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Sample records for cigarette smoke condensates

  1. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays.
    Why was it done?
    No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  2. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  3. Selenium mediated reduction of the toxicity expression of cigarette smoke condensate in Photobacterium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, I.E.; Chortyk, O.T.; Lanier, J.L.

    1986-02-01

    Recently, attention has focused on the potential protective activity of selenium against heavy metal toxicity, cancer and other health disorders. Currently, cigarette smoke affects the health of more people than any other environmental pollutant. Producing cigarettes fortified with selenium has been proposed as a possible method to develop a safer tobacco product. Consequently, it would be informative to determine if the presence of selenium in cigarette smoke leads to increased or decreased toxicity. Luminescent assays have been developed for a wide variety of applications ranging from measuring enzyme activities to monitoring water purity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of selenium on the toxicity of cigarette smoke condensate using in vivo bacterial bioluminescence assays.

  4. Use of the Zebrafish Larvae as a Model to Study Cigarette Smoke Condensate Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lee D.; Soo, Evelyn C.; Achenbach, John C.; Morash, Michael G.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2014-01-01

    The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted approach we have developed an in vivo model with which to compare the toxicity profiles of smoke condensates from cigarettes with different design features. This model system may provide insights into the development of smoking related disease and could provide a cost-effective, high-throughput platform for the future evaluation of tobacco products. PMID:25526262

  5. Evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of mainstream whole smoke and smoke condensate from a cigarette containing a novel carbon filter.

    PubMed

    Bombick, D W; Bombick, B R; Ayres, P H; Putnam, K; Avalos, J; Borgerding, M F; Doolittle, D J

    1997-09-01

    A novel carbon filter has been developed which primarily reduces the amount of certain vapor phase constituents of tobacco smoke with greater efficiency than the charcoal filters of cigarettes currently in the market. In vitro indicators of genotoxic and cytotoxic potential were used to compare the cigarette smoke condensate (particulate phase) or whole cigarette smoke (vapor phase and particulate phase) from cigarettes containing the novel carbon filter with smoke condensate or whole smoke from commercial or prototype cigarettes not containing the novel carbon filter. Ames bacterial mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and neutral red cytotoxicity assays in CHO cells were utilized to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the cigarette smoke condensates. SCE and neutral red cytotoxicity assays were utilized to assess the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the whole smoke. As expected, the novel carbon filter did not significantly affect the genotoxic or cytotoxic activity of the smoke condensate, although we did observe that the use of low-nitrogen tobacco reduced the mutagenicity of the condensate in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. However, the whole smoke from cigarettes containing the novel carbon filter demonstrated significant reductions in genotoxic and cytotoxic potential compared to cigarettes without the novel carbon filter. The toxicity of the smoke was correlated (r = 0.7662 for cytotoxicity and r = 0.7562 for SCE induction) to the aggregate mass of several vapor phase components (acetone, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, ammonia, NOx, HCN, benzene, isoprene, and formaldehyde) in the smoke of the cigarettes utilized in this study. In conclusion, this novel carbon filter, which significantly reduced the amount of carbonyls and other volatiles in mainstream cigarette smoke, resulted in significant reductions in the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the smoke as measured

  6. Effects of cigarette smoke condensate on primary urothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Plöttner, Sabine; Behm, Claudia; Bolt, Hermann M; Föllmann, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for bladder cancer. Since urothelial cells express phase I and II enzymes these cells are able to metabolize precarcinogens into DNA reactive intermediates. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture containing at least 80 known carcinogens. In this context especially aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are discussed as being responsible for bladder-carcinogenicity. Cell cultures of primary porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) have been useful models for studies on bladder-specific effects. These cells are metabolically competent and found to be a valuable tool for examining effects of cigarette smoke constituents. In the present study PUBEC were utilized to investigate the effects of the complex mixture cigarette smoke condensate total particulate matter (CSC TPM) with emphasis on induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and genotoxic effects. CYP1A1 induction was investigated by Western blot and flow cytometry. The most pronounced effects were found after 24 h of incubation with 1-10 μg/ml CSC TPM. Maximal induction was observed at 5 μg/ml by flow cytometry and at 10 μg/ml by Western blot analysis. Genotoxic effects were investigated by means of alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis ("comet assay") with and without the use of the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and the micronucleus (MN) test. A numerical concentration-dependent increase in Fpg-sensitive sites indicating oxidative DNA damage and a quantitative rise in MN formation were noted. The CSC utilized in this study contained low amounts of benzo[a]pyrene, 4-aminobiphenyl, and 2-naphthylamine. With regard to the observed CYP1A1 induction, these substances cannot explain the CYP1A1 inducing effect of CSC TPM. It is possible that other compounds within CSC TPM contribute to CYP1A1 induction in our cellular model.

  7. A comparison of in vitro toxicities of cigarette smoke condensate from Eclipse cigarettes and four commercially available ultra low-"tar" cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Foy, J W D; Bombick, B R; Bombick, D W; Doolittle, D J; Mosberg, A T; Swauger, J E

    2004-02-01

    Eclipse is a cigarette that primarily heats rather than burns tobacco. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJRT) has previously reported the results of in vitro toxicity studies comparing Eclipse with University of Kentucky 1R5F and 1R4F reference cigarettes. To characterize the differences between Eclipse and very low yielding/ultra low-"tar" (vULT) tobacco-burning cigarettes, RJRT conducted a comparative evaluation of the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of mainstream cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from Eclipse and three vULT tobacco-burning cigarettes (Now 83 Box, Merit Ultima and Carlton Soft Pack) as well as the leading ultra low-"tar" (ULT) brandstyle (Marlboro Ultra Lights) under four smoking regimens: (1) FTC-35 ml puff volume every 60 s for a 2 s duration (35/60/2); (2) 50/30/2, 0% vents blocked; (3) Massachusetts-45/30/2, 50% vents blocked; (4) Canadian-55/30/2, 100% vents blocked. Ames testing indicated that Eclipse CSC was less (P<0.05) mutagenic than CSC from the four cigarettes under all smoking regimens when compared on a revertants per mg Total Particulate Matter (TPM) basis. When mutagenicity was calculated on a revertants per cigarette basis the mutagenicity of Eclipse CSC was lower (P<0.05) than the mutagenicity of Merit Ultima, Carlton Soft Pack, and Marlboro Ultra Lights, regardless of the puffing regimen. On a per cigarette basis, the calculated mutagenicity of Eclipse was higher (P<0.05) than Now 83 Box cigarettes in the FTC and 50/30/2 regimens but lower (P<0.05) in the Massachusetts and Canadian regimens. Eclipse CSC was less (P<0.05) cytotoxic as measured in the neutral red assay (based on EC(50) values-microg TPM/ml media) than the CSC from the four test cigarettes regardless of the regimen used. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the toxicity of CSC from Eclipse is significantly reduced relative to the activity of CSC from the tested vULT cigarettes and the Marlboro Ultra Lights.

  8. Bhas 42 cell transformation activity of cigarette smoke condensate is modulated by selenium and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung Gu; Pant, Kamala; Bruce, Shannon W; Gairola, C Gary

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health risk worldwide. Development of newer tobacco products requires the use of quantitative toxicological assays. Recently, v-Ha-ras transfected BALB/c3T3 (Bhas 42) cell transformation assay was established that simulates the two-stage animal tumorigenesis model and measures tumor initiating and promoting activities of chemicals. The present study was performed to assess the feasibility of using this Bhas 42 cell transformation assay to determine the initiation and promotion activities of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and its water soluble fraction. Further, the modulating effects of selenium and arsenic on cigarette smoke-induced cell transformation were investigated. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and water extracts of CSC (CSC-D and CSC-W, respectively) were tested at concentrations of 2.5-40 µg mL(-1) in the initiation or promotion assay formats. Initiation protocol of the Bhas 42 assay showed a 3.5-fold increase in transformed foci at 40 µg mL(-1) of CSC-D but not CSC-W. The promotion phase of the assay yielded a robust dose response with CSC-D (2.5-40 µg mL(-1)) and CSC-W (20-40 µg mL(-1)). Preincubation of cells with selenium (100 nM) significantly reduced CSC-induced increase in cell transformation in initiation assay. Co-treatment of cells with a sub-toxic dose of arsenic significantly enhanced cell transformation activity of CSC-D in promotion assay. The results suggest a presence of both water soluble and insoluble tumor promoters in CSC, a role of oxidative stress in CSC-induced cell transformation, and usefulness of Bhas 42 cell transformation assay in comparing tobacco product toxicities and in studying the mechanisms of tobacco carcinogenesis.

  9. Cigarette smoke condensate increases C. albicans adhesion, growth, biofilm formation, and EAP1, HWP1 and SAP2 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers are more prone to oral infections than are non-smokers. Cigarette smoke reaches the host cells but also microorganisms present in the oral cavity. The contact between cigarette smoke and oral bacteria promotes such oral diseases as periodontitis. Cigarette smoke can also modulate C. albicans activities that promote oral candidiasis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate on C. albicans adhesion, growth, and biofilm formation as well as the activation of EAP1, HWP1 and secreted aspartic protease 2. Results Cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increased C. albicans adhesion and growth, as well as biofilm formation. These features may be supported by the activation of certain important genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrated that CSC-exposed C. albicans expressed high levels of EAP1, HWP1 and SAP2 mRNA and that this gene expression increased with increasing concentrations of CSC. Conclusion CSC induction of C. albicans adhesion, growth, and biofilm formation may explain the increased persistence of this pathogen in smokers. These findings may also be relevant to other biofilm-induced oral diseases. PMID:24618025

  10. Cytotoxicity of chronic exposure to 4 cigarette smoke condensates in 2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honggang; Word, Beverly; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles; Yang, Maocheng; Hammons, George; Lyn-Cook, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death. The cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke without the vapor phase, has mostly been tested in short-term in vitro studies lasting from a few hours to a few days. Here, we assessed the toxicity of CSCs from 2 reference cigarettes, 3R4F and CM6, using a primary human small airway epithelial (PSAE) cell line by quantifying adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), total glutathione (reduced glutathione [GSH] + oxidized glutathione [GSSG]), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release over the course of 28 days. The CSCs, 0.3 to 10 μg/mL, promoted cell proliferation at 120 hours of exposure, but demonstrated cytotoxicity at days 14 and 28. Interestingly, CSCs, 0.3 to 3 μg/mL, showed a cell death effect at day 14 but induced cell proliferation at day 28. Consistently, transformation associated with morphological changes began by day 14 and the transformed cells grew dramatically at day 28. The LDH assay appeared to be sensitive for assessing early cell damage, whereas the ATP, MTS, and GSH assays were more suitable for determining later stage CSCs-induced cytotoxicity. The ATP assay showed greater sensitivity than the MTS and GSH assays. We also assessed the toxicity of CSCs in an human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT)-immortalized Barrett esophagus cell line (CP-C). The CP-C cells demonstrated dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity over the course of 28 days but displayed higher resistance to CSCs than PSAE cells. This study demonstrates that CSCs cause cytotoxicity and induce transformation related to cell resistance and cell invasion properties.

  11. Differential discriminative-stimulus effects of cigarette smoke condensate and nicotine in nicotine-discriminating rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Mee Jung; Choe, Eun Sang; Lee, Young-Ju; Seo, Joung-Wook; Yoon, Seong Shoon

    2016-06-01

    Although it is widely accepted that nicotine plays a key role in tobacco dependence, nicotine alone cannot account for all of the pharmacological effects associated with cigarette smoke found in preclinical models. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the differential effects of the interoceptive cues of nicotine alone versus those of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in nicotine-trained rats. First, the rats were trained to discriminate nicotine (0.4mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.]) from saline in a two-lever drug discrimination paradigm. Then, to clarify the different neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying the discriminative-stimulus effects in the nicotine and CSC in nicotine-trained rats, either the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE; 0.3-1.0mg/kg, s.c.) or the α7 nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA; 5-10mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) was administered prior to the injection of either nicotine or CSC. Separate set of experiments was performed to compare the duration of action of the discriminative-stimulus effects of CSC and nicotine. CSC exhibited a dose-dependent nicotine generalization, and interestingly, 1.0mg/kg of DHβE antagonized the discriminative effects of nicotine (0.4mg/kg) but not CSC (0.4mg/kg nicotine content). However, pretreatment with MLA had no effect. In the time-course study, CSC had a relatively longer half-life in terms of the discriminative-stimulus effects compared with nicotine alone. Taken together, the present findings indicate that CSC has a distinct influence on interoceptive effects relative to nicotine alone and that these differential effects might be mediated, at least in part, by the α4β2, but not the α7, nAChR.

  12. Alteration of transcriptional profile in human bronchial epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying-Chun; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Ke-Jun; Niu, Li-Jing; Pan, Xiu-Jie; Wu, De-Chang; Sun, Xian-Jun; Zhou, Ping-Kun; Zhu, Mao-Xiang; Huo, Yan-Ying

    2009-10-08

    Despite the significance of cigarette smoke for carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that lead to increased susceptibility of human cancers are not well-understood. In our present study, the oncogenic transforming effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) were examined using papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). Growth kinetics, saturation density, resistance to serum-induced terminal differentiation, anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice were used to investigate the various stages of transformation in BEP2D cells. Illumina microarray platforms were used to explore the CSC-induced alteration of global mRNA expression profiles of the earlier period and the advanced stage of CSC-treated BEP2D cells. We showed here that a series of sequential steps arose among CSC-treated immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, including altered growth kinetics, resistance to serum-induced terminal differentiation, and anchorage-independence growth. In the earlier period of CSC treatment, 265 genes were down-regulated and 63 genes were up-regulated, respectively, and in the advanced stage of CSC treatment, 313 genes were down-regulated and 145 genes were up-regulated, respectively. Notably, among those genes, the expression of some of imprinted genes such as IGF2, NDN, H19 and MEG3 were all silenced or down-regulated in CSC-treated cells. These genes reactivated after 5 microM 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells with CSC may adversely affect their genetic and epigenetic integrity and lead to further transformation.

  13. DNA adduct formation in mice following dermal application of smoke condensates from cigarettes that burn or heat tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Brown, B.G.; Reed, E.A.; Mosberg, A.T.; Doolittle, D.J.; Hayes, A.W. ); Hejtmancik, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A prototype cigarette that heats tobacco (test cigarette), developed by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, has yielded consistently negative results in several in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology tests. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from the test cigarette to induce DNA adducts in mouse tissues and compare the results with those obtained with CSC from a reference tobacco-burning cigarette (1R4F). CD-1 mice were skin-painted with CSF from reference and test cigarettes three times a week for 4 weeks. The highest mass of CSC applied was 180 mg tar per week per animal for both reference and test cigarette. DNA adducts were analyzed in skin and lung tissues using the [sup 32]P-postlabeling method with the P[sub 1] nuclease modification. Distinct diagonal radioactive zones (DRZ) were observed in the DNA from both skin and lung tissues of animals dosed with reference CSC, whereas no corresponding DRZ were observed from the DNA of animals dosed with either test CSC or acetone (solvent control). The relative adduct labeling (RAL) values of skin and lung DNA from reference CSC-treated animals were significantly greater than those of the test CSC-treated animals. The RAL values of the test CSC-treated animals were no greater than those of solvent controls. The negative results in DNA adduct assays with test CSC are consistent with all previous results of in vivo and in vitro genetic toxicology testing on this cigarette and provide additional evidence that smoke condensate from the test cigarette is not genotoxic. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Electrical Monitoring Cytotoxic Effect of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Transendothelial Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opp, Daniel; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on barrier function and cellular migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and on the invasive activities of ovarian carcinoma cells through HUVEC monolayers as well. Central to this work was the use of electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS), a cell-based biosensor that monitors motility and other morphology changes of cells adherent on small gold electrodes. Upon addition of different concentrations of CSC, the junctional resistance and the wound healing rate of the HUVEC layers decrease as CSC concentration increases from 0.01 to 0.25 mg/ml, whereas the average cell-substrate separation increases with CSC concentration. Following the addition of OVCA429 ovarian cancer cells to HUVEC layers with the presence of different CSC concentrations, dose-dependent changes of the transcellular resistance drop were observed. Our results suggest that CSC is detrimental to normal endothelial cell function in maintaining vascular integrity. In addition, the chemicals present in CSC may increase transendothelial invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

  15. Cardiac and pulmonary anaphylaxis in guinea pigs and rabbits induced by glycoprotein isolated from tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, R.; Zavecz, J.H.; Burke, J.A.; Becker, C.G.

    1982-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for heart attack. The pathologic mechanisms responsible for this association are obscure. It has been reported that approximately one-third of human volunteers, smokers and nonsmokers, exhibit immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to a glycoprotein antigen (TGP) purified from cured tobacco leaves and present in cigarette smoke. It is also known that the heart is a primary target organ for anaphylactic reaction in many animals, including primates. In experiments described herein anaphylaxis was induced in the isolated hearts and lungs of rabbits and guinea pigs previously sensitized by immunization with TGP and challenged with TGP isolated from either tobacco leaf or cigarette smoke condensate. Cardiac anaphylaxis was characterized by sinus tachycardia, decreased contractility, decreased coronary perfusion accompanied by hypoxic electrocardiographic changes, and a variety of rhythm disturbances, including idioventricular tachyarrhythmias. These observations suggest that allergic reactions to tobacco constituents may initiate cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death in some smokers and may, in part, underly the association between cigarette smoking and heart attack.

  16. Effects of 10 cigarette smoke condensates on primary human airway epithelial cells by comparative gene and cytokine expression studies.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Gavin; Seagrave, Jeanclare; Boggs, Susan; Polzin, Gregory; Richter, Patricia; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2010-03-01

    Cigarettes vary in tobacco blend, filter ventilation, additives, and other physical and chemical properties, but little is known regarding potential differences in toxicity to a smoker's airway epithelia. We compared changes in gene expression and cytokine production in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells following treatment for 18 h with cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) prepared from five commercial and four research cigarettes, at doses of approximately 4 microg/ml nicotine. Nine of the CSCs were produced under a standard International Organization for Standardization smoking machine regimen and one was produced by a more intense smoking machine regimen. Isolated messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed by microarray hybridization, and media was analyzed for secreted cytokines and chemokines. Twenty-one genes were differentially expressed by at least 9 of the 10 CSCs by more than twofold, including genes encoding detoxifying and antioxidant proteins. Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO-1) were selected for validation with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analyses. NQO-1 expression determined with microarrays, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting differed among the CSC types, with good correlation among the different assays. CYP1A1 mRNA levels varied substantially, but there was little correlation with the protein levels. For each CSC, the three most induced and three most repressed genes were identified. These genes may be useful as markers of exposure to that particular cigarette type. Furthermore, differences in interleukin-8 secretion were observed. These studies lay the foundation for future investigations to analyze differences in the responses of in vivo systems to tobacco products marketed with claims of reduced exposure or reduced harm.

  17. Cytological studies on onion root-tip cells treated with water-soluble extract of tobacco smoke condensate from commercial cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, P S; Gulati, D K; Bhalla, P R

    1975-08-01

    The effect of water-soluble extract of tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) from two commercially available cigarettes with dirrerent types of filters was studied on the cytology of root-tip cells of onion (Allium cepa). One of the cigarettes had a 2-cm cellulose acetate filter, and the other had a filter comprised of 1 cm of cellulose acetate and 2 cm of activated charcoal. TSC from these cigarettes induced mitotic abnormalities. To investigate whether these two commercial filters could retain cigarette smoke component (s) responsible for mitotic irregularities, the cigarettes were defiltered, and TSC was prepared and tested on the young roots of onion. Observations revealed that the cytological effect of TSC from defiltered cigarettes was not significantly different from the effect of TSC from cigarettes with filters. Thus, the filters utilized in these cigarettes do not retain compound(s) responsible for mitotic irregularities in the root-tip cells of onion. With increasing concentrations (0.01% ot 0.1%) of TSC from cigarettes with filters and defiltered, precent mitotic abnormalities increased. These abnormalities included scattering, stickiness, lagging, condensation, and breaking of chromosomes during metaphase. Bridging and lagging of chromosomes were observed during anaphase.

  18. Quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hou, Hongwei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yong; Wang, An; Hu, Qingyuan

    2015-09-17

    A stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke condensate was developed and validated. Compared with previously reported methods, this method has lower limits of detection (0.04-1.35 ng/cig). Additionally, the proposed method saves time, reduces the number of separation steps, and reduces the quantity of solvent needed. The new method was applied to evaluate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in 213 commercially available cigarettes in China, under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime and the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The results showed that the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content was more than two times higher in samples from the Health Canadian intense smoking regime than in samples from the International Standardization Organization smoking regime (1189.23 vs. 2859.50 ng/cig, p<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) increased with labeled tar content in both of the tested smoking regimes. There was a positive correlation between total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under the International Standardization Organization smoking regime with that under the Health Canadian intense smoking regime. The proposed liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method is satisfactory for the rapid, sensitive, and accurately quantitative evaluation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in cigarette smoke condensate, and it can be applied to assess potential health risks from smoking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  20. Inhibitory effects of Cnidium monnieri fruit extract on pulmonary inflammation in mice induced by cigarette smoke condensate and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho-Geun; Lim, Heung-Bin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Cnidium monnieri fruit (CM) extracts on pulmonary inflammation induced in mice by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pulmonary inflammation was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS and CSC five times within 12 days. CM extract was administered orally at a dose of 50 or 200 mg·kg(-1). The number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was counted using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Inflammatory mediator levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The administration of LPS and CSC exacerbated airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and induced an accumulation of inflammatory cells and mediators, and led to histological changes. However, these responses are modulated by treatment with CM, and the treatment with CM extract produces similar or more extensive results than the treatment with cyclosporin A (CSA). CM extract may have an inhibitory effect on pulmonary inflammation related with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  1. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  2. Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Oxidative Stress, Apoptotic Cell Death, and HIV Replication in Human Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Namita; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    While cigarette smoking is prevalent amongst HIV-infected patients, the effects of cigarette smoke constituents in cells of myeloid lineage are poorly known. Recently, we have shown that nicotine induces oxidative stress through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6-mediated pathway in U937 monocytic cells. The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), which contains majority of tobacco constituents, on oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, expression of CYP1A1, and/or HIV-1 replication in HIV-infected (U1) and uninfected U937 cells. The effects of CSC on induction of CYP1 enzymes in HIV-infected primary macrophages were also analyzed. The results showed that the CSC-mediated increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in U937 cells is dose- and time-dependent. Moreover, CSC treatment was found to induce cytotoxicity in U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway via activation of caspase-3. Importantly, pretreatment with vitamin C blocked the CSC-mediated production of ROS and induction of caspase-3 activity. In U1 cells, acute treatment of CSC increased ROS production at 6H (>2-fold) and both ROS (>2 fold) and HIV-1 replication (>3-fold) after chronic treatment. The CSC mediated effects were associated with robust induction in the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA upon acute CSC treatment of U937 and U1 cells (>20-fold), and upon chronic CSC treatment to U1 cells (>30-fold). In addition, the CYP1A1 induction in U937 cells was mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor pathway. Lastly, CSC, which is known to increase viral replication in primary macrophages, was also found to induce CYP1 enzymes in HIV-infected primary macrophages. While mRNA levels of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were elevated following CSC treatment, only CYP1B1 protein levels were increased in HIV-infected primary macrophages. In conclusion, these results suggest a possible association between oxidative stress, CYP1 expression, and viral replication in CSC

  3. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated. Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article. Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field. PMID:23113130

  4. Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase Expression by Cigarette Smoke Condensate in Cultured Rat Fetal Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Chen, Keyang; Zhao, Yinzhi; Rich, Celeste B.; Chen, Lijun; Li, Sandy J.; Toselli, Paul; Stone, Phillip; Li, Wande

    2005-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LO) catalyzes crosslinking of collagen and elastin essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the lung extracellular matrix (ECM). To understand mechanisms of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, we investigated effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), the particulate matter of CS, on LO mRNA expression in cultured rat fetal lung fibroblasts (RFL6). Exposure of RFL6 cells to 0–120 μg CSC/ml for 24 h induced a dose-dependent inhibition of LO steady-state mRNAs, for example, reducing transcript levels to below 10% of the control in cells incubated with 80–120 μg CSC/ml. Nuclear run-on assays indicated a marked reduction in LO relative transcriptional rates amounting to 27.7% of the control in cells treated with 120 μg CSC/ml. The actinomycin D-chase assay showed that CSC enhanced the instability of LO transcripts. The t1/2 for LO mRNA decay was decreased from 24 h in the control to 4.5 h in cells treated with 120 μg CSC/ml. Moreover, 80–120 μg CSC/ml also inhibited LO promoter activity as revealed by suppression of reporter gene expression in cells transfected with LO promoter-luciferase vectors. Thus, inhibition of LO transcription initiation and enhancement of LO mRNA instability both contributed to downregulation of LO steady-state mRNA in CSC-treated cells. Note that inhibition of LO mRNA expression by CSC was closely accompanied by markedly decreased levels of transcripts of collagen type I and tropoelastin, two substrates of LO. Thus, transcriptional perturbation of LO and its substrates may be a critical mechanism for ECM damage in CS-induced emphysema. PMID:15933228

  5. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  6. Ontogenetic variation in rat liver, lung and kidney monooxygenase induction by low doses of benzo(A)pyrene and cigarette-smoke condensate.

    PubMed Central

    van Cantfort, J.; Gielen, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The specific lung-AHH induction, which we previously observed after the inhalation of cigarette smoke, is not due to the route followed by the inhaled smoke, for the same phenomenon occurs after i.p. injection of either cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) or benzo(a)pyrene in low doses. In this respect lung AHH behaves completely differently from the liver and kidney enzyme, in which organs, basal AHH activity (which is low in the foetus) increases rapidly after birth to reach the adult level 2 months later, and is only inducible by CSC and low doses of BP in unweaned rats. In the lung, the basal AHH activity (low in the foetus) increases abruptly at birth, peaks in 5-day-old rats and then decreases slightly. Contrary to enzyme activity in other tissues, lung AHH cannot be induced in unweaned young animals. The enzyme subsequently becomes sensitive to inducing agents and is highly inducible in 90-day-old rats. Similar behaviour occurs in 2 other enzymes linked to cytochrome P1450: ethoxycoumarin deethylase and ethoxyresorufin deethylase. The results could be related to the particular susceptibility of the lung to develop cancer after the inhalation of cigarette smoke. PMID:6275873

  7. Enzyme induction in rat lung and liver by condensates and fractions from main-stream and side-stream cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquini, R.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Savino, A.; Angeli, G.; Monarca, S.

    1987-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and dimethylnitrosamine demethylase (DMND) activities in pulmonary and hepatic tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats were assayed following pretreatment with known inducers (benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, Aroclor 1254, phenobarbital) and with main-stream (MS) and side-stream (SS) cigarette smoke condensates and their related fractions. Biochemical assays by spectrophotofluorimetry (AHH activity) and spetrophotometry (DMND activity) and by a biological assay (Ames test) were performed to detect AHH and DMND induction. Ames test proved to be much less sensitive than the spectrophotofluorimetric analysis for AHH determination. Both main-stream and side-stream cigarette smoke condensates and some fractions, containing water-soluble bases, water-insoluble bases, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were found to induce AHH activity in lung and liver, the lung being induced to the greatest extent. The highest levels of AHH inducibility were found for the SS-smoke condensate and related fractions. In particular, the insoluble bases fractions gave the highest induction. On the contrary, pulmonary DMND activity was not affected by pretreatment with the same materials, while hepatic DMND response was only minimally induced by Aroclor and phenobarbital treatment.

  8. Genetic toxicology and toxicogenomic analysis of three cigarette smoke condensates in vitro reveals few differences among full-flavor, blonde, and light products.

    PubMed

    Yauk, Carole L; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie K; Chen, Guosheng; Maertens, Rebecca M; Halappanavar, Sabina; White, Paul A

    2012-05-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to various detrimental health outcomes. Tobacco companies produce different brands of cigarettes that are marketed as reduced harm tobacco products. Early examples included "light" cigarettes, which differ from regular cigarettes due to filter ventilation and/or differences in chemical constituents. In order to establish baseline similarities and differences among different tobacco brands available in Canada, the present study examined the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, clastogenicity, and gene expression profiles of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from three tobacco products, encompassing a full-flavor, blonde, and "light" variety. Using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, we confirmed that the three CSCs are mutagenic, and that the potency is related to the presence of aromatic amines. Using the Muta™Mouse FE1 cell line we determined that the CSCs were clastogenic and cytotoxic, but nonmutagenic, and the results showed few differences in potencies among the three brands. There were no clear brand-specific changes in gene expression; each brand yielded highly similar expression profiles within a time point and concentration. The molecular pathways and biological functions affected by exposure included xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inflammation. Thus, there was no appreciable difference in toxicity or gene expression profiles between regular brands and products marketed as "light," and hence no evidence of reduced harm. The work establishes baseline CSC cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and expression profiles that can be used as a point of reference for comparison with data generated for products marketed as reduced harm and/or modified risk tobacco products.

  9. Genetic toxicology and toxicogenomic analysis of three cigarette smoke condensates in vitro reveals few differences among full-flavor, blonde, and light products

    PubMed Central

    Yauk, Carole L; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie K; Chen, Guosheng; Maertens, Rebecca M; Halappanavar, Sabina; White, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to various detrimental health outcomes. Tobacco companies produce different brands of cigarettes that are marketed as reduced harm tobacco products. Early examples included “light” cigarettes, which differ from regular cigarettes due to filter ventilation and/or differences in chemical constituents. In order to establish baseline similarities and differences among different tobacco brands available in Canada, the present study examined the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, clastogenicity, and gene expression profiles of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from three tobacco products, encompassing a full-flavor, blonde, and “light” variety. Using the Salmonella mutagenicity assay, we confirmed that the three CSCs are mutagenic, and that the potency is related to the presence of aromatic amines. Using the Muta™Mouse FE1 cell line we determined that the CSCs were clastogenic and cytotoxic, but nonmutagenic, and the results showed few differences in potencies among the three brands. There were no clear brand-specific changes in gene expression; each brand yielded highly similar expression profiles within a time point and concentration. The molecular pathways and biological functions affected by exposure included xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inflammation. Thus, there was no appreciable difference in toxicity or gene expression profiles between regular brands and products marketed as “light,” and hence no evidence of reduced harm. The work establishes baseline CSC cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, and expression profiles that can be used as a point of reference for comparison with data generated for products marketed as reduced harm and/or modified risk tobacco products. Mol. Mutagen. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.† PMID:22431010

  10. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  11. Comparative study of smoke condensates from 1R4F cigarettes that burn tobacco versus ECLIPSE cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco in the SENCAR mouse dermal tumor promotion assay.

    PubMed

    Meckley, Daniel R; Hayes, Johnnie R; Van Kampen, K R; Ayres, Paul H; Mosberg, Arnold T; Swauger, James E

    2004-05-01

    Numerous chemical and toxicological studies indicate that smoke from ECLIPSE, a cigarette that primarily heats rather than burns tobacco, is simplified and reduced in specific chemicals believed to be associated with smoking-related diseases, and demonstrates reduced smoke toxicity and biological activity in vitro when compared to conventional tobacco burning cigarettes. These data led to the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) from ECLIPSE should have lower tumorigenicity than 1R4F condensate in the SENCAR mouse dermal tumor promotion assay. Female SENCAR mice were initiated with a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) followed by promotion with ECLIPSE or 1R4F CSC. Dermal application of 10, 20, or 40 mg ECLIPSE or 1R4F CSC three times/week for 29 weeks did not alter body weights, survival or other indicators of subchronic toxicity. In DMBA-initiated mice, there were significant increases in both the number of microscopically confirmed tumor-bearing animals and total number of microscopically confirmed dermal tumors at all 1R4F CSC doses and the high-dose ECLIPSE CSC. However, the number of ECLIPSE tumor-bearing animals were reduced 83%, 93% and 67% at the low-, mid- and high-doses, respectively, compared to the 1R4F. Similarly, the total number of dermal tumors was reduced 91%, 94% and 87% at the low-, mid- and high-dose, respectively, compared to the 1R4F CSC. ECLIPSE CSC demonstrated dramatic reductions in dermal tumor promotion potential compared to 1R4F CSC.

  12. Green tea polyphenol EGCG suppresses cigarette smoke condensate-induced NF-kappaB activation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Syed, D N; Afaq, F; Kweon, M-H; Hadi, N; Bhatia, N; Spiegelman, V S; Mukhtar, H

    2007-02-01

    Cigarette smoke is a powerful inducer of inflammatory responses resulting in disruption of major cellular pathways with transcriptional and genomic alterations driving the cells towards carcinogenesis. Cell culture and animal model studies indicate that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol present in green tea, possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity capable of selectively inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells. Here, we demonstrate that EGCG pretreatment (20-80 microM) of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) resulted in significant inhibition of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)-induced cell proliferation. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) controls the transcription of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. In most cells, NF-kappaB prevents apoptosis by mediating cell survival signals. Pretreatment of NHBE cells with EGCG suppressed CSC-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, and activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB/p65. NHBE cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid containing an NF-kappaB-inducible promoter sequence showed an increased reporter activity after CSC exposure that was specifically inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment of NHBE cells with EGCG resulted in a significant downregulation of NF-kappaB-regulated proteins cyclin D1, MMP-9, IL-8 and iNOS. EGCG pretreatment further inhibited CSC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPKs and resulted in a decreased expression of PI3K, AKT and mTOR signaling molecules. Taken together, our data indicate that EGCG can suppress NF-kappaB activation as well as other pro-survival pathways such as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPKs in NHBE cells, which may contribute to its ability to suppress inflammation, proliferation and angiogenesis induced by cigarette smoke.

  13. Sleep deprivation increases cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hamidovic, Ajna; de Wit, Harriet

    2009-09-01

    Loss of sleep may impair the ability to abstain from drug use, through any of a number of mechanisms. Sleep loss may increase drug use by impairing attention and inhibitory control, increasing the value of drug rewards over other rewards, or by inducing mood states that facilitate use of a drug. In the present study, we examined whether sleep deprivation (SD) would increase smoking in cigarette smokers, and whether it would do so by impairing attention or inhibitory control. Healthy cigarette smokers (N=14) were tested in a two-session within subject study, after overnight SD or after a normal night's sleep. Subjects were tested in both conditions in randomized order, after abstaining from cigarettes for 48 hours. The procedure was designed to model the human relapse situation. On each 6-h laboratory session after sleep or no sleep, subjects completed mood and craving questionnaires, tasks measuring behavioral inhibition and attention, and a choice procedure in which they chose between money and smoking cigarettes. SD increased self-reported fatigue and decreased arousal, it increased the number of cigarettes subjects chose to smoke, impaired behavioral inhibition and attention. However, the impairments in inhibition or attention were not related to the increase in smoking. It is possible that SD increases smoking because smokers expect that it will reduce sleepiness. Thus, the findings suggest that sleep loss may increase the likelihood of smoking during abstinence not through inhibitory or attentional mechanisms but because of the potential of nicotine to reduce subjective sleepiness.

  14. Cigarette smoke and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Hofmann, W.; Lowe, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps specifically at airway bifurcations. The elevated risk of lung cancer to smokers may result from a complex interplay between smoking and exposure to ambient Rn progeny, including the promotional-effect role (as opposed to being the initiating event) of cigarette smoke in tumor development. It has been determined that smokers exposed to average indoor Rn progency levels receive surprisingly high doses at hot spots within bronchial bifurcations.

  15. Cigarette smoking and its possible effects on sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikauskas, V.; Blaustein, D.; Ablin, R.J.

    1985-10-01

    The possible effects of cigarette smoking on sperm were evaluated by comparison of the quality of sperm from 103 smokers and 135 nonsmokers in a blind study. Smokers were found to possess significantly decreased density (number) and motility of their sperm than nonsmokers. Morphologic abnormalities, particularly bicephalia, although prevalent among individual smokers, did not differ significantly when a comparison of smokers versus nonsmokers was made as a whole. Based on these observations and those of others demonstrating the presence of the mutagenic properties of smoke condensates, the authors suggest that decreases in sperm density and motility in cigarette smokers may be reflective of smoke condensate-induced mutagenic spermatogenital alterations.

  16. Cigarette smoking and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baron, J A; Newcomb, P A; Longnecker, M P; Mittendorf, R; Storer, B E; Clapp, R W; Bogdan, G; Yuen, J

    1996-05-01

    A priori hypotheses suggest that cigarette smoking could either increase or decrease breast cancer incidence. To clarify these competing hypotheses, we used data from a very large population-based breast cancer case-control study to investigate the impact of smoking on breast cancer risk. Breast cancer patients less than 75 years old were identified from statewide tumor registries in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire; controls were randomly selected from driver's license lists (age less than 65) or lists of Medicare beneficiaries (age 65-74). Information on reproductive history, medical history, and personal habits including cigarette smoking was obtained by telephone interview. A total of 6,888 cases and 9,529 controls were interviewed. There was virtually no relationship between current smoking and breast cancer risk (multivariate odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.09), and former smokers had a barely increased risk (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.19). Similar results were observed among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. There was no suggestion that heavy or long-term smoking increased or decreased risk, nor were there indications that women who began smoking at an early age were at increased risk, as has been hypothesized. The results of this large population-based study indicate that smoking does not influence the risk of breast cancer, even among heavy smokers who began smoking at an early age.

  17. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  18. Health Education and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Morison, James B.; Medovy, Herry; MacDonell, Gordon T.

    1964-01-01

    The smoking habits of Winnipeg school students were surveyed before and after a three-year program of health education on the hazards of smoking, directed to 8300 out of 48,000 students. The program consisted of informal approaches to students in elementary schools and a formal program of talks, lectures, films, and student participation for older students. There were fewer students at all ages who had never smoked a cigarette at the time of the second survey. There was a slight decrease in the number of regular smokers in high school, most marked in the school where the program was enthusiastically received and student participation was most active. A direct relationship between parental smoking and that of the student, and an inverse relationship between academic achievement and student smoking, were shown on both surveys. The majority of students believed that smoking caused lung cancer and other hazards to health, although this was less marked among smokers. The results indicated that an intensive program of health education directed to the teenagers in school was a potentially useful approach to the problem of cigarette smoking. PMID:14154295

  19. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11)

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Jenny A.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Dix-Peek, Thérèse; Dickens, Caroline; Anderson, Ronald; Feldman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F) to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL) for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P < 0.014–0.0006) upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11), consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen. PMID:25013815

  20. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  1. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  2. Influence of cigarette circumference on smoke chemistry, biological activity, and smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Kevin; Eldridge, Alison; Fearon, Ian M; Liu, Chuan; Manson, Andrew; Murphy, James; Porter, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Cigarettes with reduced circumference are increasingly popular in some countries, hence it is important to understand the effects of circumference reduction on their burning behaviour, smoke chemistry and bioactivity. Reducing circumference reduces tobacco mass burn rate, puff count and static burn time, and increases draw resistance and rod length burned during puff and smoulder periods. Smoulder temperature increases with decreasing circumference, but with no discernible effect on cigarette ignition propensity during a standard test. At constant packing density, mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) tar and nicotine yields decrease approximately linearly with decreasing circumference, as do the majority of smoke toxicants. However, volatile aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde, show a distinctly non-linear relationship with circumference and increases in the ratios of aldehydes to tar and nicotine have been observed as the circumference decreases. Mutagenic, cytotoxic and tumorigenic specific activities of smoke condensates (i.e. per unit weight of condensate) decrease as circumference decreases. Recent studies suggest that there is no statistical difference in mouth-level exposure to tar and nicotine among smokers of cigarettes with different circumferences. Commercially available slim cigarettes usually have changes in other cigarette design features compared with cigarettes with standard circumference, so it is difficult to isolate the effect of circumference on the properties of commercial products. However, available data shows that changes in cigarette circumference offer no discernible change to the harm associated with smoking.

  3. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  4. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  5. Women, smoking, cigarette advertising and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ernster, V L

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer in women, accounting for about one-fourth of their estimated 219,000 cancer deaths per year. Cigarette smoking specifically increases a woman's risk of developing cancer of the lung, larynx, esophagus, oral cavity, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and possibly uterine cervix. During the past twenty years, concerted efforts have been made by the tobacco industry to increase sales to women. Strategies have included development of "feminine" brands such as Virginia Slims, slick media campaigns portraying smoking as elegant and glamorous, and sponsorship of fashion, women's sports events, and even medical programs. Reversal of these alarming trends requires that women as well as men recognize the role of cigarette smoking in cancer causation, and support programs which promote non-smoking as well as combat the influence of the tobacco industry on women's smoking behavior.

  6. Screening for DNA adducts in ovarian follicles exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and cigarette smoke condensate using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chunhe; Foster, Warren G; Sadeu, Jean C; Siddique, Shabana; Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2017-01-01

    A rapid mass spectrometric method was applied to non-targeted screening of DNA adducts in follicular cells (granulosa cells and theca cells) from isolated ovarian follicles that were exposed in-vitro to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) for 13days of culture. The method employed a constant neutral loss (CNL) scan to identify chromatographic peaks associated to a neutral loss of deoxyribose moiety of DNA nucleosides. These peaks were subsequently analyzed by a product ion scan in tandem mass spectrometry to elucidate structures of DNA adducts. The identification was further confirmed through synthesis of proposed DNA adducts where possible. Three DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-dG (BPDE-dG), phenanthrene 1,2-quinone-dG (PheQ-dG) and B[a]P-7,8-quinone-dG (BPQ-dG) were identified in the follicular cells from isolated ovarian follicles exposed to B[a]P. Along with these three, an additional DNA adduct, 4-aminobiphenyl-dG, was identified in the follicular cells from isolated ovarian follicles exposed to CSC. The amounts of the identified DNA adducts in follicular cells increased in a dose-dependent manner for both B[a]P (0, 1.5, 5, 15 and 45ng/mL) and CSC (0, 30, 60, 90 and 130μg/mL). The results revealed that B[a]P-related DNA adducts were the major adducts in the ovarian follicular cells exposed to CSC. The results also revealed that two oxidative biomarkers, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OH-dG) and 8-isoprostane (8-IsoP), in both B[a]P-exposed and CSC-exposed ovarian follicles had strong correlations with the three DNA adducts, BPDE-dG, BPQ-dG and PheQ-dG. A pathway to describe formation of DNA adducts was proposed based on the DNA adducts observed.

  7. "Smoking wet": respiratory failure related to smoking tainted marijuana cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2013-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as "wet" or "fry," has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries. We report the cases of 2 young adults who presented at our hospital with respiratory failure soon after they had smoked "wet" marijuana cigarettes. In both patients, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitated rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After lengthy hospitalizations, both patients recovered with only mild pulmonary function abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first 2-patient report of severe respiratory failure and rescue therapy with extracorporeal oxygenation after the smoking of marijuana cigarettes thus tainted. We believe that, in young adults with an unexplained presentation of severe respiratory failure, the possibility of exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes should be considered.

  8. Does environmental cigarette smoke affect breastfeeding behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimallah; Nikpour, Maryam; Banihosseini, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure of lactating women to environmental cigarette smoke may increase cotinine in breast milk, which in turn may reduce the volume of milk and the duration of breastfeeding. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between exposure to environmental cigarette smoke and breastfeeding behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 290 mothers in Babol - Iran, who had been breastfeeding for 3–5 days after delivery. The lactating mothers were divided into two groups: those exposed to environmental cigarette smoke, and those free from smoke exposure. The study questionnaire included demographic data, information on environmental cigarette smoke, and breastfeeding behavior. Data was collected through telephone interviews at 2, 4, and 6 months of follow-up. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, and test of significance using Chi-square test, t-test, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The continuation of breastfeeding for the group of exposed mothers and the unexposed group was (mean ± standard deviation) 5.57 ± 0.098 and 5.58 ± 0.109, respectively in 6 months of follow-up. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.93). The percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months in the group exposed to cigarette smoke was 65% compared to 76% of the nonexposed group. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.149). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, no significant association was observed between the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke and the nonexposed group in breastfeeding behavior, although the percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was less in the group exposed to environmental cigarette smoke. Further exploratory studies are needed. PMID:28163575

  9. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70-28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04-19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  11. Cigarette Smoking Onset among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.; And Others

    While data on the onset of cigarette smoking among younger adolescents has been investigated extensively, it is less clear whether the same social factors influence older adolescents. To examine these social factors, as well as the influence of personality and beliefs, 1,977 high school participants in an anti-smoking study completed a…

  12. Selenium-mediated reduction in the mutagenicity of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Baker, J.L.; Chamberlain, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains carcinogens and mutagens and affects the health of smokers. Recently, increased research has proven the potentially protective activity of selenium (Se) against heavy metal toxicity, cancer, and other health disorders. Accordingly, we have proposed the fortification of tobacco with Se to develop safer cigarettes. As a start in evaluating any biological effects of added Se, we have determined the mutagenicity of inhaled, mainstream (MS) cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), with and without Se, in the preincubation assay of the Ames test. Initially, it was shown that Se, as sodium selenite, was not mutagenic at high concentrations (up to 80 micrograms/plate) with strains TA1538 and TA1978. Subsequently, the effects of different levels of Se, added to MS CSC, were examined with TA98, TA100, and TA1538. On the average, addition of 10 micrograms Se produced mutagenicity reductions of about 50%. Higher levels of added Se yielded further reductions. Cigarette sidestream (SS) smoke, collected between puffs, was also tested. Again, Se added to SS-CSC gave similar reductions, confirming its antimutagenic effect for both mainstream and sidestream smoke.

  13. Cigarette smoking and leukocyte subpopulations in men.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D S; Flanders, W D; Barboriak, J J; Malarcher, A M; Gates, L

    1996-07-01

    Because of previously reported associations among the total leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the relation of cigarette smoking to various leukocyte subpopulations among 3467 men aged 31 to 45 years. The median total leukocyte count was 36% higher (7840 vs. 5760 cells/mL) among current cigarette smokers than among men who had never smoked, and both stratification and regression analyses were used to examine independent associations with leukocyte subpopulations. At equivalent counts of other subpopulations, CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils were the cell types most strongly associated with cigarette smoking; each standard deviation change in counts of these subpopulations increased the odds of current (vs. never) smoking by approximately threefold. Furthermore, whereas 15% of the 238 men with relatively low (< 25 percentile) counts of both neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes were cigarette smokers, 96% of the 249 men with relatively high counts of both subpopulations were current smokers. Counts of T lymphocytes also tended to be higher among the 32 men with self-reported ischemic heart disease than among other men. These results, along with previous reports of immunologically active T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest that this subpopulation may be of particular interest in studies examining the relation of leukocytes to cardiovascular disease.

  14. Overview of the pharmacogenomics of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Ho, M K; Tyndale, R F

    2007-04-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of numerous health problems, including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders, making smoking the leading cause of preventable death in the world. Nicotine is primarily responsible for the highly addictive properties of cigarettes. Although the majority of smokers express a desire to quit, few are successful in doing so. Twin and family studies have indicated substantial genetic contributions to smoking behaviors. One major research focus has been to elucidate the specific genes involved; this has been accomplished primarily through genome-wide linkage analyses and candidate gene association studies. Much attention has focused on genes involved in the neurotransmitter pathways for the brain reward system and genes altering nicotine metabolism. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge for genetic factors implicated in smoking behaviors, and examines how genetic variations may affect therapeutic outcomes for drugs used to assist smoking cessation.

  15. Smoking bans, cigarette prices and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Odermatt, Reto; Stutzer, Alois

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of tobacco control policies for individual welfare are difficult to assess, even more so when related consumption choices challenge people's willpower. We therefore evaluate the impact of smoking bans and cigarette prices on subjective well-being by analyzing data for 40 European countries and regions between 1990 and 2011. We exploit the staggered introduction of bans and apply an imputation strategy to study the effect of anti-smoking policies on people with different propensities to smoke. We find that higher cigarette prices reduce the life satisfaction of likely smokers. Overall, smoking bans are barely related to subjective well-being, but increase the life satisfaction of smokers who would like to quit smoking. The latter finding is consistent with cue-triggered models of addiction and the idea of bans as self-control devices.

  16. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    EPA Science Inventory

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  17. The contribution of heavy metals in cigarette smoke condensate to malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells and in vivo initiation of neoplasia through induction of a PI3K–AKT–NFκB cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Preet, Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Wyatt, Michael D.; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a crucial factor in the development and progression of multiple cancers including breast. Here, we report that repeated exposure to a fixed, low dose of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from Indian cigarettes is capable of transforming normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, and delineate the biochemical basis for cellular transformation. CSC transformed cells (MCF-10A-Tr) were capable of anchorage-independent growth, and their anchorage dependent growth and colony forming ability were higher compared to the non-transformed MCF-10A cells. Increased expression of biomarkers representative of oncogenic transformation (NRP-1, Nectin-4), and anti-apoptotic markers (PI3K, AKT, NFκB) were also noted in the MCF-10A-Tr cells. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of MCF-10A and MCF-10A-Tr cells revealed that transformed cells acquired allelic variation during transformation, and had become genetically distinct. MCF-10A-Tr cells formed solid tumors when implanted into the mammary fat pads of Balb/c mice. Data revealed that CSC contained approximately 1.011 μg Cd per cigarette equivalent, and Cd (0.0003 μg Cd/1 × 10{sup 7} cells) was also detected in the lysates from MCF-10A cells treated with 25 μg/mL CSC. In similar manner to CSC, CdCl{sub 2} treatment in MCF-10A cells caused anchorage independent colony growth, higher expression of oncogenic proteins and increased PI3K–AKT–NFκB protein expression. An increase in the expression of PI3K–AKT–NFκB was also noted in the mice xenografts. Interestingly, it was noted that CSC and CdCl{sub 2} treatment in MCF-10A cells increased ROS. Collectively, results suggest that heavy metals present in cigarettes of Indian origin may substantially contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing intercellular ROS accumulation and increased expression of PI3K, AKT and NFκB proteins. - Highlights: • Repeated exposure of CSC causes malignant transformation in MCF-10A. • MCF-10A-Tr cells showed a distinct

  18. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke.

  19. The contribution of heavy metals in cigarette smoke condensate to malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells and in vivo initiation of neoplasia through induction of a PI3K-AKT-NFκB cascade.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Preet, Ranjan; Das, Dipon; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Wyatt, Michael D; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a crucial factor in the development and progression of multiple cancers including breast. Here, we report that repeated exposure to a fixed, low dose of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from Indian cigarettes is capable of transforming normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, and delineate the biochemical basis for cellular transformation. CSC transformed cells (MCF-10A-Tr) were capable of anchorage-independent growth, and their anchorage dependent growth and colony forming ability were higher compared to the non-transformed MCF-10A cells. Increased expression of biomarkers representative of oncogenic transformation (NRP-1, Nectin-4), and anti-apoptotic markers (PI3K, AKT, NFκB) were also noted in the MCF-10A-Tr cells. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of MCF-10A and MCF-10A-Tr cells revealed that transformed cells acquired allelic variation during transformation, and had become genetically distinct. MCF-10A-Tr cells formed solid tumors when implanted into the mammary fat pads of Balb/c mice. Data revealed that CSC contained approximately 1.011μg Cd per cigarette equivalent, and Cd (0.0003μg Cd/1×10(7) cells) was also detected in the lysates from MCF-10A cells treated with 25μg/mL CSC. In similar manner to CSC, CdCl2 treatment in MCF-10A cells caused anchorage independent colony growth, higher expression of oncogenic proteins and increased PI3K-AKT-NFκB protein expression. An increase in the expression of PI3K-AKT-NFκB was also noted in the mice xenografts. Interestingly, it was noted that CSC and CdCl2 treatment in MCF-10A cells increased ROS. Collectively, results suggest that heavy metals present in cigarettes of Indian origin may substantially contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing intercellular ROS accumulation and increased expression of PI3K, AKT and NFκB proteins.

  20. Association between Peer Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Smoking among Adolescent Nonsmokers: A National Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were ‘ever e-cigarette’ users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–2.30) to 5.50 (95% CI, 4.77–6.34), and from 2.23 (95% CI, 1.77–2.81) to 7.82 (95% CI, 5.97–10.25) for those who had ‘some’ close friends to ‘most/all’ friends who smoked, respectively. The slopes of the adjusted ORs for e-cigarette use in ‘never smokers’ were more than twice as steep as those in ‘former smokers’, showing a significant interaction effect between the proportion of smoking closest friends and cigarette smoking status (never or former smokers) (p<0.001 for interaction). Peer cigarette smoking had a significant association with e-cigarette use in adolescent nonsmokers, and this association was greater on never smokers than former smokers. PMID:27695093

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  2. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. Methods. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. Results. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends’ cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Conclusions. Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking. PMID:26066954

  3. Cigarette smoking and health. American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    1996-02-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the primary cause of preventable death and morbidity in the United States. Smoking causes lung cancer, COPD, and CHD and contributes significantly to mortality from other conditions such as stroke. Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes low birthweight and perinatal mortality, and it may have lasting impact on the child's physical and cognitive growth. Passive exposure to ETS causes lung cancer and poses particular danger to the respiratory health of young children. Smoking cessation strategies are important, but the should be supplemented by community and policy-level interventions. Workplace or community smoking bans, statewide taxes on tobacco, and antismoking media campaigns may be effective adjuncts to individual cessation strategies. These strategies may be an even more important disincentive to smoking initiation. The expanding horizon of health consequences of smoking and its costs to American society should again challenge public health agencies to develop and implement effective strategies to prevent smoking acquisition by young people. These health effects should also motivate health professionals in other countries where smoking prevalence is increasing, rather than decreasing, to initiate more effective efforts to reverse this trend and minimize the excess morbidity and death that accompany this dangerous habit.

  4. Resveratrol and curcumin synergistically induces apoptosis in cigarette smoke condensate transformed breast epithelial cells through a p21(Waf1/Cip1) mediated inhibition of Hh-Gli signaling.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Purusottam; Satapathy, Shakti Ranjan; Siddharth, Sumit; Das, Dipon; Nayak, Anmada; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2015-09-01

    Combination therapy using two or more small molecule inhibitors of aberrant signaling cascade in aggressive breast cancers is a promising therapeutic strategy over traditional monotherapeutic approaches. Here, we have studied the synergistic mechanism of resveratrol and curcumin induced apoptosis using in vitro (cigarette smoke condensate mediated transformed breast epithelial cell, MCF-10A-Tr) and in vivo (tumor xenograft mice) model system. Resveratrol exposure increased the intracellular uptake of curcumin in a dose dependent manner and caused apoptosis in MCF-10A-Tr cells. Approximately, ten fold lower IC50 value was noted in cells treated with the combination of resveratrol (3μM) and curcumin (3μM) in comparison to 30μM of resveratrol or curcumin alone. Resveratrol+curcumin combination caused apoptosis by increasing Bax/Bcl-xL ratio, Cytochrome C release, cleaved product of PARP and caspase 3 in cells. Interestingly, this combination unaltered the protein expressions of WNT-TCF and Notch signaling components, β-catenin and cleaved notch-1 val1744, respectively. Furthermore, the combination also significantly decreased the intermediates of Hedgehog-Gli cascade including SMO, SHH, Gli-1, c-MYC, Cyclin-D1, etc. and increased the level of p21(Waf/Cip1) in vitro and in vivo. A significant reduction of Gli- promoter activity was noted in combinational drug treated cells in comparison to individual drug treatment. Un-alteration of the expressions of the above proteins and Gli1 promoter activity in p21(Waf/Cip1) knockout cells suggests this combination caused apoptosis through p21(Waf/Cip1). Thus, our findings revealed resveratrol and curcumin synergistically caused apoptosis in cigarette smoke induced breast cancer cells through p2(Waf/Cip1) mediated inhibition of Hedgehog-Gli cascade.

  5. Mutagenicity of wood smoke condensates in the Salmonella/microsome assay.

    PubMed

    Asita, A O; Matsui, M; Nohmi, T; Matsuoka, A; Hayashi, M; Ishidate, M; Sofuni, T; Koyano, M; Matsushita, H

    1991-09-01

    Smoke condensates of woods used for food preservation and aromatization in Nigeria were tested for mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were: white mangrove (Avicennia nitida), red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa), mahogany Khaya sp.), abura (Mitragyna ciliata), alstonia (Alstonia boonei) and black afara (Terminalia ivorensis). Cigarette tar was tested for comparison. The condensates induced dose-dependent increases in the number of His+ revertants mainly with S9 mix. With the exception of mahogany and cigarette smoke condensate, the smoke condensates induced more revertants/microgram condensate in TA100 than in TA98. The number of revertants/microgram condensate ranged between 0.04 and 0.9 for the wood smoke condensates and was 0.12 for the cigarette smoke in TA100. The range was between 0.1 and 0.30 for the wood smoke condensates and 0.18 revertants/microgram condensate for cigarette smoke condensate in TA98. Concentrations of 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the condensates were determined namely, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[b]chrysene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene. The condensates contained varying concentrations of the individual PAHs and those with higher concentrations generally showed greater mutagenic activities. However, the order of mutagenic potency in the bacterial strains differed from the order of PAH concentrations, which were lower than the concentrations at which they are reported to induce mutations. When 6 of the PAHs were mixed in the concentrations in which they were found in the individual condensates, the mixtures did not induce mutation so that the contribution of the PAHs to the mutagenic activities of the condensates could not be determined.

  6. Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A.

    1997-09-01

    Formaldehdye is considered a hazardous air pollutant with numerous sources that include environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). With the increasing interest regarding ETS and public health the measurement of formaldehyde readily lends itself to a laboratory experiment comparing methods of analysis. This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode). Reasonable agreement among the methods was obtained by lab demonstrators with spike recoveries yielding 94.7 + 6.8 (n=5) and 89.2 (n = 4) % for NPD and FPD, respectively while HPLC spiked recoveries were 83.6 + 3.2 (n = 5) %; mean class spike recoveries ranged from 80-100%. Student results (in mg/cigarette) from smoke samples were similar to literature values with 163.2 + 69.2 (n = 7) and 149.4 (n = 7) % for NPD and FPD, respectively; the HPLC result was significantly lower at 45.1 + 23.7(n = 7) with losses presumably due to hydrazone precipitating from the smoke extracted solution. Students particularly benefited from the "real world" nature of the analysis and the experience evaluating disparate methods of determining a common analyte.

  7. Cigarette Smoking and Pancreatic Cancer Survival.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chen; Morales-Oyarvide, Vicente; Babic, Ana; Clish, Clary B; Kraft, Peter; Bao, Ying; Qian, Zhi Rong; Rubinson, Douglas A; Ng, Kimmie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ogino, Shuji; Stampfer, Meir J; Gaziano, John Michael; Sesso, Howard D; Cochrane, Barbara B; Manson, JoAnn E; Fuchs, Charles S; Wolpin, Brian M

    2017-03-30

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is associated with increased incidence of pancreatic cancer. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the association of smoking with patient survival. Patients and Methods We analyzed survival by smoking status among 1,037 patients from two large US prospective cohort studies diagnosed from 1986 to 2013. Among 485 patients from four prospective US cohorts, we also evaluated survival by prediagnostic circulating levels of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine that is proportional to tobacco smoke exposure. On the basis of prediagnosis cotinine levels, we classified patients as nonsmokers (< 3.1 ng/mL), light smokers (3.1-20.9 ng/mL), or heavy smokers (≥ 21.0 ng/mL). We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for death by using Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes status, diagnosis year, and cancer stage. Results The multivariable-adjusted HR for death was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.69) comparing current smokers with never smokers ( P = .003). A statistically significant negative trend in survival was observed for increasing pack-years of smoking ( Ptrend = .008), with HR for death of 1.49 (95% CI, 1.05 to 2.10) for > 60 pack-years of smoking versus never smoking. Survival among former smokers was similar to that for never smokers, regardless of time since quitting. Heavy smokers defined by prediagnostic circulating cotinine levels had a multivariable-adjusted HR for death of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.23 to 2.51) compared with nonsmokers. Among patients with circulating cotinine levels measured within 5 years before diagnosis, heavy smokers had a multivariable-adjusted HR for death of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.92) compared with nonsmokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking was associated with a reduction in survival among patients with pancreatic cancer.

  8. How does electronic cigarette access affect adolescent smoking?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Abigail S

    2015-12-01

    Understanding electronic cigarettes' effect on tobacco smoking is a central economic and policy issue. This paper examines the causal impact of e-cigarette access on conventional cigarette use by adolescents. Regression analyses consider how state bans on e-cigarette sales to minors influence smoking rates among 12 to 17 year olds. Such bans yield a statistically significant 0.9 percentage point increase in recent smoking in this age group, relative to states without such bans. Results are robust to multiple specifications as well as several falsification and placebo checks. This effect is both consistent with e-cigarette access reducing smoking among minors, and large: banning electronic cigarette sales to minors counteracts 70 percent of the downward pre-trend in teen cigarette smoking for a given two-year period.

  9. Cigarette Smoking among Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juon, Hee-Soon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines prevalence of cigarette smoking and explores its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45 percent. Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Perceived peer use, academic stress, grade, and type of school were associated with…

  10. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the mutagenicity of tobacco smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    White, J L; Conner, B T; Perfetti, T A; Bombick, B R; Avalos, J T; Fowler, K W; Smith, C J; Doolittle, D J

    2001-05-01

    Tobacco smoke aerosols with fewer mutagens in the particulate fraction may present reduced risk to the smoker. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the temperature at which tobacco is pyrolyzed or combusted can affect the mutagenicity of the particulate fraction of the smoke aerosol. Tobacco smoke aerosol was generated under precisely controlled temperature conditions from 250 to 550 degrees C by heating compressed tobacco tablets in air. The tobacco aerosols generated had a cigarette smoke-like appearance and aroma. The tobacco smoke aerosol was passed through a Cambridge filter pad to collect the particulate fraction, termed the smoke condensate. Although condensates of tobacco smoke and whole cigarette mainstream smoke share many of the same chemical components, there are physical and chemical differences between the two complex mixtures. The condensates from smoke aerosols prepared at different temperatures were assayed in the Ames Salmonella microsome test with metabolic activation by rat liver S9 using tester strains TA98 and TA100. Tobacco smoke condensates were not detectably mutagenic in strain TA98 when the tobacco smoke aerosol was generated at temperatures below 400 degrees C. Above 400 degrees C, condensates were mutagenic in strain TA98. Similarly, condensates prepared from tobacco smoke aerosols generated at temperatures below 475 degrees C were not detectably mutagenic in strain TA100. In contrast, tobacco tablets heated to temperatures of 475 degrees C or greater generated smoke aerosol that was detectably mutagenic as measured in TA100. Therefore, heating and pyrolyzing tobacco at temperatures below those found in tobacco burning cigarettes reduces the mutagenicity of the smoke condensate. Highly mutagenic heterocyclic amines derived from the pyrolysis of tobacco leaf protein may be important contributors to the high temperature production of tobacco smoke Ames Salmonella mutagens. The relevance of these findings regarding

  11. Nicotine Replacement, Topography, and Smoking Phenotypes of E-cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Kaufmann, Amanda; Blazekovic, Sonja; Leone, Frank; Benowitz, Neal L.; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. Methods Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study. Day 1 (own cigarette brand) data established baseline levels for cotinine, carbon monoxide (CO), topography, cigarette liking, withdrawal, and craving. Participants returned on Days 5 and 10 to reassess these measures while exclusively using e-cigarettes. Results Compared to cigarette smoking, e-cigarettes provided significantly lower nicotine levels (25%-50%), reduced CO exposure, and lower ratings of liking (p < .05). Topography significantly differed between cigarette and e-cigarette sessions (p < .05). All brands significantly reduced withdrawal and craving (p < .05). There were no significant brand differences in outcome measures associated with exposure or use. Conclusions E-cigarettes are not liked as much as cigarettes, provide significantly lower nicotine replacement, reduce CO exposure, and mitigate withdrawal and craving. The patterns of use significantly differ compared to cigarette smoking. PMID:27942543

  12. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  13. Cigarette access and pupil smoking rates: a circular relationship?

    PubMed

    Turner, Katrina M; Gordon, Jacki; Young, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Adolescents obtain cigarettes from both commercial and social sources. While the relationship between commercial access and adolescent smoking has been researched, no one has considered in detail whether rates of peer smoking affect cigarette availability. In two relatively deprived Scottish schools that differed in their pupil smoking rates, we assess pupil access to cigarettes. 896 13 and 15 year olds were surveyed, and 25 single-sex discussion groups held with a sub-sample of the 13 year olds. Smokers in both schools obtained cigarettes from shops, food vans and other pupils. However, pupils in the 'high' smoking school perceived greater access to both commercial and social sources, and had access to an active 'peer market'. These findings suggest that variations in cigarette access may contribute to school differences in pupil smoking rates, and that the relationship between access and adolescent smoking is circular, with greater availability increasing rates, and higher rates enhancing access.

  14. Smoke of cigarettes and little cigars: an analytical comparison.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Wynder, E L

    1972-12-15

    Chemical data are presented from a comparison study of the smoke of cigarettes and little cigars. The tobacco products and their mainstream smokes were analyzed for a number of toxic constituents in an effort to define "smoke inhalability." This issue has particular public health importance because the difference in the inhalability of cigar and cigarette smoke is generally assumed to account for the differences in the health risk to the individual smoker.

  15. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  16. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  17. Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    To determine the effect of cigarette smoke on airway epithelial ion transport, the electrical properties and transepithelial Na and Cl fluxes were measured in canine tracheal epithelium. In vivo, the inhalation of the smoke from one cigarette acutely and reversibly decreased the electrical potential difference across the tracheal epithelium. In vitro, exposure of the mucosal surface of the epithelium to cigarette smoke decreased the short circuit current and transepithelial resistance. The decrease in short circuit current was due to an inhibition of the rate of Cl secretion with minimal effect on the rate of Na absorption. The effect of cigarette smoke was reversible, was not observed upon exposure of the submucosal surface to smoke, and was most pronounced when secretion was stimulated. The particulate phase of smoke was largely responsible for the inhibitory effect, since filtering the smoke minimized the effect. The effect of cigarette smoke was not prevented by addition of antioxidants to the bathing solutions, suggesting that the inhibition of Cl secretion cannot be entirely attributed to an oxidant mechanism. These results indicate that cigarette smoke acutely inhibits active ion transport by tracheal epithelium, both in vivo and in vitro. This effect may explain, in part, both the abnormal mucociliary clearance and the airway disease observed in cigarette smokers.

  18. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  19. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.

  20. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  1. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  2. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  3. Ceramides mediate cigarette smoke-induced metabolic disruption in mice.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Mikayla O; Tippetts, Trevor S; Nelson, Michael B; Swensen, Adam C; Winden, Duane R; Hansen, Melissa E; Anderson, Madeline C; Johnson, Ian E; Porter, James P; Reynolds, Paul R; Bikman, Benjamin T

    2014-11-15

    Cigarette smoke exposure increases lung ceramide biosynthesis and alters metabolic function. We hypothesized that ceramides are released from the lung during cigarette smoke exposure and result in elevated skeletal muscle ceramide levels, resulting in insulin resistance and altered mitochondrial respiration. Employing cell and animal models, we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on muscle cell insulin signaling and mitochondrial respiration. Muscle cells were treated with conditioned medium from cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed lung cells, followed by analysis of ceramides and assessment of insulin signaling and mitochondrial function. Mice were exposed to daily cigarette smoke and a high-fat, high-sugar (HFHS) diet with myriocin injections to inhibit ceramide synthesis. Comparisons were conducted between these mice and control animals on standard diets in the absence of smoke exposure and myriocin injections. Muscle cells treated with CSE-exposed conditioned medium were completely unresponsive to insulin stimulation, and mitochondrial respiration was severely blunted. These effects were mitigated when lung cells were treated with the ceramide inhibitor myriocin prior to and during CSE exposure. In mice, daily cigarette smoke exposure and HFHS diet resulted in insulin resistance, which correlated with elevated ceramides. Although myriocin injection was protective against insulin resistance with either smoke or HFHS, it was insufficient to prevent insulin resistance with combined CS and HFHS. However, myriocin injection restored muscle mitochondrial respiration in all treatments. Ceramide inhibition prevents metabolic disruption in muscle cells with smoke exposure and may explain whole body insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

  4. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, João M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium (210Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g-1, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times 210Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d-1, and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed.

  5. Snuffing out cigarette sales and the smoking deaths epidemic.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Murray

    2007-06-15

    Smokers need new products and policies to escape smoking's risks. And the next generation needs policies that will better protect them from becoming smokers. Low-nitrosamine tobacco snuff (hereafter termed 'snuff') is 20 times less dangerous than cigarette smoking. Its sale as nasal snuff raises the question as to how long cigarettes, including cigars and pipe tobacco, should continue to be sold and allowed to hasten the deaths of 4000 New Zealanders annually. Oral snuff has helped to reduce smoking to unusually low levels in Swedish men, is much less dangerous than smoking, and does not cause lung or mouth cancer. Moreover, smokeless tobacco (which includes snuff) could reduce smoking-caused health inequity for Maori. Snuff can improve population health, and more so if more smokers switch to it. Continued bans on snuff are now regarded by some experts as unsound public policy. Added to the mountain of evidence against cigarettes, sufficient evidence now exists for Government to use snuff to create safer tobacco choices for smokers, end cigarette sales altogether, and thus end the cigarette smoking deaths epidemic--in which 200,000 New Zealanders have died so far. The New Zealand Government can: Fund media campaigns to inform smokers of their new choices, and to urge them to quit smoking. (The 2007 Budget commits an extra $11 million per year for 4 years, an excellent start.) Regulate for warnings on snuff cans stating that snuff is "addictive but much safer than smoking", and regulate imports to only permit reduced-risk low-nitrosamine products. Tax each class of tobacco products proportionate to the respective risks of each. (Tax cigarettes at 20 times the snuff rate, instead of at the same rate.) Legislate, to expand the Smoke-free Environments Act's aims to include ending the sale of cigarettes and ending smoking deaths--i.e: Allow oral snuff to compete with cigarettes for market share (and for the smoker's nicotine receptors). Reduce addiction to smoking, by

  6. CSEO – the Cigarette Smoke Exposure Ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past years, significant progress has been made to develop and use experimental settings for extensive data collection on tobacco smoke exposure and tobacco smoke exposure-associated diseases. Due to the growing number of such data, there is a need for domain-specific standard ontologies to facilitate the integration of tobacco exposure data. Results The CSEO (version 1.0) is composed of 20091 concepts. The ontology in its current form is able to capture a wide range of cigarette smoke exposure concepts within the knowledge domain of exposure science with a reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, it showed a promising performance when used to answer domain expert questions. The CSEO complies with standard upper-level ontologies and is freely accessible to the scientific community through a dedicated wiki at https://publicwiki-01.fraunhofer.de/CSEO-Wiki/index.php/Main_Page. Conclusions The CSEO has potential to become a widely used standard within the academic and industrial community. Mainly because of the emerging need of systems toxicology to controlled vocabularies and also the lack of suitable ontologies for this domain, the CSEO prepares the ground for integrative systems-based research in the exposure science. PMID:25093069

  7. Cigarette smoking effect on human cochlea responses

    PubMed Central

    Rogha, Mehrdad; Hashemi, Mostafa; Askari, Narges; Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Sepehrnejad, Mahsa; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factor in increasing of non-communicable disorders, especially chronic diseases such as cancer, stroke, heart and respiratory diseases. Cigarette smoking could damage the cochlea and causing hearing loss. The otoacoustic emission (OAE) is a source of information for determining cochlear responses to sound stimuli and how to change the response of the auditory system in some diseases. OAE test was sensitive to outer hair cells (OHCs) activity. Materials and Methods: In this study, tried to evaluate a hearing threshold of the smoker group versus non-smoker ones through pure tone audiometery, transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests. Results: The results indicated that significant decrement of 8000 Hz threshold, reduced DPOAE/TEOAE amplitude in the smoker group than non-smoker one (P < 0.05). DPOAE amplitudes decline reflects the cochlear damage caused by smoking. Conclusion: OAEs test was clinically non-invasive, accurate, and objective evaluation of the performance of cochlear OHCs. PMID:26380233

  8. Determination of Po-210 content in cigarette smoke using a smoking machine: A case study of Iranian cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Mária; Shahrokhi, Amin; Bátor, Péter; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-02-06

    The Po-210 content of tobacco has been known for a long time, however, different results can be found about the estimated amount of Po-210 that is inhaled by humans as a result of smoking cigarettes. Because of the unique properties of Po-210, the smoking machines available on the market are not suitable because of their failure to quantitatively collect Po-210 for measurement. Therefore, to estimate precisely the amount of Po-210 entering the lungs as a result of smoking, a smoking machine and sampling protocol based on relevant ISO standards - ISO-3308, ISO-3402 and ISO-4387 - was developed. A 5% HCl solution was found to be the best absorber of Po-210 from smoke. Seventeen different brands of cigarettes distributed in Iran were used to validate the new machine and sampling protocol. The Po-210 concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry; the cigarette smoke solution underwent combined acid treatment after adding a Po-209 tracer. The Po-210 activity concentration of cigarettes sold in Iran was between 9.7 ± 1.2 and 26.5 ± 4.6 mBq/cigarette and it was determined that there was no relationship between the Po-210 and nicotine contents of cigarette smoke. Additionally, it was found that 15 ± 10% of the cigarette Po-210 was transferred to the mainstream smoke.

  9. A Wearable Sensor System for Monitoring Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Tiffany, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Available methods of smoking assessment (e.g., self-report, portable puff-topography instruments) do not permit the collection of accurate measures of smoking behavior while minimizing reactivity to the assessment procedure. This article suggests a new method for monitoring cigarette smoking based on a wearable sensor system (Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker [PACT]) that is completely transparent to the end user and does not require any conscious effort to achieve reliable monitoring of smoking in free-living individuals. Method: The proposed sensor system consists of a respiratory inductance plethysmograph for monitoring of breathing and a hand gesture sensor for detecting a cigarette at the mouth. The wearable sensor system was tested in a laboratory study of 20 individuals who performed 12 different activities including cigarette smoking. Signal processing was applied to evaluate the uniqueness of breathing patterns and their correlation with hand gestures. Results: The results indicate that smoking manifests unique breathing patterns that are highly correlated with hand-to-mouth cigarette gestures and suggest that these signals can potentially be used to identify and characterize individual smoke inhalations. Conclusions: With the future development of signal processing and pattern-recognition methods, PACT can be used to automatically assess the frequency of smoking and inhalation patterns (such as depth of inhalation and smoke holding) throughout the day and provide an objective method of assessing the effectiveness of behavioral and pharmacological smoking interventions. PMID:24172124

  10. Menthol vs nonmenthol cigarettes: effects on smoking behavior.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, W J; Caskey, N H; Jarvik, M E; Gross, T M; Rosenblatt, M R; Carpenter, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to examine intraindividual differences in smoking behavior between smoking regular and mentholated cigarettes. METHODS. Healthy male smokers (n = 29) smoked either a regular or a mentholated cigarette in two separate sessions 1 week apart. Commercial brands with comparable tar, nicotine, and CO content were used. Smoking behavior was constrained by fixed 15-second interpuff intervals, but puff volume and number of puffs were unconstrained. RESULTS. When smoking the non-mentholated brand of cigarettes, participants smoked 22% more puffs and had 13% higher mean volumes per puff than they did when smoking the mentholated brand of cigarettes. The aggregate 39% excess exposure to cigarette smoke in the regular-cigarette condition was not accompanied by commensurate excesses in expired carbon monoxide or in physiological measures normally correlated with nicotine exposure. CONCLUSIONS. These findings parallel differences in physiological correlates of exposure to nicotine found in cross-sectional comparisons of African-American and White smokers and are consistent with the results of emerging laboratory investigations. PMID:7832264

  11. Influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland--an update.

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Gutaj, Paweł; Sowiński, Jerzy; Wender-Ożegowska, Ewa; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Brązert, Jacek; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that cigarette smoking exerts multiple effects on the thyroid gland. Smoking seems to induce changes in thyroid function tests, like decrease in TSH and increase in thyroid hormones. However, these alterations are usually mild. In addition, tobacco smoking may also play a role in thyroid autoimmunity. Many studies have confirmed a significant influence of smoking on Graves' hyperthyroidism and particularly on Graves' orbitopathy. Here, smoking may increase the risk of disease development, may reduce the effectiveness of treatment, and eventually induce relapse. The role of smoking in Hashimoto's thyroiditis is not as well established as in Graves' disease. Nonetheless, lower prevalence of thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroperoxidase antibodies and hypothyroidism were found in smokers. These findings contrast with a study that reported increased risk of hypothyroidism in smokers with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Moreover, cigarette smoking increases the incidence of multinodular goitre, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Some studies have examined cigarette smoking in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer. Interestingly, many of them have shown that smoking may reduce the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. Furthermore, both active and passive smoking during pregnancy might modify maternal and foetal thyroid function. This review evaluates the current data concerning the influence of cigarette smoking on thyroid gland, including hormonal changes, autoimmunity and selected diseases. These findings, however, in our opinion, should be carefully evaluated and some of them are not totally evidence-based. Further studies are required to explain the effects of smoking upon thyroid pathophysiology.

  12. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  13. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed.

  14. Behavioral Control of Cigarette Smoking: A Comprehensive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Gail; Horan, John

    1977-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been a behavioral enigma. Single treatment techniques, when successful, are usually plagued by high recidivism rates and "practical" insignificance. Two recent developments, rapid smoking and comprehensive behavioral programming, hold promise for the eventual behavioral control of smoking. This study describes one such…

  15. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  16. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm(2)) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm(2)), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products.

  17. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from multiethnic 1988 current daily smokers [M age = 45.1 (SD = 13.0); 51.3% Women] who had made an average lifetime quit attempts of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting (RFQ) scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, “immediate reinforcement,” a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness, was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and “concerns about health” was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative “smoking” experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. PMID:25180551

  18. Genetic effects of fresh cigarette smoke in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gairola, C

    1982-09-01

    Ability of fresh cigarette smoke from University of Kentucky reference cigarette 2R1 to induce gene conversion, reverse mutation and mitotic crossing-over in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. A closed cell suspension-recycle system using 2 peristaltic pumps interconnected to a single-port reverse-phase smoking machine was developed to provide complete exposure of cells to smoke within 0.2--10 sec of its generation. The exposed cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of all the 3 genetic endpoints examined. Cell age was an important factor with younger cells being more sensitive than older. Filtration studies showed that the gas phase possessed as much as 25% of the total whole-smoke activity. Activated charcoal reduced the activity of smoke in direct proportion to its amount in the filter. Acetate filter did not appreciably alter the activity. A comparison of whole smoke from various cigarettes showed that: (1) the nicotine content of a cigarette does not affect the genetic activity of smoke; (2) burley and flue-cured tobaccos have differential activity in gene conversion and reverse mutation systems; and (3) the genetic effects of whole smoke are not peculiar to tobacco pyrolysis because similar effects are produced by smokes from lettuce and other non-tobacco cigarettes. It is concluded that the yeast D7 system can be used effectively for the quantitative evaluation of genetic effects of smoke from different cigarettes, and both whole cigarette smoke and its gas phase possess mutagenic as well as recombinogenic activity that can be modified by the use of filters.

  19. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  20. Cigarette smoking in China: public health, science, and policy.

    PubMed

    Au, William W; Su, Daisy; Yuan, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, cigarette smoking is a habit that causes serious health, economic, and social problems. Therefore, many countries have taken an active role to control and to ban smoking. The chronic smoking problem in China is particularly acute because China has the largest population of smokers in the world, over 300 million currently. If 30% of these smokers were to die of smoke-related diseases in the next 20 years, the impact from the more than 90 million premature deaths could be damaging to China. In addition, numerous non-smokers also experience health problems from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. China's efforts to reduce or to ban smoking in certain public places have not been well-coordinated or enforced compared with those in other countries. Therefore, success has been minimal. Consequently, leaders in China should not be complacent about combating the serious national health problem. A multiprong approach in combination with the MPOWER policy from the World Health Organization that targets different levels of acquisition of the smoking habit must be used. Examples may include the government's reduced reliance on profits from the sale of cigarettes, the elimination of advertisements that encourage smoking among young individuals, the presentation of more graphic illustration of harmful effects from smoking on every pack of cigarettes, higher taxes/prices on cigarettes, and the implementation of enforceable bans on smoking in public places. As shown in other countries, such coordinated effort can be highly effective in the reduction of smoking and can have healthy consequences.

  1. Cigarette smoke inhibits brain mitochondrial adaptations of exercised mice.

    PubMed

    Speck, Ana Elisa; Fraga, Daiane; Soares, Priscila; Scheffer, Débora L; Silva, Luciano A; Aguiar, Aderbal S; Estreck, Emílio L; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2011-06-01

    Physical exercise and smoking are environmental factors that generally cause opposite health-promoting adaptations. Both physical exercise and smoking converge on mitochondrial adaptations in various tissues, including the pro-oxidant nervous system. Here, we analyzed the impact of cigarette smoking on exercise-induced brain mitochondrial adaptations in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex of adult mice. The animals were exposed to chronic cigarette smoke followed by 8 weeks of moderate-intensity physical exercise that increased mitochondrial activity in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex in the non-smoker mice. However, mice previously exposed to cigarette smoke did not present these exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations. Our results suggest that smoking can inhibit some brain health-promoting changes induced by physical exercise.

  2. Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Harrell, P T; Montoya, I D; Preston, K L; Juliano, L M; Gorelick, D A

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N=200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

  3. Organ specificity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, M.; Arashidani, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kodama, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Biotransformation of many chemicals found in cigarette smoke, such as PAHs and nitrosamines, is generally considered essential for the mutagenic, carcinogenic effects of these xenobiotics. In fact, the genotic action of these premutagens or precarcinogens is dependent on metabolic activation catalyzed by microsomal monooxygenases. The first enzymatic reaction of the PAHs metabolic pathway is catalyzed by a cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase, the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH). AHH leads to the formation of reactive arene oxides, which are further metabolized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reaction into many metabolites. AHH induction in laboratory animals exposed to cigarette smoke has also been reported, and the data show that this response is highly dependent on species and tissues. Exposure of small laboratory animals to cigarette smoke generally induces AHH in the kidney and lung, while the effect of cigarette smoke on the hepatic AHH activity appears variable.

  4. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-12-31

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals.

  5. Cigarette smoke induces genetic instability in airway epithelial cells by suppressing FANCD2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hays, L E; Zodrow, D M; Yates, J E; Deffebach, M E; Jacoby, D B; Olson, S B; Pankow, J F; Bagby, G C

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are commonly found in bronchogenic carcinoma cells, but the molecular causes of chromosomal instability (CIN) and their relationship to cigarette smoke has not been defined. Because the Fanconi anaemia (FA)/BRCA pathway is essential for maintenance of chromosomal stability, we tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoke suppresses that activity of this pathway. Here, we show that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited translation of FANCD2 mRNA (but not FANCC or FANCG) in normal airway epithelial cells and that this suppression of FANCD2 expression was sufficient to induce both genetic instability and programmed cell death in the exposed cell population. Cigarette smoke condensate also suppressed FANCD2 function and induced CIN in bronchogenic carcinoma cells, but these cells were resistant to CSC-induced apoptosis relative to normal airway epithelial cells. We, therefore, suggest that CSC exerts pressure on airway epithelial cells that results in selection and emergence of genetically unstable somatic mutant clones that may have lost the capacity to effectively execute an apoptotic programme. Carcinogen-mediated suppression of FANCD2 gene expression provides a plausible molecular mechanism for CIN in bronchogenic carcinogenesis. PMID:18475298

  6. Conditioning arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Payne, T J; Etscheidt, M; Corrigan, S A

    1990-01-01

    This study represents an attempt to classically condition arbitrary stimuli to cigarette smoke intake. A smoker either smoked or mock-smoked a cigarette in two discriminative contexts for 20 sessions. The contingencies were reversed during an additional last two sessions. Measures of heart rate, skin temperature, and puff duration were monitored during all sessions. Results suggested that both manipulations of smoke delivery and context cues were related to puff duration. The pattern of psychophysiological reactivity was mixed and not easily interpreted. This experimental paradigm may be useful in the investigation of conditioning factors underlying addictive behaviors.

  7. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Frulloni, L; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Bovo, P; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Pederzoli, P; Cavallini, G

    1996-03-01

    It is not known whether cigarette smoking plays a role as a risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to compare drinking and smoking habits in three groups of male subjects with an alcohol intake in excess of 40 g/day: (i) 67 patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, without other known potential causative agents; (ii) 396 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis; and (iii) 265 control subjects randomly selected from the Verona polling lists and submitted to a complete medical checkup. The variables considered were age at onset of disease, years of drinking and smoking, daily alcohol intake in grams, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and body mass index (BMI). Cases differed from controls in daily grams of alcohol, number of cigarettes smoked and BMI (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.00001 for each comparison). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, comparing acute and chronic cases, respectively, versus controls, revealed an increased relative risk of pancreatitis in the two comparisons, associated in both cases with a higher alcohol intake (p < 0.00001) and cigarette smoking (p < 0.00001). No significant interaction between alcohol and smoking was noted, indicating that the two risks are independent. In conclusion, in males a higher number of cigarettes smoked daily seems to be a distinct risk factor in acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

  8. Effects of cigarette smoking on metabolic events in the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, S.

    1987-06-01

    Nicotine and cigarette smoke extract show acute physiological effects: increasing tracheal pressure (P/sub TR/), pulmonary artery pressure (P/sub PA/), systemic blood pressure (P/sub SYST/), and left atrium pressure (P/sub LA/); and decreasing cardiac output (Q/sub AORTA/) and blood flow to the left lower lobe (Q/sub LLL/). In addition, cigarette smoking induces bronchoconstriction, thus decreasing peak flow, FVC, and FEV/sub 1.0/ in healthy subjects. It has also been demonstrated that cigarette smoking caused temporary slowing of mucociliary clearance in the lung and that cigarette smoke increases the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase which metabolizes benzo(..cap alpha..)pyrene. The authors demonstrated that serum angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity showed a significant increase immediately after smoking and returned to the control level 20 min after smoking. They also demonstrated that plasma histamine levels showed a marked decrease after smoking. Furthermore, the effects of cigarette smoke and related substances on prostaglandin, thromboxane, testosterone, cyclic nucleotides metabolism, and protein synthesis were also investigated.

  9. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria). The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of some popular US cigarettes. Methods We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US. University of Kentucky reference cigarettes were also included for comparison. Results The cigarette tobacco of the different brands contained 6.88-16.17 (mean 10.64) pmol LPS and 8.27-21.00 (mean 14.05) ng ergosterol/mg. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in cigarette tobacco and in MS smoke collected using continuous suction; the MS smoke contained 3.65-8.23% (ergosterol) and 10.02-20.13% (LPS) of the amounts in the tobacco. Corresponding percentages were 0.30-0.82% (ergosterol) and 0.42-1.10% (LPS) for SS smoke collected without any ongoing suction, and 2.18% and 2.56% for MS smoke collected from eight two-second puffs. Conclusions Tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol likely to contain a wide range of potentially harmful bacterial and fungal components. PMID:22898193

  10. Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi-tao; Liu, Qiang; Wu, Jie; Wakui, Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are at risk for micro and macro vascular complications, which could be observed in heavy smokers. Cigarette smoking increases the risk for type 2 diabetes incidence. Nicotine, acknowledged as the major pharmacologically active chemical in tobacco, is responsible for the association between cigarette smoking and development of diabetes. This minireview summarized recent studies on nicotine effects on insulin action and insulin secretion, indicating the impact of nicotine on type 2 diabetes development.

  11. Why Is Cigarette Smoking So Addicting? An Overview of Smoking as a Chemical and Process Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christen, Arden G.; Christen, Joan A.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the addictive nature of cigarette smoking and the pharmacologic, psychological, and sociocultural parameters of tobacco use. The dynamic combination of related factors makes cigarette smoking extremely resistant to long-term extinction. The article suggests the use of active support systems during nicotine addiction recovery. (SM)

  12. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J; Whitmill, Jennifer; Babb, Stephen D; Graffunder, Corinne M

    2016-11-11

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, and cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults (1,2). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU1.1),* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 15.1% in 2015, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 11.4%. However, disparities in cigarette smoking persist. In 2015, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male; were aged 25-44 years; were American Indian/Alaska Native; had a General Education Development certificate (GED); lived below the federal poverty level; lived in the Midwest; were insured through Medicaid or were uninsured; had a disability/limitation; were lesbian, gay, or bisexual; or who had serious psychological distress. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to tobacco cessation counseling and medications, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (3).

  13. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults.

  14. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  15. Does Switching to Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes Alter Smoking Behavior or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents?

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Norton, Kaila J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M.; Giovino, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers’ exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. Methods: An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006–2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. Results: We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Discussion: Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products. PMID:20805292

  16. A global toxicogenomic analysis investigating the mechanistic differences between tobacco and marijuana smoke condensates in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-06-07

    Like tobacco smoking, habitual marijuana smoking causes numerous adverse pulmonary effects. However, the mechanisms of action involved, especially as compared to tobacco smoke, are still unclear. To uncover putative modes of action, this study employed a toxicogenomics approach to compare the toxicological pathways perturbed following exposure to marijuana and tobacco smoke condensate in vitro. Condensates of mainstream smoke from hand-rolled tobacco and marijuana cigarettes were similarly prepared using identical smoking conditions. Murine lung epithelial cells were exposed to low, medium and high concentrations of the smoke condensates for 6h. RNA was extracted immediately or after a 4h recovery period and hybridized to mouse whole genome microarrays. Tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) exposure was associated with changes in xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage response. These same pathways were also significantly affected following marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) exposure. Although the effects of the condensates were largely similar, dose-response analysis indicates that the MSC is substantially more potent than TSC. In addition, steroid biosynthesis, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways were more significantly affected following MSC exposure, whereas M phase cell cycle pathways were more significantly affected following TSC exposure. MSC exposure also appeared to elicit more severe oxidative stress than TSC exposure, which may account for the greater cytotoxicity of MSC. This study shows that in general MSC impacts many of the same molecular processes as TSC. However, subtle pathway differences can provide insight into the differential toxicities of the two complex mixtures.

  17. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Rahul G; Ghio, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2) the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 μg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis) after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.

  18. Comparative 13-week inhalation study of cigarette smoke from cigarettes containing cast sheet tobacco.

    PubMed

    Potts, Ryan J; Meckley, Daniel R; Shreve, W Keith; Pence, Deborah H; Ayres, Paul H; Doolittle, David; Swauger, James E; Sagartz, John W

    2007-06-01

    A subchronic, nose-only inhalation study was conducted to compare the effects of mainstream smoke from a reference cigarette containing conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet at 30% of the finished blend to mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing 10% or 15% cast sheet (a specific type of reconstituted tobacco sheet) substituted for part of the conventional reconstituted tobacco. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 1 h/day, 5 d/wk, for 13 wk to mainstream smoke at 0, 0.06, 0.20, or 0.80 mg wet total particulate matter per liter of air. Clinical signs, body and organ weights, clinical chemistry, hematology, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), serum nicotine, plethysmography, gross pathology, and histopathology were determined. Exposure to cigarette smoke induced a number of changes in respiratory physiology, histopathology, and serum nicotine and COHb levels when compared to sham animals. When corresponding dose groups of reference and cast sheet mainstream smokes were compared, no biological differences were noted. At the end of the exposure period, subsets of rats from each group were maintained without smoke exposures for an additional 13 wk (recovery period). At the end of the recovery period, there were no statistically significant differences in histopathological findings observed between the reference and either cast sheet cigarette. Substitution of 10% or 15% cast sheet tobacco for conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet does not alter the inhalation toxicology of the mainstream smoke when compared to mainstream smoke from a reference cigarette containing conventional reconstituted tobacco sheet.

  19. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Rong; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Jing; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Hongshia; Chen, Xinguang

    2009-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the smoking practice and intention among Chinese college students and to explore the association between cigarette smoking and individual and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1874 students from 19 college campuses in Jiangsu province, China. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were…

  1. Training and cardiovascular responses from cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Felipe Gonçalves Dos Santos; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Sant'Ana, Paula Grippa; da Cunha, Márcia Regina Holanda; Marocolo, Moacir; Castardeli, Edson

    2014-12-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the early effect of the endurance training (ET) on systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure-product (RPP) after acute cigarette smoke exposure. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into two groups: trained (TEx; n = 10) and control (CEx; n = 10), exposed to smoke. TEx rats undertook ET during 2 weeks (swimming, 5 days/week; 1 h/session) and CEx group was kept in sedentary lifestyle. After ET protocol both groups were exposed to cigarette smoke only once (total 1 h; 2 × 30 min with interval of 10 min between exposures; rate of 10 cigarettes/30 min). SBP, HR and RPP were measured after 2 weeks and just after (5 min) acute cigarette smoke (tail plethysmograph). All parameters did not differ (P > 0.05) between TEx (RPP = 45018 ± 1970 mmHg/bpm) and CEx (43695 ± 2579 mmHg/bpm) after ET protocol. However, all cardiovascular parameters increased (P < 0.05) only for CEx just after the cigarette smoke exposure. We concluded that ET can attenuate the aggression from acute smoking to cardiovascular system, with a few days of training and even with no chronic effect on these parameters at basal condition.

  2. Tunable Diode Laser Applications To Cigarette Smoke Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcins, Gunars; Harward, Charles N.; Parrish, Milton E.; Forrest, Gary T.

    1983-11-01

    High resolution infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDL) has been applied to the study of cigarette smoke for qualitative and quantitative determinations involved in tobacco blend and cigarette filter developments. As examples of the different types of application of this work, several TDL studies are presented. The measurements of smoke components on a puff-by-puff basis in confined sample chambers and flowing streams were used to study the smoke component deliveries and the effects of filter dilution. The study of isotopes generated during combustion of chemically treated tobaccos was another application of the TDL system to complex gas mixtures without prior separation of compo-nents. The application of the TDL to the study of cigarette filters and smoke delivery simultaneously was demonstrated by using two well resolved absorption lines of two different gases which occur on a single TDL wavelength scan.

  3. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-15

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  4. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers.

    PubMed

    Blanc, P D; Golden, J A; Gamsu, G; Aberle, D R; Gold, W M

    1988-01-15

    We studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.

  5. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  6. [Smoking cigarettes and pain--implications for the postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Billert, Hanna; Gaca, Michał; Adamski, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes poses a number of relevant medical and social problems. Impact of smoking on pain threshold and tolerance may be of significance for surgical patients, who are prompted to abstain from cigarettes before operation. Association between smoking and pain perception is complex. Experimental data bring evidence for analgesic action of nicotine and tobacco smoke acting via nicotinic acetylochline receptors (nAChR). However, clinical studies are unequivocal. Smoking is connected with some pain syndromes. Smokers take much more analgesics than non-smokers and probability of developing opioid dependence is increased in this group of patients. Smokers also present with altered mechanism of stress-induced analgesia and both gender and pain modalities influence their pain perception. Some studies demonstrate increased requirements for postoperative opioid analgesia in smoking patients. Strategies for postoperative pain treatment in smokers should involve regional techniques and clonidine.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).

    PubMed

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke.

  8. Cigarette Smoking, Field-Dependence and Contrast Sensitivity,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    This study examined the separate and combined effects of cigarette smoking and field- dependence on contrast sensitivity. No previous research on...smokers were tested for field- dependence and measured for contrast sensitivity (Nicolet CS 20000 Testing System) under carefully controlled...deprived of smoking for at least 90 min. Habitual smoking and field- dependence were found to be separately and interactively related to contrast

  9. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  10. Vascular effects of cigarette smoke in isolated pig lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, M.J.; Sylvester, J.T.; Kennedy, T.P.; Menkes, H.A.; Traystman, R.J.

    1981-11-01

    To determine the local effects of cigarette smoke on the pulmonary vasculature, we measured pulmonary artery pressure--flow curves in isolated, blood-perfused pig lungs before and after 4 exposures to cigarette smoke. During each exposure, smoke was administered into the trachea for 3 to 4 min at a rate of 20 to 25 puffs/min and a puff volume of 35 to 50 ml with a smoking machine. During hypoxia (inspired PO2, 50 mmHg), when baseline vasomotor tone was high, cigarette smoke caused an acute transient vasodilation. During control (inspired PO2, 200 mmHg), when baseline tone was low, no significant effect was observed. In addition to this acute effect, cigarette smoke caused a depression of the pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia, which developed gradually during the course of the experiment. Indomethacin, at perfusate concentrations of 20 and 100 micrograms/ml, did not significantly alter the acute vasodilating effect of smoking, suggesting that prostaglandins synthesized by cyclooxygenase were not the mediators of this response. Indomethacin did, however, prevent the gradual depression of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia.

  11. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vani, G.; Anbarasi, K.; Shyamaladevi, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke. PMID:26413118

  12. E-Cigarette Use Among Never-Smoking California Students.

    PubMed

    Bostean, Georgiana; Trinidad, Dennis R; McCarthy, William J

    2015-12-01

    We determined the extent to which adolescents who have never used tobacco try e-cigarettes. Data on the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among 482,179 California middle and high school students are from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey. Overall, 24.4% had ever used e-cigarettes (13.4% have never used tobacco and 11.0% have used tobacco), and 12.9% were current e-cigarette users (5.9% have never used tobacco). Among those who have never used tobacco, males and older students were more likely to use e-cigarettes than females and younger students. Hispanics (odds ratio [OR] = 1.60; confidence interval [CI] = 1.53, 1.67) and those of other races (OR = 1.24; CI = 1.19, 1.29) were more likely than Whites to have ever used e-cigarettes, but only among those who had never used smokeless tobacco and never smoked a whole cigarette. E-cigarette use is very prevalent among California students who have never smoked tobacco, especially among Hispanic and other race students, males, and older students.

  13. Cigarette smoking causes epigenetic changes associated with cardiorenal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Christopher A; Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Haller, Steven T; Fan, Xiaoming; Xie, Jeffrey X; Kennedy, David J; Liu, Jiang; Yan, Yanling; Hernandez, Dawn-Alita; Mathew, Denzil P; Cooper, Christopher J; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tian, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    Clinical studies indicate that smoking combustible cigarettes promotes progression of renal and cardiac injury, leading to functional decline in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, basic studies using in vivo small animal models that mimic clinical pathology of CKD are lacking. To address this issue, we evaluated renal and cardiac injury progression and functional changes induced by 4 wk of daily combustible cigarette smoke exposure in the 5/6th partial nephrectomy (PNx) CKD model. Molecular evaluations revealed that cigarette smoke significantly (P < 0.05) decreased renal and cardiac expression of the antifibrotic microRNA miR-29b-3 and increased expression of molecular fibrosis markers. In terms of cardiac and renal organ structure and function, exposure to cigarette smoke led to significantly increased systolic blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac and renal fibrosis, and decreased renal function. These data indicate that decreased expression of miR-29b-3p is a novel mechanism wherein cigarette smoke promotes accelerated cardiac and renal tissue injury in CKD. (155 words).

  14. ISE Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofeng; Polk, Brian J.; Meazell, Liz A.; Hatchett, David W.

    2000-08-01

    Many advanced undergraduate analytical laboratory courses focus on exposing students to various modern instruments. However, students rarely have the opportunity to construct their own analytical tools for solving practical problems. We designed an experiment in which students are required to build their own analytical module, a potentiometric device composed of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Ag/Ag2S ion selective electrode (ISE), and a pH meter used as voltmeter, to determine the amount of hydrogen sulfide in cigarette smoke. Very simple techniques were developed for constructing these electrodes. Cigarette smoke is collected by a gas washing bottle into a 0.1 M NaOH solution. The amount of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution is analyzed by standard addition of sulfide solution while monitoring the response of the Ag/Ag2S ISE. The collected data are further evaluated using the Gran plot technique to determine the concentration of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution. The experiment has been successfully incorporated into the lab course Instrumental Analysis at Georgia Institute of Technology. Students enjoy the idea of constructing an analytical tool themselves and applying their classroom knowledge to solve real-life problems. And while learning electrochemistry they also get a chance to visualize the health hazard imposed by cigarette smoking.

  15. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. PMID:21695023

  16. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette

  17. RelB attenuates cigarette smoke extract-induced apoptosis in association with transcriptional regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Iu, Matthew; Zago, Michela; de Souza, Angela Rico; Bouttier, Manuella; Pareek, Swati; White, John H; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2017-02-27

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and prevalent respiratory disease caused primarily by long term inhalation of cigarette smoke. A major hallmark of COPD is elevated apoptosis of structural lung cells including fibroblasts. The NF-κB member RelB may suppress apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke, but its role in lung cell survival is not known. RelB may act as a pro-survival factor by controlling the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). SOD2 is also regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that suppresses cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. As the AhR is also a binding partner for RelB, we speculate that RelB suppresses cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis by regulating the AhR. Using an in vitro model of cigarette smoke exposure (cigarette smoke extract [CSE]), we found that CSE down-regulated RelB expression in mouse lung fibroblasts, which was associated with elevated levels of cleaved PARP. Genetic ablation of RelB elevated CSE-induced apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, and reduced mitochondrial function. There was also more reactive oxygen species production in RelB(-/-) cells exposed to CSE. While there was no alteration in Nrf2 expression or localization between RelB(-/-) and wild type cells in response to CSE, RelB(-/-) cells displayed significantly decreased AhR mRNA and protein expression, concomitant with loss of AhR target gene expression (Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, Nqo1). Finally, we found that RelB binds to the Ahr gene at 3 sites to potentially increase its expression via transcriptional induction. These data support that RelB suppresses cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis, potentially by increasing the AhR. Together, these two proteins may comprise an important cell survival signalling pathway that reduces apoptosis upon cigarette smoke exposure.

  18. Medicalisation, smoking and e-cigarettes: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-30

    There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit. We argue that the medicalisation of smoking will have limited impact due to the emphasis on population-based interventions in tobacco control, the ambiguous place of nicotine among other drugs and the modest efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. These factors, as well as lay understandings of smoking that emphasise willpower, personal choice and responsibility, have contributed to the limited success of medical approaches to smoking cessation. While the rapid uptake of e-cigarettes in some countries has provided an option for those who reject medical treatments for smoking cessation, current regulatory developments could limit the potential of e-cigarettes to provide non-therapeutic nicotine for those who currently smoke tobacco.

  19. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on pattern electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, Fatih C; Durukan, A Hakan; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Sobaci, Gungor; Bayraktar, M Zeki

    2006-09-01

    In this study, acute effects of cigarette smoking on the pattern electroretinogram (PERG) were investigated. First, variability of the PERG was studied in a group of young male smokers (26 right eyes of 26 subjects). Then PERGs were investigated in a group of habitual smokers (17 right eyes of 17 subjects) in separate real smoking and sham smoking sessions. On each session PERGs were recorded pre-smoking (PS), immediately after smoking (IAS) and 5 min after smoking (5th) conditions. Real smoking significantly increased P50 amplitudes and decreased N95 latencies. Regarding P50 amplitudes in the real smoking sessions, the differences were significant between PS and IAS (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5 muV, IAS: 3.7 +/- 0.7microV, P = 0.015) and between PS-5th (PS: 3.3 +/- 0.5microV, 5th: 4.1 +/- 0.9microV, P = 0.039). There was significant difference (P = 0.024) between N95 latencies of PS (98.5 +/- 6.9 ms) and IAS (94.7 +/- 5.1 ms) in the real smoking sessions. No statistically significant difference was observed in sham smoking sessions. Our results indicated, for the first time, that cigarette smoking may influence PERG amplitude and latency significantly in habitual smokers.

  20. Carbon monoxide fractions in cigarette and hookah (hubble bubble) smoke.

    PubMed

    Sajid, K M; Akhter, M; Malik, G Q

    1993-09-01

    We studied the carbon monoxide (CO) fractions in hookah and cigarette smoke, using a carbon monoxide micro smokerlyzer (model EC50, BEDFONT, U.K.). Mean carbon monoxide fractions (% by volume) of hookah smoke, using domestic charcoal were 0.38 +/- 0.07 (large hookah; unfiltered); 1.40 +/- 0.43 (small hookah; unfiltered); 0.34 +/- 0.06 (large hookah; filtered); 1.36 +/- 0.35 (small hookah; filtered) and 0.41 +/- 0.08 (cigarette smoke). The highest fractions were obtained with small size hookah and increase in size of hookah (i.e., volume of air in water base, fire bowl volume, pipe length, etc.) reduced the CO fraction significantly (P < 0.001). The fractions of cigarette lie between large and small hookah. The fractions vary slightly with different varieties of tobacco, e.g., CO fractions with Dera wala tobacco are significantly low (P < 0.05). Use of commercial charcoal gives significant rise in CO fractions (P < 0.001). Comparison of filtered and unfiltered smoke shows no significant difference in values. We conclude that the CO hazard is as high with hookah smoking as with cigarette smoking.

  1. Chemical analysis of cigarette smoke particulate generated in the MSB-01 in vitro whole smoke exposure system.

    PubMed

    Scian, Mariano J; Oldham, Michael J; Miller, John H; Kane, David B; Edmiston, Jeffery S; McKinney, Willie J

    2009-10-01

    Cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) is a dynamic aerosol consisting of a gas-vapor phase and a particulate phase. In recent years, novel in vitro whole smoke exposure systems have been developed to expose cells directly to whole MS. One such system is the Burghart Mimic Smoker-01 (MSB-01). Our previous data using the MSB-01 indicated that a 50 +/- 10% loss of particulate matter occurred prior to MS delivery into the exposure chamber. Additionally, a change in aerosol particle diameter was also measured, suggesting that the chemical composition of MS might be changing within the system. In this study, we have expanded on our previous work and compared the particulate phase chemical composition of undiluted and diluted MS generated by the instrument and that of the MS delivered into the exposure chamber. The average percent delivery of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) detected for all the measured chemical constituents was 35 +/- 13% for undiluted MS and 23 +/- 8% for 1:1 diluted MS. The data also indicate that under our experimental conditions, incomplete mixing of the freshly generated MS occurs during its dilution by the system. Taken together, the data presented here show that significant chemical changes occur between the generation of MS by the system and its delivery into the exposure chamber. This indicates that due to the dynamic nature of cigarette smoke, it is important to characterize the exposure conditions in order to gain the best insight and accurately correlate exposure with biological endpoints.

  2. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention. PMID:11889286

  3. The Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Gingival Crevicular Fluid Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    Medical Electronics, Inc., Irvine, CA) has been marketed that electronically measures and quantitates the amount of fluid on a paper strip. The...during illness; brand smoked (nicotine content); and inhalation tendencies. Each question is scored, ith higher scores given for responses indicating...the depth of inhalation, the number and volume of puffs taken per cigarette, the 1 38 brand name of the cigarette (CO content varies between brands

  4. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  5. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

    2008-04-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology.

  6. Cigarette smoke, bacteria, mold, microbial toxins, and chronic lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pauly, John L; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps.

  7. Cigarette Smoke, Bacteria, Mold, Microbial Toxins, and Chronic Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, John L.; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with cigarette smoke fosters malignant transformation and tumor cell proliferation and promotes certain nonneoplastic pulmonary diseases. The question arises as to whether chronic inflammation and/or colonization of the airway can be attributed, at least in part, to tobacco-associated microbes (bacteria, fungi, and spores) and/or microbial toxins (endotoxins and mycotoxins) in tobacco. To address this question, a literature search of documents in various databases was performed. The databases included PubMed, Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, and US Patents. This investigation documents that tobacco companies have identified and quantified bacteria, fungi, and microbial toxins at harvest, throughout fermentation, and during storage. Also characterized was the microbial flora of diverse smoking and smokeless tobacco articles. Evidence-based health concerns expressed in investigations of microbes and microbial toxins in cigarettes, cigarette smoke, and smokeless tobacco products are reasonable; they warrant review by regulatory authorities and, if necessary, additional investigation to address scientific gaps. PMID:21772847

  8. Cigarette smoke and ozone effect on murine inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Gardi, Concetta; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-07-01

    Air pollution has been associated with many different diseases, such as cancer, and respiratory, cardiovascular, and cutaneous chronic diseases. These effects are enhanced in people exposed to combined air pollutants, such as ozone and cigarette smoke. Chronic exposure to these pollutants causes an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation and has been associated with an increase in pulmonary diseases and mortality. Clinical and epidemiological studies reported interindividual variability in the adverse health effects of air pollutants, suggesting a genetic predisposition. The identification of subgroups of the population who are particularly vulnerable to air pollution is, therefore, of importance. Mouse models are a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying different susceptibility, as they show differences in strain responses to both ozone and cigarette smoke. This review analyses the role of inflammation and the influence of genetic factors on the mechanisms of lung injury caused by ozone and cigarette smoke.

  9. Effect of cigarette menthol content on mainstream smoke emissions.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S M; Brinkman, M C; Meng, R Q; Anderson, G M; Chuang, J C; Kroeger, R R; Reyes, I L; Clark, P I

    2011-10-17

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act empowered the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to study "the impact of the use of menthol in cigarettes on the public health, including such use among children, African Americans, Hispanics and other racial and ethnic minorities," and develop recommendations. Current scientific evidence comparing human exposures between menthol and nonmenthol smokers shows mixed results. This is largely because of the many differences between commercial menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes other than their menthol content. We conducted an innovative study using two types of test cigarettes: a commercial nonmenthol brand that we mentholated at four different levels, and Camel Crush, a commercial cigarette containing a small capsule in the filter that releases menthol solution into the filter when crushed. Cigarettes were machine-smoked at each of the menthol levels investigated, and the total particulate matter (TPM) was collected on a quartz fiber filter pad and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for menthol, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cotinine, and quinoline. The mainstream smoke was also monitored continuously in real time on a puff-by-puff basis for seven gas-phase constituents (acetaldehyde, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and 2,5-dimethylfuran), using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. Average yields (in micrograms/cigarette) for the analytes were determined. Menthol in the TPM samples increased linearly with applied menthol concentration, but the amounts of nicotine along with the target TSNAs, PAHs, cotinine, and quinoline in the cigarettes remained essentially unchanged. Similarly, yields of the targeted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in whole smoke from the mentholated nonmenthol cigarettes that were measured in real-time were largely unaffected by their menthol levels. In the Camel Crush

  10. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Acrylic Resin Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Seema S.; M.R., Dhakshaini; Gujjari, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The discolouration of artificial teeth, which hampers aesthetics, is one of the negative effects of cigarette smoking. Therefore, the effect of cigarette smoke on the colour stability of commercially available acrylic resin teeth needs to be evaluated for clinical success and to ascertain as to which brand has superior properties. Material and Methods: Three commercially available acrylic teeth were evaluated, after division into Group A (Premadent), Group B (Astra), and Group C (Sanyo- Dent). Selected brands were subdivided as study group and control group. Each set of acrylic resin teeth were stored in artificial saliva at 37±1°C for 24 hours. After 24 hours of immersion, the colour measurement of each tooth (T0) was performed. Second colour measurements were done after 21 days (T21) of exposure to cigarette smoke for study group and after immersion in artificial saliva for control group. All data was statistically analyzed by using Repeated Measures ANOVA and Two-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Results: Group A showed least total colour change on exposure to cigarette smoke, followed by Group B and Group C had the highest total colour change. In control group, after immersion in artificial saliva, a slight increase in total colour change was observed for all groups, which was clinically acceptable. Conclusion: Group A (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was more colour stable and more resistant to the discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke, followed by Group B (crosslinked acrylic resin teeth). Group C (Non-crosslinked acrylic resin teeth) was least colour stable and most susceptible to discolouration which was caused by cigarette smoke. PMID:24179942

  11. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions. PMID:24065038

  12. Resolvins attenuate inflammation and promote resolution in cigarette smoke-exposed human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Croasdell, Amanda; Thatcher, Thomas H; Kottmann, R Matthew; Colas, Romain A; Dalli, Jesmond; Serhan, Charles N; Sime, Patricia J; Phipps, Richard P

    2015-10-15

    Inflammation is a protective response to injury, but it can become chronic, leading to tissue damage and disease. Cigarette smoke causes multiple inflammatory diseases, which account for thousands of deaths and cost billions of dollars annually. Cigarette smoke disrupts the function of immune cells, such as macrophages, by prolonging inflammatory signaling, promoting oxidative stress, and impairing phagocytosis, contributing to increased incidence of infections. Recently, new families of lipid-derived mediators, "specialized proresolving mediators" (SPMs), were identified. SPMs play a critical role in the active resolution of inflammation by counterregulating proinflammatory signaling and promoting resolution pathways. We have identified dysregulated concentrations of lipid mediators in exhaled breath condensate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In human alveolar macrophages from COPD and non-COPD patients, D-series resolvins decreased inflammatory cytokines and enhanced phagocytosis. To further investigate the actions of resolvins on human cells, macrophages were differentiated from human blood monocytes and treated with D-series resolvins and then exposed to cigarette smoke extract. Resolvins significantly suppressed macrophage production of proinflammatory cytokines, enzymes, and lipid mediators. Resolvins also increased anti-inflammatory cytokines, promoted an M2 macrophage phenotype, and restored cigarette smoke-induced defects in phagocytosis, highlighting the proresolving functions of these molecules. These actions were receptor-dependent and involved modulation of canonical and noncanonical NF-κB expression, with the first evidence for SPM action on alternative NF-κB signaling. These data show that resolvins act on human macrophages to attenuate cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory effects through proresolving mechanisms and provide new evidence of the therapeutic potential of SPMs.

  13. Impulsivity and the reinforcing value of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Cohen, Lee

    2007-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that impulsivity would predict perceptions of positive and negative reinforcement from smoking. The secondary hypothesis was that the relationship between impulsivity and smoking reinforcement expectations would be mediated by the character trait of self-directedness. College students (n=202) who reported smoking cigarettes participated in the survey study. Hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that impulsivity predicted expectations about positive (beta=.22, p=.001) and negative (beta=.25, p=.001) reinforcement from smoking. These relationships were also mediated by self-directedness. Results suggest that impulsive smokers in the early stages of dependence may smoke because they expect smoking to be extremely pleasurable as well as to help dispel bouts with negative affect. Furthermore, their elevated expectations about smoking may be related to difficulties adapting to challenging environments and working toward long-term goals.

  14. [Smoking and electronic cigarettes in France].

    PubMed

    Berlin, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    France is one of the developed countries where the prevalence of tobacco use is the highest. The reduction of incidence and prevalence of tobacco use in the near future would considerably decrease tobacco associated mortality and morbidity. The electronic cigarette, a consumer product that delivers pharmacologically active substances, is used by several millions of persons in France. The benefit-risk ratio of electronic cigarette use is unknown, as of today.

  15. Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longjie; Ning, Min; Xu, Yingbo; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Guangshan; Cao, Qingqing; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-03-21

    The present study investigated the influence of the cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity. TrxR is a selenoenzyme with a selenocysteine (Sec) residue exposed on the enzyme's surface. This unique Sec residue is particularly susceptible to modification by numerous types of electrophiles, leading to inactivation of TrxR and consequent cytotoxicity. Cigarette smoke contains various electrophiles, and the present study showed that CSE could inhibit intracellular TrxR through causing crosslinking and alkylation of TrxR1. TrxR inhibitory capacities of various CSEs were evaluated by using mouse-liver homogenate. Among the CSEs prepared from 18 commercial cigarette brands, TrxR inhibitory capacities of the maximum and the minimum had a 2.5-fold difference. Importantly, CSE's inhibitory capacity greatly paralleled its cytotoxic potency in all cell lines used. Compared to cytotoxic assays, which have been widely used for evaluating cigarette toxicity but are not suitable for simultaneously examining a large number of cigarette samples, the present method was simple and rapid with a high-throughput feature and thus could be used as an auxiliary means to predict the cytotoxicity of a large number of cigarette samples, making it possible to extensively screen numerous agricultural and industrial measures that potentially affect cigarette safety.

  16. Triple Quad-ICP-MS Measurement of Toxic Metals in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke from Spectrum Research Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Pappas, R Steven; Gray, Naudia; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Fresquez, Mark; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported toxic metal concentrations in the mainstream smoke from 50 varieties of commercial cigarettes available in the USA using quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). However, efforts to continue producing high quality data on select mainstream cigarette smoke constituents demand continued improvements in instrumentation and methodology and application of the methodology to cigarettes that differ in design or construction. Here we report a new application of 'triple quad'-ICP-MS instrumentation to analyze seven toxic metals in mainstream cigarette smoke from the Spectrum variable nicotine research cigarettes. The Spectrum cigarettes are available for research purposes in different configurations of low or conventional levels of nicotine, mentholated or nonmentholated, and tar delivery ranges described as 'low tar' or 'high tar'. Detailed characterizations of specific harmful or potentially harmful constituents delivered by these research cigarettes will help inform researchers using these cigarettes in exposure studies, cessation studies and studies related to nicotine addiction or compensation.

  17. Urine Menthol as a Biomarker of Mentholated Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Menthol cigarettes are smoked by 27% of U.S. smokers, and there are concerns that menthol might enhance toxicity of cigarette smoking by increasing systemic absorption of smoke toxins. We measured urine menthol concentrations in relation to biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and tobacco carcinogens. Methods Concentrations of menthol glucuronide (using a novel analytical method), nicotine plus metabolites (nicotine equivalents, NE), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites were measured in the urine of 60 menthol and 67 regular cigarette smokers. Results Urine menthol was measurable in 82% of menthol and 54% in regular cigarette smokers. Among menthol smokers urine menthol was highly correlated with NE, NNAL and PAHs. In a multiple regression model NE but not menthol was significantly associated with NNAL and PAHs. Conclusions Urine menthol concentration is a novel biomarker of exposure in menthol cigarette smokers, and is highly correlated with exposure to nicotine and carcinogens. Menthol is not independently associated with carcinogen exposure when nicotine intake is considered. PMID:20962297

  18. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps <. 0001). In multivariate models including all of the symptom clusters as simultaneous predictors, Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p < .01). While Avoidance uniquely associated with smoking status and nicotine dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for

  19. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  20. Biological effects of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics: The use of electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A. )

    1992-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the chemistry of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics and building materials that is inhaled by persons trapped in fires. Cigarette smoke produces cancer, emphysema, and other diseases after a delay of years. Acute exposure to smoke in a fire can produce a loss of lung function and death after a delay of days or weeks. Tobacco smoke and the smoke inhaled in a burning building have some similarities from a chemical viewpoint. For example, both contain high concentrations of CO and other combustion products. In addition, both contain high concentrations of free radicals, and our laboratory has studied these free radicals, largely by electron spin resonance (ESR) methods, for about 15 years. This article reviews what is known about the radicals present in these different types of smokes and soots and tars and summarizes the evidence that suggests these radicals could be involved in cigarette-induced pathology and smoke-inhalation deaths. The combustion of all organic materials produces radicals, but (with the exception of the smoke from perfluoropolymers) the radicals that are detected by ESR methods (and thus the radicals that would reach the lungs) are not those that arise in the combustion process. Rather they arise from chemical reactions that occur in the smoke itself. Thus, a knowledge of the chemistry of the smoke is necessary to understand the nature of the radicals formed. Even materials as similar as cigarettes and wood (cellulose) produce smoke that contains radicals with very different lifetimes and chemical characteristics, and mechanistic rationales for this are discussed. Cigarette tar contains a semiquinone radical that is infinitely stable and can be directly observed by ESR. Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar, which contain this radical, reduce oxygen to superoxide and thus produce both hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical.

  1. Role of cigarette smoking in urological malignancies and clinical interventions for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Verze, Paolo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Brausi, Maurizio; Donin, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is the single greatest preventable cause of disease and death. Our literature review highlights the increased risk of cigarette smoking and kidney cancer, bladder cancer and prostate cancer. Material and methods Smoking cessation improves outcomes at all stages of these disease processes, where patients who quit for 10–20 years appear to obtain a similar risk as those who have never smoked, even after diagnosis of disease. Results Urologists, however, very seldom provide smoking cessation assistance. By applying brief smoking cessation intervention techniques, physicians’ posses an effective means of providing quitting advice. Conclusions Patients who receive smoking cessation advice from their urologist are 2.3 times more likely to attempt to quit. Urologists are well-positioned to screen, counsel, and promote cessation at regular intervals, which may improve quit rates, and ultimately improve our patients’ outcomes. PMID:28127452

  2. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  3. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  4. Total particulate matter concentration skews cigarette smoke's gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hassell, John A; Stampfli, Martin R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models.

  5. Total particulate matter concentration skews cigarette smoke's gene expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Obeidat, Ma'en; Bossé, Yohan; Hassell, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of small animals to cigarette smoke is widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, protocols and exposure systems utilised vary substantially and it is unclear how these different systems compare. We analysed the gene expression profile of six publically available murine datasets from different cigarette smoke-exposure systems and related the gene signatures to three clinical cohorts. 234 genes significantly regulated by cigarette smoke in at least one model were used to construct a 55-gene network containing 17 clusters. Increasing numbers of differentially regulated clusters were associated with higher total particulate matter concentrations in the different datasets. Low total particulate matter-induced genes mainly related to xenobiotic/detoxification responses, while higher total particulate matter activated immune/inflammatory processes in addition to xenobiotic/detoxification responses. To translate these observations to the clinic, we analysed the regulation of the revealed network in three human cohorts. Similar to mice, we observed marked differences in the number of regulated clusters between the cohorts. These differences were not determined by pack-year. Although none of the experimental models exhibited a complete alignment with any of the human cohorts, some exposure systems showed higher resemblance. Thus, depending on the cohort, clinically observed changes in gene expression may be mirrored more closely by specific cigarette smoke exposure systems. This study emphasises the need for careful validation of animal models. PMID:27995131

  6. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably.

  7. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  8. Cigarette smoke cadmium breakthrough from traditional filters: implications for exposure.

    PubMed

    Pappas, R Steven; Fresquez, Mark R; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found <1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5 to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6 to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers.

  9. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Pampel, Fred C

    2006-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. METHODS: Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. RESULTS: Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others.

  10. Socioeconomic Distinction, Cultural Tastes, and Cigarette Smoking*

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking is typically seen in terms of the greater economic and social resources of advantaged groups, but it may also relate to cultural resources. This study aims to test theories of symbolic distinction by examining relationships between smoking and ostensibly unrelated cultural preferences. Methods Using the 1993 General Social Survey, ordinal logistic regression models, and a three-category dependent variable (never, former, and current smoker), the analysis estimates relationships of musical likes and dislikes with smoking while controlling for SES and social strain. Results Preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated with higher smoking. Conclusions The results suggest that SES groups may use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyles from those of others. PMID:21874073

  11. Different physiological and behavioural effects of e-cigarette vapour and cigarette smoke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, L; Moretti, M; Sala, M; Fasoli, F; Mucchietto, V; Lucini, V; Cannazza, G; Gallesi, G; Castellana, C N; Clementi, F; Zoli, M; Gotti, C; Braida, D

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine is the primary addictive substance in tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapour. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to compare the role of the nicotine and non-nicotine constituents of tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of traditional cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour containing the same amount of nicotine in male BALB/c mice exposed to the smoke of 21 cigarettes or e-cig vapour containing 16.8 mg of nicotine delivered by means of a mechanical ventilator for three 30-min sessions/day for seven weeks. One hour after the last session, half of the animals were sacrificed for neurochemical analysis, and the others underwent mecamylamine-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal for the purposes of behavioural analysis. Chronic intermittent non-contingent, second-hand exposure to cigarette smoke or e-cig vapour led to similar brain cotinine and nicotine levels, similar urine cotinine levels and the similar up-regulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different brain areas, but had different effects on body weight, food intake, and the signs of mecamylamine-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal episodic memory and emotional responses. The findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that e-cig vapour induces addiction-related neurochemical, physiological and behavioural alterations. The fact that inhaled cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour have partially different dependence-related effects indicates that compounds other than nicotine contribute to tobacco dependence.

  12. Attitudes toward Cigarette Smoking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to gather data on the attitudes and smoking habits of university students. Data were collected from 250 undergraduates dealing with various aspects of smoking behavior. There were 80 smokers and 170 nonsmokers, including 21 former smokers. In addition to demographic information, participants were assessed with…

  13. Cigarette smoking among Beijing (Peking) high schoolers.

    PubMed

    Ye, G S; Lin, W S

    1984-01-01

    Students smoking at 2 key middle schools and 6 ordinary middle schools in Beijing, China were surveyed to determine the form in which high schoolers start smoking, and how long they have smoked. The patterns and causes of smoking were analyzed. The investigation was made from March to May 1981. 430 boys and 423 girls were selected from key schools and 1396 boys and 1394 girls from ordinary schools. Ages ranged from 13-17. All subjects completed a questionnaire in the classroom. To increase the reliability of the survey, names were kept secret. The students surveyed were classified into groups according to their smoking status: current regular smokers; occasional smokers; ex-smokers; and nonsmokers. In the key schools, there were only 4 smokers among 430 students, accounting for 0.9% of the total. Of these, 1 was Senior Class 2, 2 Senior Class 1, and 1 Junior Class 3. In the ordinary schools, 10% were smokers. 19.7% of the boys and 0.4% of the girls smoked. Among the boys, the higher the class, the more numerous the smokers. The smoking rate was 8.2% in the 1st year of junior high but rose to 34% in senior class 2; the difference was statistically significant. "Special occasion" smokers were few, only 5.5% of the students. In junior class, the number of regular smokers was about 2/3 to 4/5 that of occasional smokers. And by senior class 2 the number of regular smokers had risen to about 3 times that of the occasional smokers. In every grade, there were students who had given up smoking. Most had been occasional smokers. Some high schoolers had started to smoke in primary school and had a 4-5 year history of smoking, but most had only picked up smoking for 1-2 years after announcement of the Rules for High School Students prohibiting smoking. There were 3 smoking patterns: smoking without inhaling; inhaling the smoke deeply into the lungs, then expiring through the mouth or nostrils; and combining patterns 1 and 2. Of 265 students, 128 used the 1st pattern, 121 the

  14. [History of cigarette smoking. The effect of tobacco smoking on women's health].

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Marta; Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemińska, Anita; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szymański, Wiesław

    2009-01-01

    History of cigarette smoking started on XV century, when Columb imported tobacco to Europe. Popular using of tobacco we are indebted Jaen Nicot Villeman, the name of nicotine originate from his surname. Tobacco first was exploited like a drug, however now it is a very harmful stimulant. Cigarette smoking is still an actual problem and increased risk of many diseases. Very toxic components of smoke get inside all the organs and upsetting their activities and proper running of the life processes. It is common knowledge that smoking badly influences women's health. Nicotine makes the negative influence on function of ovaries metabolism of hormones and state of osseous tissue. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with obstetrical and pediatrician complication with fetus, newborn and child. The aim of the article is to summarize the role of tobacco smoking on women's health.

  15. Cigarette smoke exposure facilitates allergic sensitization in mice

    PubMed Central

    Moerloose, Katrien B; Robays, Lander J; Maes, Tania; Brusselle, Guy G; Tournoy, Kurt G; Joos, Guy F

    2006-01-01

    Background Active and passive smoking are considered as risk factors for asthma development. The mechanisms involved are currently unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure could facilitate primary allergic sensitization. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA) combined with air or tobacco smoke (4 exposures/day) daily for three weeks. Serology, lung cytopathology, cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and on mediastinal lymph node cultures as well as lung function tests were performed after the last exposure. The natural history and the immune memory of allergic sensitization were studied with in vivo recall experiments. Results Exposure to OVA induced a small increase in OVA-specific serum IgE as compared with exposure to PBS (P < 0.05), while no inflammatory reaction was observed in the airways. Exposure to cigarette smoke did not induce IgE, but was characterized by a small but significant neutrophilic inflammatory reaction. Combining OVA with cigarette smoke not only induced a significant increase in OVA-specific IgE but also a distinct eosinophil and goblet cell enriched airway inflammation albeit that airway hyperresponsiveness was not evidenced. FACS analysis showed in these mice increases in dendritic cells (DC) and CD4+ T-lymphocytes along with a marked increase in IL-5 measured in the supernatant of lymph node cell cultures. Immune memory experiments evidenced the transient nature of these phenomena. Conclusion In this study we show that mainstream cigarette smoke temporary disrupts the normal lung homeostatic tolerance to innocuous inhaled allergens, thereby inducing primary allergic sensitization. This is characterized not only by the development of persistent IgE, but also by the emergence of an eosinophil rich pulmonary inflammatory reaction. PMID:16571114

  16. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

  17. Sex differences in the brain's dopamine signature of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Wang, Shuo; Kim, Su-Jin; McGovern, Erin; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gao, Hong; Labaree, David; Tagare, Hemant D; Sullivan, Jenna M; Morris, Evan D

    2014-12-10

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health danger. Women and men smoke for different reasons and cessation treatments, such as the nicotine patch, are preferentially beneficial to men. The biological substrates of these sex differences are unknown. Earlier PET studies reported conflicting findings but were each hampered by experimental and/or analytical limitations. Our new image analysis technique, lp-ntPET (Normandin et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014), has been optimized for capturing brief (lasting only minutes) and highly localized dopaminergic events in dynamic PET data. We coupled our analysis technique with high-resolution brain scanning and high-frequency motion correction to create the optimal experiment for capturing and characterizing the effects of smoking on the mesolimbic dopamine system in humans. Our main finding is that male smokers smoking in the PET scanner activate dopamine in the right ventral striatum during smoking but female smokers do not. This finding-men activating more ventrally than women-is consistent with the established notion that men smoke for the reinforcing drug effect of cigarettes whereas women smoke for other reasons, such as mood regulation and cue reactivity. lp-ntPET analysis produces a novel multidimensional endpoint: voxel-level temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release ("DA movies") in individual subjects. By examining these endpoints quantitatively, we demonstrate that the timing of dopaminergic responses to cigarette smoking differs between men and women. Men respond consistently and rapidly in the ventral striatum whereas women respond faster in a discrete subregion of the dorsal putamen.

  18. Reduction of the elastase inhibitory capacity of alpha 1-antitrypsin by peroxides in cigarette smoke: an analysis of brands and filters

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.B.; James, H.L.

    1982-07-01

    A procedure for measuring the oxidant content of aqueous condensates of tobacco cigarette smoke is described. The procedure was used in conjunction with analysis of the ability of the smoke solutions to inactivate the elastase inhibitory capacity (EIC) of alpha 1-antitrypsin. The ability of the smoke of a brand to inactivate alpha 1-antitrypsin correlates well with the known tar and nicotine and with the amount of oxidants as measured using o-dianisidine. Filters were found to remove about 73% of the oxidants from smoke. Smoke from a commercial nontobacco cigarette was also found to contain a significant amount of oxidants and to also destroy alpha 1-antitrypsin. Catalase and superoxide dismutase reduce the effect of solutions containing smoke on the EIC of alpha 1-antitrypsin, suggesting that peroxides and superoxide anions in smoke contribute to the oxidant capacity of the smoke. The extent of apparent oxidation by a given quantity of smoke condensate increases for as long as an hour from the time the condensate is collected. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the smoke solution increases both its oxidant content and its ability to inactivate alpha 1-antitrypsin. These data suggest that occurrence of hydrogen peroxide caused by secretion from macrophages found in the small airways of smokers may contribute to a locally damaging environment for alpha 1-antitrypsin in the presence of cigarette smoke that could promote the development of centrilobular emphysema.

  19. [Genome-wide associations for cigarette smoking behavior].

    PubMed

    Strauss, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Diseases related to tobacco smoking are the second leading cause of death in the world. Despite increasing evidence of genetic determination, the susceptibility genes and loci underlying various aspects of smoking behavior are largely unknown. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) provided a new conceptual framework in the search for variants underlying common traits/disorders. A massive scan of the genome and a "hypothesis-free" approach enable discovery of new aspects of genetics of complex traits. In this paper the results of GWASs and GWAS meta-analyzes of cigarette smoking behavior and nicotine dependence are reviewed with the particular attention to smoking cessation success and the replacement therapy. The results of these studies are discussed in the context of the results of the candidate gene association studies. Studies on the role of the genomic regions, identified in GWASs, in the development of smoking-related diseases are also discussed.

  20. Nicotine yield and measures of cigarette smoke exposure in a large population: are lower-yield cigarettes safer?

    PubMed Central

    Maron, D J; Fortmann, S P

    1987-01-01

    We examined the relationship of machine-estimated nicotine yield by cigarette brand with the level of cigarette consumption and two biochemical measures of smoke exposure (expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate) in a large, population-based sample of smokers (N = 713). The lower the nicotine yield of the cigarette, the greater the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Prior to adjusting for number of cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine yield was not related to the actual measures of smoke exposure. Smokers of ultralow-yield cigarettes had laboratory tests of smoke exposure which were not significantly different from those of smokers of higher-yield brands. Only after adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked per day did nicotine yield become significantly related to expired-air carbon monoxide and to plasma thiocyanate. In multivariate analysis, the number of cigarettes smoked per day accounted for 28 per cent and 22 per cent of the variance in observed expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate levels, respectively, whereas nicotine yield accounted for only 1 per cent and 2 per cent of the variance, respectively. The relative lack of an effect of nicotine yield on the biochemical measure appears to be due to the fact that smokers of lower nicotine brands smoked more cigarettes per day, thereby compensating for reduced delivery of smoke products. Our data do not support the concept that ultralow-yield cigarettes are less hazardous than others. Machine estimates suggesting low nicotine yield underrepresent actual human consumption of harmful cigarette constituents. PMID:3565645

  1. Effect of solvent and extraction methods on the bacterial mutagenicity of sidestream cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.S.; Tulis, J.J.; Claxton, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of sidestream cigarette-smoke particles was estimated by testing sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that had been collected under controlled burning conditions in the laboratory. Two different extraction methods (Soxhlet and ultrasonic agitation) and 3 different solvents (dichloromethane, methanol, and acetone) were compared for their efficiencies in the extraction of compounds from sidestream cigarette-smoke particles that are mutagenic in the Ames test. The mutagenic activity of the sidestream smoke particles was estimated to be 15,000-20,000 revertants per cigarette in TA98 with metabolic activation and 12,000-17,000 revertants per cigarette in TA100 without metabolic activation.

  2. Molecular mechanism of reduction in pregnenolone synthesis by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M.; Gairola, C. Gary; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2008-05-15

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane for the synthesis of pregnenolone. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduction of pregnenolone synthesis by cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Pre-exposure or post-exposure of cells with CSC led to reduced pregnenolone synthesis, in a fashion similar to its effect on isolated mitochondria. However, there was no difference in the expression of 30 kDa StAR in cells treated with moderately concentrated CSC by either regimen. The active form of 37 kDa StAR is degraded easily suggesting that the continuous presence of CSC reduces StAR expression. Mitochondrial import of {sup 35}S-methionine-labeled StAR followed by extraction of the StAR-mitochondrial complex with 1% digitonin showed similarly sized complexes in the CSC-treated and untreated mitochondria. Further analysis by sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed a specific complex, 'complex 2', in the untreated mitochondria but absent in the CSC-treated mitochondria. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that complex 2 is the outer mitochondrial protein, VDAC1. Knockdown of VDAC1 expression by siRNA followed by co-transfection with StAR resulted in a lack of pregnenolone synthesis and 37 kDa StAR expression with reduced expression of the intermediate, 32 kDa StAR. Taken together, these results suggest that in the absence of VDAC1, active StAR expression is reduced indicating that VDAC1 expression is essential for StAR activity. In the absence of VDAC1-StAR interaction, cholesterol cannot be transported into mitochondria; thus the interaction with VDAC1 is a mandatory step for initiating steroidogenesis.

  3. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  4. Analysis of the smoke of cigarettes containing Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Krstenansky, John L; Muzzio, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogen sold over the internet in several forms. Perhaps the most common method of use is smoking the dried leaf material. The sole presumed active constituent, salvinorin A, is a selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Upon smoking of the dried leaf material, some of the salvinorin A is destroyed or converted to other materials, leaving in question the actual amount of salvinorin A delivered that leads to the psychotomimetic effect. On average, 133 μg of salvinorin A was delivered in the smoke from an 830 mg per cigarette, which contained ∼2.7 mg of salvinorin A. Hence, only ∼5% of the salvinorin A available in the dried plant material was delivered in the smoke. Upon smoking, hydrolysis of salvinorin A to salvinorin B, an inactive and minor component of the leaf material, also occurs as evidenced by a higher delivered amount of salvinorin B vs salvinorin A (217 vs 133 μg per cigarette). Since smoking is an effective means of achieving the hallucinogenic effect and salvinorin A is the presumed sole active ingredient in the plant, the estimated effective dose of salvinorin A by inhalation is <133 μg per person. Considering the reported rapid metabolism of salvinorin A in vivo, the dose reaching the brain would be substantially less.

  5. Information management strategies within conversations about cigarette smoking: parenting correlates and longitudinal associations with teen smoking.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current experimenters, escalators). Parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent information management were coded from direct observations of 528 video-recorded parent-adolescent discussions about cigarette smoking with 344 teens (M age = 15.62 years) with a history of smoking experimentation (321 interactions with mothers, 207 interactions with fathers). Adolescent initiation of discussions concerning their own smoking behavior (21% of interactions) was predicted by lower levels of maternal observed disapproval of cigarette smoking and fewer teen-reported communication problems with mothers. Maternal initiation in discussions (35% of interactions) was associated with higher levels of family rules about illicit substance use. Three categories of adolescent information management (full disclosure, active secrecy, incomplete strategies) were coded by matching adolescents' confidential self-reported smoking status with their observed spontaneous disclosures and responses to parental solicitations. Fully disclosing teens reported higher quality communication with their mothers (more open, less problematic). Teens engaged in active secrecy with their mothers when families had high levels of parental rules about illicit substance use and when mothers expressed lower levels of expectancies that their teen would smoke in the future. Adolescents were more likely to escalate their smoking over 2 years if their parents initiated the discussion of adolescent smoking behavior (solicited) and if adolescents engaged in active secrecy.

  6. Cigarette smoking products suppress anti-viral effects of Type I interferon via phosphorylation-dependent downregulation of its receptor.

    PubMed

    HuangFu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Jianghuai; Harty, Ronald N; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2008-09-22

    While negative effect of smoking on the resistance to viral infections was known, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Here we report that products of cigarette smoking compromise the cellular anti-viral defenses by inhibiting the signaling induced by Type I interferon (IFN). Cigarette smoking condensate (but not pure nicotine) stimulated specific serine phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of the IFNAR1 subunit of the Type I IFN receptor leading to attenuation of IFN signaling and decreased resistance to viral infection. This resistance was restored in cells where phosphorylation-dependent degradation of IFNAR1 is abolished. We conclude that smoking compromises cellular anti-viral defenses via degradation of Type I IFN receptor and discuss the significance of this mechanism for efficacy of IFN-based therapies.

  7. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels.

  8. Adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke of cigarettes by oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Lisha; Tang, Yiwen; Jia, Zhijie

    2006-02-01

    The adsorption of nicotine and tar from the mainstream smoke (MS) by the filter tips filled respectively with oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNTs), activated carbon and zeolite (NaY) has been investigated. O-CNTs show exceptional removal efficiency and their adsorption mechanism is investigated. Capillary condensation of some ingredients from MS in the inner hole of O-CNTs is observed and may be the primary reason for their superior removal efficiency. The effect of O-CNTs mass on the removal efficiencies is also studied and the results show that about 20-30 mg O-CNTs per cigarette can effectively remove most of nicotine and tar.

  9. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  10. Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.; Valentine, J.L.; Browdy, B.L.

    1980-07-01

    One hundred eleven workers at a secondary Pb smelter were surveyed to determine smoking and personal hygiene habits. Fifty-three percent of the smokers had blood Pb levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 31% of nonsmokers (p = 0.02). Among smokers, 66% of heavy smokers (greater than or equal to 1 pack a day) had blood Pb levels over 60 ..mu..g/dl, compared to 39% of the light smokers (p = O.05). Those who kept their cigarettes on their person had a higher proportion of blood Pb greater than 60 ..mu..g/dl than workers who kept their cigarettes elsewhere (63 vs 36%, respectively; p = 0.08). The difference in blood Pb levels between smokers and nonsmokers may be due in part to direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms, and could be important in workers with already elevated blood Pb levels.

  11. Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.

    PubMed

    Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

    2009-02-01

    Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested.

  12. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  13. Erythrocyte Antioxidant Defenses Against Cigarette Smoking in Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Basalingappa, Doddamani R; Uppala, Satyanarayana; Mitta, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoke promotes atherogenesis by producing oxygen-derived free radicals. Aim The present study was conducted to determine the effect of cigarette smoking on lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte antioxidant status in ischemic heart disease (IHD). Materials and Methods A total of 327 male subjects were enrolled for this study, divided into two groups consisting of 200 patients, who were consecutively admitted for IHD in the intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU) of a Government Hospital and 127 age matched male healthy subjects. Both the groups were subsequently categorised into smokers and non smokers sub groups depending upon the smoking history {>/= 20 pack years of smoking; (20 cigarettes per day for one year constitutes one pack year)}. All 327 subjects were investigated for lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Statistical Analysis The differences in the parameters between the groups were tested for significance by one way ANOVA using the SPSS software version 19. A p-value of < 0.001 was considered to be significant statistically. Multiple comparisons were made between all the four groups by Post Hoc Tukey test. Results There was highly significant difference (p<0.001) observed in GPX activity, in comparison to CAT and SOD (p=0.032, p=0.009) between smokers vs non smokers in control group as well as patient group. The plasma MDA levels were found to be increased significantly (p<0.001) in IHD patients, who smoked as compared to those who did not. Conclusion Chronic smoking enhances erythrocyte lipid peroxidation in IHD patients with concomitant failure of both plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant defense mechanisms. Along with conventional lipid markers and plasma MDA levels, the erythrocyte GPX activity was observed to be a better marker of oxidative stress, in chronic smokers, who are at risk of developing IHD. PMID:26266112

  14. Smoking and symbolism: children, communication and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Rugkåsa, J; Kennedy, O; Barton, M; Abaunza, P S; Treacy, M P; Knox, B

    2001-04-01

    Health promotion, with its concern with empowerment and autonomy, must recognize the agency of its target population. Based on 85 in-depth interviews with 10- to 11-year-old children throughout Northern Ireland, this paper argues that it is necessary to focus on the social relations of children if we are to understand and prevent childhood smoking. Addressing the complex issue of childhood agency, it is argued that regardless of various restrictions to their choices, children can act intentionally in constructing their identities. Instead of viewing the smoking children as communicating with the adult world, we focus on smoking as negotiation of status within the children's culture. Such negotiations utilize symbolism derived from and shared with the 'adult world'. It is important that those analyzing children's lives understand children's ideas and behaviour on their own terms. We must make sure that the very concepts in which the children's experiences are put are appropriate ones. It is suggested that the metaphor 'rite of passage' and terminology such as peer 'pressure' versus adult 'influence', commonly used to analyse the children's smoking behaviour, may actually conceal important aspects of childhood agency.

  15. A Study of Cigarett Smoking Among Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mausner, Bernard

    The various activities carried out under a grant from the Cancer Society are discussed, including preparatory work, pilot and exploratory studies, the conduct of the major study, and additional activities. The bulk of the report, however, is devoted to the major study in which measures were obtained of: 1) patterns of support for smoking; 2)…

  16. Adolescent Cigarette Smoking as Compensatory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.

    The extent to which smokers as compared to non-smokers recognize their failure to achieve was studied. The subjects were 80 ninth grade pupils, half of whom smoked. A nine point self-anchoring Expectation scale was developed to determine how closely the subjects came to meeting the perceived expectations of their parents, their school, their…

  17. Acute effects of cigarette smoke exposure on experimental skin flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.; Jenkins, R.A.; Kurihara, K.; Schultz, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    Random vascular patterned caudally based McFarlane-type skin flaps were elevated in groups of Fischer 344 rats. Groups of rats were then acutely exposed on an intermittent basis to smoke generated from well-characterized research filter cigarettes. Previously developed smoke inhalation exposure protocols were employed using a Maddox-ORNL inhalation exposure system. Rats that continued smoke exposure following surgery showed a significantly greater mean percent area of flap necrosis compared with sham-exposed groups or control groups not exposed. The possible pathogenesis of this observation as well as considerations and correlations with chronic human smokers are discussed. Increased risks of flap necrosis by smoking in the perioperative period are suggested by this study.

  18. [Cigarette smoking--threat from first days of life].

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Ewa; Malak, Roksana; Mojs, Ewa; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2008-01-01

    It is obvious that smoking is harmful. It is especially dramatic that it may cause a lot of dysfunctions among newborns who without their free will are expose to toxic tobacco components. The consequences are as serious when mother smoke as when she is exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy is directly correlated to premature rupture of the membranes, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardatyion--IURG, low birth weight, smaller body length of newborn, reduced lung function--hypoxia, delayed development of respiratory and nervous system, sudden infant death syndrome--SIDS, obesity, allergy, arterial hypertension or even tumors. That is why the prophylactic of above illnesses is important since first days of life.

  19. Relative importance of cigarette smoking in occupational lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, P C

    1981-01-01

    Since 1900 respiratory disease has remained a constant serious cause of chronic ill health and premature death in Britain. The falling importance of tuberculosis and pneumonia has been off-set by the rise in lung cancer. Bronchitis morbidity and mortality have fallen only slightly since 1935. To produce any real improvement in the future existing information as to cause must be studied. The relative contribution of occupational exposure is compared with the importance of cigarette smoking. Relevant information is scanty and has been produced to emphasise the existence of occupational diseases rather than assess their importance to the community as whole. In Britain the evidence is that within the coal mining and iron and steel industries conditions are now such that dust exposure contributes little to the morbidity or mortality compared with the workers' smoking habits. Similar results have been shown by a cross-sectional survey of many dusty occupations in Western Germany. Only in the disappearing Welsh slate industry has dust disease been at least as important as smoking. Until the current regulations were introduced conditions existed among asbestos workers such that the combined effect of cigarette smoking and dust exposure led to a loss of life expectation of over 10 years in moderate smokers. Since the new regulations were introduced the risk for asbestos workers should approximate to that for other industrial workers. While control of occupational exposure to respiratory hazards remains important, a far greater improvement to respiratory health would be produced by controlling tobacco smoking. PMID:7470398

  20. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US) in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation. PMID:18488428

  1. Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E

    1985-02-07

    In the US, media coverage of the health hazards of cigarette smoking is consored by the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies, which in 1983 alone spent US$2.5 billion on smoking promtion, are a major source of advertising revenue for many media organizations. As a result media organizations frequently refuse to publish antismoking information, tent to tone down coverage of antismoking news events, and often refuse to accept antismoking advertisements. In a 1983 "Newsweek" supplement on personal health, prepared by the American Medical Association, only 4 sentences were devoted to the negative effects of smoking. A spokesman for the association reported that "Newsweek" editors refused to allow the association to use the forum to present a strong antismoking message. In 1984 a similar type of health supplement, published by "Time," failed to mention smoking at all. An examination of 10 major women's magazines revealed that between 1967-79, 4 of the magazines published no articles about the hazards of smoking and only 8 such articles appeared in the other 6 magazines. All of these magazines carried smoking advertisements. During the same time period, 2 magazines, which refused to publish cigarette ads, published a total of 16 articles on the hazards of smoking. Small magazines which publish antismoking articles are especially vulnerable to pressure from the tobacco industry. For example, the tobacco industry canceled all its ads in "Mother Jones" after the magazine printed 2 antismoking articles. 22 out of 36 magazines refused to run antismoking advertisements when they were requested to do so. Due to poor media coverage, th public's knowledge of the hazards of smoking is deficient. Recent surveys found that 2/3 of the public did not know that smoking could cause heart attacks, and 1/2 of the respondents did not know that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking

  2. Cigarette smoking among students and the influence of legal regulations on passive smoking.

    PubMed

    Gawlikowska-Sroka, A; Dzieciolowska-Baran, E; Szczurowski, J; Teul, I; Poziomkowska-Gesicka, I; Kamienska, E

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that reducing the degree of nicotine addiction in the population cannot be achieved only by prevention programs. Legislative measures are necessary to be taken by the state. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of tobacco abuse in three groups of students. It also assesses the influence of ban on smoking in public places on passive contact of students with tobacco. A customized survey made up of open and closed questions was conducted among 102 students of electrical faculty, 109 medical students, and 71 students of animal husbandry faculty. The results showed that significantly more women from the electrical faculty smoked. Among the students of animal husbandry, men smoke significantly more cigarettes than women. Women studying animal husbandry start smoking significantly earlier (by about 2 years) than women from other faculties. They are also significantly less likely to smoke cigarettes at school and at home. According to the study, the Polish law to ban smoking in public places, in force since the 15th of November 2010, did not make students quit smoking, although the rate of smoking students decreased. Students did not observe restrictions on smoking in their environment. The study indicates a positive influence of the anti-nicotine legislation on passive smoking, just after 3 months from its introduction.

  3. Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ajab, Huma; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

  4. Characterization of toxic metals in tobacco, tobacco smoke, and cigarette ash from selected imported and local brands in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ajab, Huma; Yaqub, Asim; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals.

  5. Cigarette smoke chemistry market maps under Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions.

    PubMed

    Morton, Michael J; Laffoon, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    This study extends the market mapping concept introduced by Counts et al. (Counts, M.E., Hsu, F.S., Tewes, F.J., 2006. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46, 225-242) to include both temporal cigarette and testing variation and also machine smoking with more intense puffing parameters, as defined by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH). The study was conducted over a two year period and involved a total of 23 different commercial cigarette brands from the U.S. marketplace. Market mapping prediction intervals were developed for 40 mainstream cigarette smoke constituents and the potential utility of the market map as a comparison tool for new brands was demonstrated. The over-time character of the data allowed for the variance structure of the smoke constituents to be more completely characterized than is possible with one-time sample data. The variance was partitioned among brand-to-brand differences, temporal differences, and the remaining residual variation using a mixed random and fixed effects model. It was shown that a conventional weighted least squares model typically gave similar prediction intervals to those of the more complicated mixed model. For most constituents there was less difference in the prediction intervals calculated from over-time samples and those calculated from one-time samples than had been anticipated. One-time sample maps may be adequate for many purposes if the user is aware of their limitations. Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, ammonia, chlorogenic acid, and reducing sugars. The filler information was used to improve predicting relationships for several of the smoke constituents, and it was concluded that the effects of filler chemistry on smoke chemistry were partial explanations of the observed brand-to-brand variation.

  6. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis to cigarettes: smoked/unsmoked components and formaldehyde factors.

    PubMed

    Carew, Benjamin; Muir, Jim

    2014-08-01

    A patient with hand dermatitis reported that switching her smoking hand resulted in reduced symptoms. When allergy to cigarettes is suspected the literature supports standard allergy testing as well as testing the individual components of cigarettes. Initial standard patch testing revealed an allergy to formaldehyde and the formaldehyde releasing agent, quaternium-15. The patient did not react to her usual roll-your-own cigarette components but reacted to the smoked filter paper of a particular brand of cigarette she frequently borrowed from a friend. Possible explanations include either a variation of ingredients between cigarettes that alters the formaldehyde concentration or another unidentified allergen in the branded cigarette causing allergic contact dermatitis.

  7. Induction of alopecia in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    D'Agostini, F; Balansky, R; Pesce, C; Fiallo, P; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; De Flora, S

    2000-04-03

    Besides being responsible for a high proportion of those chronic degenerative diseases that are the leading causes of death in the population, tobacco smoking has been associated with skin diseases. Smoke genotoxicants are metabolized in hair follicle cells, where they form DNA adducts and cause DNA damage. The suspicion was raised that, in humans, a link may exist between smoking and both premature grey hair and hair loss. In order to check this hypothesis, we carried out a study in C57BL/6 mice exposed whole-body to a mixture of sidestream and mainstream cigarette smoke. After 3 months exposure, most mice developed areas of alopecia and grey hair, while no such lesions occurred either in sham-exposed mice or in smoke-exposed mice receiving the chemopreventive agent N-acetylcysteine with drinking water. Cell apoptosis occurred massively in the hair bulbs at the edge of alopecia areas. Smoke-exposed mice had extensive atrophy of the epidermis, reduced thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, and scarcity of hair follicles. On the whole, exposure to smoke genotoxic components appears to alter the hair cycle with a dystrophic anagen pattern. Although this mechanism is different from that of genotoxic cytostatic drugs, N-acetylcysteine appears to exert protective effects in both conditions.

  8. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  9. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  10. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking

  11. Latino cigarette smoking patterns by gender in a US national sample

    PubMed Central

    Kristman-Valente, Allison; Flaherty, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Latino smokers are a rising public health concern who experience elevated tobacco related health disparities. Purpose Additional information on Latino smoking is needed to inform screening and treatment. Analysis Latent class analysis using smoking frequency, cigarette preferences, onset, smoking duration, cigarettes per day and minutes to first cigarette were used to create multivariate latent smoking profiles for Latino men and women. Results Final models found seven classes for Latinas and nine classes for Latinos. Despite a common finding in the literature that Latino smokers are more likely to be low-risk, intermittent smokers, the majority of classes, for both males and females, described patterns of high-risk, daily smoking. Gender variations in smoking classes were noted. Conclusions Several markers of smoking risk were identified among both male and female Latino smokers including long durations of smoking, daily smoking and preference for specialty cigarettes, all factors associated with long-term health consequences. PMID:26304857

  12. Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Candida albicans Increased Chitin Production and Modulated Human Fibroblast Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Alanazi, Humidah; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Perraud, Laura; Chmielewski, Witold; Zakrzewski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P < 0.01) sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P < 0.01) resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P < 0.01) slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers. PMID:25302312

  13. Cigarette smoke-exposed Candida albicans increased chitin production and modulated human fibroblast cell responses.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Humidah; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Perraud, Laura; Chmielewski, Witold; Zakrzewski, Andrew; Rouabhia, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P < 0.01) sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P < 0.01) resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P < 0.01) slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers.

  14. Time-course of cigarette smoke contamination of clinical hydrogen breath-analysis tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, A; Solomons, N W

    1983-11-01

    The time-course of the contamination of exogenous hydrogen from cigarette smoke on postprandial breath hydrogen concentration was evaluated in 10 subjects, six regular smokers and four occasional smokers. Breath hydrogen values were determined by gas chromatography 10 min, 5 min, and immediately prior to smoking a filter cigarette; during smoking from a sample of exhaled air containing smoke; and 5, 10, and 15 min after extinguishing the cigarette. A three- to 137-fold increase above basal hydrogen concentrations was produced by exhaled cigarette smoke, but most subjects had re-equilibrated to baseline values within 10 to 15 min after the cigarette. If subjects undergoing clinical hydrogen breath tests cannot refrain from smoking during the duration of the test, one should allow an interval of at least 15 min from the end of smoking to the collection of a breath sample.

  15. Cigarette smoke extract increases albumin flux across pulmonary endothelium in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation, and a characteristic of inflammation is an increase in vascular permeability. To determine if cigarette smoke could alter endothelial permeability, we studied flux of radiolabeled albumin across monolayers of porcine pulmonary artery endothelium grown in culture on microporous membranes. Extracts (in either dimethylsulfoxide or phosphate-buffered saline) of cigarette smoke in a range estimate of concentrations simulating cigarette smoke exposure to the lungs in vivo caused a dose-dependent increase in albumin flux that was dependent on extracellular divalent cations and associated with polymerization of cellular actin. The effect was reversible, independent of the surface of endothelial cells exposed (either luminal or abluminal), and due primarily to components of the vapor phase of smoke. The effects occurred without evidence of cell damage, but subtle morphological changes were produced by exposure to the smoke extracts. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke can alter permeability of the lung endothelium through effects on cytoskeletal elements.

  16. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  17. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  18. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  19. Effect of cigarette smoke exposure in vivo on bronchial smooth muscle contractility in vitro in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoshihiko; Murata, Masahiko; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Yuji; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Kamei, Junzo; Misawa, Miwa

    2005-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Little is known concerning the effect of cigarette smoking on the contractility of airway smooth muscle. The current study was performed to determine the responsiveness of bronchial smooth muscles isolated from rats that were subacutely exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke in vivo. Male Wistar rats were exposed to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke for 2 h/d every day for 2 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last cigarette smoke exposure, a marked airway inflammation (i.e., increases in numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peribronchial tissues) was observed. In these subacutely cigarette smoke-exposed animals, the responsiveness of isolated intact (nonpermeabilized) bronchial smooth muscle to acetylcholine, but not to high K+ -depolarization, was significantly augmented when compared with the air-exposed control group. In alpha-toxin-permeabilized bronchial smooth muscle strips, the acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction was significantly augmented in rats exposed to cigarette smoke, although the contraction induced by Ca2+ was control level. Immunoblot analyses revealed an increased expression of RhoA protein in the bronchial smooth muscle of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Taken together, these findings suggest that the augmented agonist-induced, RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization may be responsible for the enhanced bronchial smooth muscle contraction induced by cigarette smoking, which has relevance to airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Effect of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetics in Rats After Cigarette Smoke Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The effect of menthol on nicotine disposition is important in understanding smoking behaviors among different racial groups. The present study was to evaluate whether menthol affects the pharmacokinetics of nicotine after cigarette smoke inhalation. Methods: Rats were exposed to mainstream smoke from either a nonmentholated or mentholated cigarette (1 puff/min for 10 min) using a smoke inhalation apparatus. For the multiple-cigarette smoke inhalation, rats received the smoke from either nonmentholated or mentholated cigarette (10 puffs) every 12 hr for a total of 17 cigarettes. Serial blood samples were collected during the 10-min inhalation phase for the single-cigarette smoke or the 17th cigarette inhalation and for 30 hr thereafter. Nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were assayed by radioimmunoassay methods. Results: Following single-cigarette smoke inhalation, mentholated cigarettes significantly decreased the mean peak concentrations of nicotine in plasma (Cmax) from 27.1 to 9.61 ng/ml and the total area under the plasma concentration–time curves (AUC) from 977 to 391 ng min/ml as compared with those after nonmentholated cigarette smoke inhalation. Cmax and AUC values for cotinine were also significantly reduced by menthol. Similarly after multiple smoke inhalation, Cmax, AUC, and the mean average steady-state plasma concentration of nicotine as well as cotinine were significantly lower in mentholated cigarette inhalation. Interestingly, there was a significant increase in the cotinine to nicotine AUC ratio from 13.8 for the nonmentholated to 21.1 for the mentholated cigarette. Conclusions: These results suggest that menthol in mentholated cigarettes can substantially decrease the absorption and/or increase the clearance of nicotine. PMID:22311961

  1. Cadmium exposure from smoking cigarettes: variations with time and country where purchased.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Kjellström, T; Lind, B; Linnman, L; Piscator, M; Sundstedt, K

    1983-10-01

    Cadmium has been determined in 26 brands of cigarettes purchased in eight different countries throughout the world and in 16 different samples of cigarettes produced in Sweden between 1918 and 1968. In addition the amount of cadmium released from smoking one cigarette to the particulate phase collected from a smoking simulation machine, corresponding to the amount actually inhaled by a smoker, has been determined. The cadmium concentration in different brands of cigarettes ranged from 0.19 to 3.0 micrograms Cd/g dry wt, with a general tendency toward lower values in cigarettes from developing countries. No systematic change in the cadmium concentration of cigarettes with time could be revealed. The amount of cadmium inhaled from smoking one cigarette containing about 1.7 microgram Cd was estimated to be 0.14 to 0.19 microgram, corresponding to about 10% of the total cadmium content in the cigarette.

  2. Cigarette smoking and radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Finckh, A; Dehler, S; Costenbader, K H; Gabay, C

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is a well‐established environmental risk factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it remains unclear whether smoking influences RA disease progression and whether smokers have more radiographic damage progression than non‐smokers over time. Objective To compare the rates of radiographic damage progression in current smokers and non‐smokers in a large prospective RA cohort. Methods The SCQM‐RA is a population‐based registry monitoring disease activity, radiographic damage and symptoms at regular intervals. All patients in the SCQM‐RA database with sequential plain radiographs were included. Joint erosions were assessed in 38 hand and foot joints with a validated scoring method. The rate of erosion progression was analysed using multivariate longitudinal regression models and adjusted for potential confounders. Results 2004 RA patients with a mean of 3.6 sequential radiographs and 3.1 years of follow‐up were included. The 545 (27%) current smokers smoked on average 16 cigarettes per day and had a mean past smoking exposure of 20.6 pack‐years. Radiographic joint damage progressed at a similar rate in current smokers and non‐smokers (p = 0.26). However, smoking intensity was associated with a significant inverse dose–response; heavy smokers (>1 pack‐day) progressed significantly less than non‐smokers or moderate smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion Radiographic joint damage progressed at an equivalent rate in smokers and non‐smokers. Furthermore, a significant trend was observed for reduced radiographic progression and generally more favourable functional scores among heavy smokers, suggesting that cigarette smoke does not accelerate RA disease progression. PMID:17237117

  3. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Meningioma: The Effect of Gender

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Elizabeth B.; Walsh, Kyle M.; Calvocoressi, Lisa; Bondy, Melissa L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiemels, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of studies have reported on the association between smoking and meningioma risk, with inconsistent findings. We examined the effect of gender on the association between cigarette smoking and risk of intra-cranial meningioma in a large population-based, case-control study. Methods The data includes 1433 intra-cranial meningioma cases aged 29–79 years diagnosed among residents of the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, North Carolina, the San Francisco Bay Area and eight Texas counties between May 1, 2006 and April 28, 2011 and 1349 controls that were frequency-matched on age, sex and geography. The data are analyzed separately and in a meta-analysis with six previously reported studies. Results Female cases who reported having ever smoked were at significantly decreased risk of intra-cranial meningioma (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7–0.9) in contrast to male cases who were at increased risk (OR:1.3, 95%CI: 1.0–1.7). Similar findings were noted for current and past smokers. Smoking-induced risk for females did not vary by menopausal status. For males, increased duration of use (p = 0.04) as well as increasing number of pack-years (p = 0.02) was associated with elevated risk. A meta-analysis including 2614 cases and 1,179,686 controls resulted in an OR for ever smoking of 0.82 (95%CI: 0.68–0.98) for women and 1.39 (95%CI: 1.08–1.79) for men. Conclusion The association of cigarette smoking and meningioma case status varies significantly by gender with women at reduced risk and men at greater risk. Impact Whether the observed differences are associated with a hormonal etiology will require additional investigation. PMID:22473761

  4. Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Abstinence in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Quitting Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Tomoyasu; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakahara, Rika; Kunugita, Naoki; Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in smoking cessation remains controversial. Recently, e-cigarettes have been gaining popularity in Japan, without evidence of efficacy on quitting cigarettes. We conducted an online survey to collect information on tobacco use, difficulties in smoking cessation, socio-demographic factors, and health-related factors in Japan. Among the total participants (n = 9055), 798 eligible persons aged 20–69 years who smoked within the previous five years were analyzed to assess the relationship between the outcome of smoking cessation and quitting methods used, including e-cigarettes, smoking cessation therapy, and unassisted. E-cigarette use was negatively associated with smoking cessation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.632; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.414–0.964) after adjusting for gender, age, health-related factors, and other quitting methods. Conversely, smoking cessation therapy (i.e., varenicline) was significantly associated with smoking cessation (OR = 1.885; 95% CI = 1.018–3.492) in the same model. For effective smoking cessation, e-cigarette use appears to have low efficacy among smokers in Japan. Allowing for the fact that this study is limited by its cross-sectional design, follow-up studies are needed to assess the prospective association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. PMID:28218695

  5. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G.; Sutherland, J.M.; McCluskey, A.; Hansbro, P.M.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  6. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  7. Cigarette smoke promotes drug resistance and expansion of cancer stem cell-like side population.

    PubMed

    An, Yi; Kiang, Alan; Lopez, Jay Patrick; Kuo, Selena Z; Yu, Michael Andrew; Abhold, Eric L; Chen, Jocelyn S; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that many patients continue to smoke cigarettes after being diagnosed with cancer. Although smoking cessation has typically been presumed to possess little therapeutic value for cancer, a growing body of evidence suggests that continued smoking is associated with reduced efficacy of treatment and a higher incidence of recurrence. We therefore investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on drug resistance in the lung cancer and head and neck cancer cell lines A549 and UMSCC-10B, respectively. Our results showed that CSC significantly increased the cellular efflux of doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. This was accompanied by membrane localization and increased expression of the multi-drug transporter ABCG2. The induced efflux of doxorubicin was reversed upon addition of the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, confirming the role of ABCG2. Treatment with CSC increased the concentration of phosphorylated Akt, while addition of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 blocked doxorubicin extrusion, suggesting that Akt activation is required for CSC-induced drug efflux. In addition, CSC was found to promote resistance to doxorubicin as determined by MTS assays. This CSC-induced doxurbicin-resistance was mitigated by mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor, suggesting that nicotine is at least partially responsible for the effect of CSC. Lastly, CSC increased the size of the side population (SP), which has been linked to a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. In summary, CSC promotes chemoresistance via Akt-mediated regulation of ABCG2 activity, and may also increase the proportion of cancer stem-like cells, contributing to tumor resilience. These findings underscore the importance of smoking cessation following a diagnosis of cancer, and elucidate the mechanisms of continued smoking that may be detrimental to treatment.

  8. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes: Part 2: kretek and American-blended cigarettes, smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Piadé, J-J; Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Hornig, G; Deger Evans, A; Völkel, H; Schramke, H; Trelles-Sticken, E; Wittke, S; Weber, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    Two commercial kretek cigarettes typical for the Indonesian market and a reference kretek cigarette were compared to the American-blended reference cigarette 2R4F by smoke chemistry characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assessments. Despite the widely diverse designs and deliveries of the selected kretek cigarettes, their smoke composition and in vitro toxicity data present a consistent pattern when data were normalized to total particulate matter (TPM) deliveries. This confirms the applicability of the studies' conclusions to a wide range of kretek cigarette products. After normalization to TPM delivery, nicotine smoke yields of kretek cigarettes were 29-46% lower than that of the 2R4F. The yields of other nitrogenous compounds were also much lower, less than would be expected from the mere substitution of one third of the tobacco filler by clove material. Yields of light molecular weight pyrolytic compounds, notably aldehydes and hydrocarbons, were reduced, while yields of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were unchanged and phenol yield was increased. The normalized in vitro toxicity was lowered accordingly, reflecting the yield reductions in gas-phase cytotoxic compounds and some particulate-phase mutagenic compounds. These results do not support a higher toxicity of the smoke of kretek cigarettes compared to American-blended cigarettes.

  9. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  10. Smoking and reproduction: The oviduct as a target of cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Prue; Riveles, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The oviduct is an exquisitely designed organ that functions in picking-up ovulated oocytes, transporting gametes in opposite directions to the site of fertilization, providing a suitable environment for fertilization and early development, and transporting preimplantation embryos to the uterus. A variety of biological processes can be studied in oviducts making them an excellent model for toxicological studies. This review considers the role of the oviduct in oocyte pick-up and embryo transport and the evidence that chemicals in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke impair these oviductal functions. Epidemiological data have repeatedly shown that women who smoke are at increased risk for a variety of reproductive problems, including ectopic pregnancy, delay to conception, and infertility. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the oviduct is targeted by smoke components in a manner that could explain some of the epidemiological data. Comparisons between the toxicity of smoke from different types of cigarettes, including harm reduction cigarettes, are discussed, and the chemicals in smoke that impair oviductal functioning are reviewed. PMID:16191196

  11. Cigarette Smoking Causes Hearing Impairment among Bangladeshi Population

    PubMed Central

    Sumit, Ahmed Faisal; Das, Anindya; Sharmin, Zinat; Ahsan, Nazmul; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94) were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63±2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06±11.06, 40.79±20.36 decibel (dB), respectively and that of the smokers were 7±3.8, 13.27±8.4, 30.66±12.50 and 56.88±21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the non-smokers, while no significant differences were observed at 1 kHz frequency. We also observed no significant difference in auditory thresholds among smoker subgroups based on smoking frequency. In contrast, subjects smoked for longer duration (>5 years) showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16±19.87 dB) at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52±19.21 dB) of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002). In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI) of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies. PMID:25781179

  12. Associations between phenylthiocarbamide gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Dale S; Baker, Timothy B; Piper, Megan E; Scholand, Mary Beth; Lawrence, Daniel L; Drayna, Dennis T; McMahon, William M; Villegas, G Martin; Caton, Trace C; Coon, Hilary; Leppert, Mark F

    2005-12-01

    Phenotypic evidence indicates that the ability to taste the bitter compounds phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) may protect against cigarette smoking. In this study, PTC gene haplotypes were found to be associated with both the odds of being a smoker and the importance of cigarette taste as a smoking motive. Smokers (n = 384) and nonsmokers (n = 183) were genotyped for polymorphisms that affect taste sensitivity to PTC and PROP. The "taster" PAV haplotype, relative to the "nontaster" AVI haplotype, was predicted to be associated with reduced odds of being a smoker and lower taste motivation as measured by the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives-68 taste/sensory processes scale. The results did not support the predicted association between the PAV and AVI haplotypes and smoker odds, but the AAV haplotype, which confers intermediate PTC/PROP taste sensitivity, was associated with reduced smoker prevalence (49% vs. 70%), chi(2)(1, N = 567) = 10.392, p = .001. The predicted relationship between PAV and AVI and taste motivation was found, F(2, 348) = 3.303, p = .038. The results encourage further exploration of the role of taste/sensory processes in tobacco dependence.

  13. [Cigarette as "companion": a critical gender approach to women's smoking].

    PubMed

    Borges, Márcia Terezinha Trotta; Simões-Barbosa, Regina Helena

    2008-12-01

    This article presents the main results of a study that examined the symbolic and material meanings of women's smoking, adopting a critical and qualitative gender approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 14 women smokers in different stages of the smoking cessation process. The research locus was a tobacco treatment program located in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The findings showed how deeply smoking is interwoven in these women's social and gender trajectories, playing a decisive support role when they have to deal with various difficulties in life. The cigarette as a "companion" emerged as the main empirical category, as something always available to quell anxiety and loneliness, as well as a source of pleasure and relaxation. The critical gender approach evidenced how women's reproductive and productive work overload reinforces their tobacco dependency. In health care, in order to attain women smokers' adherence to the arduous cessation process, it is crucial to consider the complex relations between social and gender dimensions when cigarettes are viewed as a "companion".

  14. A protocol for detecting and scavenging gas-phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yu, Long-Xi; Dzikovski, Boris G; Freed, Jack H

    2012-01-02

    Cigarette smoking is associated with human cancers. It has been reported that most of the lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking (5,6,7,12). Although tobacco tars and related products in the particle phase of cigarette smoke are major causes of carcinogenic and mutagenic related diseases, cigarette smoke contains significant amounts of free radicals that are also considered as an important group of carcinogens(9,10). Free radicals attack cell constituents by damaging protein structure, lipids and DNA sequences and increase the risks of developing various types of cancers. Inhaled radicals produce adducts that contribute to many of the negative health effects of tobacco smoke in the lung(3). Studies have been conducted to reduce free radicals in cigarette smoke to decrease risks of the smoking-induced damage. It has been reported that haemoglobin and heme-containing compounds could partially scavenge nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke(4). A 'bio-filter' consisted of haemoglobin and activated carbon was used to scavenge the free radicals and to remove up to 90% of the free radicals from cigarette smoke(14). However, due to the cost-ineffectiveness, it has not been successfully commercialized. Another study showed good scavenging efficiency of shikonin, a component of Chinese herbal medicine(8). In the present study, we report a protocol for introducing common natural antioxidant extracts into the cigarette filter for scavenging gas phase free radicals in cigarette smoke and measurement of the scavenge effect on gas phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) using spin-trapping Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy(1,2,14). We showed high scavenging capacity of lycopene and grape seed extract which could point to their future application in cigarette filters. An important advantage of these prospective scavengers is that they can be obtained in large quantities from byproducts of

  15. Sampling and analysis of cigarette smoke using the solid adsorbent Tenax

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.E.; Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The commercial introduction of ultra-low-tar delivery cigarette products has posed challenges in the analysis of their smoke constituents. The application of solid sorbent trapping and thermal desorption, programmed-temperature glass-capillary-column gas chromatography has proven useful for both gas phase and particulate matter analyses. In gas phase analysis the cigarette is smoked directly through a Cambridge filter and Tenax trap, and in whole smoke analysis through the Tenax trap alone. For cigarettes having deliveries of < 1 mg tar/cigarette the entire trap content, or a fraction thereof, is desorbed at 250/sup 0/C in the injection port of the gas chromatograph, and the cryothermally trapped organic desorbate is separated by programmed temperature gas chromatography. Tenax used to trap smoke from higher tar delivery cigarettes is duluted with clean Tenax and homogenized before analysis. Quantitation is made by the method of external standards, the RSD for smoke components averaging generally +-20%. Higher RSD's of +-60% in the case of some ultra-low cigarette smoke components may be influenced by mainstream enrichment by sidestream smoke drifting near the air dilution vents in the filter rod. This method of analysis when applied to whole smoke can determine the entire cigarette delivery of many gas phase and particulate matter components, and has sufficient sensitivity that flavor related components in cigarette smoke are analyzable. The distribution of some semivolatile components between gas and particulate phases has been determined by application of this method and is reported.

  16. Urinary pH, cigarette smoking and bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Alguacil, Juan; Kogevinas, Manolis; Silverman, Debra T.; Malats, Núria; Real, Francisco X.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Tardón, Adonina; Rivas, Manuel; Torà, Montserrat; García-Closas, Reina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Fortuny, Joan; Samanic, Claudine; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    Glucuronide conjugates of 4-aminobiphenyl and its N-hydroxy metabolite can be rapidly hydrolyzed in acidic urine to undergo further metabolic activation and form DNA adducts in the urothelium. We conducted a large multicenter case–control study in Spain to explore the etiology of bladder cancer and evaluated the association between urine pH and bladder cancer risk, alone and in combination with cigarette smoking. In total, 712 incident urothelial cell carcinoma cases and 611 hospital controls directly measured their urine pH with dipsticks twice a day (first void in the morning and early in the evening) during four consecutive days 2 weeks after hospital discharge. We found that a consistently acidic urine pH ≤6.0 was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–1.9] compared with all other subjects. Furthermore, risk estimates for smoking intensity and risk of bladder cancer among current smokers tended to be higher for those with a consistently acidic urine (OR = 8.8, 11.5 and 23.8) compared with those without (OR = 4.3, 7.7 and 5.8, respectively, for 1–19, 20–29 and 30+ cigarettes per day; Pinteraction for 30+ cigarettes per day = 0.024). These results suggest that urine pH, which is determined primarily by diet and body surface area, may be an important modifier of smoking and risk of bladder cancer. PMID:21402590

  17. Cigarette smoking, exercise and high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Sady, S; Papanek, P; Cresanta, M

    1984-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depressed levels of HDL-C, whereas exercise is associated with elevated levels of HDL-C. The purpose was to determine effects of smoking and exercise on blood lipids and lipoproteins in middle-aged males. It was hypothesized that smoking may attenuate the effects of exercise to elevate HDL-C. A total of 269 males (70 smokers) met all criteria for inclusion in the study population. Age, height, weight, body fatness via hydrostatic weighing, daily caloric consumption and alcohol intake, and smoking habits and history were determined. Interviews concerning physical activity patterns were conducted and cardiovascular responses to treadmill exercise were determined. Subjects were grouped as sedentary (low activity), participants in vigorous recreational activities (moderate activity) and joggers/runners (high activity). Analysis of covariance with adjustments for factors which may affect blood lipids and lipoproteins was employed. Smokers demonstrated lower HDL-C and higher total cholesterol levels than nonsmokers. High activity subjects demonstrated significantly higher HDL-C levels than the low and moderate groups which did not differ. High activity smokers did not differ from low activity nonsmokers with respect to HDL-C. This supports the proposed hypothesis. Nonsmokers were higher in weight and body fatness than smokers even though smokers consumed 288 more calories per day on the average. This suggests that smoking may account for a significant number of calories through altered metabolism or some other means.

  18. Impact of State Cigarette Taxes on Disparities in Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of state tobacco control policies on disparities in maternal smoking during pregnancy. Methods. We analyzed 2000–2010 National Vital Statistics System natality files with 17 699 534 births from 28 states and the District of Columbia that used the 1989 revision of the birth certificate. We conducted differences-in-differences regression models to assess whether changes in cigarette taxes and smoke-free legislation were associated with changes in maternal smoking during pregnancy and number of cigarettes smoked. To evaluate disparities, we included interaction terms between maternal race/ethnicity, education, and cigarette taxes. Results. Although maternal smoking decreased from 11.6% to 8.9%, White and Black women without a high school degree had some of the highest rates of smoking (39.7% and 16.4%, respectively). These same women were the most responsive to cigarette tax increases, but not to smoke-free legislation. For every $1.00 cigarette tax increase, low-educated White and Black mothers decreased smoking by nearly 2 percentage points and smoked between 14 and 22 fewer cigarettes per month. Conclusions. State cigarette taxes may be an effective population-level intervention to decrease racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in maternal smoking during pregnancy. PMID:24922149

  19. Artifact formation during smoke trapping: An improved method for determination of N-nitrosamines in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, W.S.; Conner, J.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Studies in our laboratory revealed artifactual formation of N-nitrosamines during trapping of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke by the method of Hoffmann and coworkers. Both volatile and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines were produced. This artifact formation took place on the Cambridge filter, which is part of the collection train used in the previously published procedure. When the filter was treated with ascorbic acid before smoke collection, artifact formation was inhibited. The improved method resulting from these studies was applied to a comparative analysis of N-nitrosamines in smoke from cigarettes that heat, but do not burn, tobacco (the test cigarette) and several reference cigarettes. Concentrations of volatile and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in both mainstream and sidestream smoke from the test cigarette were substantially lower than in the reference cigarettes.

  20. Paternal smoking and germ cell death: A mechanistic link to the effects of cigarette smoke on spermatogenesis and possible long-term sequelae in offspring.

    PubMed

    Esakky, Prabagaran; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-11-05

    Paternal exposure to constituents of cigarette smoke (CS) is reportedly associated with infertility, birth defects and childhood cancers even though the mechanism behind this relationship is still unclear. Chronic cigarette smoking by men leads to poor sperm quality and quantity mainly through oxidative stress and also direct assault by CS metabolites. Among several carcinogenic and teratogenic components of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) display a preeminent role in accelerating germ cell death via the cytoplasmic transcription factor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that is present across all stages of spermatogenesis. Activation of AHR by growth factors though benefits normal cellular functions, its mediation by CSC in a spermatocyte cell line [Gc2(spd)ts] adversely affects the expression of a battery of genes associated with antioxidant mechanisms, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and cell cycle progress. Besides, the CSC-mediated cross talk either between AHR and NRF2 or AHR-NRF2 and MAPKs pathways inhibits normal proliferation of the spermatogenic GC-2spd(ts) cells in vitro and cell death of spermatocytes in vivo. Pharmacological inactivation of CSC-induced AHR but not its genetic manipulation seems preventing DNA and cell membrane damage in Gc2(spd)ts. Data from recent reports suggest that the cigarette smoke affects both the genomic and epigenomic components of the sperm and attributes any associated changes to developmental defects in the offspring. Thus, the studies discussed here in this review shed light on possible mechanistic factors that could probably be responsible for the paternally mediated birth defects in the offspring following exposure to the toxic constituents of cigarette smoke.

  1. Do smokers crave cigarettes in some smoking situations more than others? Situational correlates of craving when smoking

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Deborah; Kirchner, Thomas; Shiffman, Saul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers tend to smoke when experiencing craving, but even within smoking occasions, craving may vary. We examine variations in craving when people were smoking in various real-world situations. Methods: Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, 394 smokers recorded smoking, craving, and smoking context in real time on electronic diaries over 2 weeks of ad libitum smoking. Assessments occurred immediately prior to smoking. Mixed modeling was used to analyze associations between craving and situational variables. Results: Craving varied across smoking situations, but the differences were small (<1 on a 0–10 scale). Specifically, craving was higher in smoking situations where smoking was restricted, likely because high craving leads smokers to violate restrictions. Controlling for restrictions, craving was higher when cigarettes were smoked while eating or drinking, were with other people (vs. alone), were in a group of people (vs. other people simply in view), during work (vs. leisure), and during activity (vs. inactivity). In addition, craving was higher for cigarettes smoked early in the day. No differences in craving were observed in relation to drinking alcohol or caffeine (vs. doing anything else), being at work (vs. home), being at a bar or restaurant (vs. all other locations), interacting with others (vs. not interacting), or other people smoking (vs. no others smoking). Discussion: Even though most craving reports prior to smoking were high, and situations were thus expected to have little influence on craving, results suggest that some cigarettes are craved more than others across different smoking situations, but differences are small. PMID:20133379

  2. How people think about the chemicals in cigarette smoke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer C; Byron, M Justin; Baig, Sabeeh A; Stepanov, Irina; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-02-21

    Laws and treaties compel countries to inform the public about harmful chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke. To encourage relevant research by behavioral scientists, we provide a primer on cigarette smoke toxicology and summarize research on how the public thinks about cigarette smoke chemicals. We systematically searched PubMed in July 2016 and reviewed citations from included articles. Four central findings emerged across 46 articles that met inclusion criteria. First, people were familiar with very few chemicals in cigarette smoke. Second, people knew little about cigarette additives, assumed harmful chemicals are added during manufacturing, and perceived cigarettes without additives to be less harmful. Third, people wanted more information about constituents. Finally, well-presented chemical information increased knowledge and awareness and may change behavior. This research area is in urgent need of behavioral science. Future research should investigate whether educating the public about these chemicals increases risk perceptions and quitting.

  3. Anxiety, depression, and cigarette smoking: a transdiagnostic vulnerability framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Research into the comorbidity between emotional psychopathology and cigarette smoking has often focused upon anxiety and depression's manifest symptoms and syndromes, with limited theoretical and clinical advancement. This article presents a novel framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity. We propose that transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities-core biobehavioral traits reflecting maladaptive responses to emotional states that underpin multiple types of emotional psychopathology-link various anxiety and depressive psychopathologies to smoking. This framework is applied in a review and synthesis of the empirical literature on 3 transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities implicated in smoking: (a) anhedonia (Anh; diminished pleasure/interest in response to rewards), (b) anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety-related sensations), and (c) distress tolerance (DT; ability to withstand distressing states). We conclude that Anh, AS, and DT collectively (a) underpin multiple emotional psychopathologies, (b) amplify smoking's anticipated and actual affect-enhancing properties and other mechanisms underlying smoking, (c) promote progression across the smoking trajectory (i.e., initiation, escalation/progression, maintenance, cessation/relapse), and (d) are promising targets for smoking intervention. After existing gaps are identified, an integrative model of transdiagnostic processes linking emotional psychopathology to smoking is proposed. The model's key premise is that Anh amplifies smoking's anticipated and actual pleasure-enhancing effects, AS amplifies smoking's anxiolytic effects, and poor DT amplifies smoking's distress terminating effects. Collectively, these processes augment the reinforcing properties of smoking for individuals with emotional psychopathology to heighten risk of smoking initiation, progression, maintenance, cessation avoidance, and relapse. We conclude by drawing clinical and scientific implications from this framework that may

  4. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  5. Evaluation of Nationwide Health Costs of Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. R.; Justus, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    The findings of this study indicate cigarette smoking causes more respiratory diseases than does air pollution. The 1970 nationwide health cost of respiratory diseases is estimated at $6.22 billion. The effect of air pollution accounts for between 1 and 5 percent of this total cost while cigarette smoking represents 68 percent. (MLB)

  6. Metabolic Effects of Nicotine Gum and Cigarette Smoking: Potential Implications for Postcessation Weight Gain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twenty smoking women participated in nicotine gum and smoking administration, after which resting energy expenditures (REEs) were measured. Results indicated acute increase in REE for both nicotine gum and cigarettes. Metabolic rates for nicotine gum slowly returned to baseline; rates for cigarettes quickly fell significantly below baseline.…

  7. Mechanisms of clearance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae from cigarette smoke-exposed mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, G J; Zavitz, C C J; Bauer, C M T; Stämpfli, M R

    2010-11-01

    Inflammation is prevalent in all stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and, furthermore, individuals undergo periods of exacerbation, during which pulmonary inflammation increases, often a result of bacterial infection. The present study investigates the in vivo consequences of cigarette smoke exposure on bacterial challenge with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). BALB/c and C57 black 6 (C57BL/6) mice were exposed to cigarette smoke once or twice daily for a total period of 8 weeks. Exacerbated inflammation was observed in cigarette smoke-exposed compared to room-air-exposed mice following challenge with live or heat-inactivated NTHi. Accelerated clearance of live NTHi from cigarette smoke-exposed mice was independent of the establishment of chronic inflammation or direct toxic effects of cigarette smoke components on bacteria. Mechanistically, a cell-free factor in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contributed to accelerated clearance following passive transfer to naive mice. Further investigation demonstrated increased titres of immunoglobulin A in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but not the blood, of cigarette smoke-exposed mice, including increased titres of NTHi-specific immunoglobulin A, whereas heavy chain joining element (J(H))(-/-) B-cell-deficient cigarette smoke-exposed mice did not demonstrate decreased bacterial burden following challenge. The present results demonstrate that cigarette smoke exposure results in exacerbated inflammation following challenge with NTHi, as well as increased titres of antibodies that contribute to bacterial clearance.

  8. Reconsidering the legality of cigarette smoking advertisements on television public health and the law.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; Collmer, Veda; Orenstein, Daniel G; Millea, Chase; Van Buren, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Television advertisements depicting the use of electronic cigarettes have recently exposed minors to images of smoking behaviors. While these advertisements are currently legal, existing laws should be interpreted or expanded to ban the commercial depiction of smoking behaviors with any product that resembles a cigarette to shield minors from potentially influential advertising.

  9. Cadmium in smoke particulates of regular and filter cigarettes containing low and high cadmium concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Reid, C.M.; Hoffman, D.; Adams, J.D.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-03-01

    In the work reported, filter and nonfilter cigarettes were prepared from high-cadmium tobacco grown on a municipal sludge-amended soil or a low-cadmium tobacco grown on untreated soil alone. These were smoked by machine to determine the effectiveness of the cigarette filters in possibly reducing the quantities of cadmium in the mainstream smoke particulates.

  10. An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking in Middle School Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Holloway, Ian; Bouris, Alida; Crossett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Five hundred sixteen randomly selected Latino middle school…

  11. Examining Demographic Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking among Undergraduate Students at a Turkish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Erkan; Çelik, Ali Kemal; Akbaba, Ahmet Ilker

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading global preventable health risk, and it is associated with well-known health risks such as morbidity, mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and nicotine addiction. When analyzed by age group, cigarette smoking in Turkey is the most prevalent among younger adult populations. The college years appear to be a time…

  12. Role of activin-A in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and COPD.

    PubMed

    Verhamme, Fien M; Bracke, Ken R; Amatngalim, Gimano D; Verleden, Geert M; Van Pottelberge, Geert R; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Joos, Guy F; Brusselle, Guy G

    2014-04-01

    Activin-A is a pleiotropic cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and has been implicated in asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of activin-A and its endogenous inhibitor, follistatin, in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. We first quantified activin-A and follistatin in the lungs of air- or cigarette smoke-exposed mice and in the lungs of patients with COPD by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. We subsequently studied the effect of cigarette smoke on primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Next, activin-A signalling was antagonised in vivo by administration of follistatin in mice exposed to air or cigarette smoke for 4 weeks. Protein levels of activin-A were increased in the airway epithelium of patients with COPD compared with never-smokers and smokers. Cigarette smoke-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells expressed higher levels of activin-A and lower levels of follistatin. Both mRNA and protein levels of activin-A were increased in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice, whereas follistatin levels were reduced upon cigarette smoke exposure. Importantly, administration of follistatin attenuated the cigarette smoke-induced increase of inflammatory cells and mediators in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice. These results suggest that an imbalance between activin-A and follistatin contributes to the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and COPD.

  13. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  14. Short cigarette smoke exposure facilitates sensitisation and asthma development in mice.

    PubMed

    Lanckacker, Ellen A; Tournoy, Kurt G; Hammad, Hamida; Holtappels, Gabriele; Lambrecht, Bart N; Joos, Guy F; Maes, Tania

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that cigarette smoke exposure is a risk factor for increased sensitisation and asthma development. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cigarette smoke on sensitisation and allergic airway inflammation in response to a low dose of house dust mite (HDM), and to obtain potential mechanistic insights. Mice were exposed to low doses of HDM extract combined with air or cigarette smoke exposure, either during allergen sensitisation or during the development of allergic airway disease. Mice concomitantly exposed to low-dose HDM, combined with cigarette smoke for 3 weeks, demonstrated an asthmatic phenotype with significantly increased airway eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, airway hyperresponsiveness and a rise in HDM-specific serum immunoglobulin G1, compared to sole HDM or cigarette smoke exposure. In addition, short cigarette smoke inhalation, during the initial contact with HDM allergens, was sufficient to facilitate sensitisation and development of a complete asthmatic phenotype after rechallenge with HDM. Mechanistically, short cigarette smoke exposure amplified dendritic cell-mediated transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled HDM allergens to the intrathoracic lymph nodes and generated a local T-helper cell type 2 response. Short cigarette smoke exposure is sufficient to facilitate allergic sensitisation and the development of low-dose HDM-induced allergic asthma, possibly by affecting dendritic cell function.

  15. NOS3 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking, and cardiovascular disease risk: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) activity and cigarette smoking significantly influence endothelial function. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking modified the association between NOS3 polymorphisms and risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. All 1085 incident coronary heart di...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of nicotine in rats after multiple-cigarette smoke exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Rotenberg, K.S.; Adir, J.

    1983-06-15

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine and its major metabolites was evaluated in male rats after multiple-cigarette smoke exposure. A smoke-exposure apparatus was used to deliver cigarette smoke to the exposure chamber. The rats were exposed to smoke from a single cigarette every 8 hr for 14 days and to the smoke of a cigarette spiked with radiolabeled nicotine on the 15th day. Blood and urine samples were collected at timed intervals during the 10-min smoke-exposure period of the last cigarette and up to 48 hr thereafter. Nicotine, cotinine, and other polar metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. The data were analyzed by computer fitting, and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters were compared to those observed after a single iv injection of nicotine and after a single-cigarette smoke exposure. The results indicated that the amount of nicotine absorbed from multiple-cigarette smoke was approximately 10-fold greater than that absorbed from a single cigarette. Also, unlike the single-cigarette smoke exposure experiment, nicotine plasma levels did not decay monotonically but increased after the 5th hr, and high plasma concentrations persisted for 30 hr. The rate and extent of the formation of cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, were decreased as compared with their values following a single-cigarette smoke exposure. It was concluded that nicotine or a constituent of tobacco smoke inhibits the formation of cotinine and may affect the biotransformation of other metabolites. Urinary excretion tended to support the conclusions that the pharmacokinetic parameters of nicotine and its metabolites were altered upon multiple as compared to single dose exposure.

  17. Differential Effects between Cigarette Total Particulate Matter and Cigarette Smoke Extract on Blood and Blood Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Min; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kwang-Hoon; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Jin-Yong; Satoh, Masahiko; Song, Seong-Yu; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The generation and collection of cigarette smoke (CS) is a prerequisite for any toxicology study on smoking, especially an in vitro CS exposure study. In this study, the effects on blood and vascular function were tested with two widely used CS preparations to compare the biological effects of CS with respect to the CS preparation used. CS was prepared in the form of total particulate matter (TPM), which is CS trapped in a Cambridge filter pad, and cigarette smoke extract (CSE), which is CS trapped in phosphate-buffered saline. TPM potentiated platelet reactivity to thrombin and thus increased aggregation at a concentration of 25~100 μg/mL, whereas 2.5~10% CSE decreased platelet aggregation by thrombin. Both TPM and CSE inhibited vascular contraction by phenylephrine at 50~100 μg/mL and 10%, respectively. TPM inhibited acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation at 10~100 μg/mL, but CSE exhibited a minimal effect on relaxation at the concentration that affects vasoconstriction. Neither TPM nor CSE induced hemolysis of erythrocytes or influenced plasma coagulation, as assessed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Taken together, CS affects platelet activity and deteriorates vasomotor functions in vitro. However, the effect on blood and blood vessels may vary depending on the CS preparation. Therefore, the results of experiments conducted with CS preparations should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27818738

  18. Vertical Equity Consequences of Very High Cigarette Tax Increases: If the Poor Are the Ones Smoking, How Could Cigarette Tax Increases Be Progressive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Gregory J.; Remler, Dahlia K.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is concentrated among low-income groups. Consequently, cigarette taxes are considered regressive. However, if poorer individuals are much more price sensitive than richer individuals, then tax increases would reduce smoking much more among the poor and their cigarette tax expenditures as a share of income would rise by much less…

  19. Does cigarette smoking relieve stress? Evidence from the event-related potential (ERP).

    PubMed

    Choi, Damee; Ota, Shotaro; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported a paradox that cigarette smoking reduces stress psychologically; however, it increases the arousal level physiologically. To examine this issue, our study aimed to investigate whether cigarette smoking relieves stress by measuring the late positive potential (LPP), a component of the event-related potential (ERP). In Experiment 1, participants first watched emotionally neutral images; second, they received a break; and finally, they watched emotionally neutral images again. In the break, they smoked a cigarette (smoking condition) or simply rested without smoking (non-smoking condition). The procedure of Experiment 2 was the same as that of Experiment 1, except that the participants watched unpleasant images as stress stimuli before the break. In Experiment 1, the LPP decreased from before to after the break in the smoking condition, but not in the non-smoking condition, suggesting that smoking cigarettes in the neutral state reduces the arousal level. In Experiment 2, the LPP for 400-600 ms decreased from before to after the break, both in the smoking and non-smoking conditions; however, the LPP for 200-400 ms decreased from before to after the break only in the smoking condition. This suggests the possibility that cigarette smoking in the unpleasant state may facilitate a decrease in the arousal level faster than with non-smoking. In both Experiments 1 and 2, the subjective rating results also suggested that cigarette smoking decreased anxiety. Taken together, both the physiological (LPP) and the psychological responses from our study suggest that cigarette smoking perhaps relieves stress.

  20. Pattern of inhalation of tobacco smoke in pipe, cigarette, and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Rodenstein, D O; Stănescu, D C

    1985-09-01

    There is controversy on whether both primary and secondary pipe smokers do inhale tobacco smoke. We studied inhalation of tobacco smoke in 6 primary and 6 secondary pipe smokers and compared it with that in 20 cigarette smokers and 11 never smokers. Respiratory movements were assessed with inductive plethysmography, nasal flow through measurements of nasal pressure, oral flow with an oral thermistor, puffing through pressure measurements in the cigarette holder or the pipe, and upper airways by fluoroscopy. In all pipe smokers except 1, breathing and smoking appeared as independent activities. The former was exclusively nasal, whereas the latter was exclusively oral. Smoke was sucked and puffed by a to-and-fro movement of the tongue sliding along the soft palate. The oropharyngeal isthmus was closed (or only intermittently opened) by the apposition of the soft palate and the tongue, thus preventing overt inhalation of smoke. In most cigarette smokers, smoking interfered with the breathing route. Once smoke was sucked into the mouth, the oropharyngeal isthmus opened and inspiration proceeded through both mouth (with inhalation of smoke) and nose. Cigarette smoking interfered also with the evenness of ventilation. Never smokers avoided inhalation by oropharyngeal closure followed by oral expiration. We conclude that the oropharyngeal isthmus is the essential gate controlling smoke inhalation. Most secondary pipe smokers are able to change their smoking pattern and avoid overt inhalation when switching from cigarette to pipe smoking. The inhalation pattern appears to be acquired in the course of the smoking history.

  1. Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke on intestinal propulsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Furuno, K; Okazaki, M; Eto, K; Kawasaki, H; Gomita, Y

    1995-08-01

    The effects of acute exposure to cigarette smoke and systemic administration of nicotine on intestinal propulsion were investigated in rats. The propulsive activity was measured as migration of charcoal powder in the intestine. This activity was suppressed by acute exposure (10 min) to cigarette smoke and by nicotine (0.5 mg/kg x 2, s.c.) administration. This intestinal suppression was more marked in the rats given nicotine than in those exposed to cigarette smoke, whereas the plasma concentrations of nicotine in both rats were similar. These results suggest that acute exposure to cigarette smoke and nicotine administration delay gastric emptying and/or suppress intestinal propulsion, and that some components other than nicotine contained in cigarette smoke may attenuate the suppression of intestinal propulsion induced by nicotine.

  2. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia in a child related to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ischander, Mariam; Fan, Leland L; Farahmand, Vanda; Langston, Claire; Yazdani, Shahram

    2014-03-01

    An 8-year-old white male was referred to our clinic for a 1-year history of decreased appetite and no weight gain. His entire workup failed to demonstrate cystic fibrosis, or any infectious or immune-related diseases. Chest imaging and clinical picture suggested parenchymal lung disease. Histopathology examination of the video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy of his lungs showed a desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP)-like pattern that resembled that of adult smokers with the same disease. Genes for surfactant proteins B and C and the transporter ABCA3 were all negative. Furthermore, lack of any genetic disorder for surfactant proteins, along with his history of heavy exposure to 10 pack-years of indoor secondhand smoke suggests that this child's DIP is due to secondhand cigarette exposure. He had nearly complete resolution of his symptoms after a year of treatments with pulse steroid and hydroxycholoroquine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of cigarette smoke-related DIP reported in a child.

  3. Betulin inhibited cigarette smoke-induced COPD in mice.

    PubMed

    Chunhua, Ma; Long, Hongyan; Zhu, Weina; Liu, Zheng; Jie, Ruan; Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Yarui

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of betulin (BE) on CS (cigarette smoke)-induced COPD in mice and explore its underlying mechanisms. 60 male ICR mice were randomly assigned to five groups: control group, model group, dexamethasone (2mg/kg) group, BE (20mg/kg) group and BE (40mg/kg) group. The COPD mice were induced by cigarette smoke exposure for 8 weeks. The result of H&E staining demonstrated that BE inhibited CS-induced pathological injury in lung tissue. Besides, BE could restore the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and in lung, catalase (CAT) in serum and reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and in lung. BE also inhibited the overproductions of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Furthermore, the administration of BE significantly inhibited the protein expression of ROCK/NF-κB pathway in CS-induced mice. Our findings suggested that BE might effectively ameliorate the progression of COPD via ROCK/NF-κB pathway in mice.

  4. Cigarette smoke and CFTR: implications in the pathogenesis of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Steven M.; Raju, S. Vamsee; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Matalon, Sadis; Collawn, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disorder consisting of chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. COPD patients suffer from chronic infections and display exaggerated inflammatory responses and a progressive decline in respiratory function. The respiratory symptoms of COPD are similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis (CF), although the molecular basis of the two disorders differs. CF is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene encoding a chloride and bicarbonate channel (CFTR), leading to CFTR dysfunction. The majority of COPD cases result from chronic oxidative insults such as cigarette smoke. Interestingly, environmental stresses including cigarette smoke, hypoxia, and chronic inflammation have also been implicated in reduced CFTR function, and this suggests a common mechanism that may contribute to both the CF and COPD. Therefore, improving CFTR function may offer an excellent opportunity for the development of a common treatment for CF and COPD. In this article, we review what is known about the CF respiratory phenotype and discuss how diminished CFTR expression-associated ion transport defects may contribute to some of the pathological changes seen in COPD. PMID:23934925

  5. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  6. Effect of Tocopheryl Acetate on Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposed Swiss Albino Mice Inbred Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Janardan; Shamal, SN; Supriya, K; Srivastava, Mona; More, RS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is worldwide problem which can be correlated with teratogenicity. Tocopheryl acetate plays as an antioxidant against the oxidative stress evolved by cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Aim To study the effect of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke and Tocopheryl acetate on fetuses of mice. Materials and Methods Pregnant mice randomly assigned to different groups (Group I (control), Group II (Tocopheryl acetate), Group III(soyabean oil used as vehicle for Tocopheryl acetate), Group IV (Cigarette smoke Exposed), Group V (Cigarette smoke exposed plus Tocopheryl acetate) and Group VI(Cigarette smoke exposed plus soyabean oil) were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times a day for 20 minutes each time and Tocopheryl acetate with dose of 200mg/kg/day in 0.3ml of soyabean oil as vehicle orally through oral gavage from the 5th day of gestation to 15th day. Results Cigarette smoke exposed mice showed significant fetal weight loss, resorption, placental anomalies, severe growth retardation, venous congestion, haemorrhage, limbs defects and enphalocele. Negligible abnormalities were seen among the control and Tocopheryl acetate group. Cigarette smoke exposed group with Tocopheryl acetate exhibited weight gain among the fetus as well as no gross abnormalities. The oxidative stress was significantly increased by increasing Malondialdehyde (MDA) 293±81.57 μmol/mg (p<0.0001) and decreasing Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) 1.43 ± 0.23mg/ml, (p<0.0001) Reduced Glutathione (GR) 0.017±0.002mg/ml, (p<0.01) and Catalase (CAT) 0.248±0.005mg/ml, (p<0.0001). Tocopheryl acetate induced group significantly maintained the oxidative stress with all p <0.0001. Conclusion It can be concluded that Tocopheryl acetate may have an ameliorating effect on the cigarette smoke during pregnancy on fetus. PMID:27891325

  7. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed.

  8. A new experimental model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in Wistar rats*, **

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Rodrigo de las Heras; Alves, Edson Marcelino; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino dos Santos; Guardia, Renan Cenize; Buzo, Henrique Vivi; de Faria, Carolina Arruda; Yamashita, Camila; Cavazzana, Manzelio; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, Maria José de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the cigarette smoke group, comprising 12 rats exposed to smoke from 12 commercial filter cigarettes three times a day (a total of 36 cigarettes per day) every day for 30 weeks; and the control group, comprising 12 rats exposed to room air three times a day every day for 30 weeks. Lung function was assessed by mechanical ventilation, and emphysema was morphometrically assessed by measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm). RESULTS: The mean weight gain was significantly (approximately ten times) lower in the cigarette smoke group than in the control group. The Lm was 25.0% higher in the cigarette smoke group. There was a trend toward worsening of lung function parameters in the cigarette smoke group. CONCLUSIONS: The new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and the methodology employed in the present study are effective and reproducible, representing a promising and economically viable option for use in studies investigating the pathophysiology of and therapeutic approaches to COPD. PMID:24626269

  9. Influence of filter ventilation on the chemical composition of cigarette mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Adam, Thomas; McAughey, John; Mocker, Christoph; McGrath, Conor; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2010-01-04

    Total yields of cigarette smoke constituents are greatly influenced by smoking behaviour, the tobacco blend as well as a variety of cigarette design parameters. Thereby, filter ventilation, i.e. diluting the smoke by providing a zone of microscopic holes around the circumference of the filter is one method to reduce the yield of 'tar' and other smoke compounds. However, little is known how these design variations influence the combustion conditions, and therefore, the overall chemical pattern of the smoke. In this paper single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) is used to characterize and compare cigarettes on a puff-by-puff basis, which differ only in filter ventilation magnitude. The research cigarettes investigated were made from Virginia tobacco and featured filter ventilations of 0% (no ventilation), 35%, and 70%. The cigarettes were smoked under two different puffing regimes, one using the puffing parameters of the conventional International Organization for Standardization (ISO) smoking regime and a more intense smoking condition. Results show that every variation entails a change of the chemical pattern, whereby, in general, cigarettes with 0% filter ventilation as well as the intense smoking regime lead to a more complete combustion compared to the ISO smoking conditions and the high ventilated cigarettes. Changes in the overall patterns can also be observed during the smoking for individual puffs. Some substances dominate the first puff, some species are more pronounced in the middle puffs, whereas others are preferably formed in the last puffs. This demonstrates the high complexity of the occurring processes. Results might help to understand the formation and decomposition reactions taking place when a cigarette is smoked and offer scope for targeted reduction strategies for specific toxicants or groups of toxicants in the smoke.

  10. Structural and functional alteration of blood vessels caused by cigarette smoking: an overview of molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad M; Laher, Ismail

    2007-10-01

    Smoking is a significant independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a leading cause of structural and functional alterations of the cardiovascular system. Most clinical and experimental investigations of the pathophysiology of cigarette smoking have studied the effects of smoke as a whole, while a few studies focused on specific components of cigarette smoke, e.g. nicotine and carbon monoxide, which are only 2 of the more than 4,000 different chemicals present in cigarette smoke. The findings point to some discrepancies when the effects of whole smoke are compared to nicotine alone, while there is almost uniform agreement that both active and passive smoking have detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, although a milder effect was suggested for the latter. This review focuses on findings from clinical and experimental studies on the vascular effects of active and passive cigarette smoking and nicotine exposure. The findings are discussed in terms of tissue (conduit vs. resistance arteries and veins), species, age, gender and dosage. Although the exact pathophysiology of cigarette smoking has not been unveiled, cigarette smoking causes injury to the vascular endothelium, produces superoxide anions, reduces production and bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), increases production and release of endothelin, causes endothelial dysfunction, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, infarction, coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke and death.

  11. Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

  12. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down?

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Feifei; Liang, Chun-Ling; Liu, Huazhen; Zeng, Yu-Qun; Hou, Shaozhen; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiaoping; Dai, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells. Complex roles of cigarette smoke have resulted in numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers and transplant rejection etc. Although previous reviews have described the effects of smoking on various diseases and regional immunity associated with specific diseases, a comprehensive and updated review is rarely seen to demonstrate impacts of smoking on general immunity and, especially on major components of immune cells. Here, we aim to systematically and objectively review the influence of smoking on major components of both innate and adaptive immune cells, and summarize cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. The molecular pathways impacted by cigarette smoking involve NFκB, MAP kinases and histone modification. Further investigations are warranted to understand the exact mechanisms responsible for smoking-mediated immunopathology and to answer lingering questions over why cigarette smoking is always harmful rather than beneficial even though it exerts dual effects on immune responses. PMID:27902485

  13. Is there a relation between school smoking policies and youth cigarette smoking knowledge and behaviors?

    PubMed

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I; Williams, Sheila; McGee, Rob

    2006-02-01

    To comply with workplace legislation, New Zealand schools are required to have policies regarding tobacco smoking. Many schools also have policies to prevent tobacco use by students, including education programmes, cessation support and punishment for students found smoking. This paper investigated the associations between school policies and the prevalence of students' cigarette smoking. Furthermore, we investigated the association between school policy and students' tobacco purchasing behavior, knowledge of health effects from tobacco use and likelihood of influencing others not to smoke. Data were obtained from a self-report survey administered to 2,658 New Zealand secondary school students and staff from 63 schools selected using a multi-stage sampling procedure. Components of school policy were not significantly associated with smoking outcomes, health knowledge or health behavior, and weakly related to a punishment emphasis and students advising others to not smoke. Similarly, weak associations were found between not advising others to not smoke and policies with a punishment emphasis as well as smoke-free environments. The results suggest that having a school tobacco policy was unrelated to the prevalence of tobacco use among students, tobacco purchasing behavior and knowledge of the negative health effects of tobacco.

  14. Behavioral filter vent blocking on the first cigarette of the day predicts which smokers of light cigarettes will increase smoke exposure from blocked vents.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Sanborn, Paul M; Zhou, Jon Y; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2009-12-01

    Filter vent blocking on best-selling light cigarettes increases smoke yield during standard machine testing but not in clinical investigations of smokers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of (a) manipulating cigarette filter vent blocking and (b) blocking status of first cigarette of the day on carbon monoxide (CO) boost. Participants (n = 25; Marlboro Lights nonmenthol cigarette smokers, age range 21-60 years, minimum 15 daily cigarettes, and daily smoking for a minimum 5 years) completed the laboratory-based, within-subject, double-blind, cross-over design of 2 smoking sessions, one utilizing a smoking topography device, one without. Each session consisted of smoking 4 cigarettes; 2 with filter vents blocked and 2 with filter vents unblocked. Spent first daily cigarette filters collected between sessions were scored for evidence of filter vent blocking. Smoking cigarettes with blocked filter vents significantly increased CO boost in both laboratory sessions (p < .001). Those who blocked their first cigarette of the day (n = 10) had significantly greater CO boost when smoking a blocked cigarette, in relation to smoking an unblocked cigarette and in comparison with nonblockers (p = .04). Total puff volume was a significant predictor of CO boost when smoking unblocked and blocked cigarettes (ps < .04). Blocking filter vents significantly increased smoke exposure in relation to when filter vents are not blocked, particularly for those who block filter vents on their first cigarette of the day. Total puff volume predicted CO boost, and results suggest that smokers adjust their smoking behavior by cigarette blocking status. Those smokers who block filter vents may be increasing their exposure by 30%.

  15. Could zinc prevent reproductive alterations caused by cigarette smoke in male rats?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patrícia Carvalho; Piffer, Renata Carolina; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Cecatto; Sankako, Michele Kimie; Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of zinc on fertility through semen parameters, testosterone level and oxidative DNA damage to spermatozoa of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): control, cigarette-smoking (20 cigarettes per day), zinc (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) and zinc plus cigarette-smoking (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹; 20 cigarettes per day). The treatment was applied for nine weeks and the following parameters were analysed: bodyweight, wet weights of the reproductive organs and the adrenal gland, plasma testosterone concentration, testicular function (seminal analysis and daily sperm production) and sperm DNA oxidative damage. The exposure to cigarette smoke decreased testosterone concentration, the percentage of normal morphology and the motility of spermatozoa. In addition, this exposure increased sperm DNA oxidative damage. Zinc treatment protected against the toxic damage that smoking caused to spermatozoa. This study showed a correlation between smoking and possible male infertility and subfertility, and also that the majority of smoking-induced changes in spermatozoa were prevented by zinc treatment. In conclusion, zinc, an antioxidant and stimulant of cell division, can be indicated as a promising treatment in men with infertility caused by the toxic components of cigarette smoke.

  16. Environmental Smoking Restrictions and Light Cigarette Adoption Among Chinese Urban Smokers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Jiang, Shuhan; Oliffe, John L; Feng, Xueying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-08-01

    Light cigarette adoption involves complex psychological and behavioral processes with many underlying factors. While numerous studies have shown that environmental restrictions on smoking are associated with higher probability of smoking cessation, it is also possible that some smokers may switch from regular to light cigarettes due to environmental pressures. The current study evaluates whether smoking restrictions in households, workplaces, and public places were respectively associated with light cigarette adoption. A cross-sectional multistage sampling process was used to recruit participants and collect data about demographics and smoking characteristics and environmental restriction variables. Multiple logistic models were employed to examine the association between environmental smoking restrictions and light cigarette adoption. Of 4735 respondents, 1592 (30.3 %) were current smokers, and 69.7 % (N = 1141) of the smokers were identified as light cigarette adopters. In a multivariate model, smoking restrictions in households, workplaces, and public places were significantly associated with higher light cigarette adoption. Under environmental smoking restrictions, which pose unique challenges to tobacco control efforts, light cigarette adoption may increase. The study findings are essential for health policy makers in designing and implementing targeted smoking cessation interventions and health education programs.

  17. Effect of Cigarette and Cigar Smoking on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate

    PubMed Central

    Medabala, Tambi; B.N., Rao; Mohesh M.I., Glad; Kumar M., Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking in India has been increasing alarmingly. Smoking is a known risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, especially, the lung cancer. The percentage prevalence of cigarette smoking (18.5%) and cigar smoking (4%) in males is high in Andhra Pradesh compared to other southern states. There is not enough scientific literature to correlate about intensity of cigarette and cigar smoking and their impact on lung function though high prevalence is reported in Andhra Pradesh, India. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine whether PEFR differs between cigarette and cigar smokers compared to non-smokers and also to estimate the intensity of cigarette and cigar smoking on PEFR. Methods: PEFR was recorded in cigarette smokers (n=49) and cigar smokers (n=10) as well as in non-smokers (n=64) using Wright’s mini Peak Flow Meter. Results: PEFR is decreased in both cigarette as well in cigar smokers compared to non-smokers and the magnitude of decline was higher in cigar smoking elderly individuals. Conclusion: The intensity of cigarette and cigar smoking (pack-years) emerged as the main variable to influence airway obstruction in smokers that caused greater reduction in PEFR. PMID:24179889

  18. Cigarette smoking. January 1970-February 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-February 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the health consequences and social impact of cigarette smoking. Cigarette dependence, laws and legislation, chemical analysis of cigarettes, studies of persons apt to become smokers, behaviors associated with smoking, smoking-cessation programs, medical costs incurred from smoking, and complications from smoking when other diseases are present are explored. (This updated bibliography contains 357 citations, 58 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  19. Consistency of daily cigarette smoking amount in dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Jao, Nancy C; Karelitz, Joshua L

    2013-09-01

    Self-reported cigarettes per day (CPD) is a very common screening as well as dependent or independent measure in clinical and nonclinical research on smoking, but the consistency of CPD across days in dependent smokers is uncertain. Adult dependent smokers (N = 357; 170 men, 187 women) retrospectively reported "usual" CPD at screening and then prospectively self-monitored CPD on 3 consecutive days of 1 week during an ad libitum baseline period. Participants were those recruited for later tests of brief medication effects in those with high (n = 170) versus low (n = 187) interest in quitting smoking soon (within 3 months). Consistency was determined by intraclass correlation (ICC). Prospective daily CPD was generally consistent (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI of 0.74-0.81), but CPD changed (increased or decreased) by 5 cigarettes/day or more in 40% of participants and by at least 10/day in 10%. Consistency in CPD was greater in higher dependent smokers and in women with low (vs. high) quit interest, but consistency tended to be greater in men with high (vs. low) quit interest. Although retrospectively reported CPD at screening was consistent with the overall mean for prospectively monitored daily CPD, 15% of participants differed by at least 5/day between methods, and digit bias was twice as likely with retrospective versus prospective CPD, which was at chance levels. Understanding variability in CPD may improve knowledge of dependence and factors that foster or discourage daily smoking amount, but precise assessment of daily CPD likely requires prospective monitoring.

  20. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. Methods/Design In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. Discussion This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013). PMID:24965551

  1. Is there a role for e-cigarettes in smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    Leduc, Charlotte; Quoix, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    The use of e-cigarettes has dramatically increased over the past few years and their role in smoking cessation remains controversial. Several clinical studies have evaluated their efficacy in smoking cessation but most of them are prospective cohort studies. Only two randomized, controlled trials have compared e-cigarettes versus placebo or patches. A meta-analysis of these two randomized, controlled trials has been performed. Nicotine-containing e-cigarettes appear to help smokers unable to stop smoking altogether to reduce their cigarette consumption when compared with placebo. However, these results are rated 'low' by GRADE standards. Many cohort studies have been conducted, with contradictory results. For some, e-cigarettes could increase the risk of nonsmokers developing nicotine dependence and of current smokers maintaining their dependence. The debate remains open and more randomized trials are needed with long-term data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes.

  2. Cigarette smoke induces methylation of the tumor suppressor gene NISCH

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, Kimberly Laskie; Michalidi, Christina; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Greenberg, Alissa; Rom, William; Sidransky, David

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified a putative tumor suppressor gene, NISCH, whose promoter is methylated in lung tumor tissue as well as in plasma obtained from lung cancer patients. NISCH was observed to be more frequently methylated in smoker lung cancer patients than in non-smoker lung cancer patients. Here, we investigated the effect of tobacco smoke exposure on methylation of the NISCH gene. We tested methylation of NISCH after oral keratinocytes were exposed to mainstream and side stream cigarette smoke extract in culture. Methylation of the promoter region of the NISCH gene was also evaluated in plasma obtained from lifetime non-smokers and light smokers (< 20 pack/year), with and without lung tumors, and heavy smokers (20+ pack/year) without disease. Promoter methylation of NISCH was tested by quantitative fluorogenic real-time PCR in all samples. Promoter methylation of NISCH occurred after exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke as well as to side stream tobacco smoke in normal oral keratinocyte cell lines. NISCH methylation was also detected in 68% of high-risk, heavy smokers without detectable tumors. Interestingly, in light smokers, NISCH methylation was present in 69% of patients with lung cancer and absent in those without disease. Our pilot study indicates that tobacco smoke induces methylation changes in the NISCH gene promoter before any detectable cancer. Methylation of the NISCH gene was also found in lung cancer patients’ plasma samples. After confirming these findings in longitudinally collected plasma samples from high-risk populations (such as heavy smokers), examining patients for hypermethylation of the NISCH gene may aid in identifying those who should undergo additional screening for lung cancer. PMID:23503203

  3. Cigarette Smoke Toxins Deposited on Surfaces: Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Green, Manuela; Adhami, Neema; Frankos, Michael; Valdez, Mathew; Goodwin, Benjamin; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Dhall, Sandeep; Garcia, Monika; Egiebor, Ivie; Martinez, Bethanne; Green, Harry W.; Havel, Christopher; Yu, Lisa; Liles, Sandy; Matt, Georg; Destaillats, Hugo; Sleiman, Mohammed; Gundel, Laura A.; Benowitz, Neal; Jacob, Peyton; Hovell, Melbourne; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Curras-Collazo, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS) is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered – Thirdhand smoke (THS) – the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health threat to children, spouses of smokers and workers in environments where smoking is or has been allowed. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of THS on liver, lung, skin healing, and behavior, using an animal model exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans. THS-exposed mice show alterations in multiple organ systems and excrete levels of NNAL (a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker) similar to those found in children exposed to SHS (and consequently to THS). In liver, THS leads to increased lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a precursor to cirrhosis and cancer and a potential contributor to cardiovascular disease. In lung, THS stimulates excess collagen production and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting propensity for fibrosis with implications for inflammation-induced diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In wounded skin, healing in THS-exposed mice has many characteristics of the poor healing of surgical incisions observed in human smokers. Lastly, behavioral tests show that THS-exposed mice become hyperactive. The latter data, combined with emerging associated behavioral problems in children exposed to SHS/THS, suggest that, with prolonged exposure, they may be at significant risk for developing more severe neurological disorders. These results provide a basis for studies on the toxic effects of THS in humans and inform potential regulatory policies to prevent involuntary exposure to THS. PMID:24489722

  4. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  5. Plasma neuropeptide Y levels relate cigarette smoking and smoking cessation to body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tajamul; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Draz, Hossam M; Abd Al-Rahman, Sherif H; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2012-06-10

    Loss and disproportionate gain of body weight often seen respectively in smokers and quitters are believed to be due to disrupted energy homeostasis induced by nicotine, the major constituent of cigarette smoke. Energy homeostasis is suggested to be regulated by the coordinated actions of peripheral adipose tissue derived leptin and the brain hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY). While the studies probing the role of leptin and NPY in weight modulating effect of nicotine have so far been inconsistent and based largely on animal systems, there is a paucity of data involving human subjects. Here we measured the plasma levels of orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and leptin in 35 non-smokers and 31 cigarette smokers before and three months after smoking cessation. Compared to non-smokers, smokers were leaner and had reduced NPY and leptin levels. Smoking cessation resulted in a significant weight gain and increased waist circumference accompanied by increased leptin and NPY levels. NPY levels were significantly correlated with body weight (r=0.43, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.41, p<0.05), and waist circumference (r=0.37, p<0.05), while leptin correlated with BMI (r=0.42, p<0.05) and waist circumference (r=0.39, p<0.05). Association of leptin with smoking status, but not that of NPY, was lost after controlling for anthropometric parameters. Weight modulating effect of cigarette smoke may thus involve its direct action on NPY, independent of leptin. Altered leptin levels in smokers and quitters may merely reflect changes in body weight or precisely fat mass.

  6. [Methane Concentration Detection System for Cigarette Smoke Based on TDLAS Technology].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Long; Wu, Xiao-song; Li, Zhi-gang; Wang, An; Liu, Yong; Ji, Min

    2015-12-01

    Rapid and real-time analysis of cigarette smoke is of great significance to study the puff-by-puff transfer rules in the suction process and to explore the relationship between smoking and health. By combining with the modified commercial smoking machine herein, cigarette smoke online analysis system was established based on the TDLAS technology. The puff-by-puff stability of this system was verified by simulated cigarette composed of a pocket containing CH₄ (volume fraction of 0.4), of which the second harmonic peaks are near 1.39. Using this system, the concentration of CH₄ in four different kinds of cigarettes was analyzed puff-by-puff by a semiconductor laser, of which center wavelength was at 1 653.72 nm. The results showed that the CH₄ concentration of cigarette smoke increased puff-by-puff. CH₄ concentration in the flue-cured cigarette is obviously higher than that of blended cigarette by comparing the content of all and puff-by-puff concentration. The puff-by-puff concentration of flue-cured cigarette increased from 400 to 900 ppm, however, the puff-by-puff concentration of blended cigarette increased from 200 to 600 ppm. Simultaneously, there was significant difference between different kinds of the flue-cured. Comparing to tradi- tional analysis methods, this system can effectively avoid the interference of other gases in the smoke cigarette as a result of its strong anti-interference. At the same time, it can finish analysis between suction interval without sample pretreatment. The technology has a good prospect in the online puff-by-puff analysis of cigarette smoke.

  7. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-02-01

    PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF TWO NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NICOTINE ADDICTION AND SMOKING CESSATION: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as "thirdhand smoke". The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking.

  8. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  9. The human laryngeal microbiome: effects of cigarette smoke and reflux

    PubMed Central

    Jetté, Marie E.; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A.; Hanshew, Alissa S.; Suen, Garret; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged diffuse laryngeal inflammation from smoking and/or reflux is commonly diagnosed as chronic laryngitis and treated empirically with expensive drugs that have not proven effective. Shifts in microbiota have been associated with many inflammatory diseases, though little is known about how resident microbes may contribute to chronic laryngitis. We sought to characterize the core microbiota of disease-free human laryngeal tissue and to investigate shifts in microbial community membership associated with exposure to cigarette smoke and reflux. Using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we compared bacterial communities of laryngeal tissue biopsies collected from 97 non-treatment-seeking volunteers based on reflux and smoking status. The core community was characterized by a highly abundant OTU within the family Comamonadaceae found in all laryngeal tissues. Smokers demonstrated less microbial diversity than nonsmokers, with differences in relative abundances of OTUs classified as Streptococcus, unclassified Comamonadaceae, Cloacibacterium, and Helicobacter. Reflux status did not affect microbial diversity nor community structure nor composition. Comparison of healthy laryngeal microbial communities to benign vocal fold disease samples revealed greater abundance of Streptococcus in benign vocal fold disease suggesting that mucosal dominance by Streptococcus may be a factor in disease etiology. PMID:27775059

  10. Brain oxidative damage restored by Sesbania grandiflora in cigarette smoke-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Thiyagarajan; Sureka, Chandrabose; Bhuvana, Shanmugham; Begum, Vavamohaideen Hazeena

    2015-08-01

    Cigarette smoking has been associated with high risk of neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, etc., The present study was designed to evaluate the restorative effects of Sesbania grandiflora (S. grandiflora) on oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure in the brain of rats. Adult male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for a period of 90 days and consecutively treated with S. grandiflora aqueous suspension (SGAS, 1000 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage) for a period of 3 weeks. The levels of protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, and activities of cytochrome P450, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were significantly increased, whereas the levels of total thiol, protein thiol, non-protein thiol, nucleic acids, tissue protein and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase were significantly diminished in the brain of rats exposed to cigarette smoke as compared with control rats. Also cigarette smoke exposure resulted in a significant alteration in brain total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids content. Treatment of SGAS is regressed these alterations induced by cigarette smoke. The results of our study suggest that S. grandiflora restores the brain from cigarette smoke induced oxidative damage. S. grandiflora could have rendered protection to the brain by stabilizing their cell membranes and prevented the protein oxidation, probably through its free radical scavenging and anti-peroxidative effect.

  11. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  12. Acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Karli K; Rossi, Joseph S; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Scalf, Carissa D

    2016-01-01

    The present study was a random-effects model meta-analysis of 26 studies published between 1990 and 2010 (k = 32; n = 39,777) that (a) examined the association between acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women and (b) evaluated age, national origin, and measure and dimensionality (unidimensional vs. bidimensional) of acculturation as moderating variables. Results indicate a strong positive relationship and suggest larger effects of acculturation on cigarette smoking in women of Mexican descent as compared with women originating from other Latin American countries for current and lifetime smoking, as well as smoking overall. The effect of acculturation on cigarette smoking was larger in adults as compared with adolescents for current smoking and smoking overall. Few differences in effect size by measure or dimensionality of acculturation emerged. Results are discussed with regard to implications for future research and the measurement of acculturation.

  13. Acculturation and Cigarette Smoking in Hispanic Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Karli K.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Scalf, Carissa D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was a random-effects model meta-analysis of 26 studies published between 1990 and 2010 (k = 32; n = 39,777) that (a) examined the association between acculturation and cigarette smoking in Hispanic women and (b) evaluated age, national origin, and measure and dimensionality (unidimensional vs. bidimensional) of acculturation as moderating variables. Results indicate a strong positive relationship and suggest larger effects of acculturation on cigarette smoking in women of Mexican descent as compared with women originating from other Latin American countries for current and lifetime smoking, as well as smoking overall. The effect of acculturation on cigarette smoking was larger in adults as compared with adolescents for current smoking and smoking overall. Few differences in effect size by measure or dimensionality of acculturation emerged. Results are discussed with regard to implications for future research and the measurement of acculturation. PMID:26114872

  14. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane Concentrations in Cigarette Smoke by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, T. L.; Lebron, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated absorbance areas of vibrational bands of CO[subscript 2], CO, and CH[subscript 4] gases in cigarette smoke were measured from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to derive the partial pressures of these gases at different smoke times. The quantity of the three gas-phase components of cigarette smoke at different smoke times…

  15. Genomic impact of cigarette smoke, with application to three smoking-related diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that inhaled toxicants such as cigarette smoke can cause both irreversible changes to the genetic material (DNA mutations) and putatively reversible changes to the epigenetic landscape (changes in the DNA methylation and chromatin modification state). The diseases that are believed to involve genetic and epigenetic perturbations include lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), all of which are strongly linked epidemiologically to cigarette smoking. In this review, we highlight the significance of genomics and epigenomics in these major smoking-related diseases. We also summarize the in vitro and in vivo findings on the specific perturbations that smoke and its constituent compounds can inflict upon the genome, particularly on the pulmonary system. Finally, we review state-of-the-art genomics and new techniques such as high-throughput sequencing and genome-wide chromatin assays, rapidly evolving techniques which have allowed epigenetic changes to be characterized at the genome level. These techniques have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the specific mechanisms by which exposure to environmental chemicals causes disease. Such mechanistic knowledge provides a variety of opportunities for enhanced product safety assessment and the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:22989067

  16. Cigarette smoke metabolically promotes cancer, via autophagy and premature aging in the host stromal microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Ahmed F.; Al-Zoubi, Mazhar Salim; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Gandara, Ricardo; Sartini, Marina; Galbiati, Ferruccio; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been directly implicated in the disease pathogenesis of a plethora of different human cancer subtypes, including breast cancers. The prevailing view is that cigarette smoke acts as a mutagen and DNA damaging agent in normal epithelial cells, driving tumor initiation. However, its potential negative metabolic effects on the normal stromal microenvironment have been largely ignored. Here, we propose a new mechanism by which carcinogen-rich cigarette smoke may promote cancer growth, by metabolically “fertilizing” the host microenvironment. More specifically, we show that cigarette smoke exposure is indeed sufficient to drive the onset of the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype via the induction of DNA damage, autophagy and mitophagy in the tumor stroma. In turn, cigarette smoke exposure induces premature aging and mitochondrial dysfunction in stromal fibroblasts, leading to the secretion of high-energy mitochondrial fuels, such as L-lactate and ketone bodies. Hence, cigarette smoke induces catabolism in the local microenvironment, directly fueling oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS) in neighboring epithelial cancer cells, actively promoting anabolic tumor growth. Remarkably, these autophagic-senescent fibroblasts increased breast cancer tumor growth in vivo by up to 4-fold. Importantly, we show that cigarette smoke-induced metabolic reprogramming of the fibroblastic stroma occurs independently of tumor neo-angiogenesis. We discuss the possible implications of our current findings for the prevention of aging-associated human diseases and, especially, common epithelial cancers, as we show that cigarette smoke can systemically accelerate aging in the host microenvironment. Finally, our current findings are consistent with the idea that cigarette smoke induces the “reverse Warburg effect,” thereby fueling “two-compartment tumor metabolism” and oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells. PMID:23388463

  17. The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhong-kai; Cao, Yang; Lv, Gang; Wang, Yan-song; Guo, Zhan-peng

    2013-03-15

    In this study, we examined whether cigarette smoke has neuroprotective or toxic effects on spinal cord injury (SCI). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the study and received either cigarette smoke exposure or fresh air exposure. Twenty-four hours after the last cigarette smoke or fresh air exposure, all rats were injured at thoracic level 12 (T12), using an established static compression model. Our data showed that the cigarette smoke group had higher water content; higher permeability of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB); higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) protein expression, and mRNA levels; and lower glutathione (GSH) levels than the control group values at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after SCI. There was no significant difference in these between the cigarette smoke group and the control group at 0 h after SCI. The results of the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) hindlimb locomotor rating scale showed that rats in the cigarette smoke group had greater dysfunction in hindlimb movement than did rats in control group from 2 to day 6 after SCI. The extent of recovery did not make any difference from day 7 to day 10 after SCI between the cigarette smoke group and the control group. These results suggested that cigarette smoke can reinforce the oxidative stress injury via HIF-1α and AQP4 in the early stage after SCI. It is possible that cigarette smoke exposure does not affect SCI recovery in the long term; however, it can aggravate the edema and deteriorate BSCB disruption via HIF-1α and AQP4 in the early stage after SCI. More studies will be essential to consider this hypothesis and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  18. Anxiety, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking: A Transdiagnostic Vulnerability Framework to Understanding Emotion-Smoking Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the comorbidity between emotional psychopathology and cigarette smoking has often focused upon anxiety and depression’s manifest symptoms and syndromes, with limited theoretical and clinical advancement. This paper presents a novel framework to understanding emotion-smoking comorbidity. We propose that transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities—core biobehavioral traits reflecting maladaptive responses to emotional states that underpin multiple types of emotional psychopathology—link various anxiety and depressive psychopathologies to smoking. This framework is applied in a review and synthesis of the empirical literature on three trandiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities implicated in smoking: (1) anhedonia (Anh; diminished pleasure/interest in response to rewards); (2) anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety-related sensations); and (3) distress tolerance (DT; ability to withstand distressing states). We conclude that Anh, AS, and DT collectively: (a) underpin multiple emotional psychopathologies; (b) amplify smoking’s anticipated and actual affect enhancing properties and other mechanisms underlying smoking; (c) promote progression across the smoking trajectory (i.e., initiation, escalation/progression, maintenance, cessation/relapse); and (d) are promising targets for smoking intervention. After existing gaps are identified, an integrative model of transdiagnostic processes linking emotional psychopathology to smoking is proposed. The model’s key premise is that Anh amplifies smoking’s anticipated and actual pleasure-enhancing effects, AS amplifies smoking’s anxiolytic effects, and poor DT amplifies smoking’s distress terminating effects. Collectively, these processes augment the reinforcing properties of smoking for individuals with emotional psychopathology to heighten risk of smoking initiation, progression, maintenance, cessation avoidance, and relapse. We conclude by drawing clinical and scientific implications from this

  19. Effect of charcoal-containing cigarette filters on gas phase volatile organic compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Polzin, G M; Zhang, L; Hearn, B A; Tavakoli, A D; Vaughan, C; Ding, Y S; Ashley, D L; Watson, C H

    2008-09-01

    Of the chemicals identified to date in mainstream cigarette smoke with known toxicological properties, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are considered the most hazardous group owing to their high abundance and toxicity. In this research we evaluate a recently introduced line of cigarettes that contain charcoal in their filters. The amount of charcoal in these filters ranged from 45 mg to 180 mg and were either dispersed among the filter material or contained in a small cavity in the filter segment. Charcoal has long been used for removing VOCs from both water and air. Our findings indicate that these cigarettes reduce machine generated mainstream smoke deliveries of a wide range of VOCs compared to a similar, non-charcoal filtered, cigarette. However, this reduction is dependent not only on the amount of charcoal present but also on the volume of smoke being drawn through the filter. While a brand with 45 mg charcoal reduces VOC delivery under ISO smoking conditions, charcoal saturation and breakthrough occur under more intense smoking conditions. Breakthrough is minimised for brands with the most charcoal. Overall, the brands with the most charcoal are effective at reducing VOC deliveries under even intense smoking conditions.

  20. Growth of fetuses of rats exposed to ethanol and cigarette smoke during gestation.

    PubMed

    Leichter, J

    1989-01-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and ethanol separately and in combination in order to determine the interactive effects of these two drugs on outcome of pregnancy. The animals were exposed to cigarette smoke daily for a 2-hour period from day 1 to 20 of pregnancy. The ethanol was given in the drinking water in progressively higher concentrations. It was 10% for the first week and 20% during the next three weeks before mating, and 30% from day 1 to 20 of pregnancy. Exposure to cigarette smoke alone significantly reduced fetal weight when compared to pair-fed and ad libitum controls. The combination of ethanol plus smoke caused a significantly greater reduction in fetal weight than did ethanol alone. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to the combination of alcohol and cigarette smoke exerts a synergistic rather than an additive effect on fetal growth.

  1. Cigarette smoking and mechanisms of susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract and other organ systems.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of oral and respiratory infections caused by microbial pathogens is well recognised, with those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at particularly high risk. Smoking cigarettes has a suppressive effect on the protective functions of airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells and adaptive immune mechanisms, in the setting of chronic systemic activation of neutrophils. Cigarette smoke also has a direct effect on microbial pathogens to promote the likelihood of infective disease, specifically promotion of microbial virulence and antibiotic resistance. In addition to interactions between smoking and HIV infection, a number of specific infections/clinical syndromes have been associated epidemiologically with cigarette smoking, including those of the upper and lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, central nervous and other organ systems. Smoking cessation benefits patients in many ways, including reduction of the risk of infectious disease.

  2. Comparison of cigarette and water pipe smoking among female university students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Labib, Nargis; Radwan, Ghada; Mikhail, Nabiel; Mohamed, Mostafa K; Setouhy, Maged El; Loffredo, Christopher; Israel, Ebenezer

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated behavioral and sociodemographic factors associated with tobacco use among female university students patronizing water pipe cafes in Cairo, Egypt. We interviewed two groups of female university student smokers (100 and 96 students from a public and a private university, respectively). The interviews took place in nine water pipe cafes near the two universities. A logistic regression model was developed to analyze the relationship between tobacco-related knowledge and beliefs and the choice between smoking water pipe or cigarettes. Among these smokers, 27% smoked cigarettes only, 37.8% smoked water pipe only, and 35.2% smoked both types of tobacco. Most of the water pipe smokers (74.1%) preferred this method because they believe it to be less harmful than smoking cigarettes. More than half of the subjects were encouraged to start smoking by other females (56.6%). Curiosity was a significant factor for initiation (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-6.2, p<.01). We found no significant differences between water pipe and cigarette smokers regarding current age, age at initiation, quit attempts, knowledge about the hazards of smoking, wanting to be fashionable, or smoking with friends. About one in four (23.7%) attempted to quit, with health cited as a major reason. An urgent need exists for correction of the misperception among this study population that water pipe smoking is safe and less harmful than cigarette smoking.

  3. Smoking among construction workers: The nonlinear influence of the economy, cigarette prices, and antismoking sentiment

    PubMed Central

    Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bacic, Janine; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Catalano, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the influence of macroeconomic environments on smoking among blue-collar workers, a group with high smoking prevalence and that is especially vulnerable to the effects of changing economic circumstances. Using data from 52,418 construction workers in the Tobacco Use Supplement to the United States Current Population Survey, we examined the association of labor market shock, cigarette prices, and state antismoking sentiments with smoking status and average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Data analysis included the use of multiple linear and logistic regressions, which employed the sampling and replicate weights to account for sampling design. Unemployed, American-Indian, lower-educated and lower-income workers had higher smoking rates. Labor market shock had a quadratic association, which was non-significant for smoking status and significant for number of cigarettes. The association of cigarette prices with smoking status became non-significant after adjusting for state-level antismoking sentiment. State-level antismoking sentiment had significant quadratic association with smoking status among employed workers and significant quadratic association with number of cigarettes for all smokers. The study highlights how both workplace-based smoking cessation interventions and antismoking sentiments could further contribute to disparities in smoking by employment status. PMID:22795358

  4. Smoking among construction workers: the nonlinear influence of the economy, cigarette prices, and antismoking sentiment.

    PubMed

    Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bacic, Janine; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Catalano, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on the influence of macroeconomic environments on smoking among blue-collar workers, a group with high smoking prevalence and that is especially vulnerable to the effects of changing economic circumstances. Using data from 52,418 construction workers in the Tobacco Use Supplement to the United States Current Population Survey, we examined the association of labor market shock, cigarette prices, and state antismoking sentiments with smoking status and average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Data analysis included the use of multiple linear and logistic regressions, which employed the sampling and replicate weights to account for sampling design. Unemployed, American-Indian, lower-educated and lower-income workers had higher smoking rates. Labor market shock had a quadratic association, which was non-significant for smoking status and significant for number of cigarettes. The association of cigarette prices with smoking status became non-significant after adjusting for state-level antismoking sentiment. State-level antismoking sentiment had significant quadratic association with smoking status among employed workers and significant quadratic association with number of cigarettes for all smokers. The study highlights how both workplace-based smoking cessation interventions and antismoking sentiments could further contribute to disparities in smoking by employment status.

  5. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-08-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of (/sup 14/C)methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little (/sup 14/C)methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers.

  6. Cigarette smoking and human papillomavirus in patients with reported cervical cytological abnormality.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, M P; Hollema, H; Gouw, A S; Pieters, W J; Quint, W G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relation between two risk factors for cervical neoplasia: smoking and infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus. It has been suggested that smoking causes a local immunological defect, which could facilitate the infection and persistence of human papillomavirus. DESIGN--Cross sectional epidemiological study. Completion of a structured questionnaire by the patients, analysis of cervical scrapes for human papillomavirus, and morphological examination of biopsy specimens. SETTING--Outpatient gynaecological clinic. SUBJECTS--181 women with a report of cervical cytological abnormality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence of infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus and smoking habits. RESULTS--Oncogenic human papillomavirus was found in the cervix of 26 (41%) of the 63 women who did not smoke, 22 (58%) of the 38 who smoked 1-10 cigarettes a day, 28 (61%) of the 46 who smoked 11-20 cigarettes a day, and 26 (76%) of the 34 who smoked > or = 21 cigarettes a day. The prevalence of the virus thus increased in accordance with the number of cigarettes smoked (p = 0.001). This relation remained after adjustment for age at first intercourse and lifetime number of sexual partners. Of the 63 non-smokers, 23 had previously smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day at some time. Of these 23 women, 14 (61%) had oncogenic human papillomavirus in their cervix. Of the 40 women who had never smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day, 12 (30%) had the virus. The prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus in non-smokers therefore depended on previous smoking habits (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION--The dose dependent effect of cigarette smoking on the occurrence of oncogenic human papillomavirus favours a causal relation between these risk factors for cervical neoplasia. PMID:8387842

  7. Waterpipes and e-cigarettes: Impact of alternative smoking techniques on indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer. E-cigarettes are marketed as a smokeless and safe way to inhale nicotine without being exposed to the many toxic components of tobacco cigarettes, and as an aid to smoking cessation. In fact, consumers (vapers) and secondhand vapers can be exposed to substantial amounts of VOC, PAH or other potentially harmful substances. Of major health concern is the inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor. Such particles can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung and may harm the respiratory system or increase the risk of acquiring asthma. More research on the safety of e-cigarettes needs to be conducted to ensure a high level of public health protection in the long-term.

  8. Effects of Internet-Based Voucher Reinforcement and a Transdermal Nicotine Patch on Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Irene M.; Dallery, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine replacement products are commonly used to promote smoking cessation, but alternative and complementary methods may increase cessation rates. The current experiment compared the short-term effects of a transdermal nicotine patch to voucher-based reinforcement of smoking abstinence on cigarette smoking. Fourteen heavy smokers (7 men and 7…

  9. Psychological Satisfactions Derived from Smoking Cigarettes in Fifty-Seven Dental Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christen, Arden G.; Glover, Elbert D.

    1983-01-01

    Studied factors to help dentists understand smoking in patients. Dental patients (N=57) attended "quit smoking" clinics and were given the Horn Smoker's Self-Test which elicits information on factors relating to smoking. The most important functions cigarettes serve, according to smokers, were to satisfy craving, act as a crutch, and provide…

  10. Method for the Determination of Ammonia in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Using Ion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Feng, June; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Stanelle, Rayman; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the “smoke pH.” An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1μg to 23μg per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38μg to 67μg per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions. PMID:27415766

  11. Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

  12. Depressive Mood, the Single-Parent Home, and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Lirio S.; Tam, Debbie

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between depressive mood and cigarette smoking among a sample of 123 adolescent males and 82 adolescent females. Finds an independent relation of depressive mood, friends' smoking behavior, and living in a single-parent home. Concludes that depressive mood and stress may contribute to the onset of smoking. (FMW)

  13. Addressing a Threat to the Healthfulness of Tomorrow's Generation: The Case of Cigarette Smoking in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbe, Catherine O.; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has widely received the attention of international and local health bodies. Efforts are being made towards curbing smoking prevalence globally with a view to reduce the health, economic and social effects of smoking in the society. While some developed countries are recording success in this effort mainly through stringent…

  14. Cigarette taxes and smoking participation: evidence from recent tax increases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah

    2011-05-01

    Using the Canadian National Population Health Survey and the recent tax variation across Canadian provinces, this paper examines the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking participation. Consistent with the literature, we find evidence of a heterogeneous response to cigarette taxes among different groups of smokers. Contrary to most studies, we find that the middle age group-which constitutes the largest fraction of smokers in our sample-is largely unresponsive to taxes. While cigarette taxes remain popular with policy makers as an anti-smoking measure, identifying the socio-demographic characteristics of smokers who respond differentially to tax increase will help in designing appropriate supplementary measures to reduce smoking.

  15. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

  16. Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking. PMID:19440266

  17. Silymarin attenuates airway inflammation induced by cigarette smoke in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Diandian; Xu, Dan; Wang, Tao; Shen, Yongchun; Guo, Shujin; Zhang, Xue; Guo, Lingli; Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Lian; Wen, Fuqiang

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS), which increases inflammation and oxidative stress, is a major risk factor for the development of COPD. In this study, we investigated the effects of silymarin, a polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from the seeds and fruits of milk thistle, on CS-induced airway inflammation and oxidative stress in mice and the possible mechanisms. BALB/c mice were exposed to CS for 2 h twice daily, 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Silymarin (25, 50 mg/kg·day) was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before CS exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was acquired for cell counting and the detection of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Lung tissue was collected for histological examination, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The phosphorylation of ERK and p38 was evaluated by Western blotting. Pretreatment with silymarin significantly attenuated CS-induced thickening of the airway epithelium, peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration, and lumen obstruction. The numbers of total cells, macrophages, and neutrophils, along with the MPO activity (a marker of neutrophil accumulation) in BALF, were remarkably decreased by silymarin in CS-exposed mice (all p<0.05). In addition, silymarin pretreatment dampened the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 in BALF. High-dose silymarin (50 mg/kg·day) administration also prevented CS-induced elevation in MDA levels and decrease in SOD activities (p<0.05). Furthermore, the CS-induced phosphorylation of ERK and p38 was also attenuated by silymarin (p<0.05). These results suggest that silymarin attenuated inflammation and oxidative stress induced by cigarette smoke. The anti-inflammatory effect might partly act through the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway.

  18. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema.

    PubMed

    Dey, Neekkan; Das, Archita; Ghosh, Arunava; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100-200 μg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73-80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70- 90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  19. A simple and rapid method for standard preparation of gas phase extract of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Noya, Yoichi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Terada, Koji; Hoshi, Akimasa; Nepal, Prabha; Harada, Takuya; Horiguchi, Mika; Hatate, Chizuru; Kuge, Yuji; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke consists of tar and gas phase: the latter is toxicologically important because it can pass through lung alveolar epithelium to enter the circulation. Here we attempt to establish a standard method for preparation of gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE). CSE was prepared by continuously sucking cigarette smoke through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, followed by bubbling it into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). An increase in dry weight of the filter was defined as tar weight. Characteristically, concentrations of CSEs were represented as virtual tar concentrations, assuming that tar on the filter was dissolved in PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original tar concentrations ≤ 15 mg/ml) showed similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations, but with CSEs from larger numbers (tar ≥ 20 mg/ml), the curves were shifted rightward. Accordingly, the cytotoxic activity was detected in PBS of the second reservoir downstream of the first one with larger numbers of cigarettes. CSEs prepared from various cigarette brands showed comparable concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity. Two types of CSEs prepared by continuous and puff smoking protocols were similar regarding concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity, pharmacology of their cytotoxicity, and concentrations of cytotoxic compounds. These data show that concentrations of CSEs expressed by virtual tar concentrations can be a reference value to normalize their cytotoxicity, irrespective of numbers of combusted cigarettes, cigarette brands and smoking protocols, if original tar concentrations are ≤15 mg/ml.

  20. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.; Talcott, R.; Hall, S.; Jones, R.T.

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  1. Heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) following exposure to whole cigarette smoke on a direct in vitro exposure system.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yasuo; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takemi

    2006-07-01

    Many in vitro studies have employed cigarette smoke condensates or soluble smoke components to investigate the biological effects of cigarette smoke. However, neither of these methods evaluates the biological effects of fresh whole cigarette smoke. It is most desirable to conduct in vitro biological studies under conditions which accommodate the dynamic physicochemical character of fresh cigarette smoke. Previously we reported the development of a whole smoke exposure system to assess the biological effects of mainstream cigarette smoke. The exposure system design was based on a combination of the sedimentation procedure and the CULTEX cultivation technique, which includes a systemized air/liquid interface methodology and exposes the cells to fresh smoke at every puff. The aim of this study was to adopt the other biological endpoint to our whole smoke exposure system. We focused on heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA gene expression, an enzyme which has recently been shown to be highly responsible for oxidative stress. In the present study, a dose-response relationship between the HO-1 mRNA expression based on the reverse transcription real-time PCR method and total exposure to cigarette smoke was observed. When a Cambridge filter pad was placed between the cigarette and exposure module, to ensure the cells were only exposed to the gas/vapor phase, the latter, as well as the whole smoke, induced HO-1 mRNA dose dependently. For the next step, acetate plain and charcoal filters with the same pressure drop were prepared to assess the potential ability of charcoal filters with regard to the vapor phase performance. The results revealed reduced HO-1 mRNA gene expression when a charcoal filter was used. Direct whole smoke exposure is a significant approach and may reflect the conditions of exposure essentially resulting from direct contact between cells and a dynamic mixture of gaseous and particulate constituents. We were able to adopt a gene expression assay for oxidative

  2. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell’Omo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma. PMID:26287220

  3. Influence of smoking charcoal filter tipped cigarettes on various biomarkers of exposure.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Gerhard; Urban, Michael; Engl, Johannes; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Riedel, Kirsten

    2006-09-01

    Charcoal (CC) filters of cigarettes are known to significantly reduce a series of volatile constituents in mainstream smoke, including reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein and crotonaldehyde. We performed a randomized, crossover, 2-wk brand-switching study with 39 smokers. Twenty of the subjects smoked cellulose acetate (CA) filter tipped cigarettes during wk 1 of the study; the remaining 19 subjects smoked CC filter tipped cigarettes during wk 1. In wk 2, the subjects switched to the corresponding brand with the other filter type, with similar smoking machine-derived tar and nicotine yields. Daily cigarette consumption, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath, salivary cotinine, and urinary nicotine equivalents (molar sum of nicotine plus five major metabolites) did not change significantly when switching to the cigarettes with the other filter type. Urinary excretion rates of 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (metabolite of crotonaldehyde), monohydroxybutenylmercapturic acid (metabolite of 1,3-butadiene), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (metabolite of benzene) were significantly lower when smoking CC compared to CA filter tipped cigarettes. The reduction in amount of 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (metabolite of acrolein) was of borderline significance. Other mercapturic acids and thioethers (the latter is a summary parameter that indicates the exposure to electrophilic compounds) were not or were only slightly reduced upon smoking CC filter tipped cigarettes. We conclude that smoking CC filter tipped cigarettes does not change the uptake of carbon monoxide and nicotine when compared to CA filter tipped cigarettes with similar tar and nicotine yields, but significantly reduces the exposure to toxicologically relevant smoke constituents such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and benzene.

  4. Prevalence and Impact of Active and Passive Cigarette Smoking in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Zhuo, Hanjing; Benowitz, Neal L.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Liu, Kathleen D.; Matthay, Michael A.; Calfee, Carolyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoke exposure has recently been found to be associated with increased susceptibility to trauma- and transfusion-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We sought to determine 1) the prevalence of cigarette smoke exposure in a diverse multi-center sample of ARDS patients, and 2) whether cigarette smoke exposure is associated with severity of lung injury and mortality in ARDS. Design Analysis of the Albuterol for the Treatment of ALI (ALTA) and Omega ARDS Network studies. Setting Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals. Patients Three hundred eighty one patients with ARDS. Interventions None. Measurements NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol), a validated tobacco-specific marker, was measured in urine samples from subjects enrolled in two NHLBI ARDS Network randomized controlled trials. Main Results Urine NNAL levels were consistent with active smoking in 36% of ARDS patients and with passive smoking in 41% of nonsmokers (vs 20% and 40% in general population, respectively). Patients with NNAL levels in the active smoking range were younger and had a higher prevalence of alcohol misuse, fewer comorbidities, lower severity of illness, and less septic shock at enrollment compared to patients with undetectable NNAL levels. Despite this lower severity of illness, the severity of lung injury did not significantly differ based on biomarker-determined smoking status. Cigarette smoke exposure was not significantly associated with death after adjusting for differences in age, alcohol use, comorbidities, and severity of illness. Conclusions In this first multicenter study of biomarker-determined cigarette smoke exposure in ARDS patients, we found that active cigarette smoke exposure was significantly more prevalent among ARDS patients compared to population averages. Despite their younger age, better overall health, and lower severity of illness, smokers by NNAL had similar severity of lung injury as patients with

  5. Effect of cigarette smoking on copper, lead, and cadmium accumulation in human lens

    PubMed Central

    Cekic, O.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To identify cigarette smoking as a risk factor for development of cataract, to determine the importance of copper, lead, and cadmium in cataractogenesis, and to learn about any relation between those elements.
METHODS—Copper, lead, and cadmium concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 37 cataractous and nine normal human lenses.
RESULTS—All three element accumulations in lenses with cataract were statistically meaningful. Lenticular copper, lead, and cadmium were increased significantly with cigarette smoking. Cadmium had a positive correlation both with lead and copper in cataractous lenses.
CONCLUSION—The accumulation of copper, lead, and cadmium occurs in cataract. The probable source of cadmium in humans is cigarettes. Lenticular cadmium accumulation also increases copper and lead precipitation in the lens. Cigarette smoking might be cataractogenic.

 Keywords: cigarettes; cataract; copper; lead; cadmium PMID:9613387

  6. Effect of cigarette smoke extract on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes chemiluminescence: influence of a filter containing glutathione.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Minucci, A; Fasanella, S; Scribano, D; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to be a risk factor for several chronic and neoplastic diseases. Many compounds formed by cigarette burning, ranging from particulate materials to water solutes and gaseous extracts, are considered to be noxious agents, and many biochemical and molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the toxic effects of cigarette smoke. The oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract represent the first contact areas for smoke compounds; even a single cigarette can produce marked effects on some components of the oral cavity, either chemical compounds, such as glutathione and enzymes, or cellular elements, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Several studies suggest a protective role of glutathione against the noxious effects of tobacco smoke; the sulphydril groups of glutathione, in fact, could react with some smoke products, such as unsaturated aldehydes, leading to the formation of harmless intermediate compounds and simultaneously preventing the inactivation of metabolically essential molecules, such as some enzymes. In this paper we analyse the effect of a filter containing glutathione on the respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to aqueous extract of cigarette smoke, measuring their chemiluminescence activity. The results of this paper indicate that the GSH-containing filter has a likely protective effect against the inhibition of cigarette smoke extract on polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity.

  7. Low-Dose Oxygen Enhances Macrophage-Derived Bacterial Clearance following Cigarette Smoke Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bain, William G; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Mandke, Pooja; Gans, Jonathan H; D'Alessio, Franco R; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K; Aggarwal, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, smoking-related lung disease. Patients with COPD frequently suffer disease exacerbations induced by bacterial respiratory infections, suggestive of impaired innate immunity. Low-dose oxygen is a mainstay of therapy during COPD exacerbations; yet we understand little about whether oxygen can modulate the effects of cigarette smoke on lung immunity. Methods. Wild-type mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 weeks, followed by intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) and 21% or 35-40% oxygen. After two days, lungs were harvested for PAO1 CFUs, and bronchoalveolar fluid was sampled for inflammatory markers. In culture, macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen (40%) for 24 hours and then incubated with PAO1, followed by quantification of bacterial phagocytosis and inflammatory markers. Results. Mice exposed to 35-40% oxygen after cigarette smoke and PAO1 had improved survival and reduced lung CFUs and inflammation. Macrophages from these mice expressed less TNF-α and more scavenger receptors. In culture, macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen also demonstrated decreased TNF-α secretion and enhanced phagocytosis of PAO1 bacteria. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate a novel, protective role for low-dose oxygen following cigarette smoke and bacteria exposure that may be mediated by enhanced macrophage phagocytosis.

  8. Pyrolysis and combustion of tobacco in a cigarette smoking simulator under air and nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin G; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis.

  9. Cigarette sidestream smoke induces phosphorylated histone H2AX.

    PubMed

    Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko

    2009-05-31

    Cigarette sidestream smoke (CSS) is a widespread environmental pollutant having highly genotoxic potency. In spite of the overwhelming evidence that CSS induces a wide range of DNA damage such as oxidative base damage and DNA adducts, evidence that CSS can result in DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is little. In this study, we showed that CSS generated phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), recently considered as a sensitive marker of the generation of DSBs, in a human pulmonary epithelial cell model, A549. Treatment with CSS drastically induced discrete foci of gamma-H2AX within the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner. CSS increased intracellular oxidation, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, significantly attenuated the formation of gamma-H2AX, suggesting that reactive oxygen species produced from CSS partially contributed to the phosphorylation. The generation of gamma-H2AX is considered to be accompanied the induction of DSBs. CSS in fact induced DSBs, which was also inhibited by NAC. DSBs are the worst type of DNA damage, related to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Our results would increase the evidence of the strong genotoxicity of passive smoking.

  10. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Amini, Somayyeh; Elmi, Zahra; Namazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Cigarette smoke can induce oral cancer by its free radicals and oxidative damage. Salivary anti-oxidants system is believed to have an important role in defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study was compared total antioxidant capacity (TAoC) of saliva in smokers and nonsmokers. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 male smokers with mean age of 45.23 years and 30 nonsmokers with mean age of 45.30 years participated. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected in the morning in two groups by spitting method. TAoC of saliva was measured with the special kit in two groups at the same time. Statistical analysis was performed by covariance test. Results. The mean salivary TAoC in nonsmokers (0.741±0.123 U/ml) was higher than that in smokers (0.529±0.167 U/ml). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion. Smoking can alter salivary antioxidant capacity. PMID:26889367

  11. How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G.; Wayne, G.; Lymperis, D.; Doherty, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
DATA SOURCES—Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.
STUDY SELECTION—Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data.
DATA EXTRACTION—Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS.
CONCLUSIONS—Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public, appropriate regulation of tobacco additives should be mandated.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco industry; additives; masking PMID:10982572

  12. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…

  13. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco.

  14. Limitations in the characterisation of cigarette products using different machine smoking regimes.

    PubMed

    Purkis, Stephen W; Troude, Valerie; Duputié, Gerald; Tessier, Christian

    2010-12-01

    It is recognised that no single machine smoking regime can represent the different behaviours of individual human smokers. It has been argued that the current ISO standard regime provides machine yields that are somewhat low for certain cigarette designs compared to human intake. Various cigarette machine smoking regimes have been proposed as options for regulatory use to provide data that reflect "average" or "maximum" yields as related to human intake. Some public health representatives have proposed that the intense regime mandated for testing in Canada with 100% of the ventilation holes in the cigarette filter blocked, should be used for product characterisation and that it is not necessary that it should reflect general human smoking behaviour. We believe that this is a flawed approach because our studies and those of other workers demonstrate that the conditions generated in the cigarette when using this intense machine smoking regime are extreme in comparison to the conditions found for regimes based more realistically on human smoking. In this paper, we provide data to show that smokers modify their smoking intensity over the course of smoking in response to changes in draw resistance, smoke concentrations and smoke temperatures. We compare changes in and interactions between these parameters during puffing when smoking cigarettes of different designs. Cigarettes were smoked using various machine smoking regimes previously proposed for smoke testing as well as a regime based on human smoking data from an 'in-house' study. Puffing parameters were derived from this study to represent the 'average smoker' under laboratory conditions and equivalent to the 90th percentile when the studied smokers smoked under natural conditions. Biomarker data from human uptake studies have shown that ventilation is an effective cigarette design tool to reduce total smoke constituent uptake in humans so demonstrating that any blocking of filter ventilation is far from 100

  15. The electronic-cigarette: effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognition.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Lynne; Turner, John; Hasna, Surrayyah; Soar, Kirstie

    2012-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of the White Super e-cigarette on desire to smoke, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, attention and working memory. Eighty-six smokers were randomly allocated to either: 18 mg nicotine e-cigarette (nicotine), 0mg e-cigarette (placebo), or just hold the e-cigarette (just hold) conditions. Participants rated their desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms at baseline (T1), and five (T2) and twenty (T3) minutes after using the e-cigarette ad libitum for 5 min. A subset of participants completed the Letter Cancellation and Brown-Peterson Working Memory Tasks. After 20 min, compared with the just hold group, desire to smoke and some aspects of nicotine withdrawal were significantly reduced in the nicotine and placebo group; the nicotine e-cigarette was superior to placebo in males but not in females. The nicotine e-cigarette also improved working memory performance compared with placebo at the longer interference intervals. There was no effect of nicotine on Letter Cancellation performance. To conclude, the White Super e-cigarette alleviated desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms 20 min after use although the nicotine content was more important for males. This study also demonstrated for the first time that the nicotine e-cigarette can enhance working memory performance. Further evaluation of the cognitive effects of the e-cigarette and its efficacy as a cessation tool is merited.

  16. Recent insights into cigarette smoking as a lifestyle risk factor for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kispert, Shannon; McHowat, Jane

    2017-01-01

    There have been many cohort studies published reviewing the epidemiological evidence that links breast cancer to cigarette smoking, yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown and research studies are few and incomplete. Although cohort studies are important in establishing a connection between breast cancer and cigarette smoking, basic science research is necessary to prove the relationship and to highlight potential interventions and drug targets that can be used to manage the disease. This subject has been controversial for many decades; however, there has been a recent resurgence in interest because of the widespread acknowledgment of the role lifestyle choices play in cancer development and progression. This review will detail the current statistics associated with cigarette smoking and discuss recent cohort and basic research studies that highlight the association of cigarette smoking and breast cancer initiation and progression. PMID:28331363

  17. Effect of cigarette smoke on human serum trypsin inhibitory capacity and antitrypsin concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, P.; Bone, R.C.; Louria, D.B.; Rayford, P.L.

    1982-07-01

    Investigation of the effect of cigarette smoke on the serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC) and antitrypsin content in 89 smokers compared with 37 nonsmokers revealed that cigarette smoking is associated with a significantly lower level of TIC. No alteration in serum antitrypsin content was found because of cigarette smoking. Further analysis of the data indicated a correlation between the magnitude of smoking and the reduction in serum TIC. The reduction of TIC in cigarette smokers is consistent with the recent findings of decreased alpha 1-antitrypsin activity in rat lung and the reduced elastase inhibitory capacity per mg of alpha 1-antitrypsin found in the serum of smokers. The decrease in TIC in the serum of smokers, in addition to the reported decrease in elastolytic activity, may be useful in explaining the pathogenesis of emphysema frequently found in smokers.

  18. The Relationship of Cigarette Smoking and Other Substance Use among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Nancy L.

    1993-01-01

    Administered questionnaire relating to cigarette smoking and substance use to 863 college students. Results indicated no significant difference between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with regard to use of smokeless tobacco, alcohol consumption, or marijuana use. There was significant difference in use of other illicit substances such that…

  19. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Contingency Management to Modify Cigarette Smoking by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smokers initiate this dangerous behavior during adolescence. This report describes a contingency management intervention designed to initate and maintain a period of abstinence from cigarettes by adolescent smokers. Results suggest that the intervention was…

  20. Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, Nathaniel; Goswami, Mamta; Han, Sung Gu; Clark, Samuel; Orren, David K.; Gairola, C. Gary; Mellon, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6–4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6–4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke. PMID:27391141

  1. The impact of menthol cigarettes on smoking initiation among non-smoking young females in Japan.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Gregory N; Behm, Ilan; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Wayne, Geoffrey F

    2011-01-01

    Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry's actions-increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females.

  2. Transient and persistent metabolomic changes in plasma following chronic cigarette smoke exposure in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion I; Mahaffey, Spencer; Justice, Matthew J; Hughes, Grant; Armstrong, Michael; Bowler, Russell P; Reisdorph, Richard; Petrache, Irina; Reisdorph, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is linked to the development of a variety of chronic lung and systemic diseases in susceptible individuals. Metabolomics approaches may aid in defining disease phenotypes, may help predict responses to treatment, and could identify biomarkers of risk for developing disease. Using a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure sufficient to cause mild emphysema, we investigated whether cigarette smoke induces distinct metabolic profiles and determined their persistence following smoking cessation. Metabolites were extracted from plasma and fractionated based on chemical class using liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction prior to performing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolites were evaluated for statistically significant differences among group means (p-value≤0.05) and fold change ≥1.5). Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with significant differences in amino acid, purine, lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolite levels compared to air exposed animals. Whereas 60% of the metabolite changes were reversible, 40% of metabolites remained persistently altered even following 2 months of smoking cessation, including nicotine metabolites. Validation of metabolite species and translation of these findings to human plasma metabolite signatures induced by cigarette smoking may lead to the discovery of biomarkers or pathogenic pathways of smoking-induced disease.

  3. Transient and Persistent Metabolomic Changes in Plasma following Chronic Cigarette Smoke Exposure in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion I.; Mahaffey, Spencer; Justice, Matthew J.; Hughes, Grant; Armstrong, Michael; Bowler, Russell P.; Reisdorph, Richard; Petrache, Irina; Reisdorph, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure is linked to the development of a variety of chronic lung and systemic diseases in susceptible individuals. Metabolomics approaches may aid in defining disease phenotypes, may help predict responses to treatment, and could identify biomarkers of risk for developing disease. Using a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure sufficient to cause mild emphysema, we investigated whether cigarette smoke induces distinct metabolic profiles and determined their persistence following smoking cessation. Metabolites were extracted from plasma and fractionated based on chemical class using liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction prior to performing liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolites were evaluated for statistically significant differences among group means (p-value≤0.05) and fold change ≥1.5). Cigarette smoke exposure was associated with significant differences in amino acid, purine, lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolite levels compared to air exposed animals. Whereas 60% of the metabolite changes were reversible, 40% of metabolites remained persistently altered even following 2 months of smoking cessation, including nicotine metabolites. Validation of metabolite species and translation of these findings to human plasma metabolite signatures induced by cigarette smoking may lead to the discovery of biomarkers or pathogenic pathways of smoking-induced disease. PMID:25007263

  4. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders

    PubMed Central

    James, Shirley A.; Meier, Ellen M.; Wagener, Theodore L.; Smith, Katherine M.; Neas, Barbara R.; Beebe, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or electronic cigarettes (EC). Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31), as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001). The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:26959042

  5. Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to

  6. Dosimetry of localized accumulations of cigarette smoke and radon progeny at bifurcations

    SciTech Connect

    Martonen, T.B.; Hofmann, W.

    1991-01-01

    The work focuses upon deposition and clearance processes affecting cigarette smoke particles and radon progeny within surrogate airway models, replica casts and the human lung. As shall be demonstrated, 'cloud motion' for mainstream cigarette smoke can produce locations of enhanced deposition not experienced with dilute aerosols composed of like-sized particles. These sites of concentrated deposits occur at airway bifurcations, especially at the inclusive carinal ridges.

  7. Erythromycin prevents the pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Mikura, Shinichiro; Wada, Hiroo; Higaki, Manabu; Yasutake, Tetsuo; Ishii, Haruyuki; Kamiya, Shigeru; Goto, Hajime

    2011-07-01

    The effect of erythromycin on the inflammation caused by exposure to cigarette smoke was investigated in this study. Mice were exposed either to cigarette smoke or to environmental air (control), and some mice exposed to cigarette smoke were treated with oral erythromycin (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days). Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by determining the cellular content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of various mediators, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, surfactant protein (SP)-D, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 in lung tissue were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. The exposure to cigarette smoke increased significantly the numbers of neutrophils (P = 0.029), macrophages (P = 0.029), and lymphocytes (P = 0.029) recovered in BAL fluid. Moreover, mRNA levels of KC (P = 0.029), MIP-2 (P = 0.029), SP-D (P = 0.029), and GM-CSF (P = 0.057) in the lung tissue were higher in mice exposed to cigarette smoke than in mice exposed to environmental air. In the erythromycin-treated mice that were exposed also to cigarette smoke, both neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in the BAL fluid than those in the vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.029). Erythromycin-treated mice exposed to cigarette smoke showed a trend of lower mRNA levels of KC and TNF-α in the lung tissue than those in the vehicle-treated mice, although the statistical significance was not achieved (P = 0.057). Our data demonstrated that erythromycin prevented lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke, in parallel to the reduced mRNA levels of KC and TNF-α.

  8. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Erika B.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kuiper, Nicole M.; Arrazola, Rene A.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. Methods By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. Results In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising. PMID:26308217

  9. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    PubMed

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  10. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields.

  11. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Surface Roughness of Different Denture Base Materials

    PubMed Central

    Mahross, Hamada Zaki; Mohamed, Mahmoud Darwish; Hassan, Ahmed Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background Surface roughness is an important property of denture bases since denture bases are in contact with oral tissues and a rough surface may affect tissues health due to microorganism accumulation. Therefore, the effect of cigarette smoke on the surface roughness of two commercially available denture base materials was evaluated to emphasize which type has superior properties for clinical use. Materials and Methods A total numbers of 40 specimens were constructed from two commercially available denture base materials; heat-cured PMMA and visible light cured UDMA resins (20 for each). The specimens for each type were randomly divided into: Group I: Heat cured resin control group; Group II: Heat cured acrylic resin specimens exposed to cigarette smoking; Group III: Light cured resin control group; Group IV: Light cured resin specimens exposed to cigarette smoking. The control groups used for immersion in distilled water and the smoke test groups used for exposure to cigarette smoking. The smoke test groups specimens were exposed to smoking in a custom made smoking chamber by using 20 cigarettes for each specimen. The surface roughness was measured by using Pocket SurfPS1 profilometer and the measurements considered as the difference between the initial and final roughness measured before and after smoking. Results The t-test for paired observation of test specimens after exposure to smoking was indicated significant change in surface roughness for Group II (p< 0.05) but has no significance with Group IV. Otherwise, there were no significant differences with control groups (Group I and III). Conclusion The surface roughness of the dentures constructed from heat cured acrylic resin had been increased after exposure to cigarette smoke but had no impact on the dentures constructed from visible light cured resin. PMID:26501010

  12. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and reproductive health in children: a review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Ernst, Andreas; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2014-01-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking may affect the intrauterine hormonal environment during pregnancy and this early fetal exposure may have detrimental effects on the future trajectory of reproductive health. In this review, we discuss the epidemiological literature on the association between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and several aspects of reproductive health. The literature points towards an increased risk of the urogenital malformation cryptorchidism, but a potential protective effect on the risk of hypospadias in sons following prenatal cigarette smoking exposure. Studies on sexual maturation find a tendency towards accelerated pubertal development in exposed boys and girls. In adult life, prenatally exposed men have impaired semen quality compared with unexposed individuals, but an influence on fecundability, that is, the biological ability to reproduce, is less evident. We found no evidence to support an association between prenatal cigarette smoking exposure and testicular cancer. Among adult daughters, research is sparse and inconsistent, but exposure to cigarette smoking in utero may decrease fecundability. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to cigarette smoking may cause some long-term adverse effects on the reproductive health. PMID:24369132

  13. Nativity and cigarette smoking among lower income blacks: results from the Healthy Directions Study.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gary G; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Arthur, Carlotta M; Askew, Sandy; Sorensen, Glorian; Emmons, Karen M

    2008-08-01

    Blacks in the United States bear the greatest disease burden associated with cigarette smoking. Previous studies have shown that the rapidly increasing population of foreign-born Blacks has lower smoking rates compared to their native-born counterparts. However, less is known about whether cigarette smoking among Blacks varies by region of birth (US, Africa, or the Caribbean), generational status, or acculturation. We examined the association between nativity and cigarette smoking among 667 Black adult men and women enrolled in the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program project. In multi-variable analyses, US-born Blacks were more likely to be smokers compared to those born in the Caribbean (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08, and 0.34) or in Africa (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.08, and 0.74). Language acculturation was positively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.17, and 5.85). We found that US-born Blacks were more likely to be current cigarette smokers than those born in either Caribbean or African countries. Our findings highlight the importance of intervening early new Black immigrants to stem the uptake of cigarette smoking behaviors as individuals become acculturated.

  14. Proteomic Profiling of Cigarette Smoke Induced Changes in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells.

    PubMed

    Merl-Pham, Juliane; Gruhn, Fabian; Hauck, Stefanie M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a medical condition usually affecting older adults and resulting in a loss of vision in the macula, the center of the visual field. The dry form of this disease presents with atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in the detachment of the retina and loss of photoreceptors. Cigarette smoke is one main risk factor for dry AMD and increases the risk of developing the disease by three times. In order to understand the influence of cigarette smoke on retinal pigment epithelial cells, cultured human ARPE-19 cells were treated with cigarette smoke extract for 24 h. Using quantitative mass spectrometry more than 3000 proteins were identified and their respective abundances were compared between cigarette smoke-treated and untreated cells. Altogether 1932 proteins were quantified with at least two unique peptides, with 686 proteins found to be significantly differentially abundant with p > 0.05. Of these proteins the abundance of 64 proteins was at least 2-fold down-regulated after cigarette smoke treatment while 120 proteins were 2-fold up-regulated. The analysis of associated biological processes revealed an alteration of proteins involved in RNA processing and transport as well as extracellular matrix remodelling in response to cigarette smoke treatment.

  15. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Workers in Accommodation and Food Services--United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Syamlal, Girija; Jamal, Ahmed; Mazurek, Jacek M

    2015-07-31

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. One of the Healthy People 2020 objectives calls for reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12% (objective TU-1.1). Despite progress in reducing smoking prevalence over the past several decades, nearly one in five U.S. adults, including millions of workers, still smoke cigarettes. During 2004-2010, nearly one fifth (19.6%) of U.S. working adults aged ≥18 years smoked cigarettes, and of all the industry sectors, current smoking prevalence among the accommodation and food services sector workers (30%) was the highest. CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2011-2013 to estimate current cigarette smoking prevalence among adults working in the accommodation and food services sector, and found that these workers had higher cigarette smoking prevalence (25.9%) than all other workers (17.3%). Among workers in accommodation and food services sector, the highest smoking prevalences were observed among males, non-Hispanic whites, those aged 25-44 years, those with a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate and no college education, those with an annual family income <$35,000, those with no health insurance, and those working in the food services and drinking places industry. These results indicate a need to better understand the reasons for higher smoking prevalence observed among accommodation and food services workers (e.g., workplace culture), so that appropriate intervention strategies can be developed and implemented. Evidence suggests that smoke-free worksites and workplace cessation programs, including comprehensive worksite smoke-free policies, health promotion, access to smoking cessation programs, and increasing the cost of tobacco products, can substantially reduce smoking among workers.

  16. Interaction of cigarette smoking and carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms in the risk of colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The causal role of cigarette smoking in the risk of colorectal neoplasm has been suggested but not established. In a case–control study including 2060 colorectal polyp patients and 3336 polyp-free controls, we evaluated 21 functional genetic variants to construct a tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk score. Data regarding cigarette smoking were obtained through telephone interviews. Cigarette smoking was associated with an elevated risk of both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. The association with smoking was stronger in participants with a high carcinogen-metabolizing risk score than those with a low risk score. Smoking 30 or more cigarettes per day was associated with a 1.7-fold elevated risk of any polyps (95% confidence interval = 1.3–2.2) among those with a low genetic risk score and 2.9-fold elevated risk (95% confidence interval = 1.8–4.8) among those with a high genetic risk score (P interaction = 0.025). A similar pattern of interaction was observed in analyses conducted separately for those with adenomas only (P interaction = 0.039) and hyperplastic polyps only (P interaction = 0.024). Interaction between carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk and cigarette smoking was found in relation to high-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.010) but not low-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.791). No apparent interaction was found for duration of smoking. This study shows that the association between cigarette smoking and colorectal polyp risk is modified by tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms, providing support for a causal role of cigarette smoking in the etiology of colorectal tumors. PMID:23299405

  17. Interaction of cigarette smoking and carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms in the risk of colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Li, Guoliang; Smalley, Walter E; Hein, David W; Cai, Qiuyin; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2013-04-01

    The causal role of cigarette smoking in the risk of colorectal neoplasm has been suggested but not established. In a case-control study including 2060 colorectal polyp patients and 3336 polyp-free controls, we evaluated 21 functional genetic variants to construct a tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk score. Data regarding cigarette smoking were obtained through telephone interviews. Cigarette smoking was associated with an elevated risk of both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. The association with smoking was stronger in participants with a high carcinogen-metabolizing risk score than those with a low risk score. Smoking 30 or more cigarettes per day was associated with a 1.7-fold elevated risk of any polyps (95% confidence interval = 1.3-2.2) among those with a low genetic risk score and 2.9-fold elevated risk (95% confidence interval = 1.8-4.8) among those with a high genetic risk score (P interaction = 0.025). A similar pattern of interaction was observed in analyses conducted separately for those with adenomas only (P interaction = 0.039) and hyperplastic polyps only (P interaction = 0.024). Interaction between carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk and cigarette smoking was found in relation to high-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.010) but not low-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.791). No apparent interaction was found for duration of smoking. This study shows that the association between cigarette smoking and colorectal polyp risk is modified by tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms, providing support for a causal role of cigarette smoking in the etiology of colorectal tumors.

  18. E-cigarettes and expectancies: Why do some users keep smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Paul T.; Simmons, Vani N.; Piñeiro, Barbara; Correa, John B.; Menzie, Nicole S.; Meltzer, Lauren R.; Unrod, Marina; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Many smokers who have tried electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) continue to smoke, perhaps influenced by their beliefs about the outcomes of using e-cigarettes (“e-cigarette expectancies”). The primary aims of this study were to compare expectancies of dual users to former smokers, and to examine the association between expectancies and intentions to quit or reduce “vaping” among former smokers. Design and Setting A large cross-sectional online survey of e-cigarette users conducted in the USA. Participants We surveyed current e-cigarette users (N=1815), including both current cigarette smokers (“dual users,” n=381) and former smokers (n=1434). We further subdivided former smokers into those with (n=686) and without (n=748) intentions to reduce or quit e-cigarette use. Measurements The primary outcomes were self-reported past-month smoking status and, among former smokers, current intentions to reduce or quit e-cigarette use, both adjusted for potential confounders. E-cigarette expectancy items were primarily derived from a previously validated measure of smoking expectancies. Findings Dual users reported less positive expectancies than former smokers about e-cigarettes, rating e-cigarettes as more physically irritating (β=−0.10, p<0.001) and addictive (β=0.06, p=0.016), as well as less satisfying (β= −0.11, p<0.001). Former smokers with intentions to quit e-cigarettes also rated e-cigarettes less positively than former smokers without intentions to quit e-cigarettes, rating them more likely to damage health (β=0.16, p<0.001) and cause addiction (β=0.10, p<0.001), but less likely to taste good (β= −0.08, p=0.006). Conclusions Positive e-cigarette expectancies among e-cigarette users are associated with a greater likelihood of having quit smoking, but lower likelihood of intention to quit e-cigarette use. PMID:26173651

  19. Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    defining the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utilization of different methods used to estimate exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:19125149

  20. [Smoking and digestive tract: a complex relationship. Part 2: Intestinal microblota and cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Begon, Jacques; Juillerat, Pascal; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2015-06-10

    The digestive tract is colonized from birth by a bacterial population called the microbiota which influences the development of the immune system. Modifications in its composition are associated with problems such as obesity or inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotics are known to influence the intestinal microbiota but other environmental factors such as cigarette smoking also seem to have an impact on its composition. This influence might partly explain weight gain which is observed after smoking cessation. Indeed there is a modification of the gut microbiota which becomes similar to that of obese people with a microbiotical profile which is more efficient to extract calories from ingested food. These new findings open new fields of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches through the regulation of the microbiota.

  1. Predictors of cigarette smoking by young adults and readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Schmid, H

    2001-09-01

    A survey on cigarette smoking of a sample of 406 students aged 16/17 years from a Swiss city was carried out in 1995, and the sample was reinvestigated in 1998. Measures were taken of gender, age, school attendance (vocational or other), negative feelings, perception of danger. parental smoking, and reasons for smoking or not smoking at Time 1. Time-2 measures included stages-of-change in smoking cessation and nicotine addiction. Negative feelings at ages 16/17 were predictive of nicotine addiction at ages 19/20, and highly predictive for starting smoking within this period. Frequent smoking and relaxation as a reason for smoking was more likely for sustained smokers than for quitters. The results suggest that if adolescents begin to smoke in order to cope with negative feelings they continue to do so and increase their smoking. Cessation can probably be promoted by advice to reduce the frequency of smoking.

  2. Effect of filtration by activated charcoal on the toxicological activity of cigarette mainstream smoke from experimental cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gaworski, Charles L; Schramke, Heike; Diekmann, Joerg; Meisgen, Thomas J; Tewes, Franz J; Veltel, Detlef J; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick M; Rajendran, Narayanan; Muzzio, Miguel; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2009-07-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) filtration reportedly decreases the yields of smoke vapor phase constituents including some identified as human carcinogens and respiratory irritants. Non-clinical studies including chemical smoke analysis, in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity (bacterial and mammalian cells), and in vivo subchronic rat inhalation studies were carried out using machine smoking at ISO conditions with lit-end research cigarettes containing AC filters. The objective was to assess whether AC filter technology would alter the established toxicity profile of mainstream smoke by increasing or decreasing any known toxicological properties, or elicit new ones. The reduced yield of vapor phase irritants from AC filter cigarettes correlated with markedly decreased in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo morphology of the nose and lower respiratory tract. Increased yields of particulate phase constituents (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in AC filtered smoke were noted in comparison to controls in some studies. The in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of AC filtered smoke particulate preparations was occasionally increased over control levels. Laryngeal epithelial thickness was increased in some rats inhaling AC filtered smoke in comparison to controls, an effect perhaps related to higher inspiratory flow. When tested under more intense Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions, AC filter associated reductions in vapor phase constituent yields were smaller than those seen with ISO conditions, but the effect on in vitro cytotoxicity remained.

  3. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  4. Cigarette smoke ventilation decreases prostaglandin inactivation in rat and hamster lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Maennistoe, J.; Uotila, P.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke on the metabolism of exogenous PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were investigated in isolated rat and hamster lungs. When isolated lungs from animals were ventilated with cigarette smoke during pulmonary infusion of 100 nmol of PGE2 or PGF2 alpha, the amounts of the 15-keto-metabolites in the perfusion effluent were decreased. Pre-exposure of animals to cigarette smoke daily for 3 weeks did not change the metabolism of PGE2 when the lungs were ventilated with air. Cigarette smoke ventilation of lungs from pre-exposed animals caused, however, a similar decrease in the metabolism of PGE2 as in animals not previously exposed to smoke. After pulmonary injection of 10 nmol of /sup 14/C-PGE2 the radioactivity appeared more rapidly in the effluent during cigarette smoke ventilation suggesting inhibition of the PGE2 uptake mechanism. In rat lungs pulmonary vascular pressor responses to PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were inhibited by smoke ventilation.

  5. Cytogenetic effects of cigarette smoke on pulmonary alveolar macrophages of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Rithidech, K.; Chen, B.T.; Mauderly, J.L.; Whorton, E.B. Jr.; Brooks, A.L. )

    1989-01-01

    To determine accurately the potential genetic damage induced by toxic inhaled agents, the cells that receive a high concentration of such agents should be analyzed. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) represent such cells. The authors compared the cytogenetic effects of cigarette smoke on PAMs of rats exposed repeatedly by different methods. This study was part of a larger investigation of the health effects resulting from different methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke. Fischer 344/N male rats were randomly selected from five different exposure groups. The rats were exposed 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 22-24 days. All smoke-exposed rats received the same daily concentrations {times} time product of cigarette smoke. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with colchicine at the end of exposure. PAMs were obtained by lung lavage and chromosomal damage was measured. Highly significant smoke-induced differences in both structural and numerical aberrations were observed in continuously exposed rats vs. sham controls, regardless route of exposure. The structural aberrations observed were chromatid-type deletions. Both hypoploid and hyperploid cells were detected. The data suggest that cigarette smoke is clastogenic and may disrupt spindle-fiber formation. These activities may play a role in the induction of human carcinogenesis caused by cigarette smoke exposure.

  6. Exposure of bronchial epithelial cells to whole cigarette smoke: assessment of cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jeremy; Kluss, Bruno; Richter, Audrey; Massey, Eian

    2005-06-01

    Cigarette smoke is composed of approximately 5% particulate phase and 95% vapour phase by weight. However, routine in vitro toxicological testing of smoke normally only measures the activity of the particulate phase. This study describes a new system for exposing cells at an air-liquid interface to serial dilutions of gaseous smoke. Confluent monolayers of NCI-H292 human lung epithelial cells on semipermeable membranes were placed in a purpose-designed Perspex chamber at an air-liquid interface. The cells were exposed to dilute whole mainstream cigarette smoke for 30 minutes, followed by a 20-hour recovery period. Firstly, high and low delivery cigarettes were compared, and cytotoxicity was determined by using the neutral red uptake assay. Clear differential cytotoxic responses were observed with the two cigarette types, which correlated positively with the concentrations of components in smoke, and particularly compounds in the vapour phase, such as aldehydes. Secondly, low doses of smoke were found to up-regulate mRNA levels of the secreted mucin, MUC5AC, and to stimulate the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and matrix-metalloprotease-1, but had no effect on growth-related oncogene alpha. This system will facilitate further investigations into the toxicological mechanisms of cigarette smoke components, and may be useful for studying other gaseous mixtures or aerosols.

  7. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vu, Trung; Jin, Lin; Datta, Pran K

    2016-04-11

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS) can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking.

  8. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Trung; Jin, Lin; Datta, Pran K.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS) can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking. PMID:27077888

  9. Electronic Cigarettes: Smoke-Free Laws, Sale Restrictions, and the Public Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Consumer use of e-cigarettes is rising despite a lack of rigorous safety testing, manufacturing controls, and a well-understood risk profile. Many states and municipalities have prohibited e-cigarette sale to minors or amended their smoke-free laws to restrict public use. I discuss the public health impact of e-cigarettes and the current lack of Food and Drug Administration regulation, and advocate that states and localities reexamine their smoke-free laws and sale restrictions to appropriately regulate public use and youth access. PMID:24825224

  10. Cigarette smoking among college students attending a historically Black college and university.

    PubMed

    Laws, Michelle A; Huang, Chien Ju; Brown, Roderick F; Richmond, Al; Conerly, Rhonda C

    2006-02-01

    Very little is known about the prevalence, patterns, social norms, and trends of smoking among students attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). The current study assessed the prevalence, patterns, and norms associated with cigarette smoking among a cross-sectional random sample of 371 undergraduate college students at a historically Black university in North Carolina. Eighty-seven percent of the respondents were non-smokers. Eighty-six percent of the students reported that smoking was discouraged among their peers and 45% responded that they preferred associating with peers who did not smoke cigarettes. Seventy-one percent of the students responded that they did not smoke before the age of 18 and 55% reported that, while they were growing up, neither of their parents smoked. Preliminary findings of this study indicate that smoking is not widely practiced and has not become a socially acceptable or encouraged norm among college students attending an HBCU.

  11. Gene-environment interaction between the MMP9 C-1562T promoter variant and cigarette smoke in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Marija; Kojic, Snezana; Djordjevic, Valentina; Tomovic, Andrija; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Petrovic-Stanojevic, Natasa; Mitic-Milikic, Marija; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2016-07-01

    The aetiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complex. While cigarette smoking is a well-established cause of COPD, a myriad of assessed genetic factors has given conflicting data. Since gene-environment interactions are thought to be implicated in aetiopathogenesis of COPD, we aimed to examine the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 C-1562T (rs3918242) functional variant and cigarette smoke in the pathogenesis of this disease. The distribution of the MMP9 C-1562T variant was analyzed in COPD patients and controls with normal pulmonary function from Serbia. Interaction between the C-1562T genetic variant and cigarette smoking was assessed using a case-control model. The response of the C-1562T promoter variant to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) exposure was examined using a dual luciferase reporter assay. The frequency of T allele carriers was higher in the COPD group than in smoker controls (38.4% vs. 20%; OR = 2.7, P = 0.027). Interaction between the T allele and cigarette smoking was identified in COPD occurrence (OR = 4.38, P = 0.005) and severity (P = 0.001). A functional analysis of the C-1562T variant demonstrated a dose-dependent and allele-specific response (P < 0.01) to CSC. Significantly higher MMP9 promoter activity following CSC exposure was found for the promoter harboring the T allele compared to the promoter harboring the C allele (P < 0.05). Our study is the first to reveal an interaction between the MMP9-1562T allele and cigarette smoke in COPD, emphasising gene-environment interactions as a possible cause of lung damage in the pathogenesis of COPD. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:447-454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of Permeability of Tipping Paper on Cigarette Burning Temperature and the Property of Mainstream Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhen-Yu; Shen, Yan; Huang, Hai-Qun; Xu, Ji-Cang

    2016-05-01

    Cigarette smoke analysis of tipping paper with different permeability was carried out. The infrared thermal imager was used to measure burning temperature of cigarette with different permeability tipping paper. The results indicated that with the increase of tipping paper permeability, Tar, CO and nicotine in cigarette mainstream were significantly linear decreased, puff count was increased. Tipping paper permeability had a great influence on cigarette burning temperature. With the increase of tipping paper permeability, the third puff burning temperature and the average peak temperature values were dropped obviously, but the changes of smoldering temperature were not obvious. In addition, smoldering average temperature was significantly lower than the third puff burning temperature and peak temperature.

  13. Cigarette Smoke Decreases the Maturation of Lung Myeloid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calero-Acuña, Carmen; Moreno-Mata, Nicolás; Gómez-Izquierdo, Lourdes; Sánchez-López, Verónica; López-Ramírez, Cecilia; Tobar, Daniela; López-Villalobos, José Luis; Gutiérrez, Cesar; Blanco-Orozco, Ana; López-Campos, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background Conflicting data exist on the role of pulmonary dendritic cells (DCs) and their maturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Herein, we investigated whether disease severity and smoking status could affect the distribution and maturation of DCs in lung tissues of patients undergoing elective pneumectomy or lobectomy for suspected primary lung cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 75 consecutive patients were included. Spirometry testing was used to identify COPD. Lung parenchyma sections anatomically distant from the primary lesion were examined. We used flow cytometry to identify different DCs subtypes—including BDCA1-positive myeloid DCs (mDCs), BDCA3-positive mDCs, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs)—and determine their maturation markers (CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86) in all participants. We also identified follicular DCs (fDCs), Langerhans DCs (LDCs), and pDCs in 42 patients by immunohistochemistry. Results COPD was diagnosed in 43 patients (16 current smokers and 27 former smokers), whereas the remaining 32 subjects were classified as non-COPD (11 current smokers, 13 former smokers, and 8 never smokers). The number and maturation of DCs did not differ significantly between COPD and non-COPD patients. However, the results of flow cytometry indicated that maturation markers CD40 and CD83 of BDCA1-positive mDCs were significantly decreased in smokers than in non-smokers (P = 0.023 and 0.013, respectively). Immunohistochemistry also revealed a lower number of LDCs in COPD patients than in non-COPD subjects. Conclusions Cigarette smoke, rather than airflow limitation, is the main determinant of impaired DCs maturation in the lung. PMID:27058955

  14. Cigarette advertising and children's smoking: why Reg was withdrawn.

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, G. B.; Ryan, H.; Teer, P.; MacKintosh, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the appeal of the Embassy Regal "Reg" campaign to young people. DESIGN--Three quantitative surveys and one piece of qualitative research: (a) self completion questionnaire administered in classrooms, (b) questionnaire led interviews with children, (c) questionnaire led interviews with adults, and (d) group discussions with children and adults. SETTINGS--(a) Secondary and middle schools in England; (b) north of England, Scotland, and Wales; (c) north of England, Scotland, and Wales; and (d) Glasgow. SUBJECTS--(a) 5451 schoolchildren aged 11-15 recruited by stratified random sampling; (b) 437 children aged 5-10 recruited by quota sampling; (c) 814 adults aged 15-65 recruited by quota sampling; and (d) 12 groups of children aged 10-15, three groups of adults aged 18-24, and three groups of adults aged 35-55. RESULTS--Children were familiar with cigarette advertising and in particular the Reg campaign. Although younger children struggled to understand the creative content of the adverts, older and smoking children could understand and appreciate the humour. They considered Reg to be amusing and could relate to the type of joke used in the advert. In addition Reg's flippant attitude towards serious issues appealed to the children. While adults aged 18-24 understood the campaign they did not identify with it, and 35-55 year olds (the campaign's supposed target) were unappreciative of the campaign. CONCLUSIONS--The Reg campaign was getting through to children more effectively than it was to adults and held most appeal for teenagers, particularly 14-15 year old smokers. It clearly contravened the code governing tobacco advertising, which states that advertising must not appeal to children more than it does to adults, and it may have had a direct impact on teenage smoking. In view of these findings the Advertising Standards Authority's decision to withdraw the Reg campaign seems appropriate. Images p935-a PMID:7950668

  15. The relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and cigarette smoking over pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Magee, Susanna R; Bublitz, Margaret H; Orazine, Christina; Brush, Bridget; Salisbury, Amy; Niaura, Raymond; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-05-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is one of the most preventable causes of infant morbidity and mortality, yet 80 % of women who smoked prior to pregnancy continue to smoke during pregnancy. Past studies have found that lower maternal-fetal attachment predicts smoking status in pregnancy, yet past research has not examined whether maternal-fetal attachment predicts patterns or quantity of smoking among pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and patterns of maternal smoking among pregnant smokers. We used self-reported and biochemical markers of cigarette smoking in order to better understand how maternal-fetal attachment relates to the degree of fetal exposure to nicotine. Fifty-eight pregnant smokers participated in the current study. Women completed the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale, reported weekly smoking behaviors throughout pregnancy using the Timeline Follow Back interview, and provided a saliva sample at 30 and 35 weeks gestation and 1 day postpartum to measure salivary cotinine concentrations. Lower maternal-fetal attachment scores were associated with higher salivary cotinine at 30 weeks gestation and 1 day postpartum. As well, women who reported lower fetal attachment reported smoking a greater maximum number of cigarettes per day, on average, over pregnancy. Lower maternal-fetal attachment is associated with greater smoking in pregnancy. Future research might explore whether successful smoking cessation programs improve maternal assessments of attachment to their infants.

  16. Gene expression in the lung of p53 mutant mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto; Cartiglia, Cristina; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Bagnasco, Maria; Merello, Andrea; You, Ming; Lubet, Ronald A; De Flora, Silvio

    2004-12-01

    We showed previously that p53 mutations play a role in cigarette smoke-related carcinogenesis not only in humans but also in A/J mice. In fact, (UL53-3 x A/J)F(1) mice, carrying a dominant-negative germ-line p53 mutation, responded to exposure to environmental cigarette smoke more efficiently than their wild-type (wt) littermate controls in terms of molecular alterations, cytogenetic damage, and lung tumor yield. To clarify the mechanisms involved, we analyzed by cDNA array the expression of 1,185 cancer-related genes in the lung of the same mice. Neither environmental cigarette smoke nor the p53 status affected the expression of the p53 gene, but the p53 mutation strikingly increased the basal levels of p53 nuclear protein in the lung. Environmental cigarette smoke increased p53 protein levels in wt mice only. The p53 mutation enhanced the expression of positive cell cycle regulators in sham-exposed mice, which suggests a physiologic protective role of p53. In environmental cigarette smoke-exposed mice, the p53 mutation resulted in a lack of induction of proapoptotic genes and in overexpression of genes involved in cell proliferation, signal transduction, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response. Mutant mice and wt mice reacted to environmental cigarette smoke in a similar manner regarding genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics, multidrug resistance, and protein repair. Irrespective of the p53 status, environmental cigarette smoke poorly affected the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. Taken together, these findings may explain the increased susceptibility of p53 mutant mice to smoke-related alterations of intermediate biomarkers and lung carcinogenesis.

  17. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  18. The cigarette advertising broadcast ban and magazine coverage of smoking and health.

    PubMed

    Warner, K E; Goldenhar, L M

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the cigarette broadcast advertising ban, which took effect in 1971, cigarette manufacturers rapidly shifted advertising expenditures from the broadcast media to the print media. In the last year of broadcast advertising and the first year of the ban, cigarette ad expenditures in a sample of major national magazines increased by 49 and then 131 percent in constant dollars. From an 11-year period preceding the ban to an 11-year period following it, these magazines decreased their coverage of smoking and health by 65 percent, an amount that is statistically significantly greater than decreases found in magazines that did not carry cigarette ads and in two major newspapers. This finding adds to evidence that media dependent on cigarette advertising have restricted their coverage of smoking and health. This may have significant implications for public health, as well as raising obvious concerns about the integrity of the profession of journalism.

  19. Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.R.; Browse, N.L.; Rutt, D.L.; Butler, L.; Fletcher, C.

    1988-01-01

    The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to /sup 125/I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine.

  20. Oxidative damage in keratinocytes exposed to cigarette smoke and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Avezov, Katia; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror

    2014-06-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a significant environmental source of human exposure to chemically active saturated (acetaldehyde) and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein) inducing protein carbonylation and dysfunction. The exposure of oral tissues to environmental hazards is immense, especially in smokers. The objectives of the current study were to examine the effect of aldehydes originating from CS on intracellular proteins of oral keratinocytes and to observe the antioxidant response in these cells. Intracellular protein carbonyl modification under CS, acrolein and acetaldehyde exposure in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line, representing oral keratinocytes was examined by Western blot. Possible intracellular enzymatic dysfunction under the above conditions was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Oxidative stress response was investigated, by DCF (2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein) assay and GSH (glutathione) oxidation. Intracellular protein carbonyls increased 5.2 times after CS exposure and 2.7 times after exposure to 1 μmol of acrolein. DCF assay revealed an increase of fluorescence intensity 3.2 and 3.1 times after CS and acrolein exposure, respectively. CS caused a 72.5% decrease in intracellular GSH levels compared to controls. Activity of intracellular LDH was preserved. α,β-Unsaturated aldehydes from CS are capable of intracellular protein carbonylation and have a role in intracellular oxidative stress elevation in keratinocytes, probably due to the reduction in GSH levels.

  1. "Creative solutions": selling cigarettes in a smoke-free world

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Malone, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the development and execution of the "Creative Solutions" Benson & Hedges advertising campaign to understand its social, political, and commercial implications. Methods: Searches of the Philip Morris documents and Legacy Tobacco Documents websites for relevant materials; Lexis/Nexis searches of major news and business publications; and denotative and connotative analyses of the advertising imagery. Results: Philip Morris developed the Creative Solutions campaign in an effort to directly confront the successes of the tobacco control movement in establishing new laws and norms that promoted clean indoor air. The campaign's imagery attempted to help smokers and potential smokers overcome the physical and social downsides of smoking cigarettes by managing risk and resolving internal conflict. The slogans suggested a variety of ways for smokers to respond to restrictions on their habit. The campaign also featured information about the Accommodation Program, Philip Morris's attempt to organise opposition to clean indoor air laws. Conclusion: The campaign was a commercial failure, with little impact on sales of the brand. Philip Morris got some exposure for the Accommodation Program and its anti-regulatory position. The lack of commercial response to the ads suggests that they were unable to successfully resolve the contradictions that smokers were increasingly experiencing and confirms the power of changing social norms to counter tobacco industry tactics. PMID:14985598

  2. Cyto-genotoxic effects of smoke from commercial filter and non-filter cigarettes on human bronchial and pulmonary cells.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Delia; Ursini, Cinzia L; Fresegna, Anna M; Maiello, Raffaele; Ciervo, Aureliano; Ferrante, Riccardo; Buresti, Giuliana; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-01-20

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of chemicals, some of which are known as carcinogens. The cyto-genotoxic effects of cigarette-smoke extract (CSE) from commercial cigarettes without (A and B) and with filter (C and D) were evaluated at different CSE concentrations on A549 and BEAS-2B cells. The particle content of the cigarette smoke and the metal composition of the CSE were also analyzed. The cells were exposed to 1-10% of the CSE from one cigarette per experiment. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by use of the MTT assay after 24h, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay after 30min and 24h. The Fpg-modified comet assay was used to evaluate direct-oxidative DNA damage on cells exposed for 30min. As expected, unfiltered cigarette smoke (particularly from the B cigarette) contained a higher number of particles than filtered smoke. With smoke extract from the B cigarette we found a decrease in cell viability only in BEAS-2B cells. The results of the LDH test showed membrane damage for B-cigarette smoke extract, particularly in BEAS-2B cells. Extracts from unfiltered cigarette smoke induced significant direct DNA damage, to a larger extent in A549 cells. Filtered cigarette-smoke extract induced a significant direct DNA damage at 5-10%. A significant induction of oxidative DNA damage was found at the highest CSE concentration in both cell types (by smoke extracts from B and C cigarettes in A549 cells, and from A and D cigarettes in BEAS-2B cells). Smoke extracts from filter cigarettes induced less direct DNA damage than those from unfiltered cigarettes in A549 cells, probably due to a protective effect of filter. In BEAS-2B cells the smoke extract from the B-cigarette showed the highest genotoxic effect, with a concentration-dependent trend. These findings show a higher cyto-genotoxicity for smoke extracts from the B-cigarette and oxidative effects for those from the A and D cigarettes, particularly in BEAS-2B cells. Moreover, there was a higher responsiveness of A549

  3. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking: effect on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Fabro, S

    1983-06-01

    Both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy remain an important concern for the practicing obstetrician, who should provide current information on the potential detrimental effects of these habits. There appears to be a wide spectrum of fetal phenotypic response to the effects of alcohol. This phenotypic variability may be partially explained by the dose, timing, and pattern of gestational exposure, the metabolism of mother or fetus, or other environmental and genetic factors. At the most severe end of the spectrum are infants with the unique combination of anomalies termed the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The abnormalities most typically associated with alcohol teratogenicity can be grouped into 4 categories: central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions; growth deficiencies; a characteristic cluster of facial abnormalites, and variable major and minor malformations. To make a diagnosis of fullblown FAS, abnormalities in all 4 categories must be present. Along the continuum toward normal are infants with various combinations of FAS anomalies. One of the most common and serious defects associated with ethanol teratogenicity is mental retardation. Recent evidence supports the concept of a prenatal origin to the problem. At birth infants with FAS are deficient for both length and weight, usually at or below the 3rd percentile for both parameters. Growth and mental deficiency are seen in many conditions, but the rather striking facial appearance of children with FAS secures the diagnosis. The characteristic face in small children includes short palpebral fissures, short upturned nose, hypoplastic philtrum, hypoplastic maxilla, and thinned upper vermilion. A table lists the variety of malformations that may be found in other organ systems in patients with FAS. The likelihood of miscarriage increases directly with alcohol consumption. Risk of abortion is twice as high in women consuming 1 ounce of absolute alcohol (AA) as infrequently as twice a week

  4. A longitudinal study of smokers' exposure to cigarette smoke and the effects of spontaneous product switching.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Sommarström, Johan; Camacho, Oscar M; Sisodiya, Ajit S; Prasad, Krishna

    2015-06-01

    A challenge in investigating the effect of public health policies on cigarette consumption and exposure arises from variation in a smoker's exposure from cigarette to cigarette and the considerable differences between smokers. In addition, limited data are available on the effects of spontaneous product switching on a smoker's cigarette consumption and exposure to smoke constituents. Over 1000 adult smokers of the same commercial 10mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) tar yield cigarette were recruited into the non-residential, longitudinal study across 10 cities in Germany. Cigarette consumption, mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone were measured every 6months over a 3 and a half year period. Cigarette consumption remained stable through the study period and did not vary significantly when smokers spontaneously switched products. Mouth level exposure decreased for smokers (n=111) who switched to cigarettes of 7mg ISO tar yield or lower. In addition, downward trends in mouth level exposure estimates were observed for smokers who did not switch cigarettes. Data from this study illustrate some of the challenges in measuring smokers' long-term exposure to smoke constituents in their everyday environment.

  5. Increased Myeloid Cell Production and Lung Bacterial Clearance in Mice Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Basilico, Paola; Cremona, Tiziana P; Oevermann, Anna; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Benarafa, Charaf

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although most patients with COPD are smokers, the effects of cigarette smoke exposure on clearance of lung bacterial pathogens and on immune and inflammatory responses are incompletely defined. Here, clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and associated immune responses were examined in mice exposed to cigarette smoke or after smoking cessation. Mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 weeks or 4 months demonstrated decreased lung bacterial burden compared with air-exposed mice when infected 16 to 24 hours after exposure. When infection was performed after smoke cessation, bacterial clearance kinetics of mice previously exposed to smoke reversed to levels comparable to those of control mice, suggesting that the observed defects were not dependent on adaptive immunological memory to bacterial determinants found in smoke. Comparing cytokine levels and myeloid cell production before infection in mice exposed to cigarette smoke with mice never exposed or after smoke cessation revealed that reduced bacterial burden was most strongly associated with higher levels of IL-1β and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the lungs and with increased neutrophil reserve and monocyte turnover in the bone marrow. Using Serpinb1a-deficient mice with reduced neutrophil numbers and treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor showed that increased neutrophil numbers contribute only in part to the effect of smoke on infection. Our findings indicate that cigarette smoke induces a temporary and reversible increase in clearance of lung pathogens, which correlates with local inflammation and increased myeloid cell output from the bone marrow.

  6. Cigarette smoke exposure exacerbates lung inflammation and compromises immunity to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Lugade, Amit A; Bogner, Paul N; Thatcher, Thomas H; Sime, Patricia J; Phipps, Richard P; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2014-06-01

    The detrimental impact of tobacco on human health is clearly recognized, and despite aggressive efforts to prevent smoking, close to one billion individuals worldwide continue to smoke. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are susceptible to recurrent respiratory infections with pathogens, including nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), yet the reasons for this increased susceptibility are poorly understood. Because mortality rapidly increases with multiple exacerbations, development of protective immunity is critical to improving patient survival. Acute NTHI infection has been studied in the context of cigarette smoke exposure, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate chronic infection and the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI after chronic smoke exposure. After chronic NTHI infection, mice that had previously been exposed to cigarette smoke developed increased lung inflammation and compromised adaptive immunity relative to air-exposed controls. Importantly, NTHI-specific T cells from mice exposed to cigarette smoke produced lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-4, and B cells produced reduced levels of Abs against outer-membrane lipoprotein P6, with impaired IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA class switching. However, production of IL-17, which is associated with neutrophilic inflammation, was enhanced. Interestingly, cigarette smoke-exposed mice exhibited a similar defect in the generation of adaptive immunity after immunization with P6. Our study has conclusively demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure has a profound suppressive effect on the generation of adaptive immune responses to NTHI and suggests the mechanism by which prior cigarette smoke exposure predisposes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to recurrent infections, leading to exacerbations and contributing to mortality.

  7. Inflammatory Transcriptome Profiling of Human Monocytes Exposed Acutely to Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Wright, William R.; Parzych, Katarzyna; Crawford, Damian; Mein, Charles; Mitchell, Jane A.; Paul-Clark, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is responsible for 5 million deaths worldwide each year, and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and lung diseases. Cigarette smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals containing 1015 free radicals. Studies show smoke is perceived by cells as an inflammatory and xenobiotic stimulus, which activates an immune response. The specific cellular mechanisms driving cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and disease are not fully understood, although the innate immune system is involved in the pathology of smoking related diseases. Methodology/Principle findings To address the impact of smoke as an inflammagen on the innate immune system, THP-1 cells and Human PBMCs were stimulated with 3 and 10% (v/v) cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 8 and 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted and the transcriptome analysed using Illumina BeadChip arrays. In THP-1 cells, 10% CSE resulted in 80 genes being upregulated and 37 downregulated by ≥1.5 fold after 8 hours. In PBMCs stimulated with 10% CSE for 8 hours, 199 genes were upregulated and 206 genes downregulated by ≥1.5 fold. After 24 hours, the number of genes activated and repressed by ≥1.5 fold had risen to 311 and 306 respectively. The major pathways that were altered are associated with cell survival, such as inducible antioxidants, protein chaperone and folding proteins, and the ubiquitin/proteosome pathway. Conclusions Our results suggest that cigarette smoke causes inflammation and has detrimental effects on the metabolism and function of innate immune cells. In addition, THP-1 cells provide a genetically stable alternative to primary cells for the study of the effects of cigarette smoke on human monocytes. PMID:22363418

  8. Cigarette smoke inhibits recruitment of bone-marrow-derived stem cells to the uterus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuping; Gan, Ye; Taylor, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoking leads to female infertility and a decreased incidence of endometriosis. Bone marrow derived stem cells are recruited to uterine endometrium and endometriosis. The effect of cigarette smoking on stem cell recruitment to any organ is uncharacterized. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell recruitment to the uterus and differentiation would be diminished by cigarette smoke. We used human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in vitro and a mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure. After myeloablation female C57BL/6J received bone marrow cells from males. Mice were exposed to room air or smoke from unfiltered cigarettes. Immunofluorescence and Y-FISH was performed on uterine sections. In vitro hMSCs were treated with 8-Br-cAMP to induce endometrial cell differentiation with or without cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and decidualization assessed morphologically and by prolactin expression. After 4 weeks the total number of Y-chromosome cells in the uterus was reduced by 68% in the smoke exposed mice. Both leukocytes and bone marrow derived endometrial cells were reduced by 60% and 73%, respectively. Differentiation of bone marrow derived cell to endometrial epithelial cells was reduced by 84%. hMSC treated with CSE failed to show cytological characteristics of decidualization. mRNA levels of the decidualization marker prolactin were decreased by 90% in CSE treated cells. Smoking inhibits both recruitment of bone marrow derived stem cells to uterus and stem cell differentiation. Inhibition of stem cells recruitment may be a general mechanism by which smoking leads to long term organ damage through inability to repair or regenerate multiple tissues.

  9. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behaviour: a review of tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol's relation to smoking cessation behaviour. Methods A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 15 May to 1 August 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. A final collection of 509 documents relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) perceived sensory and taste rewards of menthol and potential relation to quitting; and (2) motivation to quit among menthol users. Results Menthol's cooling and anaesthetic effects mask the short-term negative physiological effects of smoking such as throat pain, burning and cough. This provides superficial physical relief as well as psychological assurance against concerns about the health dangers of smoking that would otherwise motivate smokers to quit. Menthol smokers, particularly women, perceive the minty aroma of menthol cigarettes to be more socially acceptable than non-menthol cigarettes. Discussion Consumers believe menthol's sensory effects equate to health protections and that menthol cigarettes are more socially acceptable than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol in cigarettes may encourage experimenters who find non-mentholated cigarettes too harsh, including young or inexperienced users, to progress to regular smoking rather than quitting, and may lessen the motivation to quit among established menthol smokers. The perception of menthol cigarettes as more socially acceptable lessens the impact of smoking denormalisation on quitting motivation. Menthol makes cigarettes easier and more palatable to smoke and less desirable to quit among established smokers. Fewer smokers quitting contributes to the incidence of tobacco-related diseases. PMID:21504932

  10. In Situ Derivatization and Quantification of Seven Carbonyls in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Yan, Xizheng; Wong, Joshua; Chan, Michele; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-19

    Carbonyls, especially aldehydes, are a group of harmful volatile organic compounds that are found in tobacco smoke. Seven carbonyls are listed on the FDA's harmful and potential harmful constituents list for tobacco or tobacco smoke. Carbonyls have reactive functional groups and thus are challenging to quantitatively measure in cigarette smoke. The traditional method of measuring carbonyls in smoke involves solvent-filled impinger trapping and derivatization. This procedure is labor-intensive and generates significant volumes of hazardous waste. We have developed a new method to efficiently derivatize and trap carbonyls from mainstream smoke in situ on Cambridge filter pads. The derivatized carbonyls are extracted from the pads and subsequently quantified by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The new method has been validated and applied to research and commercial cigarettes. Carbonyl yields from research cigarettes are comparable to those from other published literature data. With a convenient smoke collection apparatus, a 4 min sample analysis time, and a low- or submicrogram detection limit, this new method not only simplifies and speeds the detection of an important class of chemical constituents in mainstream smoke but also reduces reactive losses and provides a more accurate assessment of carbonyl levels in smoke. Excellent accuracy (average 98%) and precision (14% average relative standard deviation in research cigarettes) ensure this new method's sufficient fidelity to characterize conventional combusted tobacco products, with potential application toward new or emerging products.

  11. The Use of Paramecium to Observe the Toxic Effect of Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardell, David

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which Paramecium caudatum was used to demonstrate the toxic effect of cigarette smoke on the cilia of epithelium cells lining the trachea and bronchi of smokers. Provides background information and explains the procedure, including how to make a simple mechanical smoking device. (TW)

  12. Effect of cigarette smoking and coffee drinking on time to conception.

    PubMed

    Alderete, E; Eskenazi, B; Sholtz, R

    1995-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with time to conception, we analyzed data collected from 1,341 primigravidas participating in the Child Health and Development Studies in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1959 and 1966. Women were interviewed in person about their reproductive and medical history, habits (smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption), and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression models showed that after adjusting for covariates, women who smoked cigarettes had about one-half the fertility [odds ratio (OR) = 0.5-0.6] of nonsmoker-noncoffee drinkers for times to conception of 6 and 12 months, regardless of whether they drank coffee. On the other hand, coffee consumers who did not smoke did not have decreased fertility compared with nondrinkers who did not smoke (adjusted OR = 1.0-1.2). Coffee drinking did not increase the risk of delayed conception among smokers over the risk posed by the smoking exposure by itself (adjusted OR = 0.6-0.8). We observed an effect of smoking even at low doses (1-9 cigarettes per day). The present study adds to the evidence of an association between cigarette smoking and reduced fertility.

  13. Acculturation and Cigarette Smoking Among Pregnant Hispanic Women Residing in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Detjen, M. Gabrielle; Nieto, F. Javier; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Fleming, Michael; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher rates of cigarette smoking among pregnant Hispanic women residing in the United States. Methods. We evaluated data from the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective study of 1231 Hispanic prenatal care patients conducted from 2000 to 2004 in Massachusetts. Self-reported data on acculturation, cigarette smoking, and covariates were collected by bilingual interviewers using a questionnaire. We conducted logistic regression multivariate analyses to examine the impact of acculturation level on the odds of smoking. Results. Overall, 21% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Acculturation was associated with elevated smoking rates in pregnant Hispanic women. US-born Hispanic women who preferred English had more than twice the odds of smoking compared with Puerto Rican or foreign-born Hispanic women who preferred Spanish (odds ratio [OR]=2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36, 5.63). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that higher-acculturated Hispanic women living in the United States are more likely to smoke cigarettes during pregnancy than are less-acculturated Hispanic women. These results will inform interventions aimed at reducing cigarette smoking during pregnancy among US Hispanic women. PMID:17901446

  14. Self-Reported Depressive Feelings and Cigarette Smoking among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Wang, Min Qi; Fu, Qiang

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive feelings and cigarette smoking in Mexican-American adolescents who participated in the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey II. Results suggest a relationship between certain feelings of depression and smoking, beyond that experienced by nonsmokers, which may be more evident in females.…

  15. Acute one-cigarette smoking decreases ghrelin hormone in saliva: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kaabi, Yahia A; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers.

  16. Acute One-Cigarette Smoking Decreases Ghrelin Hormone in Saliva: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaabi, Yahia A.; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers. PMID:24808912

  17. A Period of Increased Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filice, Gregory A.; Hannan, Peter J.; Lando, Harry A.; Joseph, Ann M.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed susceptibility to cigarette smoking among high school students who never smoked. Students participated in voluntary extracurricular anti-tobacco activities throughout the school year. Pre- and post-intervention surveys indicated that among 9th grade nonsmokers, susceptibility increased over the year, while it decreased for 10th-12th grade…

  18. Epidemiologic link between tuberculosis and cigarette/biomass smoke exposure: Limitations despite the vast literature.

    PubMed

    Bishwakarma, Raju; Kinney, William H; Honda, Jennifer R; Mya, Jenny; Strand, Matthew J; Gangavelli, Avani; Bai, Xiyuan; Ordway, Diane J; Iseman, Michael D; Chan, Edward D

    2015-05-01

    The geographic overlap between the prevalence of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and tuberculosis (TB) in the world is striking. In recent years, relatively large number of studies has linked cigarette or biomass fuel smoke exposure and various aspects of TB. Our goals are to summarize the significance of the known published studies, graphically represent reports that quantified the association and discuss their potential limitations. PubMed searches were performed using the key words 'tuberculosis' with 'cigarette', 'tobacco', 'smoke' or 'biomass fuel smoke.' The references of relevant articles were examined for additional pertinent papers. A large number of mostly case-control and cross-sectional studies significantly associate both direct and second-hand smoke exposure with tuberculous infection, active TB, and/or more severe and lethal TB. Fewer link biomass fuel smoke exposure and TB. While a number of studies interpreted the association with multivariate analysis, other confounders are often not accounted for in these analyses. It is also important to emphasize that these retrospective studies can only show an association and not any causal link. We further explored the possibility that even if CS exposure is a risk factor for TB, several mechanisms may be responsible. Numerous studies associate cigarette and biomass smoke exposure with TB but the mechanism(s) remains largely unknown. While the associative link of these two health maladies is well established, more definitive, mechanistic studies are needed to cement the effect of smoke exposure on TB pathogenesis and to utilize this knowledge in empowering public health policies.

  19. High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes: United States, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malarcher, A.; Jones, S. E.; Morris, E.; Kann, L.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily…

  20. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  1. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth M; Clapp, Phillip W; Rebuli, Meghan E; Pawlak, Erica A; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Benowitz, Neal L; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is known to result in impaired host defense responses and immune suppressive effects. However, the effects of new and emerging tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, on the immune status of the respiratory epithelium are largely unknown. We conducted a clinical study collecting superficial nasal scrape biopsies, nasal lavage, urine, and serum from nonsmokers, cigarette smokers, and e-cigarette users and assessed them for changes in immune gene expression profiles. Smoking status was determined based on a smoking history and a 3- to 4-wk smoking diary and confirmed using serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) levels. Total RNA from nasal scrape biopsies was analyzed using the nCounter Human Immunology v2 Expression panel. Smoking cigarettes or vaping e-cigarettes resulted in decreased expression of immune-related genes. All genes with decreased expression in cigarette smokers (n = 53) were also decreased in e-cigarette smokers. Additionally, vaping e-cigarettes was associated with suppression of a large number of unique genes (n = 305). Furthermore, the e-cigarette users showed a greater suppression of genes common with those changed in cigarette smokers. This was particularly apparent for suppressed expression of transcription factors, such as EGR1, which was functionally associated with decreased expression of 5 target genes in cigarette smokers and 18 target genes in e-cigarette users. Taken together, these data indicate that vaping e-cigarettes is associated with decreased expression of a large number of immune-related genes, which are consistent with immune suppression at the level of the nasal mucosa.

  2. Cigarette smoking accelerated brain aging and induced pre-Alzheimer-like neuropathology in rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yuen-Shan; Yang, Xifei; Yeung, Sze-Chun; Chiu, Kin; Lau, Chi-Fai; Tsang, Andrea Wing-Ting; Mak, Judith Choi-Wo; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to either sham air or 4% cigarette smoke 1 hour per day for 8 weeks in a ventilated smoking chamber to mimic the situation of chronic passive smoking. We found that the levels of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the hippocampus of the smoking group. Smoking also affected the synapse through reducing the expression of pre-synaptic proteins including synaptophysin and synapsin-1, while there were no changes in the expression of postsynaptic protein PSD95. Decreased levels of acetylated-tubulin and increased levels of phosphorylated-tau at 231, 205 and 404 epitopes were also observed in the hippocampus of the smoking rats. These results suggested that axonal transport machinery might be impaired, and the stability of cytoskeleton might be affected by smoking. Moreover, smoking affected amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by increasing the production of sAPPβ and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide in the CA3 and dentate gyrus region. In summary, our data suggested that chronic cigarette smoking could induce synaptic changes and other neuropathological alterations. These changes might serve as evidence of early phases of neurodegeneration and may explain why smoking can predispose brains to AD and dementia.

  3. [Cigarette smoking by the mothers of neonates and small children from Lublin area--survey studies].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Grajewska, Iwona

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking by women in the reproductive age is a threat to the health of a woman as well as a child, in every stage of its life. The investigated group included 189 women aged 19-39. The survey studies were conducted among 123 women staying at the Clinic of Obstetrics and Obstetric Pathology of the Medical University in Lublin as well as 66 women who reported for the treatment at the Department of Conservative Dentistry, having been mothers of at least one child. The questions included in the survey concerned cigarette smoking by the women in the reproductive age considering their dwelling place, education and reporting for their oral health control check-ups. Study results revealed, that from the among 189 women cigarette smoking was reported by 12.70% of the respondents including 20.83% with higher education, 70.83% with secondary education, 8.33% with elementary education. 87.50% smoking women lived in the city whereas 54.17% respondents had one child and 45.83% at least two children. In the group of smoking women 8.33% reported that they limited the number of cigarettes during the day in pregnancy and 29.17% continued cigarette smoking. In the group of nicotine abstainers 56.97% women had higher education, 42.42% secondary education, 0.61% elementary education. 75.76 % lived in the city while 64.24% women had one child, 3576% at least two children.

  4. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on early stage embryos in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, Norihide; Aoyama, Mitsuko )

    1989-09-01

    It is well recognized that cigarette smoking in pregnant women exerts many deleterious effects on their progenies; intrauterine growth retardation, and increases in perinatal mortality and premature births. The fetal growth retardation also has been reported in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. The authors previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure in pregnant rats retarded the growth of fetuses from mid to late stages of pregnancy. In addition, the weight of uteri containing embryos in animals inhaling the smoke was smaller, although not significant, than that in the control on day 7 of pregnancy. Based on these findings, it was suggested that the growth of embryos in early stage seemed to be harmfully affected as well as during mid and late stages of pregnancy. However, since the uterine weight in early pregnancy was measured in the previous study instead of the direct observation of early stage embryos, it remained unclear whether the early development of embryos was really influenced by cigarette smoke exposure or not. The present study was designed to observe the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation by pregnant rats on early development of embryos from fertilization to implantation.

  5. Effect of cigarette smoking on the detection of small radiographic opacities in inorganic dust diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.D.; Gamsu, G.

    1988-10-01

    Whether cigarette smoking can cause radiographic opacities indistinguishable from those due to pneumoconiosis remains controversial. The situation becomes clearer when one limits the abnormalities to those that can be standardized under the International Labour Office (ILO) classification system. The bulk of the evidence indicates that, using the ILO system, cigarette smoking alone is not associated with radiographic opacities that would be mistaken for pneumoconiosis with sufficient frequency to be of any practical importance. The effects of cigarette smoking, as a cofactor, in conjunction with occupational dust exposure depend on the type of dust. No relationship has been convincingly demonstrated for coal dust or silica. Only with asbestos exposure does there appear to be a significant cigarette smoking-associated increase in the frequency of irregular radiographic opacities. This increase does not appear to translate into a restrictive impairment in pulmonary function. The limited information available indicates that the features of asbestosis on high-resolution computed tomography are not similarly related to cigarette smoking. Additional research is needed to substantiate the relationship between smoking and occupational exposure to dust of many types, and also the possible imaging and pathophysiologic significance of their interactions. 47 references.

  6. Cigarette Smoking Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Young Adults in Association With Food Insecurity and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low socioeconomic status is associated with high rates of cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic differences in cigarette smoking tend to emerge during young adulthood. To further our understanding of socioeconomic differences in smoking among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking, with attention to multiple socioeconomic indicators that have not been examined in this population. Methods We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 California Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample consisted of young adults aged 18–30 years who were considered socioeconomically disadvantaged as measured by education and poverty. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with smoking status in this group, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of smoking frequency. Results In this sample (N = 1,511; 48% female, 66% Hispanic/Latino, 18% non-Hispanic white), 39.7% reported experiencing food insecurity in the past year. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher among young adults who reported being food insecure (26.9%) than among those who reported being food secure (16.4%). Past-year food insecurity was significantly associated with current smoking, independent of sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol use. Specifically, food insecurity was significantly associated with daily but not nondaily smoking. Conclusion Socioeconomically disadvantaged young adults with food insecurity may be considered a high-risk group with respect to cigarette smoking. Efforts to reduce tobacco-related health disparities should address diverse sources of socioeconomic influences, including experiences of food insecurity. PMID:26766849

  7. The remarkable decrease in cigarette smoking by American youth: Further evidence

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine decreases over time in cigarette smoking prevalence and intensity among American students in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. Methods Data from Monitoring the Future on students' smoking, across four measures of differing intensity of smoking, are compared over time and across grade levels. Data are available since 1975 for 12th graders and since 1991 for 8th and 10th graders. Results For all three grade levels, all four measures decreased substantially. The decreases became larger as the measures moved from least to most intensive (respectively, lifetime (ever) smoking and ≥ 1/2 pack of cigarettes per day). Decreases exceeded three-quarters for every grade for the two most intensive measures of smoking: daily smoking and ≥ 1/2 pack per day. For every measure, 8th graders' percentage decreases were the largest and 12th graders' the smallest. 12th graders' absolute (percentage-point) decreases were the largest for every measure. Conclusion Cigarette smoking, the most dangerous form of tobacco use, has decreased dramatically among American students. The fact that decreases are larger for more intensive measures of smoking indicates that simply tracking 30-day prevalence, often labeled “current smoking,” significantly understates the decrease in youth smoking over time. PMID:26844080

  8. The cessation and detoxification effect of tea filters on cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingqi; Di, Xiaojing; Liu, Caiyi; Zhang, Huimin; Huang, Xiouqin; Zhang, Junjing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Longze; Chang, Yanzhong; Liang, Yonglin; Tao, Ran; Zhao, Baolu

    2010-05-01

    To treat tobacco addiction, a tea filter was developed and studied for smoking cessation. This work reports the smoking cessation effect of tea when it was used as a component of cigarette filters. In one trial it was found that after using the tea filters for 2 months, the volunteer smokers decreased their cigarette consumption by 56.5%, and 31.7% of them stopped smoking. This work identified a new method and material, tea filter and theanine, which inhibit tobacco and nicotine addiction and provide an effective strategy for treating tobacco addiction.

  9. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009.

    PubMed

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking.

  10. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: Sidestream cigarette smoke literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, M. R.; Higgins, C. E.; Jenkins, R. A.

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A literature review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. The ratio method can yield misleading results because of the sensitivity of mainstream deliveries to cigarette and burn characteristics.

  11. A Standardized Method for the Preparation of a Gas Phase Extract of Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Mazaki, Yuichi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-01-01

    The gas phase of cigarette smoke is important from the viewpoint of human health, because it can pass through alveolar epithelium and enter the circulation. There is no standard method for the preparation of a gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE), although CSE is widely used for research instead of whole cigarette smoke. We have established a standard method for the preparation of CSE. One cigarette per trial is continuously combusted under a reduced pressure generated by an aspiration pump with a velocity of 1.050 L/min: the main stream of the smoke is passed through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, and subsequently, bubbled through a glass ball filter (pore size, 20-30 µm) into 15 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To express the concentration of CSE, a virtual tar concentration is introduced, which is calculated assuming that tar trapped on the Cambridge filter is dissolved in the PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original virtual tar concentration≤15 mg/mL) show similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations. CSEs prepared from various brands of cigarettes and by different smoking regimes (continuous and puff smoking) show similar cytotoxic potency if the virtual tar concentrations are the same. In conclusion, using the standardized method for CSE preparation in combination with the virtual tar concentration, it becomes possible to simply and rapidly prepare standard CSEs with defined concentrations from any brand of cigarettes, which are toxicologically equivalent to CSE prepared by puff smoking.

  12. THE EFFECT OF MENTHOL ON CIGARETTE SMOKING BEHAVIORS, BIOMARKERS AND SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca L.; Kaufman, Madeline; Tang, Kathy Z.; Mesaros, A. Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the United States Food and Drug Administration charged the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee with developing a report and recommendations regarding the effect of menthol in cigarettes on the public health. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure and subjective responses when switching from a novel menthol cigarette to a non-menthol cigarette to isolate the effect of menthol and to approximate the effect a menthol ban might have on smokers. Methods Thirty two adult smokers completed this 35-day randomized, open-label, laboratory study. After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomized to the experimental group (n=22) where they would smoke menthol Camel Crush for 15 days followed by 15 days of non-menthol Camel Crush, or the control group (n=10) where they smoked their own brand cigarette across all periods. Participants attended study visits every five days and completed measures of smoking rate, smoking topography, biomarkers of exposure, and subjective responses. Results Although total puff volume tended to increase when the experimental group switched from menthol to non-menthol (p=0.06), there were no corresponding increases in cigarette consumption or biomarkers of exposure (ps>0.1). Subjective ratings related to taste and smell decreased during the non-menthol period (ps<0.01), compared to the menthol. Conclusions Results suggest menthol has minimal impact on smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure and subjective ratings. Impact When controlling for all other cigarette design features, menthol in cigarettes had minimal effect on outcome measures. PMID:23334588

  13. A cross-sectional survey of cadmium biomarkers and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Eric M; Arheart, Kris; Lee, David J; Hennekens, Charles H; Hlaing, WayWay M

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium contamination of tobacco may contribute to the health hazards of cigarette smoking. The 2005-2012 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data provided a unique opportunity to conduct a cross-sectional survey of cadmium biomarkers and cigarette smoking. Among a sample of 6761 participants, we evaluated mean differences and correlations between cadmium biomarkers in the blood and urine and characteristics of never, former and current smokers. We found statistically significant differences in mean cadmium biomarker levels between never and former smokers as well as between never and current smokers. In current smokers, duration in years had a higher correlation coefficient with urinary than blood cadmium levels. In contrast, number of cigarettes smoked per day had a higher correlation coefficient with blood than urinary cadmium levels. These data suggest that blood and urine cadmium biomarker levels differ by duration and dose. These findings should be considered in evaluating any association between cadmium and smoking related diseases, especially cardiovascular disease.

  14. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates sidestream cigarette smoke-induced endothelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Low, Brad; Liang, Mei; Fu, Jian

    2007-07-01

    Second-hand smoke is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. So far, little is known about the signaling mechanisms of second-hand smoke-induced vascular dysfunction. Endothelial junctions are fundamental structures important for maintaining endothelial barrier function. Our study showed that sidestream cigarette smoke (SCS), a major component of second-hand smoke, was able to disrupt endothelial junctions and increase endothelial permeability. Sidestream cigarette smoke stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain (MLC). A selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) prevented SCS-induced loss of endothelial barrier integrity as evidenced by transendothelial resistance measurements. Resveratrol, an antioxidant that was able to inhibit SCS-induced p38 MAPK and MLC phosphorylation, also protected endothelial cells from the damage. Thus, p38 MAPK mediates SCS-induced endothelial permeability. Inhibition of p38 MAPK may have therapeutic potential for second-hand smoke-induced vascular injury.

  15. The study of decreasing toxicity of cigarettes with the radiational technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chengkui, Tang; Yun, Zhang; Jinju, Xu

    This is a report of the decreasing toxicity of cigarettes. All results of different experimental methods used show that through Co 60-γ radiation treatment the amount of carcinogenic substance in the cigarette smoke condensate obviously decreased.

  16. Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure before pregnancy on diabetic rats and their offspring development. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and cigarette smoke exposure was conducted by mainstream smoke generated by a mechanical smoking device and delivered into a chamber. Diabetic female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups (n minimum = 13/group): nondiabetic (ND) and diabetic rats exposed to filtered air (D), diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and into the pregnancy period (DS) and diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy period (DSPP). At day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed for maternal biochemical determination and reproductive outcomes. Results The association of diabetes and cigarette smoke in DSPP group caused altered glycemia at term, reduced number of implantation and live fetuses, decreased litter and maternal weight, increased pre and postimplantation loss rates, reduced triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations, increased levels of thiol groups and MDA. Besides, these dams presented increased SOD and GSH-Px activities. However, the increased antioxidant status was not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation observed in these animals. Conclusion Despite the benefits stemming from smoking interruption during the pregnancy of diabetic rats, such improvement was insufficient to avoid metabolic alterations and provide an adequate intrauterine environment for embryofetal development. Therefore, these results suggest that it is necessary to cease smoking extensive time before planning pregnancy, since stopping smoking only when pregnancy is detected may not contribute effectively to fully adequate embryofetal development. PMID:21851636

  17. Effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine metabolite ratio on leukocyte telomere length.

    PubMed

    Verde, Zoraida; Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Chicharro, Luis; Garatachea, Nuria; Resano, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Ignacio; Rodríguez González-Moro, Jose Miguel; Bandrés, Fernando; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix

    2015-07-01

    Studies of the effects of smoking on leukocyte telomere length (LTL) using cigarettes smoked per day or pack years smoked (PYS) present limitations. Reported high levels of smoking may not increase toxin exposure levels proportionally. Nicotine metabolism ratio (NMR) predicts total cigarette puff volume and overall exposure based on total N-nitrosamines, is highly reproducible and independent of time since the last cigarette. We hypothesized that smokers with higher NMRs will exhibit increased total puff volume, reflecting efforts to extract more nicotine from their cigarettes and increasing toxin exposure. In addition, higher levels of smoking could cause a gross damage in LTL. The urinary cotinine, 3-OH cotinine and nicotine levels of 147 smokers were analyzed using a LC/MS system Triple-Q6410. LTL and CYP2A6 genotype was determined by PCR in blood samples. We found a significant association between NMR and CYP2A6 genotype. Reduction in LTL was seen in relation to accumulated tobacco consumption and years smoking when we adjusted for age and gender. However, there were no significant differences between NMR values and LTL. In our study the higher exposure was associated with lower number of PYS. Smokers with reduced cigarette consumption may exhibit compensatory smoking behavior that results in no reduced tobacco toxin exposure. Our results suggest that lifetime accumulated smoking exposure could cause a gross damage in LTL rather than NMR or PYS. Nevertheless, a combination of smoking topography (NMR) and consumption (PYS) measures may provide useful information about smoking effects on health outcomes.

  18. Cigarette Smoke Attenuates the Nasal Host Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Predisposes to Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Pamela; Morissette, Mathieu C.; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Gao, Yang; Hassan, Muhammad; Roos, Abraham; Thayaparan, Danya; Merlano, Maria; Dorrington, Michael G.; Nikota, Jake K.; Bauer, Carla M. T.; Kwiecien, Jacek M.; Labiris, Renee; Bowdish, Dawn M. E.; Stevenson, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections, with nasal colonization an important first step in disease. While cigarette smoking is a strong risk factor for invasive pneumococcal disease, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This is partly due to a lack of clinically relevant animal models investigating nasal pneumococcal colonization in the context of cigarette smoke exposure. We present a model of nasal pneumococcal colonization in cigarette smoke-exposed mice and document, for the first time, that cigarette smoke predisposes to invasive pneumococcal infection and mortality in an animal model. Cigarette smoke increased the risk of bacteremia and meningitis without prior lung infection. Mechanistically, deficiency in interleukin 1α (IL-1α) or platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR), an important host receptor thought to bind and facilitate pneumococcal invasiveness, did not rescue cigarette smoke-exposed mice from invasive pneumococcal disease. Importantly, we observed cigarette smoke to attenuate nasal inflammatory mediator expression, particularly that of neutrophil-recruiting chemokines, normally elicited by pneumococcal colonization. Smoking cessation during nasal pneumococcal colonization rescued nasal neutrophil recruitment and prevented invasive disease in mice. We propose that cigarette smoke predisposes to invasive pneumococcal disease by suppressing inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory tract. Given that smoking prevalence remains high worldwide, these findings are relevant to the continued efforts to reduce the invasive pneumococcal disease burden. PMID:26930709

  19. Gender differences in adolescents' responses to themes of relaxation in cigarette advertising: Relationship to intentions to smoke.

    PubMed

    Dirocco, Danae N; Shadel, William G

    2007-02-01

    Studies have shown that increased exposure to cigarette advertising increases adolescents' risk of smoking and moreover, that gender may play an important role in moderating how cigarette advertisements are viewed and processed. However, information about the particular features of cigarette advertising that interact with gender to promote smoking among adolescents is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine if gender moderates the degree to which the relaxation valence (i.e., degree to which relaxing themes are emphasized) of cigarette advertisements is related to smoking intentions in a sample of never smoking adolescents. Regardless of brand type (of the seven brands studied), cigarette advertisements that displayed highly relaxing images were associated with increased intentions to smoke among female adolescents only. These results have implications for understanding what features of cigarette advertisements have the most influence among different groups of adolescents.

  20. Polonium in size fractionated mainstream cigarette smoke, predicted deposition and associated internal radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, M; Sahu, S K; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2016-10-01

    In this study, size fractionated mass and (210)Po activity concentrations in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) were monitored for three popular cigarette brands. Size segregated collection of MCS was carried out using a cascade type impactor, while mass and (210)Po activity concentration were analyzed gravimetrically and alpha spectrometry (following the radiochemical separation) respectively. Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD V2.11) model is used for prediction of deposition fraction calculations for the MCS deposition in different compartment of human respiratory tract. The activity concentration of (210)Po is founds 10.56 ± 2.46 mBq per cigarette for the tested cigarette brands. (210)Po size distribution indicates most of this associates with fine fraction (Dp < 2.23 μm) of cigarette smoke. The committed annual effective dose to smokers (smoking on an average 20 cigarette a day), considering the (210)Po and (210)Pb concentrations (assuming it is in secular equilibrium with (210)Po) in MCS, was estimated between 0.22 and 0.40 mSv, with mean value of 0.30 mSv for tested cigarette brands. Considering the risk factor of fatal cancer due to radiation exposure of lung (exposure time of 30 years); the average collective estimated fatal cancer risk is estimated as 1.5 × 10(-4) due to (210)Po and (210)Pb exposure to smokers.

  1. Iron pentacarbonyl detection limits in the cigarette smoke matrix using FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Milton E.; Plunkett, Susan E.; Harward, Charles N.

    2005-11-01

    Endogenous metals present in tobacco from agricultural practices have been purported to generate metal carbonyls in cigarette smoke. Transition metal catalysts, such as iron oxide, have been investigated for the reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) in cigarette smoke. These studies motivated the development of an analytical method to determine if iron pentacarbonyl [Fe(CO) 5] is present in mainstream smoke from cigarette models having cigarette paper made with iron oxide. An FT-IR puff-by-puff method was developed and the detection limit was determined using two primary reference spectra from different sources to estimate the amount of Fe(CO) 5 present in a high-pressure steel cylinder of CO. We do not detect Fe(CO) 5 in a single 35 mL puff from reference cigarettes or from those cigarette models having cigarette paper made with iron oxide, with a 30-ppbV limit of detection (LOD). Also, it was shown that a filter containing activated carbon would remove Fe(CO) 5.

  2. The Impact of Smoking Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes on Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Denlinger, Rachel L.; Pacek, Lauren R.; al’Absi, Mustafa; Drobes, David J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Vandrey, Ryan; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes could improve public health by reducing smoking and toxicant exposure, but may also have unintended consequences on alcohol use. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes on alcohol outcomes. The secondary aim was to examine whether the effects of these cigarettes on alcohol outcomes were mediated by changes in nicotine exposure, smoking behavior, or withdrawal. Methods Between June 2013 and July 2014, we conducted a 7-arm, double-blind, randomized clinical trial at 10 U.S.-based sites. Daily smokers not currently interested in quitting (n = 839) were assigned to equally sized groups to smoke for 6 weeks cigarettes containing either normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g, 9 mg tar), moderate nicotine content (5.2 mg/g nicotine, 9 mg tar), or very low nicotine content (VLNC; 0.4 to 2.4 mg/g, 9 to 13 mg tar). This investigation focused on a subsample of current drinkers (n = 403). Each reduced nicotine content cigarette condition was compared to the NNC control condition with respect to trajectories over the 6-week period of average daily alcohol use and occurrence of binge drinking. Moderating variables were considered. Mediation analyses tested potential explanatory processes including changes in nicotine exposure, cigarettes per day, and withdrawal. Results Over time, reduced nicotine exposure and smoking rate mediated effects of VLNC cigarette use on reduced alcohol use. There was no evidence of compensatory drinking in response to nicotine reduction or nicotine withdrawal, even among subgroups expected to be at greater risk (e.g., relatively heavier drinkers, highly nicotine-dependent individuals). Conclusions The findings suggest that compensatory drinking is unlikely to occur in response to switching to VLNC cigarettes. In contrast, reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may reduce alcohol use (clinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01681875

  3. Determination of oxides of nitrogen (NO/sub x/) in cigarette smoke by chemiluminescent analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Gill, B.E.

    1980-05-01

    The successful application of a commercial chemiluminescent No/sub x/ analyzer to the determination of oxides of nitrogen in cigarette smoke is reported. Individual puffs of the smoke vapor phase are rapidly diluted in an air stream before introduction into the analyzer. This acts to both reduce quenching of the chemiluminescent response by CO/sub 2/ and to prevent side reactions of the NO/sub x/ with vapor phase organic constituents. Sweeping the dilute smoke through a reduced silver-ion exchange resin bed removed a substantial positive interference from hydrogen cyanide. A range of deliveries of 3 to 47 ..mu..mol of NO/sub x/ per cigarette was observed for nine types of experimental cigarettes. Statistically significant differences between NO/sub x/ and NO levels (NO/sub x/ - NO = NO/sub 2/) in smoke were observed in only one type of cigarette, presumably due to large cigarette-to-cigarette variability in constituent deliveries. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  5. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18–35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. PMID:27297612

  6. Comparison of Biological Responses in Rats Under Various Cigarette Smoke Exposure Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuura, Daiki; Nishino, Tomoki; Lee, K Monica; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    A variety of exposure regimens of cigarette smoke have been used in animal models of lung diseases. In this study, we compared biological responses of smoke exposure in rats, using different smoke concentrations (wet total particulate matter [WTPM]), daily exposure durations, and total days of exposure. As a range-finding acute study, we first compared pulmonary responses between SD and F344 strains after a single nose-only exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke or LPS. Secondly, F344 rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 or 13 weeks under the comparable daily exposure dose (WTPM concentration x daily exposure duration; according to Haber’s rule) but at a different WTPM concentration or daily exposure duration. Blood carboxylhemoglobin was increased linearly to the WTPM concentration, while urinary nicotine plus cotinine value was higher for the longer daily exposure than the corresponding shorter exposure groups. Gamma glutamyl transferase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was increased dose dependently after 2 and 13 weeks of cigarette smoke exposure, while the neutrophil content in BALF was not increased notably. Smoke-exposed groups showed reduced body weight gain and increased relative lung and heart weights. While BALF parameters and the relative lung weights suggest pulmonary responses, histopathological examination showed epithelial lesions mainly in the upper respiratory organs (nose and larynx). Collectively, the results indicate that, under the employed study design, the equivalent daily exposure dose (exposure concentration x duration) induces equivalent pulmonary responses in rats. PMID:23914058

  7. Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Suppresses the Unfolded Protein Response upon Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Baumlin, Nathalie; Salathe, Matthias A.; D'Armiento, Jeanine M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress provokes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD) subjects. The antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), counters oxidative stress induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Here, we investigate whether GPx-1 expression deters the UPR following exposure to cigarette smoke. Expression of ER stress markers was investigated in fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells isolated from nonsmoking, smoking, and COPD donors and redifferentiated at the air liquid interface. NHBE cells from COPD donors expressed heightened ATF4, XBP1, GRP78, GRP94, EDEM1, and CHOP compared to cells from nonsmoking donors. These changes coincided with reduced GPx-1 expression. Reintroduction of GPx-1 into NHBE cells isolated from COPD donors reduced the UPR. To determine whether the loss of GPx-1 expression has a direct impact on these ER stress markers during smoke exposure, Gpx-1−/− mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1 year. Loss of Gpx-1 expression enhanced cigarette smoke-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Equally, induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced antioxidant expression in mouse precision-cut lung slices. Smoke inhalation also exacerbated the UPR response during respiratory syncytial virus infection. Therefore, ER stress may be an antioxidant-related pathophysiological event in COPD. PMID:28070146

  8. Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

    It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 μg cig -1), toluene (541-1003 μg cig -1), styrene (90-162 μg cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 μg cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 μg cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

  9. E-cigarette aerosols induce lower oxidative stress in vitro when compared to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark; Carr, Tony; Oke, Oluwatobiloba; Jaunky, Tomasz; Breheny, Damien; Lowe, Frazer; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for various diseases. The underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully characterized, but include oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have emerged as an alternative to and a possible means to reduce harm from tobacco smoking. E-cigarette vapor contains significantly lower levels of toxicants than cigarette smoke, but standardized methods to assess cellular responses to exposure are not well established. We investigated whether an in vitro model of the airway epithelium (human bronchial epithelial cells) and commercially available assays could differentiate cellular stress responses to aqueous aerosol extracts (AqE) generated from cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosols. After exposure to AqE concentrations of 0.063-0.500 puffs/mL, we measured the intracellular glutathione ratio (GSH:GSSG), intracellular generation of oxidant species, and activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant response elements (ARE) to characterize oxidative stress. Apoptotic and necrotic responses were characterized by increases in caspase 3/7 activity and reductions in viable cell protease activities. Concentration-dependent responses indicative of oxidative stress were obtained for all endpoints following exposure to cigarette smoke AqE: intracellular generation of oxidant species increased by up to 83%, GSH:GSSG reduced by 98.6% and transcriptional activation of ARE increased by up to 335%. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased by up to 37% and the viable cell population declined by up to 76%. No cellular stress responses were detected following exposure to e-cigarette AqE. The methods used were suitably sensitive to be employed for comparative studies of tobacco and nicotine products.

  10. Patterns of cigarette smoking among Hispanics in the United States: results from HHANES 1982-84.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, S G; Harvey, C; Montes, H; Nickens, H; Cohen, B H

    1990-01-01

    In the 1982-84 Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was examined among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans in the United States. Among 20-74 years olds, the age-adjusted smoking rates for Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American men were high--42.5, 39.8, and 41.6 percent, respectively. Quite striking among Cuban American men was the high smoking rate among 20-34 year olds (50.1 percent), the highest smoking rate in the three Hispanic groups compared. The age-adjusted smoking rates for Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American women were much lower than those for men-23.8, 30.3, and 24.4 percent, respectively. Both Puerto Rican and Cuban American men were more likely to be heavy smokers (52.3 and 64.1 percent, respectively, smoking a pack or more a day) as compared to the Mexican Americans (33.8 percent smoking a pack or more a day). The pattern was the same for women, with Mexican American women being lighter smokers (18.8 percent smoking a pack or more a day) as compared to heavy smoking among Puerto Rican and Cuban American women (35.1 and 48.6 percent, respectively, smoking a pack or more a day). Given the health hazards of smoking, future research and intervention are required for those groups with high exposure to cigarette smoking. PMID:9187582

  11. Influenza virus-induced lung inflammation was modulated by cigarette smoke exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Ling, Man To; Mao, Huawei; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Ming; Lam, Kwok Tai; Liu, Yuan; Tu, Wenwei; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Although smokers have increased susceptibility and severity of seasonal influenza virus infection, there is no report about the risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) or avian H9N2 (H9N2/G1) virus infection in smokers. In our study, we used mouse model to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 days and then infected with pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus. Control mice were exposed to air in parallel. We found that cigarette smoke exposure alone significantly upregulated the lung inflammation. Such prior cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced the disease severity of subsequent pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. For pdmH1N1 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice had significantly lower mortality than the control mice, possibly due to the significantly decreased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, after H9N2 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice displayed significantly less weight loss, which might be attributed to lower cytokines and chemokines production, less macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltration and reduced lung damage compared to the control mice. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we used nicotine to mimic the effect of cigarette smoke both in vitro and in vivo. Pre-treating the primary human macrophages with nicotine for 72 h significantly decreased their expression of cytokines and chemokines after pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. The mice subcutaneously and continuously treated with nicotine displayed significantly less weight loss and lower inflammatory response than the control mice upon pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. Moreover, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice had more body weight loss than wild-type mice after cigarette smoke exposure and H9N2 infection. Our study provided the first evidence that the pathogenicity of both pdmH1N1 and H9N2 viruses was alleviated in cigarette smoke exposed mice, which might

  12. Spectrofluorometric method for measuring tobacco smoke particulate matter on cigarette filters and Cambridge pads.

    PubMed

    Paszkiewicz, G M; Pauly, J L

    2008-09-01

    Almost all cigarettes sold have a filter (United States, >98%; worldwide, >95%). In the last 25 years cigarette manufacturers have introduced diverse filters designed to reduce components in tobacco smoke. Today, there exists a need to establish assays to assess the efficacy of cigarette filters to retain total particulate matter (TPM), particularly unique filters of cigarettes that are being marketed as potential reduced exposure products (PREPs). We report the results of studies that were undertaken to test the hypothesis that a technique could be established for dissolving cigarette filters, and that the TPM in the fluid could be quantified by spectrofluorometry. Described here are procedures for assaying TPM on both Cambridge filter pads (glass fibres) of smoking machines and on cigarette filters (cellulose acetate fibres). The principle of the assays is based upon the observation that there exists a direct correlation between the amount of tobacco product emission TPM and fluorescence. In the absence of a tobacco tar or TPM standard, the fluorescent dye acridine orange was confirmed as a useful surrogate. Filters assayed included those of Kentucky reference cigarettes 2R4F and popular US brand cigarettes. The proposed assays are inexpensive, expedient, reproducible and amendable for large-scale studies.

  13. Analysis of the Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Staphylococcal Virulence Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    McEachern, Elisa K.; Hwang, John H.; Sladewski, Katherine M.; Nicatia, Shari; Dewitz, Carola; Mathew, Denzil P.; Nizet, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, disease, and disability worldwide. It is well established that cigarette smoke provokes inflammatory activation and impairs antimicrobial functions of human immune cells. Here we explore whether cigarette smoke likewise affects the virulence properties of an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, and in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infections. MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and is thus exposed to inhalants, including cigarette smoke. MRSA exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE-MRSA) was more resistant to macrophage killing (4-fold higher survival; P < 0.0001). CSE-MRSA demonstrated reduced susceptibility to cell lysis (1.78-fold; P = 0.032) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (LL-37) killing (MIC, 8 μM versus 4 μM). CSE modified the surface charge of MRSA in a dose-dependent fashion, impairing the binding of particles with charge similar to that of AMPs by 90% (P < 0.0001). These changes persisted for 24 h postexposure, suggesting heritable modifications. CSE exposure increased hydrophobicity by 55% (P < 0.0001), which complemented findings of increased MRSA adherence and invasion of epithelial cells. CSE induced upregulation of mprF, consistent with increased MRSA AMP resistance. S. aureus without mprF had no change in surface charge upon exposure to CSE. In vivo, CSE-MRSA pneumonia induced higher mouse mortality (40% versus 10%) and increased bacterial burden at 8 and 20 h postinfection compared to control MRSA-infected mice (P < 0.01). We conclude that cigarette smoke-induced immune resistance phenotypes in MRSA may be an additional factor contributing to susceptibility to infectious disease in cigarette smokers. PMID:25824841

  14. Analysis of the effects of cigarette smoke on staphylococcal virulence phenotypes.

    PubMed

    McEachern, Elisa K; Hwang, John H; Sladewski, Katherine M; Nicatia, Shari; Dewitz, Carola; Mathew, Denzil P; Nizet, Victor; Crotty Alexander, Laura E

    2015-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, disease, and disability worldwide. It is well established that cigarette smoke provokes inflammatory activation and impairs antimicrobial functions of human immune cells. Here we explore whether cigarette smoke likewise affects the virulence properties of an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, and in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infections. MRSA colonizes the nasopharynx and is thus exposed to inhalants, including cigarette smoke. MRSA exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE-MRSA) was more resistant to macrophage killing (4-fold higher survival; P < 0.0001). CSE-MRSA demonstrated reduced susceptibility to cell lysis (1.78-fold; P = 0.032) and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (LL-37) killing (MIC, 8 μM versus 4 μM). CSE modified the surface charge of MRSA in a dose-dependent fashion, impairing the binding of particles with charge similar to that of AMPs by 90% (P < 0.0001). These changes persisted for 24 h postexposure, suggesting heritable modifications. CSE exposure increased hydrophobicity by 55% (P < 0.0001), which complemented findings of increased MRSA adherence and invasion of epithelial cells. CSE induced upregulation of mprF, consistent with increased MRSA AMP resistance. S. aureus without mprF had no change in surface charge upon exposure to CSE. In vivo, CSE-MRSA pneumonia induced higher mouse mortality (40% versus 10%) and increased bacterial burden at 8 and 20 h postinfection compared to control MRSA-infected mice (P < 0.01). We conclude that cigarette smoke-induced immune resistance phenotypes in MRSA may be an additional factor contributing to susceptibility to infectious disease in cigarette smokers.

  15. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Methods Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students’ current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. Results The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%–10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29–0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49–0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21–0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09–0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29–0.74). Conclusion Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users. PMID:27490368

  16. FOXJ1 prevents cilia growth inhibition by cigarette smoke in human airway epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brekman, Angelika; Walters, Matthew S; Tilley, Ann E; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-11-01

    Airway epithelium ciliated cells play a central role in clearing the lung of inhaled pathogens and xenobiotics, and cilia length and coordinated beating are important for airway clearance. Based on in vivo studies showing that the airway epithelium of healthy smokers has shorter cilia than that of healthy nonsmokers, we investigated the mechanisms involved in cigarette smoke-mediated inhibition of ciliogenesis by assessing normal human airway basal cell differentiation in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures in the presence of nontoxic concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Measurements of cilia length from Day 28 ALI cultures demonstrated that CSE exposure was associated with shorter cilia (P < 0.05), reproducing the effect of cigarette smoking on cilia length observed in vivo. This phenotype correlated with a broad CSE-mediated suppression of genes involved in cilia-related transcriptional regulation, intraflagellar transport, cilia motility, structural integrity, and basal body development but not of control genes or epithelial barrier integrity. The CSE-mediated inhibition of cilia growth could be prevented by lentivirus-mediated overexpression of FOXJ1, the major cilia-related transcription factor, which led to partial reversal of expression of cilia-related genes suppressed by CSE. Together, the data suggest that components of cigarette smoke are responsible for a broad suppression of genes involved in cilia growth, but, by stimulating ciliogenesis with the transcription factor FOXJ1, it may be possible to maintain close to normal cilia length despite the stress of cigarette smoking.

  17. Cigarette smoking as a target for potentiating outcomes for methamphetamine abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brensilver, Matthew; Heinzerling, Keith G.; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Telesca, Donatello; Furst, Benjamin A.; Shoptaw, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Cigarette smoking occurs frequently among individuals with methamphetamine dependence. Preclinical and clinical evidence has suggested that the common co-abuse of methamphetamine and cigarettes represents a pharmacologically meaningful pattern. Methods The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion treatment for methamphetamine dependence (bupropion n=36; placebo n=37). A hierarchical logistic modelling approach assessed the efficacy of bupropion for reducing MA use separately among smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, relations between cigarettes smoked and MA use were assessed. Results Smoking status did not affect treatment responsiveness in either the bupropion condition or the placebo condition. In the placebo condition, increased cigarette use was associated with an increased probability of methamphetamine use during the same time period. This effect was not observed in the bupropion condition. Discussion and Conclusions Initial smoking status did not impact treatment outcomes. Among smokers, results suggest that bupropion may dissociate cigarette and methamphetamine use. The effect was modest and a precise pharmacologic mechanism remains elusive. Cholinergic systems may be relevant for methamphetamine use outcomes. Future studies should continue to assess the role of smoking in methamphetamine treatment outcomes. PMID:22385210

  18. Communicating about cigarette smoke constituents: an experimental comparison of two messaging strategies

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Sabeeh A.; Byron, M. Justin; Boynton, Marcella H.; Brewer, Noel T.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2017-01-01

    Federal law now requires FDA to disseminate information on chemicals in cigarette smoke, but it is unclear how best to do so. In a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment, participants received a message about chemicals in cigarette smoke (e.g., “Cigarette smoke has benzene.”) along with an additional randomly assigned messaging strategy: a “found-in” (e.g., “This is found in gasoline.”), a health effect (e.g., “This causes heart disease.”), both, or neither. Participants were U.S. probability phone samples of 5000 adults and 1123 adolescents, and an online convenience sample of 4130 adults. Adding a health effect elicited greater discouragement from wanting to smoke cigarettes (all p < .05) as did adding a found-in (all p < .05). However, including both messaging strategies added little or nothing above including just one. These findings can help the FDA and other agencies develop effective and parsimonious messages about cigarette smoke constituents. PMID:27663553

  19. Cigarette smoke decreases mitochondrial porin expression and steroidogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Mahuya; Whittal, Randy M.; Gairola, C. Gary; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2008-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane for steroidogenesis. Here, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on steroidogenesis using adrenal mitochondria isolated from mice chronically exposed to CS. Steroidogenesis was decreased approximately 78% in CS-exposed mitochondria, as measured by synthesis of the steroid hormone precursor pregnenolone. This effect was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial import of {sup 35}S-StAR. Further characterization of the imported {sup 35}S-StAR by native gradient PAGE revealed the presence of a high molecular weight complex in both control and CS-exposed groups. Following density gradient fractionation of {sup 35}S-StAR that had been extracted from control mitochondria, precursor StAR could be found in fractions 2-6 and smaller-sized StAR complexes in fractions 6-13. In the CS-exposed group, the appearance of precursor shifted from fraction 1-6 and the smaller complexes in fractions 6-9 disappeared. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the {sup 35}S-StAR-associated protein complex was composed of several resident matrix proteins as well as the OMM resident, VDAC. VDAC expression was greatly reduced by CS, and blockage of VDAC with Koenig's polyanion decreased pregnenolone synthesis in isolated mitochondria. Taken together, these results suggest that VDAC may participate in steroidogenesis by promoting StAR interaction with the OMM and that CS may inhibit steroidogenesis by reducing VDAC-StAR interactions.

  20. In vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol comprising particulate phase and gaseous vapour phase. The air-liquid interface exposure provides a possible technical means to implement whole smoke exposure for the assessment of tobacco products. In this review, the research progress in the in vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure is summarized. The contents presented involve mainly cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, systems toxicology, 3D culture and cigarette smoke dosimetry related to cigarette smoke, as well as the assessment of electronic cigarette aerosol. Prospect of the application of the air-liquid interface exposure method in assessing the biological effects of tobacco smoke is discussed.

  1. Disparities in Adult Cigarette Smoking - United States, 2002-2005 and 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Martell, Brandi N; Garrett, Bridgette E; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2016-08-05

    Although cigarette smoking has substantially declined since the release of the 1964 Surgeon General's report on smoking and health,* disparities in tobacco use exist among racial/ethnic populations (1). Moreover, because estimates of U.S. adult cigarette smoking and tobacco use are usually limited to aggregate racial or ethnic population categories (i.e., non-Hispanic whites [whites]; non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans [blacks]; American Indians and Alaska Natives [American Indians/Alaska Natives]; Asians; Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders [Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders]; and Hispanics/Latinos [Hispanics]), these estimates can mask differences in cigarette smoking prevalence among subgroups of these populations. To assess the prevalence of and changes in cigarette smoking among persons aged ≥18 years in six racial/ethnic populations and 10 select subgroups in the United States,(†) CDC analyzed self-reported data collected during 2002-2005 and 2010-2013 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (2) and compared differences between the two periods. During 2010-2013, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among the racial/ethnic populations and subgroups ranged from 38.9% for American Indians/Alaska Natives to 7.6% for both Chinese and Asian Indians. During 2010-2013, although cigarette smoking prevalence was relatively low among Asians overall (10.9%) compared with whites (24.9%), wide within-group differences in smoking prevalence existed among Asian subgroups, from 7.6% among both Chinese and Asian Indians to 20.0% among Koreans. Similarly, among Hispanics, the overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 19.9%; however, within Hispanic subgroups, prevalences ranged from 15.6% among Central/South Americans to 28.5% among Puerto Ricans. The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among men than among women during both 2002-2005 (30.0% men versus 23.9% women) and 2010-2013 (26.4% versus 21.1%) (p<0.05). These

  2. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Methods Using data from White (n=2,665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. Results African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but less so for African American young adults and adults. Conclusions Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. PMID:27427414

  3. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  4. Cigarette smoking augments sympathetic nerve activity in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Norihiko; Yuasa, Toyoshi; Takata, Shigeo

    2008-05-01

    It has been shown that cigarette smoking increases blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and decreases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in healthy young smokers. The decrease in MSNA might be secondary to baroreflex responses to the pressor effect. We tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoking increases MSNA in smokers with impaired baroreflex function. The effects of cigarette smoking on BP, HR, forearm blood flow (FBF), forearm vascular resistance (FVR), and MSNA were examined in 14 patients with stable effort angina (59+/-3 years, group CAD) and 10 healthy smokers (23+/-1 years, group C). In group CAD, the arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was significantly lower than in group C (4.7+/-0.8 versus 15.1+/-2.2 msec/mmHg, P<0.01). In both groups, cigarette smoking increased the plasma concentration of nicotine, systolic and diastolic BP, HR, and FVR significantly (P<0.01), but decreased FBF significantly (P<0.01). After smoking, MSNA was decreased significantly in group C (from 35.2+/-3.5 to 23.5+/-3.2 bursts/100 beats, P<0.01), but increased significantly in group CAD (from 48.8+/-5.4 to 57.3+/-5.5 bursts/100 beats, P<0.01). There was significant correlation between BRS and changes in MSNA (r= -0.62, P<0.01). Cigarette smoking increased MSNA in smokers with impaired baroreflex function. This demonstrates that cigarette smoking stimulates sympathetic nerve activity by both a direct peripheral effect and a centrally mediated effect.

  5. Receptivity to protobacco media and its impact on cigarette smoking among ethnic minority youth in California.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Cruz, Tess Boley; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, Carl Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents from different ethnic groups show different cigarette smoking prevalence rates, suggesting potential differences in receptivity to and influences from protobacco media. Understanding these differences will be helpful in tailoring smoking prevention and cessation programs for diverse adolescent populations in the United States. Data from cross-sectional surveys of 20,332 randomly sampled California boys and girls, 12-17 years of age, were analyzed. Results indicate that receptivity to protobacco media was lower among African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics than among White youth. There was a consistent dose-response relationship between receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking across ethnic groups. Having a cigarette brand preference was associated with the highest risk for cigarette smoking, having a favorite tobacco ad showed the lowest risk, while having received or being willing to use tobacco promotional items was associated with a moderate risk. After controlling for 13 covariates, the odds ratio for receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking was significant for Whites (RR = 1.38, p < 0.01) and Hispanics (RR = 1.46, p < 0.01), but not for African American (RR = 1.05, p > 0.05) and Asian American (RR = 1.17, p > 0.05) youth. African American, Asian American, and Hispanic adolescents have a lower level of receptivity to protobacco media than do Whites. The association between media receptivity and 30-day cigarette smoking exists for all four ethnic groups without controlling for other smoking predictor variables, but only for Hispanics and Whites when other variables are controlled. Protecting adolescents from protobacco advertising influences is an important element in tobacco control among ethnic minority youth.

  6. Long-term e-cigarette use and smoking cessation: a longitudinal study with US population

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Cummins, Sharon E; Y Sun, Jessica; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes have grown popular. The most common pattern is dual use with conventional cigarettes. Dual use has raised concerns that it might delay quitting of cigarette smoking. This study examined the relationship between long-term use of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation in a 2-year period. Methods A nationally representative sample of 2028 US smokers were surveyed in 2012 and 2014. Long-term e-cigarette use was defined as using e-cigarettes at baseline and follow-up. Use of e-cigarettes only at baseline or at follow-up was defined as short-term use. Non-users did not use e-cigarettes at either survey. Quit attempt rates and cessation rates (abstinent for 3 months or longer) were compared across the three groups. Results At 2-year follow-up, 43.7% of baseline dual users were still using e-cigarettes. Long-term e-cigarette users had a higher quit attempt rate than short-term or non-users (72.6% vs 53.8% and 45.5%, respectively), and a higher cessation rate (42.4% vs 14.2% and 15.6%, respectively). The difference in cessation rate between long-term users and non-users remained significant after adjusting for baseline variables, OR=4.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 11.4) as did the difference between long-term users and short-term users, OR=4.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 13.9). The difference in cessation rate between short-term users and non-users was not significant, OR=0.9 (95% CI 0.5 to 1.4). Among those making a quit attempt, use of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid surpassed that of FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Conclusions Short-term e-cigarette use was not associated with a lower rate of smoking cessation. Long-term use of e-cigarettes was associated with a higher rate of quitting smoking. PMID:27697953

  7. The effect of cigarette taxes on smoking among men and women.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mark

    2007-12-01

    The literature contains numerous studies that estimate the effect of cigarette taxes on smoking across various population groups. Although the conclusions are split, most US studies find that men are more responsive to cigarette taxes than women. This paper shows that these results are due to the failure to control for state-specific gender gaps in smoking rates that are correlated with cigarette taxes. When gender-specific state fixed effects are included to control for these gaps, the results indicate that women are nearly twice as responsive to cigarette taxes as are men. Since the econometric specification controls for variation in the tax response by household income, it is unlikely to be responsible for the difference.

  8. 76 FR 57008 - Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... for submitting comments. Mail: Docket Management Facility, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New... Journal of Medicine article, ``E-Cigarette or Drug-Delivery Device? Regulating Novel Nicotine Products... which they evaluated five electronic cigarette brands. See Anna Trtchounian & Prue Talbot,...

  9. Association of School Social Networks’ Influence and Mass Media Factors With Cigarette Smoking Among Asthmatic Students

    PubMed Central

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks’ influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. METHODS This study included 9755 asthmatic and 38,487 non-asthmatic middle and high school students. Secondary data analysis incorporated the complex sample design; and univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression statistics. RESULTS Asthmatic students had greater odds of smoking than non-asthmatic students. Asthmatic female students were more likely than asthmatic male students to have been exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms or cars and to smoking actors, but less likely to associate smoking with intent to wear tobacco-marketing products, or with looking cool/fitting in. Asthmatic male and female students, who have smoking friends, were exposed to secondhand smoke in rooms (only girls) or cars, intended to smoke if best friends offered cigarettes, or received/bought tobacco marketing products had greater odds of smoking than other asthmatic students. CONCLUSIONS The observed associations suggest the need for general interventions to reduce middle and high school students’ cigarette smoking as well as targeted interventions for asthmatic adolescent students. PMID:25611937

  10. Elevated concentrations of endotoxin in indoor air due to cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Aleksandra; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart

    2006-05-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important worldwide public health issue. The present study demonstrates that cigarette smoke can be a major source of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in indoor environments. Gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry was used to determine 3-hydroxy fatty acids as markers of endotoxin in air-borne house dust in homes of smokers and non-smokers. Air concentrations of endotoxin were 4-63 times higher in rooms of smoking students than in identical rooms of non-smoking students. The fact that cigarette smoke contains large amounts of endotoxin may partly explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and may also draw attention to a hitherto neglected risk factor of ETS.

  11. Enhancement of lung cancer by cigarette smoking in uranium and other miners

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    There are substantial animal and epidemiological data related to cigarette smoking and lung cancer among miners exposed to elevated levels of radon daughters that appears to be in disagreement. An hypothesis is advanced that explains most of this disagreement as being derived from temporal differences of cancer expression. The hypothesis is that a given radiation exposure induced a finite number of lung cancers, which have shorter latent periods due to the cancer promotion activity of smoke among cigarette smokers. According to this hypothesis, the life-shortening effect is greater among smoking miners than nonsmoking miners, and the ultimate number of lung cancers among smoking miners will be only a little larger than among nonsmokers. The greater number will derive from the additive effect of radiation and smoking, plus the greater force of competing causes of death among elderly nonsmokers.

  12. Cigarette smoke increases the penetration of asbestos fibers into airway walls.

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, D.; Wright, J.; Wiggs, B.; Churg, A.

    1986-01-01

    For study of the penetration of asbestos fibers into airway walls, guinea pigs were given amosite asbestos by intratracheal instillation. Half of the animals were also exposed to cigarette smoke. Animals were sacrificed at 1 week and 1 month, and numbers of fibers in airway walls were counted in histologic sections. In both smoke-exposed and nonexposed groups, numbers of fibers per square millimeter of airway wall increased from 1 week to 1 month in the respiratory bronchioles. At each time period, smoke-exposed animals had significantly higher numbers of fibers in the airway walls, compared with nonexposed animals. It is concluded that 1) continued transport of fibers into interstitial tissues may be the reason that asbestosis can progress after cessation of exposure; 2) cigarette smoke increases the penetration of fibers into airway walls. This effect may play a role in the increased incidence of disease seen in smoking, compared with nonsmoking, asbestos workers. PMID:3963152

  13. [Cigarette smoking is the most important causal factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)].

    PubMed

    Muro, Shigeo

    2011-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is the most important causal factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). On the other hand, a substantial proportion of COPD cases suffer from obstructive disorder by other causes than smoking, especially among younger persons, females, and residents of developing countries. There are evidences that several rare genetic syndromes(such as alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency) and occupational exposures as causes of COPD. Environmental tobacco smoke, biomass smoke, and dietary factors are likely causes of COPD, although their contribution is much less compared to active smoking. Smoking during pregnancy may also pose a risk for the fetus, by affecting lung growth and development in uterus. The quicker the smoking cessation is achieved, the more improvements in the lung functions the COPD patients can obtain. Smoking should be avoided as soon as possible in all the COPD subjects and those who are at risk for developing COPD.

  14. Vitamin C bl