing health risk to the adolescent population, one that health care professionals should address with their patients. We suggest a patient centered strategy to incorporate ENDS use into routine substance counseling.

  4. Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2004-01-01

    Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. (210)Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with (208)Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO(3), HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The (210)Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of (210)Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of (210)Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of (210)Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of (210)Po and (210)Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of (210)Po and (210)Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 193 and 251 microSv from

  5. Cigarette smoke and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Hofmann, W.; Lowe, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps specifically at airway bifurcations. The elevated risk of lung cancer to smokers may result from a complex interplay between smoking and exposure to ambient Rn progeny, including the promotional-effect role (as opposed to being the initiating event) of cigarette smoke in tumor development. It has been determined that smokers exposed to average indoor Rn progency levels receive surprisingly high doses at hot spots within bronchial bifurcations.

  6. Are all cigarettes just the same? Female's perceptions of slim, coloured, aromatized and capsule cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Mackintosh, Anne; Purves, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Twelve focus groups in Glasgow (Scotland) were conducted with female non-smokers and occasional smokers aged 12-24 years (N = 75), with each group shown 11 cigarettes: two (standard) cigarettes with cork filters; two coloured cigarettes (pink or brown); four slim cigarettes; an aromatized black cigarette; a menthol cigarette and a cigarette with a flavour-changing rupturable capsule in the filter. Participants were asked to rank the cigarettes by appeal, taste and harm. The capsule cigarette was then discussed in depth. The pink coloured cigarette and slim cigarettes created significant interest and were generally perceived as most appealing and pleasant tasting, and least harmful. The black aromatized cigarette received a mixed response, with some disliking the dark colour and associating it with low appeal, strong taste and increased harm, whereas for others the smell helped to enhance appeal and taste perceptions and lower perceptions of harm. The novel capsule cigarette, when discussed in-depth, was viewed very positively. Just as research shows that cigarette packs can influence perceptions of appeal, harm and taste, this study suggests that the actual cigarettes can do likewise. The findings have implications for tobacco education and policy.

  7. Neutrino Flavor Identification in SALSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miočinović, Predrag

    The proposed Saltdome Shower Array (SalSA) experiment will detect coherent Cherenkov radio signals from high-energy neutrino interactions in a naturally occurring salt dome. By identifying the number and the angular profile of radio emissions in any given event, distinction can be made between charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) neutrino interactions. Additionally, the flavor of the neutrino can be identified in the case of charged-current interactions. Preliminary results for nominal GZK neutrino flux indicate that ~25% of all events can be correctly identified as coming from charged-current interactions of νμ's or ντ's. These charged-current initiated events can further be separated by the flavor of the original neutrino, either νμ's or ντ's.

  8. Lepton flavor violating quarkonium decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazard, Derek E.; Petrov, Alexey A.

    2016-10-01

    We argue that lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays M →ℓ1ℓ¯ 2 of quarkonium states M with different quantum numbers could be used to put constraints on the Wilson coefficients of effective operators describing LFV interactions at low energy scales. We note that restricted kinematics of the two-body quarkonium decays allows us to select operators with particular quantum numbers, significantly reducing the reliance on the single operator dominance assumption that is prevalent in constraining parameters of the effective LFV Lagrangian. We shall also argue that studies of radiative lepton flavor violating M →γ ℓ1ℓ¯ 2 decays could provide important complementary access to those effective operators.

  9. 'Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking, with Flavor'

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara

    2010-08-26

    We explore calculable models with low-energy supersymmetry where the flavor hierarchy is generated by quark and lepton compositeness, and where the composites emerge from the same sector that dynamically breaks supersymmetry. The observed pattern of Standard Model fermion masses and mixings is obtained by identifying the various generations with composites of different dimension in the ultraviolet. These 'single-sector' supersymmetry breaking models give rise to various spectra of soft masses which are, in many cases, quite distinct from what is commonly found in models of gauge or gravity mediation. In typical models which satisfy all flavor-changing neutral current constraints, both the first and second generation sparticles have masses of order 20 TeV, while the stop mass is a few TeV. In other cases, all sparticles obtain masses of order a few TeV predominantly from gauge mediation, even though the first two generations are composite.

  10. Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    "Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at http://fpcp2015.hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp/. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and

  11. Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt: a review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa

    2010-11-01

    Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor.

  12. "If we can just ‘stall' new unfriendly legislations, the scoreboard is already in our favour": transnational tobacco companies and ingredients disclosure in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, R; Collin, J; Sriwongcharoen, K; Muggli, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To review the strategies employed by overseas cigarette manufacturers operating in Thailand to obstruct the passage and subsequent enforcement of national public health legislation, specifically the ingredients disclosure provision of the 1992 Tobacco Products Control Act. Methods: Analysis of previously confidential tobacco industry documents relevant to non-compliance with the ingredients disclosure legislation. Results: Requirement for disclosure of ingredients contained in cigarettes contained in the Tobacco Products Control Act was identified by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) not only as a significant threat to their operations in Thailand, but as a dangerous global precedent. Industry documents reveal a determined campaign to block, stall, or amend the proposed regulation during the legislative process. Industry representatives petitioned the Ministry of Health to revise the requirement from by brand disclosure to a more palatable by company submission. Strategies were adapted in the wake of the passage of the Act. Most significantly, the industry in concert with embassies in Bangkok threatened the Thai government with appeals to international trade bodies on the grounds of violation of international agreements. Industry documents also reveal that as submission of ingredient lists appeared unavoidable, leading companies operating in Thailand endeavoured to confound the disclosure requirement by disguising ingredients and reformulating brand recipes. Conclusions: The evidence presented highlights the importance of ingredients regulation and demonstrates how health policy can be transformed during its implementation. A greater understanding of trade agreements emerges as a priority for global tobacco control. PMID:15564225

  13. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  14. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:25353061

  15. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    PubMed

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  16. [The challenge of electronic cigarettes].

    PubMed

    Córdoba García, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cig) is a device with a conventional cigarette shape that releases a determined dose of nicotine vapour through an electronic heating process. The nicotine cartridges vary significantly in the amount of nicotine released, even within the same brand. Not all brands admit that they contain nicotine, but this is detected in the majority of units analysed. The e-cig usually contains a propellant, such as propylene glycol, which is a lung irritant. The short-term respiratory effect of the vapour of an e-cig is similar to that caused by the smoke of a cigarette, and is a cause of broncho-restriction. The majority of brands contain glycerine and at least one case of lipoid pneumonia has been detected due to this substance. Many brands contain traces of N-nitrosamines, heavy metals, and other products that are found in conventional cigarette smoke, but in a much higher proportion. There is currently no scientific evidence available that shows it is an effective device for quitting smoking, thus it should not be pro-actively recommended for this purpose, and may interfere with the use of demonstrated scientific evidence-based treatments for quitting smoking. It may have an undesirable effect on promoting the starting of smoking in adolescents or keeping adult smokers consuming nicotine and on gestural dependency. The toxicity of the vapour is not well known, but it is known that they are not innocuous, thus they should not be used in closed public spaces.

  17. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?*

    PubMed Central

    Knorst, Marli Maria; Benedetto, Igor Gorski; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso

    2014-01-01

    The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use. PMID:25410845

  18. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. Methods. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. Results. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends’ cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Conclusions. Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking. PMID:26066954

  19. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.

    PubMed

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-05

    The release kinetics of l-menthol dissolved in propylene glycol (PG), Miglyol, or 1,8-cineole (two common odorless flavor solvents differing in polarity and a hydrophobic flavor compound) were monitored from a model aqueous system via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Breath analysis was also conducted via APCI-MS to monitor release of l-menthol from hard candy that used PG and Miglyol for l-menthol incorporation. The quantities of l-menthol released when dissolved in PG or Miglyol from the model aqueous system were found to be similar and overall significantly greater in comparison to when dissolved in 1,8-cineole. Analogous results were reported by the breath analysis of hard candy. The release kinetics of l-menthol from PG or Miglyol versus from 1,8-cineole were notably more rapid and higher in quantity. Results from the sensory time-intensity study also indicated that there was no perceived difference in the overall cooling intensity between the two flavor solvent delivery systems (PG and Miglyol).

  20. Holographic thermodynamics and transport of flavor fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bannon, Andrew Hill

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study a strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory with flavor fields, i.e. fields transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. We first study the thermodynamics of the flavor fields. In the grand canonical ensemble at zero temperature, we find a second-order transition when the mass of the flavor fields equals the chemical potential. We then study the transport properties of the flavor fields at finite temperature and density. We introduce external electric and magnetic fields and compute the resulting current of flavor charge. From this current we extract the conductivity, using Ohm's law. In addition, we compute the drag force on the flavor fields at large mass, in the presence of a finite baryon density and external electric and magnetic fields.

  1. Flavor, glucosinolates, and isothiocyanates of nau (Cook's scurvy grass, Lepidium oleraceum) and other rare New Zealand Lepidium species.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Catherine E; Jones, Veronika S; Joyce, Nigel I; Smallfield, Bruce M; Perry, Nigel B; van Klink, John W

    2015-02-18

    The traditionally consumed New Zealand native plant nau, Cook's scurvy grass, Lepidium oleraceum, has a pungent wasabi-like taste, with potential for development as a flavor ingredient. The main glucosinolate in this Brassicaceae was identified by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy as 3-butenyl glucosinolate (gluconapin, 7-22 mg/g DM in leaves). The leaves were treated to mimic chewing, and the headspace was analyzed by solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS. This showed that 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, with a wasabi-like flavor, was produced by the endogenous myrosinase. Different postharvest treatments were used to create leaf powders as potential flavor products, which were tasted and analyzed for gluconapin and release of 3-butenyl isothiocyanate. A high drying temperature (75 °C) did not give major glucosinolate degradation, but did largely inactivate the myrosinase, resulting in no wasabi-like flavor release. Drying at 45 °C produced more pungent flavor than freeze-drying. Seven other Lepidium species endemic to New Zealand were also analyzed to determine their flavor potential and also whether glucosinolates were taxonomic markers. Six contained mostly gluconapin, but the critically endangered Lepidium banksii had a distinct composition including isopropyl glucosinolate, not detected in the other species.

  2. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors--A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Issa; Jo, Cheorun; Tariq, Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-12-01

    Flavor is the sensory impression sensed by taste and smell buds and is a leading factor determining the meat quality and purchasing decision of the consumer. Meat flavor is characteristic of volatiles produced as a result of reactions of non-volatile components that are induced thermally. The water soluble compounds having low molecular weight and meat lipids are important precursors of cooked meat flavor. The Maillard reaction, lipid oxidation, and vitamin degradation are leading reactions during cooking which develop meat flavor from uncooked meat with little aroma and bloody taste. The pre-slaughter and postmortem factors like animal breed, sex, age, feed, aging and cooking conditions contribute to flavor development of cooked meat. The objective of this review is to highlight the flavor chemistry, meat flavor precursors and factors affecting meat flavor precursors.

  3. ILLICIT CIGARETTE TRADE IN THAILAND

    PubMed Central

    Pavananunt, Pirudee

    2012-01-01

    The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

  4. Essential oils as active ingredients of lipid nanocarriers for chemotherapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Severino, Patricia; Andreani, Tatiana; Chaud, Marco V; Benites, Cibelem I; Pinho, Samantha C; Souto, Eliana B

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils have increased interest as promising ingredients for novel pharmaceutical dosage forms. These oils are reported to provide synergistic effects of their active ingredients, in parallel with their biodegradable properties. In addition, essential oils may also have therapeutic effects in diabetes, inflammation, cancer and to treat microbial infections. However, there are some physicochemical properties that may limit their use as active compounds in several formulations, such as high volatility, low-appealing organoleptic properties, low bioavailability and physicochemical instability, as result of exposure to light, oxygen and high temperatures. To overcome these limitations, lipid colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), self nanoemulsified drug delivery systems (SNEDDS)) have been pointed out as suitable carriers to improve bioavailability, low solubility, taste, flavor and long-term storage of sensitive compounds. This paper reviews the potential beneficial effects of formulating essential oils in pharmaceutical applications using colloidal carriers as delivery systems.

  5. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D.; Cooper, Bethany T.; Bennett, Melanee B.; Brown, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic. PMID:25361047

  6. Comparative in vitro toxicity profile of electronic and tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy products: e-liquids, extracts and collected aerosols.

    PubMed

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D; Cooper, Bethany T; Bennett, Melanee B; Brown, Steven E

    2014-10-30

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  7. Scalar non-degeneracy and flavor unification

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Kentaro

    2008-05-13

    Grand unified models of the strong and electroweak forces generally predict some types of flavor unification. The flavor structure in unified theory is probed with superparticle mass spectrum observed in future particle experiments. It is shown that the generation dependence of sfermion mass non-degeneracy provides direct imprints of unification of the standard model matter multiplets. The implication from flavor-violating rare process is also discussed.

  8. Hand rolling cigarette papers as the reference point for regulating cigarette fire safety

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M; Duncanson, M; Fraser, T; McClellan, V; Linehan, B; Shirley, R

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the burning characteristics of the tobacco and paper of manufactured and hand rolled cigarettes, and set a fire safety standard of manufacture to largely reduce the fire risk from discarded cigarettes. Methods: (1) Cigarette extinction test of ignition strength: 40 cigarettes per brand, lit and placed on 15 layers of filter paper, in accordance with ASTM test standard E2187-02. (2) Citrate extracted by 0.1N hydrochloric acid from cigarette papers and from tobacco in manufactured cigarettes, the supernatant analysed by high performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet visual light spectrophotometer. (3) Survey of 750 nationally representative adults age 18 years and over, by telephone, including 184 smokers. Materials: (a) New Zealand made Holiday, and Horizon, and US made Marlboro manufactured cigarettes; (b) US manufactured Merit with banded paper; (c) Holiday, Horizon and Marlboro hand rolling tobaccos, hand rolled in Rizla cigarette papers; (d) manufactured cigarettes as in (a), reconstructed using Rizla hand rolling cigarette papers. Results: 1. (a) For each brand of manufactured cigarettes, 40/40 burnt full length; (b) for Merit banded paper cigarettes 29/40 (73%) burnt full length; (c) for each brand of hand rolled cigarettes 0/40 burnt full length; (d) 0/40 manufactured cigarettes reconstructed with Rizla hand rolling paper burnt full length. 2. Citrate content: (a) In manufactured cigarette papers: 0.3–0.8 mg; in tobacco of manufactured cigarettes: Holiday 0, Horizon 0, Marlboro 8.8 mg; (b) Merit: in banded paper 0.418 mg; in tobacco 10.23 mg; (c) In hand rolled cigarettes: in the papers < 0.08 mg; in hand rolled tobacco 13.3–15.0 mg; (d) In hand rolling papers of reconstructed cigarettes: < 0.018 mg. 3. Requiring manufactured cigarettes to compulsorily self-extinguish when left unattended was supported by 67% of smokers, 61% of manufactured cigarette smokers, 82% of hand rolled smokers, and by 68% of non-smokers. Conclusion: The

  9. Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae.

    PubMed

    Cherry, John F; Carlson, J; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2012-06-29

    We argue that the small fraction of neutrinos that undergo direction-changing scattering outside of the neutrinosphere could have significant influence on neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernova environments. We show that the standard treatment for collective neutrino flavor transformation is adequate at late times but could be inadequate in early epochs of core-collapse supernovae, where the potentials that govern neutrino flavor evolution are affected by the scattered neutrinos. Taking account of this effect, and the way it couples to entropy and composition, will require a new approach in neutrino flavor transformation modeling.

  10. E-cigarettes: facts, perceptions, and marketing messages.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are perceived as an alternative to standard tobacco cigarette smoking, primarily because of the e-cigarette industry's marketing messages. However, scientific studies about e-cigarette safety and efficacy remain limited. This column presents some of the issues associated with e-cigarette use, such as potential components of regulation, perceptions that e-cigarettes can help users quit smoking, and free-wheeling marketing strategies that include expanding e-cigarette use to young people. Nurses can be a reliable source of information about e-cigarettes.

  11. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content of Infant Formulas § 106.20 Ingredient control. (a) Except as provided in § 106.20(b), no...

  12. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES (Eff. until 7-10-14) Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content of Infant Formulas § 106.20 Ingredient control. (a) Except as provided in §...

  13. 21 CFR 201.117 - Inactive ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inactive ingredients. 201.117 Section 201.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.117 Inactive ingredients. A...

  14. 21 CFR 201.117 - Inactive ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inactive ingredients. 201.117 Section 201.117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.117 Inactive ingredients. A...

  15. Consumers' choice-blindness to ingredient information.

    PubMed

    Cheung, T T L; Junghans, A F; Dijksterhuis, G B; Kroese, F; Johansson, P; Hall, L; De Ridder, D T D

    2016-11-01

    Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. Yet, the influence of this ingredient information on consumers remains inconclusive. The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. Employing the choice-blindness paradigm, the current study assessed whether participants would detect a covertly made change to the naturalness of ingredient list throughout a product evaluation procedure. Results revealed that only few consumers detected the change on the ingredient lists. Detection was improved when consumers were instructed to judge the naturalness of the product as compared to evaluating the product in general. These findings challenge consumers' self-reported use of ingredient lists as a source of information throughout product evaluations. While most consumers do not attend to ingredient information, this tendency can be slightly improved by prompting their consideration of naturalness. Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies for conveying information to consumers.

  16. Identifying Topics for E-Cigarette User-Generated Contents: A Case Study From Multiple Social Media Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yongcheng; Liu, Ruoran; Li, Qiudan; Leischow, Scott James

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) is an emerging product with a rapid-growth market in recent years. Social media has become an important platform for information seeking and sharing. We aim to mine hidden topics from e-cigarette datasets collected from different social media platforms. Objective This paper aims to gain a systematic understanding of the characteristics of various types of social media, which will provide deep insights into how consumers and policy makers effectively use social media to track e-cigarette-related content and adjust their decisions and policies. Methods We collected data from Reddit (27,638 e-cigarette flavor-related posts from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2015), JuiceDB (14,433 e-juice reviews from June 26, 2013 to November 12, 2015), and Twitter (13,356 “e-cig ban”-related tweets from January, 1, 2010 to June 30, 2015). Latent Dirichlet Allocation, a generative model for topic modeling, was used to analyze the topics from these data. Results We found four types of topics across the platforms: (1) promotions, (2) flavor discussions, (3) experience sharing, and (4) regulation debates. Promotions included sales from vendors to users, as well as trades among users. A total of 10.72% (2,962/27,638) of the posts from Reddit were related to trading. Promotion links were found between social media platforms. Most of the links (87.30%) in JuiceDB were related to Reddit posts. JuiceDB and Reddit identified consistent flavor categories. E-cigarette vaping methods and features such as steeping, throat hit, and vapor production were broadly discussed both on Reddit and on JuiceDB. Reddit provided space for policy discussions and majority of the posts (60.7%) holding a negative attitude toward regulations, whereas Twitter was used to launch campaigns using certain hashtags. Our findings are based on data across different platforms. The topic distribution between Reddit and JuiceDB was significantly different (P<.001), which

  17. Analysis of the smoke of cigarettes containing Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Krstenansky, John L; Muzzio, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen sold over the internet in several forms. Perhaps the most common method of use is smoking the dried leaf material. The sole presumed active constituent, salvinorin A, is a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Upon smoking of the dried leaf material, some of the salvinorin A is destroyed or converted to other materials, leaving in question the actual amount of salvinorin A delivered that leads to the psychotomimetic effect. On average, 133 μg of salvinorin A was delivered in the smoke from an 830 mg per cigarette, which contained ∼2.7 mg of salvinorin A. Hence, only ∼5% of the salvinorin A available in the dried plant material was delivered in the smoke. Upon smoking, hydrolysis of salvinorin A to salvinorin B, an inactive and minor component of the leaf material, also occurs as evidenced by a higher delivered amount of salvinorin B vs salvinorin A (217 vs 133 μg per cigarette). Since smoking is an effective means of achieving the hallucinogenic effect and salvinorin A is the presumed sole active ingredient in the plant, the estimated effective dose of salvinorin A by inhalation is <133 μg per person. Considering the reported rapid metabolism of salvinorin A in vivo, the dose reaching the brain would be substantially less.

  18. 21 CFR 1141.14 - Misbranding of cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Misbranding of cigarettes. 1141.14 Section 1141.14...) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS; (Eff. 9-22-12) Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings § 1141.14 Misbranding of cigarettes. (a) A cigarette shall be deemed to be...

  19. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  20. Heavy-flavor production overview

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey A. Appel

    2003-12-10

    This talk serves as an introduction to the Heavy-Flavor session of the XXXIII International Symposium on Multiparticle Dynamics. A major focus of this session is on the production of heavy quarks. The talks which follow review the latest results on heavy quark production in strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions, as well as some of the physics of the heavy quarks themselves. This talk emphasizes what we can learn from the production measurements, both about underlying QCD theory and the partonic nature of the hadrons which we see in the laboratory.

  1. The menthol smoker: tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-04-01

    The use of menthol in cigarettes is actively promoted by the tobacco industry for its perceived sensory benefits, and smokers of menthol cigarettes commonly differ from nonmenthol smokers in markers of smoking behavior and addiction. In this study, we analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to describe the relationships between sensory perception and the attitudes, preferences, and patterns of cigarette use among menthol smokers. Two unique types of menthol smoker emerged from this analysis: those who cannot tolerate the harshness and irritation associated with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes, and those who seek out the specific menthol flavor and associated physical sensation. Among the first segment of menthol smokers, menthol reduces negative sensory characteristics associated with smoking. This segment of smokers may include a large proportion of occasional smokers or young people, as well as smokers who have "traded down" to a less strong cigarette because of perceived harshness or negative health effects. Some established menthol smokers, on the other hand, appear to be tolerant of and even actively seek stronger sensory attributes, including higher menthol levels. Smokers of these "stronger" menthols have traditionally been disproportionately Black and male. Some beginning or occasional smokers may adopt menthols for their mild properties and to cover up the taste of tobacco, but then develop a stronger desire for the menthol taste over time. Future research measuring smoking behavior and evaluating cessation outcomes of menthol smokers should consider the duration of menthol use and differentiate smokers according to their reasons for using menthols.

  2. 19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11.3 Customs Duties U.S...; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. Exemptions from tax on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes apply in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,...

  3. 19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11.3 Customs Duties U.S...; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. Exemptions from tax on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes apply in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,...

  4. 19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11.3 Customs Duties U.S...; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. Exemptions from tax on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes apply in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,...

  5. 19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11.3 Customs Duties U.S...; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. Exemptions from tax on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes apply in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,...

  6. 19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11.3 Customs Duties U.S...; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. Exemptions from tax on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes apply in accordance with the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,...

  7. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.12 Antihistamine active ingredients. The active ingredient of... ingredient: (a) Brompheniramine maleate. (b) Chlorcyclizine hydrochloride. (c) Chlorpheniramine maleate....

  8. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the ingredients of a wheat flour are declared in an ingredient statement, the principal ingredient of the flour shall be declared by the name(s) specified in §§ 137.105, 137.200, 137.220, 137.225 of this chapter, i.e., the first ingredient designated in the ingredient list of flour, or bromated flour,...

  9. Analysis of flavor and perfume using an internally cooled coated fiber device.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Begnaud, Frédéric; Chaintreau, Alain; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2007-05-01

    A miniaturized internally cooled coated fiber device was applied for the analysis of flavors and fragrances from various matrices. Its integration with a CTC CombiPAL autosampler enabled high throughput for the analysis of analytes in complex matrices that required simultaneous heating of the matrices and cooling of the fiber coating to achieve high extraction efficiency. It was found that up to ten times increase of extraction efficiencies was observed when the device was used to extract flavor compounds in water, even when limited sample temperatures were used to preserve the integrity of target compounds. The extraction of the flavor compounds in water with the device was reproducible, with RSD not larger than 15%. The lower limits of the linear ranges were in the low ppb range, which was about one order of magnitude smaller than those obtained with the commercialized 100 microm PDMS fibers. Exhaustive extraction of some perfume ingredients from a complex matrix (shampoo) was realized. All achieved recoveries were not less than 80%. The repeatability of the extraction of the perfume compounds from shampoo was better than 10%. The linear ranges were about 1-3000 microg/g, and the LOD was about 0.2-1 microg/g. The automated internally cooled coated fiber device was demonstrated to be a powerful sample preparation tool in flavor and fragrance analysis.

  10. [Electronic cigarette--a safe substitute for tobacco cigarette or a new threat?].

    PubMed

    Kośmider, Leon; Knysak, Jakub; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to summarize up-to-date data on the new emerging nicotine containing product 'electronic cigarette', commonly referred as e-cigarette. We presented data on prevalence and popularity of various brands and models on domestic markets. Development of the new products with technical and chemical modifications was also described. We reviewed studies on chemical composition and efficacy of nicotine delivery from e-cigarettes and discussed its potential use as nicotine replacement for tobacco cigarettes. Regulatory policies on e-cigarette sale as nicotine containing product were also discussed. We concluded that e-cigarette might be an effective harm reduction tool but little is known about its safety, especially when used for a long time. Despite many positive findings from surveys among e-cigarettes users, there is need for comprehensive state-of-the-at clinical trials to show efficacy of e-cigarette as smoking cessation tool.

  11. The effect of spray-drying parameters on the flavor of nonfat dry milk and milk protein concentrate 70.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Stout, Mark A; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-12-01

    Unit operations during production influence the sensory properties of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and milk protein concentrate (MPC). Off-flavors in dried dairy ingredients decrease consumer acceptance of ingredient applications. Previous work has shown that spray-drying parameters affect physical and sensory properties of whole milk powder and whey protein concentrate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inlet temperature and feed solids concentration on the flavor of NFDM and MPC 70% (MPC70). Condensed skim milk (50% solids) and condensed liquid MPC70 (32% solids) were produced using pilot-scale dairy processing equipment. The condensed products were then spray dried at either 160, 210, or 260°C inlet temperature and 30, 40, or 50% total solids for NFDM and 12, 22, or 32% for MPC70 in a randomized order. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the NFDM and MPC70 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses. Surface free fat, particle size, and furosine were also analyzed. Both main effects (30, 40, and 50% solids and 160, 210, and 260°C inlet temperature) and interactions between solids concentration and inlet temperature were investigated. Interactions were not significant. In general, results were consistent for NFDM and MPC70. Increasing inlet temperature and feed solids concentration increased sweet aromatic flavor and decreased cardboard flavor and associated lipid oxidation products. Increases in furosine with increased inlet temperature and solids concentration indicated increased Maillard reactions during drying. Particle size increased and surface free fat decreased with increasing inlet temperature and solids concentration. These results demonstrate that increasing inlet temperatures and solids concentration during spray drying decrease off-flavor intensities in NFDM and MPC70 even though the heat treatment is greater compared with low temperature and low solids.

  12. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained mixed partial and full thickness burns as a result of e-cigarette-related explosions. In many documented scenarios, a malfunctioning or over-heated battery is the cause. Our data support the need for increased awareness among healthcare providers and the general public of the potential harms of e-cigarette use, modification, storage, and charging. PMID:28123861

  13. Progress towards a fire-safe cigarette.

    PubMed

    Brigham, P A; McGuire, A

    1995-01-01

    About 1,000 deaths, 3,000 serious injuries, and several billion dollars in costs of property loss, health care and pain and suffering, result each year in the U.S. from fires started by dropped cigarettes. Efforts to prevent these losses have progressed from admonitory slogans to product-flammability standards to addressing the cigarette itself. Two recent federal studies have: a) concluded that it is technically feasible to produce a cigarette with a reduced likelihood of starting fires, and b) published a broadly validated method by which cigarette brands can be tested for this propensity. The long-term effort of scientists, legislators and public health activists to develop and implement a fire-safe cigarette standard also constitutes a legal liability challenge and a threat to the relative and absolute size of the cigarette market shares held by major U.S. tobacco companies.

  14. [E-Cigarettes – Friend or Foe?].

    PubMed

    Russi, Erich W

    2015-07-01

    Not nicotine, but an abundant amount of toxic chemicals produced by the combustion of tobacco are the cause of well-known health problems. E-cigarette vapor contains no or only minimal quantities of potentially harmful substances. Hence it can be assumed that vaping in adults is much less harmful than smoking of cigarettes. Furthermore, no data exist that e-cigarettes will encourage youngsters to become cigarette smokers. E-cigarette vaping has the potential to reduce the daily number of cigarettes smoked or facilitates cessation of smoking in heavily nicotine-dependent smokers, who keep on smoking despite a structured smoking cessation program. Health professionals should be aware of this type of nicotine substitution, since the controversial discussion is often emotional and not evidence-based.

  15. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  16. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  17. Managing summertime off-flavors in catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summertime phytoplankton blooms in channel catfish ponds often contain blue-green algae that produce musty or earthy odors. The odorous compounds are absorbed by fish across their gills and deposited in fatty tissues, giving fish undesirable “off-flavors.” When fish are declared off-flavored by proc...

  18. 7 CFR 58.629 - Flavoring agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General... Material § 58.629 Flavoring agents. Flavoring agents either natural or artificial shall be wholesome...

  19. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are major criteria for preference among consumers. Small variations in these sensory properties can make rice highly desired or unacceptable to consumers. Human sensory analyses have identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental ana...

  20. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food...

  1. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food...

  2. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food...

  3. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD DRESSINGS AND FLAVORINGS Requirements for Specific Standardized Food...

  4. Parental Use of Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, Jane M.; Miller, Whitney; Dodd, Sherry; Bobenhouse, Neil; Sterkel, Randall; Strunk, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe parental use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) to better understand the safety risks posed to children. Methods Between June 24 and November 6, 2014, parents completed a self-administered paper survey during an office visit to 15 pediatric practices in a Mid-western practice based research network. Attitudes towards and use of e-cigs are reported for those aware of e-cigs before the survey. Results Ninety-five percent (628/658) of respondents were aware of e-cigs. Of these, 21.0% (130/622) had tried e-cigs at least once and 12.3% (77) reported e-cig use by ≥ 1 person in their household (4.0% exclusive e-cig use, 8.3% dual use with regular cigarettes). An additional 17.3% (109) reported regular cigarette use. Most respondents from e-cig using homes did not think e-cigs were addictive (36.9% minimally/not addictive, 25.0% did not know). While 73.7% believed that e-liquid was very dangerous for children if they ingested it, only 31.2% believed skin contact to be very dangerous. In 36.1% of e-cig using homes, neither childproof caps nor locks were used to prevent children's access to e-liquid. Only 15.3% reported their child's pediatrician was aware of e-cig use in the home. Conclusions E-cig use occurred in 1 in 8 homes, often concurrently with regular cigarettes. Many parents who used e-cigs were unaware of the potential health and safety hazards, including nicotine poisoning for children, and many did not store e-liquid safely. Pediatricians could provide education about e-cig associated safety hazards, but are unaware of e-cig use in their patient's homes. PMID:26306662

  5. Molecularly imprinted polymers on a silica surface for the adsorption of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-ting; Zhu, Yong-yan; Li, Li; Wang, Wen-na; Yin, Yong-guan; Zhu, Quan-hong

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products. Using adsorbents as filter additives is an effective way to reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using nicotinamide as template were grafted on the silica gel surface to obtain MIP@SiO2 and employed as filter additives to absorb tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Four milligrams of MIP@SiO2 per cigarette was added to the interface between filter and tobacco rod to prepare a binary filter system. The mainstream smoke was collected on an industry-standard Cambridge filter pad and extracted with ammonium acetate aqueous solution before analysis. Compared to the cigarette smoke of the control group, the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were both reduced, and the adsorption rates of N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanabasine, N-nitrosoanatabine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridine)-1-butanone with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were 20.76, 15.32, 18.79, and 18.01%, and 41.33, 34.04, 37.86, and 35.53%, respectively. Furthermore the content of total particle materials in cigarette smoke with silica gel was decreased evidently but showed no observable change with MIP@SiO2 . It indicated MIP@SiO2 could selectively reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the mainstream cigarette smoke with no change to the cigarette flavor.

  6. Cigarette price minimization strategies used by adults.

    PubMed

    Pesko, Michael F; Kruger, Judy; Hyland, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    We used multivariate logistic regressions to analyze data from the 2006 to 2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults. We explored use of cigarette price minimization strategies, such as purchasing cartons of cigarettes, purchasing in states with lower after-tax cigarette prices, and purchasing on the Internet. Racial/ethnic minorities and persons with low socioeconomic status used these strategies less frequently at last purchase than did White and high-socioeconomic-status respondents.

  7. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Methods: This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Results: Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31–40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31–40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers. PMID:27688867

  8. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  9. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  10. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross‐sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double‐log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were −0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74 to −0.17) and −0.74 (95% CI −1.13 to −0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of −0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of −0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  11. Safety assessment of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil as a food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Burdock, George A; Carabin, Ioana G

    2009-01-01

    Coriander essential oil is used as a flavor ingredient, but it also has a long history as a traditional medicine. It is obtained by steam distillation of the dried fully ripe fruits (seeds) of Coriandrum sativum L. The oil is a colorless or pale yellow liquid with a characteristic odor and mild, sweet, warm and aromatic flavor; linalool is the major constituent (approximately 70%). Based on the results of a 28 day oral gavage study in rats, a NOEL for coriander oil is approximately 160 mg/kg/day. In a developmental toxicity study, the maternal NOAEL of coriander oil was 250 mg/kg/day and the developmental NOAEL was 500 mg/kg/day. Coriander oil is not clastogenic, but results of mutagenicity studies for the spice and some extracts are mixed; linalool is non-mutagenic. Coriander oil has broad-spectrum, antimicrobial activity. Coriander oil is irritating to rabbits, but not humans; it is not a sensitizer, although the whole spice may be. Based on the history of consumption of coriander oil without reported adverse effects, lack of its toxicity in limited studies and lack of toxicity of its major constituent, linalool, the use of coriander oil as an added food ingredient is considered safe at present levels of use.

  12. 75 FR 75936 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... warnings and accompanying graphics to be displayed on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements... health warning statements appear on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. Section 201...

  13. 30 CFR 15.21 - Tolerances for ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; (c) Carbonaceous materials: ±3 percent; and (d) Moisture and ingredients other than specified in... Moisture and Other Ingredients Quantity of ingredients (as percent of total explosive or sheath)...

  14. Tetraquark states with open flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we estimate the masses of tetraquark states with four different flavors by virtue of QCD sum rules, in both b and c sectors. We construct four [8_c]_{bar{b} s} ⊗ [8_c]_{bar{d} u} tetraquark currents with J^P = 0^+, and then we perform an analytic calculation up to dimension eight in the operator product expansion. We keep terms which are linear in the strange quark mass m_s, and in the end we find two possible tetraquark states with masses (5.57 ± 0.15) and (5.58 ± 0.15) GeV. We find that their charmed-partner masses lie in (2.54 ± 0.13) and (2.55 ± 0.13) GeV, respectively, and are hence accessible in experiments like BESIII and Belle.

  15. [Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang

    2011-07-01

    The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.

  16. Chemically-related Groups of Active Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many pesticide active ingredients affect pests in similar ways, and we re-evaluate them together as a group. Groups include carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethrins, and pyrethroids.

  17. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of active pharmaceuticals ingredients (APIs) in aquatic systems in recent years has led to a burgeoning literature examining environmental occurrence, fate, effects, risk assessment, and treatability of these compounds. Although APIs have received much attention as ...

  18. Comparative effects between electronic and cigarette smoke in human keratinocytes and epithelial lung cells.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, F; Muresan, X M; Sticozzi, C; Gambari, R; Montagner, G; Forman, H J; Torricelli, C; Maioli, E; Valacchi, G

    2014-08-01

    Information about the harmful effects of vaping is sparse and inconsistent, therefore, since the use of electronic cigarettes (e-CIGs) has become increasingly popular as a tool to limit tobacco smoking, it is urgent to establish the toxicity of the commercial e-CIGs. Skin (HaCaT) and lung (A549) cells, the main targets of cigarette smoke (CS), were exposed to e-CIG vapor and CS using an in vitro system. The cytotoxic effect of the exposure was analyzed in both cell types by ultrastructural morphology, Trypan Blue exclusion test and LDH assay. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by the Bio-Plex assay. The cytotoxic components of e-CIG were restrained to the flavoring compound and, to a lesser extent, to nicotine although their effects were less harmful to that of CS. Humectants alone exhibited no cytotoxicity but induced the release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators. Based on our results, we can state that exposure to e-CIG vapors results in far less toxic than exposure to CS. In fact, besides the deleterious effect of flavor and nicotine, even the humectants alone are able to evocate cytokines release. This study will hopefully promote the development of safer e-CIGs to help people quit smoking.

  19. The association between flavor labeling and flavor recall ability in children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Zuckerman, Matthew D; Cardinal, Tiffany; Kaciroti, Niko

    2005-09-01

    This study sought to determine if the ability to label a flavor is associated with an improved ability to recall having tasted the flavor in preschool-aged children. A total of 120 3- to 6-year-old English-speaking children tasted and labeled 20 different flavors, blinded to color. Children's labels for the flavors were scored for consistency and accuracy. Recall for having tasted the flavor was tested. Both labeling ability and recall ability improved rapidly between the ages of 3 and 6 years in this cohort. Regression analysis indicated that independent of the child's age, consistent accurate labeling was positively associated with recall ability. Higher maternal education was an independent and marginal contributor to greater recall ability. The combination of consistent and accurate labeling, age, and maternal education accounted for 28% of the variance in flavor recall ability. Consistent but inaccurate labeling alone contributed little to the variance in flavor recall ability. We conclude from these findings that children's ability to recall having tasted a flavor develops rapidly during the preschool age range and that improved recall ability is associated with the ability to consistently and accurately label the flavor. We conclude that language mediates memory for flavors in young children.

  20. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-compound interactions.

    PubMed

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-05

    The influence of flavor compound-compound interactions on flavor release properties and flavor perception in hard candy was investigated. Hard candies made with two different modes of binary flavor delivery, (1) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added as a mixture and (2) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added separate from one another, were analyzed via breath analysis and sensory time-intensity testing. Single-flavor candy containing only L-menthol or 1,8-cineole was also investigated via breath analysis for comparison. The release rates of both L-menthol and 1,8-cineole in the breath were more rapid and at a higher concentration when the compounds were added to hard candy separate from one another in comparison to their addition as a mixture (conventional protocol). Additionally, the time-intensity study indicated a significantly increased flavor intensity (measured as overall cooling) for hard candy made with separate addition of these flavor compounds. In conclusion, the flavor properties of hard candy can be controlled, at least in part, by flavor compound-compound interactions and may be altered by the method of flavor delivery.

  1. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  2. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  3. Narrative review of genes, environment, and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Do, Elizabeth; Maes, Hermine

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the US, emphasizing the need to understand which genes and environments are involved in the establishment of cigarette use behaviors. However, to date, no comprehensive review of the influence of genes, the environment, and their interaction on cigarette use exists. This narrative review provides a description of gene variants and environmental factors associated with cigarette use, as well as an overview of studies investigating gene-environment interaction (GxE) in cigarette use. GxE studies of cigarette use have been useful in demonstrating that the influence of genes changes as a function of both the phenotype being measured and the environment. However, it is difficult to determine how the effect of genes contributing to different phenotypes of cigarette use changes as a function of the environment. This suggests the need for more studies of GxE, to parse out the effects of genes and the environment across the development of cigarette use phenotypes, which may help to inform potential prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of cigarette use. Key Messages No comprehensive reviews of the influence of genes, the environment, and their interaction on cigarette use exist currently. The influence of genes may change as a function of the environment and the phenotype being measured. It is difficult to determine how the effect of genes contributing to different phenotypes of cigarette use changes according to environmental context, suggesting the need for more studies of gene-environment interaction related to cigarette use to parse out effects.

  4. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  5. A couplet from flavored dark matter

    DOE PAGES

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can; ...

    2015-08-17

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In this scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to threemore » photon lines. Two of these lines are closely spaced, and constitute the couplet. Provided the flavor violation is sufficiently small, the ratios of the line energies are determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a prediction of this framework. Furthermore, for dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 keV line. As a result, the next generation of X-ray telescopes may have the necessary resolution to resolve the double line structure of such a couplet.« less

  6. A couplet from flavored dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can; Verhaaren, Christopher B.

    2015-08-17

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In this scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to three photon lines. Two of these lines are closely spaced, and constitute the couplet. Provided the flavor violation is sufficiently small, the ratios of the line energies are determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a prediction of this framework. Furthermore, for dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 keV line. As a result, the next generation of X-ray telescopes may have the necessary resolution to resolve the double line structure of such a couplet.

  7. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-30

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  8. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    PubMed Central

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  9. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-02-09

    In this paper ,we consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3)χ, under which the dark matter χ transforms. This framework is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call “beyond MFV” (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3)χ. The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator Φ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no Z3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.

  10. Beyond minimal lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Huang, Jinrui; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2016-02-09

    In this paper ,we consider a class of flavored dark matter (DM) theories where dark matter interacts with the Standard Model lepton fields at the renormalizable level. We allow for a general coupling matrix between the dark matter and leptons whose structure is beyond the one permitted by the minimal flavor violation (MFV) assumption. It is assumed that this is the only new source of flavor violation in addition to the Standard Model (SM) Yukawa interactions. The setup can be described by augmenting the SM flavor symmetry by an additional SU(3)χ, under which the dark matter χ transforms. This frameworkmore » is especially phenomenologically rich, due to possible novel flavor-changing interactions which are not present within the more restrictive MFV framework. As a representative case study of this setting, which we call “beyond MFV” (BMFV), we consider Dirac fermion dark matter which transforms as a singlet under the SM gauge group and a triplet under SU(3)χ. The DM fermion couples to the SM lepton sector through a scalar mediator Φ. Unlike the case of quark-flavored DM, we show that there is no Z3 symmetry within either the MFV or BMFV settings which automatically stabilizes the lepton-flavored DM. We discuss constraints on this setup from flavor-changing processes, DM relic abundance as well as direct and indirect detections. We find that relatively large flavor-changing couplings are possible, while the dark matter mass is still within the phenomenologically interesting region below the TeV scale. Collider signatures which can be potentially searched for at the lepton and hadron colliders are discussed. Finally, we discuss the implications for decaying dark matter, which can appear if an additional stabilizing symmetry is not imposed.« less

  11. A review on engineering of cellulosic cigarette paper to reduce carbon monoxide delivery of cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Li, Jinsong; Qian, Xueren; Ren, Wanshan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-01-30

    In cigarette production, the cellulosic paper essentially derived from flax fibers or other fiber materials is used as the wrapping material. During smoking of cigarettes, the highly toxic carbon monoxide is produced. To decrease the amount of carbon monoxide emission in the mainstream smoke, the engineering of all cigarette components including cellulosic cigarette paper and tobacco column is critical. This review summarizes the concepts related to engineering of cigarette paper. These mainly include permeability control, increased use of burn additives, optimization of fiber basis weight, engineering of calcium carbonate fillers, and incorporation of catalysts/oxidants. In particular, catalytic and/or oxidative conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide has been very widely reported. The control of permeability/diffusivity of cigarette paper is also of critical importance for enhanced diffusion of carbon monoxide out of the cigarette. The development of new concepts and combination of various concepts may lead to breakthroughs in this area.

  12. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  13. Cigarette ignition of soft furnishings: A literature review with commentary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasny, John F.

    1987-04-01

    Literature pertinent to the ignition by smoldering cigarettes of upholstered furniture and mattresses (soft furnishings) was searched through early 1986. This included literature on the smoldering behavior of cigarettes in air; their behavior on a variety of substrates simulating soft furnishings; mechanism of smoldering in substrates; relative cigarette ignition resistance of substrates; and relative propensity of commercial cigarette packings to ignite substrates. According to the reviewed literature, the smoldering behavior of cigarettes on substrates differs from that of cigarettes burning in air: on substrates, cigarette temperatures tend to be lower, and burning rates slower. These differences seem to be larger for substrates which ignite than for those which self-extinguish after the cigarette burns out. The characteristics of soft furnishings which insure resistance to cigarette ignition have been established, but those of cigarettes with low propensity to ignite furnishings have not. No mathematical model has been reported for the interaction of cigarette and substrate, but some empirical data do exist.

  14. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  15. Supersymmetric lepton flavor violation at the NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    1997-04-01

    Supersymmetric theories generally have new flavor violation sources in the squark and slepton mass matrices. If significant lepton flavor violation exists, selectron and smuon should be nearly degenerate. This leads to the phenomenon of slepton oscillations, which is analogous to neutrino oscillations, if sleptons are produced at the Next Linear Collider. The direct slepton production at the Next Linear Collider provides a much more powerful probe of lepton flavor violation than the current bounds from rare processes, such as {mu} {yields} e{gamma}.

  16. Supersymmetric lepton flavor violation at the NLC

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    1997-04-01

    Supersymmetric theories generally have new flavor violation sources in the squark and slepton mass matrices. If significant lepton flavor violation exists, selectron and smuon should be nearly degenerate. This leads to the phenomenon of slepton oscillations, which is analogous to neutrino oscillations, if sleptons are produced at the Next Linear Collider. The direct slepton production at the Next Linear Collider provides a much more powerful probe of lepton flavor violation than the current bounds from rare processes, such as {mu} {r_arrow} e{gamma}. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  17. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  18. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  19. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  20. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335. [44...

  1. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  2. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Cancer.gov

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  3. Flavor evaluation of yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau and isolation of microorganisms contributing flavor.

    PubMed

    Hu, SongQing; Wei, HaiLiu; Guo, ShaSha; Li, Lin; Hou, Yi

    2011-02-01

    Yak butter in Tsinghai-Tibet Plateau possesses the characters of high energy, abundant alimentation and a special flavor with certain medical and health care functions. In this paper the organoleptic flavor of yak butter was estimated, and 28 kinds of substance with different flavors were identified with the technique of coupling gas chromatography to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that there are many microorganisms in yak butter with natural inoculation, which contribute to the formation of its special flavors. It was found that three of these 15 microorganisms, identified as Saccharomycetaceae, Penicillium and Asperillus separately, contributed the most to flavors. The microorganisms are expected to be applied in the food industry, especially to produce dairy food with the unique flavor of yak butter.

  4. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  5. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  6. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  7. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of...

  8. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base...

  9. Chemoinformatic analysis of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) flavor chemicals and natural products.

    PubMed

    Medina-Franco, José L; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Peppard, Terry L; Del Rio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Food materials designated as "Generally Recognized as Safe" (GRAS) are attracting the attention of researchers in their attempts to systematically identify compounds with putative health-related benefits. In particular, there is currently a great deal of interest in exploring possible secondary benefits of flavor ingredients, such as those relating to health and wellness. One step in this direction is the comprehensive characterization of the chemical structures contained in databases of flavoring substances. Herein, we report a comprehensive analysis of the recently updated FEMA GRAS list of flavoring substances (discrete chemical entities only). Databases of natural products, approved drugs and a large set of commercial molecules were used as references. Remarkably, natural products continue to be an important source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery and nutraceutical purposes. The comparison of five collections of compounds of interest was performed using molecular properties, rings, atom counts and structural fingerprints. It was found that the molecular size of the GRAS flavoring substances is, in general, smaller cf. members of the other databases analyzed. The lipophilicity profile of the GRAS database, a key property to predict human bioavailability, is similar to approved drugs. Several GRAS chemicals overlap to a broad region of the property space occupied by drugs. The GRAS list analyzed in this work has high structural diversity, comparable to approved drugs, natural products and libraries of screening compounds. This study represents one step towards the use of the distinctive features of the flavoring chemicals contained in the GRAS list and natural products to systematically search for compounds with potential health-related benefits.

  10. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  11. Electronic cigarettes: ambiguity and controversies of usage.

    PubMed

    Savant, Suyog; Shetty, Deeksha; Phansopkar, Sushil; Jamkhande, Amol

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes.

  12. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  13. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  14. A Device-Independent Evaluation of Carbonyl Emissions from Heated Electronic Cigarette Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenhao; Liao, Jiawen; Matsuo, Toshiki; Ito, Kazuhide; Fowles, Jeff; Shusterman, Dennis; Mendell, Mark; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate how the two main electronic (e-) cigarette solvents—propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GL)—modulate the formation of toxic volatile carbonyl compounds under precisely controlled temperatures in the absence of nicotine and flavor additives. Methods PG, GL, PG:GL = 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture, and two commercial e-cigarette liquids were vaporized in a stainless steel, tubular reactor in flowing air ranging up to 318°C to simulate e-cigarette vaping. Aerosols were collected and analyzed to quantify the amount of volatile carbonyls produced with each of the five e-liquids. Results Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were detected at reactor temperatures ≥215°C for both PG and GL. Acrolein was observed only in e-liquids containing GL when reactor temperatures exceeded 270°C. At 318°C, 2.03±0.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.35±0.87 μg of acetaldehyde, and a trace amount of acetone were generated per milligram of PG; at the same temperature, 21.1±3.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.40±0.99 μg of acetaldehyde, and 0.80±0.50 μg of acrolein were detected per milligram of GL. Conclusions We developed a device-independent test method to investigate carbonyl emissions from different e-cigarette liquids under precisely controlled temperatures. PG and GL were identified to be the main sources of toxic carbonyl compounds from e-cigarette use. GL produced much more formaldehyde than PG. Besides formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, measurable amounts of acrolein were also detected at ≥270°C but only when GL was present in the e-liquid. At 215°C, the estimated daily exposure to formaldehyde from e-cigarettes, exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) acceptable limits, which emphasized the need to further examine the potential cancer and non-cancer health risks associated with e-cigarette use. PMID:28076380

  15. Recent Updates on Electronic Cigarette Aerosol and Inhaled Nicotine Effects on Periodontal and Pulmonary Tissues.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Kellesarian, Sergio V; Sundar, Isaac K; Romanos, Georgios E; Rahman, Irfan

    2017-02-06

    E-cigarette derived inhaled nicotine may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal and pulmonary diseases in particular via lung inflammation, injurious and dysregulated repair responses. Nicotine is shown to have anti-proliferative properties and affects fibroblasts in vitro, which may interfere in tissue myofibroblast differentiation in e-cig users. This will affect the ability to heal wounds by decreasing wound contraction. In periodontics, direct exposure to e-vapor has been shown to produce harmful effects in periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts in culture. This is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species/aldehydes/carbonyls from e-cig aerosol, leading to protein carbonylation of extracellular matrix and DNA adducts/damage. A limited number of studies regarding the effects of e-cig in oral and lung health are available. However, no reports are available to directly link the deleterious effects on e-cigs, inhaled nicotine, and flavorings aerosol on oral periodontal and pulmonary health in particular to identify the risk of oral diseases by e-cigarettes and nicotine aerosols. This mini-review summarizes the recent perspectives on e-cigarettes including inhaled nicotine effects on several pathophysiological events, such as oxidative stress, DNA damage, innate host response, inflammation, cellular senescence, pro-fibrogenic and dysregulated repair, leading to lung remodeling, oral submucous fibrosis and periodontal diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Apple Fool! An Introduction to Artificial Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents a science activity on consumer chemistry in which students explore artificial flavors that are commonly used in foods, such as isoamyl acetate and methyl salicylate. Includes instructor information and a student worksheet. (YDS)

  17. Properties of b-flavored hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Jaros, J.A.

    1983-10-01

    Experimental progress in the study of b-flavored hadrons is reviewed. The observation of the B meson, properties of hadronic B decays, semi-leptonic B decays, and the B lifetime are discussed. 30 references.

  18. Slepton Flavor Physics at Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dine, Michael; Grossman, Yuval; Thomas, Scott

    If low energy supersymmetry is realized in nature it is possible that a first generation linear collider will only have access to some of the superpartners with electroweak quantum numbers. Among these, sleptons can provide sensitive probes for lepton flavor violation through potentially dramatic lepton violating signals. Theoretical proposals to understand the absence of low energy quark and lepton flavor changing neutral currents are surveyed and many are found to predict observable slepton flavor violating signals at linear colliders. The observation or absence of such sflavor violation will thus provide important indirect clues to very high energy physics. Previous analyses of slepton flavor oscillations are also extended to include the effects of finite width and mass differences.

  19. Theoretically Palatable Flavor Combinations of Astrophysical Neutrinos.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Beacom, John F; Winter, Walter

    2015-10-16

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of the flux in each flavor to the total. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the allowed ranges of flavor ratios at Earth for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their data imply standard physics, a general class of new physics with arbitrary (incoherent) combinations of mass eigenstates, or new physics that goes beyond that, e.g., with terms that dominate the Hamiltonian at high energy.

  20. Theoretically Palatable Flavor Combinations of Astrophysical Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Mauricio; Beacom, John F.; Winter, Walter

    2015-10-01

    The flavor composition of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos can reveal the physics governing their production, propagation, and interaction. The IceCube Collaboration has published the first experimental determination of the ratio of the flux in each flavor to the total. We present, as a theoretical counterpart, new results for the allowed ranges of flavor ratios at Earth for arbitrary flavor ratios in the sources. Our results will allow IceCube to more quickly identify when their data imply standard physics, a general class of new physics with arbitrary (incoherent) combinations of mass eigenstates, or new physics that goes beyond that, e.g., with terms that dominate the Hamiltonian at high energy.

  1. Vaporous Marketing: Uncovering Pervasive Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Chris A.; Williams, Jake Ryland; Kurti, Allison N.; Norotsky, Mitchell Craig; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2016-01-01

    Background Twitter has become the “wild-west” of marketing and promotional strategies for advertisement agencies. Electronic cigarettes have been heavily marketed across Twitter feeds, offering discounts, “kid-friendly” flavors, algorithmically generated false testimonials, and free samples. Methods All electronic cigarette keyword related tweets from a 10% sample of Twitter spanning January 2012 through December 2014 (approximately 850,000 total tweets) were identified and categorized as Automated or Organic by combining a keyword classification and a machine trained Human Detection algorithm. A sentiment analysis using Hedonometrics was performed on Organic tweets to quantify the change in consumer sentiments over time. Commercialized tweets were topically categorized with key phrasal pattern matching. Results The overwhelming majority (80%) of tweets were classified as automated or promotional in nature. The majority of these tweets were coded as commercialized (83.65% in 2013), up to 33% of which offered discounts or free samples and appeared on over a billion twitter feeds as impressions. The positivity of Organic (human) classified tweets has decreased over time (5.84 in 2013 to 5.77 in 2014) due to a relative increase in the negative words ‘ban’, ‘tobacco’, ‘doesn’t’, ‘drug’, ‘against’, ‘poison’, ‘tax’ and a relative decrease in the positive words like ‘haha’, ‘good’, ‘cool’. Automated tweets are more positive than organic (6.17 versus 5.84) due to a relative increase in the marketing words like ‘best’, ‘win’, ‘buy’, ‘sale’, ‘health’, ‘discount’ and a relative decrease in negative words like ‘bad’, ‘hate’, ‘stupid’, ‘don’t’. Conclusions Due to the youth presence on Twitter and the clinical uncertainty of the long term health complications of electronic cigarette consumption, the protection of public health warrants scrutiny and potential regulation of social media

  2. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baron, J A; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Mittendorf, R; Storer, B E; Clapp, R W; Bogdan, G; Yuen, J

    1996-05-01

    A priori hypotheses suggest that cigarette smoking could either increase or decrease breast cancer incidence. To clarify these competing hypotheses, we used data from a very large population-based breast cancer case-control study to investigate the impact of smoking on breast cancer risk. Breast cancer patients less than 75 years old were identified from statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire; controls were randomly selected from driver's license lists (age less than 65) or lists of Medicare beneficiaries (age 65-74). Information on reproductive history, medical history, and personal habits including cigarette smoking was obtained by telephone interview. A total of 6,888 cases and 9,529 controls were interviewed. There was virtually no relationship between current smoking and breast cancer risk (multivariate odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.09), and former smokers had a barely increased risk (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.19). Similar results were observed among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no suggestion that heavy or long-term smoking increased or decreased risk, nor were there indications that women who began smoking at an early age were at increased risk, as has been hypothesized. The results of this large population-based study indicate that smoking does not influence the risk of breast cancer, even among heavy smokers who began smoking at an early age.

  3. Health Education and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Morison, James B.; Medovy, Herry; MacDonell, Gordon T.

    1964-01-01

    The smoking habits of Winnipeg school students were surveyed before and after a three-year program of health education on the hazards of smoking, directed to 8300 out of 48,000 students. The program consisted of informal approaches to students in elementary schools and a formal program of talks, lectures, films, and student participation for older students. There were fewer students at all ages who had never smoked a cigarette at the time of the second survey. There was a slight decrease in the number of regular smokers in high school, most marked in the school where the program was enthusiastically received and student participation was most active. A direct relationship between parental smoking and that of the student, and an inverse relationship between academic achievement and student smoking, were shown on both surveys. The majority of students believed that smoking caused lung cancer and other hazards to health, although this was less marked among smokers. The results indicated that an intensive program of health education directed to the teenagers in school was a potentially useful approach to the problem of cigarette smoking. PMID:14154295

  4. Interpreting consumer preferences: physicohedonic and psychohedonic models yield different information in a coffee-flavored dairy beverage.

    PubMed

    Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-09-01

    Designed experiments provide product developers feedback on the relationship between formulation and consumer acceptability. While actionable, this approach typically assumes a simple psychophysical relationship between ingredient concentration and perceived intensity. This assumption may not be valid, especially in cases where perceptual interactions occur. Additional information can be gained by considering the liking-intensity function, as single ingredients can influence more than one perceptual attribute. Here, 20 coffee-flavored dairy beverages were formulated using a fractional mixture design that varied the amount of coffee extract, fluid milk, sucrose, and water. Overall liking (liking) was assessed by 388 consumers using an incomplete block design (4 out of 20 prototypes) to limit fatigue; all participants also rated the samples for intensity of coffee flavor (coffee), milk flavor (milk), sweetness (sweetness) and thickness (thickness). Across product means, the concentration variables explained 52% of the variance in liking in main effects multiple regression. The amount of sucrose (β = 0.46) and milk (β = 0.46) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.02) while coffee extract (β = -0.17; p = 0.35) did not. A comparable model based on the perceived intensity explained 63% of the variance in mean liking; sweetness (β = 0.53) and milk (β = 0.69) contributed significantly to the model (p's <0.04), while the influence of coffee flavor (β = 0.48) was positive but marginally (p = 0.09). Since a strong linear relationship existed between coffee extract concentration and coffee flavor, this discrepancy between the two models was unexpected, and probably indicates that adding more coffee extract also adds a negative attribute, e.g. too much bitterness. In summary, modeling liking as a function of both perceived intensity and physical concentration provides a richer interpretation of consumer data.

  5. [Preliminary influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax up-regulation on cigarette retail price].

    PubMed

    Feng, G Z; Wang, C X; Yang, J Q; Jiang, Y

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of cigarette excise tax up-regulation on the retail price of cigarettes in 2015. Methods: Nominal and real price of selected cigarette varieties were calculated with data from Tobacco Retail Price Monitoring Project, which was conducted in 10 cities of China from 2013 to 2015. The trend of the cigarette prices changing was analyzed with annual data. Results: A total of 352 varieties of cigarettes were surveyed during the three years. The nominal price of these cigarettes did not change significantly from 2013 to 2014. Compared with nominal price of 2014, the price of 286 varieties increased and the price of 10 most popular varieties increased from 0.6% to 7.4% after cigarette excise tax increased, but the actual prices had both rise and fall compared with 2013. Conclusions: Cigarette excise tax raise in 2015 had influence on the retail price of cigarettes. But the increase in retail price was very limited, if factors including inflation and purchasing power are taken into consideration. Therefore, the influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax raise on tobacco control needs further evaluation.

  6. 21 CFR 350.10 - Antiperspirant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antiperspirant active ingredients. 350.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTIPERSPIRANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 350.10 Antiperspirant active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  7. 21 CFR 346.10 - Local anesthetic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANORECTAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any...

  8. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e), (f... multiplied by 2. (2) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(b), (c), (e), (f), (i... active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h), (i), (k), (l), (m), and (r) of...

  9. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e), (f... multiplied by 2. (2) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(b), (c), (e), (f), (i... active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h), (i), (k), (l), (m), and (r) of...

  10. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  11. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  12. 21 CFR 355.10 - Anticaries active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anticaries active ingredients. 355.10 Section 355...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 355.10 Anticaries active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following...

  13. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... combination) or more of the skin protectant active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permitted combinations of active ingredients. 347... Active Ingredients § 347.20 Permitted combinations of active ingredients. (a) Combinations of...

  14. 21 CFR 352.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... active ingredients. (1) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(a), (c), (e), (f... multiplied by 2. (2) Two or more sunscreen active ingredients identified in § 352.10(b), (c), (e), (f), (i... active ingredients identified in § 347.10(a), (d), (e), (g), (h), (i), (k), (l), (m), and (r) of...

  15. 21 CFR 352.10 - Sunscreen active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunscreen active ingredients. 352.10 Section 352...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 352.10 Sunscreen active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of the following,...

  16. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  17. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  18. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  19. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  20. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  1. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  2. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  3. 21 CFR 343.12 - Cardiovascular active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.12 Cardiovascular active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  4. 21 CFR 343.13 - Rheumatologic active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 343.13 Rheumatologic active ingredients. (a) Aspirin. (b) Buffered aspirin. Aspirin identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be buffered with any antacid ingredient(s... milliequivalents of acid-neutralizing capacity per 325 milligrams of aspirin as measured by the procedure...

  5. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.14 Antitussive active ingredients. The active ingredients...

  6. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.14 Antitussive active ingredients. The active ingredients...

  7. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.14 Antitussive active ingredients. The active ingredients...

  8. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Antitussive active ingredients. 341.14 Section 341...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.14 Antitussive active ingredients. The active ingredients...

  9. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  10. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  11. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  12. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

  13. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  14. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except...

  15. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  16. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  17. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately...

  18. 19 CFR 10.65 - Cigars and cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars and cigarettes. 10.65 Section 10.65 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.65 Cigars and cigarettes. (a) Imported cigars and cigarettes in bonded warehouse... cigarettes is made up of a number of units, each in a separate package, such units may be...

  19. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately...

  20. 19 CFR 10.65 - Cigars and cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars and cigarettes. 10.65 Section 10.65 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.65 Cigars and cigarettes. (a) Imported cigars and cigarettes in bonded warehouse... cigarettes is made up of a number of units, each in a separate package, such units may be...

  1. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  2. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except...

  3. 19 CFR 10.65 - Cigars and cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars and cigarettes. 10.65 Section 10.65 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.65 Cigars and cigarettes. (a) Imported cigars and cigarettes in bonded warehouse... cigarettes is made up of a number of units, each in a separate package, such units may be...

  4. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  5. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately...

  6. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  7. Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: Free or Purchased?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Paul; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Forster, Jean L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have described youth cigarette sources in terms of whether the cigarettes were free or purchased. Understanding the different ways youth obtain tobacco can guide development of interventions to more effectively reduce youth smoking. Purpose: To determine the propensity for youth to purchase cigarettes versus obtain cigarettes for free,…

  8. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except...

  9. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  10. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  11. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  12. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  13. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except...

  14. 19 CFR 10.65 - Cigars and cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigars and cigarettes. 10.65 Section 10.65 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.65 Cigars and cigarettes. (a) Imported cigars and cigarettes in bonded warehouse... cigarettes is made up of a number of units, each in a separate package, such units may be...

  15. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately...

  16. Early flavor experiences: research update.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J A; Beauchamp, G K

    1998-07-01

    Anyone who has observed infants for any period of time can testify to the intense activity occurring in and around their mouths--the primary site for learning in the first few months of life. Before they are even able to crawl, infants have learned much about their new sensory world. Though recent research we have begun to explore the impact of these early experiences on infants' acceptance of solid foods and how they explore objects in their environment. We have also begun to focus on the sensory experiences of the formula-fed infant, in particular, how their responses to particular formulas, which are extremely unpalatable to older children and adults, change during infancy. This is a relatively new and exciting area of study, with much research yet to be done. It is clear, however, that infants are not passive receptacles for flavored foods. Parents who offer a variety of foods will provide both a nutritious, well-balanced diet, as well as an opportunity for their children's own personal preferences to develop.

  17. Heavy Flavor Physics in STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videbæk, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The STAR Collaboration should complete the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) and the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) upgrades by 2014. These detectors will greatly enhance the STAR physics capability to measure heavy quark collectivity and correlations using topologically reconstructed charmed hadrons and heavy quark decay electron-muon correlations. In addition, measurements of the quarkonium muon decay channels will enable us to separate Upsilon 1S from 2S and 3S states in p + p and A+A collisions. Selected STAR results on open charm and quarkonia production in p + p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV are presented. An overview of the upgrades, their expected performance and current status is presented.

  18. Impact of the Skim Milk Powder Manufacturing Process on the Flavor of Model White Chocolate.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ashleigh; Grandison, Alistair S; Ryan, Angela; Festring, Daniel; Methven, Lisa; Parker, Jane K

    2017-02-15

    Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionery industry, but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panelists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p < 0.0001), and sensory profiling with an expert panel showed an increase in both fudge (p < 0.05) and condensed milk (p < 0.05) flavor. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry of both the SMPs and the model chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.

  19. The effect of bleaching agent on the flavor of liquid whey and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Croissant, A E; Kang, E J; Campbell, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2009-12-01

    The increasing use and demand for whey protein as an ingredient requires a bland-tasting, neutral-colored final product. The bleaching of colored Cheddar whey is necessary to achieve this goal. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) are utilized for bleaching liquid whey before spray drying. There is no current information on the effect of the bleaching process on the flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate (WPC). The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of bleaching on the flavor of liquid and spray-dried Cheddar whey. Cheddar cheeses colored with water-soluble annatto were manufactured in duplicate. Four bleaching treatments (HP, 250 and 500 mg/kg and BPO, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were applied to liquid whey for 1.5 h at 60 degrees C followed by cooling to 5 degrees C. A control whey with no bleach was also evaluated. Flavor of the liquid wheys was evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analysis. One HP treatment and one BPO treatment were subsequently selected and incorporated into liquid whey along with an unbleached control that was processed into spray-dried WPC. These trials were conducted in triplicate. The WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses as well as color and proximate analyses. The HP-bleached liquid whey and WPC contained higher concentrations of oxidation reaction products, including the compounds heptanal, hexanal, octanal, and nonanal, compared with unbleached or BPO-bleached liquid whey or WPC. The HP products were higher in overall oxidation products compared with BPO samples. The HP liquid whey and WPC were higher in fatty and cardboard flavors compared with the control or BPO samples. Hunter CIE Lab color values (L*, a*, b*) of WPC powders were distinct on all 3 color scale parameters, with HP-bleached WPC having the highest L* values. Hydrogen peroxide resulted in a whiter WPC and higher off-flavor intensities; however, there was no difference in norbixin recovery between HP

  20. Patient–physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Michael B.; Giovenco, Daniel P.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smokers are likely asking their physicians about the safety of e-cigarettes and their potential role as a cessation tool; however, the research literature on this communication is scant. A pilot study of physicians in the United States was conducted to investigate physician–patient communication regarding e-cigarettes. Methods A total of 158 physicians were recruited from a direct marketing e-mail list and completed a short, web-based survey between January and April 2014. The survey addressed demographics, physician specialty, patient–provider e-cigarette communication, and attitudes towards tobacco harm reduction. Results Nearly two-thirds (65%) of physicians reported being asked about e-cigarettes by their patients, and almost a third (30%) reported that they have recommended e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool. Male physicians were significantly more likely to endorse a harm reduction approach. Discussion Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction. PMID:26844056

  1. Young adult e-cigarette users’ reasons for liking and not liking e-cigarettes: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Muranaka, Nicholas; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-01-01

    Objective To gain an in-depth understanding of what young adult electronic- or e-cigarette users like or dislike about e-cigarettes. We aimed to determine the reasons that may encourage young adults to use e-cigarettes or discourage them from using e-cigarettes. Design Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 current daily e-cigarette users (63% men) of mean age = 25.1 years (Standard Deviation = 5.5). Data were analyzed following principles of inductive content analysis. Results Results indicated 12 categories of reasons for liking e-cigarettes (e.g., recreation, smoking cessation) and 6 categories of reasons for not liking e-cigarettes (e.g., poor product quality, poor smoking experience). Conclusions Young adults’ motives for using or not using e-cigarettes appear to be varied and their relative importance in terms of predicting e-cigarette use initiation, dependence, and cigarette/e-cigarette dual use needs to be carefully studied in population-based, empirical studies. The current findings suggest that e-cigarettes may serve social, recreational, and sensory expectancies that are unique relative to cigarettes and not dependent on nicotine. Further, successful use of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation will likely need higher standards of product quality control, better nicotine delivery efficiency and a counseling component that would teach smokers how to manage e-cigarette devices while trying to quit smoking cigarettes. PMID:26074148

  2. Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Ingebrethsen, Bradley J; Cole, Stephen K; Alderman, Steven L

    2012-12-01

    The particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.

  3. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-02-22

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both.

  4. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidence indicates that electronic cigarettes are by far a less harmful alternative to smoking and significant health benefits are expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to electronic cigarettes. Research will help make electronic cigarettes more effective as smoking substitutes and will better define and further reduce residual risks from use to as low as possible, by establishing appropriate quality control and standards. PMID:25083263

  5. Toxicity Assessment of Refill Liquids for Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Varlet, Vincent; Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Augsburger, Marc; Thomas, Aurélien; Etter, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 42 models from 14 brands of refill liquids for e-cigarettes for the presence of micro-organisms, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and solvents. All the liquids under scrutiny complied with norms for the absence of yeast, mold, aerobic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and ethanol were detected, but remained within limits authorized for food and pharmaceutical products. Terpenic compounds and aldehydes were found in the products, in particular formaldehyde and acrolein. No sample contained nitrosamines at levels above the limit of detection (1 μg/g). Residual solvents such as 1,3-butadiene, cyclohexane and acetone, to name a few, were found in some products. None of the products under scrutiny were totally exempt of potentially toxic compounds. However, for products other than nicotine, the oral acute toxicity of the e-liquids tested seems to be of minor concern. However, a minority of liquids, especially those with flavorings, showed particularly high ranges of chemicals, causing concerns about their potential toxicity in case of chronic oral exposure. PMID:25941845

  6. Toxicity assessment of refill liquids for electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Varlet, Vincent; Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Augsburger, Marc; Thomas, Aurélien; Etter, Jean-François

    2015-04-30

    We analyzed 42 models from 14 brands of refill liquids for e-cigarettes for the presence of micro-organisms, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and solvents. All the liquids under scrutiny complied with norms for the absence of yeast, mold, aerobic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and ethanol were detected, but remained within limits authorized for food and pharmaceutical products. Terpenic compounds and aldehydes were found in the products, in particular formaldehyde and acrolein. No sample contained nitrosamines at levels above the limit of detection (1 μg/g). Residual solvents such as 1,3-butadiene, cyclohexane and acetone, to name a few, were found in some products. None of the products under scrutiny were totally exempt of potentially toxic compounds. However, for products other than nicotine, the oral acute toxicity of the e-liquids tested seems to be of minor concern. However, a minority of liquids, especially those with flavorings, showed particularly high ranges of chemicals, causing concerns about their potential toxicity in case of chronic oral exposure.

  7. Chinese “Herbal” Cigarettes are as Carcinogenic and Addictive as Regular Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Quan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Gonghuan; Goniewicz, Maciej; Benowitz, Neal L.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the Chinese tobacco industry's claim that herbal cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 135 herbal cigarette smokers and 143 regular smokers from one city in China completed a questionnaire on smoking behavior and provided a urine sample. Main Outcome Measures Cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine in all samples and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (PAHs) (1-hydroxypyrene, naphthols, hydroxyfluorenes and hydroxyphnanthrenes) and the tobacco specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanol (NNAL) and NNAL-glucuronide in randomly selected 98 samples (47 from the herbal smokers' group and 51 from the regular smokers' group). Values were normalized by creatinine to correct for possible variability introduced by dilution or concentration of the urine. Results Health concern was among the main reasons that smokers switched to herbal cigarettes from regular cigarettes. Smokers reported increased consumption after switching to herbal cigarettes from regular cigarettes. For all the four markers analyzed (cotinine, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, total NNAL, total PAHs), we observed no significant difference in the levels (p=0.169, p=0.146, p=0.171, p=0.554) between smokers of herbal cigarettes and smokers of regular cigarettes. Both total NNAL and total PAHs were significantly correlated with cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (p<0.001 for all four correlations). Conclusions Our findings showed that herbal cigarettes did not deliver less carcinogens than regular cigarettes. The public needs to be aware of this fact and the Chinese tobacco industry should avoid misleading the public when promoting herbal cigarettes as safer products. PMID:19959701

  8. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from multiethnic 1988 current daily smokers [M age = 45.1 (SD = 13.0); 51.3% Women] who had made an average lifetime quit attempts of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, “immediate reinforcement,” a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness, was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and “concerns about health” was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative “smoking” experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. PMID:25180551

  9. Recent patents on amylose-flavor inclusion complex nano particles preparation and their application.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Zhuang, Hai N; Xiao, Zuo B; Tian, Huai X

    2011-09-01

    Lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds that are solubilized in the form of nano-sized particles, or "nanoparticles", can be used in pharmacology, in the production of food additives, cosmetics, and agriculture, as well as in pet foods and veterinary products, amongst other uses. This review focuses on nanoparticles and methods for the production of soluble nanoparticles and, in particular, inclusion complexes of water-insoluble lipophilic and water-soluble hydrophilic organic materials, especially flavor compounds. The host molecule is namely V-amylose or modified starch molecule, which could form a cavity to fix or secure guest molecules. Thus, the V-amylose molecular properties and the molecular inclusion complex formation mechanism is firstly introduced, then amylose-other ingredients inclusion complex preparation and application are listed, finally amylose-flavor molecular inclusion complex preparations and its application have been overviewed. Through this review, it is concluded that amylose-small chemical molecule inclusion complexes, especially amylose-flavor inclusion complexes have a marvelous application prospect and have great significance to develop the nano-product application field. This paper reviews the recent patents on amylose-flavour inclusion complex nano particles preparation and their application.

  10. Rare flavor processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John

    2015-01-01

    We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is untuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact U(1) R symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets, in particular the brane localization of the 3rd generation states, imply KK-parity is broken and tree-level contributions to flavor changing neutral currents are present in general. Nevertheless, we show that simple variants of the basic MNSUSY model are safe from present flavor constraints arising from kaon and B-meson oscillations, the rare decays B s, d → μ + μ -, μ → ēee and μ- e conversion in nuclei. We also briefly discuss some special features of the radiative decays μ → eγ and . Future experiments, especially those concerned with lepton flavor violation, should see deviations from SM predictions unless one of the MNSUSY variants with enhanced flavor symmetries is realized.

  11. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    PubMed

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  12. Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Kaufmann, Amanda; Blazekovic, Sonja; Leone, Frank; Benowitz, Neal L.; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. Methods Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study. Day 1 (own cigarette brand) data established baseline levels for cotinine, carbon monoxide (CO), topography, cigarette liking, withdrawal, and craving. Participants returned on Days 5 and 10 to reassess these measures while exclusively using e-cigarettes. Results Compared to cigarette smoking, e-cigarettes provided significantly lower nicotine levels (25%-50%), reduced CO exposure, and lower ratings of liking (p < .05). Topography significantly differed between cigarette and e-cigarette sessions (p < .05). All brands significantly reduced withdrawal and craving (p < .05). There were no significant brand differences in outcome measures associated with exposure or use. Conclusions E-cigarettes are not liked as much as cigarettes, provide significantly lower nicotine replacement, reduce CO exposure, and mitigate withdrawal and craving. The patterns of use significantly differ compared to cigarette smoking. PMID:27942543

  13. [Cigarette prices, tobacco taxes and the proportion of contraband cigarettes in Germany].

    PubMed

    Effertz, T; Schlittgen, R

    2013-06-01

    Taxes on tobacco products are among the most efficient instruments against tobacco consumption and the arising cost of illness associated with them. The main argument of the tobacco industry against increases of excise taxes on cigarettes is a presumed substitution effect of smokers turning from consumption of legal cigarettes to smuggled ones. Besides deriving this proposition from the tobacco industry's own funded research, it has never been tested empirically. This article analyses the interdependence between contraband cigarettes and cigarette prices in Germany. Using VAR-modelling on the time-series of the variables of interest, we find no empirically valid correlation or causation between prices and untaxed contraband cigarettes. Furthermore, we find a positive relationship between contraband and legal taxed cigarettes, i. e., when the demand for legal cigarettes decreased in amount, so did the quantity of untaxed cigarettes. We conclude that the proposed relationship between prices and smuggled cigarettes as well as an overall substitution effect among smokers is non-existent. This has important implications for public health policy. The proposition that higher taxes on tobacco products incur social costs from increased smuggling activity cannot be corroborated empirically. Furthermore, this finding should encourage public health policy to keep using tobacco taxes as an instrument for prevention.

  14. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color.

  15. Radiation Dose from Cigarette Tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-01

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv y-1 (average 79.7 μSv y-1), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv y-1 (average 67.1 μSv y-1) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv y-1 (average 104.7 μSv y-1), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv y-1 (average 251.5 μSv y-1). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y-1 (average 199.3 nSv y-1).

  16. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-07

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

  17. How hearing about harmful chemicals affects smokers' interest in dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Jessica K; Byron, M Justin; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-03-01

    Substantial harm could result from concurrent cigarette and e-cigarette use (i.e., dual use) were it to undermine smoking cessation. Perceptions of chemical exposure and resulting harms may influence dual use. We conducted a probability-based phone survey of 1164 U.S. adult cigarette smokers in 2014-2015 and analyzed results in 2016. In a between-subjects experiment, smokers heard a hypothetical scenario in which cigarettes and e-cigarettes had the same amount of harmful chemicals or cigarettes had more chemicals than e-cigarettes (10× more, 100× more, or chemicals were present only in cigarettes). Smokers indicated how the scenario would change their interest in dual use and perceived health harms. Few smokers (7%) who heard that the products have the same amount of chemicals were interested in initiating or increasing dual use. However, more smokers were interested when told that cigarettes have 10× more chemicals than e-cigarettes (31%), 100× more chemicals than e-cigarettes (32%), or chemicals were present only in cigarettes (43%) (all p<.001). Individuals told that cigarettes have more chemicals were more likely than those in the "same amount" scenario to perceive that cigarettes would be more harmful than e-cigarettes (79% vs. 41%, OR=5.41, 95% CI=4.08-7.17). These harm perceptions partially explained the relationship between chemical scenario and dual use interest. Smokers associated higher chemical amounts in cigarettes versus e-cigarettes with greater health harms from cigarettes and thus expressed increased interest in dual use. The findings suggest that disclosing amounts of chemicals in cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol could unintentionally encourage dual use.

  18. The effect of chewing gum on self-reported nicotine withdrawal: is it the flavor, the act of chewing, or both?

    PubMed

    Cortez-Garland, Monica; Cohen, Lee M; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Cook, Katrina

    2010-03-01

    A healthy alternative that has been shown to lessen the severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms during brief periods of nicotine abstinence (e.g., 3-4 h) is confectionary chewing gum (Cohen and colleagues, 1997, 1999, & 2001). The current study sought to build upon this line of research by examining the impact of chewing gum on nicotine withdrawal severity over an extended period of nicotine abstinence (e.g., 24 h) while also identifying the specific attributes of chewing gum that may be responsible for the reported decreases in withdrawal. Specifically, the acts of chewing, flavor, as well as the combination of the two, were independently examined. Twenty-four dependent cigarette smokers participated in three experimental conditions (e.g., a flavorless gum base, flavor strips, and flavored chewing gum) as well as a no product control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 24 h each week. Using repeated measures ANOVAs, a significant difference in withdrawal severity was reported by participants across conditions, F(3, 69)=2.89, p < .05. Follow-up analyses revealed that the flavored gum condition yielded significantly lower withdrawal scores than the flavorless gum base and no product control conditions. These findings indicate that chewing gum appears useful in lessening the severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms over a 24-hour period of nicotine abstinence and that it is a combination of flavor and chewing that appears to lead to this effect.

  19. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content... analyzed as to nutrient composition or are labeled as having nutrient compositions complying with... an ingredient is relied upon as a source of a nutrient(s) and when evidence indicates that...

  20. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content... analyzed as to nutrient composition or are labeled as having nutrient compositions complying with... an ingredient is relied upon as a source of a nutrient(s) and when evidence indicates that...

  1. Key Ingredients to Meaningful Educational Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Tom; Duenkel, Nickey

    1996-01-01

    Two day-long college events--wilderness orienteering and a role-playing canoe trip into the past--illustrate ingredients critical for experiential learning: active learning, student focus, clear purpose, emotional investment and risk, holistic engagement, mixture of content and process, stepping outside one's comfort zone, meaningful…

  2. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient...

  3. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  4. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  5. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun

    2011-05-01

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  6. Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    factors. Conclusions The study findings illustrate that African-American youth are better able to recognize Newport cigarette advertisements, even after adjustment for exposure to smoking by parents and peers. In addition, recognition of Newport cigarette advertising predicted smoking initiation, regardless of race. This longitudinal study contributes to a growing body of evidence that supports a ban on menthol flavored cigarettes in the US as well as stronger regulation of tobacco advertising at the point of sale. PMID:23442215

  7. [Smoking and electronic cigarettes in France].

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    France is one of the developed countries where the prevalence of tobacco use is the highest. The reduction of incidence and prevalence of tobacco use in the near future would considerably decrease tobacco associated mortality and morbidity. The electronic cigarette, a consumer product that delivers pharmacologically active substances, is used by several millions of persons in France. The benefit-risk ratio of electronic cigarette use is unknown, as of today.

  8. Menthol addition to cigarettes using breakable capsules in the filter. Impact on the mainstream smoke yields of the health Canada list constituents.

    PubMed

    Dolka, C; Piadé, J-J; Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G

    2013-10-21

    Cigarettes with menthol capsules embedded in the filter have been introduced recently in many countries. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that filter performance could be affected by the crushing of the capsule therein, altering mainstream smoke constituent yields, ultimately with the potential to impact the toxicity of these products. The present study investigates the possible mechanisms underlying differences in smoke constituent deliveries following the crushing of a menthol capsule in a cigarette filter. It also includes results from a market survey of a selection of commercial cigarette brands with menthol capsules representing the different designs for this type of product available in different markets worldwide. The yields of 46 Health Canada smoke components were determined according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) machine-smoking regime. Data obtained from measurements using cigarettes with the capsule crushed and uncrushed were compared. Except for the intended presence of menthol flavors in smoke, no meaningful differences were identified in the yields of the remaining measured particulate-phase smoke constituents. Regarding the gas-phase smoke constituents, it was found that the delivery of lipophilic volatiles was reduced when the capsule was crushed. Delivery of the other measured gas-phase components remained unaffected. The results from investigations performed in this study did not show any meaningful increase in the yield of smoke constituents listed by Health Canada as a result of crushing the menthol capsule in the cigarette filter.

  9. Electronic cigarette solutions and resultant aerosol profiles.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Jason S; Myers, Colton

    2015-10-30

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are growing in popularity exponentially. Despite their ever-growing acceptance, their aerosol has not been fully characterized. The current study focused on evaluating e-cigarette solutions and their resultant aerosol for potential differences. A simple sampling device was developed to draw e-cigarette aerosol into a multi-sorbent thermal desorption (TD) tube, which was then thermally extracted and analyzed via a gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. This novel application provided detectable levels of over one hundred fifteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a single 40mL puff. The aerosol profiles from four commercially available e-cigarettes were compared to their respective solution profiles with the same GC-MS method. Solution profiles produced upwards of sixty four unidentified and identified (some only tentatively) constituents and aerosol profiles produced upwards of eighty two compounds. Results demonstrated distinct analyte profiles between liquid and aerosol samples. Most notably, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and siloxanes were found in the aerosol profiles; however, these compounds were never present in the solutions. These results implicate the aerosolization process in the formation of compounds not found in solutions; have potential implications for human health; and stress the need for an emphasis on electronic cigarette aerosol testing.

  10. E-cigarettes: a rapidly growing Internet phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Cyrus K; Bitton, Asaf; Bates, David W

    2010-11-02

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) aerosolize nicotine and produce a vapor that emulates that of cigarettes but purportedly has fewer traditional toxins than secondhand smoke. Although e-cigarettes are widely sold online and by retailers, new research suggests that they may contain unexpected toxins and may provide unreliable nicotine delivery. Many countries have already banned or strictly regulated e-cigarettes. Currently in the United States, e-cigarettes are exempt from regulation as drug-delivery devices. Meanwhile, the presence of e-cigarettes on the Internet, including in Web searches, virtual user communities, and online stores where people sell e-cigarettes on commission, is increasing rapidly. Physicians should be aware of the popularity, questionable efficacy claims, and safety concerns of e-cigarettes so that they may counsel patients against use and advocate for research to inform an evidence-based regulatory approach.

  11. Flavored Peccei-Quinn symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt to uncover any underlying physics in the standard model (SM), we suggest a μ - τ power law in the lepton sector, such that relatively large 13 mixing angle with bilarge ones can be derived. On the basis of this, we propose a neat and economical model for both the fermion mass hierarchy problem of the SM and a solution to the strong charge parity (C P ) problem, in a way that no domain wall problem occurs, based on A4×U (1 )X symmetry in a supersymmetric framework. Here we refer to the global U (1 )X symmetry that can explain the above problems as "flavored Peccei-Quinn symmetry." In the model, a direct coupling of the SM gauge singlet flavon fields responsible for spontaneous symmetry breaking to ordinary quarks and leptons, both of which are charged under U (1 )X, comes to pass through Yukawa interactions, and all vacuum expectation values breaking the symmetries are connected to each other. So the scale of Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking is shown to be roughly located around the 1 012 GeV section through its connection to the fermion masses. The model predictions are shown to lie on the testable regions in the very near future through on-going experiments for neutrino oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay, and the axion. We examine the model predictions, arisen from the μ - τ power law, on leptonic C P violation, neutrinoless double beta decay, and atmospheric mixing angle, and show that the fermion mass and mixing hierarchies are in good agreement with the present data. Interestingly, we show the model predictions on the axion mass ma≃2.53 ×1 0-5 eV and the axion coupling to photon ga γ γ≃1.33 ×1 0-15 GeV-1 . And subsequently the square of the ratio between them is shown to be one or two orders of magnitude lower than that of the conventional axion model.

  12. Public health challenges of electronic cigarettes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungkyu; Kimm, Heejin; Yun, Ji Eun; Jee, Sun Ha

    2011-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarrettes) were recently introduced and advertised as a smoking cession device in South Korea. As the social norm to quit smoking has gained hold in the country, the number of e-cigarette users is growing rapidly. This phenomenon should be urgently considered, because of the lack of research that has been conducted to examine the safety of e-cigarettes and its efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. This paper raises several public health concerns on e-cigarettes in South Korea. Uncertain regulations of the government on e-cigarettes are contributing to an increase of e-cigarette users and allowing the e-cigarette industry to circumvent existing regulations. The aggressive marketing activity of this industry is also a core factor that is responsible for the rapid increase of e-cigarette use, in particular among the youth. Following the enforcement of tobacco control, some cigarette smokers may be encouraged to purchase e-cigarettes in order to circumvent the regulations, even though the dual use of e-cigarette and cigarette may be more harmful. Until there is clear evidence of the e-cigarette's safety, it is recommended that the industry's marketing and promotional activities be banned and closely monitored, and public campaigns be initiated to educate the public regarding e-cigarettes.

  13. Collider signatures of flavorful Higgs bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Eby, Joshua; Gori, Stefania; Lotito, Matteo; Martone, Mario; Tuckler, Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Motivated by our limited knowledge of the Higgs couplings to the first two generation fermions, we analyze the collider phenomenology of a class of two Higgs doublet models (2HDMs) with a nonstandard Yukawa sector. One Higgs doublet is mainly responsible for the masses of the weak gauge bosons and the third-generation fermions, while the second Higgs doublet provides mass for the lighter fermion generations. The characteristic collider signatures of this setup differ significantly from well-studied 2HDMs with natural flavor conservation, flavor alignment, or minimal flavor violation. New production mechanisms for the heavy scalar, pseudoscalar, and charged Higgs involving second-generation quarks can become dominant. The most interesting decay modes include H /A →c c ,t c ,μ μ ,τ μ and H±→c b ,c s ,μ ν . Searches for low-mass dimuon resonances are currently among the best probes of the heavy Higgs bosons in this setup.

  14. Leptoquark flavor patterns & B decay anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Gudrun; Loose, Dennis; Schönwald, Kay

    2016-12-01

    Flavor symmetries that explain masses and mixings of the standard model fermions dictate flavor patterns for the couplings of scalar and vector leptoquarks to the standard model fermions. A generic feature is that couplings to SU(2)-doublet leptons are suppressed at least by one spurion of the discrete non-abelian symmetry breaking, responsible for neutrino mixing, while couplings to charged lepton singlets can be order one. We obtain testable patterns including those that predominantly couple to a single lepton flavor, or two, or in a skewed way. They induce lepton non-universality, which we contrast to current anomalies in B-decays. We find maximal effects in R D and {R_D}{^{ast }} at the level of ˜10 percent and few percent, respectively, while leptoquark effects in {R_K}{^{(ast )}} can reach order few×10 percent. Predictions for charm and kaon decays and μ - e conversion are worked out.

  15. Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A. ); Silva, J.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau

  16. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrıo, Javier

    2016-11-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N f quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N f flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N c color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  17. Flavor mixing in gauge-Higgs unification

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Y.; Kurahashi, N.; Lim, C. S.; Maru, N.; Tanabe, K.

    2012-07-27

    Gauge-Higgs unification is the fascinating scenario solving the hierarchy problem without supersymmetry. In this scenario, the Standard Model (SM) Higgs doublet is identified with extra component of the gauge field in higher dimensions and its mass becomes finite and stable under quantum corrections due to the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. On the other hand, Yukawa coupling is provided by the gauge coupling, which seems to mean that the flavor mixing and CP violation do not arise at it stands. In this talk, we discuss that the flavor mixing is originated from simultaneously non-diagonalizable bulk and brane mass matrices. Then, this mechanism is applied to various flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) processes via Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson exchange at tree level and constraints for compactification scale are obtained.

  18. Cassia cinnamon as a source of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food and food supplements in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-05-08

    Coumarin as an additive or as a constituent of tonka beans or tonka extracts is banned from food in the United States due to its potentially adverse side effects. However, coumarin in food from other natural ingredients is not regulated. "True Cinnamon" refers to the dried inner bark of Cinnamomum verum. Other cinnamon species, C. cassia, C. loureiroi, and C. burmannii, commonly known as cassia, are also sold in the U.S. as cinnamon. In the present study, coumarin and other marker compounds were analyzed in authenticated cinnamon bark samples as well as locally bought cinnamon samples, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon-based food supplements using a validated UPLC-UV/MS method. The experimental results indicated that C. verum bark contained only traces of coumarin, whereas barks from all three cassia species, especially C. loureiroi and C. burmannii, contained substantial amounts of coumarin. These species could be potential sources of coumarin in cinnamon-flavored food in the U.S. Coumarin was detected in all locally bought cinnamon, cinnamon-flavored foods, and cinnamon food supplements. Their chemical profiles indicated that the cinnamon samples and the cinnamon in food supplements and flavored foods were probably Indonesian cassia, C. burmannii.

  19. Identification of the medicinal off-flavor compound formed from ascorbic acid and (E)-hex-2-enal.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Kensuke; Ishizaki, Susumu; Ohkubo, Yasutaka; Tateno, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Akira

    2011-06-22

    A test apple beverage made up of apple juice (20%), high-fructose corn syrup (11.5%), citric acid (0.43%), trisodium citrate (0.02%), apple-odor flavor (0.1%), and ascorbic acid (0.02%) was stored at 40 °C and then analyzed for the change of odor in the beverage. Although no thermoacidophilic bacteria (TAB) were detected, a medicinal off-flavor was perceived after the 8 weeks of storage. Model experiments on the ingredients of the test apple beverage revealed that the off-flavor compound had been formed by ascorbic acid and (E)-hex-2-enal. Synthesis and NMR (¹H, ¹³C, HMQC, and HMBC) analyses identified the compound as 6-propylbenzofuran-7-ol. The odor quality, retention index (RI), and mass spectrum of synthetic 6-propylbenzofuran-7-ol were identical with those of the medicinal odor compound from the test apple beverage. Sensory evaluation revealed the recognition thresholds for medicinal odor were 31.4 ppb in water and 24.0 ppb in apple beverage, and the detection thresholds were 19.6 ppb in water and 8.6 ppb in apple beverage, respectively. The quantified concentration of 6-propylbenzofuran-7-ol formed in test apple beverage was 90 ppb, approximately. This concentration was well above the odor threshold, so it was concluded that the compound was the source of the medicinal off-flavor.

  20. Flavor binding: Its nature and cause.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    The brain binds inputs from multiple senses to enhance our ability to identify key events in the environment. Understanding this process is based mainly on data from the major senses (vision and audition), yet compelling examples of binding occur in other domains. When we eat, in fact taste, smell, and touch combine to form flavor. This process can be so complete that most people fail to recognize that smell contributes to flavor. The flavor percept has other features: (a) it feels located in the mouth, even though smell is detected in the nose and taste on the tongue, and (b) it feels continuous, yet smell is delivered in pulses to the nose during eating. Furthermore, tastes can modify smell perception and vice versa. Current explanations of these binding-related phenomena are explored. Preattentive processing provides a well-supported account of taste-to-tongue binding. Learning between taste and smell can explain perceptual interactions between these senses and perhaps localization of smell to the mouth. Attentional processes may also be important, especially given their role in binding the major senses. Two are specifically examined. One claims that the failure to recognize smell's role in flavor stems from the role of involuntary attention's "defaulting" to the mouth and taste (i.e., binding by ignoring). Another claims that taste and smell form a common attentional channel in the mouth, in effect becoming one sense. Except for preattentive processing, the mechanisms involved in flavor binding differ markedly from those proposed for the major senses. This distinction may result from functional differences, with flavor supporting future food choice but not current identification.

  1. Flavor universal resonances and warped gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Du, Peizhi; Hong, Sungwoo; Sundrum, Raman

    2017-01-01

    Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with "bulk" standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a "little hierarchy problem" remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond). The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of "vectorlike confinement", with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravitational fields dual to spin-0,1,2 composites. Unlike the minimal warped model, these low-lying excitations have predominantly flavor-blind and flavor/CP-safe interactions with the standard model. Remarkably, this scenario also predicts small deviations from flavor-blindness originating from virtual effects of Higgs/top compositeness at ˜ O(10) TeV, with subdominant resonance decays into Higgs/top-rich final states, giving the LHC an early "preview" of the nature of the resolution of the hierarchy problem. Discoveries of this type at LHC Run 2 would thereby anticipate (and set a target for) even more explicit explorations of Higgs compositeness at a 100 TeV collider, or for next-generation flavor tests.

  2. Supersymmetric dark matter and lepton flavor violation

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, Vernon; Marfatia, Danny; Mustafayev, Azar; Soleimani, Ali

    2009-10-01

    We study lepton flavor-violating (LFV) processes within a supersymmetric type-I seesaw framework with flavor-blind universal boundary conditions, properly accounting for the effect of the neutrino sector on the dark matter relic abundance. We consider several possibilities for the neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix and show that in regions of SUSY parameter space that yield the correct neutralino relic density, LFV rates can differ from naive estimates by up to 2 orders of magnitude. Contrary to common belief, we find that current LFV limits do not exclude neutrino Yukawa couplings larger than top Yukawa couplings. We introduce the ISAJET-M program that was used for the computations.

  3. Flavor tagging with muons at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prepost, R.

    1984-05-01

    Identification of muons in hadronic events from e+e- annihilation observed in the MAC detector at PEP at √s=29 GeV provides flavor tagging of heavy quark mesons. A sample enriched in events from bb production is obtained and the b quark fragmentation function is determined. The b quark is found to fragment predominantly with high values of z, with =0.8+/-0.1 and to have an overall semileptonic branching ratio to muons of (15.5+5.4-2.9)%. The sample also provides flavor tagged hadronic jets. Invariant mass and charged multiplicity distributions are presented.

  4. 78 FR 52679 - Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... 1210 Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has a safety standard... standard defines ``disposable lighters,'' in part, as refillable lighters that use butane or similar...

  5. Awareness of FDA-Mandated Cigarette Packaging Changes among Smokers of "Light" Cigarettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as "light", "ultra-light" and "low tar" with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and…

  6. Social Influences on Use of Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Hookah by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Participants: Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). Methods: An April 2013 online survey…

  7. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use.

    PubMed

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J

    2017-04-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, "E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools," by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1]). We present data relating to e-cigarette specialty retailers in Orange County, California. We describe the data collection method (including the search methodology to identify e-cigarette specialty retailers), present descriptive retailer data including school proximity, and provide data from multi-level regressions predicting individual-level student use of e-cigarettes based on presence of an e-cigarette specialty retailer in proximity to schools.

  8. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of Cheddar cheeses.

    PubMed

    Drake, M A; Miracle, R E; McMahon, D J

    2010-11-01

    A current industry goal is to produce a 75 to 80% fat-reduced Cheddar cheese that is tasty and appealing to consumers. Despite previous studies on reduced-fat cheese, information is critically lacking in understanding the flavor and flavor chemistry of reduced-fat and nonfat Cheddar cheeses and how it differs from its full-fat counterpart. The objective of this study was to document and compare flavor development in cheeses with different fat contents so as to quantitatively characterize how flavor and flavor development in Cheddar cheese are altered with fat reduction. Cheddar cheeses with 50% reduced-fat cheese (RFC) and low-fat cheese containing 6% fat (LFC) along with 2 full-fat cheeses (FFC) were manufactured in duplicate. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and samples were taken following 2 wk and 3, 6, and 9 mo for sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel (n=10 panelists) documented flavor attributes of cheeses. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction or solvent-assisted flavor evaporation followed by separation and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Selected compounds were quantified using external standard curves. Sensory properties of cheeses were distinct initially but more differences were documented as cheeses aged. By 9 mo, LFC and RFC displayed distinct burnt/rosy flavors that were not present in FFC. Sulfur flavor was also lower in LFC compared with other cheeses. Forty aroma-active compounds were characterized in the cheeses by headspace or solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were largely not distinct between the cheeses at each time point, but concentration differences were evident. Higher concentrations of furanones (furaneol, homofuraneol, sotolon), phenylethanal, 1-octen-3-one, and free fatty acids, and lower concentrations of lactones were present in LFC compared with FFC after 9 mo of ripening. These

  9. Human flavor perception: Application of information integration theory

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Lawrence E.; Elgart, Benjamin Z.; Burger, Kelly; Chakwin, Emily M.

    2008-01-01

    The perception of flavor arises from the combination of inputs from several sensory modalities, especially gustation (taste proper) and olfaction (the primary source of flavor qualities). Both the perception of intensity of suprathreshold flavorants and, notably, the detection of weak flavorants are consistent with a rule of additivity. Thus, the detectability, d′, of mixtures of the gustatory flavorant sucrose and the olfactory flavorant vanillin approximates the additive sum of detectabilities of the two components, within a model that assumes pooled noise in the flavor system that derives from both modalities. When gustatory and olfactory flavorants are presented in isolation, however, under conditions that encourage or permit selective attention to one modality or the other, it may be possible to filter out the noise associated with the unattended modality, and leading thereby to a rule of vector summation. PMID:19079746

  10. Resurrection of large lepton number asymmetries from neutrino flavor oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Kinney, William H.; Park, Wan-Il

    2017-02-01

    We numerically solve the evolution equations of neutrino three-flavor density matrices, and show that, even if neutrino oscillations mix neutrino flavors, large lepton number asymmetries are still allowed in certain limits by big bang nucleosynthesis.

  11. Probing neutrino flavor transition mechanism with ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che

    2014-02-01

    Observation of ultrahigh energy astrophysical neutrinos and identification of their flavors have been proposed for future neutrino telescopes. The flavor ratio of astrophysical neutrinos observed on the Earth depends on both the initial flavor ratio at the source and flavor transitions taking place during propagations of these neutrinos. The flavor transition mechanisms are well classified with our model-independent parametrization. We find that a new parameter R ≡ϕe/(ϕμ+ϕτ) can probe directly the flavor transition in the framework of our model-independent parametrization, without the assumption of the νμ-ντ symmetry. A few flavor-transition models are employed to test our parametrization with this new observable. The observational constraints on flavor transition mechanisms by the new observable are discussed through our model-independent parametrization.

  12. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  13. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  14. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cheese shall contain one or more safe and suitable spices and/or flavorings, in such proportions as are... flavor and/or spice that characterizes the food, in the manner prescribed in § 101.22 of this chapter....

  15. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  16. Does the availability of single cigarettes promote or inhibit cigarette consumption? Perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette use among adult Mexican smokers

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, J F; Villalobos, V; Dorantes-Alonso, A; Arillo-Santillán, E; Cummings, K Michael; O’Connor, R; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Single cigarette use and its implications have rarely been studied among adults. Objective: To assess perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette purchase behaviour and its relation to harm reduction. Design: Focus group transcripts and cross-sectional data were analysed. Setting and participants: Focus groups among convenience samples of adult smokers in two Mexican cities and a population-based sample of 1079 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in four Mexican cities. Main outcome measures: Purchase of single cigarettes last time cigarettes were bought, frequency of purchasing single cigarettes in the previous month and intention to quit in the next 6 months. Results: Focus group data indicated that smokers bought single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy. Survey data indicated that 38% of participants purchased single cigarettes in the last month and 10% purchased them the last time they bought cigarettes, with more frequent consumption among young adults and those with lower income. Purchasing single cigarettes was independently associated with the frequency of using single cigarettes to reduce consumption and, less consistently, with the frequency of being cued to smoke after seeing single cigarettes for sale. Using single cigarettes to reduce consumption was positively associated with quit intention, whereas being cued to smoke by single cigarettes was negatively associated with quit intention. Conclusions: Study results suggest that some adult Mexican smokers purchase single cigarettes as a method to limit, cut down on and even quit smoking. Nevertheless, promotion of the availability of single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy could provide additional smoking cues that undermine quit attempts and promote youth smoking. PMID:19671535

  17. The changing cigarette, 1950-1995.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Hoffmann, I

    1997-03-01

    Nicotine is recognized to be the major inducer of tobacco dependence. The smoking of cigarettes as an advantageous delivery system for nicotine, accelerates and aggravates cardiovascular disease, and is causally associated with increased risks for chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer of the lung and of the upper aerodigestive system, and cancer of the pancreas, renal pelvis, and urinary bladder. It is also associated with cancer of the liver, cancer of the uterine cervix, cancer of the nasal cavity, and myeloid leukemia. In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies documented that cigarette smoking induces lung cancer and described a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and the risk for developing lung cancer. In the following decades these observations were not only confirmed by several hundreds of prospective and case-control studies but the plausibility of this causal association was also supported by bioassays and by the identification of carcinogens in cigarette smoke. Whole smoke induces lung tumors in mice and tumors in the upper respiratory tract of hamsters. The particulate matter of the smoke elicits benign and malignant tumors on the skin of mice and rabbits, sarcoma in the connective tissue of rats, and carcinoma in the lungs of rats upon intratracheal instillation. More than 50 carcinogens have been identified, including the following classes of compounds: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aromatic amines, and N-nitrosamines. Among the latter, the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) have been shown to be of special significance. Since 1950, the makeup of cigarettes and the composition of cigarette smoke have gradually changed. In the United States, the sales-weighted average "tar" and nicotine yields have declined from a high of 38 mg "tar" and 2.7 mg nicotine in 1954 to 12 mg and 0.95 mg in 1992, respectively. In the United Kingdom, the decline was from about 32 mg "tar" and 2.2 mg nicotine to less

  18. Smoker reactions to a "radio message" that Light cigarettes are as dangerous as Regular cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, L T; Goldberg, M E; Sweeney, C T; Palmer, R F; Pillitteri, J L; Yost, B A; White, E L; Stine, M M

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine in a systematic, controlled fashion the reactions of smokers to scientifically correct information about the risks of smoking Light cigarettes (about 6-15 mg tar by the FTC method). Random-digit dialing, computer-assisted telephone interviews were used to locate daily smokers of Light cigarettes. In an experimental design, smokers were randomly assigned to listen (n = 293) or not (n = 275) to a persuasive simulated radio message on the risks of Light cigarettes; 108 of those who did not listen to the message in the first part of the interview were played the message in the second part, to evaluate some repeated-measures effects. Those who heard the message were more likely to report that one Light cigarette could give a smoker the same amount of tar as one Regular cigarette and that Light cigarettes were more dangerous: 55% said the message made them think more about quitting and 46% said the message increased the amount they wanted to quit; 42% said that after hearing the message they thought Light cigarettes were more dangerous. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the message acted to increase intention to quit smoking by increasing the desire to quit smoking. Seventy-three per cent of the smokers agreed that it was important to play such messages widely on the radio; 77% agreed that there should be a warning on packs that vent blocking increases tar; 61% agreed that the location of filter vents should be marked. The majority of smokers of Light cigarettes seem to value being informed that Light cigarettes are as dangerous for them as Regular cigarettes, and this information increases their intentions to quit smoking.

  19. Does environmental cigarette smoke affect breastfeeding behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimallah; Nikpour, Maryam; Banihosseini, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure of lactating women to environmental cigarette smoke may increase cotinine in breast milk, which in turn may reduce the volume of milk and the duration of breastfeeding. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between exposure to environmental cigarette smoke and breastfeeding behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 290 mothers in Babol - Iran, who had been breastfeeding for 3–5 days after delivery. The lactating mothers were divided into two groups: those exposed to environmental cigarette smoke, and those free from smoke exposure. The study questionnaire included demographic data, information on environmental cigarette smoke, and breastfeeding behavior. Data was collected through telephone interviews at 2, 4, and 6 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, and test of significance using Chi-square test, t-test, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The continuation of breastfeeding for the group of exposed mothers and the unexposed group was (mean ± standard deviation) 5.57 ± 0.098 and 5.58 ± 0.109, respectively in 6 months of follow-up. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.93). The percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months in the group exposed to cigarette smoke was 65% compared to 76% of the nonexposed group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.149). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, no significant association was observed between the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke and the nonexposed group in breastfeeding behavior, although the percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was less in the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke. Further exploratory studies are needed. PMID:28163575

  20. Colloids in food: ingredients, structure, and stability.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews progress in the field of food colloids with particular emphasis on advances in novel functional ingredients and nanoscale structuring. Specific aspects of ingredient development described here are the stabilization of bubbles and foams by the protein hydrophobin, the emulsifying characteristics of Maillard-type protein-polysaccharide conjugates, the structural and functional properties of protein fibrils, and the Pickering stabilization of dispersed droplets by food-grade nanoparticles and microparticles. Building on advances in the nanoscience of biological materials, the application of structural design principles to the fabrication of edible colloids is leading to progress in the fabrication of functional dispersed systems-multilayer interfaces, multiple emulsions, and gel-like emulsions. The associated physicochemical insight is contributing to our mechanistic understanding of oral processing and textural perception of food systems and to the development of colloid-based strategies to control delivery of nutrients during food digestion within the human gastrointestinal tract.