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Sample records for cigarette smoke condensates

  1. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays.
    Why was it done?
    No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  2. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays.
    Why was it done?
    No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  3. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  4. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  5. The relative toxicity of compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J; Hansch, C

    2000-07-01

    Many different in vivo and in vitro tests are currently used to assess the toxicity of chemicals and complex mixtures such as cigarette smoke condensate. In vivo tests include assays in rodents to determine carcinogenicity, tumorigenicity and reproductive effects In vitro tests of mutagenicity are conducted with both bacterial and mammalian cell systems. A first step towards lowering the toxicity of cigarette smoke condensate is the identification of the relevant compound However, changing the concentration of a given smoke component may not linearly alter the biological activity of the complex mixture due to interactive effects. The "effective toxicity" of a chemical constituent is a function of the concentration, the metabolic fate, the potency in in vivo and in vitro assays, and the ability to reach the target tissues. The logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) is an important parameter since it affects metabolism, biological transport properties and intrinsic toxicity. Using concentration data from the International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC), biological activity data from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) database and measured and calculated log P values, we have rank ordered some of the important compounds in cigarette smoke condensate by their measured or potential toxicity. Condensates from different cigarette brands, tar categories and styles vary in their concentrations of these compounds. Chemicals of greater commercial or scientific interest may be toxicity tested more extensively, thereby increasing the probability of positive test results and highlighting the need for consideration of structure-activity relationships.

  6. Selenium mediated reduction of the toxicity expression of cigarette smoke condensate in Photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, I.E.; Chortyk, O.T.; Lanier, J.L.

    1986-02-01

    Recently, attention has focused on the potential protective activity of selenium against heavy metal toxicity, cancer and other health disorders. Currently, cigarette smoke affects the health of more people than any other environmental pollutant. Producing cigarettes fortified with selenium has been proposed as a possible method to develop a safer tobacco product. Consequently, it would be informative to determine if the presence of selenium in cigarette smoke leads to increased or decreased toxicity. Luminescent assays have been developed for a wide variety of applications ranging from measuring enzyme activities to monitoring water purity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of selenium on the toxicity of cigarette smoke condensate using in vivo bacterial bioluminescence assays.

  7. Use of the Zebrafish Larvae as a Model to Study Cigarette Smoke Condensate Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lee D.; Soo, Evelyn C.; Achenbach, John C.; Morash, Michael G.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2014-01-01

    The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted approach we have developed an in vivo model with which to compare the toxicity profiles of smoke condensates from cigarettes with different design features. This model system may provide insights into the development of smoking related disease and could provide a cost-effective, high-throughput platform for the future evaluation of tobacco products. PMID:25526262

  8. Apoptosis and necrosis: two different outcomes of cigarette smoke condensate-induced endothelial cell death

    PubMed Central

    Messner, B; Frotschnig, S; Steinacher-Nigisch, A; Winter, B; Eichmair, E; Gebetsberger, J; Schwaiger, S; Ploner, C; Laufer, G; Bernhard, D

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most important and preventable risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, because of the complex composition of cigarette smoke, the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Based on controversial reports on the pro-atherogenic activity of cigarette smoke condensate, also called tar fraction (CSC), we decided to analyse the effects of CSC on the viability of endothelial cells in vitro. The results of this study show that low concentrations of the hydrophobic tar fraction induces DNA damage resulting in a P53-dependent and BCL-XL-inhibitable death cascade. Western blot analyses showed that this cascade is caspase-independent and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the apoptotic death signalling is mediated by the release of apoptosis-inducing factor. Higher CSC concentrations also induce apoptotic-like signalling but the signalling cascade is then redirected to necrosis. Despite the fact that CSC induces a profound increase in cellular reactive oxygen species production, antioxidants exhibit only a minimal cell death protective effect. Our data indicates that not only hydrophilic constituents of cigarette smoke extract, but also CSC is harmful to endothelial cells. The mode and the outcome of CSC-induced cell death signalling are highly concentration dependent: lower concentrations induce caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death, whereas incubation with higher concentrations interrupts apoptotic signalling and induces necrosis. PMID:23152060

  9. Evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of mainstream whole smoke and smoke condensate from a cigarette containing a novel carbon filter.

    PubMed

    Bombick, D W; Bombick, B R; Ayres, P H; Putnam, K; Avalos, J; Borgerding, M F; Doolittle, D J

    1997-09-01

    A novel carbon filter has been developed which primarily reduces the amount of certain vapor phase constituents of tobacco smoke with greater efficiency than the charcoal filters of cigarettes currently in the market. In vitro indicators of genotoxic and cytotoxic potential were used to compare the cigarette smoke condensate (particulate phase) or whole cigarette smoke (vapor phase and particulate phase) from cigarettes containing the novel carbon filter with smoke condensate or whole smoke from commercial or prototype cigarettes not containing the novel carbon filter. Ames bacterial mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and neutral red cytotoxicity assays in CHO cells were utilized to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the cigarette smoke condensates. SCE and neutral red cytotoxicity assays were utilized to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the whole smoke. As expected, the novel carbon filter did not significantly affect the genotoxic or cytotoxic activity of the smoke condensate, although we did observe that the use of low-nitrogen tobacco reduced the mutagenicity of the condensate in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. However, the whole smoke from cigarettes containing the novel carbon filter demonstrated significant reductions in genotoxic and cytotoxic potential compared to cigarettes without the novel carbon filter. The toxicity of the smoke was correlated (r = 0.7662 for cytotoxicity and r = 0.7562 for SCE induction) to the aggregate mass of several vapor phase components (acetone, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, ammonia, NOx, HCN, benzene, isoprene, and formaldehyde) in the smoke of the cigarettes utilized in this study. In conclusion, this novel carbon filter, which significantly reduced the amount of carbonyls and other volatiles in mainstream cigarette smoke, resulted in significant reductions in the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the smoke as measured

  10. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Esakky, Prabagaran; Hansen, Deborah A; Drury, Andrea M; Felder, Paul; Cusumano, Andrew; Moley, Kelle H

    2017-08-24

    Male exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with seminal defects and with congenital anomalies and childhood cancers in offspring. In mice, paternal exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) causes molecular defects in germ cells and phenotypic effects in their offspring. Here we used an ex vivo testicular explant model and in vivo exposure to determine the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis and offspring development. We explanted testis tissue at postnatal day (P)5.5 and cultured it until P11.5. Assessment of growth parameters by analyzing expression of cell-specific markers revealed that the explant system maintained structural and functional integrity. We exposed the P5.5 to -11.5 explants to various concentrations (40-160 µg/ml) of CSC and confirmed that nicotine in the CSC was metabolized to cotinine. We assessed various growth and differentiation parameters, as well as testosterone production, and observed that many spermatogenesis features were impaired at 160 µg/ml CSC. The same parameters were impaired by a similar CSC concentration in vivo Finally, females mated to males that were exposed to 160 µg/ml CSC neonatally had increased rates of pup resorption. We conclude that male exposure to CSC impairs offspring development and that the concentration at which CSC impairs spermatogenesis is similar in vivo and ex vivo. Given that the concentrations of CSC we used contained similar doses of nicotine as human smokers are exposed to, we argue that our model mimics human male reproductive effects of smoking.-Esakky, P., Hansen, D. A., Drury, A. M., Felder, P., Cusumano, A., Moley, K. H. Testicular cells exhibit similar molecular responses to cigarette smoke condensate ex vivo and in vivo. © FASEB.

  11. Effects of cigarette smoke condensate on primary urothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Plöttner, Sabine; Behm, Claudia; Bolt, Hermann M; Föllmann, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for bladder cancer. Since urothelial cells express phase I and II enzymes these cells are able to metabolize precarcinogens into DNA reactive intermediates. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture containing at least 80 known carcinogens. In this context especially aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are discussed as being responsible for bladder-carcinogenicity. Cell cultures of primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) have been useful models for studies on bladder-specific effects. These cells are metabolically competent and found to be a valuable tool for examining effects of cigarette smoke constituents. In the present study PUBEC were utilized to investigate the effects of the complex mixture cigarette smoke condensate total particulate matter (CSC TPM) with emphasis on induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and genotoxic effects. CYP1A1 induction was investigated by Western blot and flow cytometry. The most pronounced effects were found after 24 h of incubation with 1-10 μg/ml CSC TPM. Maximal induction was observed at 5 μg/ml by flow cytometry and at 10 μg/ml by Western blot analysis. Genotoxic effects were investigated by means of alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis ("comet assay") with and without the use of the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and the micronucleus (MN) test. A numerical concentration-dependent increase in Fpg-sensitive sites indicating oxidative DNA damage and a quantitative rise in MN formation were noted. The CSC utilized in this study contained low amounts of benzo[a]pyrene, 4-aminobiphenyl, and 2-naphthylamine. With regard to the observed CYP1A1 induction, these substances cannot explain the CYP1A1 inducing effect of CSC TPM. It is possible that other compounds within CSC TPM contribute to CYP1A1 induction in our cellular model.

  12. Cigarette smoke condensate-induced oxidative DNA damage and its removal in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Moktar, Afsoon; Singh, Rajesh; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Lillard, James W.; Gairola, C. Gary; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is well documented to increase oxidative stress and could account for higher risk of cervical cancer in smokers. Cervical pre-cancerous lesions that are initiated by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection generally regress in the absence of known risk factors such as smoking. 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is a highly mutagenic oxidative DNA lesion that is formed by the oxidation of deoxyguanosine. In the present study, we examined: a) the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on 8-oxodG formation in and its removal from HPV-transfected (ECT1/E6 E7), HPV-positive (CaSki) and HPV-negative (C33A) human cervical cancer cells, and b) the cell cycle progression and apoptosis in CSC-treated ECT1/E6 E7 cells. CSC induced 8-oxodG in a dose-(p=0.03) and time (p=0.002)-dependent fashion in ECT1/E6 E7 cells as determined by flow cytometry. A 2.4-fold higher level of 8-oxodG was observed in HPV-positive compared with HPV-negative cells. However, 8-oxodG lesions were almost completely removed 72 h post-exposure in all cell lines as determined by ImageStream analysis. This observation correlates with the 2- and 5-fold increase in the p53 levels in ECT1/E6 E7 and CaSki cells with no significant change in C33A cells. We conclude that: a) cigarette smoke constituents induce oxidative stress with higher burden in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells and b) the significant increase observed in p53 levels in wild-type cervical cells (ECT1/E6 E7 and CaSki) may be attributed to the p53-dependent DNA repair pathway while a p53-independent pathway in C33A cells cannot be ruled out. PMID:21720711

  13. Quantitative analysis of six heterocyclic aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqin; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2011-02-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) represent an important class of carcinogens in mainstream cigarette smoke. Accurate HAA quantification is challenging because of their relative low abundances and numerous chemical interferences that arise naturally from thousands of the constituents present in cigarette smoke. We have developed and validated a straightforward high-throughput method to quantify HAA levels in mainstream cigarette smoke and demonstrated the applicability by analyzing select research and domestic cigarette brands. Machine-smoked cigarette condensate collected under both standard and intensive smoking regimens was examined. Mainstream smoke particulate from individual cigarettes trapped on a glass fiber filter pad was spiked with an appropriate internal standard solution and subsequently solvent extracted. The extract was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation data showed excellent accuracy, reproducibility and high throughput; it is suitable for the routine analysis of HAAs in cigarette smoke condensate delivered under a wide of differing smoking conditions. The smoking machine deliveries of HAAs are strongly influenced by cigarettes' physical design, filler blend, and smoking regimen. A quick and accurate method has been developed for the analysis of 6 HAAs in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate. Results provided a good mean to access the ranges of HAAs in commercial products and evaluate the relative contribution of cigarette design, filler blend, and smoking regimen on delivery. Such data are vital in helping provide exposure ranges for potential human exposure estimates.

  14. A comparison of in vitro toxicities of cigarette smoke condensate from Eclipse cigarettes and four commercially available ultra low-"tar" cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Foy, J W D; Bombick, B R; Bombick, D W; Doolittle, D J; Mosberg, A T; Swauger, J E

    2004-02-01

    Eclipse is a cigarette that primarily heats rather than burns tobacco. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJRT) has previously reported the results of in vitro toxicity studies comparing Eclipse with University of Kentucky 1R5F and 1R4F reference cigarettes. To characterize the differences between Eclipse and very low yielding/ultra low-"tar" (vULT) tobacco-burning cigarettes, RJRT conducted a comparative evaluation of the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of mainstream cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from Eclipse and three vULT tobacco-burning cigarettes (Now 83 Box, Merit Ultima and Carlton Soft Pack) as well as the leading ultra low-"tar" (ULT) brandstyle (Marlboro Ultra Lights) under four smoking regimens: (1) FTC-35 ml puff volume every 60 s for a 2 s duration (35/60/2); (2) 50/30/2, 0% vents blocked; (3) Massachusetts-45/30/2, 50% vents blocked; (4) Canadian-55/30/2, 100% vents blocked. Ames testing indicated that Eclipse CSC was less (P<0.05) mutagenic than CSC from the four cigarettes under all smoking regimens when compared on a revertants per mg Total Particulate Matter (TPM) basis. When mutagenicity was calculated on a revertants per cigarette basis the mutagenicity of Eclipse CSC was lower (P<0.05) than the mutagenicity of Merit Ultima, Carlton Soft Pack, and Marlboro Ultra Lights, regardless of the puffing regimen. On a per cigarette basis, the calculated mutagenicity of Eclipse was higher (P<0.05) than Now 83 Box cigarettes in the FTC and 50/30/2 regimens but lower (P<0.05) in the Massachusetts and Canadian regimens. Eclipse CSC was less (P<0.05) cytotoxic as measured in the neutral red assay (based on EC(50) values-microg TPM/ml media) than the CSC from the four test cigarettes regardless of the regimen used. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the toxicity of CSC from Eclipse is significantly reduced relative to the activity of CSC from the tested vULT cigarettes and the Marlboro Ultra Lights.

  15. Bhas 42 cell transformation activity of cigarette smoke condensate is modulated by selenium and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Gu; Pant, Kamala; Bruce, Shannon W; Gairola, C Gary

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health risk worldwide. Development of newer tobacco products requires the use of quantitative toxicological assays. Recently, v-Ha-ras transfected BALB/c3T3 (Bhas 42) cell transformation assay was established that simulates the two-stage animal tumorigenesis model and measures tumor initiating and promoting activities of chemicals. The present study was performed to assess the feasibility of using this Bhas 42 cell transformation assay to determine the initiation and promotion activities of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and its water soluble fraction. Further, the modulating effects of selenium and arsenic on cigarette smoke-induced cell transformation were investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water extracts of CSC (CSC-D and CSC-W, respectively) were tested at concentrations of 2.5-40 µg mL(-1) in the initiation or promotion assay formats. Initiation protocol of the Bhas 42 assay showed a 3.5-fold increase in transformed foci at 40 µg mL(-1) of CSC-D but not CSC-W. The promotion phase of the assay yielded a robust dose response with CSC-D (2.5-40 µg mL(-1)) and CSC-W (20-40 µg mL(-1)). Preincubation of cells with selenium (100 nM) significantly reduced CSC-induced increase in cell transformation in initiation assay. Co-treatment of cells with a sub-toxic dose of arsenic significantly enhanced cell transformation activity of CSC-D in promotion assay. The results suggest a presence of both water soluble and insoluble tumor promoters in CSC, a role of oxidative stress in CSC-induced cell transformation, and usefulness of Bhas 42 cell transformation assay in comparing tobacco product toxicities and in studying the mechanisms of tobacco carcinogenesis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cigarette smoke condensate inhibits collagen gel contraction and prostaglandin E2 production in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Cáceres, M; Arancibia, R; Silva, D; Couve, E; Martínez, C; Martínez, J; Smith, P C

    2015-06-01

    Granulation tissue remodeling and myofibroblastic differentiation are critically important events during wound healing. Tobacco smoking has a detrimental effect in gingival tissue repair. However, studies evaluating the effects of cigarette smoke on these events are lacking. We used gingival fibroblasts cultured within free-floating and restrained collagen gels to simulate the initial and final steps of the granulation tissue phase during tissue repair. Collagen gel contraction was stimulated with serum or transforming growth factor-β1. Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) was used to evaluate the effects of tobacco smoke on gel contraction. Protein levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin, β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and connective tissue growth factor were evaluated through Western blot. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels were determined through ELISA. Actin organization was evaluated through confocal microscopy. CSC reduced collagen gel contraction induced by serum and transforming growth factor-β1 in restrained collagen gels. CSC also altered the development of actin stress fibers in fibroblasts cultured within restrained collagen gels. PGE(2) levels were strongly diminished by CSC in three-dimensional cell cultures. However, other proteins involved in granulation tissue remodeling and myofibroblastic differentiation such as alpha-smooth muscle actin, β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and connective tissue growth factor, were unmodified by CSC. CSC may alter the capacity of gingival fibroblasts to remodel and contract a collagen matrix. Inhibition of PGE(2) production and alterations of actin stress fibers in these cells may impair proper tissue maturation during wound healing in smokers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cigarette smoke condensate increases C. albicans adhesion, growth, biofilm formation, and EAP1, HWP1 and SAP2 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers are more prone to oral infections than are non-smokers. Cigarette smoke reaches the host cells but also microorganisms present in the oral cavity. The contact between cigarette smoke and oral bacteria promotes such oral diseases as periodontitis. Cigarette smoke can also modulate C. albicans activities that promote oral candidiasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate on C. albicans adhesion, growth, and biofilm formation as well as the activation of EAP1, HWP1 and secreted aspartic protease 2. Results Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increased C. albicans adhesion and growth, as well as biofilm formation. These features may be supported by the activation of certain important genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that CSC-exposed C. albicans expressed high levels of EAP1, HWP1 and SAP2 mRNA and that this gene expression increased with increasing concentrations of CSC. Conclusion CSC induction of C. albicans adhesion, growth, and biofilm formation may explain the increased persistence of this pathogen in smokers. These findings may also be relevant to other biofilm-induced oral diseases. PMID:24618025

  18. Cytotoxicity of chronic exposure to 4 cigarette smoke condensates in 2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honggang; Word, Beverly; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles; Yang, Maocheng; Hammons, George; Lyn-Cook, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death. The cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke without the vapor phase, has mostly been tested in short-term in vitro studies lasting from a few hours to a few days. Here, we assessed the toxicity of CSCs from 2 reference cigarettes, 3R4F and CM6, using a primary human small airway epithelial (PSAE) cell line by quantifying adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), total glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH] + oxidized glutathione [GSSG]), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release over the course of 28 days. The CSCs, 0.3 to 10 μg/mL, promoted cell proliferation at 120 hours of exposure, but demonstrated cytotoxicity at days 14 and 28. Interestingly, CSCs, 0.3 to 3 μg/mL, showed a cell death effect at day 14 but induced cell proliferation at day 28. Consistently, transformation associated with morphological changes began by day 14 and the transformed cells grew dramatically at day 28. The LDH assay appeared to be sensitive for assessing early cell damage, whereas the ATP, MTS, and GSH assays were more suitable for determining later stage CSCs-induced cytotoxicity. The ATP assay showed greater sensitivity than the MTS and GSH assays. We also assessed the toxicity of CSCs in an human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized Barrett esophagus cell line (CP-C). The CP-C cells demonstrated dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity over the course of 28 days but displayed higher resistance to CSCs than PSAE cells. This study demonstrates that CSCs cause cytotoxicity and induce transformation related to cell resistance and cell invasion properties.

  19. Effect of cigarette smoke condensate on gene promoter methylation in human lung cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In lung cancer, an association between tobacco smoking and promoter DNA hypermethylation has been demonstrated for several genes. However, underlying mechanisms for promoter hypermethylation in tobacco-induced cancer are yet to be fully established. Methods Promoter methylation was evaluated in control and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) exposed human lung cells using the Methyl-Profiler DNA Methylation PCR System. PSAE cells were exposed to 0.3 or 1.0 μg/ml CSC for 72 hours and longer term for 14 and 30 days. NL-20 cells were exposed for 30 days to 10 or 100 μg/ml CSC. Results Promoters of several genes, including hsa-let-7a-3, CHD1, CXCL12, PAX5, RASSF2, and TCF21, were highly methylated (>90%); hsa-let-7a-3 was affected in both cell lines and under all exposure conditions. Level of methylation tended to increase with CSC concentration and exposure duration (statistical differences were not determined). Percentage methylation of TCF21, which was >98% at exposures of 10 or 100 μg/ml CSC, was found to be reduced to 28% and 42%, respectively, in the presence of the dietary agent genistein. Conclusions Using array techniques, several tumor suppressor genes in human lung cells were identified that undergo promoter hypermethylation, providing further evidence of their potential involvement in tobacco smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis and their use as potential biomarkers of harm in tobacco smoke exposure. Results from the study also demonstrated the potential of a dietary agent to exert chemopreventive activity in human tissue against tobacco smoke related diseases through modulation of DNA methylation. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25214829

  20. Alteration of transcriptional profile in human bronchial epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying-Chun; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Ke-Jun; Niu, Li-Jing; Pan, Xiu-Jie; Wu, De-Chang; Sun, Xian-Jun; Zhou, Ping-Kun; Zhu, Mao-Xiang; Huo, Yan-Ying

    2009-10-08

    Despite the significance of cigarette smoke for carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that lead to increased susceptibility of human cancers are not well-understood. In our present study, the oncogenic transforming effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) were examined using papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). Growth kinetics, saturation density, resistance to serum-induced terminal differentiation, anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice were used to investigate the various stages of transformation in BEP2D cells. Illumina microarray platforms were used to explore the CSC-induced alteration of global mRNA expression profiles of the earlier period and the advanced stage of CSC-treated BEP2D cells. We showed here that a series of sequential steps arose among CSC-treated immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, including altered growth kinetics, resistance to serum-induced terminal differentiation, and anchorage-independence growth. In the earlier period of CSC treatment, 265 genes were down-regulated and 63 genes were up-regulated, respectively, and in the advanced stage of CSC treatment, 313 genes were down-regulated and 145 genes were up-regulated, respectively. Notably, among those genes, the expression of some of imprinted genes such as IGF2, NDN, H19 and MEG3 were all silenced or down-regulated in CSC-treated cells. These genes reactivated after 5 microM 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells with CSC may adversely affect their genetic and epigenetic integrity and lead to further transformation.

  1. Differential discriminative-stimulus effects of cigarette smoke condensate and nicotine in nicotine-discriminating rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Mee Jung; Choe, Eun Sang; Lee, Young-Ju; Seo, Joung-Wook; Yoon, Seong Shoon

    2016-06-01

    Although it is widely accepted that nicotine plays a key role in tobacco dependence, nicotine alone cannot account for all of the pharmacological effects associated with cigarette smoke found in preclinical models. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the differential effects of the interoceptive cues of nicotine alone versus those of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in nicotine-trained rats. First, the rats were trained to discriminate nicotine (0.4mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.]) from saline in a two-lever drug discrimination paradigm. Then, to clarify the different neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the discriminative-stimulus effects in the nicotine and CSC in nicotine-trained rats, either the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE; 0.3-1.0mg/kg, s.c.) or the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA; 5-10mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) was administered prior to the injection of either nicotine or CSC. Separate set of experiments was performed to compare the duration of action of the discriminative-stimulus effects of CSC and nicotine. CSC exhibited a dose-dependent nicotine generalization, and interestingly, 1.0mg/kg of DHβE antagonized the discriminative effects of nicotine (0.4mg/kg) but not CSC (0.4mg/kg nicotine content). However, pretreatment with MLA had no effect. In the time-course study, CSC had a relatively longer half-life in terms of the discriminative-stimulus effects compared with nicotine alone. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CSC has a distinct influence on interoceptive effects relative to nicotine alone and that these differential effects might be mediated, at least in part, by the α4β2, but not the α7, nAChR.

  2. DNA adduct formation in mice following dermal application of smoke condensates from cigarettes that burn or heat tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Brown, B.G.; Reed, E.A.; Mosberg, A.T.; Doolittle, D.J.; Hayes, A.W. ); Hejtmancik, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A prototype cigarette that heats tobacco (test cigarette), developed by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, has yielded consistently negative results in several in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology tests. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from the test cigarette to induce DNA adducts in mouse tissues and compare the results with those obtained with CSC from a reference tobacco-burning cigarette (1R4F). CD-1 mice were skin-painted with CSF from reference and test cigarettes three times a week for 4 weeks. The highest mass of CSC applied was 180 mg tar per week per animal for both reference and test cigarette. DNA adducts were analyzed in skin and lung tissues using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling method with the P[sub 1] nuclease modification. Distinct diagonal radioactive zones (DRZ) were observed in the DNA from both skin and lung tissues of animals dosed with reference CSC, whereas no corresponding DRZ were observed from the DNA of animals dosed with either test CSC or acetone (solvent control). The relative adduct labeling (RAL) values of skin and lung DNA from reference CSC-treated animals were significantly greater than those of the test CSC-treated animals. The RAL values of the test CSC-treated animals were no greater than those of solvent controls. The negative results in DNA adduct assays with test CSC are consistent with all previous results of in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology testing on this cigarette and provide additional evidence that smoke condensate from the test cigarette is not genotoxic. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Electrical Monitoring Cytotoxic Effect of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Transendothelial Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opp, Daniel; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on barrier function and cellular migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and on the invasive activities of ovarian carcinoma cells through HUVEC monolayers as well. Central to this work was the use of electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS), a cell-based biosensor that monitors motility and other morphology changes of cells adherent on small gold electrodes. Upon addition of different concentrations of CSC, the junctional resistance and the wound healing rate of the HUVEC layers decrease as CSC concentration increases from 0.01 to 0.25 mg/ml, whereas the average cell-substrate separation increases with CSC concentration. Following the addition of OVCA429 ovarian cancer cells to HUVEC layers with the presence of different CSC concentrations, dose-dependent changes of the transcellular resistance drop were observed. Our results suggest that CSC is detrimental to normal endothelial cell function in maintaining vascular integrity. In addition, the chemicals present in CSC may increase transendothelial invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

  4. Cardiac and pulmonary anaphylaxis in guinea pigs and rabbits induced by glycoprotein isolated from tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, R.; Zavecz, J.H.; Burke, J.A.; Becker, C.G.

    1982-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for heart attack. The pathologic mechanisms responsible for this association are obscure. It has been reported that approximately one-third of human volunteers, smokers and nonsmokers, exhibit immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to a glycoprotein antigen (TGP) purified from cured tobacco leaves and present in cigarette smoke. It is also known that the heart is a primary target organ for anaphylactic reaction in many animals, including primates. In experiments described herein anaphylaxis was induced in the isolated hearts and lungs of rabbits and guinea pigs previously sensitized by immunization with TGP and challenged with TGP isolated from either tobacco leaf or cigarette smoke condensate. Cardiac anaphylaxis was characterized by sinus tachycardia, decreased contractility, decreased coronary perfusion accompanied by hypoxic electrocardiographic changes, and a variety of rhythm disturbances, including idioventricular tachyarrhythmias. These observations suggest that allergic reactions to tobacco constituents may initiate cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death in some smokers and may, in part, underly the association between cigarette smoking and heart attack.

  5. Assessing cytogenotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensates using three in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Jianlin, Lou; Guohai, Chu; Guojun, Zhou; Jian, Jiang; Fangfang, Huang; Juanjuan, Xu; Shu, Zheng; Zhijian, Chen; Wei, Jiang; Yezhen, Lu; Xiaoxue, Li; Jiliang, He

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) are complex mixed compounds that contain both direct and indirect mutagens/carcinogens. To detect genotoxicity of CSCs in vitro, a combination of various enzymes (e.g. activation and detoxification enzymes) called S9 is usually added. However, as S9 may induce cytotoxicity in target cells, it is unclear whether the addition of S9 can impact CSC-induced toxicity. Here, differences in cytogenotoxicity between CSCs in the presence or absence of S9 were studied using three in vitro assays (neutral red uptake assay, comet assay, and TCR gene mutation test) in human peripheral lymphocytes, which were exposed to CSCs at doses of 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 microg/ml for 4 h. Assay results showed that both CSCs + S9 or CSCs - S9 could induce a dose-dependent elevation of cytogenotoxic effects in human lymphocytes with some differences between the two groups. The cytogenotoxicity induced by CSCs - S9 was significantly higher than that induced by CSCs + S9 in all three assays. The comet and NRU assays revealed that a dose-response relationship of cytogenotoxicity induced by CSCs + S9 was less typical than that induced by CSCs - S9, possibly due to specific cytogenotoxic agents in CSCs and enzymes contained in the S9 mixture. Thus, the three in vitro assays used in the present study are suitable for detecting cytogenotoxic effects in human lymphocytes induced by CSCs. Furthermore, the cytogenotoxicity induced by both CSCs + S9 and CSCs - S9 should be measured simultaneously when assessing and comparing the biological activity of different CSCs.

  6. Effects of 10 cigarette smoke condensates on primary human airway epithelial cells by comparative gene and cytokine expression studies.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Gavin; Seagrave, Jeanclare; Boggs, Susan; Polzin, Gregory; Richter, Patricia; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2010-03-01

    Cigarettes vary in tobacco blend, filter ventilation, additives, and other physical and chemical properties, but little is known regarding potential differences in toxicity to a smoker's airway epithelia. We compared changes in gene expression and cytokine production in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells following treatment for 18 h with cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) prepared from five commercial and four research cigarettes, at doses of approximately 4 microg/ml nicotine. Nine of the CSCs were produced under a standard International Organization for Standardization smoking machine regimen and one was produced by a more intense smoking machine regimen. Isolated messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed by microarray hybridization, and media was analyzed for secreted cytokines and chemokines. Twenty-one genes were differentially expressed by at least 9 of the 10 CSCs by more than twofold, including genes encoding detoxifying and antioxidant proteins. Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO-1) were selected for validation with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses. NQO-1 expression determined with microarrays, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting differed among the CSC types, with good correlation among the different assays. CYP1A1 mRNA levels varied substantially, but there was little correlation with the protein levels. For each CSC, the three most induced and three most repressed genes were identified. These genes may be useful as markers of exposure to that particular cigarette type. Furthermore, differences in interleukin-8 secretion were observed. These studies lay the foundation for future investigations to analyze differences in the responses of in vivo systems to tobacco products marketed with claims of reduced exposure or reduced harm.

  7. Cytological studies on onion root-tip cells treated with water-soluble extract of tobacco smoke condensate from commercial cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, P S; Gulati, D K; Bhalla, P R

    1975-08-01

    The effect of water-soluble extract of tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) from two commercially available cigarettes with dirrerent types of filters was studied on the cytology of root-tip cells of onion (Allium cepa). One of the cigarettes had a 2-cm cellulose acetate filter, and the other had a filter comprised of 1 cm of cellulose acetate and 2 cm of activated charcoal. TSC from these cigarettes induced mitotic abnormalities. To investigate whether these two commercial filters could retain cigarette smoke component (s) responsible for mitotic irregularities, the cigarettes were defiltered, and TSC was prepared and tested on the young roots of onion. Observations revealed that the cytological effect of TSC from defiltered cigarettes was not significantly different from the effect of TSC from cigarettes with filters. Thus, the filters utilized in these cigarettes do not retain compound(s) responsible for mitotic irregularities in the root-tip cells of onion. With increasing concentrations (0.01% ot 0.1%) of TSC from cigarettes with filters and defiltered, precent mitotic abnormalities increased. These abnormalities included scattering, stickiness, lagging, condensation, and breaking of chromosomes during metaphase. Bridging and lagging of chromosomes were observed during anaphase.

  8. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  9. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  10. Quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hou, Hongwei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yong; Wang, An; Hu, Qingyuan

    2015-09-17

    A stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate was developed and validated. Compared with previously reported methods, this method has lower limits of detection (0.04-1.35 ng/cig). Additionally, the proposed method saves time, reduces the number of separation steps, and reduces the quantity of solvent needed. The new method was applied to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in 213 commercially available cigarettes in China, under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime and the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The results showed that the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content was more than two times higher in samples from the Health Canadian intense smoking regime than in samples from the International Standardization Organization smoking regime (1189.23 vs. 2859.50 ng/cig, p<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) increased with labeled tar content in both of the tested smoking regimes. There was a positive correlation between total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime with that under the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The proposed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method is satisfactory for the rapid, sensitive, and accurately quantitative evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in cigarette smoke condensate, and it can be applied to assess potential health risks from smoking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuropathology of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Ho, Yuen-Shan; Wong, Shun; Gentleman, Stephen M; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that cigarette smoking is hazardous to health and is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. However, its impact on the brain, whether it be from prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, cerebrovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Parkinson's disease, is still not very clear. Neuroimaging and neuropathological investigations suggest that there are heterogeneous effects of cigarette smoking on the brain. On the one hand, it is quite clear that cigarette smoking causes damage to endothelial cells, resulting in increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. On the other hand, it seems to be associated with different Alzheimer's pathologies in post-mortem brains and experimental models, despite the fact that epidemiological studies clearly indicate a positive correlation between cigarette smoking and increased risk for AD. Interestingly, cigarette smoking appears to be associated with reduced Parkinson's pathology in post-mortem brains. However, although nicotine in cigarettes may have some neuroprotective actions, the effects of all the other toxic compounds in cigarettes cannot be ignored. It is, therefore, our aim to summarize what is known about the neuropathology of cigarette smoking and, in particular, its implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Inhibitory effects of Cnidium monnieri fruit extract on pulmonary inflammation in mice induced by cigarette smoke condensate and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho-Geun; Lim, Heung-Bin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Cnidium monnieri fruit (CM) extracts on pulmonary inflammation induced in mice by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pulmonary inflammation was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS and CSC five times within 12 days. CM extract was administered orally at a dose of 50 or 200 mg·kg(-1). The number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was counted using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Inflammatory mediator levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The administration of LPS and CSC exacerbated airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and induced an accumulation of inflammatory cells and mediators, and led to histological changes. However, these responses are modulated by treatment with CM, and the treatment with CM extract produces similar or more extensive results than the treatment with cyclosporin A (CSA). CM extract may have an inhibitory effect on pulmonary inflammation related with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  13. Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Oxidative Stress, Apoptotic Cell Death, and HIV Replication in Human Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Namita; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    While cigarette smoking is prevalent amongst HIV-infected patients, the effects of cigarette smoke constituents in cells of myeloid lineage are poorly known. Recently, we have shown that nicotine induces oxidative stress through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6-mediated pathway in U937 monocytic cells. The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), which contains majority of tobacco constituents, on oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, expression of CYP1A1, and/or HIV-1 replication in HIV-infected (U1) and uninfected U937 cells. The effects of CSC on induction of CYP1 enzymes in HIV-infected primary macrophages were also analyzed. The results showed that the CSC-mediated increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in U937 cells is dose- and time-dependent. Moreover, CSC treatment was found to induce cytotoxicity in U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway via activation of caspase-3. Importantly, pretreatment with vitamin C blocked the CSC-mediated production of ROS and induction of caspase-3 activity. In U1 cells, acute treatment of CSC increased ROS production at 6H (>2-fold) and both ROS (>2 fold) and HIV-1 replication (>3-fold) after chronic treatment. The CSC mediated effects were associated with robust induction in the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA upon acute CSC treatment of U937 and U1 cells (>20-fold), and upon chronic CSC treatment to U1 cells (>30-fold). In addition, the CYP1A1 induction in U937 cells was mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor pathway. Lastly, CSC, which is known to increase viral replication in primary macrophages, was also found to induce CYP1 enzymes in HIV-infected primary macrophages. While mRNA levels of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were elevated following CSC treatment, only CYP1B1 protein levels were increased in HIV-infected primary macrophages. In conclusion, these results suggest a possible association between oxidative stress, CYP1 expression, and viral replication in CSC

  14. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  15. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase Expression by Cigarette Smoke Condensate in Cultured Rat Fetal Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Chen, Keyang; Zhao, Yinzhi; Rich, Celeste B.; Chen, Lijun; Li, Sandy J.; Toselli, Paul; Stone, Phillip; Li, Wande

    2005-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LO) catalyzes crosslinking of collagen and elastin essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM). To understand mechanisms of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, we investigated effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate matter of CS, on LO mRNA expression in cultured rat fetal lung fibroblasts (RFL6). Exposure of RFL6 cells to 0–120 μg CSC/ml for 24 h induced a dose-dependent inhibition of LO steady-state mRNAs, for example, reducing transcript levels to below 10% of the control in cells incubated with 80–120 μg CSC/ml. Nuclear run-on assays indicated a marked reduction in LO relative transcriptional rates amounting to 27.7% of the control in cells treated with 120 μg CSC/ml. The actinomycin D-chase assay showed that CSC enhanced the instability of LO transcripts. The t1/2 for LO mRNA decay was decreased from 24 h in the control to 4.5 h in cells treated with 120 μg CSC/ml. Moreover, 80–120 μg CSC/ml also inhibited LO promoter activity as revealed by suppression of reporter gene expression in cells transfected with LO promoter-luciferase vectors. Thus, inhibition of LO transcription initiation and enhancement of LO mRNA instability both contributed to downregulation of LO steady-state mRNA in CSC-treated cells. Note that inhibition of LO mRNA expression by CSC was closely accompanied by markedly decreased levels of transcripts of collagen type I and tropoelastin, two substrates of LO. Thus, transcriptional perturbation of LO and its substrates may be a critical mechanism for ECM damage in CS-induced emphysema. PMID:15933228

  16. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  17. Mutagenicity of the fractionated organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate, coke oven, and roofing tar in the Ames assay.

    PubMed

    Austin, A C; Claxton, L D; Lewtas, J

    1985-01-01

    Mobile and stationary combustion sources emit particle-bound organics that, after extraction, are mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, the organic emissions from diesel, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), coke oven, and roofing tar were fractionated and compared for mutagenicity in the Ames assay. This study demonstrated major differences in the distribution of mutagenicity among the four emission sources. Within each source, the relative mutagenicity of each fraction was significantly different in the presence and absence of an exogenous metabolic activation. In the diesel sample, over 90% of the mutagenic activity is located in the aromatic and polar neutral (PN) fractions; nitrated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NO2-PNAs) can account for a significant portion of this activity. Most of the mutagenicity of the coke oven main sample was found in the organic base (BASE) and PN fractions, which contained aromatic amines and nitrogen heterocycles. The CSC sample also had a high percentage of the mutagenic activity in the BASE fraction. Chemical analysis, however, indicates that the components in the CSC differed from those of the coke oven main sample. The roofing tar sample, which was not mutagenic in the absence of metabolic activation, contained several components that were very mutagenic after fractionation. This may be due to the separation of toxic components from the mutagenic components. The roofing tar emissions contained aromatic and polar mutagenic constituents. Although the specific mutagens in these different sources are not identical, they all cause frameshift mutations and appear to be compounds that could be classified as polycyclic organic matter.

  18. Expression of cellular genes in HPV16-immortalized and cigarette smoke condensate-transformed human endocervical cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Nakao, Y; Pater, M M; Tang, S C; Pater, A

    1997-09-01

    We studied the molecular mechanism of successive multistep cervical carcinogenic progression with our previously established in vitro model system. This system was composed of primary human endocervical cells (HEN), two lines of HEN immortalized by HPV16 and their counterparts subsequently malignantly transformed by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). The expression was examined of diverse cellular genes associated with oncogenesis and senescence, especially for cervical cancer. Consistent results were seen for the pairs of immortalized and malignantly transformed lines. Immortalization of HEN by HPV16 resulted in enhanced expression of H-ras, c-myc, B-myb, p53, p16INK4 and PCNA mRNA; enhanced expression of p16 and PCNA proteins; decreased expression of WAF1/p21/Cip1/Sid1 and fibronectin mRNA; and decreased p53 protein. On the other hand, the CSC-transformed counterparts of HPV16-immortalized cells had up-regulated levels of B-myb, p53 and WAF1 mRNA and p53 protein. Our results indicate that the differential activation or inactivation of multiple cellular genes is important for the immortalization, as well as the transformation, of human cervical cells. Further, we suggest that our in vitro model system is useful for investigating the molecular mechanism of multistep cervical carcinogenesis.

  19. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated. Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article. Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field. PMID:23113130

  20. Enzyme induction in rat lung and liver by condensates and fractions from main-stream and side-stream cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquini, R.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Savino, A.; Angeli, G.; Monarca, S.

    1987-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and dimethylnitrosamine demethylase (DMND) activities in pulmonary and hepatic tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats were assayed following pretreatment with known inducers (benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital) and with main-stream (MS) and side-stream (SS) cigarette smoke condensates and their related fractions. Biochemical assays by spectrophotofluorimetry (AHH activity) and spetrophotometry (DMND activity) and by a biological assay (Ames test) were performed to detect AHH and DMND induction. Ames test proved to be much less sensitive than the spectrophotofluorimetric analysis for AHH determination. Both main-stream and side-stream cigarette smoke condensates and some fractions, containing water-soluble bases, water-insoluble bases, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were found to induce AHH activity in lung and liver, the lung being induced to the greatest extent. The highest levels of AHH inducibility were found for the SS-smoke condensate and related fractions. In particular, the insoluble bases fractions gave the highest induction. On the contrary, pulmonary DMND activity was not affected by pretreatment with the same materials, while hepatic DMND response was only minimally induced by Aroclor and phenobarbital treatment.

  1. Ontogenetic variation in rat liver, lung and kidney monooxygenase induction by low doses of benzo(A)pyrene and cigarette-smoke condensate.

    PubMed Central

    van Cantfort, J.; Gielen, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The specific lung-AHH induction, which we previously observed after the inhalation of cigarette smoke, is not due to the route followed by the inhaled smoke, for the same phenomenon occurs after i.p. injection of either cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) or benzo(a)pyrene in low doses. In this respect lung AHH behaves completely differently from the liver and kidney enzyme, in which organs, basal AHH activity (which is low in the foetus) increases rapidly after birth to reach the adult level 2 months later, and is only inducible by CSC and low doses of BP in unweaned rats. In the lung, the basal AHH activity (low in the foetus) increases abruptly at birth, peaks in 5-day-old rats and then decreases slightly. Contrary to enzyme activity in other tissues, lung AHH cannot be induced in unweaned young animals. The enzyme subsequently becomes sensitive to inducing agents and is highly inducible in 90-day-old rats. Similar behaviour occurs in 2 other enzymes linked to cytochrome P1450: ethoxycoumarin deethylase and ethoxyresorufin deethylase. The results could be related to the particular susceptibility of the lung to develop cancer after the inhalation of cigarette smoke. PMID:6275873

  2. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) IVA as a potential signature molecule in cigarette smoke condensate induced pathologies in alveolar epithelial lineages.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Subodh K; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Farooque, Abdullah; Kaushik, Gaurav; Kaur, Balwinder; Pathak, Chander M; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S; Khanduja, Krishan L

    2016-08-15

    Smoking is one of the leading causes of millions of deaths worldwide. During cigarette smoking, most affected and highly exposed cells are the alveolar epithelium and generated oxidative stress in these cells leads to death and damage. Several studies suggested that oxidative stress causes membrane remodeling via Phospholipase A2s but in the case of cigarette smokers, mechanistically study is not yet fully defined. In view of present perspective, we evaluated the involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) IVA as therapeutic target in cigarette smoke induced pathologies in transformed type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells. Transformed type I (WI26) and type II (A549) alveolar epithelial cells were used for the present study. Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) was prepared from most commonly used cigarette (Gold Flake with filter) by the Indian population. CSC-induced molecular changes were evaluated through cell viability using MTT assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement using 2,7 dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), cell membrane integrity using fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and ethidium bromide (EtBr) staining, super oxide dismutase (SOD) levels, cPLA2 activity and molecular involvement of specific cPLA2s at selected 24 h time period. CSC-induced response on both type of epithelial cells shown significantly reduction in cell viability, declined membrane integrity, with differential escalation of ROS levels in the range of 1.5-15 folds and pointedly increased cPLA2 activity (p < 0.05). Likewise, we observed distinction antioxidant potential in these two types of lineages as type I cells had considerably higher SOD levels when compared to type II cells (p < 0.05). Further molecular expression of all cPLA2s increased significantly in a dose dependent manner, specifically cytosolic phospholipase A2 IVA with maximum manifestation of 3.8 folds. Interestingly, CSC-induced ROS levels and cPLA2s expression were relatively higher in A

  3. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  4. Genetic toxicology and toxicogenomic analysis of three cigarette smoke condensates in vitro reveals few differences among full-flavor, blonde, and light products

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole L; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie K; Chen, Guosheng; Maertens, Rebecca M; Halappanavar, Sabina; White, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to various detrimental health outcomes. Tobacco companies produce different brands of cigarettes that are marketed as reduced harm tobacco products. Early examples included “light” cigarettes, which differ from regular cigarettes due to filter ventilation and/or differences in chemical constituents. In order to establish baseline similarities and differences among different tobacco brands available in Canada, the present study examined the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, clastogenicity, and gene expression profiles of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from three tobacco products, encompassing a full-flavor, blonde, and “light” variety. Using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, we confirmed that the three CSCs are mutagenic, and that the potency is related to the presence of aromatic amines. Using the Muta™Mouse FE1 cell line we determined that the CSCs were clastogenic and cytotoxic, but nonmutagenic, and the results showed few differences in potencies among the three brands. There were no clear brand-specific changes in gene expression; each brand yielded highly similar expression profiles within a time point and concentration. The molecular pathways and biological functions affected by exposure included xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inflammation. Thus, there was no appreciable difference in toxicity or gene expression profiles between regular brands and products marketed as “light,” and hence no evidence of reduced harm. The work establishes baseline CSC cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and expression profiles that can be used as a point of reference for comparison with data generated for products marketed as reduced harm and/or modified risk tobacco products. Mol. Mutagen. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.† PMID:22431010

  5. Genetic toxicology and toxicogenomic analysis of three cigarette smoke condensates in vitro reveals few differences among full-flavor, blonde, and light products.

    PubMed

    Yauk, Carole L; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie K; Chen, Guosheng; Maertens, Rebecca M; Halappanavar, Sabina; White, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to various detrimental health outcomes. Tobacco companies produce different brands of cigarettes that are marketed as reduced harm tobacco products. Early examples included "light" cigarettes, which differ from regular cigarettes due to filter ventilation and/or differences in chemical constituents. In order to establish baseline similarities and differences among different tobacco brands available in Canada, the present study examined the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, clastogenicity, and gene expression profiles of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from three tobacco products, encompassing a full-flavor, blonde, and "light" variety. Using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, we confirmed that the three CSCs are mutagenic, and that the potency is related to the presence of aromatic amines. Using the Muta™Mouse FE1 cell line we determined that the CSCs were clastogenic and cytotoxic, but nonmutagenic, and the results showed few differences in potencies among the three brands. There were no clear brand-specific changes in gene expression; each brand yielded highly similar expression profiles within a time point and concentration. The molecular pathways and biological functions affected by exposure included xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inflammation. Thus, there was no appreciable difference in toxicity or gene expression profiles between regular brands and products marketed as "light," and hence no evidence of reduced harm. The work establishes baseline CSC cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and expression profiles that can be used as a point of reference for comparison with data generated for products marketed as reduced harm and/or modified risk tobacco products.

  6. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study of smoke condensates from 1R4F cigarettes that burn tobacco versus ECLIPSE cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco in the SENCAR mouse dermal tumor promotion assay.

    PubMed

    Meckley, Daniel R; Hayes, Johnnie R; Van Kampen, K R; Ayres, Paul H; Mosberg, Arnold T; Swauger, James E

    2004-05-01

    Numerous chemical and toxicological studies indicate that smoke from ECLIPSE, a cigarette that primarily heats rather than burns tobacco, is simplified and reduced in specific chemicals believed to be associated with smoking-related diseases, and demonstrates reduced smoke toxicity and biological activity in vitro when compared to conventional tobacco burning cigarettes. These data led to the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from ECLIPSE should have lower tumorigenicity than 1R4F condensate in the SENCAR mouse dermal tumor promotion assay. Female SENCAR mice were initiated with a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) followed by promotion with ECLIPSE or 1R4F CSC. Dermal application of 10, 20, or 40 mg ECLIPSE or 1R4F CSC three times/week for 29 weeks did not alter body weights, survival or other indicators of subchronic toxicity. In DMBA-initiated mice, there were significant increases in both the number of microscopically confirmed tumor-bearing animals and total number of microscopically confirmed dermal tumors at all 1R4F CSC doses and the high-dose ECLIPSE CSC. However, the number of ECLIPSE tumor-bearing animals were reduced 83%, 93% and 67% at the low-, mid- and high-doses, respectively, compared to the 1R4F. Similarly, the total number of dermal tumors was reduced 91%, 94% and 87% at the low-, mid- and high-dose, respectively, compared to the 1R4F CSC. ECLIPSE CSC demonstrated dramatic reductions in dermal tumor promotion potential compared to 1R4F CSC.

  8. Green tea polyphenol EGCG suppresses cigarette smoke condensate-induced NF-kappaB activation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Syed, D N; Afaq, F; Kweon, M-H; Hadi, N; Bhatia, N; Spiegelman, V S; Mukhtar, H

    2007-02-01

    Cigarette smoke is a powerful inducer of inflammatory responses resulting in disruption of major cellular pathways with transcriptional and genomic alterations driving the cells towards carcinogenesis. Cell culture and animal model studies indicate that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol present in green tea, possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity capable of selectively inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. Here, we demonstrate that EGCG pretreatment (20-80 microM) of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) resulted in significant inhibition of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-induced cell proliferation. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) controls the transcription of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. In most cells, NF-kappaB prevents apoptosis by mediating cell survival signals. Pretreatment of NHBE cells with EGCG suppressed CSC-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, and activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB/p65. NHBE cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing an NF-kappaB-inducible promoter sequence showed an increased reporter activity after CSC exposure that was specifically inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment of NHBE cells with EGCG resulted in a significant downregulation of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins cyclin D1, MMP-9, IL-8 and iNOS. EGCG pretreatment further inhibited CSC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPKs and resulted in a decreased expression of PI3K, AKT and mTOR signaling molecules. Taken together, our data indicate that EGCG can suppress NF-kappaB activation as well as other pro-survival pathways such as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPKs in NHBE cells, which may contribute to its ability to suppress inflammation, proliferation and angiogenesis induced by cigarette smoke.

  9. C/EBPβ-mediated transcriptional regulation of bcl-xl gene expression in human breast epithelial cells in response to cigarette smoke condensate

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Balusu, Ramesh; Kundu, Chanakya N.; Jaiswal, Aruna S.; Gairola, C. Gary; Narayan, Satya

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), a surrogate for cigarette smoke, is capable of transforming the spontaneously immortalized human breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A. These transformed cells displayed upregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene, bcl-xl. Upregulation of this gene may impede the apoptotic pathway and allow the accumulation of DNA damage that can lead to cell transformation and carcinogenesis. In the present study, we have determined the mechanism of CSC-mediated transcriptional upregulation of bcl-xl gene expression in MCF10A cells. We cloned the human bcl-xl promoter (pBcl-xLP) and identified putative transcription factor binding sites. Sequential deletion constructs that removed the putative cis-elements were constructed and transfected into MCF10A cells to determine the CSC-responsive cis-element(s) on the pBcl-xLP. Gel-shift, supershift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed that C/EBPβ specifically bound to a C/EBP-binding site on the pBcl-xLP in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, overexpression of C/EBPβ-LAP2 stimulated pBcl-xLP activity and Bcl-xL protein levels, which mimicked the conditions of CSC treatment. Our results indicate that C/EBPβ regulates bcl-xl gene expression in MCF10A cells in response to CSC treatment, therefore making it a potential target for chemotherapeutic intervention of cigarette smoke-induced breast carcinogenesis. PMID:19043455

  10. Long-term exposure of human gingival fibroblasts to cigarette smoke condensate reduces cell growth by modulating Bax, caspase-3 and p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Alamri, A; Semlali, A; Jacques, É; Alanazi, M; Zakrzewski, A; Chmielewski, W; Rouabhia, M

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of oral tissue damage leading to periodontal disease. Gingival fibroblasts, the predominant cell type inhabiting gingival connective tissue, play a critical role in remodeling and maintaining gingival structure. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to cigarette smoke on human gingival fibroblast survival/apoptosis and the molecular pathways involved in these cell responses. Human gingival fibroblasts were extracted from healthy non-smokers and cultured in the presence of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). At the end of each time point, cell growth was evaluated by means of MTT assay. Apoptotic and necrotic gene's expression was investigated by polymerase chain reaction array and by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cell cycle assays. Western blot was used to investigate Bax and p53 proteins. These tests were supported by caspase 3 activity analyses. High levels of CSC decreased cell growth and deregulated cell cycle progression by increasing the G(0)/G(1) and reducing the S and G(2)/M phases of the gingival fibroblasts. Polymerase chain reaction arrays revealed the activation of several apoptotic genes by CSC, including TNF receptors, caspases, Bax and p53. This was supported by increases in the Bax and p53 protein levels as well as by an elevated activity of caspase-3 in the CSC-exposed cells. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that both Bax and caspase-3 displayed a cytosolic and mitochondrial distribution in the CSC-exposed gingival fibroblasts, compared to controls. The damaging effect of CSC on gingival fibroblast growth was also supported by the decrease in interleukin 6 and 8 secretion by the gingival fibroblasts. These results suggest that CSC may contribute to deregulating fibroblast functions. This can compromise fibroblast-epithelial cell interactions, which ultimately increases the risk of gingival tissue damage and the onset of periodontitis. © 2014 John Wiley

  11. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  12. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli-Mediated Accumulation of Abasic DNA Lesions Lead to Cigarette Smoke Condensate-Induced Neoplastic Transformation of Normal Breast Epithelial Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Aruna S; Panda, Harekrushna; Pampo, Christine A; Siemann, Dietmar W; Gairola, C Gary; Hromas, Robert; Narayan, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a multifunctional protein having diverse cellular functions including cell migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell cycle control, chromosomal segregation, and apoptosis. Recently, we found a new role of APC in base excision repair (BER) and showed that it interacts with DNA polymerase β and 5′-flap endonuclease 1 and interferes in BER. Previously, we have also reported that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increases expression of APC and enhances the growth of normal human breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells in vitro. In the present study, using APC overexpression and knockdown systems, we have examined the molecular mechanisms by which CSC and its major component, Benzo[α]pyrene, enhances APC-mediated accumulation of abasic DNA lesions, which is cytotoxic and mutagenic in nature, leading to enhanced neoplastic transformation of MCF10A cells in an orthotopic xenograft model. PMID:23555190

  13. Multiplexed quantitative high content screening reveals that cigarette smoke condensate induces changes in cell structure and function through alterations in cell signaling pathways in human bronchial cells.

    PubMed

    Carter, Charleata A; Hamm, Jonathan T

    2009-07-10

    Human bronchial cells are one of the first cell types exposed to environmental toxins. Toxins often activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and protein kinase C (PKC). We evaluated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, activates PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB, and concomitantly disrupts the F-actin cytoskeleton, induces apoptosis and alters cell function in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Compared to controls, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to doses of 30mug/ml CSC significantly activated PKC-alpha, while CSC doses above 20mug/ml CSC significantly activated NF-kappaB. As NF-kappaB was activated, cell number decreased. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced a decrease in cell size and an increase in cell surface extensions including filopodia and lamellipodia. CSC treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced F-actin rearrangement such that stress fibers were no longer prominent at the cell periphery and throughout the cells, but relocalized to perinuclear regions. Concurrently, CSC induced an increase in the focal adhesion protein vinculin at the cell periphery. CSC doses above 30mug/ml induced a significant increase in apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells evidenced by an increase in activated caspase 3, an increase in mitochondrial mass and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. As caspase 3 increased, cell number decreased. CSC doses above 30mug/ml also induced significant concurrent changes in cell function including decreased cell spreading and motility. CSC initiates a signaling cascade in human bronchial epithelial cells involving PKC-alpha, NF-kappaB and caspase 3, and consequently decreases cell spreading and motility. These CSC-induced alterations in cell structure likely prevent cells from performing their normal function thereby contributing to smoke-induced diseases.

  14. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, William; Zachariasen, Hans; Andersen, Ivar

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco plant contains nickel and several other toxic metals, most probably absorbed from the soil, fertilizing products or from pesticides. It has been stated that nickel in a burning cigarette might form the volatile, gaseous compound, nickel tetracarbonyl, and thereby be introduced into the respiratory tract. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study was to find out if nickel content in inhaled smoke from ordinary cigarettes and nickel-contaminated cigarettes handmade by nickel process workers might be a supplementary source of nickel exposure to cigarette smoking process workers leading to additional risk of occupational respiratory cancer in these workers. Blood and urine samples from 318 randomly selected employees from Falconbridge Nickel Refinery in Kristiansand, Norway, allocated to 197 smokers and 121 non-smokers, were analysed for nickel content. Nickel quantities in tobacco from various cigarette brands, from nickel-contaminated cigarettes made by process workers or from cigarettes added known amounts of various nickel salts were analysed before being smoked. The cigarettes were smoked in a smoking machine device applying an electrostatic filter. Blood and urine, tobacco, ash and precipitates in the filter from the main stream smoke of the cigarettes were analysed for nickel quantities by atomic absorption spectrometry methods as previously described by the authors. The nickel concentrations in blood plasma and urine were quite similar among smokers and non-smokers, 6.2 and 48.1 microg L(-1) in smokers, and 6.4 and 50.5 microg L(-1) in non-smokers respectively. We recovered 1.1% or even less of nickel in the mainstream smoke after smoking the entire cigarettes without leaving any butt. Most of the tobacco nickel was recovered in the ash. We conclude that the inhaled nickel in the working atmosphere is probably the main source of the nickel exposure to the respiratory tract in these workers. It remains to be determined why cigarette

  15. Sleep deprivation increases cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-09-01

    Loss of sleep may impair the ability to abstain from drug use, through any of a number of mechanisms. Sleep loss may increase drug use by impairing attention and inhibitory control, increasing the value of drug rewards over other rewards, or by inducing mood states that facilitate use of a drug. In the present study, we examined whether sleep deprivation (SD) would increase smoking in cigarette smokers, and whether it would do so by impairing attention or inhibitory control. Healthy cigarette smokers (N=14) were tested in a two-session within subject study, after overnight SD or after a normal night's sleep. Subjects were tested in both conditions in randomized order, after abstaining from cigarettes for 48 hours. The procedure was designed to model the human relapse situation. On each 6-h laboratory session after sleep or no sleep, subjects completed mood and craving questionnaires, tasks measuring behavioral inhibition and attention, and a choice procedure in which they chose between money and smoking cigarettes. SD increased self-reported fatigue and decreased arousal, it increased the number of cigarettes subjects chose to smoke, impaired behavioral inhibition and attention. However, the impairments in inhibition or attention were not related to the increase in smoking. It is possible that SD increases smoking because smokers expect that it will reduce sleepiness. Thus, the findings suggest that sleep loss may increase the likelihood of smoking during abstinence not through inhibitory or attentional mechanisms but because of the potential of nicotine to reduce subjective sleepiness.

  16. Cigarette smoke and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Hofmann, W.; Lowe, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps specifically at airway bifurcations. The elevated risk of lung cancer to smokers may result from a complex interplay between smoking and exposure to ambient Rn progeny, including the promotional-effect role (as opposed to being the initiating event) of cigarette smoke in tumor development. It has been determined that smokers exposed to average indoor Rn progency levels receive surprisingly high doses at hot spots within bronchial bifurcations.

  17. Cigarette smoking and its possible effects on sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikauskas, V.; Blaustein, D.; Ablin, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The possible effects of cigarette smoking on sperm were evaluated by comparison of the quality of sperm from 103 smokers and 135 nonsmokers in a blind study. Smokers were found to possess significantly decreased density (number) and motility of their sperm than nonsmokers. Morphologic abnormalities, particularly bicephalia, although prevalent among individual smokers, did not differ significantly when a comparison of smokers versus nonsmokers was made as a whole. Based on these observations and those of others demonstrating the presence of the mutagenic properties of smoke condensates, the authors suggest that decreases in sperm density and motility in cigarette smokers may be reflective of smoke condensate-induced mutagenic spermatogenital alterations.

  18. Particulate matter in cigarette smoke alters iron homeostasis to produce a biological effect.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline G; Dailey, Lisa A; Carter, Jacqueline D; Richards, Judy H; Crissman, Kay M; Foronjy, Robert F; Uyeminami, Dale L; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2008-12-01

    Lung injury after cigarette smoking is related to particle retention. Iron accumulates with the deposition of these particles. We tested the postulate that (1) injury after smoking correlates with exposure to the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, (2) these particles alter iron homeostasis, triggering metal accumulation, and (3) this alteration in iron homeostasis affects oxidative stress and inflammation. Rats and human respiratory epithelial cells were exposed to cigarette smoke, filtered cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke condensate (the particulate fraction of smoke), and indices of iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory injury were determined. Comparable measures were also evaluated in nonsmokers and smokers. After exposure of rats to cigarette smoke, increased lavage concentrations of iron and ferritin, serum ferritin levels, and nonheme iron concentrations in the lung and liver tissue all increased. Lavage ascorbate concentrations were decreased, supporting an oxidative stress. After filtering of the cigarette smoke to remove particles, most of these changes were reversed. Exposure of cultured respiratory epithelial cells to cigarette smoke condensate caused a similar accumulation of iron, metal-dependent oxidative stress, and increased IL-8 release. Lavage samples in healthy smokers and smoking patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease revealed elevated concentrations of both iron and ferritin relative to healthy nonsmokers. Lavage ascorbate decreased with cigarette smoking. Serum iron and ferritin levels among smokers were increased, supporting systemic accumulation of this metal after cigarette smoke exposure. We conclude that cigarette smoke particles alter iron homeostasis, both in the lung and systemically.

  19. Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ken W. K.; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases. PMID:23882278

  20. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baron, J A; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Mittendorf, R; Storer, B E; Clapp, R W; Bogdan, G; Yuen, J

    1996-05-01

    A priori hypotheses suggest that cigarette smoking could either increase or decrease breast cancer incidence. To clarify these competing hypotheses, we used data from a very large population-based breast cancer case-control study to investigate the impact of smoking on breast cancer risk. Breast cancer patients less than 75 years old were identified from statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire; controls were randomly selected from driver's license lists (age less than 65) or lists of Medicare beneficiaries (age 65-74). Information on reproductive history, medical history, and personal habits including cigarette smoking was obtained by telephone interview. A total of 6,888 cases and 9,529 controls were interviewed. There was virtually no relationship between current smoking and breast cancer risk (multivariate odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.09), and former smokers had a barely increased risk (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.19). Similar results were observed among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no suggestion that heavy or long-term smoking increased or decreased risk, nor were there indications that women who began smoking at an early age were at increased risk, as has been hypothesized. The results of this large population-based study indicate that smoking does not influence the risk of breast cancer, even among heavy smokers who began smoking at an early age.

  1. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  2. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, John S; Lai, Sue Min

    2015-06-11

    Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation.

  3. Effects of cigarette smoking on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dechanet, C; Anahory, T; Mathieu Daude, J C; Quantin, X; Reyftmann, L; Hamamah, S; Hedon, B; Dechaud, H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is associated with lower fecundity rates, adverse reproductive outcomes and a higher risk of IVF failures. Over the last few decades, prevalence of smoking among women of reproductive age has increased. This review focuses on current knowledge of the potential effects of smoke toxicants on all reproductive stages and the consequences of smoke exposure on reproductive functions. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on the impact of cigarette smoking and smoke constituents on the different stages of reproductive function, including epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. We attempted to create hypotheses and find explanations for the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke observed in experimental studies. RESULTS Cigarette smoke contains several thousand components (e.g. nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cadmium) with diverse effects. Each stage of reproductive function, folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and uterine myometrium is a target for cigarette smoke components. The effects of cigarette smoke are dose-dependent and are influenced by the presence of other toxic substances and hormonal status. Individual sensitivity, dose, time and type of exposure also play a role in the impact of smoke constituents on human fertility. CONCLUSIONS All stages of reproductive functions are targets of cigarette smoke toxicants. Further studies are necessary to better understand the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke compounds on the reproductive system in order to improve health care, help to reduce cigarette smoking and provide a better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive toxicology.

  4. Health Education and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Morison, James B.; Medovy, Herry; MacDonell, Gordon T.

    1964-01-01

    The smoking habits of Winnipeg school students were surveyed before and after a three-year program of health education on the hazards of smoking, directed to 8300 out of 48,000 students. The program consisted of informal approaches to students in elementary schools and a formal program of talks, lectures, films, and student participation for older students. There were fewer students at all ages who had never smoked a cigarette at the time of the second survey. There was a slight decrease in the number of regular smokers in high school, most marked in the school where the program was enthusiastically received and student participation was most active. A direct relationship between parental smoking and that of the student, and an inverse relationship between academic achievement and student smoking, were shown on both surveys. The majority of students believed that smoking caused lung cancer and other hazards to health, although this was less marked among smokers. The results indicated that an intensive program of health education directed to the teenagers in school was a potentially useful approach to the problem of cigarette smoking. PMID:14154295

  5. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11)

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Jenny A.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Dickens, Caroline; Anderson, Ronald; Feldman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F) to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL) for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P < 0.014–0.0006) upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11), consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen. PMID:25013815

  6. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P < .05). Our results support the notion of a content-related effect of cigarette advertisements and underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  7. Electronic-cigarette smoking experience among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun Ho; Shin, Eunyoung; Moon, Sang-Sik

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the level of awareness and contact routes to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), and to identify significant factors that may affect adolescent use of e-cigarettes; this study explores the experience of e-cigarettes among adolescents. Using the data from the 2008 Health Promotion Fund Project in Korea, we used a hierarchical logistic regression analysis to evaluate gender, level of school, family smoking, perception of peer influence, satisfaction in school life, and cigarette smoking experience as predictors of trying e-cigarettes among adolescents in five schools in Korea. Overall, 444 (10.2%) students responded as having seen or heard of e-cigarettes. Twenty-two (.5%) students reported as having used an e-cigarette. The contact routes of information on e-cigarettes were the Internet (249, 46.4%), friends (150, 27.9%), television (59, 11.0%), books (50, 9.3%), and others (29, 5.4%). The following factors were determined to be statistically significant predictors of e-cigarette experience: male gender, perception of peer influence, satisfaction in school life, and cigarette smoking experience. In light of this fact, continuous attention needs to be paid on the marketing of e-cigarettes on Internet sites to prevent adolescents from being exposed to unsupported claims about e-cigarettes and to provide appropriate information on health effects. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening for DNA adducts in ovarian follicles exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and cigarette smoke condensate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chunhe; Foster, Warren G; Sadeu, Jean C; Siddique, Shabana; Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2017-01-01

    A rapid mass spectrometric method was applied to non-targeted screening of DNA adducts in follicular cells (granulosa cells and theca cells) from isolated ovarian follicles that were exposed in-vitro to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) for 13days of culture. The method employed a constant neutral loss (CNL) scan to identify chromatographic peaks associated to a neutral loss of deoxyribose moiety of DNA nucleosides. These peaks were subsequently analyzed by a product ion scan in tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate structures of DNA adducts. The identification was further confirmed through synthesis of proposed DNA adducts where possible. Three DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-dG (BPDE-dG), phenanthrene 1,2-quinone-dG (PheQ-dG) and B[a]P-7,8-quinone-dG (BPQ-dG) were identified in the follicular cells from isolated ovarian follicles exposed to B[a]P. Along with these three, an additional DNA adduct, 4-aminobiphenyl-dG, was identified in the follicular cells from isolated ovarian follicles exposed to CSC. The amounts of the identified DNA adducts in follicular cells increased in a dose-dependent manner for both B[a]P (0, 1.5, 5, 15 and 45ng/mL) and CSC (0, 30, 60, 90 and 130μg/mL). The results revealed that B[a]P-related DNA adducts were the major adducts in the ovarian follicular cells exposed to CSC. The results also revealed that two oxidative biomarkers, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OH-dG) and 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP), in both B[a]P-exposed and CSC-exposed ovarian follicles had strong correlations with the three DNA adducts, BPDE-dG, BPQ-dG and PheQ-dG. A pathway to describe formation of DNA adducts was proposed based on the DNA adducts observed.

  9. Cigarette smoking, nicotine and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haustein, K O

    1999-09-01

    Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy and nursing causes considerable health damage to the fetus and to the infant during the initial growth phase. A smoking mother puts her child at considerable risk, not only of higher incidence of spontaneous abortion, premature ablatio placentae and reduced weight at birth, but also of deformities (cheilognathopalatoschisis, deformed extremities, polycystic kidneys, aortopulmonary septum defects, gastroschisis, skull deformation, etc.). Development of the Down syndrome is the subject of some controversy. These types of damage are caused by the hypoxia followed by carboxyhemoglobinemia occurring during smoking and are also observed in CO poisonings that also result in deformities. Numerous infants die during the first months of life of the so-called sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which can also be caused by maternal smoking and passive smoking. The contribution of nicotine to such health damage is still unclear, especially because only animal trial data are available, the applicability of which to human beings is questionable. It can be said that studies to date have revealed no deformities confirmed as having been caused by nicotine. Cardiopulmonary disturbances resulting from changes in the regulation of dopaminergic receptors are under discussion, but have not yet reached the status of a pathogenic principle. On the whole, all child health complications arising during pregnancy can be attributed almost exclusively to tobacco combustion products including the CO formed. Passage of nicotine into human milk has been confirmed in nursing smokers; passive smoking by mother and child also raises nicotine and cotinine levels in the milk and in the infant. These findings could lead to a reconsideration of smoking withdrawal therapy for pregnant women.

  10. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  11. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  12. Analysis of complex mixtures--cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, Michael; Klus, Hubert

    2005-07-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke is a complex mixture that is inhaled into the respiratory system. The physical characteristics and chemical composition of mainstream smoke are reviewed and briefly compared with that of sidestream smoke. Special attention is paid to ageing effects and artifact formation during the sampling and testing of cigarette smoke, with specific examples of artifact formation during sampling discussed (nitrogen dioxide, methyl nitrite, etc.). Historically, the generation of cigarette smoke for chemical and biological testing has been based on standard smoke generation procedures that are intended for product comparisons. More recently, emerging global regulations have called for alternative smoke generation methods, with emphasis on results relevant to conditions of product use, e.g., estimates of maximum smoke emissions. Strategies for establishing such alternative smoke generation methods are discussed and the potential effects of alternative smoking conditions on analytical accuracy and precision are addressed. Current regulatory requirements that include Hoffmann analyte analysis (i.e., constituents reported to be associated with the risks of cigarette smoking) are also summarized and the potential effect of alternative smoke generation methods on individual constituent yields considered. Finally, a limited critique of emerging regulation that relates to mainstream cigarette smoke measurements, including a discussion of recent WHO recommendations, is offered.

  13. Influence of cigarette circumference on smoke chemistry, biological activity, and smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Kevin; Eldridge, Alison; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Manson, Andrew; Murphy, James; Porter, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Cigarettes with reduced circumference are increasingly popular in some countries, hence it is important to understand the effects of circumference reduction on their burning behaviour, smoke chemistry and bioactivity. Reducing circumference reduces tobacco mass burn rate, puff count and static burn time, and increases draw resistance and rod length burned during puff and smoulder periods. Smoulder temperature increases with decreasing circumference, but with no discernible effect on cigarette ignition propensity during a standard test. At constant packing density, mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) tar and nicotine yields decrease approximately linearly with decreasing circumference, as do the majority of smoke toxicants. However, volatile aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, show a distinctly non-linear relationship with circumference and increases in the ratios of aldehydes to tar and nicotine have been observed as the circumference decreases. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and tumorigenic specific activities of smoke condensates (i.e. per unit weight of condensate) decrease as circumference decreases. Recent studies suggest that there is no statistical difference in mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine among smokers of cigarettes with different circumferences. Commercially available slim cigarettes usually have changes in other cigarette design features compared with cigarettes with standard circumference, so it is difficult to isolate the effect of circumference on the properties of commercial products. However, available data shows that changes in cigarette circumference offer no discernible change to the harm associated with smoking.

  14. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  15. Effects of cigarette smoking on erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kovac, J R; Labbate, C; Ramasamy, R; Tang, D; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although public policies have resulted in a decreased number of new smokers, smoking rates remain stubbornly high in certain demographics with 20% of all American middle-aged men smoking. In addition to the well-established harmful effects of smoking (i.e. coronary artery disease and lung cancer), the past three decades have led to a compendium of evidence being compiled into the development of a relationship between cigarette smoking and erectile dysfunction. The main physiologic mechanism that appears to be affected includes the nitric oxide signal transduction pathway. This review details the recent literature linking cigarette smoking to erectile dysfunction, epidemiological associations, dose dependency and the effects of smoking cessation on improving erectile quality. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  17. Price sensitivity and smoking smuggled cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jie-Min; Chen, Sheng-Hung; Chen, Hsin-Fan; Jeng, Huei-Yann Joann

    2009-01-01

    This study analysed the socio-economic factors that influence a smoker's decision to consume smuggled cigarettes when faced with the rising costs of legal cigarettes. We hope our findings will help public health authorities create policies that simultaneously discourage consumption of smuggled cigarettes and lower overall smoking levels. We conducted a national telephone survey from April to June 2004. We then applied Multiple Logistic Regression to the collected data to answer the following questions: do socio-economically disadvantaged smokers differ significantly in their characteristics? If so, which characteristics are most influential in the decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes? Smokers with a personal monthly income of less than New Taiwan dollar (NT$) 10,000 are 24% more likely to smoke smuggled cigarettes than are smokers who earn NT$10,000 or more. Smokers with the least amount of education are 21% more likely to smoke smuggled cigarettes than those with higher levels of education. Smokers with the most experience purchasing smuggled cigarettes are 31% more likely to do so than those with less experience. Finally, smokers who have a personal monthly income of less than NT$10,000 and the least amount of education are 54% more likely to smoke smuggled cigarettes than those with just one--or none--of these characteristics. Low-income, poorly-educated smokers are most likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes. To alter such behaviour, government must understand the motivations and opinions of this population and create marketing messages targeted specifically to their needs.

  18. Health consequences of pipe versus cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Tverdal, Aage; Bjartveit, Kjell

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the risk of dying from all causes and from specified smoking-related diseases in men who were exclusive daily pipe smokers at two consecutive examinations, and in men who switched from smoking cigarettes only to pipe only. A prospective cohort study. Three counties in Norway. 16, 932 men, aged 20-49, screened for cardiovascular disease risk factors in the mid-1970s, re-screened after 3-13 years, and followed throughout 2007. Absolute mortality and relative risks adjusted for confounding variables, of dying from all causes and ischaemic heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and other smoking-related cancer. Altogether, the men were observed for 403, 327 years, and during the observation period, 4933 deaths occurred. With sustained never smokers as reference, the sustained smokers of a pipe only had adjusted relative risk (95% CI), of dying from any cause that was 1.99 (1.73 to 2.27). At comparable tobacco consumption, no significant difference in risk between pipe and cigarette smokers appeared. As to survival, no difference was found between sustained smokers of a pipe only and of cigarettes only. Men who switched from cigarettes only to pipe only had a risk which was not significantly different from the risk in sustained smokers of cigarettes only. Between pipe and cigarette smokers, no or only minor differences were found in mortality from any cause and the specified smoking-related diseases. Pipe smoking is not safer than cigarette smoking.

  19. Women, smoking, cigarette advertising and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ernster, V L

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer in women, accounting for about one-fourth of their estimated 219,000 cancer deaths per year. Cigarette smoking specifically increases a woman's risk of developing cancer of the lung, larynx, esophagus, oral cavity, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and possibly uterine cervix. During the past twenty years, concerted efforts have been made by the tobacco industry to increase sales to women. Strategies have included development of "feminine" brands such as Virginia Slims, slick media campaigns portraying smoking as elegant and glamorous, and sponsorship of fashion, women's sports events, and even medical programs. Reversal of these alarming trends requires that women as well as men recognize the role of cigarette smoking in cancer causation, and support programs which promote non-smoking as well as combat the influence of the tobacco industry on women's smoking behavior.

  20. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit cigarette smoke condensate-induced lung cancer cell migration through inhibition of NADPH oxidase and reduction in the binding of p22(phox) and p47(phox) proteins.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. It is therefore important to develop effective strategies that target molecular abnormalities induced by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Cigarette smoking increases oxidative stress particularly via activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX), a key source of superoxide anion production. Here, we report that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) exert an inhibitory effect on the CSC-induced migration of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells (A549, H460, and H1299). Using an in vitro invasion assay, we found that treatment of NSCLC cells with CSC increased NSCLC cell migration by enhancing NOX mediated-oxidative stress. Treatment of NSCLC cells with GSPs inhibited the CSC-induced cell migration through reduction in oxidative stress levels and a reduction in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. To identify the molecular targets of GSPs, we examined the effects of GSPs on CSC-induced alterations in the levels of key NOX components, namely p22(phox) and p47(phox) proteins, using A549 cells. We also determined the effect of GSPs on CSC-induced interaction/binding between these proteins, which is a key event in NOX activation. We found that treatment of A549 cells with GSPs not only inhibited the CSC-induced increase in the expression levels of p22(phox) and p47(phox) , but also reduced the binding of p22(phox) to p47(phox) proteins. This new insight into the anti-lung cancer cell migration activity of GSPs could serve as a basis for development of improved chemopreventive or therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The contribution of heavy metals in cigarette smoke condensate to malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells and in vivo initiation of neoplasia through induction of a PI3K–AKT–NFκB cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Preet, Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Wyatt, Michael D.; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a crucial factor in the development and progression of multiple cancers including breast. Here, we report that repeated exposure to a fixed, low dose of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from Indian cigarettes is capable of transforming normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, and delineate the biochemical basis for cellular transformation. CSC transformed cells (MCF-10A-Tr) were capable of anchorage-independent growth, and their anchorage dependent growth and colony forming ability were higher compared to the non-transformed MCF-10A cells. Increased expression of biomarkers representative of oncogenic transformation (NRP-1, Nectin-4), and anti-apoptotic markers (PI3K, AKT, NFκB) were also noted in the MCF-10A-Tr cells. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of MCF-10A and MCF-10A-Tr cells revealed that transformed cells acquired allelic variation during transformation, and had become genetically distinct. MCF-10A-Tr cells formed solid tumors when implanted into the mammary fat pads of Balb/c mice. Data revealed that CSC contained approximately 1.011 μg Cd per cigarette equivalent, and Cd (0.0003 μg Cd/1 × 10{sup 7} cells) was also detected in the lysates from MCF-10A cells treated with 25 μg/mL CSC. In similar manner to CSC, CdCl{sub 2} treatment in MCF-10A cells caused anchorage independent colony growth, higher expression of oncogenic proteins and increased PI3K–AKT–NFκB protein expression. An increase in the expression of PI3K–AKT–NFκB was also noted in the mice xenografts. Interestingly, it was noted that CSC and CdCl{sub 2} treatment in MCF-10A cells increased ROS. Collectively, results suggest that heavy metals present in cigarettes of Indian origin may substantially contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing intercellular ROS accumulation and increased expression of PI3K, AKT and NFκB proteins. - Highlights: • Repeated exposure of CSC causes malignant transformation in MCF-10A. • MCF-10A-Tr cells showed a distinct

  2. "Smoking wet": respiratory failure related to smoking tainted marijuana cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2013-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as "wet" or "fry," has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries. We report the cases of 2 young adults who presented at our hospital with respiratory failure soon after they had smoked "wet" marijuana cigarettes. In both patients, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitated rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After lengthy hospitalizations, both patients recovered with only mild pulmonary function abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first 2-patient report of severe respiratory failure and rescue therapy with extracorporeal oxygenation after the smoking of marijuana cigarettes thus tainted. We believe that, in young adults with an unexplained presentation of severe respiratory failure, the possibility of exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes should be considered.

  3. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  4. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70-28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04-19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  5. Does environmental cigarette smoke affect breastfeeding behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimallah; Nikpour, Maryam; Banihosseini, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure of lactating women to environmental cigarette smoke may increase cotinine in breast milk, which in turn may reduce the volume of milk and the duration of breastfeeding. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between exposure to environmental cigarette smoke and breastfeeding behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 290 mothers in Babol - Iran, who had been breastfeeding for 3–5 days after delivery. The lactating mothers were divided into two groups: those exposed to environmental cigarette smoke, and those free from smoke exposure. The study questionnaire included demographic data, information on environmental cigarette smoke, and breastfeeding behavior. Data was collected through telephone interviews at 2, 4, and 6 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, and test of significance using Chi-square test, t-test, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The continuation of breastfeeding for the group of exposed mothers and the unexposed group was (mean ± standard deviation) 5.57 ± 0.098 and 5.58 ± 0.109, respectively in 6 months of follow-up. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.93). The percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months in the group exposed to cigarette smoke was 65% compared to 76% of the nonexposed group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.149). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, no significant association was observed between the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke and the nonexposed group in breastfeeding behavior, although the percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was less in the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke. Further exploratory studies are needed. PMID:28163575

  6. Limitations of cigarette machine smoking regimens.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Carchman, R A

    2011-05-30

    There is an ongoing debate about the 'usefulness' of the standard machine smoking regimen for cigarettes defined by the US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and adopted in principal by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). More intense smoking regimens result in much higher smoke yields, and these higher yields have been suggested to be much closer to human smoke uptake. However, it appears that more intense smoking regimens are less efficient in detecting possible differences in the yield of toxicants. Intense smoking regimens reproducibly decrease the concentration of toxicants in the smoke per unit mass of total particulate matter, tar, or nicotine, most likely as a result of a more complete combustion. The toxicant concentration reaches the same plateau for different cigarette types under the intense smoking regimens. As such, differences in toxicant concentrations due to product changes, which are observable under ISO or FTC conditions, may disappear under intensive smoking regimens. Intense machine smoking regimens might be used for regulatory compliance and consumer information. However, when evaluating the toxicological impact of cigarette product changes, especially to avoid increases in toxicity, they should not be used as a standard (or at least not as the only standard). The type of smoking regimen has to be carefully considered and aligned to the underlying question. Depending on the question a combination of the reviewed regimens or even other approaches might be appropriate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cigarette Smoking Onset among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.; And Others

    While data on the onset of cigarette smoking among younger adolescents has been investigated extensively, it is less clear whether the same social factors influence older adolescents. To examine these social factors, as well as the influence of personality and beliefs, 1,977 high school participants in an anti-smoking study completed a…

  8. Selenium-mediated reduction in the mutagenicity of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Baker, J.L.; Chamberlain, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens and mutagens and affects the health of smokers. Recently, increased research has proven the potentially protective activity of selenium (Se) against heavy metal toxicity, cancer, and other health disorders. Accordingly, we have proposed the fortification of tobacco with Se to develop safer cigarettes. As a start in evaluating any biological effects of added Se, we have determined the mutagenicity of inhaled, mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), with and without Se, in the preincubation assay of the Ames test. Initially, it was shown that Se, as sodium selenite, was not mutagenic at high concentrations (up to 80 micrograms/plate) with strains TA1538 and TA1978. Subsequently, the effects of different levels of Se, added to MS CSC, were examined with TA98, TA100, and TA1538. On the average, addition of 10 micrograms Se produced mutagenicity reductions of about 50%. Higher levels of added Se yielded further reductions. Cigarette sidestream (SS) smoke, collected between puffs, was also tested. Again, Se added to SS-CSC gave similar reductions, confirming its antimutagenic effect for both mainstream and sidestream smoke.

  9. Selenium-mediated reduction in the mutagenicity of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Baker, J.L.; Chamberlain, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens and mutagens and affects the health of smokers. Recently, increased research has proven the potentially protective activity of selenium (Se) against heavy metal toxicity, cancer, and other health disorders. Accordingly, we have proposed the fortification of tobacco with Se to develop safer cigarettes. As a start in evaluating any biological effects of added Se, we have determined the mutagenicity of inhaled, mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), with and without Se, in the preincubation assay of the Ames test. Initially, it was shown that Se, as sodium selenite, was not mutagenic at high concentrations (up to 80 micrograms/plate) with strains TA1538 and TA1978. Subsequently, the effects of different levels of Se, added to MS CSC, were examined with TA98, TA100, and TA1538. On the average, addition of 10 micrograms Se produced mutagenicity reductions of about 50%. Higher levels of added Se yielded further reductions. Cigarette sidestream (SS) smoke, collected between puffs, was also tested. Again, Se added to SS-CSC gave similar reductions, confirming its antimutagenic effect for both mainstream and sidestream smoke.

  10. Adolescent smoking experimentation as a predictor of daily cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Gabrielli, Joy; Budney, Alan; Soneji, Samir; Wills, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    The utility of studying substance use during early adolescence depends on how well indicies of lower-level experimentation predict the development of substance use problems. We examined associations between experimental cigarette use at T1, recanting of use 8 months later (T2), and daily smoking at 2 years (T4). Longitudinal telephone survey of 6522 US youth aged 10-14, examining lifetime cigarette smoking (none, just puffing, 1-19, 20-100, >100) and recanting (i.e., reporting lifetime use at T1, denying ever using at T2) as predictors of T4 daily smoking using multivariable logistic regression. Covariates included sociodemographics, friend/family smoking, school performance, and personality characteristics. The sample was 51% male, 18% Black, 17% Hispanic, with 70% retained at T2. At T1, 407 (8.9%) adolescents reported some smoking, of whom 85 (20.9%) recanted at T2. At T4, 970 reported any smoking, of whom 88 (9.1%) were daily smokers. Any T1 experimentation identified two-thirds of T4 daily smokers (sensitivity=66.7%) with a false positive rate of 7.8%. T1 lifetime smoking categories were associated with the following adjusted odds ratios for T4 daily smoking (vs. never smokers): 2.7 for recanters (95% confidence interval 0.82, 8.5), 3.5 for few puffs (1.7, 7.0), 9.6 for 1-19 cigarettes (4.1, 22.3), 3.8 for 20-100 cigarettes (1.0, 14.3), and 30.1 for >100 cigarettes (8.1, 111). In this sample experimentation with cigarettes predicted future daily smoking with high utility. The findings provide a rationale for monitoring and reporting any experimentation cigarettes as a tobacco surveillance outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The contribution of heavy metals in cigarette smoke condensate to malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells and in vivo initiation of neoplasia through induction of a PI3K-AKT-NFκB cascade.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Preet, Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Wyatt, Michael D; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a crucial factor in the development and progression of multiple cancers including breast. Here, we report that repeated exposure to a fixed, low dose of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from Indian cigarettes is capable of transforming normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, and delineate the biochemical basis for cellular transformation. CSC transformed cells (MCF-10A-Tr) were capable of anchorage-independent growth, and their anchorage dependent growth and colony forming ability were higher compared to the non-transformed MCF-10A cells. Increased expression of biomarkers representative of oncogenic transformation (NRP-1, Nectin-4), and anti-apoptotic markers (PI3K, AKT, NFκB) were also noted in the MCF-10A-Tr cells. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of MCF-10A and MCF-10A-Tr cells revealed that transformed cells acquired allelic variation during transformation, and had become genetically distinct. MCF-10A-Tr cells formed solid tumors when implanted into the mammary fat pads of Balb/c mice. Data revealed that CSC contained approximately 1.011μg Cd per cigarette equivalent, and Cd (0.0003μg Cd/1×10(7) cells) was also detected in the lysates from MCF-10A cells treated with 25μg/mL CSC. In similar manner to CSC, CdCl2 treatment in MCF-10A cells caused anchorage independent colony growth, higher expression of oncogenic proteins and increased PI3K-AKT-NFκB protein expression. An increase in the expression of PI3K-AKT-NFκB was also noted in the mice xenografts. Interestingly, it was noted that CSC and CdCl2 treatment in MCF-10A cells increased ROS. Collectively, results suggest that heavy metals present in cigarettes of Indian origin may substantially contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing intercellular ROS accumulation and increased expression of PI3K, AKT and NFκB proteins. © 2013.

  12. Cigarette smoking and leukocyte subpopulations in men.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D S; Flanders, W D; Barboriak, J J; Malarcher, A M; Gates, L

    1996-07-01

    Because of previously reported associations among the total leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the relation of cigarette smoking to various leukocyte subpopulations among 3467 men aged 31 to 45 years. The median total leukocyte count was 36% higher (7840 vs. 5760 cells/mL) among current cigarette smokers than among men who had never smoked, and both stratification and regression analyses were used to examine independent associations with leukocyte subpopulations. At equivalent counts of other subpopulations, CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils were the cell types most strongly associated with cigarette smoking; each standard deviation change in counts of these subpopulations increased the odds of current (vs. never) smoking by approximately threefold. Furthermore, whereas 15% of the 238 men with relatively low (< 25 percentile) counts of both neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes were cigarette smokers, 96% of the 249 men with relatively high counts of both subpopulations were current smokers. Counts of T lymphocytes also tended to be higher among the 32 men with self-reported ischemic heart disease than among other men. These results, along with previous reports of immunologically active T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest that this subpopulation may be of particular interest in studies examining the relation of leukocytes to cardiovascular disease.

  13. Overview of the pharmacogenomics of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Ho, M K; Tyndale, R F

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of numerous health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders, making smoking the leading cause of preventable death in the world. Nicotine is primarily responsible for the highly addictive properties of cigarettes. Although the majority of smokers express a desire to quit, few are successful in doing so. Twin and family studies have indicated substantial genetic contributions to smoking behaviors. One major research focus has been to elucidate the specific genes involved; this has been accomplished primarily through genome-wide linkage analyses and candidate gene association studies. Much attention has focused on genes involved in the neurotransmitter pathways for the brain reward system and genes altering nicotine metabolism. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge for genetic factors implicated in smoking behaviors, and examines how genetic variations may affect therapeutic outcomes for drugs used to assist smoking cessation.

  14. Smoking bans, cigarette prices and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Odermatt, Reto; Stutzer, Alois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of tobacco control policies for individual welfare are difficult to assess, even more so when related consumption choices challenge people's willpower. We therefore evaluate the impact of smoking bans and cigarette prices on subjective well-being by analyzing data for 40 European countries and regions between 1990 and 2011. We exploit the staggered introduction of bans and apply an imputation strategy to study the effect of anti-smoking policies on people with different propensities to smoke. We find that higher cigarette prices reduce the life satisfaction of likely smokers. Overall, smoking bans are barely related to subjective well-being, but increase the life satisfaction of smokers who would like to quit smoking. The latter finding is consistent with cue-triggered models of addiction and the idea of bans as self-control devices.

  15. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke.

  16. Mutagenicity of wood smoke condensates in the Salmonella/microsome assay.

    PubMed

    Asita, A O; Matsui, M; Nohmi, T; Matsuoka, A; Hayashi, M; Ishidate, M; Sofuni, T; Koyano, M; Matsushita, H

    1991-09-01

    Smoke condensates of woods used for food preservation and aromatization in Nigeria were tested for mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were: white mangrove (Avicennia nitida), red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa), mahogany Khaya sp.), abura (Mitragyna ciliata), alstonia (Alstonia boonei) and black afara (Terminalia ivorensis). Cigarette tar was tested for comparison. The condensates induced dose-dependent increases in the number of His+ revertants mainly with S9 mix. With the exception of mahogany and cigarette smoke condensate, the smoke condensates induced more revertants/microgram condensate in TA100 than in TA98. The number of revertants/microgram condensate ranged between 0.04 and 0.9 for the wood smoke condensates and was 0.12 for the cigarette smoke in TA100. The range was between 0.1 and 0.30 for the wood smoke condensates and 0.18 revertants/microgram condensate for cigarette smoke condensate in TA98. Concentrations of 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the condensates were determined namely, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[b]chrysene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene. The condensates contained varying concentrations of the individual PAHs and those with higher concentrations generally showed greater mutagenic activities. However, the order of mutagenic potency in the bacterial strains differed from the order of PAH concentrations, which were lower than the concentrations at which they are reported to induce mutations. When 6 of the PAHs were mixed in the concentrations in which they were found in the individual condensates, the mixtures did not induce mutation so that the contribution of the PAHs to the mutagenic activities of the condensates could not be determined.

  17. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Following Rape

    PubMed Central

    Amstadter, Ananda B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Minhinnett, Robin; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    Although prior research has identified increases in cigarette smoking following trauma exposure, no studies have examined longitudinal trajectories of smoking following rape. The present investigation identifies and characterizes longitudinal (< 3 months, 3-6 months, and > 6 months post-assault) trajectories of smoking (N = 152) following a rape in a sample of 268 sexual assault victims participating in a forensic medical exam. Further, we examine acute predictors of subsequent smoking trajectories. Of participants endorsing smoking post-rape, a two-class solution was identified, with the majority of participants (74.6%) evidencing moderate smoking with a slight decrease over time and remaining participants showing heavy smoking with a slight increase over time. Having sustained an injury, minority status, and post-exam distress all predicted subsequent smoking trajectory. PMID:19370699

  18. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    EPA Science Inventory

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  19. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    EPA Science Inventory

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  20. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Begh, Rachna; Stead, Lindsay F; Hajek, Peter

    2016-09-14

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are electronic devices that heat a liquid into an aerosol for inhalation. The liquid usually comprises propylene glycol and glycerol, with or without nicotine and flavours, and stored in disposable or refillable cartridges or a reservoir. Since ECs appeared on the market in 2006 there has been a steady growth in sales. Smokers report using ECs to reduce risks of smoking, but some healthcare organizations, tobacco control advocacy groups and policy makers have been reluctant to encourage smokers to switch to ECs, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. Smokers, healthcare providers and regulators are interested to know if these devices can help smokers quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. This review is an update of a review first published in 2014. To evaluate the safety and effect of using ECs to help people who smoke achieve long-term smoking abstinence. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant records from 2004 to January 2016, together with reference checking and contact with study authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which current smokers (motivated or unmotivated to quit) were randomized to EC or a control condition, and which measured abstinence rates at six months or longer. As the field of EC research is new, we also included cohort follow-up studies with at least six months follow-up. We included randomized cross-over trials, RCTs and cohort follow-up studies that included at least one week of EC use for assessment of adverse events (AEs). We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up, and we used the most rigorous definition available (continuous, biochemically validated, longest follow-up). We used a fixed-effect Mantel

  1. Resveratrol and curcumin synergistically induces apoptosis in cigarette smoke condensate transformed breast epithelial cells through a p21(Waf1/Cip1) mediated inhibition of Hh-Gli signaling.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Das, Dipon; Nayak, Anmada; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2015-09-01

    Combination therapy using two or more small molecule inhibitors of aberrant signaling cascade in aggressive breast cancers is a promising therapeutic strategy over traditional monotherapeutic approaches. Here, we have studied the synergistic mechanism of resveratrol and curcumin induced apoptosis using in vitro (cigarette smoke condensate mediated transformed breast epithelial cell, MCF-10A-Tr) and in vivo (tumor xenograft mice) model system. Resveratrol exposure increased the intracellular uptake of curcumin in a dose dependent manner and caused apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells. Approximately, ten fold lower IC50 value was noted in cells treated with the combination of resveratrol (3μM) and curcumin (3μM) in comparison to 30μM of resveratrol or curcumin alone. Resveratrol+curcumin combination caused apoptosis by increasing Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, Cytochrome C release, cleaved product of PARP and caspase 3 in cells. Interestingly, this combination unaltered the protein expressions of WNT-TCF and Notch signaling components, β-catenin and cleaved notch-1 val1744, respectively. Furthermore, the combination also significantly decreased the intermediates of Hedgehog-Gli cascade including SMO, SHH, Gli-1, c-MYC, Cyclin-D1, etc. and increased the level of p21(Waf/Cip1) in vitro and in vivo. A significant reduction of Gli- promoter activity was noted in combinational drug treated cells in comparison to individual drug treatment. Un-alteration of the expressions of the above proteins and Gli1 promoter activity in p21(Waf/Cip1) knockout cells suggests this combination caused apoptosis through p21(Waf/Cip1). Thus, our findings revealed resveratrol and curcumin synergistically caused apoptosis in cigarette smoke induced breast cancer cells through p2(Waf/Cip1) mediated inhibition of Hedgehog-Gli cascade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cigarette smoking in a periodontal practice.

    PubMed

    Haber, J; Kent, R L

    1992-02-01

    This case-control study compares the prevalence of cigarette smoking among patients in a periodontal practice (cases) with that of patients in referring general dental practices (controls). Smoking histories of patients (age greater than or equal to 25 years) in a periodontal practice and five general dental practices were obtained by questionnaire. From the general practices, only patients reporting negative histories for periodontitis were studied. Periodontal status of the periodontal practice patients was based on bone loss from full mouth radiographic surveys and gingival pocket depths. Patients were stratified by age (25 to 40, 41 to 55, and greater than 55 years) and sex. The combined frequency of current or former cigarette smoking reported by 196 periodontal practice patients with moderate or advanced periodontitis (M-A perio group) was higher than that reported by 209 general dental practice patients (gen prac group) in all age and sex categories. The age and sex adjusted summary odds ratio for a positive smoking history among M-A perio subjects relative to gen prac subjects was 2.6 (P less than 0.001). Separate corresponding odds ratios (age and sex adjusted) for current smoking versus never smoking in the two groups were 3.3 (P less than 0.001) and for former smoking versus never smoking 2.1 (P less than 0.004). Among current smokers, patients in the M-A perio group reported heavy smoking (greater than 10 cigarettes/day) relatively more often than control subjects (adjusted R.O. = 5.7; P less than 0.001). In the M-A perio group the frequency of current smoking increased with disease severity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the mutagenicity of tobacco smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    White, J L; Conner, B T; Perfetti, T A; Bombick, B R; Avalos, J T; Fowler, K W; Smith, C J; Doolittle, D J

    2001-05-01

    Tobacco smoke aerosols with fewer mutagens in the particulate fraction may present reduced risk to the smoker. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the temperature at which tobacco is pyrolyzed or combusted can affect the mutagenicity of the particulate fraction of the smoke aerosol. Tobacco smoke aerosol was generated under precisely controlled temperature conditions from 250 to 550 degrees C by heating compressed tobacco tablets in air. The tobacco aerosols generated had a cigarette smoke-like appearance and aroma. The tobacco smoke aerosol was passed through a Cambridge filter pad to collect the particulate fraction, termed the smoke condensate. Although condensates of tobacco smoke and whole cigarette mainstream smoke share many of the same chemical components, there are physical and chemical differences between the two complex mixtures. The condensates from smoke aerosols prepared at different temperatures were assayed in the Ames Salmonella microsome test with metabolic activation by rat liver S9 using tester strains TA98 and TA100. Tobacco smoke condensates were not detectably mutagenic in strain TA98 when the tobacco smoke aerosol was generated at temperatures below 400 degrees C. Above 400 degrees C, condensates were mutagenic in strain TA98. Similarly, condensates prepared from tobacco smoke aerosols generated at temperatures below 475 degrees C were not detectably mutagenic in strain TA100. In contrast, tobacco tablets heated to temperatures of 475 degrees C or greater generated smoke aerosol that was detectably mutagenic as measured in TA100. Therefore, heating and pyrolyzing tobacco at temperatures below those found in tobacco burning cigarettes reduces the mutagenicity of the smoke condensate. Highly mutagenic heterocyclic amines derived from the pyrolysis of tobacco leaf protein may be important contributors to the high temperature production of tobacco smoke Ames Salmonella mutagens. The relevance of these findings regarding

  4. Modified procedure of a direct in vitro exposure system for mammalian cells to whole cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yasuo; Ogura, Maiko; Eguchi, Kentaro; Shibagaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Mutsuaki

    2004-03-01

    In vitro biological studies on cigarette smoke have usually been made using either cigarette smoke condensate--obtained by trapping the particulate phase of smoke on a filter, or soluble smoke components--obtained by trapping cigarette smoke in buffer solution. However, these approaches may not truly reflect the physical and chemical condition of freshly generated smoke. Clearly it is important to be able to evaluate the biological effects of fresh smoke on mammalian cells for a better understanding of the potential effects of smoking. The CULTEX technology is a new experimental system for cultivation and exposure techniques enhanced the efficiency of in vitro studies, and allows direct exposure of cells intermittently at the air/liquid interface with ultrafine particles, gases, or mixtures of both which fixedly flows. The CULTEX technology has therefore been modified to evaluate the biological effects of whole cigarette smoke in an in vitro system. The exposure system design was based on a combination of the sedimentation procedure and the CULTEX cultivation technique. After freshly generated smoke was delivered onto cells, the flow was shut off and the medium was slowly removed. In this manner, cells were exposed to both the vapor and particulate phase of smoke efficiently. Cells were maintained in the liquid medium except during the exposure period to maintain the culture conditions and to protect the cells from both the influence of puff pressure and the airflow, which served to remove residual cigarette smoke. The medium was changed at every puff of smoke and so effectively eliminating the possibility of any effects caused by accumulation of soluble cigarette smoke components into the medium. This cycle was repeated and cells were exposed to freshly generated cigarette smoke intermittently.

  5. Association between Peer Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Smoking among Adolescent Nonsmokers: A National Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were ‘ever e-cigarette’ users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–2.30) to 5.50 (95% CI, 4.77–6.34), and from 2.23 (95% CI, 1.77–2.81) to 7.82 (95% CI, 5.97–10.25) for those who had ‘some’ close friends to ‘most/all’ friends who smoked, respectively. The slopes of the adjusted ORs for e-cigarette use in ‘never smokers’ were more than twice as steep as those in ‘former smokers’, showing a significant interaction effect between the proportion of smoking closest friends and cigarette smoking status (never or former smokers) (p<0.001 for interaction). Peer cigarette smoking had a significant association with e-cigarette use in adolescent nonsmokers, and this association was greater on never smokers than former smokers. PMID:27695093

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  8. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. Methods. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. Results. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends’ cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Conclusions. Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking. PMID:26066954

  9. Differential effects of cigarette price changes on adult smoking behaviours.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Chaloupka, Frank J; Luke, Douglas A; Waterman, Brian; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-03-01

    Raising cigarette prices through taxation is an important policy approach to reduce smoking. Yet, cigarette price increases may not be equally effective in all subpopulations of smokers. To examine differing effects of state cigarette price changes with individual changes in smoking among smokers of different intensity levels. Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults originally interviewed in 2001-2002 (Wave 1) and re-interviewed in 2004-2005 (Wave 2): 34 653 were re-interviewed in Wave 2, and 7068 smokers defined at Wave 1 were included in our study. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to assess whether the effects of changes in state cigarette prices on changes in daily smoking behaviour differed by level of daily smoking. In the multivariable model, there was a significant interaction between change in price per pack of cigarettes from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p=0.044). The more cigarettes smoked per day at baseline, the more responsive the smokers were to increases in price per pack of cigarettes (ie, number of cigarettes smoked per day was reduced in response to price increases). Our findings that heavier smokers successfully and substantially reduced their cigarette smoking behaviours in response to state cigarette price increases provide fresh insight to the evidence on the effectiveness of higher cigarette prices in reducing smoking.

  10. Cigarette smoke radioactivity and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; White, Celia; Sayre, James; Norman, Amos

    2012-01-01

    To determine the tobacco industry's policy and action with respect to radioactive polonium 210 ((210)Po) in cigarette smoke and to assess the long-term risk of lung cancer caused by alpha particle deposits in the lungs of regular smokers. Analysis of major tobacco industries' internal secret documents on cigarette radioactivity made available online by the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. The documents show that the industry was well aware of the presence of a radioactive substance in tobacco as early as 1959. Furthermore, the industry was not only cognizant of the potential "cancerous growth" in the lungs of regular smokers but also did quantitative radiobiological calculations to estimate the long-term (25 years) lung radiation absorption dose (rad) of ionizing alpha particles emitted from the cigarette smoke. Our own calculations of lung rad of alpha particles match closely the rad estimated by the industry. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the industry's and our estimate of long-term lung rad of alpha particles causes 120-138 lung cancer deaths per year per 1,000 regular smokers. Acid wash was discovered in 1980 to be highly effectively in removing (210)Po from the tobacco leaves; however, the industry avoided its use for concerns that acid media would ionize nicotine converting it into a poorly absorbable form into the brain of smokers thus depriving them of the much sought after instant "nicotine kick" sensation. The evidence of lung cancer risk caused by cigarette smoke radioactivity is compelling enough to warrant its removal.

  11. Psychiatric aspects of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Levine, D J; Johnson, R W

    1985-01-01

    Smoking has been viewed in divergent ways throughout history. While for some cultures it has been considered a crime, for others it has been invested with magical powers and even medicinal potential. In our century, society has come to realize the health risks associated with smoking. This has led to controversies between government and the tobacco industry as well as between physician and patient. In spite of their knowledge of its deadly consequences, many individuals are unable to stop smoking. The tenacity of this habit can be explained in terms of the various psychological motivations for smoking in combination with the physiologic addiction to nicotine. While some people are able to stop the habit, many relapse in spite of a variety of quitting methods. These range from the doctor's advice to stop, education programs, group and individual psychotherapies, behavioral techniques, hypnosis, and the use of nicotine gum. With a growing understanding of what distinguishes categories of smokers and with a new appreciation for the role of nicotine in addiction to smoking, more effective antismoking strategies can be fashioned to meet the specific needs of the potential quitter.

  12. Cigarette smoking and health. American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the primary cause of preventable death and morbidity in the United States. Smoking causes lung cancer, COPD, and CHD and contributes significantly to mortality from other conditions such as stroke. Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes low birthweight and perinatal mortality, and it may have lasting impact on the child's physical and cognitive growth. Passive exposure to ETS causes lung cancer and poses particular danger to the respiratory health of young children. Smoking cessation strategies are important, but the should be supplemented by community and policy-level interventions. Workplace or community smoking bans, statewide taxes on tobacco, and antismoking media campaigns may be effective adjuncts to individual cessation strategies. These strategies may be an even more important disincentive to smoking initiation. The expanding horizon of health consequences of smoking and its costs to American society should again challenge public health agencies to develop and implement effective strategies to prevent smoking acquisition by young people. These health effects should also motivate health professionals in other countries where smoking prevalence is increasing, rather than decreasing, to initiate more effective efforts to reverse this trend and minimize the excess morbidity and death that accompany this dangerous habit.

  13. Flavored Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Among Youth.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Flavored electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are not prohibited in the United States, and e-cigarette flavors proliferate on the market. This study sought to examine flavored e-cigarette use and its association with smoking among youth. Estimates of flavored e-cigarette use from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey were investigated. A logistic regression model was used to assess whether flavored e-cigarette use was associated with (1) intention to initiate cigarette use among never-smoking youth (n = 16 471), (2) intention to quit tobacco use among current-smoking youth (n = 1338), and (3) perception of tobacco's danger among all respondents (n = 21 491). A total of 2017 respondents reported using e-cigarettes in the last 30 days, of whom 1228 (60.9%) reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Among never-smoking youth, 55.6% (288) of current e-cigarette users reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Among current smokers, 68.4% (495) of current e-cigarette users reported using flavored e-cigarettes. Compared with not using e-cigarettes in the past 30 days, using flavored e-cigarettes was associated with higher odds of intention to initiate cigarette use among never-smoking youth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.7; P < .0001), lower odds of intention to quit tobacco use among current-smoking youth (aOR = 0.6; P = .006), and a lower prevalence of perception of tobacco's danger among all respondents (aOR = 0.5; P < .0001). Flavored e-cigarette use is associated with increased risks of smoking among youth. Comprehensive tobacco control and prevention strategies that address flavored e-cigarette products are critically needed to reduce tobacco use among youth. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. [E-cigarette use in university students and its relationship to cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Rakotozandry, T; Stenger, N; Burel, C; Penna, L; Ramadour, M; Disdier, P; Charpin, D

    2016-03-01

    There is concern that e-cigarette use could be a risk factor for subsequent cigarette smoking. This survey included a group of 1220 students at Aix-Marseille University who attended a check-up visit and volunteered to participate to the survey. They answered a standardized questionnaire relating to e-cigarette use, smoking habits and the relationship between both habits. Mean age of participants was 19.9 years and 56% of them were female. All students invited to the check-up examination attended and agreed to participate in the survey. 13.3% of students answered they had already used e-cigarettes, a higher proportion of boys (17.5%) than girls (10.0%), starting at a mean age equal to 19.2 years. Forty-six percent of them had already smoked cigarettes, more girls (55.0%) than boys (45.0%). Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use had induced giving up smoking in 12.6% and a decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked in 30.1%. Twenty percent said they begun to smoke cigarettes after using e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is much less prevalent than smoking conventional tobacco cigarettes. There is a strong link between both. E-cigarette use had allowed a cessation or reduction in tobacco smoking in half of users. E-cigarette users may go on to start tobacco smoking but prospective surveys are needed to know how this will evolve over time. E-cigarette use could also be a means to prevent or postpone cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A.

    1997-09-01

    Formaldehdye is considered a hazardous air pollutant with numerous sources that include environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). With the increasing interest regarding ETS and public health the measurement of formaldehyde readily lends itself to a laboratory experiment comparing methods of analysis. This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode). Reasonable agreement among the methods was obtained by lab demonstrators with spike recoveries yielding 94.7 + 6.8 (n=5) and 89.2 (n = 4) % for NPD and FPD, respectively while HPLC spiked recoveries were 83.6 + 3.2 (n = 5) %; mean class spike recoveries ranged from 80-100%. Student results (in mg/cigarette) from smoke samples were similar to literature values with 163.2 + 69.2 (n = 7) and 149.4 (n = 7) % for NPD and FPD, respectively; the HPLC result was significantly lower at 45.1 + 23.7(n = 7) with losses presumably due to hydrazone precipitating from the smoke extracted solution. Students particularly benefited from the "real world" nature of the analysis and the experience evaluating disparate methods of determining a common analyte.

  16. Cigarette Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer Survival.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chen; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Babic, Ana; Clish, Clary B; Kraft, Peter; Bao, Ying; Qian, Zhi Rong; Rubinson, Douglas A; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ogino, Shuji; Stampfer, Meir J; Gaziano, John Michael; Sesso, Howard D; Cochrane, Barbara B; Manson, JoAnn E; Fuchs, Charles S; Wolpin, Brian M

    2017-03-30

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated with increased incidence of pancreatic cancer. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the association of smoking with patient survival. Patients and Methods We analyzed survival by smoking status among 1,037 patients from two large US prospective cohort studies diagnosed from 1986 to 2013. Among 485 patients from four prospective US cohorts, we also evaluated survival by prediagnostic circulating levels of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine that is proportional to tobacco smoke exposure. On the basis of prediagnosis cotinine levels, we classified patients as nonsmokers (< 3.1 ng/mL), light smokers (3.1-20.9 ng/mL), or heavy smokers (≥ 21.0 ng/mL). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for death by using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes status, diagnosis year, and cancer stage. Results The multivariable-adjusted HR for death was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.69) comparing current smokers with never smokers ( P = .003). A statistically significant negative trend in survival was observed for increasing pack-years of smoking ( Ptrend = .008), with HR for death of 1.49 (95% CI, 1.05 to 2.10) for > 60 pack-years of smoking versus never smoking. Survival among former smokers was similar to that for never smokers, regardless of time since quitting. Heavy smokers defined by prediagnostic circulating cotinine levels had a multivariable-adjusted HR for death of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2.51) compared with nonsmokers. Among patients with circulating cotinine levels measured within 5 years before diagnosis, heavy smokers had a multivariable-adjusted HR for death of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.92) compared with nonsmokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking was associated with a reduction in survival among patients with pancreatic cancer.

  17. How does electronic cigarette access affect adolescent smoking?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Abigail S

    2015-12-01

    Understanding electronic cigarettes' effect on tobacco smoking is a central economic and policy issue. This paper examines the causal impact of e-cigarette access on conventional cigarette use by adolescents. Regression analyses consider how state bans on e-cigarette sales to minors influence smoking rates among 12 to 17 year olds. Such bans yield a statistically significant 0.9 percentage point increase in recent smoking in this age group, relative to states without such bans. Results are robust to multiple specifications as well as several falsification and placebo checks. This effect is both consistent with e-cigarette access reducing smoking among minors, and large: banning electronic cigarette sales to minors counteracts 70 percent of the downward pre-trend in teen cigarette smoking for a given two-year period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cigarette Smoking among Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juon, Hee-Soon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines prevalence of cigarette smoking and explores its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45 percent. Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Perceived peer use, academic stress, grade, and type of school were associated with…

  19. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  20. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking among middle and high school e-cigarette users in Canada.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Foley, Kristie

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing concern that the historic reductions in tobacco consumption witnessed in the past decades may be undermined by the rapid increase in e-cigarette use. This study examined the association between e-cigarette use and future intention to smoke cigarettes among middle and high school students who had never smoked cigarettes. Data were drawn from the 2014-2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (n=25,637). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between e-cigarette use and susceptibility to cigarette smoking. In addition, an inverse probability of treatment weighted regression adjustment method (doubly robust estimator), which models both the susceptibility to smoking and the probability of e-cigarette use, was conducted. About 10% of the students had ever tried an e-cigarette. There were higher rates of ever e-cigarette use among students in grades 10-12 (12.5%) than those in grades 7-9 (7.3%). Students who had ever tried an e-cigarette had higher odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio=2.16, 95% confidence interval=1.80-2.58) compared to those that had never tried an e-cigarette. Current use of an e-cigarette was associated with higher odds of smoking susceptibility (adjusted odds ratio=2.02, 95% confidence interval=1.43-2.84). Similar results were obtained from the doubly robust estimation. Among students who had never smoked cigarettes, e-cigarette use was associated with a higher susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Kaufmann, Amanda; Blazekovic, Sonja; Leone, Frank; Benowitz, Neal L.; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. Methods Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study. Day 1 (own cigarette brand) data established baseline levels for cotinine, carbon monoxide (CO), topography, cigarette liking, withdrawal, and craving. Participants returned on Days 5 and 10 to reassess these measures while exclusively using e-cigarettes. Results Compared to cigarette smoking, e-cigarettes provided significantly lower nicotine levels (25%-50%), reduced CO exposure, and lower ratings of liking (p < .05). Topography significantly differed between cigarette and e-cigarette sessions (p < .05). All brands significantly reduced withdrawal and craving (p < .05). There were no significant brand differences in outcome measures associated with exposure or use. Conclusions E-cigarettes are not liked as much as cigarettes, provide significantly lower nicotine replacement, reduce CO exposure, and mitigate withdrawal and craving. The patterns of use significantly differ compared to cigarette smoking. PMID:27942543

  2. Cigarette smoking and lifetime medical expenditures.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, T A

    1992-01-01

    The cumulative impact of excess medical care required by smokers at all ages while alive outweighs shorter life expectancy, and smokers incur higher expenditures for medical care over their lifetimes than never-smokers. This accords with the findings by Manning et al. (1989) of positive lifetime medical care costs per pack of cigarettes, but disagrees with the results found by Leu and Schaub (1983, 1985) for Swiss males. The contradictory conclusions of the analyses are undoubtedly due to a large difference in the amount of medical care used by smokers relative to neversmokers in the United States and Swiss data. Excess expenditures increase with the amount smoked among males and females so that lifetime medical costs of male heavy smokers are 47 percent higher than for neversmokers when discounted at 3 percent. Each year more than one million young people start to smoke and add an extra $9 to $10 billion (in 1990 dollars discounted at 3 percent) to the nation's health care bill over their lifetimes. Given the smoking behavior, medical care utilization and costs of care, and population size embedded in the data used in this analysis, I have concluded that in the first five years from baseline the population of smokers aged 25 and over incurs excess medical expenditures totaling $187 billion, which is $2,324 per smoker. The excess cost of medical care associated with cigarette smoking is 18 percent of expenditures for hospital care, physicians' services, and nursing-home care required by all persons (smokers and neversmokers) aged 25 and over. In the absence of large and rapid changes in the values of the underlying parameters, $187 billion, 18 percent of medical expenditures, can be taken as the premium currently being paid every five years to provide medical care for the excess disease suffered by smokers. Even without the addition of any new smokers, the present value of the bill that will be incurred for excess medical care required by the current population of

  3. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  4. E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166899.html E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review But one ... at the highest risk for smoking," said study lead author Samir Soneji. "This increased risk may counter ...

  5. Cigarette access and pupil smoking rates: a circular relationship?

    PubMed

    Turner, Katrina M; Gordon, Jacki; Young, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Adolescents obtain cigarettes from both commercial and social sources. While the relationship between commercial access and adolescent smoking has been researched, no one has considered in detail whether rates of peer smoking affect cigarette availability. In two relatively deprived Scottish schools that differed in their pupil smoking rates, we assess pupil access to cigarettes. 896 13 and 15 year olds were surveyed, and 25 single-sex discussion groups held with a sub-sample of the 13 year olds. Smokers in both schools obtained cigarettes from shops, food vans and other pupils. However, pupils in the 'high' smoking school perceived greater access to both commercial and social sources, and had access to an active 'peer market'. These findings suggest that variations in cigarette access may contribute to school differences in pupil smoking rates, and that the relationship between access and adolescent smoking is circular, with greater availability increasing rates, and higher rates enhancing access.

  6. Smoke of cigarettes and little cigars: an analytical comparison.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Wynder, E L

    1972-12-15

    Chemical data are presented from a comparison study of the smoke of cigarettes and little cigars. The tobacco products and their mainstream smokes were analyzed for a number of toxic constituents in an effort to define "smoke inhalability." This issue has particular public health importance because the difference in the inhalability of cigar and cigarette smoke is generally assumed to account for the differences in the health risk to the individual smoker.

  7. Forbidden Fruit and the Prediction of Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    SUSSMAN, STEVE; GRANA, RACHEL; POKHREL, PALLAV; ROHRBACH, LOUISE A.; SUN, PING

    2011-01-01

    The concept of “forbidden fruit” has been popularly associated with adolescent cigarette smoking in the US. However, only a few empirical studies have been conducted to investigate how this construct operates among adolescents. We examined the concurrent and prospective relationships between two related concepts of forbidden fruit and adolescent cigarette smoking behavior and intention. We found some support for forbidden fruit attitudes as concurrent and longitudinal predictors of smoking and intention to smoke. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20590380

  8. Native, discount, or premium brand cigarettes: what types of cigarettes are Canadian youth currently smoking?

    PubMed

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the brand distribution of premium, discount, and native cigarette brands and to identify the factors associated with smoking these brands among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data from 3,137 current smokers in Grades 9-12 participating in the 2008-2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine the prevalence and factors associated with different cigarette brand preferences. The most prevalent brand of cigarette smoked was premium cigarettes (44.7%), followed by discount cigarettes (33.7%), and to be native cigarettes (7.3%). There was significant variability in brand preference by province with the majority of youth in Atlantic Canada and Quebec smoking a discount brand of cigarettes and higher prevalence rates of native cigarette use in Ontario and Quebec. Respondents were more likely to smoke discount cigarettes if they were female, daily smokers, or if they only had $1-20 a week in spending money. Respondents were more likely to smoke native cigarettes if they were Aboriginal, heavier smokers, or if they reported having no weekly spending money. A significant proportion of students from Grade 9 to 12 in Canada smoke cigarettes that are more affordable than premium brands and it appears that the market share for these more affordable cigarette options has increased in recent years. Given that the price of cigarettes is an important determinant in youth smoking behavior, it is critical to develop and continue to enforce tobacco control strategies designed to eliminate access to cheaper sources of cigarettes among youth populations.

  9. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  10. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  11. Cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells and augments the expression of P21WAF1.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Zongxian; Ao, Qilin; Ge, Xiaona; Xiong, Mi

    2008-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is intimately related with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and alveolar epithelium is a major target for the exposure of cigarette smoke extract. In order to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke extract on the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type II and its relationship with P21WAF1, the alveolar epithelial type II cell line (A549) cells were chosen as surrogate cells to represent alveolar epithelial type II cells. MTT assay was used to detect cell viability after interfered with different concentrations of cigarette smoke extract. It was observed cigarette smoke extract inhibited the growth of A549 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The morphological changes, involving the condensation and margination of nuclear chromatin, even karyorrhexis, were observed by both Hoechst staining and electronic microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated the increased cell percentages in G1 and subG1 phases after the cells were incubated with cigarette smoke extract. The expression of p21WAF1 protein and mRNA was also significantly increased as detected by the methods of Western blot or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively. In conclusion, cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type II and blocks them in G1/S phase. The intracellular accumulation of P21WAF1 may be one of the mechanisms which contribute to cigarette smoke extract-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

  12. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  13. E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163191.html E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids Study finds ' ... 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There's no evidence that e-cigarettes are driving down teen smoking -- and, in fact, ...

  14. Transient Compensatory Smoking in Response to Placebo Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, David A.; Heckman, Bryan W.; Blank, Melissa D.; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Evans, David E.; Drobes, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale To address the public health problems caused by smoking, researchers have suggested a gradual reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes. There remain concerns, however, about the potential for smokers to compensate for reductions in nicotine content by altering their smoking behavior. Such compensatory behaviors may negate any potential cessation and/or harm reduction benefits. Objective The purpose of this study was to quantify smoking behavior (e.g., puff number, volume, duration, inter-puff interval, and peak flow) in response to cigarettes varying only in nicotine content, administered repeatedly. Methods Sixty-seven dependent smokers participated in this two session, within-subject study. Moderate nicotine content and placebo cigarettes (Quest© brand) were administered in a double-blind and counterbalanced manner. Each session required 12-hours of tobacco abstinence, and included four ad lib smoking bouts of the condition-assigned cigarette with 40 minutes separating each bout. Results Placebo cigarettes produced increases in total puff volume and duration and decreases in total inter-puff interval relative to cigarettes with moderate nicotine content. Differences in total puff volume and duration generally dissipated across smoking bouts, with differences in total puff volume non-existent by the 3rd and 4th bouts. Conclusions Placebo cigarettes produce compensatory smoking during initial exposures; however, these effects appear to be short lived. These findings are consistent with previous work where smoking compensation has been observed in response to a single cigarette but not over several days of smoking. PMID:22427021

  15. Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health.

    PubMed

    Meo, S A; Al Asiri, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette smoking is gaining dramatic popularity and is steadily spreading among the adolescents, high income, urban population around the world. The aim of this study is to highlight the hazards of e-cigarette smoking on human health. In this study, we identified 38 published studies through a systematic database searches including ISI-web of science and pub-med. We searched the related literature by using the key words including Electronic cigarette, E-cigarette, E-vapers, incidence, hazards. Studies in which electronic cigarette smoking hazards was investigated were included in the study. No limitations on publication status, study design of publication were implemented. Finally we included 28 publications and remaining 10 were excluded. E-smoking can cause, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, choking, burn injuries, upper respiratory tract irritation, dry cough, dryness of the eyes and mucous membrane, release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, allergic airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) synthesis in the lungs, change in bronchial gene expression and risk of lung cancer. Electronic cigarettes are swiftly promoted as an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking, although its use is highly controversial. Electronic cigarettes are not a smoking cessation product. Non-scientific claims about e-cigarettes are creating confusion in public perception about e-cigarette and people believe that e-cigarettes are safe and less addictive, but its use is unsafe and hazardous to human health. E-cigarette smoking should be regulated in the same way as traditional cigarettes and must be prohibited to children and adolescents.

  16. Smoking behavior of adolescents exposed to cigarette advertising.

    PubMed Central

    Botvin, G J; Goldberg, C J; Botvin, E M; Dusenbury, L

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between the exposure of adolescents in the seventh and eighth grades to cigarette advertising and their being smokers. A survey questionnaire given to 602 adolescents assessed their exposure to cigarette advertising and provided measures of their smoking behavior, demographic characteristics, and some psychosocial variables. The results indicated that exposure to cigarette advertising and having friends who smoked were predictive of current smoking status. Adolescents with high exposure to cigarette advertising were significantly more likely to be smokers, according to several measures of smoking behavior, than were those with low exposure to cigarette advertising. The findings extend previous research identifying factors that may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of smoking among adolescents. PMID:8464979

  17. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  18. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe use and cigarette smoking must be compared directly. The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=31; M=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (M=5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (M=9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes, or a single cigarette. Outcome measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session's end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2009. On average, CO increased by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe use (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette smoking (SD=1.8), while peak waterpipe COHb levels (M=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for cigarette smoking (M=1.3%, SD=0.5; p's<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (waterpipe M=10.2 ng/mL, SD=7.0; cigarette M=10.6 ng/mL, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at 5-minute intervals during the waterpipe session (p's<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 L for waterpipe use as compared to 1.0 L for cigarette smoking (p<0.001). Relative to cigarette smoking, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco-smoking methods likely share

  19. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  20. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.

  1. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  2. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-05-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  3. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  4. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  5. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  6. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    PubMed

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  7. Methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Vansickel, Andrea R.; Stoops, William W.; Glaser, Paul E. A.; Poole, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) is commonly prescribed for behavioral problems associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results of previous studies suggest that methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants without psychiatric diagnoses. Whether methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants diagnosed with ADHD is unknown. Objective In this within-subjects, repeated measures experiment, the acute effects of a range of doses of methylphenidate (10, 20, and 40 mg) and placebo were assessed in nine cigarette smokers who were not attempting to quit and met diagnostic criteria for ADHD but no other Axis I psychiatric disorders other than nicotine dependence. Methods Each dose of methylphenidate was tested once while placebo was tested twice. One hour after ingesting drug, participants were allowed to smoke ad libitum for 4 h. Measures of smoking included total cigarettes smoked, total puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Snacks and decaffeinated drinks were available ad libitum; caloric intake during the 4-h smoking session was calculated. Results Methylphenidate increased the total number of cigarettes smoked, total number of puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Methylphenidate decreased the number of food items consumed and caloric intake. Conclusions The results of this experiment suggest that acutely administered methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD, which is concordant with findings from previous studies that tested healthy young adults. These data indicate that clinicians may need to consider non-stimulant options or counsel their patients before starting methylphenidate when managing ADHD-diagnosed individuals who smoke. PMID:21590284

  8. Methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Vansickel, Andrea R; Stoops, William W; Glaser, Paul E A; Poole, Megan M; Rush, Craig R

    2011-11-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin®) is commonly prescribed for behavioral problems associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results of previous studies suggest that methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants without psychiatric diagnoses. Whether methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants diagnosed with ADHD is unknown. In this within-subjects, repeated measures experiment, the acute effects of a range of doses of methylphenidate (10, 20, and 40 mg) and placebo were assessed in nine cigarette smokers who were not attempting to quit and met diagnostic criteria for ADHD but no other Axis I psychiatric disorders other than nicotine dependence. Each dose of methylphenidate was tested once while placebo was tested twice. One hour after ingesting drug, participants were allowed to smoke ad libitum for 4 h. Measures of smoking included total cigarettes smoked, total puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Snacks and decaffeinated drinks were available ad libitum; caloric intake during the 4-h smoking session was calculated. Methylphenidate increased the total number of cigarettes smoked, total number of puffs, and carbon monoxide levels. Methylphenidate decreased the number of food items consumed and caloric intake. The results of this experiment suggest that acutely administered methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking in participants with ADHD, which is concordant with findings from previous studies that tested healthy young adults. These data indicate that clinicians may need to consider non-stimulant options or counsel their patients before starting methylphenidate when managing ADHD-diagnosed individuals who smoke.

  9. Ceramides mediate cigarette smoke-induced metabolic disruption in mice.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Mikayla O; Tippetts, Trevor S; Nelson, Michael B; Swensen, Adam C; Winden, Duane R; Hansen, Melissa E; Anderson, Madeline C; Johnson, Ian E; Porter, James P; Reynolds, Paul R; Bikman, Benjamin T

    2014-11-15

    Cigarette smoke exposure increases lung ceramide biosynthesis and alters metabolic function. We hypothesized that ceramides are released from the lung during cigarette smoke exposure and result in elevated skeletal muscle ceramide levels, resulting in insulin resistance and altered mitochondrial respiration. Employing cell and animal models, we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on muscle cell insulin signaling and mitochondrial respiration. Muscle cells were treated with conditioned medium from cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed lung cells, followed by analysis of ceramides and assessment of insulin signaling and mitochondrial function. Mice were exposed to daily cigarette smoke and a high-fat, high-sugar (HFHS) diet with myriocin injections to inhibit ceramide synthesis. Comparisons were conducted between these mice and control animals on standard diets in the absence of smoke exposure and myriocin injections. Muscle cells treated with CSE-exposed conditioned medium were completely unresponsive to insulin stimulation, and mitochondrial respiration was severely blunted. These effects were mitigated when lung cells were treated with the ceramide inhibitor myriocin prior to and during CSE exposure. In mice, daily cigarette smoke exposure and HFHS diet resulted in insulin resistance, which correlated with elevated ceramides. Although myriocin injection was protective against insulin resistance with either smoke or HFHS, it was insufficient to prevent insulin resistance with combined CS and HFHS. However, myriocin injection restored muscle mitochondrial respiration in all treatments. Ceramide inhibition prevents metabolic disruption in muscle cells with smoke exposure and may explain whole body insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

  10. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

  11. CSEO – the Cigarette Smoke Exposure Ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past years, significant progress has been made to develop and use experimental settings for extensive data collection on tobacco smoke exposure and tobacco smoke exposure-associated diseases. Due to the growing number of such data, there is a need for domain-specific standard ontologies to facilitate the integration of tobacco exposure data. Results The CSEO (version 1.0) is composed of 20091 concepts. The ontology in its current form is able to capture a wide range of cigarette smoke exposure concepts within the knowledge domain of exposure science with a reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, it showed a promising performance when used to answer domain expert questions. The CSEO complies with standard upper-level ontologies and is freely accessible to the scientific community through a dedicated wiki at https://publicwiki-01.fraunhofer.de/CSEO-Wiki/index.php/Main_Page. Conclusions The CSEO has potential to become a widely used standard within the academic and industrial community. Mainly because of the emerging need of systems toxicology to controlled vocabularies and also the lack of suitable ontologies for this domain, the CSEO prepares the ground for integrative systems-based research in the exposure science. PMID:25093069

  12. Cigarette smoking effect on human cochlea responses

    PubMed Central

    Rogha, Mehrdad; Hashemi, Mostafa; Askari, Narges; Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Sepehrnejad, Mahsa; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factor in increasing of non-communicable disorders, especially chronic diseases such as cancer, stroke, heart and respiratory diseases. Cigarette smoking could damage the cochlea and causing hearing loss. The otoacoustic emission (OAE) is a source of information for determining cochlear responses to sound stimuli and how to change the response of the auditory system in some diseases. OAE test was sensitive to outer hair cells (OHCs) activity. Materials and Methods: In this study, tried to evaluate a hearing threshold of the smoker group versus non-smoker ones through pure tone audiometery, transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests. Results: The results indicated that significant decrement of 8000 Hz threshold, reduced DPOAE/TEOAE amplitude in the smoker group than non-smoker one (P < 0.05). DPOAE amplitudes decline reflects the cochlear damage caused by smoking. Conclusion: OAEs test was clinically non-invasive, accurate, and objective evaluation of the performance of cochlear OHCs. PMID:26380233

  13. Snuffing out cigarette sales and the smoking deaths epidemic.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Murray

    2007-06-15

    Smokers need new products and policies to escape smoking's risks. And the next generation needs policies that will better protect them from becoming smokers. Low-nitrosamine tobacco snuff (hereafter termed 'snuff') is 20 times less dangerous than cigarette smoking. Its sale as nasal snuff raises the question as to how long cigarettes, including cigars and pipe tobacco, should continue to be sold and allowed to hasten the deaths of 4000 New Zealanders annually. Oral snuff has helped to reduce smoking to unusually low levels in Swedish men, is much less dangerous than smoking, and does not cause lung or mouth cancer. Moreover, smokeless tobacco (which includes snuff) could reduce smoking-caused health inequity for Maori. Snuff can improve population health, and more so if more smokers switch to it. Continued bans on snuff are now regarded by some experts as unsound public policy. Added to the mountain of evidence against cigarettes, sufficient evidence now exists for Government to use snuff to create safer tobacco choices for smokers, end cigarette sales altogether, and thus end the cigarette smoking deaths epidemic--in which 200,000 New Zealanders have died so far. The New Zealand Government can: Fund media campaigns to inform smokers of their new choices, and to urge them to quit smoking. (The 2007 Budget commits an extra $11 million per year for 4 years, an excellent start.) Regulate for warnings on snuff cans stating that snuff is "addictive but much safer than smoking", and regulate imports to only permit reduced-risk low-nitrosamine products. Tax each class of tobacco products proportionate to the respective risks of each. (Tax cigarettes at 20 times the snuff rate, instead of at the same rate.) Legislate, to expand the Smoke-free Environments Act's aims to include ending the sale of cigarettes and ending smoking deaths--i.e: Allow oral snuff to compete with cigarettes for market share (and for the smoker's nicotine receptors). Reduce addiction to smoking, by

  14. Determination of Po-210 content in cigarette smoke using a smoking machine: A case study of Iranian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Mária; Shahrokhi, Amin; Bátor, Péter; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-08-01

    The Po-210 content of tobacco has been known for a long time, however, different results can be found about the estimated amount of Po-210 that is inhaled by humans as a result of smoking cigarettes. Because of the unique properties of Po-210, the smoking machines available on the market are not suitable because of their failure to quantitatively collect Po-210 for measurement. Therefore, to estimate precisely the amount of Po-210 entering the lungs as a result of smoking, a smoking machine and sampling protocol based on relevant ISO standards - ISO-3308, ISO-3402 and ISO-4387 - was developed. A 5% HCl solution was found to be the best absorber of Po-210 from smoke. Seventeen different brands of cigarettes distributed in Iran were used to validate the new machine and sampling protocol. The Po-210 concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry; the cigarette smoke solution underwent combined acid treatment after adding a Po-209 tracer. The Po-210 activity concentration of cigarettes sold in Iran was between 9.7 ± 1.2 and 26.5 ± 4.6 mBq/cigarette and it was determined that there was no relationship between the Po-210 and nicotine contents of cigarette smoke. Additionally, it was found that 15 ± 10% of the cigarette Po-210 was transferred to the mainstream smoke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Disease Course Is Modulated by Nicotine and Other Cigarette Smoke Components

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhen; Nissen, Jillian C.; Ji, Kyungmin; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) and accelerates its progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unsettled. We have investigated here the effects of the nicotine and the non-nicotine components in cigarette smoke on MS using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, and have explored their underlying mechanism of action. Our results show that nicotine ameliorates the severity of EAE, as shown by reduced demyelination, increased body weight, and attenuated microglial activation. Nicotine administration after the development of EAE symptoms prevented further disease exacerbation, suggesting that it might be useful as an EAE/MS therapeutic. In contrast, the remaining components of cigarette smoke, delivered as cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), accelerated and increased adverse clinical symptoms during the early stages of EAE, and we identify a particular cigarette smoke compound, acrolein, as one of the potential mediators. We also show that the mechanisms underlying the opposing effects of nicotine and CSC on EAE are likely due to distinct effects on microglial viability, activation, and function. PMID:25250777

  16. A Wearable Sensor System for Monitoring Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Tiffany, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Available methods of smoking assessment (e.g., self-report, portable puff-topography instruments) do not permit the collection of accurate measures of smoking behavior while minimizing reactivity to the assessment procedure. This article suggests a new method for monitoring cigarette smoking based on a wearable sensor system (Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker [PACT]) that is completely transparent to the end user and does not require any conscious effort to achieve reliable monitoring of smoking in free-living individuals. Method: The proposed sensor system consists of a respiratory inductance plethysmograph for monitoring of breathing and a hand gesture sensor for detecting a cigarette at the mouth. The wearable sensor system was tested in a laboratory study of 20 individuals who performed 12 different activities including cigarette smoking. Signal processing was applied to evaluate the uniqueness of breathing patterns and their correlation with hand gestures. Results: The results indicate that smoking manifests unique breathing patterns that are highly correlated with hand-to-mouth cigarette gestures and suggest that these signals can potentially be used to identify and characterize individual smoke inhalations. Conclusions: With the future development of signal processing and pattern-recognition methods, PACT can be used to automatically assess the frequency of smoking and inhalation patterns (such as depth of inhalation and smoke holding) throughout the day and provide an objective method of assessing the effectiveness of behavioral and pharmacological smoking interventions. PMID:24172124

  17. Percutaneous penetration enhancers in cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carr J; Perfetti, Thomas A; Garg, Rajni; Martin, Patricia; Hansch, Corwin

    2004-01-01

    Percutaneous penetration enhancers (PPEs) are chemicals used to enhance the transdermal delivery of drugs. Fifty-eight of the approximately 150 PPEs used for the transdermal delivery of drugs have been reported in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS). MS is a complex aerosol of minute liquid droplets (termed the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases (CO(2), CO, NO(x), etc.) and semi-volatile compounds. The gases and many of the semi-volatiles are termed the vapor phase. Twenty-nine of the 58 PPEs have been identified in MS vapor phase, 15 in the particulate phase and 14 in both the vapor and particulate phases. There is a tendency for MS PPEs to be hydrophobic, with 40 of the 58 compounds (69%) being either hydrophobic or strongly hydrophobic, and only 24% being hydrophilic. Many of the 4800 known constituents of MS are hydrophilic and would not be expected to readily cross cell membranes or penetrate tissue when delivered as single compounds. The in vivo effect on biological activity of the juxtaposition within the cigarette smoke aerosol of the large number of hydrophilic constituents with the 58 PPEs is currently unknown. As an initial step in understanding this potential complex interaction, the 58 PPEs in MS have been identified and a number of molecular parameters related to the ability to penetrate tissue have been calculated, including MS concentration, measured and calculated base ten logarithm of the octanol-water partition coefficient (Mlog P and Clog P), molecular volume (MgVol) and calculated molar refractivity (CMR).

  18. Menthol vs nonmenthol cigarettes: effects on smoking behavior.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, W J; Caskey, N H; Jarvik, M E; Gross, T M; Rosenblatt, M R; Carpenter, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine intraindividual differences in smoking behavior between smoking regular and mentholated cigarettes. METHODS. Healthy male smokers (n = 29) smoked either a regular or a mentholated cigarette in two separate sessions 1 week apart. Commercial brands with comparable tar, nicotine, and CO content were used. Smoking behavior was constrained by fixed 15-second interpuff intervals, but puff volume and number of puffs were unconstrained. RESULTS. When smoking the non-mentholated brand of cigarettes, participants smoked 22% more puffs and had 13% higher mean volumes per puff than they did when smoking the mentholated brand of cigarettes. The aggregate 39% excess exposure to cigarette smoke in the regular-cigarette condition was not accompanied by commensurate excesses in expired carbon monoxide or in physiological measures normally correlated with nicotine exposure. CONCLUSIONS. These findings parallel differences in physiological correlates of exposure to nicotine found in cross-sectional comparisons of African-American and White smokers and are consistent with the results of emerging laboratory investigations. PMID:7832264

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Respiratory System Diseases in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saracen, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory system diseases are common in youngsters, smoking being one of the main cause of them. In this article, results are presented of a survey-type study on smoking and respiratory malady conducted in 3108 high school students from the Mazovian Region in Poland. The questionnaire made for this study contained questions concerning the health status, chronic diseases, and the cigarette smoking habit. The subjects were high school student aged 15-19. Overall, 1694 males and 1414 females were enrolled in the study. Regarding males, 66.4 % of them were non-smokers, 18.1 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes daily, and 15.5 % smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily; 12.5 % of all smokers smoked longer than one year. Overall, 38.5 % of males reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis. When stratified by the smoking habit, chronic bronchitis was reported by 21 % of non-smokers and 71 % of all smokers. Regarding females, 77 % of them were non-smokers, 16 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes daily, and 7 % more than 20 cigarettes daily; 8 % of all smokers smoked longer than one year. Overall, 35 % females reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis. When stratified by the smoking habit, chronic bronchitis was reported by 23 % of non-smokers and 75 % of smokers. Bronchial asthma was reported by 22 (0.7 %) subjects, none of them was a smoker. In conclusion, males more often than females smoked cigarettes. The number of persons complaining of symptoms of chronic bronchitis was markedly higher in the group of smokers. The study shows that smoking is a key cause of chronic bronchitis in adolescents. That implies a need for enhanced educational activity on the adverse effects of smoking and undertaking active anti-smoking campaigns at the level of high school.

  20. 76 FR 57008 - Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 252 RIN 2105-AE06 Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft AGENCY... (NPRM). SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is proposing to amend its existing airline smoking... they pose in an aircraft. The Department is also considering whether to extend the ban on smoking...

  1. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed.

  2. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  3. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  4. Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update.

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Paweł; Sowiński, Jerzy; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Brązert, Jacek; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology.

  5. Behavioral Control of Cigarette Smoking: A Comprehensive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Gail; Horan, John

    1977-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been a behavioral enigma. Single treatment techniques, when successful, are usually plagued by high recidivism rates and "practical" insignificance. Two recent developments, rapid smoking and comprehensive behavioral programming, hold promise for the eventual behavioral control of smoking. This study describes one such…

  6. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm(2)), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products.

  7. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  8. Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air quality.

    PubMed

    McAuley, T R; Hopke, P K; Zhao, J; Babaian, S

    2012-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-cigarettes and standard tobacco cigarettes. Four different high nicotine e-liquids were vaporized in two sets of experiments by generic 2-piece e-cigarettes to collect emissions and assess indoor air concentrations of common tobacco smoke by products. Tobacco cigarette smoke tests were conducted for comparison. Comparisons of pollutant concentrations were made between e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke samples. Pollutants included VOCs, carbonyls, PAHs, nicotine, TSNAs, and glycols. From these results, risk analyses were conducted based on dilution into a 40 m³ room and standard toxicological data. Non-cancer risk analysis revealed "No Significant Risk" of harm to human health for vapor samples from e-liquids (A-D). In contrast, for tobacco smoke most findings markedly exceeded risk limits indicating a condition of "Significant Risk" of harm to human health. With regard to cancer risk analysis, no vapor sample from e-liquids A-D exceeded the risk limit for either children or adults. The tobacco smoke sample approached the risk limits for adult exposure. For all byproducts measured, electronic cigarettes produce very small exposures relative to tobacco cigarettes. The study indicates no apparent risk to human health from e-cigarette emissions based on the compounds analyzed.

  9. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from multiethnic 1988 current daily smokers [M age = 45.1 (SD = 13.0); 51.3% Women] who had made an average lifetime quit attempts of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, “immediate reinforcement,” a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness, was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and “concerns about health” was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative “smoking” experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. PMID:25180551

  10. Receipt and redemption of cigarette coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kelvin; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Forster, Jean L; Moilanen, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although it is known that cigarette companies use cigarette coupons to market their products, little is known about the characteristics of those who receive these coupons. The influence of receipt and redemption of these coupons is also unknown. Participants of the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey Cohort Study who were smokers in 2008, completed surveys in 2008 and 2009, and had smoked for at least 6 months between those surveys, were included. In 2009, participants reported whether they had received cigarette coupons in the past 12 months, and whether they had used the coupons. They also reported their perceptions of cigarette companies and their smoking status. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess associations between receiving and redeeming coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies, and smoking status. Overall, 49.4% of the sample reported receiving cigarette coupons, and 39.9% redeemed them (80.1% of those who received these coupons). Female, younger and heavier smokers were more likely to report receiving these coupons (p<0.05). Smokers who received these coupons were more likely to agree that cigarette companies care about their health and do the best they can to make cigarettes safe, and less likely to agree that cigarette companies lie (p<0.05). Smokers who used these coupons were less likely to quit smoking (p<0.05). Our findings suggest a negative association between cigarette coupons and smoking cessation. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether cigarette coupons influence smoking behaviour to inform the necessity for policies to prohibit the use of these coupons to assist smokers to quit smoking.

  11. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods

  12. Cigarette smoke induces genetic instability in airway epithelial cells by suppressing FANCD2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hays, L E; Zodrow, D M; Yates, J E; Deffebach, M E; Jacoby, D B; Olson, S B; Pankow, J F; Bagby, G C

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are commonly found in bronchogenic carcinoma cells, but the molecular causes of chromosomal instability (CIN) and their relationship to cigarette smoke has not been defined. Because the Fanconi anaemia (FA)/BRCA pathway is essential for maintenance of chromosomal stability, we tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoke suppresses that activity of this pathway. Here, we show that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited translation of FANCD2 mRNA (but not FANCC or FANCG) in normal airway epithelial cells and that this suppression of FANCD2 expression was sufficient to induce both genetic instability and programmed cell death in the exposed cell population. Cigarette smoke condensate also suppressed FANCD2 function and induced CIN in bronchogenic carcinoma cells, but these cells were resistant to CSC-induced apoptosis relative to normal airway epithelial cells. We, therefore, suggest that CSC exerts pressure on airway epithelial cells that results in selection and emergence of genetically unstable somatic mutant clones that may have lost the capacity to effectively execute an apoptotic programme. Carcinogen-mediated suppression of FANCD2 gene expression provides a plausible molecular mechanism for CIN in bronchogenic carcinogenesis. PMID:18475298

  13. Genetic effects of fresh cigarette smoke in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gairola, C

    1982-09-01

    Ability of fresh cigarette smoke from University of Kentucky reference cigarette 2R1 to induce gene conversion, reverse mutation and mitotic crossing-over in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. A closed cell suspension-recycle system using 2 peristaltic pumps interconnected to a single-port reverse-phase smoking machine was developed to provide complete exposure of cells to smoke within 0.2--10 sec of its generation. The exposed cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of all the 3 genetic endpoints examined. Cell age was an important factor with younger cells being more sensitive than older. Filtration studies showed that the gas phase possessed as much as 25% of the total whole-smoke activity. Activated charcoal reduced the activity of smoke in direct proportion to its amount in the filter. Acetate filter did not appreciably alter the activity. A comparison of whole smoke from various cigarettes showed that: (1) the nicotine content of a cigarette does not affect the genetic activity of smoke; (2) burley and flue-cured tobaccos have differential activity in gene conversion and reverse mutation systems; and (3) the genetic effects of whole smoke are not peculiar to tobacco pyrolysis because similar effects are produced by smokes from lettuce and other non-tobacco cigarettes. It is concluded that the yeast D7 system can be used effectively for the quantitative evaluation of genetic effects of smoke from different cigarettes, and both whole cigarette smoke and its gas phase possess mutagenic as well as recombinogenic activity that can be modified by the use of filters.

  14. Cigarette smoke increases cardiomyocyte ceramide accumulation and inhibits mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Tippetts, Trevor S; Winden, Duane R; Swensen, Adam C; Nelson, Michael B; Thatcher, Mikayla O; Saito, Rex R; Condie, Tyler B; Simmons, Kurtis J; Judd, Allan M; Reynolds, Paul R; Bikman, Benjamin T

    2014-11-22

    Cigarette smoking is a common and lethal worldwide habit, with considerable mortality stemming from its deleterious effects on heart function. While current theories posit altered blood lipids and fibrinogen metabolism as likely mediators, none have explored the role of the sphingolipid ceramide in exacerbating heart function with smoke exposure. Ceramide production is a consequence of cigarette smoke in the lung, and considering ceramide's harmful effects on mitochondrial function, we sought to elucidate the role of ceramide in mediating smoke-induced altered heart mitochondrial respiration. Lung cells (A549) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and heart cells (H9C2) were exposed to the lung-cell conditioned medium. Adult male mice were exposed sidestream cigarette smoke for 8 wk with dietary intervention and ceramide inhibition. Ceramides and heart cell or myocardial mitochondrial respiration were determined. Lung cell cultures revealed a robust response to cigarette smoke extract in both production and secretion of ceramides. Heart cells incubated with lung-cell conditioned medium revealed a pronounced inhibition of myocardial mitochondrial respiration, though this effect was mitigated with ceramide inhibition via myriocin. In vivo, heart ceramides increased roughly 600% in adult mice with long-term sidestream cigarette smoke exposure. This resulted in a significant ceramide-dependent reduction in left myocardial mitochondrial respiration, as heart mitochondria from the mice exposed to both smoke and myriocin injections respired normally. These results suggest ceramide to be an important mediator of altered myocardial mitochondrial function with cigarette smoke exposure. Thus, anti-ceramide therapies might be considered in the future to protect heart mitochondrial function with smoke exposure.

  15. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  16. Cigarette smoking in China: public health, science, and policy.

    PubMed

    Au, William W; Su, Daisy; Yuan, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, cigarette smoking is a habit that causes serious health, economic, and social problems. Therefore, many countries have taken an active role to control and to ban smoking. The chronic smoking problem in China is particularly acute because China has the largest population of smokers in the world, over 300 million currently. If 30% of these smokers were to die of smoke-related diseases in the next 20 years, the impact from the more than 90 million premature deaths could be damaging to China. In addition, numerous non-smokers also experience health problems from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. China's efforts to reduce or to ban smoking in certain public places have not been well-coordinated or enforced compared with those in other countries. Therefore, success has been minimal. Consequently, leaders in China should not be complacent about combating the serious national health problem. A multiprong approach in combination with the MPOWER policy from the World Health Organization that targets different levels of acquisition of the smoking habit must be used. Examples may include the government's reduced reliance on profits from the sale of cigarettes, the elimination of advertisements that encourage smoking among young individuals, the presentation of more graphic illustration of harmful effects from smoking on every pack of cigarettes, higher taxes/prices on cigarettes, and the implementation of enforceable bans on smoking in public places. As shown in other countries, such coordinated effort can be highly effective in the reduction of smoking and can have healthy consequences.

  17. Cigarette smoke inhibits brain mitochondrial adaptations of exercised mice.

    PubMed

    Speck, Ana Elisa; Fraga, Daiane; Soares, Priscila; Scheffer, Débora L; Silva, Luciano A; Aguiar, Aderbal S; Estreck, Emílio L; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2011-06-01

    Physical exercise and smoking are environmental factors that generally cause opposite health-promoting adaptations. Both physical exercise and smoking converge on mitochondrial adaptations in various tissues, including the pro-oxidant nervous system. Here, we analyzed the impact of cigarette smoking on exercise-induced brain mitochondrial adaptations in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex of adult mice. The animals were exposed to chronic cigarette smoke followed by 8 weeks of moderate-intensity physical exercise that increased mitochondrial activity in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex in the non-smoker mice. However, mice previously exposed to cigarette smoke did not present these exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. Our results suggest that smoking can inhibit some brain health-promoting changes induced by physical exercise.

  18. Associations Between Cigarette Smoking and Pain Among Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with chronic pain often report using cigarettes to cope, and smoking and chronic pain appear prevalent among US veterans. Pain may be a barrier to cigarette cessation and abstinence in this population. Because of physiological effects, smoking cigarettes may also interfere with pain management. A better understanding of how cigarette use relates to pain may assist in veteran cigarette cessation and pain management efforts. To assist these efforts, we searched the literature using keywords, such as “pain,” “smoking,” and “veteran,” to identify 23 journal articles published from 1993 to 2013 that reported on studies examining pain and smoking variables among military or veteran populations. Studies found that veterans reported using cigarettes to cope with pain, there was greater occurrence of pain and disability among smokers in the military, and smoking increased the odds of veterans receiving an opioid prescription for pain and misusing opioids. Studies also found increased odds of pain and smoking among Veterans Health Administration patients with post-traumatic stress disorder when compared with those without post-traumatic stress disorder. Studies support an interaction between pain and smoking among veterans. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Future studies focused on this interaction would benefit veteran populations. PMID:25595170

  19. Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Harrell, P T; Montoya, I D; Preston, K L; Juliano, L M; Gorelick, D A

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N=200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

  20. Menthol Cigarette Smoking among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. Purpose To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data were obtained from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January–April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Results Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). Conclusions These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. PMID:25245795

  1. Menthol cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults.

    PubMed

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie J; King, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Menthol can mask the harshness and taste of tobacco, making menthol cigarettes easier to use and increasing their appeal among vulnerable populations. The tobacco industry has targeted youth, women, and racial minorities with menthol cigarettes, and these groups smoke menthol cigarettes at higher rates. The tobacco industry has also targeted the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities with tobacco product marketing. To assess current menthol cigarette smoking by sexual orientation among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Data were obtained from the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, to compare current menthol cigarette smoking between LGBT (n=2,431) and heterosexual/straight (n=110,841) adults. Data were analyzed during January-April 2014 using descriptive statistics and logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, race, and educational attainment. Among all current cigarette smokers, 29.6% reported usually smoking menthol cigarettes in the past 30 days. Menthol use was significantly higher among LGBT smokers, with 36.3% reporting that the cigarettes they usually smoked were menthol compared to 29.3% of heterosexual/straight smokers (p<0.05); this difference was particularly prominent among LGBT females (42.9%) compared to heterosexual/straight women (32.4%) (p<0.05). Following adjustment, LGBT smokers had greater odds of usually smoking menthol cigarettes than heterosexual/straight smokers (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.09, 1.57). These findings suggest that efforts to reduce menthol cigarette use may have the potential to reduce tobacco use and tobacco-related disease and death among LGBT adults. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of smoking and price of cigarettes — a comment *

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, A. B.; Skegg, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A recent paper by Russell concluded that sharp annual increases in the price of cigarettes should be an essential part of any programme aiming to reduce cigarette smoking by men in the United Kingdom. The present paper reports results of research indicating, however, that men in this country respond very little to changes in price of cigarettes but have been more influenced, albeit temporarily, by antismoking propaganda. PMID:4816587

  3. Organ specificity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Arashidani, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kodama, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Biotransformation of many chemicals found in cigarette smoke, such as PAHs and nitrosamines, is generally considered essential for the mutagenic, carcinogenic effects of these xenobiotics. In fact, the genotic action of these premutagens or precarcinogens is dependent on metabolic activation catalyzed by microsomal monooxygenases. The first enzymatic reaction of the PAHs metabolic pathway is catalyzed by a cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase, the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH). AHH leads to the formation of reactive arene oxides, which are further metabolized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reaction into many metabolites. AHH induction in laboratory animals exposed to cigarette smoke has also been reported, and the data show that this response is highly dependent on species and tissues. Exposure of small laboratory animals to cigarette smoke generally induces AHH in the kidney and lung, while the effect of cigarette smoke on the hepatic AHH activity appears variable.

  4. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals.

  5. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  6. Conditioning arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Payne, T J; Etscheidt, M; Corrigan, S A

    1990-01-01

    This study represents an attempt to classically condition arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake. A smoker either smoked or mock-smoked a cigarette in two discriminative contexts for 20 sessions. The contingencies were reversed during an additional last two sessions. Measures of heart rate, skin temperature, and puff duration were monitored during all sessions. Results suggested that both manipulations of smoke delivery and context cues were related to puff duration. The pattern of psychophysiological reactivity was mixed and not easily interpreted. This experimental paradigm may be useful in the investigation of conditioning factors underlying addictive behaviors.

  7. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Frulloni, L; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Bovo, P; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Pederzoli, P; Cavallini, G

    1996-03-01

    It is not known whether cigarette smoking plays a role as a risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to compare drinking and smoking habits in three groups of male subjects with an alcohol intake in excess of 40 g/day: (i) 67 patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, without other known potential causative agents; (ii) 396 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis; and (iii) 265 control subjects randomly selected from the Verona polling lists and submitted to a complete medical checkup. The variables considered were age at onset of disease, years of drinking and smoking, daily alcohol intake in grams, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and body mass index (BMI). Cases differed from controls in daily grams of alcohol, number of cigarettes smoked and BMI (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.00001 for each comparison). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, comparing acute and chronic cases, respectively, versus controls, revealed an increased relative risk of pancreatitis in the two comparisons, associated in both cases with a higher alcohol intake (p < 0.00001) and cigarette smoking (p < 0.00001). No significant interaction between alcohol and smoking was noted, indicating that the two risks are independent. In conclusion, in males a higher number of cigarettes smoked daily seems to be a distinct risk factor in acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

  8. Effects of cigarette smoking on metabolic events in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, S.

    1987-06-01

    Nicotine and cigarette smoke extract show acute physiological effects: increasing tracheal pressure (P/sub TR/), pulmonary artery pressure (P/sub PA/), systemic blood pressure (P/sub SYST/), and left atrium pressure (P/sub LA/); and decreasing cardiac output (Q/sub AORTA/) and blood flow to the left lower lobe (Q/sub LLL/). In addition, cigarette smoking induces bronchoconstriction, thus decreasing peak flow, FVC, and FEV/sub 1.0/ in healthy subjects. It has also been demonstrated that cigarette smoking caused temporary slowing of mucociliary clearance in the lung and that cigarette smoke increases the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase which metabolizes benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene. The authors demonstrated that serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity showed a significant increase immediately after smoking and returned to the control level 20 min after smoking. They also demonstrated that plasma histamine levels showed a marked decrease after smoking. Furthermore, the effects of cigarette smoke and related substances on prostaglandin, thromboxane, testosterone, cyclic nucleotides metabolism, and protein synthesis were also investigated.

  9. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria). The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of some popular US cigarettes. Methods We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US. University of Kentucky reference cigarettes were also included for comparison. Results The cigarette tobacco of the different brands contained 6.88-16.17 (mean 10.64) pmol LPS and 8.27-21.00 (mean 14.05) ng ergosterol/mg. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in cigarette tobacco and in MS smoke collected using continuous suction; the MS smoke contained 3.65-8.23% (ergosterol) and 10.02-20.13% (LPS) of the amounts in the tobacco. Corresponding percentages were 0.30-0.82% (ergosterol) and 0.42-1.10% (LPS) for SS smoke collected without any ongoing suction, and 2.18% and 2.56% for MS smoke collected from eight two-second puffs. Conclusions Tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol likely to contain a wide range of potentially harmful bacterial and fungal components. PMID:22898193

  10. Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi-tao; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Wakui, Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are at risk for micro and macro vascular complications, which could be observed in heavy smokers. Cigarette smoking increases the risk for type 2 diabetes incidence. Nicotine, acknowledged as the major pharmacologically active chemical in tobacco, is responsible for the association between cigarette smoking and development of diabetes. This minireview summarized recent studies on nicotine effects on insulin action and insulin secretion, indicating the impact of nicotine on type 2 diabetes development.

  11. Side-stream cigarette smoke accentuates immunomodulation during murine AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Du Ester, En-Jie; Watson, Ronald Ross

    2002-05-01

    Side-stream cigarette smoke has become a hotly debated social, political, and scientific health and safety issue for nonsmokers. The harmful influences of side-stream cigarette smoke on human health are its adverse effects on the immune system, especially when already compromised by other agents. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a clinical disorder caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To facilitate studies, murine AIDS was induced in C57BL/6 mice by LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus infection, which mimics human AIDS. After 2 weeks of retroviral infection, the mice were exposed to side-stream cigarette smoke for 30 min, 5 days/week for 12 weeks using a side-stream cigarette smoke exposure system. Murine retrovirus infection reduced the in vitro proliferation of T lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A, increased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), increased the hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased the alpha-tocopherol levels in liver, lung and heart. Concomitant side-stream cigarette smoke exposure for 12 weeks further inhibited the proliferation of T cells, increased the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 cytokines and enhanced the hepatic lipid peroxidation from retrovirus infected mice. The loss of alpha-tocopherol was also further enhanced by side-stream cigarette smoke exposure during retrovirus infection. Our conclusions are that side-stream cigarette smoke induced increasing oxidative stress, reducing nutrient concentrations and suppressing immune function could make mice with murine AIDS more susceptible to opportunistic infections, potentially accelerating murine AIDS progression. Thus, the reduction of side-stream cigarette smoke exposure is an important health issue in AIDS patients to improve the quality and quantity of their lives.

  12. Greater reductions in nicotine exposure while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes predict smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Donny, Eric C; Hertsgaard, Louise A; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2015-11-01

    Reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes is a potential regulatory strategy that may enable cessation. The present study investigated the effect of nicotine exposure while smoking very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes on cessation outcomes. The roles of possible sources of nicotine were also explored, including the VLNC cigarette and co-use of cigarettes with normal nicotine content. A secondary data analysis of two analogous randomised trials of treatment seeking, adult daily smokers (n=112) who were instructed to smoke VLNC cigarettes for 6 weeks and then make a quit attempt. Controlling for baseline demographic and smoking features, the association between reductions in nicotine exposure during the 6-week trial, assessed by urinary total cotinine and biomarker-confirmed smoking abstinence 1 month later, was tested. Subsequent analyses controlled for the effects of the frequency of VLNC and normal nicotine content cigarette use and the nicotine yield of the VLNC cigarette (0.05 vs 0.09 mg). Greater reductions in nicotine exposure while smoking VLNC cigarettes predicted abstinence independent of individual differences in baseline smoking, cotinine, dependence, gender and study. Nicotine reduction was largest among individuals who were assigned to smoke a VLNC cigarette with lower nicotine yield and who smoked fewer normal nicotine content and VLNC cigarettes. In the context of nicotine regulations and corresponding research, factors that undermine nicotine reduction must be addressed, including the availability and use of cigarettes with normal nicotine content and not sufficiently reducing the nicotine yield of cigarettes. Maximising nicotine reduction may facilitate smoking cessation. NCT 01050569 and NCT 00777569. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. E-cigarettes: online survey of UK smoking cessation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; McEwen, Andy; Murray, Susan; Arnott, Deborah; Dockrell, Martin; Bauld, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Use of e-cigarettes (inhalable vapour producing battery powered devices that aim to simulate tobacco cigarettes), is rising in a number of countries, but as yet none of these products are regulated as medicinal devices or available as smoking cessation treatments. Smokers seeking support from health professionals to stop smoking are interested in e-cigarettes and may be buying them to aid a quit attempt. Determining what smokers are asking, and what health professionals think about these products may have implications for smoking treatment services in a number of countries. Stop smoking service advisors, managers and commissioners in the United Kingdom were asked to take part in two surveys on e-cigarettes. Data was analysed from 587 practitioners who completed a survey in 2011 and 705 practitioners who completed a repeat survey in 2013. Responses to multiple choice questions and free text comments were analysed. Responding practitioners reported that interest in, and use of, e-cigarettes is growing among adults seeking help to stop smoking in the UK. In 2013 91% of respondents reported that interest in e-cigarettes had grown in the past year and whilst in 2011, 2% of respondents reported a 'quarter to a half' of their clients saying that they were regularly using e-cigarettes, by 2013 this had increased to 23.5% (p < .001). Responding practitioners' views towards e-cigarettes became more positive between the first and second surveys (15% strongly agreed/agreed in 2011 that 'e-cigarettes are a good thing' rising to 26% in 2013). However, they continued to have concerns about the products. In particular, analysis of free text responses suggested practitioners were unsure about safety or efficacy for smoking cessation, and were worried that smokers may become dependent on the products. Practitioners were also aware of the potential of e-cigarettes to undermine smokers' willingness to use evidence-based methods to stop, and to challenge policies aiming to

  14. Cigarette smoking; knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R; Cravioto, P; de la Rosa, B; Galván, F; García-de la Torre, G; Kuri, P

    1997-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3,568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993) was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98%) surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily), 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p < 0.05). Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  15. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  16. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults.

  17. Why Is Cigarette Smoking So Addicting? An Overview of Smoking as a Chemical and Process Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christen, Arden G.; Christen, Joan A.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the addictive nature of cigarette smoking and the pharmacologic, psychological, and sociocultural parameters of tobacco use. The dynamic combination of related factors makes cigarette smoking extremely resistant to long-term extinction. The article suggests the use of active support systems during nicotine addiction recovery. (SM)

  18. Why Is Cigarette Smoking So Addicting? An Overview of Smoking as a Chemical and Process Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christen, Arden G.; Christen, Joan A.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the addictive nature of cigarette smoking and the pharmacologic, psychological, and sociocultural parameters of tobacco use. The dynamic combination of related factors makes cigarette smoking extremely resistant to long-term extinction. The article suggests the use of active support systems during nicotine addiction recovery. (SM)

  19. Does Switching to Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes Alter Smoking Behavior or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents?

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Norton, Kaila J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M.; Giovino, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers’ exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. Methods: An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006–2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. Results: We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Discussion: Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products. PMID:20805292

  20. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  1. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  2. Utility of the mouse dermal promotion assay in comparing the tumorigenic potential of cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carr J; Perfetti, Thomas A; Garg, Rajni; Hansch, Corwin

    2006-10-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified a number of the chemical constituents reported in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) as carcinogens. In the international literature, 81 IARC classified carcinogens have been reported historically in MS. Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol of minute liquid droplets (termed the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases (CO(2), CO, NO(x), etc.) and semi-volatile compounds. The gases and semi-volatiles are termed the vapor phase. Due to early difficulties in inducing carcinomas in laboratory animals following inhalation exposure to MS, the mouse dermal promotion assay became the standard method of comparing the tumorigenic potential of cigarette smoke condensates (the particulate phase of MS nearly devoid of MS gases and having a significant reduction of the semi-volatile components of the vapor phase). Of the 81 IARC carcinogens reported in MS, 48 are found exclusively in the particulate phase, 29 in the vapor phase only, and four IARC carcinogens in both phases. A general comparison of the quantity and potency of the individual carcinogenic constituents of the MS vapor and particulate phases illustrates that the potential carcinogenic contribution from the vapor phase might be significant. Therefore, the mouse dermal promotion assay may not be a sensitive comparator of the tumorigenic potential of different MSs displaying a diversity of vapor phase components. However, when used in a weight-of-the-evidence approach that includes smoke chemistry, in vitro studies using whole smoke and human exposure studies evaluating both vapor and particulate phase smoke constituents, the mouse dermal promotion assay remains an important risk assessment tool as the only test that reproducibly measures the tumorigenic potential of cigarette smoke condensate.

  3. Do electronic cigarettes increase cigarette smoking in UK adolescents? Evidence from a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Conner, Mark; Grogan, Sarah; Simms-Ellis, Ruth; Flett, Keira; Sykes-Muskett, Bianca; Cowap, Lisa; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Christopher J; Meads, David; Torgerson, Carole; West, Robert; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2017-08-17

    In cross-sectional surveys, increasing numbers of adolescents report using both electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and cigarettes. This study assessed whether adolescent e-cigarette use was associated prospectively with initiation or escalation of cigarette use. Data were from 2836 adolescents (aged 13-14 years at baseline) in 20 schools in England. At baseline, breath carbon monoxide levels, self-reported e-cigarette and cigarette use, sex, age, friends and family smoking, beliefs about cigarette use and percentage receiving free school meals (measure of socioeconomic status) were assessed. At 12-month follow-up, self-reported cigarette use was assessed and validated by breath carbon monoxide levels. At baseline, 34.2% of adolescents reported ever using e-cigarettes (16.0% used only e-cigarettes). Baseline ever use of e-cigarettes was strongly associated with subsequent initiation (n=1726; OR 5.38, 95% CI 4.02 to 7.22; controlling for covariates, OR 4.06, 95% CI 2.94 to 5.60) and escalation (n=318; OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.14 to 3.21; controlling for covariates, this effect became non-significant, OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.82) of cigarette use. This is the first study to report prospective relationships between ever use of e-cigarettes and initiation and escalation of cigarette use among UK adolescents. Ever use of e-cigarettes was robustly associated with initiation but more modestly related to escalation of cigarette use. Further research with longer follow-up in a broader age range of adolescents is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Infrared spectroscopic investigation of erythrocyte membrane-smoke interactions due to chronic cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Sherif, Mahmoud S; Mervat, Ali A; Eman, Aly M

    2017-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious health problem throughout the world, with a complicated and not totally clear bio-effect. In this study, erythrocytes were obtained from healthy male volunteers aged 22 ± 2 years and, the possible effects of three cigarette smoking rates namely 10, 15 and 20 cigarette/day on erythrocytes membrane characteristics were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate many smoking-dependent variations on erythrocytes membrane without an obvious dose-response relationship. There was disruption in the acyl chain packing; changes in membrane order and phases as well as membrane proteins becoming more folded. These physico-chemical changes should have an impact on the function of erythrocytes and may explain the complex interaction of cigarette smoke mainstream with erythrocyte membrane and to some extent clarify the pathological processes associated with cigarette smoking.

  5. Ad lib smoking of Black & Mild cigarillos and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Lacy A; Canlas, Lauren L; Potts, Jennifer; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2012-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a tripling in the consumption of small cigars and cigarillos, with further increases expected because cigar products are not subject to Food and Drug Administration regulations. Acute toxin exposure from cigar smoking is difficult to assess because unlike cigarettes, cigars vary widely in size, design, composition, and in the smoking behavior of their consumers. For example, a recent practice among urban youth is to remove the paper liner (i.e., "freaking") of a small cigar in the belief that it is this paper liner that leads to addiction and cancer. We examined acute exposure (CO and nicotine boosts) and puffing behavior in 12 participants (10 men) who smoked (ad lib) their usual conventional cigarette, a Black & Mild cigar (B&M) and a B&M without the paper liner (i.e., "freaked" [B&Mf]). All products (cigarettes, B&M, and B&Mf) significantly increased heart rate and CO with a trend for plasma nicotine. Nicotine boost was significantly higher after cigarette smoking than both B&M and B&Mf, while CO boost was significantly greater after B&M and B&Mf than cigarettes. The CO boost after B&M was larger than after B&Mf. These findings suggest that small cigar smoking is associated with smoke inhalation that leads to significant exposure to nicotine, CO, and presumably other components of tobacco smoke and that removing the inner liner does not substantially reduce toxin exposure.

  6. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Rahul G; Ghio, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2) the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 μg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis) after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.

  7. Menthol pharmacology and its potential impact on cigarette smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ahijevych, Karen; Garrett, Bridgette E

    2004-02-01

    Menthol is the only tobacco additive promoted and advertised by the tobacco industry. Although a considerable body of research has examined the effects of menthol when it is administered alone and unburned, the effects of menthol when burned in cigarette smoke are more complex because it is administered in a matrix of more than 4,000 substances. Therefore, it is difficult to isolate potential pharmacological and toxic effects of menthol when it is administered in a smoke mixture. Menthol properties include cooling and local anesthesia, as well as effects on drug absorption and metabolism, bronchodilation and respiration changes, and electrophysiology. Subjective effects of smoothness and less harshness have been identified as reasons for menthol cigarette smoking, but findings have been inconclusive regarding the effect of menthol on carbon monoxide exposure and smoking topography parameters. Gaps in the research literature and future research areas include the following: (a) What is the role of menthol in tobacco reinforcement and addiction? (b) In the absence of nicotine, is menthol reinforcing? (c) Are the pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol mediated by a menthol-specific receptor or some other central nervous system-mediated action? (d) What are the influences of menthol and menthol metabolism on the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens in tobacco smoke? and (e) Do differences exist in cigarette smoking topography in relation to the interaction of ethnicity, gender, and menthol cigarette preference? Answers to these questions will help to elucidate the function of menthol in cigarettes and its impact on smoking behavior.

  8. Comparative 13-week inhalation study of cigarette smoke from cigarettes containing cast sheet tobacco.

    PubMed

    Potts, Ryan J; Meckley, Daniel R; Shreve, W Keith; Pence, Deborah H; Ayres, Paul H; Doolittle, David; Swauger, James E; Sagartz, John W

    2007-06-01

    A subchronic, nose-only inhalation study was conducted to compare the effects of mainstream smoke from a reference cigarette containing conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet at 30% of the finished blend to mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing 10% or 15% cast sheet (a specific type of reconstituted tobacco sheet) substituted for part of the conventional reconstituted tobacco. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 1 h/day, 5 d/wk, for 13 wk to mainstream smoke at 0, 0.06, 0.20, or 0.80 mg wet total particulate matter per liter of air. Clinical signs, body and organ weights, clinical chemistry, hematology, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), serum nicotine, plethysmography, gross pathology, and histopathology were determined. Exposure to cigarette smoke induced a number of changes in respiratory physiology, histopathology, and serum nicotine and COHb levels when compared to sham animals. When corresponding dose groups of reference and cast sheet mainstream smokes were compared, no biological differences were noted. At the end of the exposure period, subsets of rats from each group were maintained without smoke exposures for an additional 13 wk (recovery period). At the end of the recovery period, there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings observed between the reference and either cast sheet cigarette. Substitution of 10% or 15% cast sheet tobacco for conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet does not alter the inhalation toxicology of the mainstream smoke when compared to mainstream smoke from a reference cigarette containing conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet.

  9. The effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Khanna, Abhinav; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, has a multitude of well-known side effects. The relationship between cigarette smoking and infertility has been studied for decades; however, large-scale, population-wide prospective studies are lacking. The majority of the current literature is in the form of retrospective studies focused on the effects of smoking on semen analyses. This article discusses the results of these studies and reviews the postulated mechanisms. The effects of smoking on assisted reproduction and in vitro fertilization outcomes are noted. The consequences of smoking while pregnant on future fertility as well as the outcomes of second-hand smoke are analyzed. The current evidence suggests that men should be advised to abstain from smoking in order to improve reproductive outcomes.

  10. Cigarette smoking by adolescent females: implications for health and behavior.

    PubMed

    Gritz, E R

    1984-01-01

    Cigarette smoking rates among teenage females have risen progressively since 1968 until surpassing teenage males in 1979. Psychosocial factors underlying the initiation of smoking include peer pressure, adult role modeling and prosmoking messages in advertising, with smoking potentially representing a desired set of personality characteristics. Regular smoking leads to the development of a dependence process, with cessation often difficult to achieve and maintain. Preventing smoking onset is a responsibility of health professionals and educators. Social psychological approaches teaching social skills and techniques for resisting smoking have been effective in reducing rates of initiation in JHS experimental programs.

  11. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-01-01

    Objectives As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Design Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self‐reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115 814 students in 1996 and 106 297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Main outcome measures Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. Results The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night‐time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. Conclusions This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro‐tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines. PMID:16728747

  12. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-06-01

    As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self-reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115,814 students in 1996 and 106,297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night-time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro-tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines.

  13. The composition of cigarette smoke: a retrospective, with emphasis on polycyclic components.

    PubMed

    Rodgman, A; Smith, C J; Perfetti, T A

    2000-10-01

    The difficulties encountered in extrapolating biological activity from cigarette smoke composition provide generally applicable lessons as they are representative of the problems encountered with other complex mixtures. Researchers attempting to assess risk are faced with attempting to interpret data from a number of areas including: tobacco science; smoke/aerosol chemistry specific to tobacco; sophisticated analytical chemistry applications and techniques for trapping, collecting, separating, and quantifying very specific compounds at nanogram to picogram levels; numerous biological testing methodologies; and animal models of tumors and carcinogenesis. Numerous hypotheses have been developed over the past five decades and tested with the technology of the day in attempts to interpret the biological activity of cigarette smoke in relation to the chemistry of this complex mixture. These hypotheses fall into several categories discussed in this review: mechanisms of pyrogenesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tobacco smoke; levels of PAHs in cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) and its tumorigenicity in mouse skin-painting experiments; control of PAH levels in MS; chemical indicators of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) tumorigenicity; control of levels of MS components partitioned between the vapor phase and particulate phase of MS; tumorigenic threshold limits of CSC and many of its components; tumorigenic aza-arenes in tobacco smoke; MS components reported to be ciliastatic to smokers' respiratory tract cilia; anticarcinogenic tobacco-smoke components. Of 52 hypotheses reviewed in this paper, 15 have excellent data supporting the hypothesis based on today's technology. The remaining 37 hypotheses, although originally plausible, have since become insupportable in light of new and contradictory data generated over the years. Such data were generated sometimes by the original authors of the hypotheses and sometimes by other investigators. The hypotheses

  14. Waterpipe Use and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Never-Smoking Youth.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Pbert, Lori

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm decision against smoking, is a strong predictor of regular smoking and addiction. Several modifiable risk factors have been identified among never cigarette smokers, and one potential factor of interest is waterpipe use. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of waterpipe use with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-smoking youth. In a pooled analysis of 17 Arab nations with nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted during 2002-2011, tobacco-related information was obtained from 30,711 never-smoking adolescents representing 4,962,872 youth. Study outcome was susceptibility to cigarette smoking, and primary exposure was waterpipe use. Data were analyzed in 2014 using weighted logistic regression models, including stratified models by gender, to determine the odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking with waterpipe use, adjusting for confounders. Overall, 20% of never-smoking youth were susceptible to cigarette smoking, ranging from 13.1% in Oman to 32.6% in Somalia; 5.2% currently used waterpipe, ranging from 0.3% in Morocco to 23.5% in Kuwait. The estimated odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking were 2.5 (95% CI=1.9, 3.4) times higher for adolescents who used waterpipe in the past month compared with those who did not, controlling for confounders. Estimates were similar when stratified by gender. Waterpipe use is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Study findings identify a novel risk factor for never smokers to initiate smoking and will help the public health community develop and implement policies around waterpipe use prevention. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  16. Constituents in tobacco and smoke emissions from Canadian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Hammond, D; O'Connor, R J

    2008-09-01

    There is relatively little information available about the chemical constituents of tobacco and individual toxic emissions from cigarettes and other tobacco products. To characterise 21 constituents in whole tobacco and 41 constituents in the smoke emissions of Canadian cigarettes, as well as to compare differences between domestic and imported brands. All data were released as part of Canada's Tobacco Reporting Regulations. Data are reported for 247 brands tested in 2004. The results indicate significant differences in the constituent levels of domestic and imported cigarette tobacco. Levels of ammonia compounds were significantly higher in imported "US blended" tobacco compared to domestically manufactured brands. Toxic emissions for tobacco-specific nitrosamines were significantly higher for imported cigarettes under both the ISO and Canadian Intense testing methods; however domestic cigarettes had higher levels of other toxic constituents, including benzo[a]pyrene. The findings also highlight the extent to which nicotine, heavy metals and tobacco-specific nitrosamines are "transferred" from the whole tobacco to the smoke. The findings illustrate important differences between domestically manufactured Virginia flue-cured cigarettes and imported US blended cigarettes. Although the findings suggest that domestic cigarettes had lower levels of constituents such as ammonia, which are associated with increased "additives", Canadian cigarettes were by no means "additive-free." Overall, these findings provide important benchmarks for making historical and international comparisons across brands on key constituents.

  17. Assessing Discrimination of Nicotine in Humans Via Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Kunkle, Nicole; Michael, Valerie C; Karelitz, Joshua L; Donny, Eric C

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine's interoceptive stimulus effects likely help explain smoking's reinforcing efficacy, but human studies have been limited by difficulties controlling dosing via tobacco inhalation. Our objective was to describe a procedure to study nicotine discrimination via smoking. Dependent smokers abstinent overnight (>12 hours) were first "trained" to discriminate between two cigarettes differing in nicotine content, based on four puffs of exposure, and then tested on whether they successfully acquired that discrimination. After piloting with Quest brand commercial cigarettes, 29 subjects engaged in the main study with cigarettes available through NIDA (Spectrum; 16mg vs. 0.4mg nicotine content). Discrimination training first involved two trials, one with each cigarette, prior to six testing trials. Due to results with the first 20 subjects, the remaining nine received two training trials with each cigarette (four total). Subjective perceptions were also assessed during each testing trial, and puff choice between the two cigarettes available concurrently was assessed after testing, on the last two trials. All five pilot subjects successfully discriminated Quest 1 versus Quest 3 (defined by at least five out of six trials correct, ie, >80%). Yet, only 10 of 20 subjects (50%) were able to discriminate the two Spectrum cigarettes based on two training trials. After changing to four training trials, eight of nine subjects were able to discriminate (89%). Subjective perceptions and puff choice differed between cigarettes more in those able versus unable to discriminate them. With sufficient training exposures, smokers can discriminate nicotine between cigarettes differing in nicotine contents. The interoceptive stimulus effects of nicotine are critical to understanding reinforcement from cigarette smoking behavior. Because of the very recent availability of Spectrum research cigarettes from NIDA, with specific known amounts of nicotine content, the study of nicotine

  18. Cigarette smoking and adult leukemia. A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Brownson, R C; Novotny, T E; Perry, M C

    1993-02-22

    Increasing evidence suggests that certain forms of adult leukemia may be related to cigarette smoking. To evaluate the association between cigarette smoking and adult leukemia, we conducted a meta-analysis of available studies. Data were identified through an English-language MEDLINE search for the period 1970 through 1992 and through our knowledge of ongoing and unpublished studies. Among the studies identified, the meta-analysis included seven prospective studies and eight case-control studies. The US Surgeon General's criteria were used to assess the evidence for causality. A positive association between smoking and certain histologic types of leukemia was found in both prospective and case-control studies. The summary smoking-related risk derived from prospective studies (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.4) was greater than that based on case-control data (relative risk, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.2). Prospective data suggested an elevated risk of myeloid leukemia associated with cigarette smoking (relative risk, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.6). Pooled case-control data showed increased smoking-associated risk for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (relative risk, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.5). Risk of leukemia increased according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Population-attributable risk calculations suggested that approximately 14% of all US leukemia cases (including 17% of myeloid and 14% of acute nonlymphocytic leukemias) may be due to cigarette smoking. The consistency, temporality, and biologic plausibility of this relationship augment our findings, which support a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and certain forms of adult leukemia. Further studies are needed to examine risk among women, dose-response effects, and variation in risk by histologic type.

  19. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Rong; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Jing; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Hongshia; Chen, Xinguang

    2009-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the smoking practice and intention among Chinese college students and to explore the association between cigarette smoking and individual and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1874 students from 19 college campuses in Jiangsu province, China. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were…

  1. Psychosocial Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Rong; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Jing; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Hongshia; Chen, Xinguang

    2009-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the smoking practice and intention among Chinese college students and to explore the association between cigarette smoking and individual and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1874 students from 19 college campuses in Jiangsu province, China. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were…

  2. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  3. [Airway deposition of nanoparticles from second hand cigarette smoke].

    PubMed

    Becquemin, M-H; Bertholon, J-F; Attoui, M; Ledur, D; Roy, F; Roy, M; Dautzenberg, B

    2010-05-01

    Second hand cigarette smoke consists predominantly of nanoparticles (with two dimensions less than 100 nanometres). The aim of this study was to examine the aerosol of cigarette smoke suspended in the air of a smoking room, its disappearance over the course of time, and its retention in the airways of passive smokers, as these processes remain poorly characterised. A smoking machine produced cigarette smoke in a room. A low pressure electrostatic impactor with 13 plates, measured the size distribution and the concentration of the smallest particle sizes in the room air. Healthy adult volunteers (n=14) inhaled and exhaled this air through a nasal mask, allowing calculation of the retention of nanometric particles. The tobacco smoke aerosol was composed of 75% of nanometric particles. The half-life of these particles in the air was 18min. After 2h, 3% of the tobacco smoke particles remained suspended in the air. In passive smokers, the measured airway retention was on average 20%. This work shows that 75% of second hand cigarette smoke aerosol is made up of nanoparticles. When non-smokers inhale this passively, 20% of the particles are retained in their respiratory tract. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  5. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  7. Training and cardiovascular responses from cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Felipe Gonçalves Dos Santos; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Sant'Ana, Paula Grippa; da Cunha, Márcia Regina Holanda; Marocolo, Moacir; Castardeli, Edson

    2014-12-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the early effect of the endurance training (ET) on systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure-product (RPP) after acute cigarette smoke exposure. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TEx; n = 10) and control (CEx; n = 10), exposed to smoke. TEx rats undertook ET during 2 weeks (swimming, 5 days/week; 1 h/session) and CEx group was kept in sedentary lifestyle. After ET protocol both groups were exposed to cigarette smoke only once (total 1 h; 2 × 30 min with interval of 10 min between exposures; rate of 10 cigarettes/30 min). SBP, HR and RPP were measured after 2 weeks and just after (5 min) acute cigarette smoke (tail plethysmograph). All parameters did not differ (P > 0.05) between TEx (RPP = 45018 ± 1970 mmHg/bpm) and CEx (43695 ± 2579 mmHg/bpm) after ET protocol. However, all cardiovascular parameters increased (P < 0.05) only for CEx just after the cigarette smoke exposure. We concluded that ET can attenuate the aggression from acute smoking to cardiovascular system, with a few days of training and even with no chronic effect on these parameters at basal condition.

  8. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  9. Tunable Diode Laser Applications To Cigarette Smoke Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcins, Gunars; Harward, Charles N.; Parrish, Milton E.; Forrest, Gary T.

    1983-11-01

    High resolution infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDL) has been applied to the study of cigarette smoke for qualitative and quantitative determinations involved in tobacco blend and cigarette filter developments. As examples of the different types of application of this work, several TDL studies are presented. The measurements of smoke components on a puff-by-puff basis in confined sample chambers and flowing streams were used to study the smoke component deliveries and the effects of filter dilution. The study of isotopes generated during combustion of chemically treated tobaccos was another application of the TDL system to complex gas mixtures without prior separation of compo-nents. The application of the TDL to the study of cigarette filters and smoke delivery simultaneously was demonstrated by using two well resolved absorption lines of two different gases which occur on a single TDL wavelength scan.

  10. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers.

    PubMed

    Blanc, P D; Golden, J A; Gamsu, G; Aberle, D R; Gold, W M

    1988-01-15

    We studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  11. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  12. [Smoking cigarettes and pain--implications for the postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Billert, Hanna; Gaca, Michał; Adamski, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes poses a number of relevant medical and social problems. Impact of smoking on pain threshold and tolerance may be of significance for surgical patients, who are prompted to abstain from cigarettes before operation. Association between smoking and pain perception is complex. Experimental data bring evidence for analgesic action of nicotine and tobacco smoke acting via nicotinic acetylochline receptors (nAChR). However, clinical studies are unequivocal. Smoking is connected with some pain syndromes. Smokers take much more analgesics than non-smokers and probability of developing opioid dependence is increased in this group of patients. Smokers also present with altered mechanism of stress-induced analgesia and both gender and pain modalities influence their pain perception. Some studies demonstrate increased requirements for postoperative opioid analgesia in smoking patients. Strategies for postoperative pain treatment in smokers should involve regional techniques and clonidine.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).

    PubMed

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke.

  14. Cigarette Smoking, Field-Dependence and Contrast Sensitivity,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the separate and combined effects of cigarette smoking and field- dependence on contrast sensitivity. No previous research on...smokers were tested for field- dependence and measured for contrast sensitivity (Nicolet CS 20000 Testing System) under carefully controlled...deprived of smoking for at least 90 min. Habitual smoking and field- dependence were found to be separately and interactively related to contrast

  15. Vascular effects of cigarette smoke in isolated pig lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, M.J.; Sylvester, J.T.; Kennedy, T.P.; Menkes, H.A.; Traystman, R.J.

    1981-11-01

    To determine the local effects of cigarette smoke on the pulmonary vasculature, we measured pulmonary artery pressure--flow curves in isolated, blood-perfused pig lungs before and after 4 exposures to cigarette smoke. During each exposure, smoke was administered into the trachea for 3 to 4 min at a rate of 20 to 25 puffs/min and a puff volume of 35 to 50 ml with a smoking machine. During hypoxia (inspired PO2, 50 mmHg), when baseline vasomotor tone was high, cigarette smoke caused an acute transient vasodilation. During control (inspired PO2, 200 mmHg), when baseline tone was low, no significant effect was observed. In addition to this acute effect, cigarette smoke caused a depression of the pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia, which developed gradually during the course of the experiment. Indomethacin, at perfusate concentrations of 20 and 100 micrograms/ml, did not significantly alter the acute vasodilating effect of smoking, suggesting that prostaglandins synthesized by cyclooxygenase were not the mediators of this response. Indomethacin did, however, prevent the gradual depression of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia.

  16. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  17. Acetyl Radical Generation in Cigarette Smoke: Quantification and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10–150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commerial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass filber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acealdehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke. PMID:25253993

  18. E-Cigarette Use Among Never-Smoking California Students.

    PubMed

    Bostean, Georgiana; Trinidad, Dennis R; McCarthy, William J

    2015-12-01

    We determined the extent to which adolescents who have never used tobacco try e-cigarettes. Data on the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among 482,179 California middle and high school students are from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey. Overall, 24.4% had ever used e-cigarettes (13.4% have never used tobacco and 11.0% have used tobacco), and 12.9% were current e-cigarette users (5.9% have never used tobacco). Among those who have never used tobacco, males and older students were more likely to use e-cigarettes than females and younger students. Hispanics (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; confidence interval [CI] = 1.53, 1.67) and those of other races (OR = 1.24; CI = 1.19, 1.29) were more likely than Whites to have ever used e-cigarettes, but only among those who had never used smokeless tobacco and never smoked a whole cigarette. E-cigarette use is very prevalent among California students who have never smoked tobacco, especially among Hispanic and other race students, males, and older students.

  19. Damage to the insula disrupts addiction to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Hanna; Bechara, Antoine

    2007-01-26

    A number of brain systems have been implicated in addictive behavior, but none have yet been shown to be necessary for maintaining the addiction to cigarette smoking. We found that smokers with brain damage involving the insula, a region implicated in conscious urges, were more likely than smokers with brain damage not involving the insula to undergo a disruption of smoking addiction, characterized by the ability to quit smoking easily, immediately, without relapse, and without persistence of the urge to smoke. This result suggests that the insula is a critical neural substrate in the addiction to smoking.

  20. Damage to the Insula Disrupts Addiction to Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Nasir H.; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Hanna; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    A number of brain systems have been implicated in addictive behavior, but none have yet been shown to be necessary for maintaining the addiction to cigarette smoking. We found that smokers with brain damage involving the insula, a region implicated in conscious urges, were more likely than smokers with brain damage not involving the insula to undergo a disruption of smoking addiction, characterized by the ability to quit smoking easily, immediately, without relapse, and without persistence of the urge to smoke. This result suggests that the insula is a critical neural substrate in the addiction to smoking. PMID:17255515

  1. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vani, G.; Anbarasi, K.; Shyamaladevi, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke. PMID:26413118

  2. Is Smoking Shisha Safer than Cigarettes: Comparison of Health Effects of Shisha and Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Husain, Hamid; Al-Fadhli, Fahed; Al-Olaimi, Fatima; Al-Duraie, Alshouq; Qureshi, Ammar; Al-Kandari, Waleed; Mitra, Amal K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the health effects of shisha smoking with cigarette smoking among male college students in Kuwait. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 525 male students in Kuwait from September to October 2013. A pretested questionnaire was used for information on demographics and health complaints. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured using a portable peak flow meter. The outcome variables of health status were compared between smoking shisha, cigarettes, or both, and nonsmoking. The prevalence of current smoking was 243 of the 525 students (46%); of them, 52 (10%) were shisha smokers, 69 were (13%) cigarette smokers and 122 (23%) were both shisha and cigarette smokers. There were significantly fewer shisha smokers than cigarette smokers with symptoms of persistent cough (4 vs. 13% or 2/52 vs. 15/69; p = 0.007), chest pain (4 vs. 23% or 2/52 vs. 16/69; p = 0.004) and rapid heart rate (12 vs. 28% or 6/52 vs. 19/69; p = 0.04). Other complaints, including asthma, respiratory infections, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, increased blood sugar levels and sleep disturbances were similar in the 2 groups. Values of PEFR for shisha smokers and cigarette smokers were not significantly different. This study produced evidence suggesting that shisha smoking is not safer than cigarette smoking except with regard to complaints such as cough, chest pain and rapid heart rate, and that people who smoke both experience worse health effects in terms of frequent symptoms of respiratory infections, persistent cough, rapid heartbeat and sleep disturbances. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. RelB attenuates cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis in association with transcriptional regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Iu, Matthew; Zago, Michela; de Souza, Angela Rico; Bouttier, Manuella; Pareek, Swati; White, John H; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2017-02-27

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and prevalent respiratory disease caused primarily by long term inhalation of cigarette smoke. A major hallmark of COPD is elevated apoptosis of structural lung cells including fibroblasts. The NF-κB member RelB may suppress apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke, but its role in lung cell survival is not known. RelB may act as a pro-survival factor by controlling the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). SOD2 is also regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that suppresses cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. As the AhR is also a binding partner for RelB, we speculate that RelB suppresses cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis by regulating the AhR. Using an in vitro model of cigarette smoke exposure (cigarette smoke extract [CSE]), we found that CSE down-regulated RelB expression in mouse lung fibroblasts, which was associated with elevated levels of cleaved PARP. Genetic ablation of RelB elevated CSE-induced apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, and reduced mitochondrial function. There was also more reactive oxygen species production in RelB(-/-) cells exposed to CSE. While there was no alteration in Nrf2 expression or localization between RelB(-/-) and wild type cells in response to CSE, RelB(-/-) cells displayed significantly decreased AhR mRNA and protein expression, concomitant with loss of AhR target gene expression (Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, Nqo1). Finally, we found that RelB binds to the Ahr gene at 3 sites to potentially increase its expression via transcriptional induction. These data support that RelB suppresses cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis, potentially by increasing the AhR. Together, these two proteins may comprise an important cell survival signalling pathway that reduces apoptosis upon cigarette smoke exposure.

  4. ISE Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofeng; Polk, Brian J.; Meazell, Liz A.; Hatchett, David W.

    2000-08-01

    Many advanced undergraduate analytical laboratory courses focus on exposing students to various modern instruments. However, students rarely have the opportunity to construct their own analytical tools for solving practical problems. We designed an experiment in which students are required to build their own analytical module, a potentiometric device composed of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Ag/Ag2S ion selective electrode (ISE), and a pH meter used as voltmeter, to determine the amount of hydrogen sulfide in cigarette smoke. Very simple techniques were developed for constructing these electrodes. Cigarette smoke is collected by a gas washing bottle into a 0.1 M NaOH solution. The amount of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution is analyzed by standard addition of sulfide solution while monitoring the response of the Ag/Ag2S ISE. The collected data are further evaluated using the Gran plot technique to determine the concentration of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution. The experiment has been successfully incorporated into the lab course Instrumental Analysis at Georgia Institute of Technology. Students enjoy the idea of constructing an analytical tool themselves and applying their classroom knowledge to solve real-life problems. And while learning electrochemistry they also get a chance to visualize the health hazard imposed by cigarette smoking.

  5. Cigarette smoking causes epigenetic changes associated with cardiorenal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Christopher A; Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Haller, Steven T; Fan, Xiaoming; Xie, Jeffrey X; Kennedy, David J; Liu, Jiang; Yan, Yanling; Hernandez, Dawn-Alita; Mathew, Denzil P; Cooper, Christopher J; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tian, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Clinical studies indicate that smoking combustible cigarettes promotes progression of renal and cardiac injury, leading to functional decline in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, basic studies using in vivo small animal models that mimic clinical pathology of CKD are lacking. To address this issue, we evaluated renal and cardiac injury progression and functional changes induced by 4 wk of daily combustible cigarette smoke exposure in the 5/6th partial nephrectomy (PNx) CKD model. Molecular evaluations revealed that cigarette smoke significantly (P < 0.05) decreased renal and cardiac expression of the antifibrotic microRNA miR-29b-3 and increased expression of molecular fibrosis markers. In terms of cardiac and renal organ structure and function, exposure to cigarette smoke led to significantly increased systolic blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac and renal fibrosis, and decreased renal function. These data indicate that decreased expression of miR-29b-3p is a novel mechanism wherein cigarette smoke promotes accelerated cardiac and renal tissue injury in CKD. (155 words).

  6. Chemical analysis of cigarette smoke particulate generated in the MSB-01 in vitro whole smoke exposure system.

    PubMed

    Scian, Mariano J; Oldham, Michael J; Miller, John H; Kane, David B; Edmiston, Jeffery S; McKinney, Willie J

    2009-10-01

    Cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) is a dynamic aerosol consisting of a gas-vapor phase and a particulate phase. In recent years, novel in vitro whole smoke exposure systems have been developed to expose cells directly to whole MS. One such system is the Burghart Mimic Smoker-01 (MSB-01). Our previous data using the MSB-01 indicated that a 50 +/- 10% loss of particulate matter occurred prior to MS delivery into the exposure chamber. Additionally, a change in aerosol particle diameter was also measured, suggesting that the chemical composition of MS might be changing within the system. In this study, we have expanded on our previous work and compared the particulate phase chemical composition of undiluted and diluted MS generated by the instrument and that of the MS delivered into the exposure chamber. The average percent delivery of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) detected for all the measured chemical constituents was 35 +/- 13% for undiluted MS and 23 +/- 8% for 1:1 diluted MS. The data also indicate that under our experimental conditions, incomplete mixing of the freshly generated MS occurs during its dilution by the system. Taken together, the data presented here show that significant chemical changes occur between the generation of MS by the system and its delivery into the exposure chamber. This indicates that due to the dynamic nature of cigarette smoke, it is important to characterize the exposure conditions in order to gain the best insight and accurately correlate exposure with biological endpoints.

  7. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  8. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette

  9. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. PMID:21695023

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human milk from Italian women: influence of cigarette smoking and residential area.

    PubMed

    Zanieri, L; Galvan, P; Checchini, L; Cincinelli, A; Lepri, L; Donzelli, G P; Del Bubba, M

    2007-04-01

    The presence of PAH in breast milk collected from 32 smoking and non-smoking lactating women, residing in urban and rural areas of Tuscany (Italy) was investigated. The results indicated a significant contribution of tobacco smoke to the PAH contamination of milk: the condensate contained in the cigarettes smoked daily by each subject was strongly related with the polynuclear hydrocarbon content (R(2)=0.92, P<0.005). An experiment carried out under controlled exposure conditions to cigarette smoke allowed to demonstrate that individual metabolic activity and smoking habits affect the PAH concentration in milk samples. Mothers living in rural environments showed significantly lower PAH concentrations than those observed in urban subjects. The risk evaluation due to PAH ingestion via breast milk was assessed on the basis of the acceptable daily intake of Benzo(a)pyrene in drinking water, evidencing that a hazard cannot be excluded for heavy smokers residing in urban areas.

  11. Patterns of Water-Pipe and Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Schoolchildren: Irbid Longitudinal Smoking Study

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Yousef; Eissenberg, Thomas; Al Ali, Radwan; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use remains a major public health problem worldwide. Water-pipe smoking is spreading rapidly and threatening to undermine the successes achieved in tobacco control. Methods: A school-based longitudinal study in the city of Irbid, Jordan, was performed from 2008 to 2010. All seventh-grade students in 19 randomly selected schools, out of a total of 60 schools in the city, were enrolled at baseline and surveyed annually. Results: Of the 1781 students enrolled at baseline 1,701 (95.5%) were still in the study at the end of the second year of follow-up (869 boys, median age at baseline 13 years). Ever and current water-pipe smoking were higher than those of cigarette smoking at baseline (ever smoking: 25.9% vs. 17.6% and current smoking: 13.3% vs. 5.3% for water-pipe and cigarette smoking, respectively; p < .01 for both) but cigarette smoking caught up by the second year of follow-up (ever smoking: 46.4% vs. 44.7%; p = .32 and current smoking: 18.9% vs. 14.9%; p < .01). Water pipe–only smokers at baseline were twice as likely to become current cigarette smokers after 2 years compared with never smokers (relative risk (RR) = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.4). A similar pattern was observed for cigarette-only smokers at baseline (RR = 2.0; 95% CI = 0.9, 4.8). Conclusions: Prevalence of water-pipe and cigarette smoking increased dramatically over the 2-year follow-up period with similar patterns in boys and girls, although girls had lower prevalence in all categories. Water-pipe smoking at baseline predicted the progress to cigarette smoking in the future and vice versa. PMID:22140149

  12. A global toxicogenomic analysis investigating the mechanistic differences between tobacco and marijuana smoke condensates in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-06-07

    Like tobacco smoking, habitual marijuana smoking causes numerous adverse pulmonary effects. However, the mechanisms of action involved, especially as compared to tobacco smoke, are still unclear. To uncover putative modes of action, this study employed a toxicogenomics approach to compare the toxicological pathways perturbed following exposure to marijuana and tobacco smoke condensate in vitro. Condensates of mainstream smoke from hand-rolled tobacco and marijuana cigarettes were similarly prepared using identical smoking conditions. Murine lung epithelial cells were exposed to low, medium and high concentrations of the smoke condensates for 6h. RNA was extracted immediately or after a 4h recovery period and hybridized to mouse whole genome microarrays. Tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) exposure was associated with changes in xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage response. These same pathways were also significantly affected following marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) exposure. Although the effects of the condensates were largely similar, dose-response analysis indicates that the MSC is substantially more potent than TSC. In addition, steroid biosynthesis, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways were more significantly affected following MSC exposure, whereas M phase cell cycle pathways were more significantly affected following TSC exposure. MSC exposure also appeared to elicit more severe oxidative stress than TSC exposure, which may account for the greater cytotoxicity of MSC. This study shows that in general MSC impacts many of the same molecular processes as TSC. However, subtle pathway differences can provide insight into the differential toxicities of the two complex mixtures. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on pattern electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Durukan, A Hakan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Sobaci, Gungor; Bayraktar, M Zeki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, acute effects of cigarette smoking on the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) were investigated. First, variability of the PERG was studied in a group of young male smokers (26 right eyes of 26 subjects). Then PERGs were investigated in a group of habitual smokers (17 right eyes of 17 subjects) in separate real smoking and sham smoking sessions. On each session PERGs were recorded pre-smoking (PS), immediately after smoking (IAS) and 5 min after smoking (5th) conditions. Real smoking significantly increased P50 amplitudes and decreased N95 latencies. Regarding P50 amplitudes in the real smoking sessions, the differences were significant between PS and IAS (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5 muV, IAS: 3.7 +/- 0.7microV, P = 0.015) and between PS-5th (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5microV, 5th: 4.1 +/- 0.9microV, P = 0.039). There was significant difference (P = 0.024) between N95 latencies of PS (98.5 +/- 6.9 ms) and IAS (94.7 +/- 5.1 ms) in the real smoking sessions. No statistically significant difference was observed in sham smoking sessions. Our results indicated, for the first time, that cigarette smoking may influence PERG amplitude and latency significantly in habitual smokers.

  14. Medicalisation, smoking and e-cigarettes: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-30

    There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit. We argue that the medicalisation of smoking will have limited impact due to the emphasis on population-based interventions in tobacco control, the ambiguous place of nicotine among other drugs and the modest efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. These factors, as well as lay understandings of smoking that emphasise willpower, personal choice and responsibility, have contributed to the limited success of medical approaches to smoking cessation. While the rapid uptake of e-cigarettes in some countries has provided an option for those who reject medical treatments for smoking cessation, current regulatory developments could limit the potential of e-cigarettes to provide non-therapeutic nicotine for those who currently smoke tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and cognitive performance in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kafouri, S; Leonard, G; Perron, M; Richer, L; Séguin, J R; Veillette, S; Pausova, Z; Paus, T

    2009-02-01

    The incidence of cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains high. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be associated with cognitive and behavioural sequelae in childhood and adolescence. We assessed the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and cognitive abilities in adolescent offspring (n = 503, 12- to 18-years old) using an extensive 6-h battery of tests. Non-exposed adolescents (controls) were matched to exposed adolescents (cases) by maternal education and school attended. Cognitive abilities were evaluated using a neuropsychological battery consisting of 33 tasks measuring verbal abilities, visuo-spatial skills, verbal and visual memory, processing speed, resistance to interference and motor dexterity. We found no differences between cases and controls in any of the cognitive domains whether potential confounders were included in the model or not. In addition to maternal smoking during pregnancy, we also evaluated the effect of sex and age on the various cognitive abilities in this large adolescent sample and found that most of the abilities continue to improve during adolescence to the same extent in girls and boys, with several age-independent sex differences. We found no effect of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy on cognitive abilities of the adolescent offspring when matching cases and controls by maternal education, the most common confounder of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy.

  16. Carbon monoxide fractions in cigarette and hookah (hubble bubble) smoke.

    PubMed

    Sajid, K M; Akhter, M; Malik, G Q

    1993-09-01

    We studied the carbon monoxide (CO) fractions in hookah and cigarette smoke, using a carbon monoxide micro smokerlyzer (model EC50, BEDFONT, U.K.). Mean carbon monoxide fractions (% by volume) of hookah smoke, using domestic charcoal were 0.38 +/- 0.07 (large hookah; unfiltered); 1.40 +/- 0.43 (small hookah; unfiltered); 0.34 +/- 0.06 (large hookah; filtered); 1.36 +/- 0.35 (small hookah; filtered) and 0.41 +/- 0.08 (cigarette smoke). The highest fractions were obtained with small size hookah and increase in size of hookah (i.e., volume of air in water base, fire bowl volume, pipe length, etc.) reduced the CO fraction significantly (P < 0.001). The fractions of cigarette lie between large and small hookah. The fractions vary slightly with different varieties of tobacco, e.g., CO fractions with Dera wala tobacco are significantly low (P < 0.05). Use of commercial charcoal gives significant rise in CO fractions (P < 0.001). Comparison of filtered and unfiltered smoke shows no significant difference in values. We conclude that the CO hazard is as high with hookah smoking as with cigarette smoking.

  17. "Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites.

    PubMed

    Grana, Rachel A; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%). Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  19. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention. PMID:11889286

  20. Cigarette Smoke, Bacteria, Mold, Microbial Toxins, and Chronic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, John L.; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps. PMID:21772847

  1. Cigarette smoke and ozone effect on murine inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Gardi, Concetta; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution has been associated with many different diseases, such as cancer, and respiratory, cardiovascular, and cutaneous chronic diseases. These effects are enhanced in people exposed to combined air pollutants, such as ozone and cigarette smoke. Chronic exposure to these pollutants causes an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation and has been associated with an increase in pulmonary diseases and mortality. Clinical and epidemiological studies reported interindividual variability in the adverse health effects of air pollutants, suggesting a genetic predisposition. The identification of subgroups of the population who are particularly vulnerable to air pollution is, therefore, of importance. Mouse models are a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying different susceptibility, as they show differences in strain responses to both ozone and cigarette smoke. This review analyses the role of inflammation and the influence of genetic factors on the mechanisms of lung injury caused by ozone and cigarette smoke.

  2. Cigarette smoke, bacteria, mold, microbial toxins, and chronic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pauly, John L; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps.

  3. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

    2008-04-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology.

  4. Longitudinal study of e-cigarette use and onset of cigarette smoking among high school students in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Knight, Rebecca; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Pagano, Ian; Williams, Rebecca J

    2017-01-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is prevalent among adolescents, but there is little knowledge about the consequences of their use. We examined, longitudinally, how e-cigarette use among adolescents is related to subsequent smoking behaviour. Longitudinal school-based survey with a baseline sample of 2338 students (9th and 10th graders, mean age 14.7 years) in Hawaii surveyed in 2013 (time 1, T1) and followed up 1 year later (time 2, T2). We assessed e-cigarette use, tobacco cigarette use, and psychosocial covariates (demographics, parental support and monitoring, and sensation seeking and rebelliousness). Regression analyses including the covariates tested whether e-cigarette use was related to the onset of smoking among youth who had never smoked cigarettes, and to change in smoking frequency among youth who had previously smoked cigarettes. Among T1 never-smokers, those who had used e-cigarettes at T1 were more likely to have smoked cigarettes at T2; for a complete-case analysis, adjusted OR=2.87, 95% CI 2.03 to 4.05, p<0.0001. Among ever-smokers at T1, using e-cigarettes was not related to significant change in their frequency of smoking at T2. Uptake of e-cigarette use among T1 never-users of either product was predicted by age, Caucasian or Native Hawaiian (vs Asian-American) ethnicity, lower parental education and parental support, higher rebelliousness, and perception of e-cigarettes as healthier. Adolescents who use e-cigarettes are more likely to start smoking cigarettes. This result together with other findings suggests that policies restricting adolescents' access to e-cigarettes may have a rationale from a public health standpoint. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Effect of cigarette menthol content on mainstream smoke emissions.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S M; Brinkman, M C; Meng, R Q; Anderson, G M; Chuang, J C; Kroeger, R R; Reyes, I L; Clark, P I

    2011-10-17

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act empowered the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to study "the impact of the use of menthol in cigarettes on the public health, including such use among children, African Americans, Hispanics and other racial and ethnic minorities," and develop recommendations. Current scientific evidence comparing human exposures between menthol and nonmenthol smokers shows mixed results. This is largely because of the many differences between commercial menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes other than their menthol content. We conducted an innovative study using two types of test cigarettes: a commercial nonmenthol brand that we mentholated at four different levels, and Camel Crush, a commercial cigarette containing a small capsule in the filter that releases menthol solution into the filter when crushed. Cigarettes were machine-smoked at each of the menthol levels investigated, and the total particulate matter (TPM) was collected on a quartz fiber filter pad and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for menthol, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cotinine, and quinoline. The mainstream smoke was also monitored continuously in real time on a puff-by-puff basis for seven gas-phase constituents (acetaldehyde, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and 2,5-dimethylfuran), using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. Average yields (in micrograms/cigarette) for the analytes were determined. Menthol in the TPM samples increased linearly with applied menthol concentration, but the amounts of nicotine along with the target TSNAs, PAHs, cotinine, and quinoline in the cigarettes remained essentially unchanged. Similarly, yields of the targeted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in whole smoke from the mentholated nonmenthol cigarettes that were measured in real-time were largely unaffected by their menthol levels. In the Camel Crush

  6. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  7. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Kim

    2011-05-01

    To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

  8. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions. PMID:24065038

  9. Resolvins attenuate inflammation and promote resolution in cigarette smoke-exposed human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Croasdell, Amanda; Thatcher, Thomas H; Kottmann, R Matthew; Colas, Romain A; Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N; Sime, Patricia J; Phipps, Richard P

    2015-10-15

    Inflammation is a protective response to injury, but it can become chronic, leading to tissue damage and disease. Cigarette smoke causes multiple inflammatory diseases, which account for thousands of deaths and cost billions of dollars annually. Cigarette smoke disrupts the function of immune cells, such as macrophages, by prolonging inflammatory signaling, promoting oxidative stress, and impairing phagocytosis, contributing to increased incidence of infections. Recently, new families of lipid-derived mediators, "specialized proresolving mediators" (SPMs), were identified. SPMs play a critical role in the active resolution of inflammation by counterregulating proinflammatory signaling and promoting resolution pathways. We have identified dysregulated concentrations of lipid mediators in exhaled breath condensate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In human alveolar macrophages from COPD and non-COPD patients, D-series resolvins decreased inflammatory cytokines and enhanced phagocytosis. To further investigate the actions of resolvins on human cells, macrophages were differentiated from human blood monocytes and treated with D-series resolvins and then exposed to cigarette smoke extract. Resolvins significantly suppressed macrophage production of proinflammatory cytokines, enzymes, and lipid mediators. Resolvins also increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, promoted an M2 macrophage phenotype, and restored cigarette smoke-induced defects in phagocytosis, highlighting the proresolving functions of these molecules. These actions were receptor-dependent and involved modulation of canonical and noncanonical NF-κB expression, with the first evidence for SPM action on alternative NF-κB signaling. These data show that resolvins act on human macrophages to attenuate cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory effects through proresolving mechanisms and provide new evidence of the therapeutic potential of SPMs.

  10. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Acrylic Resin Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Seema S.; M.R., Dhakshaini; Gujjari, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The discolouration of artificial teeth, which hampers aesthetics, is one of the negative effects of cigarette smoking. Therefore, the effect of cigarette smoke on the colour stability of commercially available acrylic resin teeth needs to be evaluated for clinical success and to ascertain as to which brand has superior properties. Material and Methods: Three commercially available acrylic teeth were evaluated, after division into Group A (Premadent), Group B (Astra), and Group C (Sanyo- Dent). Selected brands were subdivided as study group and control group. Each set of acrylic resin teeth were stored in artificial saliva at 37±1°C for 24 hours. After 24 hours of immersion, the colour measurement of each tooth (T0) was performed. Second colour measurements were done after 21 days (T21) of exposure to cigarette smoke for study group and after immersion in artificial saliva for control group. All data was statistically analyzed by using Repeated Measures ANOVA and Two-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Results: Group A showed least total colour change on exposure to cigarette smoke, followed by Group B and Group C had the highest total colour change. In control group, after immersion in artificial saliva, a slight increase in total colour change was observed for all groups, which was clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Group A (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was more colour stable and more resistant to the discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke, followed by Group B (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth). Group C (Non-crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was least colour stable and most susceptible to discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke. PMID:24179942

  11. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Waterpipe use and cognitive susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth: analysis of the 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Kheirallah, Khalid A; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Ward, Kenneth D

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as lack of a firm decision to not initiate smoking, predicts youth smoking initiation and experimentation and is a first step in the transition to regular smoking. This study investigated whether waterpipe (WP) smoking, an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use among Arab adolescents, was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Jordan Global Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted to assess the association between WP use and cigarette susceptibility, after adjusting for important confounders. A total of 1,476 youth aged 13-15 years old who had never smoked cigarettes were identified and represented 166,593 never-cigarette smoking Jordanian youth. We found 40% of boys and 29% of girls were susceptible to cigarette smoking, and both boys (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-1.54) and girls (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.83-2.04) who had ever smoked WP were more susceptible to cigarette smoking than those who never smoked WP. This is the first study to report that WP use may increase youth's susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Smoking and electronic cigarettes in France].

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    France is one of the developed countries where the prevalence of tobacco use is the highest. The reduction of incidence and prevalence of tobacco use in the near future would considerably decrease tobacco associated mortality and morbidity. The electronic cigarette, a consumer product that delivers pharmacologically active substances, is used by several millions of persons in France. The benefit-risk ratio of electronic cigarette use is unknown, as of today.

  14. Prevalence and social environment of cigarette smoking in Cyprus youth.

    PubMed

    Christophi, Costas A; Kolokotroni, Ourania; Alpert, Hillel R; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Demokritou, Philip; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-06-02

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Limited data exist regarding the extent of the problem among Cyprus youth. We use the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among middle and high school students as well as the social environment in which this is taking place. The survey was conducted by the Cyprus International Institute for the Environment and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to select a representative sample of students from middle and high schools registered with the Republic of Cyprus in 2005-2006. The study questionnaire consisted of 99 questions and participation in the survey was voluntary. Statistical analyses were performed taking into consideration the specific design of the study and the sample weights associated with each completed questionnaire. The prevalence of current smoking, defined as having smoked cigarettes on one or more days of the past 30 days, is 13% among boys and 7% among girls in middle schools, and 36% among boys and 23% among girls in high schools. Furthermore, 16% of middle school students and more than 24% of high school students that had never smoked indicated that they are likely to initiate smoking within the next year. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is also very high with 91% of students reporting being exposed to smoke in places outside home. In addition, more than 95% of current smokers reported that they had bought cigarettes in a store during the past month and were not refused cigarettes because of their age. Smoking prevalence among Cyprus middle and high school students is high and there are indications of an increase in the prevalence of smoking among girls over the last few years. Susceptibility rates, exposure to second-hand smoke, and access to and availability of cigarettes to youth are also high and concerning. The present survey indicates that

  15. CIGARETTE SMOKING AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kessides, Maria C.; Wheless, Lee; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Clipp, Sandra; Alani, Rhoda M.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several previous studies have reported inverse associations between cigarette smoking and melanoma. Often these studies have not adjusted for ultraviolet (UV) exposure history, skin type, or number of blistering sunburns, which could confound the observed associations between cigarette smoking and melanoma. Objective To assess whether this reported inverse association persists after adjusting for UV exposure, skin type, and number of blistering sunburns. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study (82 melanoma cases, 164 controls). Two controls were matched to each case by age, sex, race, and skin type. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to assess the association between cigarette smoking history and melanoma, with additional adjustments for UV exposure and sunburns. Results Compared to never smokers, both former (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18–1.04) and current (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.19–2.24) smoking were inversely associated with melanoma, but the associations were not statistically significant. Limitations The number of cutaneous nevi was not assessed in this study. Additionally, the relatively small number of cases limits the statistical precision of the observed associations. Conclusions After matching for age, sex, race, and skin type, and further adjusting for UV exposure and number of sunburns, cigarette smoking was not statistically significantly associated with melanoma risk, but the results were consistent with previous observations of an inverse association. PMID:20334951

  16. Cigarette Smoking Predicts Differential Benefit from Naltrexone for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fucito, Lisa M.; Park, Aesoon; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Mattson, Margaret E.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza V.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying factors that modify responsiveness to pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence is important for treatment planning. Cigarette smoking predicts more severe alcohol dependence and poorer treatment response in general. Nevertheless, there is limited research on cigarette smoking as a potential predictor of differential response to pharmacological treatment of alcoholism. Methods We examined the association between cigarette smoking and drinking outcomes in the COMBINE study, a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 16-week trial comparing combinations of medications (i.e., acamprosate and naltrexone) and behavioral interventions (i.e., medical management (MM), combined behavioral therapy (CBI)) in 1383 alcohol dependent individuals. Results Smokers (i.e., more than half the sample) significantly differed from nonsmokers on several demographic and drinking-related variables at baseline and generally had poorer treatment outcomes than nonsmokers. However, smokers who received naltrexone had better drinking outcomes than smokers who received placebo, whereas alcohol use among nonsmokers did not vary by naltrexone assignment. This pattern of findings occurred independent of whether patients received CBI or MM and remained after controlling for alcoholism typology and baseline demographic differences. Approximately 9% of smokers quit smoking and an additional 10% reduced their cigarette intake during treatment. Reductions in smoking did not vary by treatment assignment. Conclusions These results suggest that naltrexone may be particularly beneficial for improving alcohol use outcomes in alcohol dependent smokers. Trial Registration The COMBINE Study, NCT000626, http://www.cscc.unc.edu/combine/. PMID:22541040

  17. Impulsivity and the reinforcing value of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Cohen, Lee

    2007-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that impulsivity would predict perceptions of positive and negative reinforcement from smoking. The secondary hypothesis was that the relationship between impulsivity and smoking reinforcement expectations would be mediated by the character trait of self-directedness. College students (n=202) who reported smoking cigarettes participated in the survey study. Hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that impulsivity predicted expectations about positive (beta=.22, p=.001) and negative (beta=.25, p=.001) reinforcement from smoking. These relationships were also mediated by self-directedness. Results suggest that impulsive smokers in the early stages of dependence may smoke because they expect smoking to be extremely pleasurable as well as to help dispel bouts with negative affect. Furthermore, their elevated expectations about smoking may be related to difficulties adapting to challenging environments and working toward long-term goals.

  18. Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longjie; Ning, Min; Xu, Yingbo; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Guangshan; Cao, Qingqing; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-03-21

    The present study investigated the influence of the cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. TrxR is a selenoenzyme with a selenocysteine (Sec) residue exposed on the enzyme's surface. This unique Sec residue is particularly susceptible to modification by numerous types of electrophiles, leading to inactivation of TrxR and consequent cytotoxicity. Cigarette smoke contains various electrophiles, and the present study showed that CSE could inhibit intracellular TrxR through causing crosslinking and alkylation of TrxR1. TrxR inhibitory capacities of various CSEs were evaluated by using mouse-liver homogenate. Among the CSEs prepared from 18 commercial cigarette brands, TrxR inhibitory capacities of the maximum and the minimum had a 2.5-fold difference. Importantly, CSE's inhibitory capacity greatly paralleled its cytotoxic potency in all cell lines used. Compared to cytotoxic assays, which have been widely used for evaluating cigarette toxicity but are not suitable for simultaneously examining a large number of cigarette samples, the present method was simple and rapid with a high-throughput feature and thus could be used as an auxiliary means to predict the cytotoxicity of a large number of cigarette samples, making it possible to extensively screen numerous agricultural and industrial measures that potentially affect cigarette safety.

  19. Make your own cigarettes: toxicant exposure, smoking topography, and subjective effects.

    PubMed

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Rosenberry, Zachary R; Viray, Lauren C; Potts, Jennifer L; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2014-09-01

    Despite considerable use of make your own (MYO) cigarettes worldwide and increasing use in the United States, relatively little is known about how these cigarettes are smoked and the resultant toxicant exposure. In a laboratory study, we compared two types of MYO cigarettes-roll your own (RYO) and personal machine made (PMM)-with factory-made (FM) cigarettes in three groups of smokers who exclusively used RYO (n = 34), PMM (n = 23), or FM (n = 20). Within each group, cigarettes were smoked in three conditions: (i) after confirmed overnight tobacco abstinence; (ii) in an intense smoking paradigm; and (iii) without restrictions. All cigarettes were smoked ad lib through a smoking topography unit. Plasma nicotine significantly increased after cigarettes in all conditions except PMM in the intense smoking paradigm. Puff volume, puff duration, total puff volume, and puff velocity did not differ between cigarette types but the puffs per cigarette and time to smoke were significantly smaller for RYO compared with PMM and FM. Regardless of the cigarette, participants consumed the first three puffs more vigorously than the last three puffs. Despite the belief of many of their consumers, smoking MYO cigarettes is not a safe alternative to FM cigarettes. Like FM, MYO cigarettes expose their users to harmful constituents of tobacco smoke. Despite differences in size and design their puffing profiles are remarkably similar. These data are relevant to health and regulatory considerations on the MYO cigarettes. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Make Your Own Cigarettes: Toxicant Exposure, Smoking Topography, and Subjective Effects

    PubMed Central

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Rosenberry, Zachary R.; Viray, Lauren C.; Potts, Jennifer L.; Pickworth, Wallace B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite considerable use of make your own (MYO) cigarettes worldwide and increasing use in the United States, relatively little is known about how these cigarettes are smoked and the resultant toxicant exposure. Methods In a laboratory study, we compared two types of MYO cigarettes – roll your own (RYO) and personal machine made (PMM) – with factory made (FM) cigarettes in three groups of smokers who exclusively used RYO (n=34), PMM (n=23) or FM (n=20). Within each group, cigarettes were smoked in three conditions: 1) after confirmed overnight tobacco abstinence; 2) in an intense smoking paradigm; 3) and without restrictions. All cigarettes were smoked ad lib through a smoking topography unit. Results Plasma nicotine significantly increased after cigarettes in all conditions except PMM in the intense smoking paradigm. Puff volume, puff duration, total puff volume and puff velocity did not differ between cigarette types but the puffs per cigarette and time to smoke were significantly smaller for RYO compared to PMM and FM. Regardless of the cigarette, participants consumed the first three puffs more vigorously than the last three puffs. Conclusions Despite the belief of many of their consumers smoking MYO cigarettes are not a safe alternative to consumption of FM cigarettes. Like FM, MYO cigarettes expose their users to harmful constituents of tobacco smoke and despite differences in size and design their puffing profiles are remarkably similar. Impact These data are relevant to health and regulatory considerations on the MYO cigarettes. PMID:24925675

  1. Cigarette smoking and oral health among healthcare students.

    PubMed

    Komu, P; Dimba, E A O; Macigo, F G; Ogwell, A E O

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge, attitudes and practices of cigarette smoking and health risks among health workers has been found to be predictive of their efficiency as agents for tobacco cessation campaigns. To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cigarette smoking and oral health risks among healthcare professional students. A cross sectional multi-level study. College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. Two hundred and eighty one students. Thirty four (12.1%) of the students were current smokers, 174 (61.95%) had never smoked, while 73 (26%) were former smokers. Seventy nine point four per cent of the current smokers were males and 20.6% were females. Pharmacy students had the highest smoking prevalence at 11 (32.4%), while dental and nursing students had the lowest percentages of current smokers. Differences observed in smoking status of students in the constituent schools of the College of Health Sciences were statistically significant (p = 0.008). Apart from knowledge levels on the association between tobacco consumption and lung cancer (p = 0.142), there were statistically significant differences in the awareness of the severe oral and systemic effects of smoking amongst the four student groups. There is a need for harmonisation of teaching of oral and systemic effects of smoking so as to impact on the smoking habits and effectiveness of healthcare professional students as agents of smoking cessation programmes.

  2. Triple Quad-ICP-MS Measurement of Toxic Metals in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke from Spectrum Research Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Pappas, R Steven; Gray, Naudia; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Fresquez, Mark; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported toxic metal concentrations in the mainstream smoke from 50 varieties of commercial cigarettes available in the USA using quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). However, efforts to continue producing high quality data on select mainstream cigarette smoke constituents demand continued improvements in instrumentation and methodology and application of the methodology to cigarettes that differ in design or construction. Here we report a new application of 'triple quad'-ICP-MS instrumentation to analyze seven toxic metals in mainstream cigarette smoke from the Spectrum variable nicotine research cigarettes. The Spectrum cigarettes are available for research purposes in different configurations of low or conventional levels of nicotine, mentholated or nonmentholated, and tar delivery ranges described as 'low tar' or 'high tar'. Detailed characterizations of specific harmful or potentially harmful constituents delivered by these research cigarettes will help inform researchers using these cigarettes in exposure studies, cessation studies and studies related to nicotine addiction or compensation.

  3. Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.

    PubMed

    Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

    2009-02-01

    Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested.

  4. Hierarchical Composites to Reduce N-Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Yan; Cao, Yi; Yue, Ming Bo; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Jian Hua

    2015-03-20

    In order to reduce the harmful constituents in cigarette smoke, two hierarchical composites were synthesized. Based on, zeolites HZSM-5 or NaY fragments were introduced into the synthetic system of mesoporous silica SBA-15 or MCM-41 and assembled with the mesoporous materials. These porous composites combine the advantages of micro- and mesoporous materials, and exhibit higher effects than activated carbon on reducing tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and some vapor phase compounds in smoke.

  5. Cigarette smoke detection from captured image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Hironori; Matsubara, Toru; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a detection of smoke from captured image sequences. We propose to address the following two problems in order to attain this goal. The first problem is to estimate candidate areas of smoke. The second problem is to judge if smoke exists in the scene. To solve the first problem, we apply the previously proposed framework where image sequences are divided into some small blocks and the smoke detection is done in each small block. In this framework, we propose to use color and edge information of the scene. To solve the second problem, we propose a method for judging if smoke exists in the scene by using the areas of smoke obtained in the last step part. We propose some feature values for judging if smoke exists in the scene. Then, by simulation we find the best combination of feature values. In addition, we study the effect of normalization, which provide better performance in recognition.

  6. Cigarette smoking and panic: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Knuts, Inge J E; Abrams, Kenneth; Griez, Eric J L; Schruers, Koen R J

    2010-05-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia's emerging. Although the cause of this comorbidity remains controversial, the main explanations are that (1) cigarette smoking promotes panic by inducing respiratory abnormalities/lung disease or by increasing potentially fear-producing bodily sensations, (2) nicotine produces physiologic effects characteristic of panic by releasing norepinephrine, (3) panic disorder promotes cigarette smoking as self-medication, and (4) a shared vulnerability promotes both conditions. The aim of this review was to survey the literature in order to determine the validity of these explanatory models. Studies were identified by searching English language articles published from 1960 to November 27, 2008, in MEDLINE using the key words: nicotine AND panic, tobacco AND panic, and smoking AND panic. Twenty-four studies were reviewed and selected according to the following criteria: panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and nicotine dependence, when used, diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, Fourth Edition, or Fourth Edition, Text Revision; no additional comorbidity or, if present, adjustment for it in the statistical analyses; use of adult or adolescent samples; comparison with a nonclinical control group or application of a crossover design. Non-significant results or trends only were reported as no difference. Data on anxiety disorders or substance abuse in general were not included. Panic and cigarette smoking each appear to have the capacity to serve as a causal factor/facilitator in the development of the other. Although the temporal pattern and the pathogenetic explanations of such a co-occurrence are still being discussed, cigarette smoking tends to precede the onset of panic and to promote panic itself. Additional studies are strongly recommended. ©Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Why Do Undergraduates Smoke? Subjective Effects of Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Jilda; Srebro, Karen; Authier, Charlene; Chambliss, Catherine

    Several personal and social factors thought to influence college students' smoking were investigated by surveying a sample of college students who smoke (n=56) and do not smoke (n=160). Personal motivating factors examined were relaxation effects, image effects, competence effects, and stimulant effects. These personal reasons for smoking were…

  8. Urine Menthol as a Biomarker of Mentholated Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Menthol cigarettes are smoked by 27% of U.S. smokers, and there are concerns that menthol might enhance toxicity of cigarette smoking by increasing systemic absorption of smoke toxins. We measured urine menthol concentrations in relation to biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Methods Concentrations of menthol glucuronide (using a novel analytical method), nicotine plus metabolites (nicotine equivalents, NE), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were measured in the urine of 60 menthol and 67 regular cigarette smokers. Results Urine menthol was measurable in 82% of menthol and 54% in regular cigarette smokers. Among menthol smokers urine menthol was highly correlated with NE, NNAL and PAHs. In a multiple regression model NE but not menthol was significantly associated with NNAL and PAHs. Conclusions Urine menthol concentration is a novel biomarker of exposure in menthol cigarette smokers, and is highly correlated with exposure to nicotine and carcinogens. Menthol is not independently associated with carcinogen exposure when nicotine intake is considered. PMID:20962297

  9. Analysis of metals leached from smoked cigarette litter.

    PubMed

    Moerman, J W; Potts, G E

    2011-05-01

    Littered cigarette butts represent potential point sources for environmental contamination. In areas with substantial amounts of cigarette litter, environmental hazards may arise as chemical components are leached from the filters and smoked tobacco. The three main aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the amount of Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sr, Ti and Zn leached from cigarette butts, (2) to determine the relationship between the pH of the aqueous soaking solution and metal concentration leached and (3) to determine the relationship between the period of soaking in aqueous solution and metal concentration leached. Smoked cigarette butts and unsmoked cigarettes were added to phials containing aqueous solutions of pH 4.00, 5.00 and 6.00 (± 0.05). The metal concentration of the resultant leachates was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) 1 day, 7 days and 34 days after sample addition. All metals were detected in leachates 1 day after sample addition (with the exception of Cd) and were released at varying rates. No clear relationship between pH within the range typical of precipitation and metal concentration leached was observed. Based on the gradual release of multiple metals over the full 34-day study period, cigarette litter was found to be a point source for metal contamination. The apparent rapid leaching of other metals may increase the risk of acute harm to local organisms.

  10. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps <. 0001). In multivariate models including all of the symptom clusters as simultaneous predictors, Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p < .01). While Avoidance uniquely associated with smoking status and nicotine dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for

  11. What can we do in secondary prevention of cigarette smoking?

    PubMed

    Haustein, Knut-Olaf

    2003-12-01

    Cigarette smoking kills about six million smokers per year worldwide, and the cigarette has become a symbol of threat to mankind, particularly in industrialized countries. Tobacco smoking causes signs of addiction due to nicotine, but it is the inhaled and exhaled smoke that causes damage to health if cigarette smoking is continued for one or more decades. It is very difficult to attain a high efficacy of stopping smoking using methods of primary prevention in children and young adults. Secondary and tertiary prevention methods use medical and psychological support to the smoker (behavioural and aversion therapy) as well as medical advice in combination with drugs such as nicotine replacement or bupropion. Using a combination of these methods can increase effectiveness up to 45%. Use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in combination with medical advice is the method of smoking cessation recommended by the World Health Organization. Bupropion causes several severe side effects which are not observed with NRT. This article reviews various NRT formulations, including chewing gum, patch, nasal spray, tablet and inhaler, and our experience of using NRT in medical practice, such as adverse events, withdrawal symptoms and the efficacy of NRT in patients with coronary heart disease (angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, etc.), are briefly mentioned. Overall, we need greater efforts in practising primary and secondary prevention among current and future physicians to solve the health problems associated with tobacco use in many nations.

  12. Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy: Do Complete Abstinence and Low Level Cigarette Smoking Have Similar Impact on Birth Weight?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Jacob, Nelly; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Heishman, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    Despite awareness of negative health outcomes associated with smoking, pregnant smokers might reduce their tobacco consumption thinking that a low smoking rate reduces smoking-related negative birth outcomes. We aimed to assess in a clinical sample whether there is a smoking rate that would not impact on birth weight (BW). Pregnant smokers ≥18 years, gestational age of 9-20 weeks of amenorrhea, motivated to quit smoking, smoking ≥5 cigarettes/day (cpd) and their newborns (381 singleton, live births) were included in this secondary analysis of a French smoking cessation trial. The mean BW when the mother quit smoking was 3417 g (95 % CI: 3098-3738 g); when smoking >0<5 cpd, 3081g (3003-3159 g); when smoking 5-9 cpd, 3043 g (2930-3157 g); and when smoking ≥10 cpd, 2831 g (2596-3157 g) (p = .006). The corresponding effect sizes ranged from medium to large (Cohen's d for BW: 0.54, 0.57 and 0.85) compared to BW when the mother quit. In the multivariable analysis, adjusted for all significant confounders, when the mother smoked on average >0<5 cpd, the loss in BW was 228 g; when smoking 5-9 cpd, 251 g; and when smoking ≥10 cpd, 262 g (all p ≤ .02) compared to newborns' BW of mothers who stopped smoking since quit date. Even low cigarette consumption during pregnancy is associated with BW loss. All efforts should be made to help pregnant smokers quit completely during their pregnancy. As an alternative to quitting smoking, pregnant smokers reduce their smoking rate thinking that this diminishes smoking-related negative health outcomes. No study has established whether low smoking rate (more than 0 but less than 5 cpd) during pregnancy impacts BW compared to abstinence from smoking. Among treatment-seeking pregnant smokers BW of newborns of mothers who smoked even less than 5 cpd was significantly lower than of those whose mothers quit; effect sizes of different consumption levels on BW ranged from moderate (>0<5 cpd) to large (≥10 cpd). Even low smoking rate

  13. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  14. Kinetic modeling of nicotine in mainstream cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Joshua; Kurgat, Caren; Limo, Samuel; Rono, Nicholas; Bosire, Josephate

    2016-01-01

    The attempt to understand the kinetic behavior of nicotine in tobacco will provide a basis for unraveling its energetics in tobacco burning and the formation of free radicals considered harmful to the cigarette smoking community. To the best of our knowledge, the high temperature destruction kinetic characteristics of nicotine have not been investigated before; hence this study is necessary especially at a time addiction science and tobacco research in general is gaining intense attention. The pyrolysis of tobacco under conditions simulating cigarette smoking in the temperature region 200-700 °C has been investigated for the evolution of nicotine and pyridine from two commercial cigarettes coded ES1 and SM1 using gas chromatography hyphenated to a mass selective detector (MSD). Moreover, a kinetic model on the thermal destruction of nicotine within a temperature window of 673 and 973 K is proposed using pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. A reaction time of 2.0 s was employed in line with the average puff time in cigarette smoking. Nonetheless, various reaction times were considered for the formation kinetics of nicotine. GC-MS results showed the amount of nicotine evolved decreased with increase in the puff time. This observation was remarkably consistent with UV-Vis data reported in this investigation. Generally, the temperature dependent rate constants for the destruction of nicotine were found to be [Formula: see text] s(-1) and [Formula: see text] s(-1) for ES1 and SM1 cigarettes respectively. In addition, the amount of nicotine evolved by ES1 cigarette was ~10 times more than the amount of nicotine released by SM1 cigarette. The suggested mechanistic model for the formation of pyridine from the thermal degradation of nicotine in tobacco has been found to be agreement with the kinetic model proposed in this investigation. Consequently, the concentration of radical intermediates of tobacco smoke such as pyridinyl radical can be determined indirectly

  15. Evaluation method for the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke by in vitro whole smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Nie, Cong; Shang, Pingping; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Huimin; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    An in vitro whole smoke (WS) exposure method was established to evaluate the toxicological effects of fresh cigarette smoke using the VITROCELL(®) system associated with the neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity assay. The VITROCELL(®) system is a newly representative culture and exposure system for in vitro studies of gases or complex mixtures. The impacts of two factors on cytotoxicity measurements of cigarette smoke were investigated using this WS exposure system. The factors include synthetic air exposure and optimal time to perform the NRU assay after smoke exposure. Results showed that synthetic air exposure used in the system did not significantly alter cell survival; 24h after smoke exposure appeared to be an optimal time-point to assess the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke. A clear dose-response relationship between smoke exposure and cell viability was demonstrated using this system, and the evaluation method was sensitive to distinguish the differences in smoke-induced cytotoxic effects from different cigarettes. In addition, we tried converting the values of EC50 from WS exposure testing into the values in unit used in total particulate matter (TPM) testing for a purpose of comparison, and the data indicate that the cytotoxicity of smoke measured by WS exposure is greater than that measured by TPM exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological effects of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics: The use of electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A. )

    1992-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the chemistry of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics and building materials that is inhaled by persons trapped in fires. Cigarette smoke produces cancer, emphysema, and other diseases after a delay of years. Acute exposure to smoke in a fire can produce a loss of lung function and death after a delay of days or weeks. Tobacco smoke and the smoke inhaled in a burning building have some similarities from a chemical viewpoint. For example, both contain high concentrations of CO and other combustion products. In addition, both contain high concentrations of free radicals, and our laboratory has studied these free radicals, largely by electron spin resonance (ESR) methods, for about 15 years. This article reviews what is known about the radicals present in these different types of smokes and soots and tars and summarizes the evidence that suggests these radicals could be involved in cigarette-induced pathology and smoke-inhalation deaths. The combustion of all organic materials produces radicals, but (with the exception of the smoke from perfluoropolymers) the radicals that are detected by ESR methods (and thus the radicals that would reach the lungs) are not those that arise in the combustion process. Rather they arise from chemical reactions that occur in the smoke itself. Thus, a knowledge of the chemistry of the smoke is necessary to understand the nature of the radicals formed. Even materials as similar as cigarettes and wood (cellulose) produce smoke that contains radicals with very different lifetimes and chemical characteristics, and mechanistic rationales for this are discussed. Cigarette tar contains a semiquinone radical that is infinitely stable and can be directly observed by ESR. Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar, which contain this radical, reduce oxygen to superoxide and thus produce both hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical.

  17. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  18. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  19. Role of cigarette smoking in urological malignancies and clinical interventions for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Verze, Paolo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Brausi, Maurizio; Donin, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is the single greatest preventable cause of disease and death. Our literature review highlights the increased risk of cigarette smoking and kidney cancer, bladder cancer and prostate cancer. Material and methods Smoking cessation improves outcomes at all stages of these disease processes, where patients who quit for 10–20 years appear to obtain a similar risk as those who have never smoked, even after diagnosis of disease. Results Urologists, however, very seldom provide smoking cessation assistance. By applying brief smoking cessation intervention techniques, physicians’ posses an effective means of providing quitting advice. Conclusions Patients who receive smoking cessation advice from their urologist are 2.3 times more likely to attempt to quit. Urologists are well-positioned to screen, counsel, and promote cessation at regular intervals, which may improve quit rates, and ultimately improve our patients’ outcomes. PMID:28127452

  20. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  1. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  2. Total particulate matter concentration skews cigarette smoke's gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hassell, John A; Stampfli, Martin R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models.

  3. Total particulate matter concentration skews cigarette smoke's gene expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hassell, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models. PMID:27995131

  4. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reported Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary L.; Newman, Ian M.

    1988-01-01

    Compared adolescent cigarette smoking rates determined by traditional questionnaire, random response questionnaire, and carbon monoxide test. Results from 1,160 ninth graders in 40 classrooms in 7 schools indicated that random response questionnaire elicited statistically larger proportion of smokers than did traditional questionnaire. Neither…

  5. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  6. The Relationship between College Class and Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppel, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relation between college class and cigarette-smoking behavior in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) data were employed. Five binary and two cumulative logit equations are estimated to explore the impact of college class on: having ever…

  7. Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Vilhjalmsson, Runar

    1991-01-01

    Examined predictors of cigarette smoking and alcohol use in nationwide sample of 1,200 Icelandic adolescents. Found that use of tobacco and alcohol was related to sex, residence, hours of paid work, physical activities, social network, educational performance and beliefs, and psychological distress. Concludes that existing theoretical perspectives…

  8. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  9. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C

    2006-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. METHODS: Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. RESULTS: Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others.

  11. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking*

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. Methods Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. Results Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. Conclusions The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others. PMID:21874073

  12. Cigarette smoke cadmium breakthrough from traditional filters: implications for exposure.

    PubMed

    Pappas, R Steven; Fresquez, Mark R; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found <1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5 to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6 to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers.

  13. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  14. Reduction of the elastase inhibitory capacity of alpha 1-antitrypsin by peroxides in cigarette smoke: an analysis of brands and filters

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.B.; James, H.L.

    1982-07-01

    A procedure for measuring the oxidant content of aqueous condensates of tobacco cigarette smoke is described. The procedure was used in conjunction with analysis of the ability of the smoke solutions to inactivate the elastase inhibitory capacity (EIC) of alpha 1-antitrypsin. The ability of the smoke of a brand to inactivate alpha 1-antitrypsin correlates well with the known tar and nicotine and with the amount of oxidants as measured using o-dianisidine. Filters were found to remove about 73% of the oxidants from smoke. Smoke from a commercial nontobacco cigarette was also found to contain a significant amount of oxidants and to also destroy alpha 1-antitrypsin. Catalase and superoxide dismutase reduce the effect of solutions containing smoke on the EIC of alpha 1-antitrypsin, suggesting that peroxides and superoxide anions in smoke contribute to the oxidant capacity of the smoke. The extent of apparent oxidation by a given quantity of smoke condensate increases for as long as an hour from the time the condensate is collected. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the smoke solution increases both its oxidant content and its ability to inactivate alpha 1-antitrypsin. These data suggest that occurrence of hydrogen peroxide caused by secretion from macrophages found in the small airways of smokers may contribute to a locally damaging environment for alpha 1-antitrypsin in the presence of cigarette smoke that could promote the development of centrilobular emphysema.

  15. Non-Smoking Male Adolescents' Reactions to Cigarette Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Cameron, Linda D.; Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. Methods A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11–17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2×2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer) using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. Results The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were “very much” discouraged, p<.001). Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. Conclusions Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels. PMID:23950861

  16. Different physiological and behavioural effects of e-cigarette vapour and cigarette smoke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, L; Moretti, M; Sala, M; Fasoli, F; Mucchietto, V; Lucini, V; Cannazza, G; Gallesi, G; Castellana, C N; Clementi, F; Zoli, M; Gotti, C; Braida, D

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine is the primary addictive substance in tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapour. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to compare the role of the nicotine and non-nicotine constituents of tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of traditional cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour containing the same amount of nicotine in male BALB/c mice exposed to the smoke of 21 cigarettes or e-cig vapour containing 16.8 mg of nicotine delivered by means of a mechanical ventilator for three 30-min sessions/day for seven weeks. One hour after the last session, half of the animals were sacrificed for neurochemical analysis, and the others underwent mecamylamine-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal for the purposes of behavioural analysis. Chronic intermittent non-contingent, second-hand exposure to cigarette smoke or e-cig vapour led to similar brain cotinine and nicotine levels, similar urine cotinine levels and the similar up-regulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different brain areas, but had different effects on body weight, food intake, and the signs of mecamylamine-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal episodic memory and emotional responses. The findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that e-cig vapour induces addiction-related neurochemical, physiological and behavioural alterations. The fact that inhaled cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour have partially different dependence-related effects indicates that compounds other than nicotine contribute to tobacco dependence.

  17. Looks like smoking, is it smoking?: children's perceptions of cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems, smoking and cessation.

    PubMed

    Faletau, Julienne; Glover, Marewa; Nosa, Vili; Pienaar, Fiona

    2013-11-18

    Alternative cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems have been met with diverse opinions. One concern has been for the effect on children. We investigate whether children can differentiate tobacco cigarette smoking from use of a nicotine inhaler and electronic cigarette. Their opinions on these devices was also of interest. Two structured focus groups and twelve individual interviews were conducted with twenty Māori and Pacific children (6-10 years old) in low socioeconomic areas in Auckland, New Zealand. Children viewed short video clips on an iPad that demonstrated an actor smoking a tobacco cigarette, sucking a lollipop or using an electronic cigarette or a nicotine inhaler. Children did not recognise the inhaler or electronic cigarette. Some children did however notice anomalies in the 'smoking' behaviour. Once told about the products the children were mostly positive about the potential of the inhaler and electronic cigarette to assist smokers to quit. Negative perceptions were expressed, including views about the ill health effects associated with continued nicotine intake and the smoker's inability to quit. In a context unfamiliar with electronic cigarettes or nicotine inhalers, such as New Zealand, children may misperceive use of these products as smoking. Once these products are more common and the purpose of them is known, seeing people use them should normalise quitting behaviour, something the children were very supportive of.

  18. Attitudes toward Cigarette Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…

  19. Attitudes toward Cigarette Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…

  20. Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke by F344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dalbey, W.E.; Netteshelm, P.; Griesemer, R.; Caton, J.E.; Guerin, M.R.

    1980-02-01

    Specific-pathogen-free female F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to what was considered a maximal tolerated dose of cigarette smoke. Total pulmonary deposition of smoke particulates from a single cigarette was 0.25 mg in young rats. Rats were exposed to smoke from 7 cigarettes/day for as long as 2.5 years, at which time 30% of the rats remained alive. Mortality of smoke-exposed animals was not different from that of untreated or sham-exposed controls. Hyperplastic and metaplastic areas in the epithelium of the nasal turbinates, larynges, and tracheae of exposed animals were observed at death. The lungs of exposed rats contained areas of focal alveolitis consisting of accumulated pigmented macrophages, epithelial hyperplasia, fibrosis, and disrupted alveolar structure. Smoke exposure did not change the total number of tumor-bearing animals relative to controls; however, exposed rats had significantly fewer tumors in ovaries but an increased number of tumors in the respiratory tracts and dermes.

  1. Cigarette smoking among Beijing (Peking) high schoolers.

    PubMed

    Ye, G S; Lin, W S

    1984-01-01

    Students smoking at 2 key middle schools and 6 ordinary middle schools in Beijing, China were surveyed to determine the form in which high schoolers start smoking, and how long they have smoked. The patterns and causes of smoking were analyzed. The investigation was made from March to May 1981. 430 boys and 423 girls were selected from key schools and 1396 boys and 1394 girls from ordinary schools. Ages ranged from 13-17. All subjects completed a questionnaire in the classroom. To increase the reliability of the survey, names were kept secret. The students surveyed were classified into groups according to their smoking status: current regular smokers; occasional smokers; ex-smokers; and nonsmokers. In the key schools, there were only 4 smokers among 430 students, accounting for 0.9% of the total. Of these, 1 was Senior Class 2, 2 Senior Class 1, and 1 Junior Class 3. In the ordinary schools, 10% were smokers. 19.7% of the boys and 0.4% of the girls smoked. Among the boys, the higher the class, the more numerous the smokers. The smoking rate was 8.2% in the 1st year of junior high but rose to 34% in senior class 2; the difference was statistically significant. "Special occasion" smokers were few, only 5.5% of the students. In junior class, the number of regular smokers was about 2/3 to 4/5 that of occasional smokers. And by senior class 2 the number of regular smokers had risen to about 3 times that of the occasional smokers. In every grade, there were students who had given up smoking. Most had been occasional smokers. Some high schoolers had started to smoke in primary school and had a 4-5 year history of smoking, but most had only picked up smoking for 1-2 years after announcement of the Rules for High School Students prohibiting smoking. There were 3 smoking patterns: smoking without inhaling; inhaling the smoke deeply into the lungs, then expiring through the mouth or nostrils; and combining patterns 1 and 2. Of 265 students, 128 used the 1st pattern, 121 the

  2. Threshold dose for discrimination of nicotine via cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Kunkle, Nicole; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C; Donny, Eric C

    2016-06-01

    The lowest nicotine threshold "dose" in cigarettes discriminated from a cigarette containing virtually no nicotine may help inform the minimum dose maintaining dependence. Spectrum research cigarettes (from NIDA) differing in nicotine content were used to evaluate a procedure to determine discrimination thresholds. Dependent smokers (n = 18; 13 M, 5 F) were tested on ability to discriminate cigarettes with nicotine contents of 11, 5, 2.4, and 1.3 mg/g, one per session, from the "ultralow" cigarette with 0.4 mg/g, after having discriminated 16 mg/g from 0.4 mg/g (all had 9-10 mg "tar"). Exposure to each was limited to 4 puffs/trial. All subjects were abstinent from smoking overnight prior to each session, and the number of sessions was determined by the participant's success in discrimination behavior on >80 % of trials. Subjective perceptions and behavioral choice between cigarettes were also assessed and related to discrimination behavior. The median threshold was 11 mg/g, but the range was 2.4 to 16 mg/g, suggesting wide variability in discrimination threshold. Compared to the ultralow, puff choice was greater for the subject's threshold dose but only marginal for the subthreshold (next lowest nicotine) cigarette. Threshold and subthreshold also differed on subjective perceptions but not withdrawal relief. Under these testing conditions, threshold content for discriminating nicotine via cigarettes may be 11 mg/g or greater for most smokers, but some can discriminate nicotine contents one-half or one-quarter this amount. Further study with other procedures and cigarette exposure amounts may identify systematic differences in nicotine discrimination thresholds.

  3. Cigarette smoke exposure facilitates allergic sensitization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerloose, Katrien B; Robays, Lander J; Maes, Tania; Brusselle, Guy G; Tournoy, Kurt G; Joos, Guy F

    2006-01-01

    Background Active and passive smoking are considered as risk factors for asthma development. The mechanisms involved are currently unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure could facilitate primary allergic sensitization. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) combined with air or tobacco smoke (4 exposures/day) daily for three weeks. Serology, lung cytopathology, cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and on mediastinal lymph node cultures as well as lung function tests were performed after the last exposure. The natural history and the immune memory of allergic sensitization were studied with in vivo recall experiments. Results Exposure to OVA induced a small increase in OVA-specific serum IgE as compared with exposure to PBS (P < 0.05), while no inflammatory reaction was observed in the airways. Exposure to cigarette smoke did not induce IgE, but was characterized by a small but significant neutrophilic inflammatory reaction. Combining OVA with cigarette smoke not only induced a significant increase in OVA-specific IgE but also a distinct eosinophil and goblet cell enriched airway inflammation albeit that airway hyperresponsiveness was not evidenced. FACS analysis showed in these mice increases in dendritic cells (DC) and CD4+ T-lymphocytes along with a marked increase in IL-5 measured in the supernatant of lymph node cell cultures. Immune memory experiments evidenced the transient nature of these phenomena. Conclusion In this study we show that mainstream cigarette smoke temporary disrupts the normal lung homeostatic tolerance to innocuous inhaled allergens, thereby inducing primary allergic sensitization. This is characterized not only by the development of persistent IgE, but also by the emergence of an eosinophil rich pulmonary inflammatory reaction. PMID:16571114

  4. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

  5. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L; Bertrand, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance) are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother's metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction) and other behavioral disorders in the offspring.

  6. Cigarette Smoking and Brain Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L.; Bertrand, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance) are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother’s metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction) and other behavioral disorders in the offspring. PMID:22848202

  7. Sex differences in the brain's dopamine signature of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Wang, Shuo; Kim, Su-Jin; McGovern, Erin; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gao, Hong; Labaree, David; Tagare, Hemant D; Sullivan, Jenna M; Morris, Evan D

    2014-12-10

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health danger. Women and men smoke for different reasons and cessation treatments, such as the nicotine patch, are preferentially beneficial to men. The biological substrates of these sex differences are unknown. Earlier PET studies reported conflicting findings but were each hampered by experimental and/or analytical limitations. Our new image analysis technique, lp-ntPET (Normandin et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014), has been optimized for capturing brief (lasting only minutes) and highly localized dopaminergic events in dynamic PET data. We coupled our analysis technique with high-resolution brain scanning and high-frequency motion correction to create the optimal experiment for capturing and characterizing the effects of smoking on the mesolimbic dopamine system in humans. Our main finding is that male smokers smoking in the PET scanner activate dopamine in the right ventral striatum during smoking but female smokers do not. This finding-men activating more ventrally than women-is consistent with the established notion that men smoke for the reinforcing drug effect of cigarettes whereas women smoke for other reasons, such as mood regulation and cue reactivity. lp-ntPET analysis produces a novel multidimensional endpoint: voxel-level temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release ("DA movies") in individual subjects. By examining these endpoints quantitatively, we demonstrate that the timing of dopaminergic responses to cigarette smoking differs between men and women. Men respond consistently and rapidly in the ventral striatum whereas women respond faster in a discrete subregion of the dorsal putamen.

  8. [History of cigarette smoking. The effect of tobacco smoking on women's health].

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Marta; Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemińska, Anita; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szymański, Wiesław

    2009-01-01

    History of cigarette smoking started on XV century, when Columb imported tobacco to Europe. Popular using of tobacco we are indebted Jaen Nicot Villeman, the name of nicotine originate from his surname. Tobacco first was exploited like a drug, however now it is a very harmful stimulant. Cigarette smoking is still an actual problem and increased risk of many diseases. Very toxic components of smoke get inside all the organs and upsetting their activities and proper running of the life processes. It is common knowledge that smoking badly influences women's health. Nicotine makes the negative influence on function of ovaries metabolism of hormones and state of osseous tissue. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with obstetrical and pediatrician complication with fetus, newborn and child. The aim of the article is to summarize the role of tobacco smoking on women's health.

  9. Molecular mechanism of reduction in pregnenolone synthesis by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M.; Gairola, C. Gary; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2008-05-15

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane for the synthesis of pregnenolone. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduction of pregnenolone synthesis by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Pre-exposure or post-exposure of cells with CSC led to reduced pregnenolone synthesis, in a fashion similar to its effect on isolated mitochondria. However, there was no difference in the expression of 30 kDa StAR in cells treated with moderately concentrated CSC by either regimen. The active form of 37 kDa StAR is degraded easily suggesting that the continuous presence of CSC reduces StAR expression. Mitochondrial import of {sup 35}S-methionine-labeled StAR followed by extraction of the StAR-mitochondrial complex with 1% digitonin showed similarly sized complexes in the CSC-treated and untreated mitochondria. Further analysis by sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed a specific complex, 'complex 2', in the untreated mitochondria but absent in the CSC-treated mitochondria. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that complex 2 is the outer mitochondrial protein, VDAC1. Knockdown of VDAC1 expression by siRNA followed by co-transfection with StAR resulted in a lack of pregnenolone synthesis and 37 kDa StAR expression with reduced expression of the intermediate, 32 kDa StAR. Taken together, these results suggest that in the absence of VDAC1, active StAR expression is reduced indicating that VDAC1 expression is essential for StAR activity. In the absence of VDAC1-StAR interaction, cholesterol cannot be transported into mitochondria; thus the interaction with VDAC1 is a mandatory step for initiating steroidogenesis.

  10. Molecular mechanism of reduction in pregnenolone synthesis by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M; Gairola, C Gary; Bose, Himangshu S

    2008-05-15

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane for the synthesis of pregnenolone. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduction of pregnenolone synthesis by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Pre-exposure or post-exposure of cells with CSC led to reduced pregnenolone synthesis, in a fashion similar to its effect on isolated mitochondria. However, there was no difference in the expression of 30 kDa StAR in cells treated with moderately concentrated CSC by either regimen. The active form of 37 kDa StAR is degraded easily suggesting that the continuous presence of CSC reduces StAR expression. Mitochondrial import of (35)S-methionine-labeled StAR followed by extraction of the StAR-mitochondrial complex with 1% digitonin showed similarly sized complexes in the CSC-treated and untreated mitochondria. Further analysis by sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed a specific complex, "complex 2", in the untreated mitochondria but absent in the CSC-treated mitochondria. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that complex 2 is the outer mitochondrial protein, VDAC1. Knockdown of VDAC1 expression by siRNA followed by co-transfection with StAR resulted in a lack of pregnenolone synthesis and 37 kDa StAR expression with reduced expression of the intermediate, 32 kDa StAR. Taken together, these results suggest that in the absence of VDAC1, active StAR expression is reduced indicating that VDAC1 expression is essential for StAR activity. In the absence of VDAC1-StAR interaction, cholesterol cannot be transported into mitochondria; thus the interaction with VDAC1 is a mandatory step for initiating steroidogenesis.

  11. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  12. [Genome-wide associations for cigarette smoking behavior].

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Diseases related to tobacco smoking are the second leading cause of death in the world. Despite increasing evidence of genetic determination, the susceptibility genes and loci underlying various aspects of smoking behavior are largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) provided a new conceptual framework in the search for variants underlying common traits/disorders. A massive scan of the genome and a "hypothesis-free" approach enable discovery of new aspects of genetics of complex traits. In this paper the results of GWASs and GWAS meta-analyzes of cigarette smoking behavior and nicotine dependence are reviewed with the particular attention to smoking cessation success and the replacement therapy. The results of these studies are discussed in the context of the results of the candidate gene association studies. Studies on the role of the genomic regions, identified in GWASs, in the development of smoking-related diseases are also discussed.

  13. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  14. Cigarette smoking products suppress anti-viral effects of Type I interferon via phosphorylation-dependent downregulation of its receptor.

    PubMed

    HuangFu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Jianghuai; Harty, Ronald N; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2008-09-22

    While negative effect of smoking on the resistance to viral infections was known, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Here we report that products of cigarette smoking compromise the cellular anti-viral defenses by inhibiting the signaling induced by Type I interferon (IFN). Cigarette smoking condensate (but not pure nicotine) stimulated specific serine phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of the IFNAR1 subunit of the Type I IFN receptor leading to attenuation of IFN signaling and decreased resistance to viral infection. This resistance was restored in cells where phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IFNAR1 is abolished. We conclude that smoking compromises cellular anti-viral defenses via degradation of Type I IFN receptor and discuss the significance of this mechanism for efficacy of IFN-based therapies.

  15. Nicotine yield and measures of cigarette smoke exposure in a large population: are lower-yield cigarettes safer?

    PubMed Central

    Maron, D J; Fortmann, S P

    1987-01-01

    We examined the relationship of machine-estimated nicotine yield by cigarette brand with the level of cigarette consumption and two biochemical measures of smoke exposure (expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate) in a large, population-based sample of smokers (N = 713). The lower the nicotine yield of the cigarette, the greater the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Prior to adjusting for number of cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine yield was not related to the actual measures of smoke exposure. Smokers of ultralow-yield cigarettes had laboratory tests of smoke exposure which were not significantly different from those of smokers of higher-yield brands. Only after adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked per day did nicotine yield become significantly related to expired-air carbon monoxide and to plasma thiocyanate. In multivariate analysis, the number of cigarettes smoked per day accounted for 28 per cent and 22 per cent of the variance in observed expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate levels, respectively, whereas nicotine yield accounted for only 1 per cent and 2 per cent of the variance, respectively. The relative lack of an effect of nicotine yield on the biochemical measure appears to be due to the fact that smokers of lower nicotine brands smoked more cigarettes per day, thereby compensating for reduced delivery of smoke products. Our data do not support the concept that ultralow-yield cigarettes are less hazardous than others. Machine estimates suggesting low nicotine yield underrepresent actual human consumption of harmful cigarette constituents. PMID:3565645

  16. Validation of students' self-reported cigarette smoking status with plasma cotinine levels.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C L; Eng, A; Botvin, G J; Hill, P; Wynder, E L

    1979-01-01

    Plasma cotinine levels were measured in 137 students (ages 14 to 17 years), as an independent validation of self-reported cigarette smoking status. Ninety-five per cent of the students who reported daily cigarette smoking had detectable cotinine levels. In contract, only 2 per cent of students who reported that they never smoke cigarettes had detectable levels of plasma cotinine. Results suggest that adolescents can report accurately on their smoking status if sufficient assurance of confidentiality is stressed. PMID:507259

  17. Effect of solvent and extraction methods on the bacterial mutagenicity of sidestream cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.S.; Tulis, J.J.; Claxton, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of sidestream cigarette-smoke particles was estimated by testing sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that had been collected under controlled burning conditions in the laboratory. Two different extraction methods (Soxhlet and ultrasonic agitation) and 3 different solvents (dichloromethane, methanol, and acetone) were compared for their efficiencies in the extraction of compounds from sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that are mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of the sidestream smoke particles was estimated to be 15,000-20,000 revertants per cigarette in TA98 with metabolic activation and 12,000-17,000 revertants per cigarette in TA100 without metabolic activation.

  18. Effects of cigarette smoke extract on primary activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Claudia P; Morrow, Kevin; Velasco, Cruz; Wyczechowska, Dorota D; Naura, Amarjit S; Rodriguez, Paulo C

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco smoking predisposes the development of diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and T cell dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to determine the direct effects of cigarette smoke on primary T cells and to identify the corresponding molecular mediators. Activated T cells cultured in the presence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) displayed a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation, which associated with the induction of cellular apoptosis. T cell apoptosis by CSE was independent of caspases and mediated through reactive oxygen and nitrogen species endogenously contained within CSE. Additional results showed that exposure of T cells to CSE induced phosphorylation of the stress mediator eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). Inhibition of the phosphorylation of eIF2α in T cells prevented the cellular apoptosis induced by CSE. Altogether, the results show the direct effects of CSE on T cells, which advance in the understanding of how cigarette smoking promotes chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. School bullying and susceptibility to smoking among never-tried cigarette smoking students.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday

    2016-04-01

    Bullying involvement has been linked with substance use; however, less is known about its relationship with pre-initiation stages of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior. This study examined the association between bullying involvement and smoking susceptibility among never tried or experimented with cigarette smoking students. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking in adolescence is a strong predictor of subsequent smoking initiation. A cross-sectional data on Canadian adolescent and youth were drawn from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n=28,843). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility among never-smoking students. About 21% self-reported involvement in bullying (as a bully, victim or both). Middle school students (grades 6-8) reported more involvement in bullying (24%) than those in grades 9-12 (16%). The multivariable analyses showed that the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility was significantly different by grade level. Middle school students involved in bullying had higher odds of smoking susceptibility compared to uninvolved students (bully, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.54, 95% CI=1.73-3.74; victim, AOR=1.29, 95% CI=1.11-1.48; bully-victim, AOR=2.19, 95% CI=1.75-2.74). There were no significant associations between all subgroups of bullying and smoking susceptibility for grades 9-12 students. Students involved in bullying were more susceptible to smoking, although patterns of association varied by grade level. In particular, the findings highlight that non-smoking middle school students involved in bullying were susceptible to future smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Callicarpa japonica Thunb. attenuates cigarette smoke-induced neutrophil inflammation and mucus secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Won; Shin, Na-Rae; Park, Ji-Won; Park, So-Yeon; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Lee, Han-Sol; Hee Kim, Jung; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Joongku; Zhang, Zhi-yun; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-12-04

    Callicarpa japonica Thunb. (CJT) is traditionally used as an herbal remedy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in Korea, China, and Japan. In this study, we evaluated the effects of C. japonica Thunb. (CJT) on the development of COPD using a Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced murine model and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-stimulated H292 cells, human pulmonary mucoepidermoid cell line. C. japonica Thunb. was isolated from the leaves and stem of C. japonica. The methanol extract profile was obtained by UPLC Q-TOF-MS analysis. In in vivo experiment, the mice received 1h of cigarette smoke for 10 days. C. japonica Thunb. was administered to mice by oral gavage 1h before cigarette smoke exposure for 10 days. In in vitro experiment, we evaluated the effect of C. japonica Thunb. on the expression of MUC5AC and proinflammatory cytokines in H292 cells stimulated with CSC. CJT treatment effectively suppressed the infiltration of neutrophils, and decreased the production of ROS and the activity of neutrophil elastase in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) induced by CS. CJT also significantly attenuated production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in the BALF, and reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the production of mucus in lung tissue induced by CS. In in vitro experiments, CJT decreased the expression of MUC5AC and proinflammatory cytokines in CSC-stimulated H292 cells. Furthermore, CJT attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK induced by CSC in H292 cells. Taken together, CJT effectively reduced the neutrophil airway inflammation and mucus secretion induced by CS in murine model, and inhibited the expression of MUC5AC in CSC-stimulated H292 human lung cell line. These findings suggest that CJT has a therapeutic potential for the treatment of COPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cigarette smoke potentiates asbestos-induced airflow abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L.; Tron, V.; Wiggs, B.; Churg, A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that exposure to both asbestos and cigarette smoke can produce worse parenchymal lung disease than exposure to asbestos alone. Using a guinea pig model of asbestos administration that produces primarily airway disease and associated airflow abnormalities, we showed previously that the combination of asbestos and smoke acts synergistically to produce more marked increases in tissue collagen, fibrosis of airway walls, and early interstitial fibrosis than are seen with asbestos alone. To investigate the functional effects of these morphological and biochemical abnormalities, pulmonary function tests for volumes and flows, including lung volumes, pressure-volume curves, and flow-volume curves, were performed. By themselves, both smoke and asbestos produced increases in total lung capacity (TLC), residual volume (RV), and functional residual capacity (FRC); the two agents together made all these changes worse than either one alone. Both smoking and asbestos moved the pressure-volume curve upward, and the effects of the two agents together were again greater than either alone. Similarly, both smoke and asbestos decreased flows, and the two agents produced more severe impairment than either one by itself. The changes in volumes, pressure-volume curve, and flows correlated with both increased thickness of small airway walls and increases in airspace size. These observations indicate that, at least in this guinea pig model, cigarette smoke can potentiate the functional consequences of asbestos exposure.

  2. Analysis of the smoke of cigarettes containing Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Krstenansky, John L; Muzzio, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen sold over the internet in several forms. Perhaps the most common method of use is smoking the dried leaf material. The sole presumed active constituent, salvinorin A, is a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Upon smoking of the dried leaf material, some of the salvinorin A is destroyed or converted to other materials, leaving in question the actual amount of salvinorin A delivered that leads to the psychotomimetic effect. On average, 133 μg of salvinorin A was delivered in the smoke from an 830 mg per cigarette, which contained ∼2.7 mg of salvinorin A. Hence, only ∼5% of the salvinorin A available in the dried plant material was delivered in the smoke. Upon smoking, hydrolysis of salvinorin A to salvinorin B, an inactive and minor component of the leaf material, also occurs as evidenced by a higher delivered amount of salvinorin B vs salvinorin A (217 vs 133 μg per cigarette). Since smoking is an effective means of achieving the hallucinogenic effect and salvinorin A is the presumed sole active ingredient in the plant, the estimated effective dose of salvinorin A by inhalation is <133 μg per person. Considering the reported rapid metabolism of salvinorin A in vivo, the dose reaching the brain would be substantially less.

  3. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  4. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  5. Information Management Strategies Within Conversations About Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations With Teen Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent–adolescent discussion concerning adolescents’ cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current experimenters, escalators). Parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent information management were coded from direct observations of 528 video-recorded parent–adolescent discussions about cigarette smoking with 344 teens (M age = 15.62 years) with a history of smoking experimentation (321 interactions with mothers, 207 interactions with fathers). Adolescent initiation of discussions concerning their own smoking behavior (21% of interactions) was predicted by lower levels of maternal observed disapproval of cigarette smoking and fewer teen-reported communication problems with mothers. Maternal initiation in discussions (35% of interactions) was associated with higher levels of family rules about illicit substance use. Three categories of adolescent information management (full disclosure, active secrecy, incomplete strategies) were coded by matching adolescents’ confidential self-reported smoking status with their observed spontaneous disclosures and responses to parental solicitations. Fully disclosing teens reported higher quality communication with their mothers (more open, less problematic). Teens engaged in active secrecy with their mothers when families had high levels of parental rules about illicit substance use and when mothers expressed lower levels of expectancies that their teen would smoke in the future. Adolescents were more likely to escalate their smoking over 2 years if their parents initiated the discussion of adolescent smoking behavior (solicited) and if adolescents engaged in active secrecy. PMID:23148939

  6. Information management strategies within conversations about cigarette smoking: parenting correlates and longitudinal associations with teen smoking.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current experimenters, escalators). Parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent information management were coded from direct observations of 528 video-recorded parent-adolescent discussions about cigarette smoking with 344 teens (M age = 15.62 years) with a history of smoking experimentation (321 interactions with mothers, 207 interactions with fathers). Adolescent initiation of discussions concerning their own smoking behavior (21% of interactions) was predicted by lower levels of maternal observed disapproval of cigarette smoking and fewer teen-reported communication problems with mothers. Maternal initiation in discussions (35% of interactions) was associated with higher levels of family rules about illicit substance use. Three categories of adolescent information management (full disclosure, active secrecy, incomplete strategies) were coded by matching adolescents' confidential self-reported smoking status with their observed spontaneous disclosures and responses to parental solicitations. Fully disclosing teens reported higher quality communication with their mothers (more open, less problematic). Teens engaged in active secrecy with their mothers when families had high levels of parental rules about illicit substance use and when mothers expressed lower levels of expectancies that their teen would smoke in the future. Adolescents were more likely to escalate their smoking over 2 years if their parents initiated the discussion of adolescent smoking behavior (solicited) and if adolescents engaged in active secrecy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels.

  8. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. The most frequent inquiries concerned the ingredients, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. Clients used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, cut down the number of conventional cigarettes smoked, have a safe alternative to smoking, and protect their health while continuing to smoke. More than 60 % of service providers reported favourable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, and believed that e-cigarettes are as effective as other smoking cessation aids, including pharmacotherapy. Despite limited empirical evidence, service providers in Italy viewed e-cigarettes, as safe and effective smoking cessation aids. More concerted efforts are needed to improve knowledge about e-cigarettes among service providers, to guide their clinical practice and decision-making with respect to e-cigarettes.

  9. Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Valentine, J.L.; Browdy, B.L.

    1980-07-01

    One hundred eleven workers at a secondary Pb smelter were surveyed to determine smoking and personal hygiene habits. Fifty-three percent of the smokers had blood Pb levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 31% of nonsmokers (p = 0.02). Among smokers, 66% of heavy smokers (greater than or equal to 1 pack a day) had blood Pb levels over 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 39% of the light smokers (p = O.05). Those who kept their cigarettes on their person had a higher proportion of blood Pb greater than 60 ..mu..g/dl than workers who kept their cigarettes elsewhere (63 vs 36%, respectively; p = 0.08). The difference in blood Pb levels between smokers and nonsmokers may be due in part to direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms, and could be important in workers with already elevated blood Pb levels.

  10. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  11. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  12. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  13. Analysis of metals leached from smoked cigarette litter

    PubMed Central

    Moerman, J W

    2011-01-01

    Background Littered cigarette butts represent potential point sources for environmental contamination. In areas with substantial amounts of cigarette litter, environmental hazards may arise as chemical components are leached from the filters and smoked tobacco. Objective The three main aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the amount of Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sr, Ti and Zn leached from cigarette butts, (2) to determine the relationship between the pH of the aqueous soaking solution and metal concentration leached and (3) to determine the relationship between the period of soaking in aqueous solution and metal concentration leached. Methods Smoked cigarette butts and unsmoked cigarettes were added to phials containing aqueous solutions of pH 4.00, 5.00 and 6.00 (±0.05). The metal concentration of the resultant leachates was measured via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) 1 day, 7 days and 34 days after sample addition. Results All metals were detected in leachates 1 day after sample addition (with the exception of Cd) and were released at varying rates. No clear relationship between pH within the range typical of precipitation and metal concentration leached was observed. Conclusions Based on the gradual release of multiple metals over the full 34-day study period, cigarette litter was found to be a point source for metal contamination. The apparent rapid leaching of other metals may increase the risk of acute harm to local organisms. PMID:21504922

  14. A Study of Cigarett Smoking Among Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausner, Bernard

    The various activities carried out under a grant from the Cancer Society are discussed, including preparatory work, pilot and exploratory studies, the conduct of the major study, and additional activities. The bulk of the report, however, is devoted to the major study in which measures were obtained of: 1) patterns of support for smoking; 2)…

  15. Adolescent Cigarette Smoking as Compensatory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.

    The extent to which smokers as compared to non-smokers recognize their failure to achieve was studied. The subjects were 80 ninth grade pupils, half of whom smoked. A nine point self-anchoring Expectation scale was developed to determine how closely the subjects came to meeting the perceived expectations of their parents, their school, their…

  16. Smoking and symbolism: children, communication and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Rugkåsa, J; Kennedy, O; Barton, M; Abaunza, P S; Treacy, M P; Knox, B

    2001-04-01

    Health promotion, with its concern with empowerment and autonomy, must recognize the agency of its target population. Based on 85 in-depth interviews with 10- to 11-year-old children throughout Northern Ireland, this paper argues that it is necessary to focus on the social relations of children if we are to understand and prevent childhood smoking. Addressing the complex issue of childhood agency, it is argued that regardless of various restrictions to their choices, children can act intentionally in constructing their identities. Instead of viewing the smoking children as communicating with the adult world, we focus on smoking as negotiation of status within the children's culture. Such negotiations utilize symbolism derived from and shared with the 'adult world'. It is important that those analyzing children's lives understand children's ideas and behaviour on their own terms. We must make sure that the very concepts in which the children's experiences are put are appropriate ones. It is suggested that the metaphor 'rite of passage' and terminology such as peer 'pressure' versus adult 'influence', commonly used to analyse the children's smoking behaviour, may actually conceal important aspects of childhood agency.

  17. Cigarette Smoke Upregulates Rat Coronary Artery Endothelin Receptors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Yong-Xiao; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a strong cardiovascular risk factor and endothelin (ET) receptors are related to coronary artery diseases. The present study established an in vivo secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure model and investigated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke induces ET receptor upregulation in rat coronary arteries and its possible underlying mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats were exposed to SHS for 200 min daily for 8 weeks. The coronary arteries were isolated and examined. The vasoconstriction was studied by a sensitive myograph. The expression of mRNA and protein for receptors was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Compared to fresh air exposure, SHS increased contractile responses mediated by endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors in coronary arteries. In parallel, the expression of mRNA and protein for ETA and ETB receptors of smoke exposed rats were higher than that of animals exposed to fresh air, suggesting that SHS upregulates ETA and ETB receptors in coronary arteries in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the enhanced receptor expression was localized to the smooth muscle cells of coronary arteries. The protein levels of phosphorylated (p)-Raf-1 and p-ERK1/2 in smoke exposed rats were significantly higher than in control rats, demonstrating that SHS induces the activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway. Treatment with Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 suppressed SHS-induced enhanced contraction mediated by ETA receptors, and inhibited the elevated mRNA and protein levels of ETA and ETB receptors caused by SHS. The results of correlation and regression analysis showed that phosphorylation of Raf and ERK1/2 were independent determinants to affect protein expression of ETB and ETA receptors. Conclusions/Significance Cigarette smoke upregulates ETB and ETA receptors in rat coronary artery, which is associated with the activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway. PMID:22412974

  18. Erythrocyte Antioxidant Defenses Against Cigarette Smoking in Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Basalingappa, Doddamani R; Uppala, Satyanarayana; Mitta, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke promotes atherogenesis by producing oxygen-derived free radicals. Aim The present study was conducted to determine the effect of cigarette smoking on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant status in ischemic heart disease (IHD). Materials and Methods A total of 327 male subjects were enrolled for this study, divided into two groups consisting of 200 patients, who were consecutively admitted for IHD in the intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU) of a Government Hospital and 127 age matched male healthy subjects. Both the groups were subsequently categorised into smokers and non smokers sub groups depending upon the smoking history {>/= 20 pack years of smoking; (20 cigarettes per day for one year constitutes one pack year)}. All 327 subjects were investigated for lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Statistical Analysis The differences in the parameters between the groups were tested for significance by one way ANOVA using the SPSS software version 19. A p-value of < 0.001 was considered to be significant statistically. Multiple comparisons were made between all the four groups by Post Hoc Tukey test. Results There was highly significant difference (p<0.001) observed in GPX activity, in comparison to CAT and SOD (p=0.032, p=0.009) between smokers vs non smokers in control group as well as patient group. The plasma MDA levels were found to be increased significantly (p<0.001) in IHD patients, who smoked as compared to those who did not. Conclusion Chronic smoking enhances erythrocyte lipid peroxidation in IHD patients with concomitant failure of both plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant defense mechanisms. Along with conventional lipid markers and plasma MDA levels, the erythrocyte GPX activity was observed to be a better marker of oxidative stress, in chronic smokers, who are at risk of developing IHD. PMID:26266112

  19. Smoking Norms and the Regulation of E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)—commonly called e-cigarettes—are at the center of a polarized debate. How should they be regulated? Central to this debate is the concern that e-cigarettes could lead to the renormalization of smoking and that the regulation of ENDS should therefore be modeled on the regulation of conventional cigarettes. I argue that arguments based on the renormalization of smoking can lend support to restrictions on marketing of ENDS, but that such arguments are problematic when used to justify restrictions on where ENDS can be used. The debate has been insufficiently sensitive to the ethical complexities of attempts to manipulate social norms to change health behaviors; these complexities must also inform the debate about ENDS and their regulation. PMID:26270285

  20. Sidestream cigarette smoke exposure effects on baroreflex in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Vitor E; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Ferreira, Celso

    2011-02-01

    It has been evidenced in the literature that exposure to cigarette smoke causes hypertension in rats; however, it has not been demonstrated if the baroreflex function is impaired before the animal becomes hypertensive. We evaluated short-term effects of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) exposure on baroreflex function in Wistar normotensive rats. Rats were exposed to SSCS during three weeks, 180 minutes, five days per week, at a concentration of monoxide carbon between 100-300 ppm. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated through cannulation of the femoral vein and artery. There was no significant difference between control and SSCS groups regarding basal mean arterial pressure and heart rate, sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the baroreflex function. Our data suggest that three weeks of exposure to SSCS is not enough to significantly impair cardiovascular parameters and baroreflex sensitivity in normotensive Wistar rats.

  1. "IARC group 2A Carcinogens" reported in cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J; Perfetti, T A; Rumple, M A; Rodgman, A; Doolittle, D J

    2000-04-01

    As a follow-up to an earlier study on IARC Group I compounds, further efforts have been made to evaluate the international literature on cigarette mainstream smoke for reports on constituents classified as IARC "Group 2A: probably carcinogenic to humans" and IARC "Group 2B: possibly carcinogenic to humans." IARC classifies 59 agents, mixtures and exposures as Group 2A. Of the overall list of 59, 50 represent chemical entities or complex mixtures ( [IARC,] ). When only chemical entities which have their origin from cigarette components (tobacco and paper) are considered, further searching of the international literature has revealed that nine chemical compounds of the 50 Group 2A listings have been reported in cigarette mainstream smoke ( Table 1 ). In micrograms/cigarette (mug/cig), the ranges reported for each of the nine compounds are as follows: formaldehyde (3.4-283); benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.004-0. 108); dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A) (0.004-0.076); N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) (non-detectable-0.0076); benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) (trace-0.08); N-nitrosodimethylamine (DMN) (non-detectable-0.7-1.62); acrylamide (1.1-2.34); 1,3-butadiene (16-77); and 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) (0. 00026-0.00049).

  2. Factors Related to Increasing Trends in Cigarette Smoking of Adolescent Males in Rural Areas of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas. Methods The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year. Results A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance. Conclusions Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea. PMID:23766872

  3. The endocrine effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tweed, Jesse Oliver; Hsia, Stanley H.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2012-01-01

    With a current prevalence of approximately 20%, smoking continues to impact negatively upon health. Tobacco or nicotine use influences the endocrine system, with important clinical implications. In this review we critically evaluate the literature concerning the impact of nicotine as well as tobacco use on several parameters of the endocrine system and on glucose and lipid homeostasis. Emphasis is on the effect of smoking on diabetes mellitus and obesity and the consequences of smoking cessation on these disorders. Understanding the effects of nicotine and cigarettes on the endocrine system and how these changes contribute to the pathogenesis of various endocrine diseases will allow for targeted therapies and more effective approaches for smoking cessation. PMID:22561025

  4. [Cigarette smoking--threat from first days of life].

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Ewa; Malak, Roksana; Mojs, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2008-01-01

    It is obvious that smoking is harmful. It is especially dramatic that it may cause a lot of dysfunctions among newborns who without their free will are expose to toxic tobacco components. The consequences are as serious when mother smoke as when she is exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy is directly correlated to premature rupture of the membranes, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardatyion--IURG, low birth weight, smaller body length of newborn, reduced lung function--hypoxia, delayed development of respiratory and nervous system, sudden infant death syndrome--SIDS, obesity, allergy, arterial hypertension or even tumors. That is why the prophylactic of above illnesses is important since first days of life.

  5. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  6. Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ajab, Huma; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

  7. Characterization of toxic metals in tobacco, tobacco smoke, and cigarette ash from selected imported and local brands in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ajab, Huma; Yaqub, Asim; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals.

  8. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23349696

  9. Relative importance of cigarette smoking in occupational lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, P C

    1981-01-01

    Since 1900 respiratory disease has remained a constant serious cause of chronic ill health and premature death in Britain. The falling importance of tuberculosis and pneumonia has been off-set by the rise in lung cancer. Bronchitis morbidity and mortality have fallen only slightly since 1935. To produce any real improvement in the future existing information as to cause must be studied. The relative contribution of occupational exposure is compared with the importance of cigarette smoking. Relevant information is scanty and has been produced to emphasise the existence of occupational diseases rather than assess their importance to the community as whole. In Britain the evidence is that within the coal mining and iron and steel industries conditions are now such that dust exposure contributes little to the morbidity or mortality compared with the workers' smoking habits. Similar results have been shown by a cross-sectional survey of many dusty occupations in Western Germany. Only in the disappearing Welsh slate industry has dust disease been at least as important as smoking. Until the current regulations were introduced conditions existed among asbestos workers such that the combined effect of cigarette smoking and dust exposure led to a loss of life expectation of over 10 years in moderate smokers. Since the new regulations were introduced the risk for asbestos workers should approximate to that for other industrial workers. While control of occupational exposure to respiratory hazards remains important, a far greater improvement to respiratory health would be produced by controlling tobacco smoking. PMID:7470398

  10. Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E

    1985-02-07

    In the US, media coverage of the health hazards of cigarette smoking is consored by the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies, which in 1983 alone spent US$2.5 billion on smoking promtion, are a major source of advertising revenue for many media organizations. As a result media organizations frequently refuse to publish antismoking information, tent to tone down coverage of antismoking news events, and often refuse to accept antismoking advertisements. In a 1983 "Newsweek" supplement on personal health, prepared by the American Medical Association, only 4 sentences were devoted to the negative effects of smoking. A spokesman for the association reported that "Newsweek" editors refused to allow the association to use the forum to present a strong antismoking message. In 1984 a similar type of health supplement, published by "Time," failed to mention smoking at all. An examination of 10 major women's magazines revealed that between 1967-79, 4 of the magazines published no articles about the hazards of smoking and only 8 such articles appeared in the other 6 magazines. All of these magazines carried smoking advertisements. During the same time period, 2 magazines, which refused to publish cigarette ads, published a total of 16 articles on the hazards of smoking. Small magazines which publish antismoking articles are especially vulnerable to pressure from the tobacco industry. For example, the tobacco industry canceled all its ads in "Mother Jones" after the magazine printed 2 antismoking articles. 22 out of 36 magazines refused to run antismoking advertisements when they were requested to do so. Due to poor media coverage, th public's knowledge of the hazards of smoking is deficient. Recent surveys found that 2/3 of the public did not know that smoking could cause heart attacks, and 1/2 of the respondents did not know that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking

  11. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US) in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation. PMID:18488428

  12. Trends in cigarette smoking and obesity in Appalachian Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Huang, Bin; Seshadri, Srihari; Tucker, Thomas C

    2015-03-01

    The southern region of the United States, particularly central and southern Appalachia, has long been identified as an area of health inequities. An updated and more complete understanding of the association among the leading risk factors for such health inequities allows researchers, clinicians, and policymakers to focus their efforts on the most effective strategies to minimize these risks. Using the most recent survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined 10-year trends in rates of cigarette smoking and obesity in Appalachian Kentucky, comparing these trends with national and non-Appalachian Kentucky rates. Women and men from Appalachian Kentucky smoke cigarettes at rates 1.8 times and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than their national counterparts. Although rates of smoking in Appalachian Kentucky, non-Appalachian Kentucky, and the United States have decreased, such decreases among Appalachian Kentucky women have been minimal. Adding to these concerning trends, obesity rates in Appalachian adults are much higher than in non-Appalachian Kentucky or the United States overall, although Appalachian Kentucky smokers are less likely to be obese than nonsmokers. Low socioeconomic status and impeded access to health care characterize the Appalachian communities in which these risk behaviors occur and likely account for the prevalence of these most risky behaviors. A continuum of approaches to address smoking and obesity is warranted. Such approaches range from ensuring access to smoking cessation programs to implementing community- and state-level policies to curb smoking and unhealthy energy balance (eg, smoke-free policies and increases in tobacco and "junk food" taxes) and culturally appropriate individual-level interventions (evidence-based smoking cessation and weight-loss programming).

  13. Cigarette smoking among students and the influence of legal regulations on passive smoking.

    PubMed

    Gawlikowska-Sroka, A; Dzieciolowska-Baran, E; Szczurowski, J; Teul, I; Poziomkowska-Gesicka, I; Kamienska, E

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that reducing the degree of nicotine addiction in the population cannot be achieved only by prevention programs. Legislative measures are necessary to be taken by the state. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of tobacco abuse in three groups of students. It also assesses the influence of ban on smoking in public places on passive contact of students with tobacco. A customized survey made up of open and closed questions was conducted among 102 students of electrical faculty, 109 medical students, and 71 students of animal husbandry faculty. The results showed that significantly more women from the electrical faculty smoked. Among the students of animal husbandry, men smoke significantly more cigarettes than women. Women studying animal husbandry start smoking significantly earlier (by about 2 years) than women from other faculties. They are also significantly less likely to smoke cigarettes at school and at home. According to the study, the Polish law to ban smoking in public places, in force since the 15th of November 2010, did not make students quit smoking, although the rate of smoking students decreased. Students did not observe restrictions on smoking in their environment. The study indicates a positive influence of the anti-nicotine legislation on passive smoking, just after 3 months from its introduction.

  14. Intellectual Impairment in Children of Women Who Smoke Cigarettes during Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, David L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and children's intellectual functioning through age four. Found that children whose mothers smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy had Stanford-Binet scores 4 points lower than those whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy. (HTH)

  15. Waterpipe a gateway to cigarette smoking initiation among adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jaber, R; Madhivanan, P; Veledar, E; Khader, Y; Mzayek, F; Maziak, W

    2015-04-01

    According to anecdotal evidence, waterpipe smoking may lead to the initiation of cigarette smoking among young people. This hypothesis is yet to be examined using an appropriate study design and a theoretical model for behavioral change. To compare the risk of cigarette smoking initiation among waterpipe-only smokers and never smokers in a school-based sample of adolescents from Irbid, Jordan. A total of 1454 cigarette-naïve participants were drawn from a longitudinal study on smoking behavior conducted in Irbid among 1781 seventh graders who were enrolled at baseline (2008) and completed the study questionnaire on smoking behavior annually until 2011. Grouped time-survival analysis was used to compare the risk of subsequent initiation of cigarette smoking between waterpipe smokers (n = 298) and never smokers (n = 1156) using adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Risk of initiation of cigarette smoking among waterpipe smokers was significantly higher than among never smokers after adjusting for potential confounders (aHR 1.67, 95%CI 1.46-1.92). The association between waterpipe and cigarette smoking initiation was dose-dependent. The risk of initiating cigarette smoking increased with increase in the frequency of waterpipe smoking (P for linear trend < 0.001). Waterpipe smoking led to the initiation of cigarette smoking among this cohort of Jordanian adolescents; the effect was dose-dependent.

  16. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Olivia M; Leonards, Ute; Attwood, Angela S; Bauld, Linda; Hogarth, Lee; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-06-25

    Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013).

  17. E-Cigarette Use and Intention to Initiate or Quit Smoking Among US Youths.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeun; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    2016-04-01

    We assessed whether e-cigarette use is associated with (1) intention to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking youths and youth experimenters, and (2) intention to quit smoking among current youth smokers. We categorized participants from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey data (n = 20 193) as never-smoking youth (n = 16 238), youth experimenters (n = 3248), and current youth smokers (n = 707). We matched groups on the basis of a propensity score comprising covariates predicting e-cigarette use. E-cigarette users who had never smoked cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04, 6.45) and who had experimented with smoking (AOR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.50, 2.64) had elevated intention to smoke cigarettes compared with their counterparts who had never used e-cigarettes. We did not find any significant association between e-cigarette use and intention to quit smoking among current youth smokers (P = .33). E-cigarette use among US youths is associated with intention to smoke but not with intention to quit smoking.

  18. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs: A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bossé, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases. PMID:24663285

  19. Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Candida albicans Increased Chitin Production and Modulated Human Fibroblast Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Humidah; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Perraud, Laura; Chmielewski, Witold; Zakrzewski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P < 0.01) sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P < 0.01) resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P < 0.01) slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers. PMID:25302312

  20. Cigarette smoke-exposed Candida albicans increased chitin production and modulated human fibroblast cell responses.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Humidah; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Perraud, Laura; Chmielewski, Witold; Zakrzewski, Andrew; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P < 0.01) sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P < 0.01) resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P < 0.01) slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers.

  1. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis to cigarettes: smoked/unsmoked components and formaldehyde factors.

    PubMed

    Carew, Benjamin; Muir, Jim

    2014-08-01

    A patient with hand dermatitis reported that switching her smoking hand resulted in reduced symptoms. When allergy to cigarettes is suspected the literature supports standard allergy testing as well as testing the individual components of cigarettes. Initial standard patch testing revealed an allergy to formaldehyde and the formaldehyde releasing agent, quaternium-15. The patient did not react to her usual roll-your-own cigarette components but reacted to the smoked filter paper of a particular brand of cigarette she frequently borrowed from a friend. Possible explanations include either a variation of ingredients between cigarettes that alters the formaldehyde concentration or another unidentified allergen in the branded cigarette causing allergic contact dermatitis.

  2. Cigarette smoke chemistry market maps under Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions.

    PubMed

    Morton, Michael J; Laffoon, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    This study extends the market mapping concept introduced by Counts et al. (Counts, M.E., Hsu, F.S., Tewes, F.J., 2006. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46, 225-242) to include both temporal cigarette and testing variation and also machine smoking with more intense puffing parameters, as defined by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH). The study was conducted over a two year period and involved a total of 23 different commercial cigarette brands from the U.S. marketplace. Market mapping prediction intervals were developed for 40 mainstream cigarette smoke constituents and the potential utility of the market map as a comparison tool for new brands was demonstrated. The over-time character of the data allowed for the variance structure of the smoke constituents to be more completely characterized than is possible with one-time sample data. The variance was partitioned among brand-to-brand differences, temporal differences, and the remaining residual variation using a mixed random and fixed effects model. It was shown that a conventional weighted least squares model typically gave similar prediction intervals to those of the more complicated mixed model. For most constituents there was less difference in the prediction intervals calculated from over-time samples and those calculated from one-time samples than had been anticipated. One-time sample maps may be adequate for many purposes if the user is aware of their limitations. Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, ammonia, chlorogenic acid, and reducing sugars. The filler information was used to improve predicting relationships for several of the smoke constituents, and it was concluded that the effects of filler chemistry on smoke chemistry were partial explanations of the observed brand-to-brand variation.

  3. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    PubMed

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Induction of alopecia in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, F; Balansky, R; Pesce, C; Fiallo, P; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; De Flora, S

    2000-04-03

    Besides being responsible for a high proportion of those chronic degenerative diseases that are the leading causes of death in the population, tobacco smoking has been associated with skin diseases. Smoke genotoxicants are metabolized in hair follicle cells, where they form DNA adducts and cause DNA damage. The suspicion was raised that, in humans, a link may exist between smoking and both premature grey hair and hair loss. In order to check this hypothesis, we carried out a study in C57BL/6 mice exposed whole-body to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke. After 3 months exposure, most mice developed areas of alopecia and grey hair, while no such lesions occurred either in sham-exposed mice or in smoke-exposed mice receiving the chemopreventive agent N-acetylcysteine with drinking water. Cell apoptosis occurred massively in the hair bulbs at the edge of alopecia areas. Smoke-exposed mice had extensive atrophy of the epidermis, reduced thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, and scarcity of hair follicles. On the whole, exposure to smoke genotoxic components appears to alter the hair cycle with a dystrophic anagen pattern. Although this mechanism is different from that of genotoxic cytostatic drugs, N-acetylcysteine appears to exert protective effects in both conditions.

  5. Recent cigarette smoking and assisted reproductive technologies outcome.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Ariel; Muñoz, Alex; Barnhart, Kurt; Argüello, Begoña; Díaz, Marina; Pommer, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    To assess the association between recent cigarette smoking (CS) in female and male partners and assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes. Cohort prospective study. University ART program in Chile. One hundred sixty-six couples seeking pregnancy through ART. Follicular fluid (FF) and serum cotinine concentrations were measured in female partners. Self-reported CS data were collected through personal interviews. The association between female recent smoking, assessed by FF and serum cotinine concentrations, and ART outcomes, such as number of ova retrieved and implantation rates, and the association between self-reported male recent smoking and live birth rates. A significant age-adjusted association between increased FF cotinine level and decreased number of ova retrieved was found. The male partner's smoking habit significantly decreased the live birth rate from 21.1% to 7.8%. Serum cotinine concentrations paralleled those of FF. The hypothesis of a detrimental effect of recent female smoking over implantation rates is rejected. However, recent male smoking is associated with significantly decreased live birth rates even after adjusting for confounders. Female recent smoking was significantly associated with decreased number of retrieved ova. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Non-neoplastic sequels of cigarette smoking in the digestive system].

    PubMed

    Kotuła, Iwona; Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Jonderko, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an up-to-date report on the effects of cigarette smoking on the secretory, motor, and transport functions of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Pathophysiological linkage between the deleterious impact of cigarette smoking on the gastrointestinal tract and several digestive tract diseases is pointed out. Evidence for a decisive role of nicotine in cigarette smoking evoked distortions of gastrointestinal tract functioning is provided.

  7. The Association Between Mental Health and Cigarette Smoking in Active Duty Military Members

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    AFRL-SA-BR-SR-2011-0001 THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MENTAL HEALTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING IN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MEMBERS Erich W...COVERED (From – To) Jul 2009 – Jun 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Association Between Mental Health and Cigarette Smoking in Active Duty Military...determine if a relationship exists between mental health disorders and cigarette smoking in active duty military members. If a relationship exists

  8. Denicotinized versus average nicotine tobacco cigarette smoking differentially releases striatal dopamine.

    PubMed

    Domino, Edward F; Ni, Lisong; Domino, Joseph S; Yang, Wendy; Evans, Catherine; Guthrie, Sally; Wang, Heng; Koeppe, Robert A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine has long been recognized as a necessary but insufficient component of tobacco cigarettes to maintain a psychophysiological need to smoke. This study examined venous plasma concentrations effects of nicotine in cigarette smoking after overnight abstinence to release striatal dopamine (DA). Twenty-two male smokers smoked either denicotinized (denic) or average nicotine (nic) cigarettes under single blind conditions. Each was given [(11)C]raclopride and scanned in a positron emission tomography (PET) facility. Smoking either denic or nic cigarettes released striatal DA. Denic cigarette smoking released DA primarily in the right striatum, whereas nic cigarette smoking released DA in both striata, but especially in the left. Increases in venous plasma nicotine concentrations correlated positively with increased DA release in the left caudate nucleus. Smoking denic cigarettes reduced craving as much as smoking nic cigarettes. Craving reduction after nic tobacco smoking correlated with increases in plasma nicotine. Nonnicotine factors in tobacco smoking produce important right brain effects. Nicotine is a pharmacological factor during tobacco smoking that releases bilateral striatal DA, but more in the left brain.

  9. Denicotinized Versus Average Nicotine Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Differentially Releases Striatal Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wendy; Evans, Catherine; Guthrie, Sally; Wang, Heng; Koeppe, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine has long been recognized as a necessary but insufficient component of tobacco cigarettes to maintain a psychophysiological need to smoke. This study examined venous plasma concentrations effects of nicotine in cigarette smoking after overnight abstinence to release striatal dopamine (DA). Methods: Twenty-two male smokers smoked either denicotinized (denic) or average nicotine (nic) cigarettes under single blind conditions. Each was given [11C]raclopride and scanned in a positron emission tomography (PET) facility. Results: Smoking either denic or nic cigarettes released striatal DA. Denic cigarette smoking released DA primarily in the right striatum, whereas nic cigarette smoking released DA in both striata, but especially in the left. Increases in venous plasma nicotine concentrations correlated positively with increased DA release in the left caudate nucleus. Smoking denic cigarettes reduced craving as much as smoking nic cigarettes. Craving reduction after nic tobacco smoking correlated with increases in plasma nicotine. Conclusions: Nonnicotine factors in tobacco smoking produce important right brain effects. Nicotine is a pharmacological factor during tobacco smoking that releases bilateral striatal DA, but more in the left brain. PMID:22491891

  10. Smoking Behavior and Exposure: Results of a Menthol Cigarette Cross-over Study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Richter, Patricia; de Castro, B Rey; Sosnoff, Connie; Potts, Jennifer; Clark, Pamela; McCraw, Joan; Yan, Xizheng; Chambers, David; Watson, Clifford

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to improve understanding of the differences in use behavior and exposure when smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes using a 2-part cross-over design. Adult daily smokers were assigned randomly to alternate between 2 weeks of exclusively smoking a menthol test cigarette or a non-menthol test cigarette. Urine and saliva were collected for biomarker measurements; carbon monoxide (CO) was measured, and participants smoked test cigarettes through a CreSS® smoking topography device during 3 clinic visits. Participants turned in their cigarette butts from the test periods for determination of mouth level nicotine and completed subjective questionnaires related to the test cigarettes. Regardless of cigarette preference, participants had higher salivary cotinine when smoking the non-menthol test cigarette, but there were no significant differences detected in urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol between the 2 test cigarettes. Mouth level nicotine, puff volume, and puff duration were significantly higher when smoking the menthol brand. Both menthol and non-menthol smokers reported significantly lower enjoyment and satisfaction scores for test cigarettes compared with their brand of choice. Our results suggest that mentholation has an effect on measures of smoking behavior and that mouth level nicotine is a useful indicator of between-brand smoke exposure.

  11. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  12. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  13. Latino cigarette smoking patterns by gender in a US national sample

    PubMed Central

    Kristman-Valente, Allison; Flaherty, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Latino smokers are a rising public health concern who experience elevated tobacco related health disparities. Purpose Additional information on Latino smoking is needed to inform screening and treatment. Analysis Latent class analysis using smoking frequency, cigarette preferences, onset, smoking duration, cigarettes per day and minutes to first cigarette were used to create multivariate latent smoking profiles for Latino men and women. Results Final models found seven classes for Latinas and nine classes for Latinos. Despite a common finding in the literature that Latino smokers are more likely to be low-risk, intermittent smokers, the majority of classes, for both males and females, described patterns of high-risk, daily smoking. Gender variations in smoking classes were noted. Conclusions Several markers of smoking risk were identified among both male and female Latino smokers including long durations of smoking, daily smoking and preference for specialty cigarettes, all factors associated with long-term health consequences. PMID:26304857

  14. Maternal Periconceptional Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Congenital Limb Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Kristin M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Lin, Shao; Olney, Richard S.; Holmes, Lewis B.; Werler, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital limb deficiencies (LD)s are characterised by the failure or disruption in formation of limbs or digits. Epidemiological research on maternal exposure to cigarette smoke and LDs is inconclusive. Methods Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study were used to examine LDs and maternal exposure to active or passive cigarette smoke. Mothers of LD case (n = 906) and unaffected control (n = 8352) pregnancies from October 1997 through December 2007 reported on exposure type and quantity. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval [95% CI]; interactions with folic acid (FA) intake were tested. Results For any LD, ORs were elevated for active (1.24 [95% CI 1.01, 1.53]), passive (home) (1.28 [95% CI 1.03, 1.59]), and ‘active and passive’ (1.34 [95% CI 1.05, 1.70]) exposures. The ORs for longitudinal LDs were elevated for passive (home) (1.62 [95% CI 1.14, 2.31]) and ‘active and passive’ (1.62 [95% CI 1.09, 2.41]) exposures. The OR for pre-axial LDs were elevated for any (1.39 [95% CI 1.01, 1.90]), active (1.53 [95% CI 1.03, 2.29]), passive (home) (1.82 [95% CI 1.23, 2.69]), and ‘active and passive’ (1.87 [95% CI 1.20, 2.92]) exposures. For lower limbs, ORs were elevated for passive (home) (1.44 [95% CI 1.01, 2.04]) and smoking 15 or more cigarettes/day (2.25 [95% CI 1.27, 3.97]). Interactions showed that ORs for any passive smoke exposure were 0.43 and 0.59 higher in the absence of FA intake for any and terminal transverse LDs. Conclusions Maternal active smoking and exposure to passive cigarette smoke emerged as a potential teratogen that affects limb and digit formation. FA was not found to mitigate the impact. PMID:24134526

  15. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking

  16. Cigarette smoke extract increases albumin flux across pulmonary endothelium in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation, and a characteristic of inflammation is an increase in vascular permeability. To determine if cigarette smoke could alter endothelial permeability, we studied flux of radiolabeled albumin across monolayers of porcine pulmonary artery endothelium grown in culture on microporous membranes. Extracts (in either dimethylsulfoxide or phosphate-buffered saline) of cigarette smoke in a range estimate of concentrations simulating cigarette smoke exposure to the lungs in vivo caused a dose-dependent increase in albumin flux that was dependent on extracellular divalent cations and associated with polymerization of cellular actin. The effect was reversible, independent of the surface of endothelial cells exposed (either luminal or abluminal), and due primarily to components of the vapor phase of smoke. The effects occurred without evidence of cell damage, but subtle morphological changes were produced by exposure to the smoke extracts. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke can alter permeability of the lung endothelium through effects on cytoskeletal elements.

  17. Time-course of cigarette smoke contamination of clinical hydrogen breath-analysis tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, A; Solomons, N W

    1983-11-01

    The time-course of the contamination of exogenous hydrogen from cigarette smoke on postprandial breath hydrogen concentration was evaluated in 10 subjects, six regular smokers and four occasional smokers. Breath hydrogen values were determined by gas chromatography 10 min, 5 min, and immediately prior to smoking a filter cigarette; during smoking from a sample of exhaled air containing smoke; and 5, 10, and 15 min after extinguishing the cigarette. A three- to 137-fold increase above basal hydrogen concentrations was produced by exhaled cigarette smoke, but most subjects had re-equilibrated to baseline values within 10 to 15 min after the cigarette. If subjects undergoing clinical hydrogen breath tests cannot refrain from smoking during the duration of the test, one should allow an interval of at least 15 min from the end of smoking to the collection of a breath sample.

  18. History of childhood candy cigarette use is associated with tobacco smoking by adults.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jonathan D; Thomas, Randall K; Sutter, Erika J

    2007-07-01

    We examined whether childhood candy cigarette use was associated with adult tobacco smoking. 25,887 U.S. adults from the Harris Poll Online (HPOL) were surveyed about current smoking status from November 2005 to May 2006. Respondents were randomly assigned to a yes/no item or a dose-response scale to assess candy cigarette use. Data were weighted to reflect the U.S. adult population. 26.4% of respondents reported current smoking and 29.4% reported former smoking. Candy cigarette use was reported by 88% of both current and former smokers and 78% of never smokers (psmoking for those who used candy cigarettes was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.77, 2.21) for ever (current plus former) smokers and 1.83 (1.59, 2.10) for current smokers, compared to those who had not used candy cigarettes. Odds for current and ever smoking increased with increasing candy cigarette use. History of candy cigarette use was associated with increased risk of ever and current smoking among this nationally representative online sample of adults. Odds of smoking increased as candy cigarette use increased; these relationships persisted when controlled for sociodemographics. Elimination of candy cigarettes may protect children from products that promote the social acceptability of smoking.

  19. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  20. Effect of cigarette smoke exposure in vivo on bronchial smooth muscle contractility in vitro in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoshihiko; Murata, Masahiko; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Yuji; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Kamei, Junzo; Misawa, Miwa

    2005-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Little is known concerning the effect of cigarette smoking on the contractility of airway smooth muscle. The current study was performed to determine the responsiveness of bronchial smooth muscles isolated from rats that were subacutely exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke in vivo. Male Wistar rats were exposed to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke for 2 h/d every day for 2 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last cigarette smoke exposure, a marked airway inflammation (i.e., increases in numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peribronchial tissues) was observed. In these subacutely cigarette smoke-exposed animals, the responsiveness of isolated intact (nonpermeabilized) bronchial smooth muscle to acetylcholine, but not to high K+ -depolarization, was significantly augmented when compared with the air-exposed control group. In alpha-toxin-permeabilized bronchial smooth muscle strips, the acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction was significantly augmented in rats exposed to cigarette smoke, although the contraction induced by Ca2+ was control level. Immunoblot analyses revealed an increased expression of RhoA protein in the bronchial smooth muscle of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Taken together, these findings suggest that the augmented agonist-induced, RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization may be responsible for the enhanced bronchial smooth muscle contraction induced by cigarette smoking, which has relevance to airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  1. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  2. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  3. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  4. Effect of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetics in Rats After Cigarette Smoke Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of menthol on nicotine disposition is important in understanding smoking behaviors among different racial groups. The present study was to evaluate whether menthol affects the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after cigarette smoke inhalation. Methods: Rats were exposed to mainstream smoke from either a nonmentholated or mentholated cigarette (1 puff/min for 10 min) using a smoke inhalation apparatus. For the multiple-cigarette smoke inhalation, rats received the smoke from either nonmentholated or mentholated cigarette (10 puffs) every 12 hr for a total of 17 cigarettes. Serial blood samples were collected during the 10-min inhalation phase for the single-cigarette smoke or the 17th cigarette inhalation and for 30 hr thereafter. Nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were assayed by radioimmunoassay methods. Results: Following single-cigarette smoke inhalation, mentholated cigarettes significantly decreased the mean peak concentrations of nicotine in plasma (Cmax) from 27.1 to 9.61 ng/ml and the total area under the plasma concentration–time curves (AUC) from 977 to 391 ng min/ml as compared with those after nonmentholated cigarette smoke inhalation. Cmax and AUC values for cotinine were also significantly reduced by menthol. Similarly after multiple smoke inhalation, Cmax, AUC, and the mean average steady-state plasma concentration of nicotine as well as cotinine were significantly lower in mentholated cigarette inhalation. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in the cotinine to nicotine AUC ratio from 13.8 for the nonmentholated to 21.1 for the mentholated cigarette. Conclusions: These results suggest that menthol in mentholated cigarettes can substantially decrease the absorption and/or increase the clearance of nicotine. PMID:22311961

  5. Cigarette smoke promotes drug resistance and expansion of cancer stem cell-like side population.

    PubMed

    An, Yi; Kiang, Alan; Lopez, Jay Patrick; Kuo, Selena Z; Yu, Michael Andrew; Abhold, Eric L; Chen, Jocelyn S; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that many patients continue to smoke cigarettes after being diagnosed with cancer. Although smoking cessation has typically been presumed to possess little therapeutic value for cancer, a growing body of evidence suggests that continued smoking is associated with reduced efficacy of treatment and a higher incidence of recurrence. We therefore investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on drug resistance in the lung cancer and head and neck cancer cell lines A549 and UMSCC-10B, respectively. Our results showed that CSC significantly increased the cellular efflux of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. This was accompanied by membrane localization and increased expression of the multi-drug transporter ABCG2. The induced efflux of doxorubicin was reversed upon addition of the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, confirming the role of ABCG2. Treatment with CSC increased the concentration of phosphorylated Akt, while addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked doxorubicin extrusion, suggesting that Akt activation is required for CSC-induced drug efflux. In addition, CSC was found to promote resistance to doxorubicin as determined by MTS assays. This CSC-induced doxurbicin-resistance was mitigated by mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor, suggesting that nicotine is at least partially responsible for the effect of CSC. Lastly, CSC increased the size of the side population (SP), which has been linked to a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. In summary, CSC promotes chemoresistance via Akt-mediated regulation of ABCG2 activity, and may also increase the proportion of cancer stem-like cells, contributing to tumor resilience. These findings underscore the importance of smoking cessation following a diagnosis of cancer, and elucidate the mechanisms of continued smoking that may be detrimental to treatment.

  6. Cadmium exposure from smoking cigarettes: variations with time and country where purchased.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Kjellström, T; Lind, B; Linnman, L; Piscator, M; Sundstedt, K

    1983-10-01

    Cadmium has been determined in 26 brands of cigarettes purchased in eight different countries throughout the world and in 16 different samples of cigarettes produced in Sweden between 1918 and 1968. In addition the amount of cadmium released from smoking one cigarette to the particulate phase collected from a smoking simulation machine, corresponding to the amount actually inhaled by a smoker, has been determined. The cadmium concentration in different brands of cigarettes ranged from 0.19 to 3.0 micrograms Cd/g dry wt, with a general tendency toward lower values in cigarettes from developing countries. No systematic change in the cadmium concentration of cigarettes with time could be revealed. The amount of cadmium inhaled from smoking one cigarette containing about 1.7 microgram Cd was estimated to be 0.14 to 0.19 microgram, corresponding to about 10% of the total cadmium content in the cigarette.

  7. Reduced nicotine cigarettes: smoking behavior and biomarkers of exposure among smokers not intending to quit.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. FDA has the authority to limit the nicotine content of cigarettes; however, there are concerns that reduced nicotine cigarettes will be smoked more intensely and, therefore, will increase exposure to toxic chemicals in smoke. This study examined changes in consumer behavior and exposure in response to cigarettes with substantially reduced nicotine content. Seventy-two adult smokers completed an unblinded trial of reduced nicotine cigarettes. Participants completed a 7-day baseline period during which they smoked their usual cigarette brand, followed by consecutive 7-day periods smoking cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine levels (0.6, 0.3, and 0.05 mg emission Quest cigarettes). Nicotine dependence and withdrawal, smoking behavior, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed for each 7-day period. Significant reductions in nicotine intake were observed between usual brand smoking (∼1.2 mg nicotine) and the 0.3 and 0.05 mg nicotine emission cigarettes, but not the 0.6 mg cigarette. The findings provide little evidence of compensatory smoking of Quest cigarettes, with no increases in exhaled breath carbon monoxide levels, smoking intensity, or levels of 1-hydroxypyrene across study periods. No significant differences were observed for smoking urges or measures of nicotine dependence. The study adds to the evidence that cigarettes with markedly reduced nicotine content are not associated with increased smoking intensity or exposure to smoke toxicants. The findings add to the evidence base on reduced nicotine content cigarettes and have the potential to inform FDA policy on nicotine levels. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Cigarette smoking and radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Finckh, A; Dehler, S; Costenbader, K H; Gabay, C

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is a well‐established environmental risk factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it remains unclear whether smoking influences RA disease progression and whether smokers have more radiographic damage progression than non‐smokers over time. Objective To compare the rates of radiographic damage progression in current smokers and non‐smokers in a large prospective RA cohort. Methods The SCQM‐RA is a population‐based registry monitoring disease activity, radiographic damage and symptoms at regular intervals. All patients in the SCQM‐RA database with sequential plain radiographs were included. Joint erosions were assessed in 38 hand and foot joints with a validated scoring method. The rate of erosion progression was analysed using multivariate longitudinal regression models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results 2004 RA patients with a mean of 3.6 sequential radiographs and 3.1 years of follow‐up were included. The 545 (27%) current smokers smoked on average 16 cigarettes per day and had a mean past smoking exposure of 20.6 pack‐years. Radiographic joint damage progressed at a similar rate in current smokers and non‐smokers (p = 0.26). However, smoking intensity was associated with a significant inverse dose–response; heavy smokers (>1 pack‐day) progressed significantly less than non‐smokers or moderate smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion Radiographic joint damage progressed at an equivalent rate in smokers and non‐smokers. Furthermore, a significant trend was observed for reduced radiographic progression and generally more favourable functional scores among heavy smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoke does not accelerate RA disease progression. PMID:17237117

  9. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Meningioma: The Effect of Gender

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Elizabeth B.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Calvocoressi, Lisa; Bondy, Melissa L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of studies have reported on the association between smoking and meningioma risk, with inconsistent findings. We examined the effect of gender on the association between cigarette smoking and risk of intra-cranial meningioma in a large population-based, case-control study. Methods The data includes 1433 intra-cranial meningioma cases aged 29–79 years diagnosed among residents of the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, North Carolina, the San Francisco Bay Area and eight Texas counties between May 1, 2006 and April 28, 2011 and 1349 controls that were frequency-matched on age, sex and geography. The data are analyzed separately and in a meta-analysis with six previously reported studies. Results Female cases who reported having ever smoked were at significantly decreased risk of intra-cranial meningioma (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7–0.9) in contrast to male cases who were at increased risk (OR:1.3, 95%CI: 1.0–1.7). Similar findings were noted for current and past smokers. Smoking-induced risk for females did not vary by menopausal status. For males, increased duration of use (p = 0.04) as well as increasing number of pack-years (p = 0.02) was associated with elevated risk. A meta-analysis including 2614 cases and 1,179,686 controls resulted in an OR for ever smoking of 0.82 (95%CI: 0.68–0.98) for women and 1.39 (95%CI: 1.08–1.79) for men. Conclusion The association of cigarette smoking and meningioma case status varies significantly by gender with women at reduced risk and men at greater risk. Impact Whether the observed differences are associated with a hormonal etiology will require additional investigation. PMID:22473761

  10. Waterpipe smoking: not necessarily less hazardous than cigarette smoking : Possible consequences for (cardiovascular) disease.

    PubMed

    Jukema, J B; Bagnasco, D E; Jukema, R A

    2014-03-01

    Cigarette smoking has declined over the last years in modern countries. On the contrary, waterpipe smoking has increased, especially among young people visiting waterpipe bars. Unfortunately, most waterpipe smokers seem to know little about the possible cardiovascular and other health consequences of waterpipe smoking. To describe by narrative literature review the known adverse consequences for the human body caused by smoking the waterpipe compared with the consequences of smoking normal cigarettes. Also, to get a picture of public awareness of these consequences as deducted from the literature and a small new survey in the Netherlands. Tobacco smoking is associated with serious adverse (cardiovascular) health effects, and there is no evidence that these effects are less serious if a waterpipe is used. The increasing use together with the limited amount of awareness and attention for the possible health consequences of smoking the waterpipe is worrisome. Especially considering the increasing acceptance and use of the waterpipe among the youth. Therefore we recommend more systematic research into the possible health hazards of waterpipe smoking. In the meantime education campaigns and materials are needed to raise public awareness on the possible health risks of waterpipe use.

  11. The impact of cigarette tax increase on smoking behavior of daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Kengganpanich, Mondha; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Benjakul, Sarunya

    2009-12-01

    To assess the impact of excise tax increase on smoking behavior of daily smokers aged 15 years and over and to explore the association between smokers' characteristics and smoking behavior prior and after excise tax increase. This cross-sectional survey was performed in 504 daily smokers, who were selected from data records of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) between February and April, 2009. The data were collected by telephone interview in the first and second weeks of July, 2009. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution and binary logistic regression. After the cigarette tax increase, 9.7% of daily smokers quitted smoking and 48.0% reduced the amount of cigarettes and/or changed the brands and types of tobacco, from manufactured cigarettes to hand-rolled cigarettes. After other covariance being adjusted, the analysis revealed that the amount of cigarettes per day, the types of cigarettes (manufactured and hand-rolled cigarettes), and the smokers' reaction towards the increased price after the excise tax increase were respectively associated with the fact that the smokers quitted smoking or reduced the amount of cigarettes (p < 0.05). Cigarette tax increase is beneficial for government revenue and it also affects smoking behavior change of daily smokers. However Ministry of Public Health should co-operate with Ministry of Finance to raise the tax rate on both cigarettes and hand-rolled cigarettes continuously and provide sufficient cessation service to respond to the need to quit smoking.

  12. Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Abstinence in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Quitting Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Tomoyasu; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakahara, Rika; Kunugita, Naoki; Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in smoking cessation remains controversial. Recently, e-cigarettes have been gaining popularity in Japan, without evidence of efficacy on quitting cigarettes. We conducted an online survey to collect information on tobacco use, difficulties in smoking cessation, socio-demographic factors, and health-related factors in Japan. Among the total participants (n = 9055), 798 eligible persons aged 20–69 years who smoked within the previous five years were analyzed to assess the relationship between the outcome of smoking cessation and quitting methods used, including e-cigarettes, smoking cessation therapy, and unassisted. E-cigarette use was negatively associated with smoking cessation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.632; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.414–0.964) after adjusting for gender, age, health-related factors, and other quitting methods. Conversely, smoking cessation therapy (i.e., varenicline) was significantly associated with smoking cessation (OR = 1.885; 95% CI = 1.018–3.492) in the same model. For effective smoking cessation, e-cigarette use appears to have low efficacy among smokers in Japan. Allowing for the fact that this study is limited by its cross-sectional design, follow-up studies are needed to assess the prospective association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. PMID:28218695

  13. Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Abstinence in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Quitting Methods.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomoyasu; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakahara, Rika; Kunugita, Naoki; Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Yumiko

    2017-02-17

    The benefit of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in smoking cessation remains controversial. Recently, e-cigarettes have been gaining popularity in Japan, without evidence of efficacy on quitting cigarettes. We conducted an online survey to collect information on tobacco use, difficulties in smoking cessation, socio-demographic factors, and health-related factors in Japan. Among the total participants (n = 9055), 798 eligible persons aged 20-69 years who smoked within the previous five years were analyzed to assess the relationship between the outcome of smoking cessation and quitting methods used, including e-cigarettes, smoking cessation therapy, and unassisted. E-cigarette use was negatively associated with smoking cessation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.632; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.414-0.964) after adjusting for gender, age, health-related factors, and other quitting methods. Conversely, smoking cessation therapy (i.e., varenicline) was significantly associated with smoking cessation (OR = 1.885; 95% CI = 1.018-3.492) in the same model. For effective smoking cessation, e-cigarette use appears to have low efficacy among smokers in Japan. Allowing for the fact that this study is limited by its cross-sectional design, follow-up studies are needed to assess the prospective association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation.

  14. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G.; Sutherland, J.M.; McCluskey, A.; Hansbro, P.M.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  15. Electronic cigarettes in North America: history, use, and implications for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Franck, Caroline; Budlovsky, Talia; Windle, Sarah B; Filion, Kristian B; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2014-05-13

    Designed to mimic the look and feel of tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may facilitate smoking cessation. However, the efficacy and safety of e-cigarette use for this purpose remain poorly understood. Our objectives were to review the available data on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation and to consider issues relevant to the context in which they are used, including product awareness and regulatory and ethical concerns. We systematically searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials and uncontrolled, experimental studies involving e-cigarettes. Included studies were limited to English or French language reports. Quality assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We identified 169 publications, of which 7 studies were included. Studies have concluded that e-cigarettes can help reduce the number of cigarettes smoked and may be as effective for smoking cessation as the nicotine patch. Although there is a lack of data concerning the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation therapy, available evidence showed no significant difference in adverse event rates between e-cigarettes and the nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are widely used among smokers attempting to quit. However, significant international variation remains in the regulatory mechanisms governing the sale and distribution of e-cigarettes. Ethical concerns surround the use of e-cigarettes among minors and their potential to undermine efforts to reduce cigarette smoking. Given the limited available evidence on the risks and benefits of e-cigarette use, large, randomized, controlled trials are urgently needed to definitively establish their potential for smoking cessation.

  16. Associations between initial water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use and subsequent cigarette smoking: results from a longitudinal study of US adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D; Tanski, Susanne E; Primack, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non-cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non-cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. Among baseline non-cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current

  17. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  18. Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation in relation to risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Orsini, Nicola; Alfredsson, Lars; Askling, Johan; Wolk, Alicja

    2013-04-22

    Whereas the overall association between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) must be regarded as established, considerably less is known about how much smoking is needed to increase the risk of RA, that is, the effect of smoking intensity, duration and cessation. The Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 34,101 women aged 54 to 89 years, was followed up from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2010 (219 RA cases identified). Relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated as rate ratios using Cox proportional hazards model. There was a statistically significant association between smoking intensity (RR comparing 1 to 7 cigarettes/day vs never smoking 2.31 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.36)) as well as duration of smoking (comparing 1 to 25 years vs never smoking RR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.38)) and risk of RA. Compared to never smokers, the risk was still significantly elevated 15 years after smoking cessation (RR = 1.99 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.20)). However, among former smokers, the risk of RA seemed to be decreasing over time since stopping smoking: women who stopped smoking 15 years before the start of the follow-up had 30% lower risk of RA compared to those who stopped only a year before start of the follow-up (RR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.24,2.02)). This prospective study highlights that even light cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of RA in women and that smoking cessation may reduce, though not remove, this risk.

  19. Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation in relation to risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whereas the overall association between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) must be regarded as established, considerably less is known about how much smoking is needed to increase the risk of RA, that is, the effect of smoking intensity, duration and cessation. Methods The Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 34,101 women aged 54 to 89 years, was followed up from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2010 (219 RA cases identified). Relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated as rate ratios using Cox proportional hazards model. Results There was a statistically significant association between smoking intensity (RR comparing 1 to 7 cigarettes/day vs never smoking 2.31 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.36)) as well as duration of smoking (comparing 1 to 25 years vs never smoking RR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.38)) and risk of RA. Compared to never smokers, the risk was still significantly elevated 15 years after smoking cessation (RR = 1.99 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.20)). However, among former smokers, the risk of RA seemed to be decreasing over time since stopping smoking: women who stopped smoking 15 years before the start of the follow-up had 30% lower risk of RA compared to those who stopped only a year before start of the follow-up (RR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.24,2.02)). Conclusions This prospective study highlights that even light cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of RA in women and that smoking cessation may reduce, though not remove, this risk. PMID:23607815

  20. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes: Part 2: kretek and American-blended cigarettes, smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Piadé, J-J; Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Hornig, G; Deger Evans, A; Völkel, H; Schramke, H; Trelles-Sticken, E; Wittke, S; Weber, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    Two commercial kretek cigarettes typical for the Indonesian market and a reference kretek cigarette were compared to the American-blended reference cigarette 2R4F by smoke chemistry characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assessments. Despite the widely diverse designs and deliveries of the selected kretek cigarettes, their smoke composition and in vitro toxicity data present a consistent pattern when data were normalized to total particulate matter (TPM) deliveries. This confirms the applicability of the studies' conclusions to a wide range of kretek cigarette products. After normalization to TPM delivery, nicotine smoke yields of kretek cigarettes were 29-46% lower than that of the 2R4F. The yields of other nitrogenous compounds were also much lower, less than would be expected from the mere substitution of one third of the tobacco filler by clove material. Yields of light molecular weight pyrolytic compounds, notably aldehydes and hydrocarbons, were reduced, while yields of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were unchanged and phenol yield was increased. The normalized in vitro toxicity was lowered accordingly, reflecting the yield reductions in gas-phase cytotoxic compounds and some particulate-phase mutagenic compounds. These results do not support a higher toxicity of the smoke of kretek cigarettes compared to American-blended cigarettes.

  1. Is youth smoking responsive to cigarette prices? Evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Kostova, Deliana; Ross, Hana; Blecher, Evan; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was used to obtain data on the smoking behaviour of 315,353 adolescents from 17 LMIC. Two-part model of cigarette demand with country fixed effects. The first part estimates the impact of prices on smoking participation while the second part estimates the impact of prices on the number of cigarettes smoked among current smokers. Besides controlling for individual characteristics such as Age, Gender, Parental Smoking and availability of Pocket Money, the authors control for confounding environmental factors such as anti-smoking sentiment, the prevalence of cigarette advertising and anti-tobacco media messAges, and ease of purchasing cigarettes. All countries in this study are represented with at least two observations over time, which allows us to control for unobserved country characteristics and/or policies that may influence smoking patterns within countries. Cigarette price is an important determinant of smoking. The estimated price elasticity of smoking participation is -0.74, and the estimated price elasticity of conditional cigarette demand is approximately -1.37. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand is -2.11, implying that an increase in price of 10% would reduce youth cigarette consumption by 21.1% at the mean.

  2. Menthol Attenuates Respiratory Irritation and Elevates Blood Cotinine in Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Michael A.; Smith, Gregory J.; Cichocki, Joseph A.; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I.; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol’s effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  3. Smoking and reproduction: The oviduct as a target of cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Prue; Riveles, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The oviduct is an exquisitely designed organ that functions in picking-up ovulated oocytes, transporting gametes in opposite directions to the site of fertilization, providing a suitable environment for fertilization and early development, and transporting preimplantation embryos to the uterus. A variety of biological processes can be studied in oviducts making them an excellent model for toxicological studies. This review considers the role of the oviduct in oocyte pick-up and embryo transport and the evidence that chemicals in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke impair these oviductal functions. Epidemiological data have repeatedly shown that women who smoke are at increased risk for a variety of reproductive problems, including ectopic pregnancy, delay to conception, and infertility. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the oviduct is targeted by smoke components in a manner that could explain some of the epidemiological data. Comparisons between the toxicity of smoke from different types of cigarettes, including harm reduction cigarettes, are discussed, and the chemicals in smoke that impair oviductal functioning are reviewed. PMID:16191196

  4. Cigarette Smoking Causes Hearing Impairment among Bangladeshi Population

    PubMed Central

    Sumit, Ahmed Faisal; Das, Anindya; Sharmin, Zinat; Ahsan, Nazmul; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94) were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63±2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06±11.06, 40.79±20.36 decibel (dB), respectively and that of the smokers were 7±3.8, 13.27±8.4, 30.66±12.50 and 56.88±21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the non-smokers, while no significant differences were observed at 1 kHz frequency. We also observed no significant difference in auditory thresholds among smoker subgroups based on smoking frequency. In contrast, subjects smoked for longer duration (>5 years) showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16±19.87 dB) at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52±19.21 dB) of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002). In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI) of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies. PMID:25781179

  5. Cigarette smoking causes hearing impairment among Bangladeshi population.

    PubMed

    Sumit, Ahmed Faisal; Das, Anindya; Sharmin, Zinat; Ahsan, Nazmul; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94) were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63 ± 2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06 ± 11.06, 40.79 ± 20.36 decibel (dB), respectively and that of the smokers were 7 ± 3.8, 13.27 ± 8.4, 30.66 ± 12.50 and 56.88 ± 21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the non-smokers, while no significant differences were observed at 1 kHz frequency. We also observed no significant difference in auditory thresholds among smoker subgroups based on smoking frequency. In contrast, subjects smoked for longer duration (>5 years) showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16 ± 19.87 dB) at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52 ± 19.21 dB) of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002). In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI) of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies.

  6. [Cigarette as "companion": a critical gender approach to women's smoking].

    PubMed

    Borges, Márcia Terezinha Trotta; Simões-Barbosa, Regina Helena

    2008-12-01

    This article presents the main results of a study that examined the symbolic and material meanings of women's smoking, adopting a critical and qualitative gender approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 women smokers in different stages of the smoking cessation process. The research locus was a tobacco treatment program located in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The findings showed how deeply smoking is interwoven in these women's social and gender trajectories, playing a decisive support role when they have to deal with various difficulties in life. The cigarette as a "companion" emerged as the main empirical category, as something always available to quell anxiety and loneliness, as well as a source of pleasure and relaxation. The critical gender approach evidenced how women's reproductive and productive work overload reinforces their tobacco dependency. In health care, in order to attain women smokers' adherence to the arduous cessation process, it is crucial to consider the complex relations between social and gender dimensions when cigarettes are viewed as a "companion".

  7. Associations between phenylthiocarbamide gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Dale S; Baker, Timothy B; Piper, Megan E; Scholand, Mary Beth; Lawrence, Daniel L; Drayna, Dennis T; McMahon, William M; Villegas, G Martin; Caton, Trace C; Coon, Hilary; Leppert, Mark F

    2005-12-01

    Phenotypic evidence indicates that the ability to taste the bitter compounds phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) may protect against cigarette smoking. In this study, PTC gene haplotypes were found to be associated with both the odds of being a smoker and the importance of cigarette taste as a smoking motive. Smokers (n = 384) and nonsmokers (n = 183) were genotyped for polymorphisms that affect taste sensitivity to PTC and PROP. The "taster" PAV haplotype, relative to the "nontaster" AVI haplotype, was predicted to be associated with reduced odds of being a smoker and lower taste motivation as measured by the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives-68 taste/sensory processes scale. The results did not support the predicted association between the PAV and AVI haplotypes and smoker odds, but the AAV haplotype, which confers intermediate PTC/PROP taste sensitivity, was associated with reduced smoker prevalence (49% vs. 70%), chi(2)(1, N = 567) = 10.392, p = .001. The predicted relationship between PAV and AVI and taste motivation was found, F(2, 348) = 3.303, p = .038. The results encourage further exploration of the role of taste/sensory processes in tobacco dependence.

  8. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in