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Sample records for cigarette smoke-related end-points

  1. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23349696

  2. Genomic impact of cigarette smoke, with application to three smoking-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Talikka, M; Sierro, N; Ivanov, N V; Chaudhary, N; Peck, M J; Hoeng, J; Coggins, C R E; Peitsch, M C

    2012-11-01

    There is considerable evidence that inhaled toxicants such as cigarette smoke can cause both irreversible changes to the genetic material (DNA mutations) and putatively reversible changes to the epigenetic landscape (changes in the DNA methylation and chromatin modification state). The diseases that are believed to involve genetic and epigenetic perturbations include lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), all of which are strongly linked epidemiologically to cigarette smoking. In this review, we highlight the significance of genomics and epigenomics in these major smoking-related diseases. We also summarize the in vitro and in vivo findings on the specific perturbations that smoke and its constituent compounds can inflict upon the genome, particularly on the pulmonary system. Finally, we review state-of-the-art genomics and new techniques such as high-throughput sequencing and genome-wide chromatin assays, rapidly evolving techniques which have allowed epigenetic changes to be characterized at the genome level. These techniques have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the specific mechanisms by which exposure to environmental chemicals causes disease. Such mechanistic knowledge provides a variety of opportunities for enhanced product safety assessment and the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions.

  3. Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers. PMID:9224127

  4. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups. PMID:27087188

  5. Potential Impact of Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packages in Reducing Cigarette Demand and Smoking-Related Deaths in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Chung, Le Hong; Giang, Kim Bao; Duc, Duong Minh; Hinh, Nguyen Duc; Mai, Vu Quynh; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Manh, Pham Duc; Duc, Ha Anh; Yang, Jui-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Two years after implementation of the graphic health warning intervention in Vietnam, it is very important to evaluate the intervention's potential impact. The objective of this paper was to predict effects of graphic health warnings on cigarette packages, particularly in reducing cigarette demand and smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam. In this study, a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method was used to evaluate the potential impact of graphic tobacco health warnings on smoking demand. To predict the impact of GHWs on reducing premature deaths associated with smoking, we constructed different static models. We adapted the method developed by University of Toronto, Canada and found that GHWs had statistically significant impact on reducing cigarette demand (up to 10.1% through images of lung damage), resulting in an overall decrease of smoking prevalence in Vietnam. We also found that between 428,417- 646,098 premature deaths would be prevented as a result of the GHW intervention. The potential impact of the GHW labels on reducing premature smoking-associated deaths in Vietnam were shown to be stronger among lower socio-economic groups.

  6. Cigarette Warning Label Policy Alternatives and Smoking-Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Andrews, Jeannette O.; Gray, Kevin M.; Alberg, Anthony J.; Navarro, Ashley; Friedman, Daniela B.; Cummings, K. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packaging have been proposed for the U.S., but their potential influences among populations that suffer tobacco-related health disparities are unknown. Purpose To evaluate pictorial health warning labels, including moderation of their influences by health literacy and race. Methods From July 2011 to January 2012, field experiments were conducted with 981 adult smokers who were randomized to control (i.e., text-only labels, n=207) and experimental conditions (i.e., pictorial labels, n=774). The experimental condition systematically varied health warning label stimuli by health topic and image type. Linear mixed effects (LME) models estimated the influence of health warning label characteristics and participant characteristics on label ratings. Data were analyzed from January 2012 to April 2012. Results Compared to text-only warning labels, pictorial warning labels were rated as more personally relevant (5.7 vs 6.8, p<0.001) and effective (5.4 vs 6.8, p<0.001), and as more credible, but only among participants with low health literacy (7.6 vs 8.2, p<0.001). Within the experimental condition, pictorial health warning labels with graphic imagery had significantly higher ratings of credibility, personal relevance, and effectiveness than imagery of human suffering and symbolic imagery. Significant interactions indicated that labels with graphic imagery produced minimal differences in ratings across racial groups and levels of health literacy, whereas other imagery produced greater group differences. Conclusions Pictorial health warning labels with graphic images have the most-pronounced short-term impacts on adult smokers, including smokers from groups that have in the past been hard to reach. PMID:23159254

  7. Are Young People’s Beliefs About Menthol Cigarettes Associated With Smoking-Related Intentions and Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Laura; Momjian, Ani; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the beliefs that youth and young adults hold about menthol cigarettes or the influence of these beliefs on tobacco use initiation. Methods: Online cross-sectional surveys with 13- to 17-year-old current nonsmokers (n = 553) and 18- to 25-year-old never (n = 586) and current tobacco users (n = 307) in the United States assessed the association between endorsing each of 9 pro-menthol beliefs and (a) intentions to smoke menthol cigarettes over the next year, (b) current use of menthol cigarettes, (c) intentions to use tobacco in general over the next year, and (d) current use of tobacco products in general. Results: Menthols were perceived to be less harmful and addictive than nonmenthol cigarettes by between 13% and 23% of respondents. Between 20% and 58% believed that menthols had favorable sensory properties, and 7%–25% believed that menthol smokers were more popular and attractive than nonmenthol smokers. Logistic regression analyses (adjusting for confounders) indicated that, on the whole, those who endorsed pro-menthol beliefs were more likely to intend to use, and to currently use, both menthols and tobacco products in general. For example, respondents who believed that menthol cigarettes were more refreshing in sensation (one of the most frequently endorsed beliefs) were significantly more likely to (a) intend to smoke menthol cigarettes (13- to 17-year-olds, odds ratio [OR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 4.34; 18- to 25-year olds, OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.04, 6.60), (b) currently use menthol cigarettes (18- to 25-year olds, OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 2.20, 5.26), (c) intend to use tobacco (13- to 17-year-olds OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.14, 2.65), and (d) currently use tobacco (18- to 25-year olds, OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.44, 2.93). Conclusions: Youth and young adults who do not currently smoke and who hold favorable beliefs about menthol cigarettes are at greater risk for beginning to use tobacco products, indicating that

  8. Can pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages address smoking-related health disparities?: Field experiments in Mexico to assess warning label content

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Villalobos, Victor; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Hammond, David; Carter, Jarvis; Sebrié, Ernesto; Sansores, Raul; Regalado-Piñeda, Justino

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the most effective content of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and whether educational attainment moderates these effects. Methods Field experiments were conducted with 529 adult smokers and 530 young adults (258 nonsmokers; 271 smokers), wherein participants reported responses to different HWLs printed on cigarette packages. One experiment involved manipulating textual form (testimonial narrative vs didactic) and the other involved manipulating imagery type (diseased organs vs human suffering). Results Tests of mean ratings and rankings indicated that HWLs with didactic textual forms had equivalent or significantly higher credibility, relevance, and impact than HWLs with testimonial forms. Results from mixed-effects models confirmed these results. However, responses differed by participant educational attainment: didactic forms were consistently rated higher than testimonials among participants with higher education, whereas the difference between didactic and testimonial narrative forms was weaker or not statistically significant among participants with lower education. In the second experiment, with textual content held constant, greater credibility, relevance and impact was found for graphic imagery of diseased organs than imagery of human suffering. Conclusions Pictorial HWLs with didactic textual forms appear to work better than with testimonial narratives. Future research should determine which pictorial HWL content has the greatest real-world impact among consumers from disadvantaged groups, including assessment of how HWL content should change to maintain its impact as tobacco control environments strengthen and consumer awareness of smoking-related risks increases. PMID:22350859

  9. EndPoints 2000

    2009-08-13

    The application leads the user through a logical framework to determine the minimum effort and cost necessary to reach the desired end state for each space, system, and facility. Endpoints are used to plan the project work, track and manage the determination, management, verification, and closure of D&D endpoints, consistent with DOE End Point guidance documents.

  10. Do larger graphic health warnings on standardised cigarette packs increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of consumer health information and beliefs about smoking-related harms?

    PubMed Central

    White, Victoria; Williams, Tahlia; Faulkner, Agatha; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with enhanced graphic health warnings on Australian adolescents’ cognitive processing of warnings and awareness of different health consequences of smoking. Methods Cross-sectional school-based surveys conducted in 2011 (prior to introduction of standardised packaging, n=6338) and 2013 (7–12 months afterwards, n=5915). Students indicated frequency of attending to, reading, thinking or talking about warnings. Students viewed a list of diseases or health effects and were asked to indicate whether each was caused by smoking. Two—‘kidney and bladder cancer’ and ‘damages gums and teeth’—were new while the remainder had been promoted through previous health warnings and/or television campaigns. The 60% of students seeing a cigarette pack in previous 6 months in 2011 and 65% in 2013 form the sample for analysis. Changes in responses over time are examined. Results Awareness that smoking causes bladder cancer increased between 2011 and 2013 (p=0.002). There was high agreement with statements reflecting health effects featured in previous warnings or advertisements with little change over time. Exceptions to this were increases in the proportion agreeing that smoking was a leading cause of death (p<0.001) and causes blindness (p<0.001). The frequency of students reading, attending to, thinking or talking about the health warnings on cigarette packs did not change. Conclusions Acknowledgement of negative health effects of smoking among Australian adolescents remains high. Apart from increased awareness of bladder cancer, new requirements for packaging and health warnings did not increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of warning information.

  11. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Kevin R; Fell, Charlene; Aubry, Marie-Christine; Brown, Kevin; Colby, Thomas; Costabel, Ulrich; Franks, Teri J; Gross, Barry H; Hansell, David M; Kazerooni, Ella; Kim, Dong Soon; King, Talmadge E; Kitachi, Masanori; Lynch, David; Myers, Jeff; Nagai, Sonoko; Nicholson, Andrew G; Poletti, Venerino; Raghu, Ganesh; Selman, Moises; Toews, Galen; Travis, William; Wells, Athol U; Vassallo, Robert; Martinez, Fernando J

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor in the development of numerous pulmonary diseases. An international group of clinicians, radiologists and pathologists evaluated patients with previously identified idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) to determine unique features of cigarette smoking. Phase 1 (derivation group) identified smoking-related features in patients with a history of smoking (n=41). Phase 2 (validation group) determined if these features correctly predicted the smoking status of IIP patients (n=100) to participants blinded to smoking history. Finally, the investigators sought to determine if a new smoking-related interstitial lung disease phenotype could be defined. Phase 1 suggested that preserved forced vital capacity with disproportionately reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and various radiographic and histopathological findings were smoking-related features. In phase 2, the kappa coefficient among clinicians was 0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21), among the pathologists 0.36 (95% CI 0.32-0.40) and among the radiologists 0.43 (95% CI 0.35-0.52) for smoking-related features. Eight of the 100 cases were felt to represent a potential smoking-related interstitial lung disease. Smoking-related features of interstitial lung disease were identified in a minority of smokers and were not specific for smoking. This study is limited by its retrospective design, the potential for recall bias in smoking history and lack of information on second-hand smoke exposure. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between smoking and interstitial lung disease. PMID:25063244

  12. Pathologic cellular events in smoking-related pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Thrower, Edwin

    2015-04-29

    Pancreatitis, a debilitating inflammatory disorder, results from pancreatic injury. Alcohol abuse is the foremost cause, although cigarette smoking has recently surfaced as a distinct risk factor. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke and its toxins initiate pathological cellular events leading to pancreatitis, have not been clearly defined. Although cigarette smoke is composed of more than 4000 compounds, it is mainly nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which have been extensively studied with respect to pancreatic diseases. This review summarizes these research findings and highlights cellular pathways which may be of relevance in initiation and progression of smoking-related pancreatitis.

  13. Monitoring End Points of Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniel M; Matthews, Marc R

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses commonly used methods of monitoring and determining the end points of resuscitation. Each end point of resuscitation is examined as it relates to use in critically ill burn patients. Published medical literature, clinical trials, consensus trials, and expert opinion regarding end points of resuscitation were gathered and reviewed. Specific goals were a detailed examination of each method in the critical care population and how this methodology can be used in the burn patient. Although burn resuscitation is monitored and administered using the methodology as seen in medical/surgical intensive care settings, special consideration for excessive edema formation, metabolic derangements, and frequent operative interventions must be considered. PMID:27600124

  14. Risk characterization framework for noncancer end points.

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, T K; Hetes, R G; Naugle, D F

    1991-01-01

    The nature of both indoor air exposures and noncancer end points present significant issues for risk characterization. Noncancer end points are multidimensional, affecting various organs, and are assumed to have thresholds. Symptoms also vary in severity within a population. In addition to the complexity of noncancer risk assessment, indoor air exposures are typified by the presence of complex mixtures, which further complicates the complex nature of noncancer risk characterization. Most noncancer risk assessment efforts have focused on defining acceptable daily intakes or reference doses (RfD) rather than estimating incidence and severity of the wide range of effects within an exposed population. The risk characterization framework has been developed to accommodate the RfD approach but, more importantly, to address the multidimensional nature of noncancer risk characterization. Newly emerging methods and standard EPA risk assessment guidelines for noncancer effects and complex mixtures were used as guides for developing the framework. Information and data needs have been identified from the framework. Peak, average, and cumulative doses from indoor air exposures are highly dependent on variable indoor air concentrations and affected by time-activity patterns. Susceptibility also plays a significant role in noncancer end points and, unlike susceptibility in cancer risk assessment, is quantifiable. This paper highlights the risk characterization framework for noncancer health risks that we developed in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office. Additionally, a preliminary application of the framework to a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds from indoor sources is illustrated. PMID:1821365

  15. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles

  16. Smoking-related warning messages formulated as questions positively influence short-term smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara Cn; Ritter, Simone M; Glock, Sabine; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Engels, Rutger Cme; van Baaren, Rick B

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrated that by reformulating smoking warnings into questions, defensive responses in smokers are reduced and smoking-related risk perception increases. We explored whether these positive outcomes can be generalised to actual behaviour. Participants saw either a movie presenting subheadings with smoking-related questions or statements. Afterwards, the time was measured until participants lit their first cigarette. Smokers who were presented with questions about the harms of smoking waited longer before lighting up a cigarette than smokers who were presented with statements. Presenting questions instead of the statements seems to be an effective means to prolonging smokers' abstinence.

  17. [Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Marten, Katharina

    2007-03-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  18. Location of end-points in high-precision coulometry.

    PubMed

    Koch, W F; Poe, D P; Diehl, H

    1975-07-01

    A computer has been used to fit a cubic equation to experimental data obtained in the region of the end-point in high-precision coulometric titrations of 4-aminopyridine and tris(hydroxy-methyl) aminomethane. For these weak bases, the two end-points (points of inflexion calculated by setting the second derivative equal to zero) obtained by choosing first time, and secondly pH, as the independent variable, are in good agreement.

  19. Baryon effects on the location of QCD's critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.; Welzbacher, Christian A.

    2016-02-01

    The location of the critical end point of QCD has been determined in previous studies of Nf=2 +1 and Nf=2 +1 +1 dynamical quark flavors using a (truncated) set of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark and gluon propagators of Landau-gauge QCD. A source for systematic errors in these calculations has been the omission of terms in the quark-gluon interaction that can be parametrized in terms of baryonic degrees of freedom. These have a potentially large dependence on chemical potential and therefore may affect the location of the critical end point. In this exploratory study we estimate the effects of these contributions, both in the vacuum and at finite temperature and chemical potential. We find only a small influence of baryonic contributions on the location of the critical end point. We estimate the robustness of this result by parameterizing further dependencies on chemical potential.

  20. Phase diagram and critical end point for strongly interacting quarks.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si-xue; Chang, Lei; Chen, Huan; Liu, Yu-xin; Roberts, Craig D

    2011-04-29

    We introduce a method based on chiral susceptibility, which enables one to draw a phase diagram in the chemical-potential-temperature plane for strongly interacting quarks whose interactions are described by any reasonable gap equation, even if the diagrammatic content of the quark-gluon vertex is unknown. We locate a critical end point at (μ(E),T(E))∼(1.0,0.9)T(c), where T(c) is the critical temperature for chiral-symmetry restoration at μ=0, and find that a domain of phase coexistence opens at the critical end point whose area increases as a confinement length scale grows.

  1. End point behaviour of the pion distribution amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szcepaniak, Adam; Mankiewicz, Lech

    1991-08-01

    We study the end point structure of the pion distribution amplitude and reexamine the perturbative analysis of the high-Q2 pion form factor in the factorization approach. Permanent address: Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre, Bartycka 18, PL-00-716 Warsaw, Poland.

  2. Chemoprevention trials and surrogate end point biomarkers in the cervix.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M F; Hittelman, W K; Lotan, R; Nishioka, K; Tortolero-Luna, G; Richards-Kortum, R; Wharton, J T; Hong, W K

    1995-11-15

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide and remains a significant health problem for women, especially minority and underserved women. Despite an understanding of the epidemiologic risks, the screening Papanicolaou smear, and morbid and costly treatment, overall survival remains 40%. New strategies, based on the clinical and molecular aspects of cervical carcinogenesis, are desperately needed. Chemoprevention refers to the use of chemical agents to prevent or delay the development of cancer in healthy populations. Chemoprevention studies have several unique features that distinguish them from classic chemotherapeutic trials; these features touch on several disciplines and weave knowledge of the biology of carcinogenesis into the trial design. In the design of chemoprevention trials, four factors are important: high risk cohorts must be identified; suitable medications must be selected; study designs should include Phases I, II, and III; and studies should include the use of surrogate end point biomarkers. Surrogate end point biomarkers are sought because the cancer develops over a long period of time, and studies of chemopreventives would require a huge number of subjects followed for many years. Surrogate end point biomarkers serve as alternative end points for examination of the efficacy of chemopreventives in tissue. High risk cohorts include women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). Nutritional studies have helped define micronutrients of interest (folate, carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E). Other medications of interest include retinoids (4-hydroxyphenylretinamide [4-HPR], retinyl acetate gel, topical all-trans-retinoic acid), polyamine synthesis inhibitors (alpha-difluoromethylornithine [DFMO]), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen). Phase I chemoprevention studies of the cervix have tested retinyl acetate gel and all-trans-retinoic acid. Phase II trials of all

  3. In Vitro Systems Toxicology Assessment of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product Shows Reduced Toxicity Compared to That of a Conventional Cigarette.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Ignacio; Martin, Florian; Marescotti, Diego; Guedj, Emmanuel; Acali, Stefano; Johne, Stephanie; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Peric, Dariusz; Goedertier, Didier; Frentzel, Stefan; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Mathis, Carole; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-01-19

    Cigarette smoke increases the risk for respiratory and other diseases. Although smoking prevalence has declined over the years, millions of adults choose to continue to smoke. Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are potentially valuable tools for adult smokers that are unwilling to quit their habit. Here, we investigated the biological impact of a candidate MRTP, the tobacco-heating system (THS) 2.2, compared to that of the 3R4F reference cigarette in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Chemical characterization of the THS 2.2 aerosol showed reduced levels of harmful constituents compared to those of a combustible cigarette. Multiparametric indicators of cellular toxicity were measured via real-time cellular analysis and high-content screening. The study was complemented by a whole transcriptome analysis, followed by computational approaches to identify and quantify perturbed molecular pathways. Exposure of cells to 3R4F cigarette smoke resulted in a dose-dependent response in most toxicity end points. Moreover, we found a significant level of perturbation in multiple biological pathways, particularly in those related to cellular stress. By contrast, exposure to THS 2.2 resulted in an overall lower biological impact. At 3R4F doses, no toxic effects were observed. A toxic response was observed for THS 2.2 in some functional end points, but the responses occurred at doses between 3 and 15 times higher than those of 3R4F. The level of biological network perturbation was also significantly reduced following THS 2.2 aerosol exposure compared to that of 3R4F cigarette smoke. Taken together, the data suggest that THS 2.2 aerosol is less toxic than combustible cigarette smoke and thus may have the potential to reduce the risk for smoke-related diseases. PMID:26651182

  4. Attentional orienting towards smoking-related stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, L C; Mogg, K; Bradley, B P; Duka, T; Dickinson, A

    2003-03-01

    According to incentive salience theory, conditioned stimuli (CS+) associated with drug reinforcement acquire the capacity to elicit a conditioned attentional orienting response, which controls drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour. We sought evidence for this proposal by measuring visual attentional orienting towards smoking pictures presented briefly in the periphery of the visual field, versus control pictures likewise presented, in smokers versus non-smokers. In each trial, smokers and non-smokers responded manually to a dot probe stimulus that appeared in a location previously occupied by either a smoking picture or a control picture. Attentional bias scores were calculated by subtracting the median reaction time (RT) in the former condition from the median RT in the latter condition. In two experiments, light-smokers (smokers of fewer than 20 cigarettes/day) produced a mean bias score that was significantly greater than that of heavy-smokers (smokers of 20 or more cigarettes/day) and non-smokers. In addition, when smokers from the two experiments were pooled, a significant quadratic relationship was found between cigarettes/day and the attentional bias for the smoking stimuli. These findings are consistent with incentive salience theories and dual-process theories of addiction.

  5. Warning labels formulated as questions positively influence smoking-related risk perception.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Müller, Barbara C N; Ritter, Simone M

    2013-02-01

    Research on warning labels printed on cigarette packages has shown that fear inducing health warnings might provoke defensive responses. This study investigated whether reformulating statements into questions could avoid defensive reactions. Smokers were presented with either warning labels formulated as questions, textual warning labels, graphic warning labels, or no warning labels. Participants' smoking-related risk perception was higher after exposure to warning labels formulated as questions or no warning labels than after exposure to textual or graphic warning labels. These results indicate that reformulating statements into questions can avoid defensive responses elicited by textual- and graphic warning labels. PMID:22419415

  6. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Palmer, M.J.

    1997-10-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements.

  7. Determining End Points for Critical Limb Ischemia Interventions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Kyle J; Peña, Constantino; Benenati, James

    2016-06-01

    Critical limb ischemia is a condition that has increased in prevalence and carries a high degree of morbidity. Although endovascular therapy for treatment of patients with critical limb ischemia has undergone significant advances with improved outcomes over the past decade, these patients often have multilevel disease, and it may take weeks or months for ulceration healing. For this reason, the acceptable therapeutic end points during and immediately following revascularization remain somewhat obscure. There are multiple tools available to guide the treating vascular specialist in this regard. Establishment of in-line flow to the foot and the angiosome containing the ulceration, appearance of a "wound blush," restoration of pulses, and bleeding at the ulcer site are basic tenets intraprocedurally. Postprocedural noninvasive testing including the ankle-brachial and toe-brachial indices, segmental pressure measurements, pulse volume recordings, transcutaneous oxygen tension, skin perfusion pressures (SPPs), and toe pressures all play a role in determining the likelihood of clinical improvement. Newer technologies such as two-dimensional (2D) perfusion angiography, fluorescence angiography, and tissue oxygen saturation mapping may allow better real-time assessment of flow restoration. In combination with close clinical follow-up and wound care, these tools provide treating physicians with a better grasp of the necessary end points to optimize patients for clinical improvement. PMID:27423992

  8. Multiple end point procedure to evaluate risk from pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Cantelli-Forti, G; Paolini, M; Hrelia, P

    1993-01-01

    Because of the potential environmental impact of pesticides and the large population potentially exposed, the effects of chronic exposure to pesticides need to be determined. Mutagenicity studies have been used to identify specific agents as potential carcinogens or other human health hazards. However, short-term tests are only theoretically correlated to carcinogenesis because their end points can measure only the genotoxic potential of chemicals, i.e., their activities as initiating agents in multistep carcinogenesis. The objective of our research presented here is to provide a comprehensive examination of the mechanism of toxicity of a series of pesticides. These are substances for which toxicity, at both the genetic and metabolic level, has not been adequately described. Preliminary results on a broad series of compounds belonging to different biological classes (herbicide, insecticide, fungicide) seem to indicate that pesticides are toxic but are poor initiating agents, as shown by negative or weak positive results on different genetic end points (gene mutations, DNA effects, and chromosome aberrations in vitro and in vivo). Immunochemical and biochemical studies, however, seem to indicate the cocarcinogenic and promoting potential of these chemicals. As an example, the genotoxic and biochemical effects induced by Fenarimol (a fungicide) are discussed. The results reported stress the importance of identifying chemicals that act at different levels of the multistep carcinogenesis process to ascertain the risk associated with exposure. PMID:8143608

  9. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China. PMID:25607600

  10. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers.

  11. Electrophysiological mechanisms of biased response to smoking-related cues in young smokers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Zhang, Yajuan; Bi, Yanzhi; Bu, Limei; Li, Yangding; Shi, Sha; Liu, Peng; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2016-08-26

    Cigarette smoking during young adult may result in serious health issues in later life. Hence, it is extremely necessary to study the smoking neurophysiological mechanisms in this critical transitional period. However, few studies revealed the electrophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing biases in young adult smokers. In present study, nineteen young smokers with 12h abstinent and 19 matched nonsmokers were recruited. By employing event-related potentials (ERP) measurements during a smoking cue induced craving task, electrophysiological brain responses were compared between the young adult smokers and nonsmokers. The Slow Positive Wave (SPW) amplitude of smoking-related cues was enhanced in young adult smokers compared with nonsmokers. In addition, increased P300/SPW component of smoking-related cues relative to neutral cues were found in young adult smokers. Meanwhile, a positive correlation between Cigarette Per Day (CPD) and the amplitude of ERPs wave (P300/SPW) at anterior (Fz), central (Cz) were observed in young adult smokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for the cognitive processing bias of smoking cue and may shed new insights into the smoking behavior in young adult smokers. PMID:27373532

  12. The effective QCD phase diagram and the critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Cobos-Martínez, J. J.; Hernández-Ortiz, Saúl; Raya, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    We study the QCD phase diagram on the temperature T and quark chemical potential μ plane, modeling the strong interactions with the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. The phase transition line is found from the effective potential at finite T and μ taking into account the plasma screening effects. We find the location of the critical end point (CEP) to be (μCEP /Tc, TCEP /Tc) ∼ (1.2, 0.8), where Tc is the (pseudo)critical temperature for the crossover phase transition at vanishing μ. This location lies within the region found by lattice inspired calculations. The results show that in the linear sigma model, the CEP's location in the phase diagram is expectedly determined solely through chiral symmetry breaking. The same is likely to be true for all other models which do not exhibit confinement, provided the proper treatment of the plasma infrared properties for the description of chiral symmetry restoration is implemented. Similarly, we also expect these corrections to be substantially relevant in the QCD phase diagram.

  13. Economics and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Schelling, T C

    1986-09-01

    Economic facts on cigarette consumption and production are summarized, and the health consequences of cigarette smoking are reviewed. The magnitude and distribution of these health consequences among the population are discussed in economic terms, that is, in an "accounting framework" comprising such disparate elements as lost lives, lost livelihoods, pain, fear, discomfort, medical costs, excise taxes, and the costs of regulating smoking behaviors. The importance of these factors and their potential influence on public policy and individual behavior are considered. Difficulties include assigning a monetary value to an expected extension of life, the "voluntary" nature of smoking (even though most smokers wish they could quit), deciding what to include as economic consequences of smoking, and the attribution to smoking of some share of the costs for diseases known to be affected by smoking. "Transfers," or purely financial transactions, in contrast to expenditures for goods and services, are explained as one assessment component of the economic impact of smoking-related diseases. The issue of the economic benefit to the United States as a whole and to the population engaged in the cigarette industry, because of the earnings and employment generated by cigarette purchases, is examined, as is the issue of cigarette purchases as a significant source of federal and state revenue. PMID:3774784

  14. Expectancies for Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Nicotine Replacement Therapies Among E-Cigarette Users (aka Vapers)

    PubMed Central

    Marquinez, Nicole S.; Correa, John B.; Meltzer, Lauren R.; Unrod, Marina; Sutton, Steven K.; Simmons, Vani N.; Brandon, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of e-cigarettes has been increasing exponentially, with the primary motivation reported as smoking cessation. To understand why smokers choose e-cigarettes as an alternative to cigarettes, as well as to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRT), we compared outcome expectancies (beliefs about the results of drug use) for the three nicotine delivery systems among vapers, i.e., e-cigarette users, who were former smokers. Methods: Vapers (N = 1,434) completed an online survey assessing 14 expectancy domains as well as perceived cost and convenience. We focused on comparisons between e-cigarettes and cigarettes to determine the attraction of e-cigarettes as a smoking alternative and between e-cigarettes and NRT to determine perceived advantages of e-cigarettes over FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. Results: Participants believed that e-cigarettes, in comparison to conventional cigarettes, had fewer health risks; caused less craving, withdrawal, addiction, and negative physical feelings; tasted better; and were more satisfying. In contrast, conventional cigarettes were perceived as better than e-cigarettes for reducing negative affect, controlling weight, providing stimulation, and reducing stress. E-cigarettes, compared to NRT, were perceived to be less risky, cost less, cause fewer negative physical feelings, taste better, provide more satisfaction, and be better at reducing craving, negative affect, and stress. Moderator analyses indicated history with ad libitum forms of NRT was associated with less positive NRT expectancies. Conclusions: The degree to which expectancies for e-cigarettes differed from expectancies for either tobacco cigarettes or NRT offers insight into the motivation of e-cigarette users and provides guidance for public health and clinical interventions to encourage smoking-related behavior change. PMID:25168035

  15. Anatomy of an experimental two-link flexible manipulator under end-point control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The design and experimental implementation of an end-point controller for two-link flexible manipulators are presented. The end-point controller is based on linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory and is shown to exhibit significant improvements in trajectory tracking over a conventional controller design. To understand the behavior of the manipulator structure under end-point control, a strobe sequence illustrating the link deflections during a typical slew maneuver is included.

  16. Developing biomarker-specific end points in lung cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Neal, Joel W; Gainor, Justin F; Shaw, Alice T

    2015-03-01

    In cancer-drug development, a number of different end points have been used to establish efficacy and support regulatory approval, such as overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and radiographic response rate. However, these traditional end points have important limitations. For example, in lung cancer clinical trials, evaluating overall survival end points is a protracted process and these end points are most reliable when crossover to the investigational therapy is not permitted. Furthermore, although radiographic surrogate end points, such as PFS and response rate, generally correlate with clinical benefit in the setting of cytotoxic chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapies, novel immunotherapies might have atypical response kinetics, which confounds radiographic interpretation. In this Review, we discuss the need to develop alternative or surrogate end points for lung cancer clinical trials, and focus on several new biomarkers that could serve as surrogate end points, including functional imaging biomarkers, circulating factors (tumour proteins, DNA, and cells), and pharmacodynamic tumour markers. By enabling the size, duration, and complexity of cancer trials to be reduced, biomarker end points hold the promise to accelerate drug development and improve patient outcomes.

  17. Clinical trial end points for high-grade glioma: the evolving landscape*

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, David A.; Galanis, Evanthia; DeGroot, John F.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Lassman, Andrew B.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Sampson, John H.; Wick, Wolfgang; Chamberlain, Marc C.; Macdonald, David R.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Chang, Susan M.; Van den Bent, Martin J.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2011-01-01

    To review the strengths and weaknesses of primary and auxiliary end points for clinical trials among patients with high-grade glioma (HGG). Recent advances in outcome for patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent HGG, coupled with the development of multiple promising therapeutics with myriad antitumor actions, have led to significant growth in the number of clinical trials for patients with HGG. Appropriate clinical trial design and the incorporation of optimal end points are imperative to efficiently and effectively evaluate such agents and continue to advance outcome. Growing recognition of limitations weakening the reliability of traditional clinical trial primary end points has generated increasing uncertainty of how best to evaluate promising therapeutics for patients with HGG. The phenomena of pseudoprogression and pseudoresponse have made imaging-based end points, including overall radiographic response and progression-free survival, problematic. Although overall survival is considered the “gold-standard” end point, recently identified active salvage therapies such as bevacizumab may diminish the association between presalvage therapy and overall survival. Finally, advances in imaging as well as the assessment of patient function and well being have strengthened interest in auxiliary end points assessing these aspects of patient care and outcome. Better appreciation of the strengths and limitations of primary end points will lead to more effective clinical trial strategies. Technical advances in imaging as well as improved survival for patients with HGG support the further development of auxiliary end points evaluating novel imaging approaches as well as measures of patient function and well being. PMID:21310734

  18. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  19. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    Increasing the price of cigarettes can reduce smoking substantially by discouraging initiation among youths and young adults, prompting quit attempts, and reducing average cigarette consumption among those who continue to smoke. Increasing cigarette excise taxes is one of the most effective tobacco control policies because it directly increases cigarette prices, thereby reducing cigarette use and smoking-related death and disease. All states and the District of Columbia (DC) impose an excise tax on cigarettes. Because many states increased their cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of these tax increases. For this report, CDC reviewed data contained in a legislative database to identify cigarette excise tax legislation that was enacted during 2009 by the 50 states and DC. During that period, 15 states (including DC), increased their state excise tax on cigarettes, increasing the national mean from $1.18 per pack in 2008 to $1.34 per pack in 2009. However, none of the 15 states dedicated any of the new excise tax revenue by statute to tobacco control. Additionally, for the first time, two states (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had excise tax rates of at least $3.00 per pack. Additional increases in cigarette excise taxes, and dedication of all resulting revenues to tobacco control and prevention programs at levels recommended by CDC, could result in further reductions in smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  20. [Smoking-related self-efficacy and smoking intention in young people: Factorial validity and structural association].

    PubMed

    Palacios Delgado, Jorge Raúl

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain, in a structural equation model, the factorial validity of smoking-related self-efficacy, as well as its structural association with behavior and smoking intention. The sample was made up of 1012 young people aged 14 to 22 (mean 16.76) from public high schools in Mexico City. These young people filled out a questionnaire that assessed tobacco use (current smokers' age at first cigarette, smoking frequency and quantity of cigarettes smoked). They were also asked about intention to smoke in the future. Self-efficacy was assessed using items that measured one's capacity to avoid smoking. The results indicated the factorial validity of the smoking-related self-efficacy measure in this sample. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested (X²= 113.319, p<.001; CFI= .99; NFI= .99; GFI= .95; RMSEA= .05) that those young people with lower confidence in their ability to avoid smoking would have higher levels of smoking intention and smoking behavior; moreover, intention to smoke in the future predicts level of smoking. The discussion analyzes the utility of the results for the assessment of self-efficacy, as well as the clinical implications for the people in treatment. PMID:21152851

  1. Comparison of methods for accurate end-point detection of potentiometric titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villela, R. L. A.; Borges, P. P.; Vyskočil, L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the end point in potentiometric titrations has wide application on experiments that demand very low measurement uncertainties mainly for certifying reference materials. Simulations of experimental coulometric titration data and consequential error analysis of the end-point values were conducted using a programming code. These simulations revealed that the Levenberg-Marquardt method is in general more accurate than the traditional second derivative technique used currently as end-point detection for potentiometric titrations. Performance of the methods will be compared and presented in this paper.

  2. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  3. Information resources and the correlation of response patterns between biological end points

    SciTech Connect

    Malling, H.V.; Wassom, J.S.

    1990-12-31

    This paper focuses on the analysis of information for mutagenesis, a biological end point that is important in the overall process of assessing possible adverse health effects from chemical exposure. 17 refs.

  4. The effects of cigarette smoking on human sexual potency.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D G; Hagen, R L; D'Agostino, J A

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two male cigarette smokers, age 18 to 44, were randomly assigned to high-nicotine, low-nicotine, or control groups in a study relating cigarette smoking to sexual response. Subjects watched erotic film segments while their penile diameters, heart rates, and finger pulse amplitudes were continuously recorded by a polygraph. Subjects in the smoking groups smoked relatively high-nicotine (.9 mg) or very low-nicotine (.002 mg) cigarettes prior to watching the last two films, while control subjects ate candy. Smoking two high-nicotine cigarettes in immediate succession significantly decreased the rate of penile diameter change relative to the other conditions. These effects were not seen after a single cigarette was smoked. High-nicotine cigarettes caused significantly more vasoconstriction and heart rate increase than did low-nicotine cigarettes, which did not differ from control conditions. PMID:3812052

  5. Exposure–Response Modeling of Clinical End Points Using Latent Variable Indirect Response Models

    PubMed Central

    Hu, C

    2014-01-01

    Exposure–response modeling facilitates effective dosing regimen selection in clinical drug development, where the end points are often disease scores and not physiological variables. Appropriate models need to be consistent with pharmacology and identifiable from the time courses of available data. This article describes a general framework of applying mechanism-based models to various types of clinical end points. Placebo and drug model parameterization, interpretation, and assessment are discussed with a focus on the indirect response models. PMID:24897307

  6. Federal Policy Mandating Safer Cigarettes: A Hypothetical Simulation of the Anticipated Population Health Gains or Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengs, Tammy O.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Moore, Rebecca; Gage, Eric

    2004-01-01

    If manufacturing a safer cigarette is technically possible--an open question--then mandating that tobacco manufacturers improve the safety of cigarettes would likely have both positive and negative implications for the nation's health. On the one hand, removing toxins may reduce the incidence of smoking-related diseases and premature mortality in…

  7. QCD Critical End Point: How it started, How it grew, and Where it goes

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, Masayuki

    2011-05-06

    The presence of a critical end point in the QCD phase diagram can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the expanding fireball in the {mu}{sub B}-T phase diagram. If the average emission time of hadrons is a function of transverse velocity, as microscopic simulations of the hadronic freezeout dynamics suggest, the deformation of the hydrodynamic trajectories will change the transverse velocity ({beta}{sub T}) dependence of the antiproton-to-proton ratio when the fireball passes in the vicinity of the critical end point. An unusual {beta}{sub T}-dependence of the p-bar/p ratio in a narrow beam energy window would thus signal the presence of the critical end point.

  8. Automatic end-point detection of spray etching in application to mask making

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, F.; Kato, M.; Koizumi, T.; Mori, K.; Sagawara, K.; Takehana, Y.

    1985-06-01

    The development of high performance LSI's has increased the requirement for precise control of mask making in addition to that of wafer processing. One method for obtaining precise control is ''in-process'' end-point detection. End-point detection methods have previously been devised for thin film formation, such as thickness control of SOS (silicon-on-sapphire) epitaxial layers (1), homoepitaxial layers (2), and for plasma etching (3). In mask making, ''wet etching'' has been used due to thin Cr film deposited on mask blanks and to flat surface in comparison with the wafer fabrication. In this note, a novel method of the end-point detection used for the mask making will be reported; it is quite different from that used for the ''dry etching.''

  9. S-maltoheptaose targets syndecan-bound effectors to reduce smoking-related neutrophilic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David CL; Chan, Stanley CH; Mak, Judith CW; Freeman, Craig; Ip, Mary SM; Shum, Daisy KY

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke induces injury and neutrophilic inflammation in the airways of smokers. The stability and activity of inflammatory effectors, IL8 and neutrophil elastase (NE), can be prolonged by binding to airway heparan sulfate (HS)/syndecan-1, posing risk for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). We hypothesize that antagonizing HS/syndecan-1 binding of the inflammatory effectors could reduce smoking-related neutrophil-mediated airway inflammation. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) of COPD patients found both total and unopposed NE levels to be significantly higher among smokers with COPD than non-COPD subjects. Similar NE burden was observed in smoke-exposed rats compared to sham air controls. We chose sulfated-maltoheptaose(SM), a heparin-mimetic, to antagonize HS/sydecan-1 binding of the inflammatory mediators in airway fluids and lung tissues of the smoke-exposed rat model. Airway treatment with SM resulted in displacement of CINC-1 and NE from complexation with bronchio-epithelial HS/syndecan-1, dissipating the chemokine gradient for neutrophil flux across to the bronchial lumen. Following SM displacement of NE from shed HS/syndecan-1 in bronchial fluids, NE became accessible to inhibition by α1-antitrypsin endogenous in test samples. The antagonistic actions of SM against syndecan-1 binding of NE and CINC-1 in smoke-exposed airways suggest new therapeutic opportunities for modulating airway inflammation in smokers with SM delivery. PMID:26256047

  10. A numerical method of finding potentiometric titration end-points by use of approximative spline functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, K

    1990-07-01

    A new numerical method of determining potentiometric titration end-points is presented. It consists in calculating the coefficients of approximative spline functions describing the experimental data (e.m.f., volume of titrant added). The end-point (the inflection point of the curve) is determined by calculating zero points of the second derivative of the approximative spline function. This spline function, unlike rational spline functions, is free from oscillations and its course is largely independent of random errors in e.m.f. measurements. The proposed method is useful for direct analysis of titration data and especially as a basis for construction of microcomputer-controlled automatic titrators. PMID:18964999

  11. Calculation of a velocity distribution from particle trajectory end-points.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Lowell A.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal component of the velocity of a particle at or near a glacier surface is considered, its position as a function of time being termed its trajectory. Functional relationships are derived for obtaining the trajectory from the spatial distribution of velocity and for obtaining the velocity distribution from the trajectory. It is established that the trajectory end-points impose only an integral condition on the velocity distribution and that no individual point on the velocity distribution can be determined if only the end-points are known.-from Author

  12. New clinical end points in rehabilitation medicine: tools for measuring quality of life.

    PubMed

    Abresch, Richard T; Carter, Gregory T; Han, Jay J; McDonald, Craig M

    Traditional clinical end points in rehabilitation medicine have centered on objective measures of human performance, including quantitative muscle strength testing, functional independence measurements (FIM), and timed motor performance (TMP). However, it is now increasingly recognized that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a valid clinical end point. Health-related quality of life is a broad concept involving an individual's physical health, psychological state, personal beliefs, and interpersonal and social support relationships. The goals for this article are to show the value of performing HRQoL measurements and briefly describe methods used to assess quality of life (QoL). PMID:19923631

  13. Current state of clinical end-points assessment in transplant: Key points.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Domingo; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Víctor

    2016-04-01

    Solid organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage organ disease. However, organ transplantation can stress the cardiovascular system and decrease immune surveillance, leading to early mortality and graft loss due to multiple underlying comorbidities. Clinical end-points in transplant include death and graft failure. Thus, generating accurate predictive models through regression models is crucial to test for definitive clinical post-transplantation end-points. Survival predictive models should assemble efficient surrogate markers or prognostic factors to generate a minimal set of variables derived from a proper modeling strategy through regression models. However, a few critical points should be considered when reporting survival analyses and regression models to achieve proper discrimination and calibration of the predictive models. Additionally, population-based risk scores may underestimate risk prediction in transplant. The application of predictive models in these patients should therefore incorporate both classical and non-classical risk factors, as well as community-based health indicators and transplant-specific factors to quantify the outcomes in terms of survival properly. This review focuses on assessment of clinical end-points in transplant through regression models by combining predictive and surrogate variables, and considering key points in these analyses to accurately predict definitive end-points, which could aid clinicians in decision making. PMID:26948088

  14. Efficacy Studies of Influenza Vaccines: Effect of End Points Used and Characteristics of Vaccine Failures

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Joshua G.; Ohmit, Suzanne E.; Johnson, Emileigh; Cross, Rachel T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. End points used to detect influenza in vaccine efficacy trials have varied. Both the inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines are efficacious; however, failure to protect occurs. Methods. We compared characteristics of influenza A (H3N2) and B cases from 3 years of a comparative placebo-controlled trial of inactivated and live attenuated vaccines, and we evaluated the laboratory end points used to determine efficacy. Results. Although illness duration and reported symptoms did not differ by intervention, subjects with influenza in the inactivated vaccine group were less likely than those in the placebo group to report medically attended illnesses. All influenza type A (H3N2) and B cases isolated in cell culture were also identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). However, only 69% of type A (H3N2) cases identified by rtPCR also were isolated in cell culture. Isolation frequency was lowest among live attenuated vaccine failures, a reflection of lower specimen viral loads. Among cases of rtPCR identified influenza A (H3N2), 90% of placebo and 87% of live attenuated vaccine recipients but only 23% of inactivated vaccine recipients demonstrated serologic confirmation of infection. Conclusions. In influenza vaccine efficacy studies, virus identification using rtPCR is the ideal end point. Isolation in cell culture will miss cases, and a serologic end point alone will overestimate inactivated vaccine efficacy. PMID:21378375

  15. Automatic detection of exogenous respiration end-point using artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Bisschops, I; Spanjers, H; Keesman, K

    2006-01-01

    When aerobic bacteria receive a biodegradable material such as wastewater, then respiration changes from endogenous to exogenous. The reverse occurs when biodegradation is complete. When using respirometry a respirogram is recorded showing those changes in respiration, and for an expert it is not difficult to point the moments at which they occur. The area corresponding to the exogenous respiration phase is a measure of the easily biodegradable fraction of material, also called the short-term BOD or BOD(ST). That value, in combination with a value for COD, can be used to determine the treatability of wastewater. Respirometry can also be applied on-line, e.g. for on-line monitoring of wastewater. However, automatic detection of the end-point of exogenous respiration is difficult. The first step towards on-line monitoring of wastewater treatability is to make automatic detection of this end-point possible. In this study the use of a neural network for detection of this end-point was investigated. Results are promising; after training the neural network is able to detect the correct end-point in the majority of the studied cases.

  16. Phase diagram and critical end point in nonlocal PNJL models with wavefunction renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Contrera, Gustavo A.; Orsaria, Milva G.; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2010-11-12

    We study the chiral phase transition at finite temperature and chemical potential considering a non-local chiral quark model which includes wave-function renormalization and coupling to the Polyakov loop. In particular, we determine the position of the Critical End Point as well as the value of the associated critical exponents for different model parameterizations.

  17. New supervised learning theory applied to cerebellar modeling for suppression of variability of saccade end points.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masahiko

    2013-06-01

    A new supervised learning theory is proposed for a hierarchical neural network with a single hidden layer of threshold units, which can approximate any continuous transformation, and applied to a cerebellar function to suppress the end-point variability of saccades. In motor systems, feedback control can reduce noise effects if the noise is added in a pathway from a motor center to a peripheral effector; however, it cannot reduce noise effects if the noise is generated in the motor center itself: a new control scheme is necessary for such noise. The cerebellar cortex is well known as a supervised learning system, and a novel theory of cerebellar cortical function developed in this study can explain the capability of the cerebellum to feedforwardly reduce noise effects, such as end-point variability of saccades. This theory assumes that a Golgi-granule cell system can encode the strength of a mossy fiber input as the state of neuronal activity of parallel fibers. By combining these parallel fiber signals with appropriate connection weights to produce a Purkinje cell output, an arbitrary continuous input-output relationship can be obtained. By incorporating such flexible computation and learning ability in a process of saccadic gain adaptation, a new control scheme in which the cerebellar cortex feedforwardly suppresses the end-point variability when it detects a variation in saccadic commands can be devised. Computer simulation confirmed the efficiency of such learning and showed a reduction in the variability of saccadic end points, similar to results obtained from experimental data.

  18. Detecting Blending End-Point Using Mean Squares Successive Difference Test and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Milad; Amigo, José M; Bertelsen, Poul; Van Den Berg, Frans; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    An algorithm based on mean squares successive difference test applied to near-infrared and principal component analysis scores was developed to monitor and determine the blending profile and to assess the end-point in the statistical stabile phase. Model formulations consisting of an active compound (acetylsalicylic acid), together with microcrystalline cellulose and two grades of calcium carbonate with dramatically different particle shapes, were prepared. The formulation comprising angular-shaped calcium carbonate reached blending end-point slower when compared with the formulation comprising equant-shaped calcium carbonate. Utilizing the ring shear test, this distinction in end-point could be related to the difference in flowability of the formulations. On the basis of the two model formulations, a design of experiments was conducted to characterize the blending process by studying the effect of CaCO3 grades and fill level of the bin on blending end-point. Calcium carbonate grades, fill level, and their interaction were shown to have a significant impact on the blending process. PMID:26094601

  19. Study Design Implications of Death and Hospitalization as End Points in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin K.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roberts, Rhonda S.; Anstrom, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The feasibility of an interventional clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) using death and hospitalization as primary end points is an area of uncertainty. Using data from a large well-characterized clinical trial population, this article aims to illustrate the impact of cohort enrichment and study duration on sample size requirements for IPF clinical trials in which death alone or death plus hospitalization serve as the primary end point. METHODS: Event rate estimates for death and hospitalization were determined from patients enrolled in National Institutes of Health-sponsored IPF Clinical Research Network clinical trials. Standard equations were applied to estimate the total sample size required for varying gender, age, and pulmonary function (GAP) stage-based cohorts. RESULTS: Risk estimates for death and hospitalization in the clinical trial cohort were substantially lower than those published. An IPF trial with death as its primary end point enrolling subjects designated as GAP stage 1 and 2 over 1 year with a minimum follow-up of 1 year would require an estimated 7,986 subjects to achieve 90% power for a hazard ratio of 0.70. Alternatively, an IPF trial with death plus hospitalization as its primary end point enrolling subjects with GAP stage 2 and 3 over 2 years with a minimum follow-up of 1 year would require an estimated 794 subjects for the same power and hazard ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Study design decisions, in particular cohort enrichment strategies, have a substantial impact on sample size requirements for IPF clinical trials using time-to-event primary end points such as death and death plus hospitalization. PMID:25144827

  20. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated. Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article. Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field. PMID:23113130

  1. Genetic evaluation of carcass traits in Simmental-sired cattle at different slaughter end points.

    PubMed

    Shanks, B C; Tess, M W; Kress, D D; Cunningham, B E

    2001-03-01

    Our objectives were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits and evaluate the influence of slaughter end point on estimated breeding values (BV). Data provided by the American Simmental Association were divided into three sets: 1) 9,604 records of hot carcass weight (CW) and percentage retail cuts (PRC), 2) 6,429 records of CW, PRC, and marbling score (MS), and 3) 1,780 records of CW, PRC, MS, fat thickness (FT), and longissimus muscle area (LMA). Weaning weights (WW) from animals with carcass data and from their weaning contemporaries were used. Data were analyzed with a multiple-trait animal model and REML procedures to estimate genetic parameters and BV on an age-, CW-, MS-, or FT-constant basis. The model for carcass traits included fixed contemporary group and covariates for breed, heterozygosity, and slaughter end point and random additive direct genetic and residual effects. Weaning weight was preadjusted for founder effects, direct and maternal heterosis, age of dam, and age of calf. The model for WW included fixed contemporary group and random additive direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment, and residual effects. Heritabilities from data set 1 were 0.34 for CW and 0.25 for PRC on an age-constant basis and 0.25 for PRC on a CW end point. Heritabilities for data set 2 were 0.35, 0.24, and 0.36 for CW, PRC, and MS, respectively, on an age-constant basis. Data set 2 heritabilities were 0.25 for PRC and 0.34 for MS on a CW-constant basis and 0.33 for CW and 0.25 for PRC at a constant MS end point. Heritabilities on an age-constant basis for data set 3 were as follows: CW, 0.32; PRC, 0.09; MS, 0.12; FT, 0.10; and LMA, 0.26. Heritability estimates for data set 3 on a CW-, MS-, and FT-constant basis were similar to those on an age-constant basis. Heritabilities were 0.12 for PRC, 0.12 for MS, 0.14 for FT, and 0.22 for LMA on a CW-constant basis; 0.30 for CW, 0.09 for PRC, 0.10 for FT, and 0.28 for LMA at a constant MS end point

  2. Kinetic titration with differential thermometric determination of the end-point.

    PubMed

    Sajó, I

    1968-06-01

    A method has been described for the determination of concentrations below 10(-4)M by applying catalytic reactions and using thermometric end-point determination. A reference solution, identical with the sample solution except for catalyst, is titrated with catalyst solution until the rates of reaction become the same, as shown by a null deflection on a galvanometer connected via bridge circuits to two opposed thermistors placed in the solutions. PMID:18960338

  3. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  4. A unified procedure for meta-analytic evaluation of surrogate end points in randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Dai, James Y; Hughes, James P

    2012-09-01

    The meta-analytic approach to evaluating surrogate end points assesses the predictiveness of treatment effect on the surrogate toward treatment effect on the clinical end point based on multiple clinical trials. Definition and estimation of the correlation of treatment effects were developed in linear mixed models and later extended to binary or failure time outcomes on a case-by-case basis. In a general regression setting that covers nonnormal outcomes, we discuss in this paper several metrics that are useful in the meta-analytic evaluation of surrogacy. We propose a unified 3-step procedure to assess these metrics in settings with binary end points, time-to-event outcomes, or repeated measures. First, the joint distribution of estimated treatment effects is ascertained by an estimating equation approach; second, the restricted maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the means and the variance components of the random treatment effects; finally, confidence intervals are constructed by a parametric bootstrap procedure. The proposed method is evaluated by simulations and applications to 2 clinical trials.

  5. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    PubMed

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance. PMID:25148680

  6. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    PubMed

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance.

  7. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation

    PubMed Central

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R.; Clark, Simon J.; Bishop, Paul N.; Day, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation. PMID:26794210

  8. Age and Smoking Related Changes in Metal Ion Levels in Human Lens: Implications for Cataract Formation.

    PubMed

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Tilakaratna, Viranga; Lythgoe, Paul R; Clark, Simon J; Bishop, Paul N; Day, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related cataract formation is the primary cause of blindness worldwide and although treatable by surgical removal of the lens the majority of sufferers have neither the finances nor access to the medical facilities required. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cataract may identify new therapeutic targets to prevent or slow its progression. Cataract incidence is strongly correlated with age and cigarette smoking, factors that are often associated with accumulation of metal ions in other tissues. Therefore this study evaluated the age-related changes in 14 metal ions in 32 post mortem human lenses without known cataract from donors of 11 to 82 years of age by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; smoking-related changes in 10 smokers verses 14 non-smokers were also analysed. A significant age-related increase in selenium and decrease in copper ions was observed for the first time in the lens tissue, where cadmium ion levels were also increased as has been seen previously. Aluminium and vanadium ions were found to be increased in smokers compared to non-smokers (an analysis that has only been carried out before in lenses with cataract). These changes in metal ions, i.e. that occur as a consequence of normal ageing and of smoking, could contribute to cataract formation via induction of oxidative stress pathways, modulation of extracellular matrix structure/function and cellular toxicity. Thus, this study has identified novel changes in metal ions in human lens that could potentially drive the pathology of cataract formation.

  9. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma mutation profile in smokers with smoking-related interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Primiani, Andrea; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Iafrate, A John; Kradin, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an established cause of lung cancer. However, pulmonary fibrosis is also an independent risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) has recently been reported. We hypothesized that adenocarcinomas in lungs with SRIF might show distinct molecular changes and examined the molecular phenotype of 168 resected lung adenocarcinomas in lungs with and without SRIF. The diagnosis of SRIF was determined by histological examination, based on the presence of alveolar septal thickening, due to pauci-inflamed, hyalinized, "ropy" collagen, in areas of lung greater than 1 cm away from the tumor. Tumors were concomitantly examined genotypically for mutations in genes frequently altered in cancer, including EGFR and KRAS, by SNaPshot and by fluorescence in situ hybridization for possible ALK rearrangements. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ROS1 rearrangement (n=36) and/or MET amplification (n=31) were performed when no mutation was identified by either SNaPshot or ALK analysis. Sixty-five cases (38.7%) showed SRIF, which was distributed in all lobes of the lungs examined. No differences were observed in sex, average age, or smoking history in patients with and without SRIF. There was no difference in either the percent or types of adenocarcinoma genetic mutations in patients with SRIF versus those without. This data suggests that SRIF does not represent an independent risk factor for the development of the major known and targeted mutations seen in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, additional research is required to investigate the potential significance of SRIF in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. PMID:24920890

  10. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma mutation profile in smokers with smoking-related interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Primiani, Andrea; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Iafrate, A John; Kradin, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an established cause of lung cancer. However, pulmonary fibrosis is also an independent risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) has recently been reported. We hypothesized that adenocarcinomas in lungs with SRIF might show distinct molecular changes and examined the molecular phenotype of 168 resected lung adenocarcinomas in lungs with and without SRIF. The diagnosis of SRIF was determined by histological examination, based on the presence of alveolar septal thickening, due to pauci-inflamed, hyalinized, "ropy" collagen, in areas of lung greater than 1 cm away from the tumor. Tumors were concomitantly examined genotypically for mutations in genes frequently altered in cancer, including EGFR and KRAS, by SNaPshot and by fluorescence in situ hybridization for possible ALK rearrangements. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ROS1 rearrangement (n=36) and/or MET amplification (n=31) were performed when no mutation was identified by either SNaPshot or ALK analysis. Sixty-five cases (38.7%) showed SRIF, which was distributed in all lobes of the lungs examined. No differences were observed in sex, average age, or smoking history in patients with and without SRIF. There was no difference in either the percent or types of adenocarcinoma genetic mutations in patients with SRIF versus those without. This data suggests that SRIF does not represent an independent risk factor for the development of the major known and targeted mutations seen in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. However, additional research is required to investigate the potential significance of SRIF in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  11. Smoking-related deaths averted due to three years of policy progress

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jennifer A; Mays, Darren; Huang, An-Tsun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the global impact of adopting highest-level MPOWER tobacco control policies in different countries and territories from 2007 to 2010. Methods Policy effect sizes based on previously-validated SimSmoke models were applied to determine the reduction in the number of smokers as a result of policy adoption during this period. Based on previous research suggesting that half of all smokers die from smoking, we also derived the estimated smoking-attributable deaths (SADs) averted due to MPOWER policy implementation. The results from use of this simple yet powerful method are consistent with those predicted by using previously validated SimSmoke models. Findings In total, 41 countries adopted at least one highest-level MPOWER policy between 2007 and 2010. As a result of all policies adopted during this period, the number of smokers is estimated to have dropped by 14.8 million, with a total of 7.4 million SADs averted. The largest number of SADs was averted as a result of increased cigarette taxes (3.5 million), smoke-free air laws (2.5 million), health warnings (700 000), cessation treatments (380 000), and bans on tobacco marketing (306 000). Conclusion From 2007 to 2010, 41 countries and territories took action that will collectively prevent nearly 7.5 million smoking-related deaths globally. These findings demonstrate the magnitude of the actions already taken by countries and underscore the potential for millions of additional lives to be saved with continued adoption of MPOWER policies. PMID:23825878

  12. Oxidative Stress and Chromatin Remodeling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Smoking-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Yao, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly a tobacco smoke-triggered disease with features of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and aging (inflammaging) of the lung associated with steroid resistance induced by cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induces various kinase signaling pathways leading to chromatin modifications (histone acetylation/deacetylation and histone methylation/demethylation) in inflammation, senescence, and steroid resistance. Recent Advances: Histone mono-, di-, or tri-methylation at lysine residues result in either gene activation (H3K4, H3K36, and H3K79) or repression (H3K9, H3K27, and H3K20). Cross-talk occurs between various epigenetic marks on histones and DNA methylation. Both CS and oxidants alter histone acetylation/deacetylation and methylation/demethylation leading to enhanced proinflammatory gene expression. Chromatin modifications occur in lungs of patients with COPD. Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) reduction (levels and activity) is associated with steroid resistance in response to oxidative stress. Critical Issues: Histone modifications are associated with DNA damage/repair and epigenomic instability as well as premature lung aging, which have implications in the pathogenesis of COPD. HDAC2/SIRTUIN1 (SIRT1)-dependent chromatin modifications are associated with DNA damage-induced inflammation and senescence in response to CS-mediated oxidative stress. Future Directions: Understanding CS/oxidative stress-mediated chromatin modifications and the cross-talk between histone acetylation and methylation will demonstrate the involvement of epigenetic regulation of chromatin remodeling in inflammaging. This will lead to identification of novel epigenetic-based therapies against COPD and other smoking-related lung diseases. Pharmacological activation of HDAC2/SIRT1 or reversal of their oxidative post-translational modifications may offer therapies for treatment of

  13. Tobacco Control and the Reduction in Smoking-related Premature Deaths in the United States, 1964–2012

    PubMed Central

    Holford, Theodore R.; Meza, Rafael; Warner, Kenneth E.; Meernik, Clare; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh H.; Levy, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The 50th anniversary of the first Surgeon General’s Report on smoking and health is celebrated in 2014. This seminal document inspired efforts by government s, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector to reduce the toll of cigarette smoking through reduced initiation and increased cessation. Objective To quantify reductions in smoking -related mortality associated with implementation of tobacco control since 1964. Design, Setting and Participants Smoking histories for individual birth cohorts that actually occurred and under likely scenarios had tobacco control never emerged were estimated. National mortality rates and mortality rate ratio estimates from analytical studies of the effect of smoking on mortality yielded death rates by smoking status. Actual smoking -related mortality from 1964–2012 was compared to estimated mortality under no tobacco control that included a likely scenario (primary counterfactual) and upper and lower bounds that would capture plausible alternatives. Exposure National Health Interview Surveys yielded cigarette smoking histories for the US adult population from 1964–2012. Main Outcomes and Measures Number of premature deaths avoided and years of life saved were primary outcomes. Change in life expectancy at age 40 associated with change in cigarette smoking exposure constituted another measure of overall health outcomes. Results From 1964–2012, an estimated 17.6 million deaths were related to smoking, an estimated 8.0 (7.4–8.3, for the lower and upper tobacco control counterfactuals, respectively) million fewer premature smoking-induced deaths than what would have occurred under the alternatives and thus associated with tobacco control (5.3 (4.8–5.5) million males and 2.7 (2.5–2.7) million females). This resulted in an estimated 157 (139–165) million years of life saved, a mean of 19.6 years for each beneficiary, (111 (97–117) million for males, 46 (42–48) million for females). During this

  14. Can cigarette warnings counterbalance effects of smoking scenes in movies?

    PubMed

    Golmier, Isabelle; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Gélinas-Chebat, Claire

    2007-02-01

    Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smoking, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text+picture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were measured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presentation of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers' intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed. PMID:17450995

  15. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes: Part 1: background, assessment approach, and summary of findings.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    This publication introduces a series of six other publications describing the toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes, i.e., cigarettes characterized primarily by the use of a significant amount of cloves as an ingredient added to the tobacco. This paper presents background information on kretek cigarettes, describes the general approach of the in vitro and in vivo toxicological assessment of mainstream smoke from kretek cigarettes, presents the methodology used, and summarizes the results of the assessment program. In summary, the smoke from kretek cigarettes gives rise to the typical cigarette smoke-related effects known from American-blended cigarettes, does not reveal any novel toxicity, and exhibits an unexpected distinct attenuation of pulmonary inflammation. Based on equal amounts of smoke total particulate matter (TPM), kretek cigarettes deliver less toxicants when compared to American-blended cigarettes; when assessed in vitro, the smoke from kretek cigarettes is less cytotoxic (gas/vapor phase) and less mutagenic (TPM). When assessed in vivo, kretek cigarette smoke shows lower toxicity in the respiratory tract. When based on an equal nicotine basis, several of the toxicity endpoints in kretek cigarettes become equivalent to American-blended cigarettes. The data do not indicate an increased hazard potential of kreteks compared to American-blended cigarettes.

  16. Menthol Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2006/07. 2008, National Cancer Institute and Centers ... 07): http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/tus-cps/ . U.S. Department of Commerce Census Bureau, Menthol Cigarette ...

  17. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Figures Tobacco and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS ... Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Tobacco Use and Fertility Tobacco ...

  18. End-Point Titration-PCR for Quantitation of Cytomegalovirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Kulski, J K

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an important qualitative procedure in the routine microbiology laboratory for detecting the presence or absence of potentially harmful microorganisms in clinical specimens (1,2). The use of PCR to quantify an infectious agent in a clinical specimen (e.g., viral or bacterial load) is advantageous for monitoring disease progression and efficacy of treatment, for differentiating between asymptomatic and symptomatic infection, or for quality control of false positive samples. End-point titration-PCR (ET-PCR) is a simple method for differentiating between the presence of low, medium, or high amounts of viral, fungal, or bacterial DNA in a test sample. Basically, the qualitative PCR method (3) is used in an ET-PCR to amplify a specific target sequence in serial dilutions of a DNA sample (4). The limit of detection of the amplified product, which is the end-point dilution or titer, is the quantitative index for the DNA target in the sample. End-point titers obtained by ET-PCR have been shown to increase proportionally with increasing amounts of standard DNA (4). The result of an ET-PCR can be presented as a titer, dilution, DNA copy number, or amount of a specific DNA sequence relative to an external standard or as relative differences between samples. On this basis, ET-PCR has been used to quantitate the presence of viral and bacterial DNA in clinical specimens (4-10). The ET-PCR method described here is for the quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in leukocytes (4).

  19. Observation of the critical end point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Roy

    2015-10-01

    Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (Rout2 -Rside2) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7 . 7 - 200 GeV) and Pb+Pb (√{sNN} = 2 . 76 TeV) collisions, are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed non-monotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature vs. baryon chemical potential (T ,μB) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A Dynamic Finite-Size Scaling (DFSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates Tcep 165 MeV and μBcep 95 MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν 0 . 66 and γ 1 . 2) extracted via the same DFSS analysis, places this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class. This research is supported by the US DOE under Contract DE-FG02-87ER40331.A008.

  20. Polarographic indication of the end-point in chelometric titrations with triethylenetetraminehexa-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Kopanica, M; Stará, V

    1974-10-01

    The application of d.c. and square-wave polarographic measurements for the indication of the end-point in titrations with triethylenetetraminehexa-acetic acid (TTHA) has been studied. TTHA has ten co-ordinating groups and forms complexes with metal to ligand ratios of either 1:1 or 2:1, depending on the metal and experimental conditions. The shape of the titration curves, determined by the dependence of the limiting current (peak current of the square-wave polarographic curve) or of the half-wave potential (peak potential) on the amount of TTHA added indicates the composition of the complex formed in the titration. The composition of this complex as determined from the studied titration curves agrees with that predicted by theory. Titrations with polarographic indication of the end-point were also applied for direct titrations of binary mixtures of metal ions. The resulting titration curves indicated the existence of mixed dinuclear complexes and also the kinetic factors involved in the reactions between two different metal ions and TTHA.

  1. Marine and estuarine porewater toxicity testing -- species and end point comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Robertson, L.

    1994-12-31

    As part of their continuing development and evaluation of the porewater toxicity test approach for assessing the quality of marine and estuarine sediments, a variety of studies involving species and endpoint comparisons as well as validation studies have recently been conducted. The results from numerous extensive sediment quality assessment surveys have demonstrated that porewater toxicity tests are considerably more sensitive than the standard solid-phase tests and invariably exhibit a higher degree of concordance with sediment quality assessment guidelines than the standard tests. Species that have been evaluated for use in testing marine and estuarine pore water include a life-cycle test with the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus, survival and hatching success with embryo-larval stages of red drum Sciaaenops ocellatus, survival of nauplii stages of the harpacticoid copepod Longipedia sp., and three different assays (fertilization, embryological development, and cytogenetic) with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. The different species and end points have been compared using sediment pore water from a variety of contaminated sites. Although the results of tests with the different species and end points were often comparable, in general, the sea urchin embryological development assay appears to be the most sensitive porewater test evaluated thus far in their laboratory.

  2. The effect of combination oral contraceptives on smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hinderaker, Katie; Allen, Alicia M; Tosun, Nicole; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Allen, Sharon S

    2015-02-01

    Although an estimated 25% of premenopausal smokers report using oral contraceptives (OC), little is known about how OC use may influence smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in smoking-related symptomatology during acute smoking abstinence between women on a standardized combination OC (Tri-Sprintec(™)) compared to women not on OCs (no-OC). Participants were women aged 18-40 who smoked ≥5 cigarettes/day and reported regular menstrual cycles. Using a controlled cross-over design, participants completed two six-day testing weeks: Low Progesterone Week (LPW; Follicular (F) phase in no-OC or 1st week of pills in OC) and High Progesterone Week (HPW; Luteal (L) phase in no-OC or 3rd week of pills in OC). Each testing week included daily assessment of symptomatology and biochemical confirmation of smoking status. During smoking abstinence, the OC group (n=14) reported significantly lower levels of positive affect (21.56±7.12 vs. 24.57±6.46; β=3.63, p=0.0323) than the no-OC group (n=28). Further significant interactions between group and testing week were observed as follows: Smoking satisfaction was higher during LPW in the OC group (LPW: 4.29±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.10±1.37) but higher during HPW in the no-OC group (LPW: 3.91±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.23±1.30; β=-0.5499, p<0.0001). Similar interactions were noted in negative affect and psychological reward of smoking. These results suggest that women on OCs may have different patterns of smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence as compared to women not on OCs. Additional work is needed to examine how this may affect smoking cessation efforts.

  3. The effect of combination oral contraceptives on smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hinderaker, Katie; Allen, Alicia M; Tosun, Nicole; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Allen, Sharon S

    2015-02-01

    Although an estimated 25% of premenopausal smokers report using oral contraceptives (OC), little is known about how OC use may influence smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in smoking-related symptomatology during acute smoking abstinence between women on a standardized combination OC (Tri-Sprintec(™)) compared to women not on OCs (no-OC). Participants were women aged 18-40 who smoked ≥5 cigarettes/day and reported regular menstrual cycles. Using a controlled cross-over design, participants completed two six-day testing weeks: Low Progesterone Week (LPW; Follicular (F) phase in no-OC or 1st week of pills in OC) and High Progesterone Week (HPW; Luteal (L) phase in no-OC or 3rd week of pills in OC). Each testing week included daily assessment of symptomatology and biochemical confirmation of smoking status. During smoking abstinence, the OC group (n=14) reported significantly lower levels of positive affect (21.56±7.12 vs. 24.57±6.46; β=3.63, p=0.0323) than the no-OC group (n=28). Further significant interactions between group and testing week were observed as follows: Smoking satisfaction was higher during LPW in the OC group (LPW: 4.29±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.10±1.37) but higher during HPW in the no-OC group (LPW: 3.91±1.30 vs. HPW: 4.23±1.30; β=-0.5499, p<0.0001). Similar interactions were noted in negative affect and psychological reward of smoking. These results suggest that women on OCs may have different patterns of smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence as compared to women not on OCs. Additional work is needed to examine how this may affect smoking cessation efforts. PMID:25452059

  4. Perceptions of Smoking-Related Risks and Benefits as Predictors of Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cornell, Jodi L.; Ramos, Malena E.; Biehl, Michael; Kropp, Rhonda Y.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive value of perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits with regard to adolescent smoking initiation has not been adequately established. We used prospective, longitudinal data to directly test whether smoking-related perceptions predict smoking initiation among adolescents. Methods. We administered surveys assessing perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits to 395 high school students, beginning at the start of their ninth-grade year. We conducted follow-up assessments every 6 months until the end of 10th grade, obtaining 4 waves of data. Results. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of long-term smoking-related risks were 3.64 times more likely to start smoking than were adolescents who held the highest perceptions of risk. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of short-term smoking-related risks were 2.68 times more likely to initiate. Adolescents who held the highest perceptions of smoking-related benefits were 3.31 times more likely to initiate. Conclusions. Findings from this study provide one of the first sets of empirical evidence to show that smoking initiation is directly related to smoking-related perceptions of risks and benefits. Thus, efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should continue to communicate the health risks of smoking and counteract perceptions of benefits associated with smoking. PMID:19106420

  5. Pressure dependence of the critical temperature of microemulsions near a critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, J.; Bose, T. K.; Thoen, J.; Lalanne, J. R.

    1989-10-01

    Experimental data for the pressure dependence of the critical temperature (dTc/dP) are reported for several microemulsions of n-dodecane, water, n-pentanol, and sodium dodecylsulfate, with critical points along a critical line ending at a critical end point (CEP). Negative dTc/dP values, substantially decreasing near the CEP, are obtained for all the microemulsions investigated. Using two-scale-factor universality and combining dTc/dP with correlation-length critical-amplitude ξ0 values, we also find that a density anomaly is very likely unobservable experimentally. From the negative sign of dTc/dP it can also be concluded that if there is any critical contribution of the density anomaly to the refractive index n, it must be opposite to the anomaly recently reported for n by Rebbouh and Lalanne [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 1175 (1989)].

  6. Evolution and End Point of the Black String Instability: Large D Solution.

    PubMed

    Emparan, Roberto; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-08-28

    We derive a simple set of nonlinear, (1+1)-dimensional partial differential equations that describe the dynamical evolution of black strings and branes to leading order in the expansion in the inverse of the number of dimensions D. These equations are easily solved numerically. Their solution shows that thin enough black strings are unstable to developing inhomogeneities along their length, and at late times they asymptote to stable nonuniform black strings. This proves an earlier conjecture about the end point of the instability of black strings in a large enough number of dimensions. If the initial black string is very thin, the final configuration is highly nonuniform and resembles a periodic array of localized black holes joined by short necks. We also present the equations that describe the nonlinear dynamics of anti-de Sitter black branes at large D. PMID:26371636

  7. Critical behaviors near the (tri-)critical end point of QCD within the NJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ya; Du, Yi-Lun; Cui, Zhu-Fang; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration at finite density and temperature within the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, and mainly focus on the critical behaviors near the critical end point (CEP) and tricritical point (TCP) of quantum chromodynamics. The multi-solution region of the Nambu and Wigner ones is determined in the phase diagram for the massive and massless current quark, respectively. We use the various susceptibilities to locate the CEP/TCP and then extract the critical exponents near them. Our calculations reveal that the various susceptibilities share the same critical behaviors for the physical current quark mass, while they show different features in the chiral limit.

  8. Initial experiments on the end-point control of a flexible one-link robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Schmitz, E.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with initial experiments regarding a specific unsolved control problem which appeared to be central to advances in the art of robotics. This problem involves the control of a flexible member (one link of a robot system). The position of the end-effector, called the end point or tip, is controlled by measuring that position and using the measurement as a basis for applying control torque to the other end of the flexible member, as for instance, the robot's elbow joint. A description is presented of the features of the first experimental arm which has been made, and an outline is provided of the general strategy for controlling it using its tip sensor and shoulder torquer.

  9. Evolution and End Point of the Black String Instability: Large D Solution.

    PubMed

    Emparan, Roberto; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-08-28

    We derive a simple set of nonlinear, (1+1)-dimensional partial differential equations that describe the dynamical evolution of black strings and branes to leading order in the expansion in the inverse of the number of dimensions D. These equations are easily solved numerically. Their solution shows that thin enough black strings are unstable to developing inhomogeneities along their length, and at late times they asymptote to stable nonuniform black strings. This proves an earlier conjecture about the end point of the instability of black strings in a large enough number of dimensions. If the initial black string is very thin, the final configuration is highly nonuniform and resembles a periodic array of localized black holes joined by short necks. We also present the equations that describe the nonlinear dynamics of anti-de Sitter black branes at large D.

  10. In silico approaches to explore toxicity end points: issues and concerns for estimating human health effects.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Edwin J; Contrera, Joseph F

    2007-02-01

    The European Chemicals Bureau and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development are currently compiling a sanctioned list of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) risk assessment models and data sets to predict the physiological properties, environmental fate, ecological effects and human health effects of new and existing chemicals in commerce in the European Union. This action implements the technical requirements of the European Commission's Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals legislation. The goal is to identify a battery of QSARs that can furnish rapid, reliable and cost-effective decision support information for regulatory decisions that can substitute for results from animal studies. This report discusses issues and concerns that need to be addressed when selecting QSARs to predict human health effect end points. PMID:17269899

  11. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, M; Chaloupka, F J

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the current cohort of 0 to 17-year-olds. Adjusted for inflation, the current 24-cent-a-pack tax costs the buyer about half of the original cigarette tax of 8 cents imposed in 1951. A substantial tax hike would curb youth smoking; this strategy should move to the forefront of the antismoking campaign. Images p290-a p293-a p294-a PMID:9258294

  12. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M; Chaloupka, F J

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the current cohort of 0 to 17-year-olds. Adjusted for inflation, the current 24-cent-a-pack tax costs the buyer about half of the original cigarette tax of 8 cents imposed in 1951. A substantial tax hike would curb youth smoking; this strategy should move to the forefront of the antismoking campaign. PMID:9258294

  13. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking …

  14. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy. PMID:25503053

  15. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure Between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C; Harrington, Kathleen F

    2015-12-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N=944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous 6 months. Most Whites (99%) reported ever hearing of an e-cigarette compared to 96% of Blacks (p<0.001). Over two thirds (64%) of Whites reported ever using an e-cigarette compared to 30% of Blacks (p<0.001). There were significant trends in increasing e-cigarette use for both racial groups with an average increase of 13% each month (p<0.005) and in increasing e-cigarette advertisement exposure reported for the previous 6 months, with a 14% increase each month (p<0.0001). Whites reported 56% greater advertisement exposure than Blacks (mean=25 vs. 8 in month 1 to 79 vs. 45 in month 9, respectively; p<0.0001). For Blacks, advertisement exposure was significantly associated with e-cigarette use (p<0.001). Whites reported more advertisement exposure from stores and the Internet, and Blacks reported more advertisement exposure from radio or television. Results suggest that e-cigarette marketing is beginning to breach the Black population who are, as a consequence, "catching up" with Whites with regard to e-cigarette use. Given the significant disparities for smoking-related morbidity and mortality between Blacks and Whites, these findings identify new areas for future research and policy.

  16. End-point dilution and plaque assay methods for titration of cricket paralysis virus in cultured Drosophila cells.

    PubMed

    Scotti, P D

    1977-05-01

    Cricket paralysis virus, an insect picorna-like virus, caused a distinct c.p.e. in cultured Drosophila melanogaster cells, allowing the development of titration methods based on end-point dilution or plaque assay methods. The end-point dilution (TCD50) method is more sensitive and economical than plaque assays and is easily scored. The data indicate a minimum infectivity/particle ratio of about 1/2000.

  17. The Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Nicotine on Periodontal Tissue in a Periodontitis Model Mouse.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Mikiko; Yanagita, Manabu; Mori, Kenta; Hasegawa, Shiori; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle-related risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of cigarette smoking in periodontal disease has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we report that the systemic administration of cigarette smoke condensate or nicotine, which is the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, augmented alveolar bone loss. Concomitantly, the number of osteoclasts in periodontal tissues increased and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand was upregulated at the ligated side in mice with periodontitis. Nicotine also attenuated alveolar bone repair after ligature removal. These observations highlight the destruction of periodontal tissue by smoking and the unfavorable clinical course of periodontal disease in patients with a cigarette smoking habit. The present study demonstrates that periodontal disease models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-related periodontal diseases. PMID:27203240

  18. The Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Nicotine on Periodontal Tissue in a Periodontitis Model Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kenta; Hasegawa, Shiori; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle-related risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of cigarette smoking in periodontal disease has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we report that the systemic administration of cigarette smoke condensate or nicotine, which is the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, augmented alveolar bone loss. Concomitantly, the number of osteoclasts in periodontal tissues increased and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand was upregulated at the ligated side in mice with periodontitis. Nicotine also attenuated alveolar bone repair after ligature removal. These observations highlight the destruction of periodontal tissue by smoking and the unfavorable clinical course of periodontal disease in patients with a cigarette smoking habit. The present study demonstrates that periodontal disease models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-related periodontal diseases. PMID:27203240

  19. Rationale and approaches to the prevention of smoking-related diseases: overview of recent studies on chemoprevention of smoking-induced tumors in rodent models.

    PubMed

    De Flora, Silvio; Izzotti, Alberto; D'Agostini, Francesco; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna T; Ceccaroli, Chiara; Steele, Vernon E; Balansky, Roumen

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoke plays a dominant role in the epidemiology of lung cancer, cancer at other sites, and a variety of other chronic diseases. It is the leading cause of death in developed countries, and the global burden of cancer is escalating in less developed regions. For a rational implementation of strategies exploitable for the prevention smoking-related diseases, it is crucial to elucidate both the mechanisms of action of cigarette smoke and the protective mechanisms of the host organism. The imperative primary prevention goal is to avoid any type of exposure to smoke. Epidemiological studies have shown that a decrease in the consumption of cigarettes can be successful in attenuating the epidemic of lung cancer in several countries. Chemoprevention by means of dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy aimed at decreasing the risk of developing smoking-associated diseases in addicted current smokers, who are unable to quit smoking, and especially in involuntary smokers and ex-smokers. The availability of new animal models that are suitable to detect the carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms provides new tools for evaluating both safety and efficacy of putative chemopreventive agents.

  20. Analysis of In-Situ Vibration Monitoring for End-Point Detection of CMP Planarization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hetherington, Dale L.; Lauffer, James P.; Shingledecker, David M.; Stein, David J.; Wyckoff, Edward E.

    1999-05-14

    This paper details the analysis of vibration monitoring for end-point control in oxide CMP processes. Two piezoelectric accelerometers were integrated onto the backside of a stainless steel polishing head of an IPEC 472 polisher. One sensor was placed perpendicular to the carrier plate (vertical) and the other parallel to the plate (horizontal). Wafers patterned with metal and coated with oxide material were polished at different speeds and pressures. Our results show that it is possible to sense a change in the vibration signal over time during planarization of oxide material on patterned wafers. The horizontal accelerometer showed more sensitivity to change in vibration amplitude compared to the vertical accelerometer for a given polish condition. At low carrier and platen rotation rates, the change in vibration signal over time at fixed frequencies decreased approximately ½ - 1 order of magnitude (over the 2 to 10 psi polish pressure ranges). At high rotation speeds, the vibration signal remained essentially constant indicating that other factors dominated the vibration signaL These results show that while it is possible to sense changes in acceleration during polishing, more robust hardware and signal processing algorithms are required to ensure its use over a wide range of process conditions.

  1. A bioeconomic model for comparing beef cattle genotypes at their optimal economic slaughter end point.

    PubMed

    Amer, P R; Kemp, R A; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Fox, G C; Smith, C

    1994-01-01

    A bioeconomic model of a feedlot was developed for the comparison of beef cattle genotypes under specified management and marketing conditions. The optimization behavior of commercial feedlot managers is incorporated into the model using optimum economic rotation theory. The days spent in the feedlot (rotation) by a group of animals are derived using this theory so as to maximize an objective function. Differences among breeds in the present value of profits from a single rotation, expressed per animal, represent the expected price premium paid for a feeder animal of a particular breed. Feed requirements and growth rates for a genotype are predicted over time for a specified diet from estimated mature size. Estimates of carcass fatness over time as a function of the energy content of the diet and estimates of dressing percentage over time are used for each genotype. A base model is described that incorporates biological parameters estimated for 11 breeds from a major breed comparison experiment and uses prices of inputs and outputs for Ontario feedlots. Sensitivity of the model to these biological and economic assumptions is shown. When breeds are compared at constant days fed, weight, or fat depth slaughter points, rankings are inconsistent, relative to those when each breed is slaughtered at its optimal economic point. The model can be used to establish appropriate slaughter end points for comparing beef cattle breeds and crosses and to evaluate breeding objectives for feedlot traits in genetic improvement programs.

  2. Rethinking end-points for bone-targeted therapy in advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Gómez García, Susana; Clemons, Mark; Amir, Eitan

    2016-08-01

    The principal objective for any medical therapy is to improve either the duration of life and/or its quality. Metastases in bone can lead to clinically defined events termed skeletal-related events (SREs) which are a quantifiable measure of skeletal morbidity. Avoidance and/or delay of SREs have become the principal objective in trials exploring the efficacy of bone-targeted therapy in patients with skeletal metastases. Despite reductions in the frequency or rate of SRE occurrence, trials of bone-targeted therapy have failed to show any effect on either progression-free or overall survival when compared with placebo or other bone-targeting agents. Similarly, trials of bone-targeted therapy have not shown consistent effects on quality of life. The validity of SRE-based primary outcome measures in cancer clinical trials is therefore, questionable. More novel end-point selection for trials of bone-targeted therapy seems warranted. Composite measures comprising occurrence of symptomatic skeletal events and patient reported outcomes may be an effective solution and warrants further investigation. PMID:27299662

  3. Ozonation of diesel-fuel contaminated sand and the implications for remediation end-points.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingang; Cao, Xingtao; Wu, Guozhong; Temple, Tracey; Coulon, Frédéric; Sui, Hong

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we investigate specifically the influence of soil grain size and water content on the degradation of n-alkane fractions and the formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acid during ozonation. 15 g of quartz sand spiked with diesel (25 g kg(-1)) were exposed to ozone for 20 h at concentrations of 10, 30 and 50 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that ozonation of the n-alkanes in fine grain size sand (0.15-0.25 mm) was 1.2 times faster than coarse sand due to higher surface contact area between O3 and sand particles. Soil moisture below 18% w/w did not influence the ozonation efficiency. In contrast the ozonation led to an increase of acidity of the sand samples (pH=3.0) after 20 h treatment. This was due to the formation of carboxylic acid. Formaldehyde, one of the key by-products of ozonation, was always <13 mg kg(-1) after the treatment which is below the industrial soil clean-up target level. While the aldehydes and carboxylic acid further reacted with O3 and their ozonation rate were slower than those of the alkanes suggesting that the hydroxylated by-products accumulated in the sand during the process. Overall the findings demonstrated that not only the alkanes but also aldehydes and carboxylic acid should be considered when defining remediation end-points.

  4. Leveraging Data Fusion Strategies in Multireceptor Lead Optimization MM/GBSA End-Point Methods.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jennifer L; Krilov, Goran; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Williams, Joshua; Gunn, John R; Clowes, Alec; Cheng, Luciano; Friesner, Richard A; Abel, Robert

    2014-08-12

    Accurate and efficient affinity calculations are critical to enhancing the contribution of in silico modeling during the lead optimization phase of a drug discovery campaign. Here, we present a large-scale study of the efficacy of data fusion strategies to leverage results from end-point MM/GBSA calculations in multiple receptors to identify potent inhibitors among an ensemble of congeneric ligands. The retrospective analysis of 13 congeneric ligand series curated from publicly available data across seven biological targets demonstrates that in 90% of the individual receptor structures MM/GBSA scores successfully identify subsets of inhibitors that are more potent than a random selection, and data fusion strategies that combine MM/GBSA scores from each of the receptors significantly increase the robustness of the predictions. Among nine different data fusion metrics based on consensus scores or receptor rankings, the SumZScore (i.e., converting MM/GBSA scores into standardized Z-Scores within a receptor and computing the sum of the Z-Scores for a given ligand across the ensemble of receptors) is found to be a robust and physically meaningful metric for combining results across multiple receptors. Perhaps most surprisingly, even with relatively low to modest overall correlations between SumZScore and experimental binding affinities, SumZScore tends to reliably prioritize subsets of inhibitors that are at least as potent as those that are prioritized from a "best" single receptor identified from known compounds within the congeneric series. PMID:26588291

  5. Isentropic thermodynamics and scalar-mesons properties near the QCD critical end point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the QCD phase diagram and the location of the critical end point (CEP) in the SU(2) Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with entanglement interaction giving special attention to the π and σ-mesons properties, namely the decay widths σ→ππ, for several conditions around the CEP: we focus on the possible σ→ππ decay along the isentropic trajectories close to the CEP since the hydrodynamical expansion of a heavy-ion collision fireball nearly follows trajectories of constant entropy. It is expected that the type of transition the dense medium goes through as it expands after the thermalization determines the behavior of this decay. It is shown that no pions are produced from the sigma decay in the chirally symmetric phase if the isentropic lines approach the first-order line from chemical potentials above it. Near the CEP or above the σ→ππ decay is possible with a high decay width.

  6. Effect of indigenous animals on chronic end points in freshwater sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Reynoldson, T.B.; Day, K.E.; Clarke, C.; Milani, D. )

    1994-06-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted using three species of benthic invertebrates, Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, and Hexagenia limbata, with various densities of the oligochaete worm Tubifex tubifex. It was shown that indigenous animals, simulated by the presence of Tubifex tubifex, did not affect survival of the test species (P [>=] 0.05) but did reduce growth in all three test species and in two species at the lowest tested densities, equivalent to 1,460 worms per square meter. At densities of Tubifex tubifex equivalent to 20,000 m[sup [minus]2], the growth of Chironomus riparius was reduced by >90%, Hyalella azteca by >60%, and Hexagenia limbata by almost 50%. The densities of oligochaetes are equivalent to those found in many contaminated sites. Therefore, it is concluded that the presence of indigenous organisms can confound the interpretation of toxicity test results, based on chronic end points. It is recommended that removal of organisms by considered before toxicity tests are conducted with freshwater sediments from sites with large populations of benthic invertebrates, especially oligochaete worms.

  7. Evaluation of community-level end points used in ecological risk assessments for Rocky Mountain streams impacted by mining

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.; Kiffney, P.M.; Medley, N.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this research was to measure sensitivity and variability of community-level end points (e.g., species diversity, richness, abundance of dominant taxa) used in ecological risk assessments for Rocky Mountain streams impacted by mining. The authors used results from stream microcosm experiments and field biomonitoring studies to examine community responses of periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrates to heavy metals. In addition, they measured effects of potential confounding variables (e.g., stream size, elevation, discharge) on these responses. Field studies were conducted at six metal-impacted streams in central Colorado. Although all community end points were significantly affected at stations with the highest metal levels, results of multiple regression analysis showed that most variables were also affected by elevation. To validate benthic community end points and to measure sensitivity of these end points to metals, exposed periphyton and benthic macroinvertebrate communities to Cd, Cu, and Zn in stream microcosms. Results support findings of field studies and show that abundance of sensitive macroinvertebrates and tolerant diatoms were most useful for distinguishing among reference, impacted, and recovery sites. Because stream elevation confounds benthic community responses to metals, the authors suggest that experimental studies are necessary to validate the usefulness of community end points.

  8. Centralized adjudication of cardiovascular end points in cardiovascular and noncardiovascular pharmacologic trials: a report from the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Jonathan H; Turner, J Rick; Geiger, Mary Jane; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; White, William B; Sabol, Mary Beth; Stockbridge, Norman; Sager, Philip T

    2015-02-01

    This white paper provides a summary of presentations and discussions at a cardiovascular (CV) end point adjudication think tank cosponsored by the Cardiac Safety Research Committee and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that was convened at the FDA's White Oak headquarters on November 6, 2013. Attention was focused on the lack of clarity concerning the need for end point adjudication in both CV and non-CV trials: there is currently an absence of widely accepted academic or industry standards and a definitive regulatory policy on how best to structure and use clinical end point committees (CECs). This meeting therefore provided a forum for leaders in the fields of CV clinical trials and CV safety to develop a foundation of initial best practice recommendations for use in future CEC charters. Attendees included representatives from pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies, end point adjudication specialist groups, clinical research organizations, and active, academically based adjudicators. The manuscript presents recommendations from the think tank regarding when CV end point adjudication should be considered in trials conducted by cardiologists and by noncardiologists as well as detailing key issues in the composition of a CEC and its charter. In addition, it presents several recommended best practices for the establishment and operation of CECs. The science underlying CV event adjudication is evolving, and suggestions for additional areas of research will be needed to continue to advance this science. This manuscript does not constitute regulatory guidance. PMID:25641528

  9. Patient-reported outcomes as primary end points in clinical trials of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Williet, Nicolas; Sandborn, William J; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is moving from the Crohn's Disease Activity Index to patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and objective measures of disease, such as findings from endoscopy. PROs will become an important aspect of assessing activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and for labeling specific drugs for this disease. PROs always have been considered in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis, and have included measurements of quality of life, disability, or fatigue. Several disease-specific scales have been developed to assess these PROs and commonly are used in clinical trials. Outcomes reported by patients in clinical trials of IBD initially focused on quality of life, measured by the Short-Form 36 questionnaire or disease-specific scales such as the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire or its shorter version. Recently considered factors include fatigue, depression and anxiety, and work productivity, as measured by the Functional Assessment Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, the Hospital Anxiety Depression, and the Work Productivity Activity Impairment Questionnaire, respectively. However, few data are available on how treatment affects these factors in patients with IBD. Although disability generally is recognized in patients with IBD, it is not measured. The international IBD disability index currently is being validated. None of the PROs currently used in IBD were developed according to FDA guidance for PRO development. PROs will be a major primary end point of future trials. FDA guidance is needed to develop additional PROs for IBD that can be incorporated into trials, to better compare patients' experience with different therapies. PMID:24534550

  10. Arsenic Relative Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils: Comparison of Animal Models, Dosing Schemes, and Biological End Points.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Chao; Sun, Hong-Jie; Juhasz, Albert L; Luo, Jun; Li, Hong-Bo; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-01-01

    Different animals and biomarkers have been used to measure the relative bioavailability of arsenic (As-RBA) in contaminated soils. However, there is a lack of As-RBA comparison based on different animals (i.e., swine and mouse) and biomarkers [area under blood As concentration curve (AUC) after a single gavaged dose vs steady-state As urinary excretion (SSUE) and As accumulation in liver or kidney after multiple doses via diet]. In this study, As-RBA in 12 As-contaminated soils with known As-RBA via swine blood AUC model were measured by mouse blood AUC, SSUE, and liver and kidney analyses. As-RBA ranges for the four mouse assays were 2.8-61%, 3.6-64%, 3.9-74%, and 3.4-61%. Compared to swine blood AUC assay (7.0-81%), though well correlated (R(2) = 0.83), the mouse blood AUC assay yielded lower values (2.8-61%). Similarly, strong correlations of As-RBA were observed between mouse blood AUC and mouse SSUE (R(2) = 0.86) and between urine, liver, and kidney (R(2) = 0.75-0.89), suggesting As-RBA was congruent among different animals and end points. Different animals and biomarkers had little impact on the outcome of in vivo assays to validate in vitro assays. On the basis of its simplicity, mouse liver or kidney assay following repeated doses of soil-amended diet is recommended for future As-RBA studies. PMID:26595746

  11. Extended Gaussian quadratures for functions with an end-point singularity of logarithmic type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachucki, K.; Puchalski, M.; Yerokhin, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    The extended Gaussian quadrature rules are shown to be an efficient tool for numerical integration of wide class of functions with singularities of logarithmic type. The quadratures are exact for the functions pol1n-1(x)+lnx pol2n-1(x), where pol1n-1(x) and pol2n-1(x) are two arbitrary polynomials of degree n-1 and n is the order of the quadrature formula. We present an implementation of numerical algorithm that calculates the nodes and the weights of the quadrature formulas, provide a Fortran code for numerical integration, and test the performance of different kinds of Gaussian quadratures for functions with logarithmic singularities. Catalogue identifier: AETP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2535 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 39 963 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, Fortran. Computer: PCs or higher performance computers. Operating system: Linux, Windows, MacOS. RAM: Kilobytes. Classification: 4.11. Nature of problem: Quadrature formulas for numerical integration, effective for a wide class of functions with end-point singularities of logarithmic type. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the algorithm developed in Ref. [1] with some modifications. Running time: Milliseconds to minutes. J. Ma, V. Rokhlin, S. Wandzura, Generalized Gaussian quadrature rules for systems of arbitrary functions, Soc. Indust. Appl. Math. J. Numer. Anal. 33 (3) (1996) 971-996.

  12. Assessing the Impact of the National Smoking Ban in Indoor Public Places in China: Evidence from Quit Smoking Related Online Searches

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Emery, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. Methods This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms “Smoking Ban(s),” “Quit Smoking,” and “Electronic Cigarette(s),” along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009–2011. Findings Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of “Smoking Ban(s)” and “Quit Smoking” related search queries. The volume of search queries related to “Electronic Cigarette(s)” was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. Interpretation To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users’ smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China. PMID:23776504

  13. Titration of human-bovine rotavirus reassortants using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric end-point dilution assay.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, D J; Gould, S L; Munshi, S; Robinson, D K

    1995-10-01

    A colorimetric end-point dilution assay was developed for the titration of rotavirus-containing samples that uses commercially available tetrazolium dyes as an indicator of virus infection. This assay offers several advantages over both plaque assays and traditional end-point dilution methods. The latter assays require manual counting of plaques or the scoring of wells for the presence of virus based on observed cytopathic effects. The colorimetric end-point dilution assay enables the scoring of wells based upon absorbance readings alone, thereby eliminating time-consuming and subjective manual screenings. This method also has the potential for automating the analysis of large numbers of samples. Virus titers of human-bovine rotavirus reassortants obtained using this method are comparable to those determined by plaque assay. The scoring of wells based on absorbance readings was also found to agree with manual scoring of cytopathic effects and with the production of viral antigen.

  14. Resampling the N9741 Trial to Compare Tumor Dynamic Versus Conventional End Points in Randomized Phase II Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manish R.; Gray, Elizabeth; Goldberg, Richard M.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Karrison, Theodore G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The optimal end point for randomized phase II trials of anticancer therapies remains controversial. We simulated phase II trials by resampling patients from N9741, a randomized phase III trial of chemotherapy regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer, and compared the power of various end points to detect the superior therapy (FOLFOX [infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin] had longer overall survival than both IROX [irinotecan plus oxaliplatin] and IFL [irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil plus leucovorin]). Methods Tumor measurements and progression-free survival (PFS) data were obtained for 1,471 patients; 1,002 had consistently measured tumors and were resampled (5,000 replicates) to simulate two-arm, randomized phase II trials with α = 0.10 (one sided) and 20 to 80 patients per arm. End points included log ratio of tumor size at 6, 12, and 18 weeks relative to baseline; time to tumor growth (TTG), estimated using a nonlinear mixed-effects model; and PFS. Arms were compared using rank sum tests for log ratio and TTG and a log-rank test for PFS. Results For FOLFOX versus IFL, TTG and PFS had similar power, with both exceeding the power of log ratio at 18 weeks; for FOLFOX versus IROX, TTG and log ratio at 18 weeks had similar power, with both exceeding the power of PFS. The best end points exhibited > 80% power with 60 to 80 patients per arm. Conclusion TTG is a powerful end point for randomized phase II trials of cytotoxic therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer; it was either comparable or superior to PFS and log ratio at 18 weeks. Additional studies will be needed to clarify the potential of TTG as a phase II end point. PMID:25349295

  15. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Relationships between Brain Structure and Average Lifetime Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Maes, Hermine H.M.; Schmitt, J. Eric; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Xian, Hong; Eyler, Lisa T.; Franz, Carol E.; Lyons, Michael J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Dale, Anders M.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Kremen, William S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cigarette use has been consistently associated with differences in the neuroanatomy of smokers relative to nonsmokers in case-control studies. However, the etiology underlying the relationships between brain structure and cigarette use is unclear. A community-based sample of male twin pairs ages 51-59 (110 monozygotic pairs, 92 dizygotic pairs) was used to determine the extent to which there are common genetic and environmental influences between brain structure and average lifetime cigarette use. Brain structure was measured by high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging, from which subcortical volume and cortical volume, thickness and surface area were derived. Bivariate genetic models were fitted between these measures and average lifetime cigarette use measured as cigarette pack-years. Widespread, negative phenotypic correlations were detected between cigarette pack-years and several cortical as well as subcortical structures. Shared genetic and unique environmental factors contributed to the phenotypic correlations shared between cigarette pack-years and subcortical volume as well as cortical volume and surface area. Brain structures involved in many of the correlations were previously reported to play a role in specific aspects of networks of smoking-related behaviors. These results provide evidence for conducting future research on the etiology of smoking-related behaviors using measures of brain morphology. PMID:25690561

  16. Parenting practices and adolescent smoking in mainland China: the mediating effect of smoking-related cognitions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations of general and smoking-specific parenting practices with Chinese adolescents' smoking behaviors. Adolescents aged 14-17 years (N = 658) and their parents were recruited from three high schools in mainland China. Adolescents completed an anonymous online survey on their smoking behaviors, perceptions of parenting behaviors, and smoking-related cognitions including attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Parents completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on their parenting behaviors. Results indicated that psychological control and frequency of communication about smoking were positively linked to adolescent smoking through the mediation of two smoking-related cognitions-attitude and subjective norm. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities, disapproval of adolescent smoking, and home rules were negatively linked to adolescent smoking through the mediation of attitude and subjective norm. Results suggest that parenting practices and smoking-related cognitions are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in China.

  17. Differential effects of two lots of aroclor 1254: congener-specific analysis and neurochemical end points.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, P R; Kannan, N; Yamashita, N; Derr-Yellin, E C; Ward, T R; Burgin, D E; Tilson, H A; Birnbaum, L S

    2001-01-01

    the effects on ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) or methoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (MROD) activities. It is possible that the differential effects seen in neuronal cells could be caused by differences in the composition of ortho-congeners in these two mixtures, because PCBs with ortho-lateral substitutions can exhibit different activities on the selected neurochemical end points. Because of these differential effects with different lot numbers, the composition of Aroclor mixtures used in investigations should be disclosed. PMID:11713001

  18. Smoking a virtual cigarette increases craving among smokers.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Weidberg, Sara; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown the efficacy of virtual reality (VR) environments that reproduce smoking-related stimuli for increasing self-reported craving and psychophysiological reactivity in smokers. However, no study to date has attempted to simulate smoking behavior itself by means of VR technology. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of smoking a virtual cigarette on self-reported craving levels and heart rate (HR) in a sample of smokers. Participants were 45 smokers randomly assigned to three VR conditions built into a virtual pub: smoking a virtual cigarette, throwing virtual darts at a virtual dartboard or just being in the virtual pub. Results showed that smoking a virtual cigarette significantly increased self-reported craving and HR when compared to the other two conditions. These results reveal that simulation of smoking behavior in a VR environment functions as an efficacious proximal cue that can be used for triggering craving under the cue-exposure paradigm.

  19. A vision-based end-point control for a two-link flexible manipulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obergfell, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The measurement and control of the end-effector position of a large two-link flexible manipulator are investigated. The system implementation is described and an initial algorithm for static end-point positioning is discussed. Most existing robots are controlled through independent joint controllers, while the end-effector position is estimated from the joint positions using a kinematic relation. End-point position feedback can be used to compensate for uncertainty and structural deflections. Such feedback is especially important for flexible robots. Computer vision is utilized to obtain end-point position measurements. A look-and-move control structure alleviates the disadvantages of the slow and variable computer vision sampling frequency. This control structure consists of an inner joint-based loop and an outer vision-based loop. A static positioning algorithm was implemented and experimentally verified. This algorithm utilizes the manipulator Jacobian to transform a tip position error to a joint error. The joint error is then used to give a new reference input to the joint controller. The convergence of the algorithm is demonstrated experimentally under payload variation. A Landmark Tracking System (Dickerson, et al 1990) is used for vision-based end-point measurements. This system was modified and tested. A real-time control system was implemented on a PC and interfaced with the vision system and the robot.

  20. Genetic correlations between live yearling bull and steer carcass traits adjusted to different slaughter end points. 1. Carcass lean percentage.

    PubMed

    Bergen, R; Miller, S P; Wilton, J W; Crews, D H; Mandell, I B

    2006-03-01

    We studied genetic relationships between age-constant live yearling beef bull growth and ultrasound traits and steer carcass traits with dissected steer carcass lean percentage adjusted to slaughter age-, HCW-, fat depth-, and marbling score-constant end points. Three measures of steer carcass lean percentage were used. Blue Tag lean percentage (BTLean) was predicted from HCW, fat depth, and LM area measurements. Ruler lean percentage (RulerLean) was predicted from carcass fat depth and LM depth and width measurements. Dissected lean percentage (DissLean) was based on dissection of the 10-11-12th rib section. Both BTLean (h2 = 0.30 to 0.44) and DissLean (h2 = 0.34 to 0.39) were more heritable than RulerLean (h2 = 0.05 to 0.14) at all end points. Genetic correlations among DissLean and RulerLean (rg = 0.61 to 0.70), DissLean and BTLean (rg = 0.56 to 0.72), and BTLean and RulerLean (rg = 0.59 to 0.90) indicated that these traits were not genetically identical. Adjusting Diss-Lean to different end points changed the magnitude, but generally not the direction, of genetic correlations with indicator traits. Ultrasound scan-age-constant live yearling bull lean percentage estimates were heritable (h2 = 0.26 to 0.42) and genetically correlated with each other (rg = 0.68 to 0.99) but had greater correlations with DissLean at slaughter age (rg = 0.24 to 0.48) and HCW (rg = 0.16 to 0.40) end points than at fat depth (rg = -0.08 to 0.13) and marbling score (rg = 0.02 to 0.11) end points. Scan-age-constant yearling bull ultrasound fat depth also had stronger correlations with DissLean at slaughter age (rg = -0.34) and HCW (rg = -0.25) than at fat depth (rg = -0.02) and marbling score (rg = -0.03) end points. Yearling bull scan-age-constant ultrasound LM area was positively correlated with DissLean at all endpoints (rg = 0.11 to 0.23). Genetic correlations between yearling bull LM method 1 width (rg = 0.38 to 0.56) and method 2 depth (rg = -0.17 to -0.38) measurements with Diss

  1. Analysis of the prognostic risk factors of idiopathic membranous nephropathy using a new surrogate end-point

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, BO; CHENG, MING; YANG, MING; HAN, SHUAI; ZHANG, YING-HUI; SHI, HONG-GUANG; ZHU, LIANG; ZHAO, XUE-ZHI

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults. The latest study of the chronic kidney disease-prognosis consortium showed that a 30% decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within 2 years could cover more patients and showed a better correlation with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as compared with serum creatinine (SCr). The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors of ESRD using a 30% decrease in eGFR within 2 years as the end-point. The medical records of patients who were diagnosed as having IMN by clinical pathology between February 2011 and August 2012 and had been followed up for ≥24 months were analyzed retrospectively. A 30% decrease in eGFR or the occurrence of ESRD were the end-points. Factors affecting the prognosis were analyzed by the χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression analysis, and the cumulative risk of risk factors was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curve. A total of 73 patients with IMN were confirmed by clinical pathology. Blood pressure, tubulointerstitial injury area (TIA), glomerular sclerosis ratio, SCr, blood urea nitrogen, cystatin C, serum albumin and 24-h urine protein. In total, 28 patients (38.4%) reached the observation end-point. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only age ≥60 years, serum albumin <25 g/l and TIA >25% were independent risk factors for predicting the occurrence of end-point events in the two groups (P<0.05), which increased the risk of the occurrence of end-point events in IMN patients by 3.471-, 3.195- and 6.724-fold, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the occurrence of end-point events within 2 years was significantly higher in IMN patients whose age was ≥60 years, serum albumin <25 g/l and TIA >25% (log-rank P=0.004, P=0.024 and P=0.001). The results of the present study revealed that age ≥60 years, low serum albumin concentrations and severe tubulointerstitial injury are

  2. Comparison of a single end point to determine optimal initial warfarin dosing (5 mg versus 10 mg) for venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Rene; Gerhard-Herman, Marie; Kosowsky, Joshua M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Kucher, Nils; McKean, Sylvia C; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2006-08-15

    There remains considerable controversy regarding optimal initial warfarin dosing in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. Therefore, an open-label, randomized trial comparing 2 warfarin initiation nomograms (5 vs 10 mg) was conducted in patients with acute venous thromboembolism. All participants received fondaparinux for > or = 5 days as a "bridge" to warfarin. The primary end point was defined as the number of days necessary to achieve 2 consecutive international normalized ratio laboratory test values > 1.9. A total of 50 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to each of the treatment arms. The median time to 2 consecutive international normalized ratios was 5 days in the 2 groups. There was no statistical difference in achieving the primary end point using either the 5- or the 10-mg nomogram (p = 0.69). These results should provide clinicians with increased warfarin dosing options in patients presenting with acute venous thromboembolism.

  3. New drugs and patient-centred end-points in old age: setting the wheels in motion.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Older patients with various degrees of frailty and disability, a key population target of pharmacological interventions in acute and chronic disease states, are virtually neglected in pre-marketing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of investigational drugs. Moreover, aggressively pursuing established therapeutic targets in old age, e.g. blood pressure, serum glucose or cholesterol concentrations, is not necessarily associated with the beneficial effects, and the acceptable safety, reported in younger patient cohorts. Measures of self-reported health and functional status might represent additional, more meaningful, therapeutic end-points in the older population, particularly in patients with significant frailty and relatively short life expectancy, e.g. in the presence of cancer and/or neurodegenerative disease conditions. Strategies enhancing early knowledge about key pharmacological characteristics of investigational drugs targeting older adults are discussed, together with the rationale for incorporating non-traditional, patient-centred, end-points in this ever-increasing group. PMID:26455964

  4. Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieun; Jeong, Dawoon; Na, Chong-Sam; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1(++) (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1(++). WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content. PMID:27433099

  5. Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1++ (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1++. WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content. PMID:27433099

  6. Eating Quality Traits of Hanwoo longissimus dorsi Muscle as a Function of End-Point Cooking Temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieun; Jeong, Dawoon; Na, Chong-Sam; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between carcass quality grade and end-point cooking temperature on eating quality of Hanwoo m. longissimus was investigated. Ten (10) of steers were sampled from a commercial population; carcasses with QG 1(++) (n=5) and QG 1 (n=5) were chosen. Samples were cooked by electric oven at 60 or 82℃ and compared with uncooked control samples. The pH was not affected by cooking temperature but decreased the redness after cooking and steaks cooked at 60℃ were more reddish than steaks cooked at 82℃ in both QG groups. Higher cooking temperature greatly (p<0.05) increased the cooking loss, but there was no significant interaction between cooking temperature and QG on the cooking loss. Moisture is negatively correlated with temperature in both QG while the proportionate relationship between crude fat and end-point temperature found in QG 1(++). WBSF values were significantly (p<0.05) high for QG 1, while that was significantly (p<0.05) increased when the temperature continues to increase. The increasing quality grade of beef resulted in significant higher (p<0.01) level of TBARS and cooking temperature increased TBARS content. Fatty acid composition was not altered by cooking at both temperatures and also the amount of fat intake was not changed. The current study indicates that eating quality of beef m. longissimus was greatly influenced by end-point temperature being interacted with QG. However, the amount and composition of fat were stable regardless of end-point temperatures. These results will provide a consumer reference to determine cooking conditions and intramuscular fat content.

  7. From Neuromuscular Activation to End-point Locomotion: An Artificial Neural Network-based Technique for Neural Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Lin; Jin, Zhanpeng; Chang, Hou-Cheng; Cheng, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroprostheses, implantable or non-invasive ones, are promising techniques to enable paralyzed individuals with conditions, such as spinal cord injury or spina bifida (SB), to control their limbs voluntarily. Direct cortical control of invasive neuroprosthetic devices and robotic arms have recently become feasible for primates. However, little is known about designing non-invasive, closed-loop neuromuscular control strategies for neural prostheses. Our goal was to investigate if an Artificial Neural Network-based (ANN-based) model for closed-loop controlled neural prostheses could use neuromuscular activation recorded from individuals with impaired spinal cord to predict their end-point gait parameters (such as stride length and step width). We recruited 12 persons with SB (5 females and 7 males) and collected their neuromuscular activation and end-point gait parameters during overground walking. Our results show that the proposed ANN-based technique can achieve a highly accurate prediction (e.g., R-values of 0.92 – 0.97, ANN (tansig+tansig) for single composition of data sets) for altered end-point locomotion. Compared to traditional robust regression, this technique can provide up to 80% more accurate prediction. Our results suggest that more precise control of complex neural prostheses during locomotion can be achieved by engaging neuromuscular activity as intrinsic feedback to generate end-point leg movement. This ANN-based model allows a seamless incorporation of neuromuscular activity, detected from paralyzed individuals, to adaptively predict their altered gait patterns, which can be employed to provide closed-loop feedback information for neural prostheses. PMID:19389678

  8. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    PubMed

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015. PMID:27524687

  9. [Rapid quantification of total nitrogen and end-point determination of hide melting in manufacturing of donkey-hide gelatin].

    PubMed

    Han, Hai-Fan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Wen-Long; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2014-03-01

    Hide melting presents itself as one of the most critical processes in the production of donkey-hide gelatin. Here a NIR-based method was established for the rapid analysis of in-process hide melting solutions as well as for end-point determination of this process. Near infrared (NIR) spectra of hide melting solutions were collected in transflective mode. With the contents of total nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method as reference values, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to build calibration models between NIR spectra and total nitrogen. Model parameters including wavelength range and PLS factors were optimized to achieve best model performance. Based on the contents of total nitrogen predicted by calibration model, end point of hide melting was determined. The constructed PLS model gave a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.991 3 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.807 g x L(-1). With the predicted total nitrogen and predefined limit, decisions concerning the proper times of melting were made. This research demonstrated that NIR transflectance spectroscopy could be used to expeditiously determine the contents of total nitrogen which was subsequently chosen as the indictor for determining the end-point of hide melting. The proposed procedure may help avoid unnecessary raw material or energy consumption.

  10. Promoting health (implicitly)? A longitudinal content analysis of implicit health information in cigarette advertising, 1954-2003.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reid, Leonard N; Choi, Hojoon; Jeong, Hyun Ju

    2010-10-01

    Tobacco studies indicate that health-related information in cigarette advertising leads consumers to underestimate the detrimental health effects of smoking and contributes to their smoking-related perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes. This study examined the frequencies and kinds of implicit health information in cigarette advertising across five distinct smoking eras covering the years 1954-2003. Analysis of 1,135 cigarette advertisements collected through multistage probability sampling of three popular consumer magazines found that the level of implicit health information (i.e., "light" cigarette, cigarette pack color, verbal and visual health cues, cigarette portrayals, and human model-cigarette interaction) in post-Master Settlement Agreement [MSA] era ads is similar to the level in ads from early smoking eras. Specifically, "light" cigarettes were frequently promoted, and presence of light colors in cigarette packs seemed dominant after the probroadcast ban era. Impressionistic verbal health cues (e.g., soft, mild, and refreshing) appeared more frequently in post-MSA era ads than in pre-MSA era ads. Most notably, a majority of the cigarette ads portrayed models smoking, lighting, or offering a cigarette to others. The potential impact of implicit health information is discussed in the contexts of social cognition and Social Cognitive Theory. Policy implications regarding our findings are also detailed. PMID:21104505

  11. Quantitation of human cytomegalovirus DNA in leukocytes by end-point titration and duplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kulski, J K

    1994-09-01

    The presence of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA and cellular DNA in leukocytes was detected by duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitated by end-point titration. Two different duplex PCR methods were used to co-amplify CMV DNA and a 536 bp fragment of globin DNA. MIE-globin PCR amplified a 435 bp fragment of the major immediate early (MIE) gene of CMV DNA whereas the LA-globin PCR amplified a 200 bp fragment of the late antigen (LA) gene of CMV DNA. PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 3% agarose gels and detected by ethidium bromide staining. Amplification of globin DNA was included in the PCR as a positive control to monitor the accuracy and reproducibility of the PCR assay and to provide a reference point for CMV DNA levels. End-point titration PCR using known amounts of recombinant CMV DNA and human placental DNA showed that the end-point titres of the amplified CMV DNA correlated directly with the amount of CMV DNA in the sample. The limit of detection of MIE-globin and LA-globin PCR was 1 ng for placental DNA, and 10 fg (1000 copies) for CMV-MIE DNA and 1 fg (100 copies) for CMV-LA DNA, respectively. The amount of CMV DNA was quantitated in leukocytic lysates of 16 immunocompromised patients, who were tested for the presence of CMV in blood by cell culture, and of four normal controls. The blood concentration of CMV DNA, calculated as the number of copies of CMV DNA per microgram of leukocyte DNA, varied between 10(4) and 10(7) in the seven bloods that were CMV-cell-culture-positive, and between 10(2) and 10(4) in the blood of five patients that were CMV-cell-culture-negative. CMV DNA was undetected by PCR in the blood of another eight CMV-negative cases. This study shows that end-point titration and duplex PCR can be used as a simple and rapid method to quantitate CMV DNA in blood of patients that are either CMV-positive or CMV-negative by cell culture. Quantitation of CMV DNA in blood by end-point titration PCR has potential to

  12. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P < 0.05) dressing percentages than Angus at the 2 largest levels of AFT and smaller (P < 0.01) percentages at the 2 largest levels of HCW, whereas the 2 breeds did not differ (P > or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly

  13. Effects of age, weight, and fat slaughter end points on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects for carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Utrera, A; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M; Van Vleck, L D

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different levels of adjusted fat thickness (AFT) and HCW slaughter end points (covariates) on estimates of breed and retained heterosis effects was studied for 14 carcass traits from serially slaughtered purebred and composite steers from the US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Contrasts among breed solutions were estimated at 0.7, 1.1, and 1.5 cm of AFT, and at 295.1, 340.5, and 385.9 kg of HCW. For constant slaughter age, contrasts were adjusted to the overall mean (432.5 d). Breed effects for Red Poll, Hereford, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, Charolais, MARC I, MARC II, and MARC III were estimated as deviations from Angus. In addition, purebreds were pooled into 3 groups based on lean-to-fat ratio, and then differences were estimated among groups. Retention of combined individual and maternal heterosis was estimated for each composite. Mean retained heterosis for the 3 composites also was estimated. Breed rankings and expression of heterosis varied within and among end points. For example, Charolais had greater (P < 0.05) dressing percentages than Angus at the 2 largest levels of AFT and smaller (P < 0.01) percentages at the 2 largest levels of HCW, whereas the 2 breeds did not differ (P > or = 0.05) at a constant age. The MARC III composite produced 9.7 kg more (P < 0.01) fat than Angus at AFT of 0.7 cm, but 7.9 kg less (P < 0.05) at AFT of 1.5 cm. For MARC III, the estimate of retained heterosis for HCW was significant (P < 0.05) at the lowest level of AFT, but at the intermediate and greatest levels estimates were nil. The pattern was the same for MARC I and MARC III for LM area. Adjustment for age resulted in near zero estimates of retained heterosis for AFT, and similarly, adjustment for HCW resulted in nil estimates of retained heterosis for LM area. For actual retail product as a percentage of HCW, the estimate of retained heterosis for MARC III was negative (-1.27%; P < 0.05) at 0.7 cm but was significantly

  14. Psychosocial Factors Associated With Adolescent Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Berhane, Kiros; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M.; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann; McConnell, Rob

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has increased since their introduction into the US market in 2007. Little is known about the role of e-cigarette psychosocial factors on risk of e-cigarette or cigarette use in adolescence. METHODS: Information on e-cigarette and cigarette psychosocial factors (use and attitudes about use in the home and among friends) was collected from 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study during the spring of 2014. RESULTS: Of 2084 participants, 499 (24.0%) had used an e-cigarette, including 200 (9.6%) current users (past 30 days); 390 participants (18.7%) had smoked a combustible cigarette, and 119 (5.7%) were current cigarette smokers. Cigarette and e-cigarette use were correlated. Nevertheless, 40.5% (n = 81) of current e-cigarette users had never smoked a cigarette. Psychosocial factors (home use of each product, friends’ use of and positive attitudes toward e-cigarettes and cigarettes) and participant perception of the harm of e-cigarettes were strongly positively associated both with e-cigarette and cigarette use. Most youth who reported e-cigarette use had friends who used e-cigarettes, and almost half of current users reported that they did not believe there were health risks associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies of adolescents are needed to determine whether the strong association of e-cigarette psychosocial factors with both e-cigarette and cigarette use will lead to increased cigarette use or dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or whether e-cigarettes will serve as a gateway to cigarette use. PMID:26216326

  15. Educational Disadvantage and Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan M.; Solomon, Laura J.; Bernstein, Ira M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the influence of education on smoking status in a cohort (n = 316) of pregnant women who were smokers at the time they learned of the current pregnancy. Subjects were participants in clinical trials examining the efficacy of monetary-based incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. In multivariate analyses, educational achievement was a robust predictor of smoking status upon entering prenatal care, of achieving abstinence antepartum among those still smoking at entry into prenatal care, and of smoking status at 6-months postpartum in the entire cohort and the subsample who received smoking-cessation treatment. In addition to educational attainment, other predictors of smoking status included smoking-related characteristics (e.g., number of cigarettes/day smoked pre-pregnancy), treatment, maternal age, and stress ratings. We suggest that strategies to increase educational attainment be included with more conventional tobacco-control policies in efforts to reduce smoking among girls and young women. PMID:19442460

  16. Cigars, Cigarettes, and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…

  17. Cigarette Cravings, Impulsivity, and the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Dinh-Williams, Laurence Lê-Anh; Bourque, Josiane; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-01-01

    Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g., someone smoking) trigger significant cravings in smokers impede their self-control capacities and promote drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, planning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies, and self-regulation) and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit, and genetic factors). Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingulate mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco-smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation. PMID:26441686

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: Protective effect of bacoside A.

    PubMed

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Sabitha, Kuruvimalai Ekambaram; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-09-01

    Despite a strong association between cigarette smoking and alarming increase in mortality rate from smoking-related diseases, around 35-40% of the world's population continues to smoke and many more are being exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Since the role of free radicals and oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases has been suggested, bacoside A, a potent antioxidant was tested for its ability to protect against cigarette smoking-induced toxicity in terms of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its isoenzymes. Rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with bacoside A, for a period of 12 weeks. Total LDH activity was assayed in serum, lung, heart, brain, liver and kidney, and serum LDH isoforms were separated electrophoretically. Cigarette smoke exposure resulted in significant increase in serum LDH and its isoenzymes with a concomitant decrease in these organs. These alterations were prevented by administration of bacoside A. Excessive oxidants from cigarette smoke is known to cause peroxidation of membrane lipids leading to cellular damage, thereby resulting in the leakage of LDH into the circulation. Bacoside A could have rendered protection to the organs by stabilizing their cell membranes and prevented the release of LDH, probably through its free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative effect.

  19. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  20. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Floris Y.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  1. Kinetic detection of the end-point in titrations involving slow reactions Direct titration of polyhydroxy-compounds with periodate.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, C E; Hadjiioannou, T P

    1983-03-01

    A new titration technique is described in which the end-point is determined by measuring the relative reaction rate of the titration reaction. This technique is adequate for rather slow reactions where conventional direct titrations are not applicable. The titrations are done automatically under microcomputer control. The efficiency of this technique is demonstrated with direct titrations of certain polyhydroxy-compounds with standard periodate solution. Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol (0.05-0.3 mmole), glycerol (0.06-0.17 mmole) and mannitol (0.01-0.03 mmole) were determined with average relative errors of 0.1-0.3%.

  2. Infectivity assay of bovine rotavirus: evaluation of plaque and end-point methods in comparison with immunofluorescent cell assay.

    PubMed

    Butchaiah, G

    1988-01-01

    Three different methods, namely plaque assay, immunofluorescent cell (IFC) count and end-point dilution (TCID50) were evaluated for quantitative infectivity assay of the cell culture adapted UK strain of bovine rotavirus in secondary calf kidney (CK) cells and BGM cell line. Plaque and IFC count techniques were found equally efficient for infectivity titration of bovine rotavirus. Addition of trypsin into maintenance medium enhanced the sensitivity of the TCID50 method. Both CK and BGM cells served as efficient assay cells for infectivity assay of bovine rotavirus by IFC count and TCID50 methods, whereas, for plaque assay, only CK cells were found suitable.

  3. A new numerical method of finding potentiometric titration end-points by use of rational spline functions.

    PubMed

    Ren, K; Ren-Kurc, A

    1986-08-01

    A new numerical method of determining the position of the inflection point of a potentiometric titration curve is presented. It consists of describing the experimental data (emf, volume data-points) by means of a rational spline function. The co-ordinates of the titration end-point are determined by analysis of the first and second derivatives of the spline function formed. The method also allows analysis of distorted titration curves which cannot be interpreted by Gran's or other computational methods. PMID:18964159

  4. Method to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification using an ionically labeled probe and measuring impedance change

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Belgrader, Phillip; Fuller, Christopher D.

    2007-01-02

    Impedance measurements are used to detect the end-point for PCR DNA amplification. A pair of spaced electrodes are located on a surface of a microfluidic channel and an AC or DC voltage is applied across the electrodes to produce an electric field. An ionically labeled probe will attach to a complementary DNA segment, and a polymerase enzyme will release the ionic label. This causes the conductivity of the solution in the area of the electrode to change. This change in conductivity is measured as a change in the impedance been the two electrodes.

  5. Generating functionals for harmonic expectation values of paths with fixed end points: Feynman diagrams for nonpolynomial interactions.

    PubMed

    Kleinert, H; Pelster, A; Bachmann, M

    1999-09-01

    We introduce a general class of generating functionals for the calculation of quantum-mechanical expectation values of arbitrary functionals of fluctuating paths with fixed end points in configuration or momentum space. The generating functionals are calculated explicitly for the harmonic oscillator with time-dependent frequency, and used to derive a smearing formula for correlation functions of polynomial and nonpolynomial functions of time-dependent positions and momenta. This formula summarizes the effect of quantum fluctuations, and serves to derive generalized Wick rules and Feynman diagrams for perturbation expansions of nonpolynomial interactions.

  6. You've Come a Long Way, Baby--Or Have You? Women's Magazines, Cigarette Advertisements, Health Articles and Editorial Autonomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesterman, Vicki

    A study examined how three major women's magazines handled cigarette advertisements and editorial copy about smoking-related health problems. Examined were issues of "Ms.,""Good Housekeeping," and "Seventeen" magazines from 1972, one year after the ban on television advertisements and the year "Ms." began publication, through 1979, when cigarette…

  7. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; O'Connor, Erin; Babb, Stephen D; Caraballo, Ralph S; Singh, Tushar; Hu, S Sean; King, Brian A

    2015-11-13

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). To assess progress toward achieving the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing the percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0%,* CDC assessed the most recent national estimates of smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The percentage of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 16.8% in 2014. Among daily cigarette smokers, declines were observed in the percentage who smoked 20–29 cigarettes per day (from 34.9% to 27.4%) or ≥30 cigarettes per day (from 12.7% to 6.9%). In 2014, prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among males, adults aged 25–44 years, multiracial persons and American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons who have a General Education Development certificate, live below the federal poverty level, live in the Midwest, are insured through Medicaid or are uninsured, have a disability or limitation, or are lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free laws, high impact mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to quitting assistance, are critical to reduce cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults. PMID:26562061

  8. Combined Transcriptomics Analysis for Classification of Adverse Effects As a Potential End Point in Effect Based Screening.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Tjalf E; Janssens, Thierry K S; Legler, Juliette; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2015-12-15

    Environmental risk assessment relies on the use of bioassays to assess the environmental impact of chemicals. Gene expression is gaining acceptance as a valuable mechanistic end point in bioassays and effect-based screening. Data analysis and its results, however, are complex and often not directly applicable in risk assessment. Classifier analysis is a promising method to turn complex gene expression analysis results into answers suitable for risk assessment. We have assembled a large gene expression data set assembled from multiple studies and experiments in the springtail Folsomia candida, with the aim of selecting a set of genes that can be trained to classify general toxic stress. By performing differential expression analysis prior to classifier training, we were able to select a set of 135 genes which was enriched in stress related processes. Classifier models from this set were used to classify two test sets comprised of chemical spiked, polluted, and clean soils and compared to another, more traditional classifier feature selection. The gene set presented here outperformed the more traditionally selected gene set. This gene set has the potential to be used as a biomarker to test for adverse effects caused by chemicals in springtails to provide end points in environmental risk assessment. PMID:26523736

  9. Influence of developmental stage, salts and food presence on various end points using Caenorhabditis elegans for aquatic toxicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donkin, S.G.; Williams, P.L.

    1995-12-01

    This study used a randomized block design to investigate the importance of several variables in using the free-living soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, for aquatic toxicity testing. Concentration-response data were obtained on nematodes of various developmental stages exposed to four metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg) and a water-soluble organic toxicant, sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), under conditions of varied solvent medium (with or without salts and with or without a bacterial food source). The end points measured were 24- and 96-h mortality LC50 value, as well as development of larval stages to adulthood and evidence of reproduction. The results suggest that nematodes of various ages respond similarity to a given toxicant for all end points measured, although adults cultured from eggs appeared more sensitive than adults cultured from dauer larvae. The most important environmental variable in determining toxicity was the medium in which the tests were conducted. The presence of potassium and sodium salts in the medium significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the toxicity of many test samples. The presence of bacteria had little effect on 24-h tests with salts, but was important in 96-h survival and development. Based on sensitivity and ease of handling, adults cultured from eggs are recommended in both 24h and 96-h tests.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapeutics for total diabetes management: assessment of composite end-points.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Daisuke; Kuwata, Hitoshi; Usui, Ryota; Kurose, Takeshi; Seino, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the benefits of anti-diabetic drugs for type 2 diabetes requires analysis of composite end-points, taking HbA1c, bodyweight, hypoglycemia and other metabolic parameters into consideration; continuous, optimal glycemic control as well as bodyweight, blood pressure and lipid levels are critical to prevent micro- and macro-vascular complications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are now established as an important total treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes, exerting glucose-lowering effects with little hypoglycemia risk and also ameliorating bodyweight, blood pressure and lipid levels, which are therapeutic targets for prevention of complications of the disease. The available data strongly suggest only beneficial effects of GLP-1RAs; however, long-term evaluation of the relevant composite end-points including health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness remain to be investigated in adequately powered, prospective, controlled clinical trials. In the meantime, healthcare professionals need to be scrupulously attentive for potential, rare adverse events in patients using GLP-1RAs. PMID:25916903

  11. Testing of an End-Point Control Unit Designed to Enable Precision Control of Manipulator-Coupled Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Tobbe, Patrick A.; Weathers, John M.; Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an end-point control concept designed to enable precision telerobotic control of manipulator-coupled spacecraft. The concept employs a hardware unit (end-point control unit EPCU) that is positioned between the end-effector of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System and the payload. Features of the unit are active compliance (control of the displacement between the end-effector and the payload), to allow precision control of payload motions, and inertial load relief, to prevent the transmission of loads between the end-effector and the payload. This paper presents the concept and studies the active compliance feature using a simulation and hardware. Results of the simulation show the effectiveness of the EPCU in smoothing the motion of the payload. Results are presented from initial, limited tests of a laboratory hardware unit on a robotic arm testbed at the l Space Flight Center. Tracking performance of the arm in a constant speed automated retraction and extension maneuver of a heavy payload with and without the unit active is compared for the design speed and higher speeds. Simultaneous load reduction and tracking performance are demonstrated using the EPCU.

  12. End point determination of blending process for trimebutine tablets using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hee; Lee, Jun-Ho; Cho, Soohwa; Do, Sung-Ho; Woo, Young-Ah

    2012-09-01

    This study showed near Infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy with a multivariate calibration approach were very effective to determine blend uniformity end-point. A set of 36 trimebutine samples containing magnesium stearate, stearic acid, colloidal silicon oxide, talc as excipients (0.9%∼1.8%) was acquired from six positions during blending processing with U-type blender from 0 to 30 min. Principle component analysis (PCA) with NIR and Raman spectral data was used to confirm the end-point of blending. After 30 min, the scores of principle component (PC) 1 and principle component (PC) 2 for samples moved into one point, which clearly indicated the mixture of sample became homogenous. In addition, NIR and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the quantitative analysis of 20 trimebutine samples containing 2∼40% in mixture granules, which divided into a calibration set of 15 samples and a prediction set of 5 samples for NIR spectral data. The standard error of calibration (SEC) and standard error of prediction (SEP) are 0.15% and 0.13%, respectively using NIR while SEC and SEP of 0.95% and 0.91% are obtained using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the NIR and Raman spectroscopy with a multivariate calibration such as PCA and PLS provide the possibility of real time monitoring of homogeneity and content uniformity during blending process. PMID:23054717

  13. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    PubMed

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets.

  14. The impact of smoking-related illness in the ED: an attributable risk model.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the clinical and economic impact of smoking among adult emergency department (ED) patients. An attributable risk analysis of patients seen in 2 urban EDs in 1998 was performed. Data were obtained from hospital databases, national sources describing the prevalence of smoking in the state, and risk ratios for smoking-related illnesses. Of 78,617 patient visits, 12,573 (16.0%) had any smoking-related International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code. The smoking-attributable risk fraction (SARF) for all patients was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7%-5.0%). Of 13,245 admissions, 6.8% (95% CI 6.4%-7.2%) were smoking attributable. Of $296,962,685 in hospital charges, 10.0% (95% CI 9.9%-10.1%) were smoking attributable. The SARFs for ED visits, admissions, and charges for men were higher than for women (all P <.0001). Smoking-attributable illness accounts for 4.9% of ED adult visits, 6.8% of ED adult admissions, and 10.0% of hospital charges. The use of ED-based smoking intervention remains to be determined.

  15. Smoking-Related Beliefs and Susceptibility among U.S. Youth Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    El-Toukhy, Sherine; Choi, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine racial/ethnic disparities in smoking beliefs and susceptibility in a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth nonsmokers (N = 21,931). Methods Weighted regression models were used to examine smoking-related beliefs and susceptibility by race/ethnicity adjusting for demographics, exposure to pro-tobacco advertising and promotions, parental guidance against tobacco use, and peer norms. Results Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, racial/ethnic minority youth endorsed pro-smoking beliefs and were susceptible to smoking. Non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic Asians, and Hispanics embraced social benefits of smoking (ps < 0.05). Hispanics had lower perceptions of tobacco-related risks (AOR: 0.87) and were more susceptible to smoking (AOR: 1.56). Disparities in smoking beliefs and susceptibility persisted between minority and non-Hispanic White youth after adjusting for exposure to pro-tobacco advertising and promotions, parental guidance against tobacco use, and peer norms. Conclusions Smoking-related beliefs and susceptibility varied by race/ethnicity among youth nonsmokers after accounting for known predictors of youth smoking. Implications and Contribution Racial/ethnic disparities exist in smoking beliefs and susceptibility among youth nonsmokers. Endorsement of pro-smoking beliefs and smoking susceptibility lie beyond advertising, parental guidance, and peer norms. To reduce smoking initiation, examining and targeting individual and social factors associated with smoking beliefs and susceptibility among minority youth are warranted. PMID:26271160

  16. Detection of the end point temperature of thermal denatured protein in fish and chicken meat through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongwei; Mao, Mao; Liang, Chengzhu; Lin, Chao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2009-03-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied in the detection of the end point temperature (EPT) of thermal denatured protein in fish and meat in this study. It was also used in studying the thermal denatured temperature range of proteins in salmon and chicken meat. The results show that the temperature ranges of denatured proteins were from 65°C to 75°C, and these temperature ranges were influenced by the processing methods. Through SDS-PAGE, the features of repeated heating thermal denatured proteins under the same temperature and processing time were studied. The electrophoresis patterns of thermal denatured proteins determined through repeated heating at the same temperature did not exhibit any change. For the detection of cooked fish and meat samples, they were subjected to applying the SDS-PAGE method, which revealed an EPT ranging from 60°C to 80°C.

  17. Clinical End-Points Associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Lung Cancer: Implications into Host-Pathogen Interaction and Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yansheng; Hao, Tong; Cao, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Yan; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    There is a recent emerging theory that suggests a cross-link between pathogens and cancer. In this context, we examined the association between the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) with its L-forms (MTB-L) and lung cancer. In the present study, we have optimized and applied a highly sensitive assay to detect the presence of MTB and MTB-L in 187 lung cancer samples and 39 samples of other cancer origins. By carefully controlling confounding factors, we have found that 62% of the lung cancer samples are MTB-L positive, while only 5.1% of the other cancer samples are MTB-L positive. Through generalized linear models and random forest models, we have further identified a set of clinical end-points that are strongly associated with MTB-L presence. Our finding provides the basis for future studies to investigate the underlying mechanism linking MTB-L infection to lung cancer development. PMID:26583138

  18. Voltammetric iodometric titration of ascorbic acid with dead-stop end-point detection in fresh vegetables and fruit samples.

    PubMed

    Verdini, R A; Lagier, C M

    2000-07-01

    The present work describes a method for determining ascorbic acid, which combines iodometry with a voltammetric technique to detect the end point of the titration. In addition, the validity of the method applied to natural vegetable or fruit samples was assessed. The results were compared with those obtained by an accurate method such as HPLC using UV detection. Similar values of ascorbic acid for different natural samples were obtained by means of this approach (p > 0.05). The limit of quantification was 0.1 mg. This technique presents the advantage of other electroanalytical methods such as avoiding filtration or ultracentrifugation steps, with the additional benefit of using the platinum electrodes, which are routinely used in the laboratory. These facts allow a rapid and efficient quantification of ascorbic acid with very low cost of reagents and equipment.

  19. A study of the effects of exposure on cleanup workers at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident using multiple end points.

    PubMed

    Moore, D H; Tucker, J D; Jones, I M; Langlois, R G; Pleshanov, P; Vorobtsova, I; Jensen, R

    1997-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 192 exposed workers who participated in the cleanup after the April 26, 1986, nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine. These samples, together with samples from 73 individuals living in Russia but not involved in Chernobyl cleanup activities, were collected during September 1991 to May 1996 and shipped to the U.S. for evaluation by three bioassays: cytogenetic analysis based on chromosome painting, HPRT mutation analysis and glycophorin A (GPA) variant analysis. Univariate statistical analyses of the results of each bioassay (including adjustments for age, smoking status and estimated precision of the bioassay) found greater frequencies of chromosome translocations and HPRT mutant T lymphocytes among the exposed individuals compared to the controls (P < or = 0.01). GPA analyses showed no significant difference for exposed compared to controls for either hemizygous, N/O, or homozygous, N/N, variant cell frequency. Multivariate analysis of variance of the subset of 44 exposed and 14 unexposed individuals with measurements from all three bioassays found elevated frequencies of chromosomal translocations and HPRT mutants, and reduced frequencies for both GPA end points among the exposed persons compared to the controls. However, none of these differences, considered singly or in combination, was statistically significant (although statistical power is low due to small sample sizes). Mean estimated dose, based on cytogenetic response, for those exposed was 9 cGy (range 0 to 51 cGy) and was less than that estimated by physical dosimetry (25 cGy). Correlation between the end points of the bioassays and estimated physical dosimetry was low (r < 0.2); the only significant correlation found was for physical dose estimate and dates worked at Chernobyl (r = 0.4, P < 0.01), with those working soon after the accident receiving greater estimated doses.

  20. Progression-free survival: an important end point in evaluating therapy for recurrent high-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, Kathleen R; Yung, W K Alfred; Chang, Susan M; Wen, Patrick Y; Cloughesy, Timothy F; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Robins, H Ian; Lieberman, Frank S; Fine, Howard A; Fink, Karen L; Junck, Larry; Abrey, Lauren; Gilbert, Mark R; Mehta, Minesh; Kuhn, John G; Aldape, Kenneth D; Hibberts, Janelle; Peterson, Pamela M; Prados, Michael D

    2008-04-01

    The North American Brain Tumor Consortium (NABTC) uses 6-month progression-free survival (6moPFS) as the efficacy end point of therapy trials for adult patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. In this study, we investigated whether progression status at 6 months predicts survival from that time, implying the potential for prolonged survival if progression could be delayed. We also evaluated earlier time points to determine whether the time of progression assessment alters the strength of the prediction. Data were from 596 patient enrollments (159 with grade III gliomas and 437 with grade IV tumors) in NABTC phase II protocols between February 1998 and December 2002. Outcome was assessed statistically using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Median survivals were 39 and 30 weeks for patients with grade III and grade IV tumors, respectively. Twenty-eight percent of patients with grade III and 16% of patients with grade IV tumors had progression-free survival of >26 weeks. Progression status at 9, 18, and 26 weeks predicted survival from those times for patients with grade III or grade IV tumors (p < 0.001 and hazard ratios < 0.5 in all cases). Including KPS, age, number of prior chemotherapies, and response in a multivariate model did not substantively change the results. Progression status at 6 months is a strong predictor of survival, and 6moPFS is a valid end point for trials of therapy for recurrent malignant glioma. Earlier assessments of progression status also predicted survival and may be incorporated in the design of future clinical trials.

  1. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (p< 0.5) in hen day production (90.2 vs 54.1; control vs EB, resp.) and fertility (85.3 vs 33.4%, control vs EB, resp.). Males showed sharply reduced courtship and mating behaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  2. Effects of source zone heterogeneity on surfactant-enhanced NAPL dissolution and resulting remediation end-points.

    PubMed

    Saenton, S; Illangasekare, T H; Soga, K; Saba, T A

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of removal of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the entrapment source zone of the subsurface has been limited by soil heterogeneity and the inability to locate all entrapped sources. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the uncertainty of degree of source removal associated with aquifer heterogeneity. In this demonstration, source zone NAPL removal using surfactant-enhanced dissolution was considered. Model components that simulate the processes of natural dissolution in aqueous phase and surfactant-enhanced dissolution were incorporated into an existing code of contaminant transport. The dissolution modules of the simulator used previously developed Gilland-Sherwood type phenomenological models of NAPL dissolution to estimate mass transfer coefficients that are upscaleable to multidimensional flow conditions found at field sites. The model was used to simulate the mass removal from 10 NAPL entrapment zone configurations based on previously conducted two-dimensional tank experiments. These entrapment zones represent the NAPL distribution in spatially correlated random fields of aquifer hydraulic conductivity. The numerical simulations representing two-dimensional conditions show that effectiveness of mass removal depends on the aquifer heterogeneity that controls the NAPL entrapment and delivery of the surfactant to the locations of entrapped NAPLs. Flow bypassing resulting from heterogeneity and the reduction of relative permeability due to NAPL entrapment reduces the delivery efficiency of the surfactant, thus prolonging the remediation time to achieve desired end-point NAPL saturations and downstream dissolved concentrations. In some extreme cases, the injected surfactant completely bypassed the NAPL source zones. It was also found that mass depletion rates for different NAPL source configurations vary significantly. The study shows that heterogeneity result in uncertainties in the mass removal and achievable end-points that are

  3. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Daniel N.; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A.; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities.— Willis, D. N., Liu, B., Ha, M. A., Jordt, S.-E., Morris, J. B. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. PMID:21903934

  4. Cigarette smoking in China: public health, science, and policy.

    PubMed

    Au, William W; Su, Daisy; Yuan, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, cigarette smoking is a habit that causes serious health, economic, and social problems. Therefore, many countries have taken an active role to control and to ban smoking. The chronic smoking problem in China is particularly acute because China has the largest population of smokers in the world, over 300 million currently. If 30% of these smokers were to die of smoke-related diseases in the next 20 years, the impact from the more than 90 million premature deaths could be damaging to China. In addition, numerous non-smokers also experience health problems from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. China's efforts to reduce or to ban smoking in certain public places have not been well-coordinated or enforced compared with those in other countries. Therefore, success has been minimal. Consequently, leaders in China should not be complacent about combating the serious national health problem. A multiprong approach in combination with the MPOWER policy from the World Health Organization that targets different levels of acquisition of the smoking habit must be used. Examples may include the government's reduced reliance on profits from the sale of cigarettes, the elimination of advertisements that encourage smoking among young individuals, the presentation of more graphic illustration of harmful effects from smoking on every pack of cigarettes, higher taxes/prices on cigarettes, and the implementation of enforceable bans on smoking in public places. As shown in other countries, such coordinated effort can be highly effective in the reduction of smoking and can have healthy consequences.

  5. Will the next generation of "safer" cigarettes be safer?

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2005-10-01

    There are three basic means of avoiding smoking-related diseases: never starting to smoke, quitting, and avoiding smoke-filled environments. Recently, a fourth possibility has emerged: use of new, ostensibly less toxic products by smokers who cannot or will not quit, including "reduced toxin" cigarettes and novel smokeless tobacco products. To their purveyors, these new "tobacco harm reduction" (THR) products represent an opportunity for inveterate smokers to reduce their risk of lung cancer and other diseases. To health professionals, the new products pose a myriad of risks. This new generation of THR products is not the first to promise reduced risk, however. Both filtered cigarettes and low tar and nicotine cigarettes were marketed with explicit health themes, ultimately with disastrous results for public health. THR products enter the market subject to no product regulation whatsoever; thus, the opportunity for objective, independent scientific evaluation of their risks and benefits, and for regulation of advertising or sale as a result, is absent. This paper describes the new generation of THR products, discusses potential benefits and risks, examines lessons from the experience with filtered and low tar and nicotine cigarettes, and describes the principal challenges that confront the medical profession, government, and the public in determining what to do with this perplexing array of novel products. PMID:16217258

  6. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-de-Miera, Belen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Waters, Hugh R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a 2007 cigarette tax increase from 110% to 140% of the price to the retailer on cigarette price and consumption among Mexican smokers, including efforts to offset price increases. Methods Data were analysed from the 2006 and 2007 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico, which is a population-based cohort of adult smokers. Self-reported price of last cigarette purchase, place of last purchase, preferred brand, daily consumption and quit behaviour were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results Self-reported cigarette prices increased by 12.7% after the tax increase, with prices for international brands increasing more than for national brands (13.5% vs 8.7%, respectively). Although the tax increases were not fully passed onto consumers particularly on national brands, no evidence was found for smokers changing behaviour to offset price increases. Consistent declines in consumption across groups defined by sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial variables suggest a relatively uniform impact of the tax increase across subpopulations. However, decreased consumption appeared limited to people who smoked relatively more cigarettes a day (>5 cigarettes/day). Average daily consumption among lighter smokers did not significantly decline. A total of 13% (n=98) of the sample reported being quit for a month or more at follow-up. In multivariate models, lighter smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to be quit. Conclusions Results suggest that the 2007 tax increase was passed on to consumers, whose consumption generally declined. Since no other tobacco control policies or programmes were implemented during the period analysed, the tax increase appears likely to have decreased consumption. PMID:20870740

  7. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  8. Smoking-related attitudes and perceptions among young adults in Malta and the UK.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Catriona; Hamilton-West, Kate

    2010-05-01

    Although youth smoking in Europe has been highlighted as a significant public health concern, there is little data available to guide development of population-specific smoking prevention measures. In this study, we examined smoking-prevalence and smoking-related attitudes and perceptions among 118 young adults in Malta (a country for which there is little existing data), with comparison data from a sample of young adults in the UK (N = 112). To ensure that samples were demographically similar (e.g. in terms of age, level of education, and social status) we obtained data from university students. Only students of Maltese nationality (in Malta), or British nationality (in the UK) were invited to participate. Participants completed measures of smoking behavior, perceived risks of smoking, subjective norms, temptation to smoke, and attitudes towards smoking cessation. Almost half (46%) of the Maltese students were current smokers, compared to 25% of the British students. British students were more aware of the risks of smoking than their Maltese counterparts, perceived greater social pressure not to smoke and held more positive attitudes towards smoking cessation; Maltese students reported greater temptation to smoke and were around others who smoke more often than the British students. Attitudes and perceptions were associated with smoking behavior in both samples although the relative importance of psychological determinants of smoking varied between the two samples. Our data indicate higher smoking prevalence and more pro-smoking attitudes/ perceptions among students in Malta, consistent with data for other Southern European countries. Findings also indicate that the influence of smoking-related attitudes and perceptions varies between populations and the influence of social norms in particular may be moderated by nationality.

  9. Smoking-related behaviour and attitudes among medical students in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Soha Rashed Aref; Shokeir, Nagwa Fouad

    2002-01-01

    As a preliminary step toward incorporating a tobacco education and intervention program into our undergraduate medical curriculum, this study was designed to assess students' smoking-related behaviour, knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco, and perceptions of their future role as doctors in smoking intervention. A cross-sectional, study was conducted in the university year 2001/2002 on a representative sample of male medical students enrolled in 4th and 5th years at Alexandria University. A total of 320 students across the 2 years completed the survey. The smoking rate among medical students was 17.5% (10.9% smoked daily and 6.6% occasionally). The awareness of harmful effects of smoking and knowledge about the causal role of tobacco in the development of specific diseases were deficient. The intention to perform smoking intervention in the future as doctors seemed unsatisfactory. About 85% of the students thought that doctors should carry out smoking cessation advice depending on the disease, while the rate of those who thought so irrespective of the disease did not reach 44%. Current smokers thought less actively about smoking intervention than non-smokers. Nearly two-thirds of students (65.3%) felt they were not sufficiently prepared for caring or counseling smokers, and only 31.9% of students were convinced of the effectiveness of the doctor's advice to stop smoking. Seventy-seven and half percent of them desired specific training in smoking intervention. Non-smokers were more in favour of legislative actions to discourage tobacco use than current smokers. These findings suggest that medical school authorities should design and implement an appropriate basic training aimed at better preparing medical students for their future role in prevention of smoking. Specific teaching of medical students about smoking-related diseases and a patient-centered smoking cessation intervention is required to provide future medical practitioners with the knowledge and skills

  10. Responses to Tobacco Smoking-Related Health Messages in Young People With Recent-Onset Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Daniel J; Brunette, Mary; John, Majnu; Kane, John M; Malhotra, Anil K; Robinson, Delbert G

    2015-11-01

    Virtually no research has examined the responses of youth with recent-onset psychosis (ROP) to smoking-related health warnings. We examined predictors of response and tested hypotheses that participants with ROP would (a) assess warnings as less effective than a healthy comparison (HC) group, and (b) assess video warnings as more effective than pictures. ROP participants (n = 69) had <2 years of prior antipsychotic treatment; the HC group (n = 79) had no major mental illness. Participants viewed 10 pictorial warnings, 8 videos depicting similar messages, and were interviewed regarding tobacco use, health literacy, and smoking knowledge. We assessed response at baseline and at 4-week follow-up. ROP participants were more likely than HC to smoke tobacco (49.3% vs 10.1%) and had lower levels of health literacy and smoking-related knowledge. Cannabis was used by 46.4% of ROP participants. Effectiveness ratings were high for both picture and video warnings with no differences between media. ROP participants compared to HC and nonsmokers compared to smokers were more likely to perceive warnings as effective. Effectiveness was associated with negative affect and greater emotional arousal. We assessed 33 smokers at follow-up; 5 (15%) identified as nonsmokers, 15 (45%) made a quit attempt, and 16 (49%) reported that the warnings influenced their smoking. Results indicate that young people with psychotic disorders respond favorably to health warnings. Effective messages depict health consequences clearly, elicit negative emotions, and may impact smoking behavior. Future research is needed to understand the effects of mode of presentation and message comprehension on smoking behavior. PMID:26316595

  11. Responses to Tobacco Smoking-Related Health Messages in Young People With Recent-Onset Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Daniel J; Brunette, Mary; John, Majnu; Kane, John M; Malhotra, Anil K; Robinson, Delbert G

    2015-11-01

    Virtually no research has examined the responses of youth with recent-onset psychosis (ROP) to smoking-related health warnings. We examined predictors of response and tested hypotheses that participants with ROP would (a) assess warnings as less effective than a healthy comparison (HC) group, and (b) assess video warnings as more effective than pictures. ROP participants (n = 69) had <2 years of prior antipsychotic treatment; the HC group (n = 79) had no major mental illness. Participants viewed 10 pictorial warnings, 8 videos depicting similar messages, and were interviewed regarding tobacco use, health literacy, and smoking knowledge. We assessed response at baseline and at 4-week follow-up. ROP participants were more likely than HC to smoke tobacco (49.3% vs 10.1%) and had lower levels of health literacy and smoking-related knowledge. Cannabis was used by 46.4% of ROP participants. Effectiveness ratings were high for both picture and video warnings with no differences between media. ROP participants compared to HC and nonsmokers compared to smokers were more likely to perceive warnings as effective. Effectiveness was associated with negative affect and greater emotional arousal. We assessed 33 smokers at follow-up; 5 (15%) identified as nonsmokers, 15 (45%) made a quit attempt, and 16 (49%) reported that the warnings influenced their smoking. Results indicate that young people with psychotic disorders respond favorably to health warnings. Effective messages depict health consequences clearly, elicit negative emotions, and may impact smoking behavior. Future research is needed to understand the effects of mode of presentation and message comprehension on smoking behavior.

  12. Ending the cigarette pandemic.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J B

    1983-12-01

    1 year after the issuance of the original Surgeon General's report, Congress passed the Federal Cigarette Labeling Advertising Act, requiring all cigarette packages distributed in the US to carry a Surgeon General's warning that smoking may be hazardous to health. Congress pased the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1969. This banned cigarette advertising from radio and television. The Surgeon General published the most comprehensive volume on smoking ever issued in the US in 1979, the 15th anniversary of the 1st report. The data on cigarette smoking's adverse effects on health were overwhelming, and the press recognized this. No longer able to rely on journalists to cast doubt on the reliability of the data, the industry changed its strategy by attempting to portray smoking as a civil rights issue. The tobacco industry began to pour millions of dollars into campaigns to prevent the passage of municipal, state, and federal legislation that would ban cigarette advertising or restrict smoking in public places and at the work site. "Healthy People," the Surgeon General's 1st report on health promotion and disease prevention, emphasized the necessary future direction of medicine: prevention. Efforts to end the cigarette pandemic will need to focus on the following in the future: an end to the victimization of women; a greater focus on adolescents; more effective strategies for smoking cessation; more attention to clean indoor air rights; abandonment of recommendations to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes; and revelation of chemical additives in cigarettes. The epidemiologists have now documented the devastating nature of the health problems attributable to cigarette smoking, but the minimal budgetary allocations to fight smoking testify to the lack of political will on the part of government.

  13. End-point energies of electrons ejected during Auger neutralization of slow, multicharged ions near metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. H.; Wattuhewa, Garvin; Miller, R. D.; Ye, X. M.; Pederson, D. O.

    1987-12-01

    A study has been done of the end-point energies of electrons ejected during Auger neutralization of slow, multicharged ions near metal surfaces. The study includes a wide variety of ions. Experimental results are presented for Alz+ and Cn+ ions incident on a gold surface, where z=2-5 and n=2-5. Ions from a laser-ion source are processed to produce ion pulses with incident energies ranging from 40 to 280 eV/charge. Data published by Hagstrum for 200-eV He2+, Nen+, Arn+, Krn+, and Xen+, on tungsten, where n=2 and 3, are analyzed along with the work of Varga, Hofer, and Winter for low-energy Ne2+, Ar2+, Ar3+, Kr2+, and Xe2+ on tungsten. It is concluded that the high-energy end of the Auger emission is dominated by single-electron capture by the ion and an internal conversion process involving direct coupling of optically allowed transitions in the lower-lying excited states of the singly neutralized ion to the top of the conduction band of the metal target. It is shown that a considerable fraction of the neonlike Al3+ ions from the laser-ion source are in a metastable state and are neutralized through autoionization.

  14. Less than 3 doses of the HPV vaccine - Review of efficacy against virological and disease end points.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Bhatla, Neerja; Ngoma, Twalib; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2016-06-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) recommended 2 doses of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for girls below 15 y on the basis of the immune-bridging studies demonstrating non-inferior immune response of 2 doses in the adolescent girls compared to 3 doses in the young adult women in whom the efficacy against disease is established. The biological nature of the antigens (virus-like particles) constituting the HPV vaccine is responsible for the vigorous antibody response that may make the third dose redundant. The protection offered by 2 doses has been demonstrated in non-randomized clinical trials to be comparable to that offered by 3 doses against incident and persistent infections of vaccine targeted HPV types. However, results emerging from the ecological and nested case-control studies embedded in the population based screening programs of different countries indicate reduced efficacy of 2 doses against virological and disease end points. Some recent studies observed the protective effect of single dose of the vaccine against incident and persistent infections of the vaccine targeted HPV types to be similar to 3 doses in spite of immunological inferiority. The sample size, duration of follow-ups and number of events were limited in these studies. Longer follow ups of the less than 3 doses cohorts in the ongoing studies as well as appropriately designed and ethically justifiable randomized studies are needed to establish the protection offered by the alternative schedules at least beyond 10 y of vaccination. PMID:26933961

  15. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Teens > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Habit en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes look high tech, so it's ...

  16. Urinary cotinine levels of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users.

    PubMed

    Göney, Gülşen; Çok, İsmet; Tamer, Uğur; Burgaz, Sema; Şengezer, Tijen

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in many countries. These devices are designed to imitate regular cigarettes, delivering nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco but currently, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the presence or absence of nicotine exposure. Such research relies on evidence from e-cigarette users urine samples. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels and compare the amount of nicotine to which e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers and passive smokers are exposed. Therefore, urine samples were collected from e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, passive smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The urinary cotinine levels of the subjects were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinine levels were determined as 1755 ± 1848 ng/g creatinine for 32 e-cigarette users, 1720 ± 1335 ng/g creatinine for 33 cigarette smokers and 81.42 ± 97.90 ng/g creatinine for 33 passive smokers. A significant difference has been found between cotinine levels of e-cigarette users and passive smokers (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (p > 0.05). This is a seminal study to demonstrate the e-cigarette users are exposed to nicotine as much as cigarette smokers. PMID:27278718

  17. Urinary cotinine levels of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users.

    PubMed

    Göney, Gülşen; Çok, İsmet; Tamer, Uğur; Burgaz, Sema; Şengezer, Tijen

    2016-07-01

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is rapidly increasing in many countries. These devices are designed to imitate regular cigarettes, delivering nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco but currently, there is a lack of scientific evidence on the presence or absence of nicotine exposure. Such research relies on evidence from e-cigarette users urine samples. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels and compare the amount of nicotine to which e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers and passive smokers are exposed. Therefore, urine samples were collected from e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, passive smokers, and healthy nonsmokers. The urinary cotinine levels of the subjects were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) urinary cotinine levels were determined as 1755 ± 1848 ng/g creatinine for 32 e-cigarette users, 1720 ± 1335 ng/g creatinine for 33 cigarette smokers and 81.42 ± 97.90 ng/g creatinine for 33 passive smokers. A significant difference has been found between cotinine levels of e-cigarette users and passive smokers (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers (p > 0.05). This is a seminal study to demonstrate the e-cigarette users are exposed to nicotine as much as cigarette smokers.

  18. Quality-by-design (QbD): an integrated approach for evaluation of powder blending process kinetics and determination of powder blending end-point.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiquan; Khan, Mansoor A

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an integrated process monitoring approach for evaluating powder blending process kinetics and determining blending process end-point. A mixture design was created to include 26 powder formulations consisting of ibuprofen as the model drug and three excipients (HPMC, MCC, and Eudragit L100-55). The mixer was stopped at various time points to enable near-infrared spectroscopy scan of the powder mixture for obtaining the time course of the blending process. The evaluation of the blending process kinetics and process end-point was studied through three quantitative approaches: (1) Spectra linear superposition method; (2) Characteristic peak method; (3) Moving block standard deviation method. It was found that the powder blending experienced an initial rapid process to reach a quasi- end point within the first few minutes. Afterwards, a demixing occurred. Then, a real blending end-point was reached as characterized by an inflection point. ANOVA shows that the compositions of ibuprofen and MCC are the most statistically significant variables that impact the time required to reach the blending end-point. This highlighted the critical importance of developing quantitative chemometric approaches to extract critical process information and generate essential process knowledge to enable real-time release of the blending process. PMID:19116952

  19. Low-Dose Oxygen Enhances Macrophage-Derived Bacterial Clearance following Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bain, William G.; Tripathi, Ashutosh; Mandke, Pooja; Gans, Jonathan H.; D'Alessio, Franco R.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K.; Aggarwal, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, smoking-related lung disease. Patients with COPD frequently suffer disease exacerbations induced by bacterial respiratory infections, suggestive of impaired innate immunity. Low-dose oxygen is a mainstay of therapy during COPD exacerbations; yet we understand little about whether oxygen can modulate the effects of cigarette smoke on lung immunity. Methods. Wild-type mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 weeks, followed by intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) and 21% or 35–40% oxygen. After two days, lungs were harvested for PAO1 CFUs, and bronchoalveolar fluid was sampled for inflammatory markers. In culture, macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen (40%) for 24 hours and then incubated with PAO1, followed by quantification of bacterial phagocytosis and inflammatory markers. Results. Mice exposed to 35–40% oxygen after cigarette smoke and PAO1 had improved survival and reduced lung CFUs and inflammation. Macrophages from these mice expressed less TNF-α and more scavenger receptors. In culture, macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen also demonstrated decreased TNF-α secretion and enhanced phagocytosis of PAO1 bacteria. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate a novel, protective role for low-dose oxygen following cigarette smoke and bacteria exposure that may be mediated by enhanced macrophage phagocytosis. PMID:27403445

  20. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  1. Current cigarette smoking among adults--United States, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Ahmed; Agaku, Israel T; O'Connor, Erin; King, Brian A; Kenemer, John B; Neff, Linda

    2014-11-28

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in more than 480,000 premature deaths and $289 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year. Despite progress over the past several decades, millions of adults still smoke cigarettes, the most commonly used tobacco product in the United States. To assess progress made toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU-1.1), CDC used data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to provide updated national estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence among adults aged ≥18 years. Additionally, for the first time, estimates of cigarette smoking prevalence were assessed among lesbian, gay, or bisexual persons (LGB) using NHIS data. The proportion of U.S. adults who smoke cigarettes declined from 20.9% in 2005 to 17.8% in 2013, and the proportion of daily smokers declined from 16.9% to 13.7%. Among daily cigarette smokers, the proportion who smoked 20-29 cigarettes per day (CPD) declined from 34.9% to 29.3%, and the proportion who smoked ≥30 CPD declined from 12.7% to 7.1%. However, cigarette smoking remains particularly high among certain groups, including adults who are male, younger, multiracial or American Indian/Alaska Native, have less education, live below the federal poverty level, live in the South or Midwest, have a disability/limitation, or who are LGB. Proven population-based interventions, including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free policies in worksites and public places, high-impact anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and easy access to smoking cessation assistance, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the greatest burden. PMID:25426653

  2. Application of a computer model to predict optimum slaughter end points for different biological types of feeder cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, C B; Bennett, G L

    1995-10-01

    A bioeconomic model was developed to predict slaughter end points of different genotypes of feeder cattle, where profit/rotation and profit/day were maximized. Growth, feed intake, and carcass weight and composition were simulated for 17 biological types of steers. Distribution of carcass weight and proportion in four USDA quality and five USDA yield grades were obtained from predicted carcass weights and composition. Average carcass value for each genotype was calculated from these distributions under four carcass pricing systems that varied from value determined on quality grade alone to value determined on yield grade alone. Under profitable market conditions, rotation length was shorter and carcass weights lighter when the producer's goal was maximum profit/day, compared with maximum profit/rotation. A carcass value system based on yield grade alone resulted in greater profit/rotation and in lighter and leaner carcasses than a system based on quality grade alone. High correlations ( > .97) were obtained between breed profits obtained with different sets of input/output prices and carcass price discount weight ranges. This suggests that breed rankings on the basis of breed profits may not be sensitive to changes in input/output market prices. Steers that were on a grower-stocker system had leaner carcasses, heavier optimum carcass weight, greater profits, and less variation in optimum carcass weights between genotypes than steers that were started on a high-energy finishing diet at weaning. Overall results suggest that breed choices may change with different carcass grading and value systems and postweaning production systems. This model has potential to provide decision support in marketing fed cattle.

  3. UST-ID robotics: Wireless communication and minimum conductor technology, and end-point tracking technology surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a technology review of the current state-of-the-art in two technologies applicable to the Underground Storage Tank (UST) program at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The first review is of wireless and minimal conductor technologies for in-tank communications. The second review is of advanced concepts for independent tool-point tracking. This study addresses the need to provide wireless transmission media or minimum conductor technology for in-tank communications and robot control. At present, signals are conducted via contacting transmission media, i.e., cables. Replacing wires with radio frequencies or invisible light are commonplace in the communication industry. This technology will be evaluated for its applicability to the needs of robotics. Some of these options are radio signals, leaky coax, infrared, microwave, and optical fiber systems. Although optical fiber systems are contacting transmission media, they will be considered because of their ability to reduce the number of conductors. In this report we will identify, evaluate, and recommend the requirements for wireless and minimum conductor technology to replace the present cable system. The second section is a technology survey of concepts for independent end-point tracking (tracking the position of robot end effectors). The position of the end effector in current industrial robots is determined by computing that position from joint information, which is basically a problem of locating a point in three-dimensional space. Several approaches are presently being used in industrial robotics, including: stereo-triangulation with a theodolite network and electrocamera system, photogrammetry, and multiple-length measurement with laser interferometry and wires. The techniques that will be evaluated in this survey are advanced applications of the aforementioned approaches. These include laser tracking (3-D and 5-D), ultrasonic tracking, vision-guided servoing, and adaptive robotic visual tracking.

  4. Single Strain Isolation Method for Cell Culture-Adapted Hepatitis C Virus by End-Point Dilution and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Nao; Murayama, Asako; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Shiina, Masaaki; Liang, T. Jake; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) culture system has enabled us to clarify the HCV life cycle and essential host factors for propagation. However, the virus production level of wild-type JFH-1 (JFH-1/wt) is limited, and this leads to difficulties in performing experiments that require higher viral concentrations. As the cell culture-adapted JFH-1 has been reported to have robust virus production, some mutations in the viral genome may play a role in the efficiency of virus production. In this study, we obtained cell culture-adapted virus by passage of full-length JFH-1 RNA-transfected Huh-7.5.1 cells. The obtained virus produced 3 log-fold more progeny viruses as compared with JFH-1/wt. Several mutations were identified as being responsible for robust virus production, but, on reverse-genetics analysis, the production levels of JFH-1 with these mutations did not reach the level of cell culture-adapted virus. By using the single strain isolation method by end-point dilution and infection, we isolated two strains with additional mutations, and found that these strains have the ability to produce more progeny viruses. On reverse-genetics analysis, the strains with these additional mutations were able to produce robust progeny viruses at comparable levels as cell culture-adapted JFH-1 virus. The strategy used in this study will be useful for identifying strains with unique characteristics, such as robust virus production, from a diverse population, and for determining the responsible mutations for these characteristics. PMID:24848954

  5. Current cigarette smoking among adults - United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. According to the 2010 U.S. Surgeon General's report, approximately 443,000 U.S. adults die from smoking-related illnesses each year. In addition, smoking has been estimated to cost the United States $96 billion in direct medical expenses and $97 billion in lost productivity annually. To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) objective to reduce cigarette smoking by adults (objective TU-1.1),* CDC's Office on Smoking and Health used data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to estimate current national cigarette smoking prevalence. The findings indicate that 19.0% of adults smoked cigarettes in 2011 and no statistically significant change in current adult smoking prevalence occurred from 2010 (19.3%) to 2011 (19.0%). Among daily smokers, the proportion who smoked ≥30 cigarettes per day (CPD) declined significantly, from 12.6% in 2005 to 9.1% in 2011, whereas the proportion of those who smoked 1-9 CPD increased significantly, from 16.4% to 22.0%. To help reduce the national prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults to the HP2020 target of 12%, population-based prevention strategies (e.g., increasing prices of tobacco products, antitobacco media campaigns featuring graphic personal stories on the adverse health impact of smoking, smoke-free laws for workplaces and public places, and barrier-free access to help quitting) will need to be implemented more extensively. Such evidence-based tobacco control interventions can help adults quit and prevent the initiation of tobacco use.

  6. Overview of the "epigenetic end points in toxicologic pathology and relevance to human health" session of the 2014 Society Of Toxicologic Pathology Annual Symposium.

    PubMed

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Hartke, James

    2015-01-01

    The theme of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology 2014 Annual Symposium was "Translational Pathology: Relevance of Toxicologic Pathology to Human Health." The 5th session focused on epigenetic end points in biology, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and how those end points are relevant to human exposures. This overview highlights the various presentations in this session, discussing integration of epigenetics end points in toxicologic pathology studies, investigating the role of epigenetics in product safety assessment, epigenetic changes in cancers, methodologies to detect them, and potential therapies, chromatin remodeling in development and disease, and epigenomics and the microbiome. The purpose of this overview is to discuss the application of epigenetics to toxicologic pathology and its utility in preclinical or mechanistic based safety, efficacy, and carcinogenicity studies.

  7. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points

    SciTech Connect

    Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej; Tan, Sugata; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  8. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Industry and Products Federal Tax Increase Tobacco Ingredient Reporting ... be used. 3 In the past, the tobacco industry categorized low-yield cigarettes using measurements of tar ...

  9. E-Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the liquid inside the cartridge. The liquid contains nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals. The heated liquid turns ... about some dangers of e-cigarettes: They contain nicotine, which is addictive They contain other potentially harmful ...

  10. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  11. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  12. Middle and high school students' exposure to alcohol- and smoking-related media: a pilot study using ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Deborah M; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Staplefoote, B Lynette; Shadel, William G

    2013-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents' exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a 2-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an average of 8.50 (SD = 5.82) alcohol-related media exposures and 4.25 (SD = 3.67) smoking-related media exposures per participant, during the study period. Exposures tended to occur in the afternoon (52% alcohol; 54% smoking), at point of sale (44% alcohol; 65% smoking), and on days leading up to the weekend (57% alcohol; 57% smoking). Exposures were also likely in the presence of family (69% alcohol; 56% smoking). Overall, results of this small pilot provide preliminary evidence that EMA is a useful tool for tracking and characterizing middle and high school students' real-world exposures to alcohol- and smoking-related media. Future studies may suggest mechanisms by which media exposures lead to youth uptake of drinking and smoking behaviors.

  13. Pictorial Health Warning Label Content and Smokers' Understanding of Smoking-Related Risks--A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia…

  14. Differences in Students' Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Public, Factory, and Private Secondary Schools in Guangzhou, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…

  15. GFR decline as an end point for clinical trials in CKD: a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Greene, Tom; Willis, Kerry; Lewis, Edmund; de Zeeuw, Dick; Cheung, Alfred K; Coresh, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration currently accepts halving of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), assessed as doubling of serum creatinine level, as a surrogate end point for the development of kidney failure in clinical trials of kidney disease progression. A doubling of serum creatinine level generally is a late event in chronic kidney disease (CKD); thus, there is great interest in considering alternative end points for clinical trials to shorten their duration, reduce sample size, and extend their conduct to patients with earlier stages of CKD. However, the relationship between lesser declines in GFR and the subsequent development of kidney failure has not been well characterized. The National Kidney Foundation and Food and Drug Administration sponsored a scientific workshop to critically examine available data to determine whether alternative GFR-based end points have sufficiently strong relationships with important clinical outcomes of CKD to be used in clinical trials. Based on a series of meta-analyses of cohorts and clinical trials and simulations of trial designs and analytic methods, the workshop concluded that a confirmed decline in estimated GFR of 30% over 2 to 3 years may be an acceptable surrogate end point in some circumstances, but the pattern of treatment effects on GFR must be examined, specifically acute effects on estimated GFR. An estimated GFR decline of 40% may be more broadly acceptable than a 30% decline across a wider range of baseline GFRs and patterns of treatment effects on GFR. However, there are other circumstances in which these end points could lead to a reduction in statistical power or erroneous conclusions regarding benefits or harms of interventions. We encourage careful consideration of these alternative end points in the design of future clinical trials.

  16. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Daniel N; Liu, Boyi; Ha, Michael A; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Morris, John B

    2011-12-01

    Menthol, the cooling agent in peppermint, is added to almost all commercially available cigarettes. Menthol stimulates olfactory sensations, and interacts with transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels in cold-sensitive sensory neurons, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an irritant-sensing channel. It is highly controversial whether menthol in cigarette smoke exerts pharmacological actions affecting smoking behavior. Using plethysmography, we investigated the effects of menthol on the respiratory sensory irritation response in mice elicited by smoke irritants (acrolein, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone). Menthol, at a concentration (16 ppm) lower than in smoke of mentholated cigarettes, immediately abolished the irritation response to acrolein, an agonist of TRPA1, as did eucalyptol (460 ppm), another TRPM8 agonist. Menthol's effects were reversed by a TRPM8 antagonist, AMTB. Menthol's effects were not specific to acrolein, as menthol also attenuated irritation responses to acetic acid, and cyclohexanone, an agonist of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Menthol was efficiently absorbed in the respiratory tract, reaching local concentrations sufficient for activation of sensory TRP channels. These experiments demonstrate that menthol and eucalyptol, through activation of TRPM8, act as potent counterirritants against a broad spectrum of smoke constituents. Through suppression of respiratory irritation, menthol may facilitate smoke inhalation and promote nicotine addiction and smoking-related morbidities. PMID:21903934

  17. Effects of venue-specific state clean indoor air laws on smoking-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Marianne P; Carpenter, Christopher S; Zavodny, Madeline

    2010-12-01

    A large literature has documented relationships between state clean indoor air laws (SCIALs) and smoking-related outcomes in the United States. These laws vary within states over time and across venues such as schools, government buildings, and bars. Few studies, however, have evaluated whether the effects of SCIALs are plausibly concentrated among workers who should have been directly affected because they worked at locations covered by the venue-specific restrictions. We fill this gap in the literature using data on private sector workers, government employees, school workers, eating and drinking place workers, and bartenders from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Our quasi-experimental models indicate robust effects of SCIALs restricting smoking in bars: these laws significantly increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions as reported by bartenders and reduced the fraction of bartenders who smoke. We do not, however, find that SCIALs in private workplaces, government workplaces, schools, or restaurants increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions among groups of workers working in venues covered by these laws. This suggests that the smoking reductions associated with SCIALs in previous research are unlikely to have been directly caused by effects of workplace smoking restrictions on workers.

  18. Effects of venue-specific state clean indoor air laws on smoking-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Marianne P; Carpenter, Christopher S; Zavodny, Madeline

    2010-12-01

    A large literature has documented relationships between state clean indoor air laws (SCIALs) and smoking-related outcomes in the United States. These laws vary within states over time and across venues such as schools, government buildings, and bars. Few studies, however, have evaluated whether the effects of SCIALs are plausibly concentrated among workers who should have been directly affected because they worked at locations covered by the venue-specific restrictions. We fill this gap in the literature using data on private sector workers, government employees, school workers, eating and drinking place workers, and bartenders from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Our quasi-experimental models indicate robust effects of SCIALs restricting smoking in bars: these laws significantly increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions as reported by bartenders and reduced the fraction of bartenders who smoke. We do not, however, find that SCIALs in private workplaces, government workplaces, schools, or restaurants increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions among groups of workers working in venues covered by these laws. This suggests that the smoking reductions associated with SCIALs in previous research are unlikely to have been directly caused by effects of workplace smoking restrictions on workers. PMID:19998352

  19. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A.; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (n=79) 18–26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On two subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (p’s > .05). Physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms (β=−5.23, CI= −6.93, −3.52; p<0.001), negative mood (β=−2.92, CI= −4.13, −1.72; p<0.001), and urge to smoke (β=−7.13, CI= −9.39, −4.86; p<0.001). Also, physical activity compared to passive sitting predicted increased positive affect (β=3.08, CI= 1.87, 4.28; p<0.001) and pleasurable feelings (β=1.07, CI= 0.58, 1.55; p<0.001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=211.76, CI= 32.54, 390.98; p=0.02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings (β=0.22, CI= 0.01 – 0.43, p=0.045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad-libitum smoking period (β=0.04, CI= 0.01, 0.08; p=0.02), and reduced time to first cigarette (β=−163.00, CI = −323.50, −2.49; p=0.047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produces effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative. PMID:26348158

  20. Reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity and the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms among young adults.

    PubMed

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Strasser, Andrew A; Ashare, Rebecca; Wileyto, E Paul

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether individual differences in the reinforcing value of smoking relative to physical activity (RRVS) moderated the effects of physical activity on smoking abstinence symptoms in young adult smokers. The repeated-measures within-subjects design included daily smokers (N = 79) 18-26 years old. RRVS was measured with a validated behavioral choice task. On 2 subsequent visits, participants completed self-report measures of craving, withdrawal, mood, and affective valence before and after they engaged in passive sitting or a bout of physical activity. RRVS did not moderate any effects of physical activity (ps > .05). Physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted decreased withdrawal symptoms, β = -5.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-6.93, -3.52] (p < .001), negative mood, β = -2.92, 95% CI [-4.13, -1.72] (p < .001), and urge to smoke. β = -7.13, 95% CI [-9.39, -4.86] (p < .001). Also, physical activity compared with passive sitting predicted increased positive affect, β = 3.08, 95% CI [1.87, 4.28] (p < .001) and pleasurable feelings, β = 1.07, 95% CI [0.58, 1.55] (p < .001), and greater time to first cigarette during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 211.76, 95% CI [32.54, 390.98] (p = .02). RRVS predicted higher levels of pleasurable feelings, β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.43] (p = .045), increased odds of smoking versus remaining abstinent during the ad libitum smoking period, β = 0.04, 95% CI [0.01, 0.08] (p = .02), and reduced time to first cigarette, β = -163.00, 95% CI [-323.50, -2.49] (p = .047). Regardless of the RRVS, physical activity produced effects that may aid smoking cessation in young adult smokers. However, young adult smokers who have a higher RRVS will be less likely to choose to engage physical activity, especially when smoking is an alternative.

  1. Estimating the Impact of Raising Prices and Eliminating Discounts on Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy L; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Tynan, Michael A; Pechacek, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The average retail price per pack of cigarettes is less than $6, which is substantially lower than the $10 per-pack target established in 2014 by the Surgeon General to reduce the smoking rate. We estimated the impact of three cigarette pricing scenarios on smoking prevalence among teens aged 12-17 years, young adults aged 18-25 years, and adults aged ≥26 years, by state: (1) $0.94 federal tax increase on cigarettes, as proposed in the fiscal year 2017 President's budget; (2) $10 per-pack retail price, allowing discounts; and (3) $10 per-pack retail price, eliminating discounts. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to generate point estimates of reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence by state. We found that each price scenario would substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence. A $10 per-pack retail price eliminating discounts could result in 637,270 fewer smokers aged 12-17 years; 4,186,954 fewer smokers aged 18-25 years; and 7,722,460 fewer smokers aged ≥26 years. Raising cigarette prices and eliminating discounts could substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence as well as smoking-related death and disease. PMID:27453597

  2. Centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser on a plastic lab-on-a-disk for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays.

    PubMed

    La, Moonwoo; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a multiple sample dispenser for precisely metered fixed volumes was successfully designed, fabricated, and fully characterized on a plastic centrifugal lab-on-a-disk (LOD) for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays. The dispenser, namely, a centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser (C-MUFID) was designed with microfluidic structures based on the theoretical modeling about a centrifugal circumferential filling flow. The designed LODs were fabricated with a polystyrene substrate through micromachining and they were thermally bonded with a flat substrate. Furthermore, six parallel metering and dispensing assays were conducted at the same fixed-volume (1.27 μl) with a relative variation of ±0.02 μl. Moreover, the samples were metered and dispensed at different sub-volumes. To visualize the metering and dispensing performances, the C-MUFID was integrated with a serpentine micromixer during parallel centrifugal mixing tests. Parallel biochemical single-end-point assays were successfully conducted on the developed LOD using a standard serum with albumin, glucose, and total protein reagents. The developed LOD could be widely applied to various biochemical single-end-point assays which require different volume ratios of the sample and reagent by controlling the design of the C-MUFID. The proposed LOD is feasible for point-of-care diagnostics because of its mass-producible structures, reliable metering/dispensing performance, and parallel biochemical single-end-point assays, which can identify numerous biochemical.

  3. Centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser on a plastic lab-on-a-disk for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays

    PubMed Central

    La, Moonwoo; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a multiple sample dispenser for precisely metered fixed volumes was successfully designed, fabricated, and fully characterized on a plastic centrifugal lab-on-a-disk (LOD) for parallel biochemical single-end-point assays. The dispenser, namely, a centrifugal multiplexing fixed-volume dispenser (C-MUFID) was designed with microfluidic structures based on the theoretical modeling about a centrifugal circumferential filling flow. The designed LODs were fabricated with a polystyrene substrate through micromachining and they were thermally bonded with a flat substrate. Furthermore, six parallel metering and dispensing assays were conducted at the same fixed-volume (1.27 μl) with a relative variation of ±0.02 μl. Moreover, the samples were metered and dispensed at different sub-volumes. To visualize the metering and dispensing performances, the C-MUFID was integrated with a serpentine micromixer during parallel centrifugal mixing tests. Parallel biochemical single-end-point assays were successfully conducted on the developed LOD using a standard serum with albumin, glucose, and total protein reagents. The developed LOD could be widely applied to various biochemical single-end-point assays which require different volume ratios of the sample and reagent by controlling the design of the C-MUFID. The proposed LOD is feasible for point-of-care diagnostics because of its mass-producible structures, reliable metering/dispensing performance, and parallel biochemical single-end-point assays, which can identify numerous biochemical. PMID:25610516

  4. [Promissing role of probiotics in prevention of smoking-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2008-01-01

    Humans are highly adapted to consuming probiotics. Trehalose ("mushroom" sugar) is probably an important reserve compound and stress-responsible metabolite (increases bile and gastric acid resistance) of probiotic bacteria's and trehalase activity, in contrast to lactase activity, is preserved in all human populations, even those not consuming mushrooms. Among traditional Melanesian horticulturists, of whom 4/5 are daily smokers, the diet is rich in pre- and probiotics and there is absence of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Indoor air pollution is an important cancer risk factor. Over thousands of years, the controlled use of fire for preparing meals has resulted in exposure to smoke pollution (biomass fuels produce up to 100 times more respirable particles compared to gas ovens). Simultaneously, up until the 20th century, the only commonly available and inexpensive way of preserving food was fermentation and drying. Probiotics may protect the detoxification function of the kidney and liver. Furthermore, it can be speculated that probiotics may help in adaptation to smoke pollution generated during cooking, heating but also tobacco smoking. Smoking is the most important lifestyle risk factor for bladder cancer and the consumption of probiotic foods reduces the risk of this cancer in humans. Probiotics may restore natural killer cell activity which is lowered in smokers. In one study it was observed that a diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum could be also useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in smokers. There is no sufficient data from clinical trials to recommend the routine use of probiotics in prevention of smoking-related diseases. More research is needed to investigate the role of probiotics in this area. PMID:19189583

  5. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  6. μ suppression as an indicator of activation of the perceptual-motor system by smoking-related cues in smokers.

    PubMed

    Dickter, Cheryl L; Kieffaber, Paul D; Kittel, Julie A; Forestell, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether activation of the mirror neuron system, as measured by mu rhythm desynchronization, varied as a function of image content in smokers compared with nonsmokers. EEG activity was recorded while participants passively viewed images depicting smoking-related and nonsmoking-related stimuli. In half of the images, cues were depicted alone (inactive), while for the remaining images, cues were depicted with humans interacting with them (active). For the nonsmoking stimuli, smokers and nonsmokers showed greater mu suppression to the active cues compared to the inactive cues. However, for the smoking-related stimuli, smokers showed greater perception-action coupling for the active cues as reflected in their enhanced mu suppression, compared to nonsmokers. The results of the current study support the involvement of the perceptual-motor system in the activation of motivated drug use behaviors.

  7. High-resolution Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cigarette Demand to Inform Tax Policy

    PubMed Central

    MacKillop, James; Few, Lauren R.; Murphy, James G.; Wier, Lauren M.; Acker, John; Murphy, Cara; Stojek, Monika; Carrigan, Maureen; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Aims Novel methods in behavioral economics permit the systematic assessment of the relationship between cigarette consumption and price. Toward informing tax policy, the goals of this study were to conduct a high-resolution analysis of cigarette demand in a large sample of adult smokers and to use the data to estimate the effects of tax increases in ten U.S. States. Design In-person descriptive survey assessment. Setting Academic departments at three universities. Participants Adult daily smokers (i.e., 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education); N = 1056. Measurements Estimated cigarette demand, demographics, expired carbon monoxide. Findings The cigarette demand curve exhibited highly variable levels of price sensitivity, especially in the form of ‘left-digit effects’ (i.e., very high price sensitivity as pack prices transitioned from one whole number to the next; e.g., $5.80-$6/pack). A $1 tax increase in the ten states was projected to reduce the economic burden of smoking by an average of $531M (range: $93.6M-$976.5M) and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162% (range: 114%- 247%). Conclusions Tobacco price sensitivity is nonlinear across the demand curve and in particular for pack-level left-digit price transitions. Tax increases in U.S. states with similar price and tax rates to the sample are projected to result in substantial decreases in smoking-related costs and substantial increases in tax revenues. PMID:22845784

  8. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers’ understanding of smoking-related risks—a cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers’ level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  9. Pictorial health warning label content and smokers' understanding of smoking-related risks-a cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Swayampakala, Kamala; Thrasher, James F; Hammond, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Krugman, Dean; Brown, Abraham; Borland, Ron; Hardin, James

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess smokers' level of agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents relative to inclusion of these topics on health warning labels (HWLs). 1000 adult smokers were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 from online consumer panels of adult smokers from each of the three countries: Australia (AU), Canada (CA) and Mexico (MX). Generalized estimating equation models were estimated to compare agreement with smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. For disease outcomes described on HWLs across all three countries, there were few statistical differences in agreement with health outcomes (e.g. emphysema and heart attack). By contrast, increases in agreement where the HWLs were revised or introduced on HWLs for the first time (e.g. blindness in AU and CA, bladder cancer in CA). Similarly, samples from countries that have specific health content or toxic constituents on HWLs showed higher agreement for that particular disease or toxin than countries without (e.g. higher agreement for gangrene and blindness in AU, higher agreement for bladder cancer and all toxic constituents except nitrosamines and radioactive polonium in CA). Pictorial HWL content is associated with greater awareness of smoking-related risks and toxic tobacco constituents. PMID:24848554

  10. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p < 0.001). However, African American/Black ever users were more likely to report plans to continue using e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01). African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites (p = 0.03) and Hispanics (p = 0.48). White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics (p = 0.02). In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities. PMID:27754449

  11. Socioeconomic Differences in the Effectiveness of the Removal of the “Light” Descriptor on Cigarette Packs: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Thailand Survey

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Yong, Hua-Hie; Holumyong, Charamporn

    2011-01-01

    Many smokers incorrectly believe that “light” cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. To address this problem, many countries have banned “light” or “mild” brand descriptors on cigarette packs. Our objective was to assess whether beliefs about “light” cigarettes changed following the 2007 removal of these brand descriptors in Thailand and, if a change occurred, the extent to which it differed by socioeconomic status. Data were from waves 2 (2006), 3 (2008), and 4 (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Thailand Survey of adult smokers in Thailand. The results showed that, following the introduction of the ban, there was an overall decline in the two beliefs that “light” cigarettes are less harmful and smoother than regular cigarettes. The decline in the “less harmful” belief was considerably steeper in lower income and education groups. However, there was no evidence that the rate of decline in the “smoother” belief varied by income or education. Removing the “light” brand descriptor from cigarette packs should thus be viewed not only as a means to address the problem of smokers’ incorrect beliefs about “light” cigarettes, but also as a factor that can potentially reduce socioeconomic disparities in smoking-related misconceptions. PMID:21776224

  12. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:26729142

  13. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    PubMed

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  14. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  15. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  16. Changes in smoking-related norms in bars resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive observations and interviews with bar staff and patrons, health officials, and law enforcement personnel in three California counties. Smoking outside became a normal pause in the social environment and created a new type of bar socializing for outside smokers. Although some bar owners and staff reported initially resenting the responsibility to uphold the law, once norms regarding cigarettes and smoking began changing, bar workers experienced less conflict in upholding the law. Non-smoking behavior within bars also became the normative behavior for bar patrons. California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act has both reflected and encouraged normative beliefs and behaviors related to smoking in bars. The findings indicate that such shifts are possible even in contexts where smoking behaviors and attitudes supporting smoking were deeply entrenched. Recommendations include attending to the synergistic effect of education and policy in effective tobacco control programs.

  17. Rationale, application and clinical qualification for NT-proBNP as a surrogate end point in pivotal clinical trials in patients with AL amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Merlini, G; Lousada, I; Ando, Y; Dispenzieri, A; Gertz, M A; Grogan, M; Maurer, M S; Sanchorawala, V; Wechalekar, A; Palladini, G; Comenzo, R L

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid light-chain (LC) amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is a rare and fatal disease for which there are no approved therapies. In patients with AL amyloidosis, LC aggregates progressively accumulate in organs, resulting in organ failure that is particularly lethal when the heart is involved. A significant obstacle in the development of treatments for patients with AL amyloidosis, as well as for those with any disease that is rare, severe and heterogeneous, has been satisfying traditional clinical trial end points (for example, overall survival or progression-free survival). It is for this reason that many organizations, including the United States Food and Drug Administration through its Safety and Innovation Act Accelerated Approval pathway, have recognized the need for biomarkers as surrogate end points. The international AL amyloidosis expert community is in agreement that the N-terminal fragment of the pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is analytically validated and clinically qualified as a biomarker for use as a surrogate end point for survival in patients with AL amyloidosis. Underlying this consensus is the demonstration that NT-proBNP is an indicator of cardiac response in all interventional studies in which it has been assessed, despite differences in patient population, treatment type and treatment schedule. Furthermore, NT-proBNP expression is directly modulated by amyloidogenic LC-elicited signal transduction pathways in cardiomyocytes. The use of NT-proBNP will greatly facilitate the development of targeted therapies for AL amyloidosis. Here, we review the data supporting the use of NT-proBNP, a biomarker that is analytically validated, clinically qualified, directly modulated by LC and universally accepted by AL amyloidosis specialists, as a surrogate end point for survival. PMID:27416985

  18. Sexual behavior in Japanese quail as a test end point for endocrine disruption: effects of in ovo exposure to ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, K; Berg, C; Brandt, I; Brunström, B

    1999-01-01

    Chemicals having a capacity to disturb the endocrine system have attracted considerable interest during recent years. There is a shortage of well-characterized in vivo tests with which to study such disturbances in different classes of vertebrates. In the present study, test end points related to reproduction in the Japanese quail were used to examine the estrogenic activity of chemicals. The synthetic estrogens ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), used as model compounds, were injected into the yolk of embryonated eggs. After the birds had been raised to sexual maturity, we examined sexual behavior, plasma testosterone concentrations, and testis morphology in adult males. The lowest doses resulting in a significantly depressed male sexual behavior were 6 ng/g egg for EE(2) and 19 ng/g egg for DES. Testis weight asymmetry was increased at 6 ng EE(2)/g egg, but DES had no effect at any treatment level. The area of the androgen-dependent cloacal gland was significantly reduced at 57 ng DES/g egg. No effects on plasma testosterone concentration or body weight following exposure to EE(2) or DES were observed at any dose level. Depressed male sexual behavior was the most sensitive of the end points studied, and we suggest that this ecologically relevant end point be included in avian in vivo testing for neuroendocrine disruptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10544152

  19. Application of a develop end point detector as a timely and cost-effective alternative to using an SEM for CD measurement in production photolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikov, Dimitri L.; Goldman, Mark; Hester, Dee; Kukas, Alan W.; Takemoto, Clifford H.; Goetz, Ken; Zhang, Hua; Karklin, Linard

    1996-05-01

    This paper focuses on the use of a track-mounted, in-situ develop end point (EP) to reduce CD measurement via scanning electron microscope (SEM) in the production environment. Commonly, a few wafers are selected from a lot and examined to ensure conformance with desired CDs. Typically, the wafer's image linewidth is measured. If required, a corresponding adjustment is made to the stepper's exposure energy in order to obtain the targeted CD. While this methodology works, it does have its shortcomings such as: incomplete determination of wafer-to-wafer variations, the impossibility of detecting random 'problem' wafers, and the additional backlog CD measurement adds to the SEM station -- which generally results in production bottlenecks. The use of a track-mounted, in-situ develop end point detector facilitates rapid and accurate measurement of photoresist characteristics. Due to the direct correlation between develop end point time and CDs, a detector can be used to signal out-of- spec conditions. The nature of the data collected and analyzed by the detector allows exposure and other process variations to be revealed. In addition to providing this 'watchdog' function, some detectors can be programmed to automatically correct out-of-spec CDs by varying the development cycle time. Use of an in-situ detector, as described, will have a direct bearing on reducing the use of high-cost SEMs in the production environment as well as minimizing the number of scrapped wafers.

  20. Could charcoal filtration of cigarette smoke reduce smoking-induced disease? A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Christopher R E; Gaworski, Charles L

    2008-04-01

    A review of the published work with charcoal-filtered cigarettes indicates that there are reductions in the concentrations for many gas-vapor phase constituents found in mainstream smoke. However, charcoal filters provided no apparent capacity for reduction of smoke particulate phase components. The reductions in gas-vapor phase smoke chemistry analytes generally correspond with findings of reduced toxicological activity, principally related to a reduction in the cytotoxic action of the volatile smoke constituents. Results of a short-term clinical study show small reductions in the biomarkers of the gas-vapor phase smoke constituents in subjects smoking charcoal-filtered cigarettes, compared to subjects smoking non-charcoal filtered cigarettes. The very limited epidemiology data (a single study) fail to demonstrate a conclusive beneficial effect of charcoal-filtered cigarette products compared to non-charcoal filtered cigarette products. Review of the scientific literature is hindered due to the lack of documentation regarding the activity of the charcoal used in the filter, and the inconsistency in product designs used between the various different disciplines (chemistry, pre-clinical, clinical and epidemiology) that have conducted studies with charcoal filtered cigarettes. There do not appear to be any published studies using a combination of data from the different disciplines based on a consistently designed charcoal cigarette filter. Although the literature presently available would suggest that smoke filtration provided by current charcoal filter techniques alone may not be substantial enough to reduce smoking-related disease, the data are limited. Therefore, for the reduction of smoking-induced disease, it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion regarding the potential health benefits of using charcoal as a smoke filtration technology. PMID:18289753

  1. Cigarette smoking induces heat shock protein 70 kDa expression and apoptosis in rat brain: Modulation by bacoside A.

    PubMed

    Anbarasi, K; Kathirvel, G; Vani, G; Jayaraman, G; Shyamala Devi, C S

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with the development of several diseases and antioxidants play a major role in the prevention of smoking-related diseases. Apoptosis is suggested as a possible contributing factor in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced toxicity. Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the influence of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on apoptosis and the modulatory effect of bacoside A (triterpenoid saponin isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera) on smoking-induced apoptosis in rat brain. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with bacoside A (10 mg/kg b.w./day, orally) for a period of 12 weeks. Expression of brain hsp70 was analyzed by Western blotting. Apoptosis was identified by DNA fragmentation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxy uridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that exposure to cigarette smoke induced hsp70 expression and apoptosis as characterized by DNA laddering, increased TUNEL-positive cells and ultrastructural apoptotic features in the brain. Administration of bacoside A prevented expression of hsp70 and neuronal apoptosis during cigarette smoking. We speculate that apoptosis may be responsible for the smoking-induced brain damage and bacoside A can protect the brain from the toxic effects of cigarette smoking.

  2. Illegal sales of cigarettes to minors--Mexico City, Mexico, 1997.

    PubMed

    1997-05-23

    Because of the increasing prevalence of tobacco use among youth in the United States and Mexico, in 1996 the United States-Mexico Binational Commission (US-MBC) Health Working Group identified prevention of tobacco use, with an emphasis on adolescents, as one of its four priority health concerns. From 1970 to 1990, annual death rates for the leading causes of smoking-related deaths in Mexico nearly tripled and, in 1992, an estimated 10,253 persons in Mexico died as a result of smoking-related diseases, 9% of all deaths that year. In addition, from 1988 to 1993, the prevalence of current smoking among minors aged 12-17 years increased from 6.6% to 9.6%, respectively (in Mexico City, the 1993 prevalence was 12.8%), and in 1993, 72% of adult smokers in Mexico reported becoming regular smokers before age 18 years. Although since 1984 the General Health Law of Mexico has prohibited the sale of tobacco products to minors aged < 18 years, compliance with this law has not been assessed. As part of the Mexican national program to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among children and adolescents and in support of the goals of the US-MBC, during 1997 the General Directorate of Epidemiology (GDE) in the Secretariat of Health (SOH) conducted a survey of tobacco outlets in Mexico City to assess the percentage of retailers willing to sell cigarettes to minors. This report summarizes the results of the survey, which indicate that virtually no surveyed retailers asked minors attempting to purchase cigarettes about their age and that most retailers sold cigarettes to minors.

  3. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  4. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  5. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  6. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  7. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  8. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  9. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  10. Cigarette smoking contagion.

    PubMed

    Einstein, S; Epstein, A

    1980-01-01

    A ministudy was carried out with 50 male and female adults who are "regular" cigarette smokers to investigate the potential role(s) which contagion plays in smoking. Notwithstanding their reports that they were introduced to smoking by others 40% of the time, only 12% reported-remembered initiating someone else to smoking. The report of self-activated cigarette use is congruent with with most views about smoking, but not regarding drug use. As long as drug use intervention utilizes contagion as a concept, deviance as a classification and varieties of isolation as control techniques will be associated with drugs, users, and drug use. By definition, social substances have no source of contagion by others. The decision to use or abstain is viewed as being personal notwithstanding the reality that is related among other factors to a variety of market economies. PMID:7450935

  11. The impact of nicotine lozenges and stimulus expectancies on cigarette craving.

    PubMed

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Good, Kimberley P; Barrett, Sean P

    2014-08-01

    Reduced craving associated with nicotine replacement therapy use is frequently attributed to the effects of nicotine pharmacology, however non-pharmacological factors may also play a role. This study examined the impact of nicotine pharmacology and non-pharmacological components of an acute nicotine lozenge (4 mg) on cigarette craving, mood and heart rate in 70 daily smokers (36 male). Smoking-related stimuli were used to assess cue-induced craving. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a balanced placebo design where half the participants were provided deceptive information regarding the nicotine content of a lozenge. Subjective ratings of craving and mood were collected and heart rate was assessed before and after neutral and smoking cues. Nicotine expectancy reduced withdrawal-related craving (p = 0.006) regardless of actual nicotine administration while combined nicotine expectancy and administration reduced intentions to smoke (p = 0.046) relative to each of the other conditions. Exposure to smoking-related stimuli increased cigarette craving (p ≤ 0.001) and negative affect (p ≤ 0.001) regardless of expectancy or pharmacology. Following the smoking cue, women reported a greater increase in withdrawal-related craving than men (p = 0.027). Findings suggest that both pharmacological and non-pharmacological components of nicotine lozenge administration contribute to its acute effects on craving, yet neither appears effective in preventing craving triggered by exposure to environmental smoking stimuli.

  12. Smokers' recall of Australian graphic cigarette packet warnings & awareness of associated health effects, 2005-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Australia introduced graphic cigarette packet warnings. The new warnings include one of 14 pictures, many depicting tobacco-related pathology. The warnings were introduced in two sets; Set A in March and Set B from November. This study explores their impact on smokers' beliefs about smoking related illnesses. This study also examines the varying impact of different warnings, to see whether warnings with visceral images have greater impact on smokers' beliefs than other images. Methods Representative samples of South Australian smokers were interviewed in four independent cross-sectional omnibus surveys; in 2005 (n = 504), 2006 (n = 525), 2007 (n = 414) and 2008 (n = 464). Results Unprompted recall of new graphic cigarette warnings was high in the months following their introduction, demonstrating that smokers' had been exposed to them. Smokers also demonstrated an increase in awareness about smoking-related diseases specific to the warning messages. Warnings that conveyed new information and had emotive images demonstrated greater impact on recall and smokers' beliefs than more familiar information and less emotive images. Conclusions Overall graphic pack warnings have had the intended impact on smokers. Some have greater impact than others. The implications for policy makers in countries introducing similar warnings are that fresh messaging and visceral images have the greatest impact. PMID:21496314

  13. The impact of nicotine lozenges and stimulus expectancies on cigarette craving.

    PubMed

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Good, Kimberley P; Barrett, Sean P

    2014-08-01

    Reduced craving associated with nicotine replacement therapy use is frequently attributed to the effects of nicotine pharmacology, however non-pharmacological factors may also play a role. This study examined the impact of nicotine pharmacology and non-pharmacological components of an acute nicotine lozenge (4 mg) on cigarette craving, mood and heart rate in 70 daily smokers (36 male). Smoking-related stimuli were used to assess cue-induced craving. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a balanced placebo design where half the participants were provided deceptive information regarding the nicotine content of a lozenge. Subjective ratings of craving and mood were collected and heart rate was assessed before and after neutral and smoking cues. Nicotine expectancy reduced withdrawal-related craving (p = 0.006) regardless of actual nicotine administration while combined nicotine expectancy and administration reduced intentions to smoke (p = 0.046) relative to each of the other conditions. Exposure to smoking-related stimuli increased cigarette craving (p ≤ 0.001) and negative affect (p ≤ 0.001) regardless of expectancy or pharmacology. Following the smoking cue, women reported a greater increase in withdrawal-related craving than men (p = 0.027). Findings suggest that both pharmacological and non-pharmacological components of nicotine lozenge administration contribute to its acute effects on craving, yet neither appears effective in preventing craving triggered by exposure to environmental smoking stimuli. PMID:24476987

  14. Irritants in cigarette smoke plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, H.E.; Yeager, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Concentrations of the irritants formaldehyde and acrolein in side stream cigarette smoke plumes are up to three orders of magnitude above occupational limits, readily accounting for eye and nasal irritation. ''Low-tar'' cigarettes appear at least as irritating as other cigarettes. More than half the irritant is associated with the particulate phase of the smoke, permitting deposition throughout the entire respiratory tract and raising the issue of whether formaldehyde in smoke is associated with bronchial cancer.

  15. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  16. Use of the zebrafish larvae as a model to study cigarette smoke condensate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lee D; Soo, Evelyn C; Achenbach, John C; Morash, Michael G; Soanes, Kelly H

    2014-01-01

    The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted approach we have developed an in vivo model with which to compare the toxicity profiles of smoke condensates from cigarettes with different design features. This model system may provide insights into the development of smoking related disease and could provide a cost-effective, high-throughput platform for the future evaluation of tobacco products. PMID:25526262

  17. Use of the Zebrafish Larvae as a Model to Study Cigarette Smoke Condensate Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lee D.; Soo, Evelyn C.; Achenbach, John C.; Morash, Michael G.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2014-01-01

    The smoking of tobacco continues to be the leading cause of premature death worldwide and is linked to the development of a number of serious illnesses including heart disease, respiratory diseases, stroke and cancer. Currently, cell line based toxicity assays are typically used to gain information on the general toxicity of cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, they provide little information regarding the complex disease-related changes that have been linked to smoking. The ethical concerns and high cost associated with mammalian studies have limited their widespread use for in vivo toxicological studies of tobacco. The zebrafish has emerged as a low-cost, high-throughput, in vivo model in the study of toxicology. In this study, smoke condensates from 2 reference cigarettes and 6 Canadian brands of cigarettes with different design features were assessed for acute, developmental, cardiac, and behavioural toxicity (neurotoxicity) in zebrafish larvae. By making use of this multifaceted approach we have developed an in vivo model with which to compare the toxicity profiles of smoke condensates from cigarettes with different design features. This model system may provide insights into the development of smoking related disease and could provide a cost-effective, high-throughput platform for the future evaluation of tobacco products. PMID:25526262

  18. Electronic cigarettes: Review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers, and potential for harm and benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Etter, Jean-François; Benowitz, Neal; Eissenberg, Thomas; McRobbie, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Aims We reviewed available research on the use, content and safety of electronic cigarettes (EC) and on their effects on users, to assess their potential for harm or benefit and to extract evidence that can guide future policy. Methods Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references to February 2014. Results EC aerosol can contain some of the toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but at levels which are much lower. Long-term health effects of EC use are unknown but compared with cigarettes, EC are likely to be much less, if at all, harmful to users or bystanders. EC are increasingly popular among smokers, but to date there is no evidence of regular use by never-smokers or by non-smoking children. EC enable some users to reduce or quit smoking. Conclusions Allowing EC to compete with cigarettes in the marketplace might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating EC as strictly as cigarettes, or even more strictly as some regulators propose, is not warranted on current evidence. Health professionals may consider advising smokers unable or unwilling to quit through other routes to switch to EC as a safer alternative to smoking and a possible pathway to complete cessation of nicotine use. PMID:25078252

  19. Estimating the impact of different cigarette package warning label policies: the auction method.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Rousu, Matthew C; Anaya-Ocampo, Rafael; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2007-12-01

    The study estimated the reduction in demand associated with implementing cigarette package warning labels that contain imagery illustrating the consequences of smoking. The experimental auction method was used, wherein adult smokers in Mexico (n=89) placed separate bids on two packs of cigarettes: one with a text-only warning label and the other with a warning label that included text and a graphic image. Differences in the values attributed to each pack were assessed using t-tests and multivariate regression. The pack with the graphic image had a mean attributed value which was 17% lower ($3.21 pesos) than the pack with the text-only warning, and this difference remained statistically significant within subgroups defined by sociodemographics, amount of smoking, number of quit attempts, and levels of perceived smoking risks. In the multivariate model, the difference in attributed values was greater among females than males, but no such differences were found for other sociodemographic or smoking-related variables. The consistently lower value that smokers attributed to cigarette packages with the graphic warning label indicates that these labels are likely to reduce cigarette demand. PMID:17630221

  20. Cigarette packaging and health warnings: the impact of plain packaging and message framing on young smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Niaura, Raymond S.; Evans, W. Douglas; Hammond, David; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of pictorial cigarette warning labels, warning label message framing, and plain cigarette packaging on young adult smokers’ motivation to quit. Methods Smokers ages 18–30 (n=740) from a consumer research panel were randomized to one of four experimental conditions where they viewed online images of 4 cigarette packs with warnings about lung disease, cancer, stroke/heart disease, and death, respectively. Packs differed across conditions by warning message framing (gain versus loss) and packaging (branded versus plain). Measures captured demographics, smoking behavior, covariates, and motivation to quit in response to cigarette packs. Results Pictorial warnings about lung disease and cancer generated the strongest motivation to quit across conditions. Adjusting for pre-test motivation and covariates, a message framing by packaging interaction revealed gain-framed warnings on plain packs generated greater motivation to quit for lung disease, cancer, and mortality warnings (p < 0.05), compared with loss-framed warnings on plain packs. Conclusions Warnings combining pictorial depictions of smoking-related health risks with text-based messages about how quitting reduces risks may achieve better outcomes among young adults, especially in countries considering or implementing plain packaging regulations. PMID:24420310

  1. Total Acid Value Titration of Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Determination of Carboxylic Acids and Phenolics with Multiple End-Point Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, E.; Alleman, T. L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Total acid value titration has long been used to estimate corrosive potential of petroleum crude oil and fuel oil products. The method commonly used for this measurement, ASTM D664, utilizes KOH in isopropanol as the titrant with potentiometric end point determination by pH sensing electrode and Ag/AgCl reference electrode with LiCl electrolyte. A natural application of the D664 method is titration of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil, which is a candidate for refinery upgrading to produce drop in fuels. Determining the total acid value of pyrolysis derived bio-oil has proven challenging and not necessarily amenable to the methodology employed for petroleum products due to the different nature of acids present. We presented an acid value titration for bio-oil products in our previous publication which also utilizes potentiometry using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in place of KOH as the titrant and tetraethylammonium bromide in place of LiCl as the reference electrolyte to improve the detection of these types of acids. This method was shown to detect numerous end points in samples of bio-oil that were not detected by D664. These end points were attributed to carboxylic acids and phenolics based on the results of HPLC and GC-MS studies. Additional work has led to refinement of the method and it has been established that both carboxylic acids and phenolics can be determined accurately. Use of pH buffer calibration to determine half-neutralization potentials of acids in conjunction with the analysis of model compounds has allowed us to conclude that this titration method is suitable for the determination of total acid value of pyrolysis oil and can be used to differentiate and quantify weak acid species. The measurement of phenolics in bio-oil is subject to a relatively high limit of detection, which may limit the utility of titrimetric methodology for characterizing the acidic potential of pyrolysis oil and products.

  2. A quantitative epigenetic approach for the assessment of cigarette consumption

    PubMed Central

    Philibert, Robert; Hollenbeck, Nancy; Andersen, Eleanor; Osborn, Terry; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Despite the development of numerous preventive and treatment interventions, the rate of daily smoking in the United States is still approximately 22%. Effective psychosocial interventions and pharmacologic agents exist for the prevention and treatment of smoking. Unfortunately, both approaches are hindered by our inability to accurately quantify amount of cigarette consumption from the point of initial experimentation to the point of total dependency. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that smoking is associated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation. However, whether this advance in basic science can be employed as a reliable assay that is useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment has not been shown. In this communication, we determine the sensitivity and specificity of five of the most consistently replicated CpG loci with respect to smoking status using data from a publically available dataset. We show that methylation status at a CpG locus in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, cg05575921, is both sensitive and specific for smoking status in adults with a receiver operated curve characteristic area under the curve of 0.99. Given recent demonstrations that methylation at this locus reflects both intensity of smoking and the degree of smoking cessation, we conclude that a methylation-based diagnostic at this locus could have a prominent role in understanding the impact of new products, such as e-cigarettes on initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents, while improving the prevention and treatment of smoking, and smoking related disorders. PMID:26082730

  3. Do Liposomal Apoptotic Enhancers Increase Tumor Coagulation and End-Point Survival in Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Tumors in a Rat Tumor Model? 1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Elian, Mostafa; Hady, El-Shymma A.; Levchenko, Tatyana S.; Sawant, Rupa R.; Signoretti, Sabina; Collins, Michael; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Goldberg, S. Nahum

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize effects of combining radiofrequency (RF) ablation with proapoptotic intravenous liposome-encapsulated paclitaxel and doxorubicin on tumor destruction, apoptosis and heat-shock protein (HSP) production, intratumoral drug accumulation, and end-point survival. Materials and Methods: R3230 mammary adenocarcinomas (n = 177) were implanted in 174 rats in this animal care committee–approved study. Tumors received (a) no treatment, (b) RF ablation, (c) paclitaxel, (d) RF ablation followed by paclitaxel (RF ablation–paclitaxel), (e) paclitaxel before RF ablation (paclitaxel–RF ablation), (f) RF ablation followed by doxorubicin (RF ablation–doxorubicin), (g) paclitaxel followed by doxorubicin without RF ablation (paclitaxel-doxorubicin), or (h) paclitaxel before RF ablation, followed by doxorubicin (paclitaxel–RF ablation–doxorubicin). Tumor coagulation area and diameter were compared at 24–96 hours after treatment. Intratumoral paclitaxel uptake with and without RF ablation were compared. Immunohistochemical staining revealed cleaved caspase-3 and 70-kDa HSP (HSP70) expression. Tumors were randomized into eight treatment arms for Kaplan-Meier analysis of defined survival end-point (3.0-cm diameter). Results: Paclitaxel–RF ablation increased tumor coagulation over RF ablation or paclitaxel (mean, 14.0 mm ± 0.9 [standard deviation], 6.7 mm ± 0.6, 2.5 mm ± 0.6, respectively; P < .001). Paclitaxel–RF ablation–doxorubicin had similar tumor coagulation (P < .05), compared with paclitaxel–RF ablation, at 24 and 96 hours. Mean intratumoral paclitaxel accumulation for paclitaxel–RF ablation (6.76 μg/g ± 0.35) and RF ablation–paclitaxel (9.28 μg/g ± 0.87) increased over that for paclitaxel (0.63 μg/g ± 0.25, P < .001). Paclitaxel substantially increased apoptosis and decreased HSP70 expression at coagulation margin. Mean end-point survival for paclitaxel–RF ablation–doxorubicin (56.8 days ± 25.3) was greater, compared

  4. Statistical controversies in clinical research: an initial evaluation of a surrogate end point using a single randomized clinical trial and the Prentice criteria.

    PubMed

    Heller, G

    2015-10-01

    Surrogate end point research has grown in recent years with the increasing development and usage of biomarkers in clinical research. Surrogacy analysis is derived through randomized clinical trial data and it is carried out at the individual level and at the trial level. A common surrogate analysis at the individual level is the application of the Prentice criteria. An approach for the evaluation of the Prentice criteria is discussed, with a focus on its most difficult component, the determination of whether the treatment effect is captured by the surrogate. An interpretation of this criterion is illustrated using data from a randomized clinical trial in prostate cancer. PMID:26254442

  5. The relationship between young adult smokers' beliefs about nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Erika A.; Janssen, Eva; Kaufman, Annette R.; Peterson, Laurel M.; Muscanell, Nicole L.; Guadagno, Rosanna E.; Stock, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Risk beliefs and self-efficacy play important roles in explaining smoking-related outcomes and are important to target in tobacco control interventions. However, information is lacking about the underlying beliefs that drive these constructs. The present study investigated the interrelationships among young adult smokers' beliefs about the nature of nicotine addiction and smoking-related affect and cognitions (i.e., feelings of risk, worry about experiencing the harms of smoking, self-efficacy of quitting, and intentions to quit). Smokers (N=333) were recruited from two large universities. Results showed that quit intentions were associated with feelings of risk, but not with worry or self-efficacy. Furthermore, higher feelings of risk were associated with lower beliefs that addiction is an inevitable consequence of smoking and with lower beliefs that the harms of smoking are delayed. This suggests that it is important for health messages to counter the possible negative effects of messages that strongly emphasize the addictiveness of nicotine, possibly by emphasizing the importance of quitting earlier rather than later. The findings also add to the evidence base that feelings of risk are powerful predictors of behavioral intentions. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some circumstances, feelings of risk predict quit intentions beyond that predicted by worry and self-efficacy. Gaining additional understanding of the tobacco-related beliefs that can increase feelings of risk and incorporating those beliefs into educational campaigns may improve the quality of such campaigns and reduce tobacco use. PMID:25903051

  6. Misperceptions of "light" cigarettes abound: National survey data

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nick; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Devlin, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Background Many smokers believe that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers' use and beliefs concerning "light" and "mild" cigarettes ("lights"), including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. Methods The New Zealand (NZ) arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376) about use and beliefs relating to "light" cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking "lights" after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Results Many smokers of "lights" believed that smoking "lights" made it easier to quit smoking (25%), that "lights" are less harmful (42%), and that smokers of "lights" take in less tar (43%). Overall most "lights" smokers (60%) had at least one of these three beliefs, a proportion significantly higher than for smokers of "regular" cigarettes at 45% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.29 – 2.96). While "lights" smokers had significantly lower tobacco consumption and were more aware of smoking harms, they were no more likely to be intending to quit or have made a previous quit attempt. By ethnicity, both Maori and Pacific people were less likely to smoke "lights" than Europeans (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35 – 0.80 and aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.40 respectively). In contrast there was no significant difference by level of deprivation. Roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco smokers were less likely to smoke "light" forms of RYO tobacco while both older and women smokers were

  7. Inflammatory Transcriptome Profiling of Human Monocytes Exposed Acutely to Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Wright, William R.; Parzych, Katarzyna; Crawford, Damian; Mein, Charles; Mitchell, Jane A.; Paul-Clark, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is responsible for 5 million deaths worldwide each year, and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and lung diseases. Cigarette smoke contains a complex mixture of over 4000 chemicals containing 1015 free radicals. Studies show smoke is perceived by cells as an inflammatory and xenobiotic stimulus, which activates an immune response. The specific cellular mechanisms driving cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and disease are not fully understood, although the innate immune system is involved in the pathology of smoking related diseases. Methodology/Principle findings To address the impact of smoke as an inflammagen on the innate immune system, THP-1 cells and Human PBMCs were stimulated with 3 and 10% (v/v) cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 8 and 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted and the transcriptome analysed using Illumina BeadChip arrays. In THP-1 cells, 10% CSE resulted in 80 genes being upregulated and 37 downregulated by ≥1.5 fold after 8 hours. In PBMCs stimulated with 10% CSE for 8 hours, 199 genes were upregulated and 206 genes downregulated by ≥1.5 fold. After 24 hours, the number of genes activated and repressed by ≥1.5 fold had risen to 311 and 306 respectively. The major pathways that were altered are associated with cell survival, such as inducible antioxidants, protein chaperone and folding proteins, and the ubiquitin/proteosome pathway. Conclusions Our results suggest that cigarette smoke causes inflammation and has detrimental effects on the metabolism and function of innate immune cells. In addition, THP-1 cells provide a genetically stable alternative to primary cells for the study of the effects of cigarette smoke on human monocytes. PMID:22363418

  8. Protective effect of bacoside A on cigarette smoking-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Vani, Ganapathy; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the structure and function of mitochondria, which may account for the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases. Bacopa monniera Linn., used in traditional Indian medicine for various neurological disorders, was shown to possess mitrochondrial membrane-stabilizing properties in the rat brain during exposure to morphine. We investigated the protective effect of bacoside A, the active principle of Bacopa monniera, against mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain induced by cigarette smoke. Male Wistar albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and administered bacoside A for a period of 12 weeks. The mitochondrial damage in the brain was assessed by examining the levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, phospholipid, cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, and the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome C oxidase. The oxidative phosphorylation (rate of succinate oxidation, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio, and the levels of ATP) was evaluated for the assessment of mitochondrial functional capacity. We found significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, and C/P ratio, and decreased levels of phospholipids and mitochondrial enzymes in the rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Measurement of oxidative phosphorylation revealed a marked depletion in all the variables studied. Administration of bacoside A prevented the structural and functional impairment of mitochondria upon exposure to cigarette smoke. From the results, we suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure induces damage to the mitochondria and that bacoside A protects the brain from this damage by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial membrane.

  9. Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Michael E; Obuz, Ersel; Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Stroda, Sally

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8 °C and 71.1 °C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (P<0.0001) weight loss than W or SB aged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (P<0.01) L* values than D or SB aged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P<0.0001) as end-point temperature increased. Sensory panel evaluation also showed no effect (P>0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8 °C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1 °C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging.

  10. Use of cluster analysis and preference mapping to evaluate consumer acceptability of choice and select bovine M. longissimus lumborum steaks cooked to various end-point temperatures.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (P<0.05) steaks that were cooked to various end-point temperatures. Results revealed that consumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.

  11. Development and evaluation of NucliSens basic kit NASBA for diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infection with 'end-point' and 'real-time' detection.

    PubMed

    Hibbitts, Sam; Rahman, Amanna; John, Rhiannon; Westmoreland, Diana; Fox, Julie D

    2003-03-01

    New methods for the detection of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) were developed. These were based on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and utilised the NucliSens Basic Kit. Primers and probes were selected from the haemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN) gene of HPIV1, HPIV2 and HPIV3, and from the phosphoprotein (P) of HPIV4a and -4b. Synthetic RNA, titrated control virus stocks and respiratory specimens (n=44) were utilised to evaluate performance of the assays. Detection of NASBA products was by probe hybridisation and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) ('end-point' detection) or using molecular beacons ('real-time' detection). The assays using ECL detection proved to be both sensitive and specific. Typically, less than or equal to 100 RNA copies or one TCID(50) input was detectable with no cross-reaction between the specific HPIV assays and other respiratory viruses. Results for clinical samples were concordant with those obtained by 'conventional' procedures by classical viral diagnostic methods. 'Real-time' detection utilised probes specific for either HPIV1 or HPIV3 with similar performance characteristics to the assays with 'end-point' detection. The feasibility of multiplexing targets together was confirmed using a combined HPIV1 and HPIV3 assay with good results for ECL and molecular beacon detection on control material and clinical samples.

  12. Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Michael E; Obuz, Ersel; Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Stroda, Sally

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8 °C and 71.1 °C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (P<0.0001) weight loss than W or SB aged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (P<0.01) L* values than D or SB aged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P<0.0001) as end-point temperature increased. Sensory panel evaluation also showed no effect (P>0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8 °C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1 °C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging. PMID:23501255

  13. Electronic cigarettes in the media.

    PubMed

    Payne, J Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a "healthier alternative" to traditional cigarettes and their use as a "smoking cessation aid" are main themes presented through all types of media.

  14. Electronic cigarettes in the media

    PubMed Central

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a “healthier alternative” to traditional cigarettes and their use as a “smoking cessation aid” are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  15. Electronic cigarettes in the media.

    PubMed

    Payne, J Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a "healthier alternative" to traditional cigarettes and their use as a "smoking cessation aid" are main themes presented through all types of media. PMID:27365871

  16. Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of Youth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have become popular and are heavily promoted as a safer cigarette and an aid to quit smoking. Although they may have value in reducing cigarette use among smokers, they are of limited value in smoking cessation and pose many problems, particularly in children. Nicotine is highly addictive and affects virtually all cells in the body. It is particularly harmful to developing brains and other organs. The electronic nicotine delivery systems are largely uncontrolled and safety risks are manifold. Initiating nicotine use and increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does. PMID:25830075

  17. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Bullen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel vaporising devices that, similar to nicotine replacement treatments, deliver nicotine but in lower amounts and less swiftly than tobacco smoking. However, they enjoy far greater popularity than these medications due in part to their behaviour replacement characteristics. Evidence for their efficacy as cessation aids, based on several randomised trials of now obsolete e-cigarettes, suggests a modest effect equivalent to nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are almost certainly far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are as yet unknown. Dual use is common and almost as harmful as usual smoking unless it leads to quitting. Population effects, such as re-normalising smoking behaviour, are a concern. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about these products. If patients who smoke are unwilling to quit or cannot succeed using evidence-based approaches, e-cigarettes may be an option to be considered after discussing the limitations of current knowledge.

  18. DNA typing from cigarette butts.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Takayama, Tomohiro; Hirata, Keiji; Yamada, Sadao; Nagai, Atsushi; Nakamura, Isao; Bunai, Yasuo; Ohya, Isao

    2003-03-01

    We performed DNA typing for D1S80, HLADQA1, TH01 and PM using the butts of 100 cigarettes that were smoked by ten different individuals (ten cigarettes per individual). The results obtained from DNA typing for D1S80 agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 76 cigarette butt samples. Sixteen samples produced false results, showing the loss of the longer allelic hetero-band. When examined using agarose gel electrophoresis, high-molecular weight DNA was not observed in these samples. The same results were also observed for buccal swab samples and saliva stains obtained from the same individuals. In the remaining eight cigarette butt samples, PCR products were not detected. The results obtained from DNA typing for TH01, HLADQA1 and PM agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 90 samples. In the remaining ten samples of a specific kind of cigarette (Marlboro), the PCR products were not detected. The extracts from the ends of the Marlboro cigarettes were stained yellow. When the DNA extracted from Marlboro cigarette butts was treated with Microcon-100 (amicon) or SizeSep 400 Span Columns (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech), PCR products could be detected. When PCR amplification was performed after adding extracts from the ends of unsmoked Marlboro cigarettes to DNA extracted from bloodstains, PCR products could not be detected. The present data indicate that the degradation of high-molecular weight DNA and the inhibition of PCR by dyes of the cigarette end should be kept in mind when performing DNA typing using cigarette ends.

  19. Macrophage elastase suppresses white adipose tissue expansion with cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S; Houghton, A McGarry; Shapiro, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots.

  20. Macrophage Elastase Suppresses White Adipose Tissue Expansion with Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Takao; Kelly, Neil J.; Takahashi, Saeko; Leme, Adriana S.; McGarry Houghton, A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage elastase (MMP12) is a key mediator of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema, yet its role in other smoking related pathologies remains unclear. The weight suppressing effects of smoking are a major hindrance to cessation efforts, and MMP12 is known to suppress the vascularization on which adipose tissue growth depends by catalyzing the formation of antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. The goal of this study was to determine the role of MMP12 in adipose tissue growth and smoking-related suppression of weight gain. Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. Adipose tissue specimens were analyzed for angiogenic and adipocytic markers and for content of the antiangiogenic peptides endostatin and angiostatin. Cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with adipose tissue homogenate to examine its effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion. MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. However, chronic CS exposure led to macrophage accumulation and restored adipose MMP12 activity, thereby suppressing adipose tissue mass and vascularity. Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots. PMID:24914890

  1. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents. PMID:26771624

  2. Effect of cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Liao, D; Ye, C; Liao, W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the effect of a 5 New Taiwan Dollar (NT$5) Health and Welfare Tax increase on the consumption of domestic and imported cigarettes and cigars. Methods: Using statistics published annually from 1971 through 2000, we set up a model based on the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) demand model to estimate price and expenditure elasticity coefficients of cigarettes and cigars. Results: Our results showed that the price elasticity coefficients for domestic and imported cigarettes were –0.644 and –0.822. The consumption of imported cigarettes was reduced by 7.51 packs per capita, and the consumption of domestic cigarettes was reduced by 15.21 packs per capita. Total per capita consumption of cigarettes was reduced by 22.72 packs (18%). Conclusions: From the public health and financial perspectives, the increase in this excise tax on tobacco to the Taiwan government will have significant effect in reducing cigarette consumption; it will also generate additional tax revenues. PMID:15923453

  3. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70-28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04-19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  4. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  5. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  6. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  7. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  8. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  9. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  10. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  11. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  12. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  13. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  14. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  15. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  16. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  17. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  18. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  19. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  20. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  1. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  2. 27 CFR 41.38 - Cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarettes. 41.38 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Classification of Large Cigars and Cigarettes § 41.38 Cigarettes. For...

  3. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  4. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Cigarette Pica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with mental retardation and autism found that pica of cigarette butts was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when cigarettes contained nicotine but not when cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. A procedure based on stimulus control, which reduced cigarette consumption to zero, is described.…

  5. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  6. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  7. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  8. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  9. 27 CFR 41.35 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 41.35... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.35 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette tubes are taxed at the following...

  10. Validation of end-point and real-time PCR methods for the rapid detection of soy allergen in processed products.

    PubMed

    Espineira, Montserrat; Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Santaclara, Francisco J

    2010-04-01

    This work describes the development and validation of two PCR methods, end-point and real-time PCR, for the detection of soy protein in a wide rage of foodstuffs. These techniques are reliable and sensitive, allowing detection of trace amounts of soybean in processed products. TaqMan real-time PCR was the simpler and more rapid process, with a higher potential for automation and, therefore, currently the most suitable screening method. To verify correct operation of the proposed methodology, ELISA was used for quantitative determination of soy protein. In addition, 35 meat, fish and bakery processed products, which could potentially contain soy but was not declared on the label, were tested for the presence of soy DNA using the proposed methods. The methodologies will be valuable in issues regarding the presence of soy protein in processed products, especially in verifying labelling and security regulations to protect consumer's rights.

  11. A double-loop structure in the adaptive generalized predictive control algorithm for control of robot end-point contact force.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shuhuan; Zhu, Jinghai; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Shengyong

    2014-09-01

    Robot force control is an essential issue in robotic intelligence. There is much high uncertainty when robot end-effector contacts with the environment. Because of the environment stiffness effects on the system of the robot end-effector contact with environment, the adaptive generalized predictive control algorithm based on quantitative feedback theory is designed for robot end-point contact force system. The controller of the internal loop is designed on the foundation of QFT to control the uncertainty of the system. An adaptive GPC algorithm is used to design external loop controller to improve the performance and the robustness of the system. Two closed loops used in the design approach realize the system׳s performance and improve the robustness. The simulation results show that the algorithm of the robot end-effector contacting force control system is effective. PMID:24973336

  12. A double-loop structure in the adaptive generalized predictive control algorithm for control of robot end-point contact force.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shuhuan; Zhu, Jinghai; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Shengyong

    2014-09-01

    Robot force control is an essential issue in robotic intelligence. There is much high uncertainty when robot end-effector contacts with the environment. Because of the environment stiffness effects on the system of the robot end-effector contact with environment, the adaptive generalized predictive control algorithm based on quantitative feedback theory is designed for robot end-point contact force system. The controller of the internal loop is designed on the foundation of QFT to control the uncertainty of the system. An adaptive GPC algorithm is used to design external loop controller to improve the performance and the robustness of the system. Two closed loops used in the design approach realize the system׳s performance and improve the robustness. The simulation results show that the algorithm of the robot end-effector contacting force control system is effective.

  13. The free fractions of circulating docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentenoic acid as optimal end-point of measure in bioavailability studies on n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Scarsi, Claudia; Levesque, Ann; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    The high complexity of n-3 fatty acids absorption process, along with the huge amount of endogenous fraction, makes bioavailability studies with these agents very challenging and deserving special consideration. In this paper we report the results of a bioequivalence study between a new formulation of EPA+DHA ethyl esters developed by IBSA Institut Biochimique and reference medicinal product present on the Italian market. Bioequivalence was demonstrated according to the criteria established by the EMA Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence. We found that the free fractions represent a better and more sensitive end-point for bioequivalence investigations on n-3 fatty acids, since: (i) the overall and intra-subject variability of PK parameters was markedly lower compared to the same variability calculated on the total DHA and EPA fractions; (ii) the absorption process was completed within 4h, and the whole PK profile could be drawn within 12-15 h from drug administration.

  14. Scaling Theory of the Mott Transition and Breakdown of the Gr"uneisen Scaling Near a Finite-Temperature Critical End Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosch, Lorenz

    2012-02-01

    We discuss a scaling theory of the lattice response in the vicinity of a finite-temperature critical end point. The thermal expansivity is shown to be more singular than the specific heat such that the Gr"uneisen ratio diverges as the critical point is approached, except for its immediate vicinity. More generally, we express the thermal expansivity in terms of a scaling function which we explicitly evaluate for the two-dimensional Ising universality class. Recent thermal expansivity measurements on the layered organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X close to the Mott transition are well described by our theory.[2mm] [1] Lorenz Bartosch, Mariano de Souza, and Michael Lang, Physical Review Letters 104, 245701 (2010).

  15. Evaluation of end-point titration, single dilution and capture enzyme immunoassays for measurement of antirotaviral IgA and IgM in infantile secretions and serum.

    PubMed

    Coulson, B S; Grimwood, K; Bishop, R F; Barnes, G L

    1989-10-01

    In order to facilitate measurement of antirotaviral IgA in large collections of faeces and secretions, adaptations of enzyme immunoassay methods for estimating antirotaviral IgA and IgM in duodenal fluid, saliva, faeces and serum were studied. To quantitate specific IgA, a single dilution of each sample was assayed. Results were expressed as antirotaviral IgA units derived from a standard curve. Units were calculated by log-logit analysis on computer. There was strong correlation between antirotaviral IgA units and end-point titres in 257 faecal samples (correlation coefficient r = 0.92) and in 182 duodenal fluids and salivary samples (correlation coefficient r = 0.74). The assay was validated using acute and convalescent faeces from children with or without rotavirus infection. Immune conversions in IgA were detected in 33 (75%) of the children by units and 34 (77%) by titres. None of nine children with gastroenteritis due to other infectious agents showed immune conversions to rotavirus. A monoclonal capture IgM assay showed similar end-point titres and numbers of immune conversions when compared with a direct assay for antirotaviral IgM in serum and secretions. Use of the capture method eliminated false-positive reactions with the cell control. The assay for antirotaviral IgA units in secretions is simple, rapid, reproducible and reliable, and has proven of value in longitudinal epidemiological studies of rotavirus coproIgA profiles. Both the capture IgM technique and the single dilution IgA method permit analysis of large numbers of specimens and are appropriate for examination of immune responses to natural rotavirus infection or during vaccine trials.

  16. [Contact allergy from cigarette smoking].

    PubMed

    Rat, J P; Larregue, M

    1987-04-01

    Usually, recorded cases of allergic contact dermatitis to tobacco are confined to occupational diseases and involve agricultural workers and those engaged in manufacturing or selling the products, all of whom are in contact with tobacco leaves. We have found three cases of contact dermatitis caused by cigarette smoke, which are not occupational disease. We do not know what offending agent is, but in one case the patient is allergic to perfume and this may be the factor responsible, since she smokes only flavoured cigarettes. In addition, we need to know whether the allergen only appears during combustion and is therefore present only in cigarette smoke.

  17. In Utero Cigarette Smoke Affects Allergic Airway Disease But Does Not Alter the Lung Methylome.

    PubMed

    Eyring, Kenneth R; Pedersen, Brent S; Yang, Ivana V; Schwartz, David A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure enhances the risk of developing asthma. Despite this as well as other smoking related risks, 11% of women still smoke during pregnancy. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal development generates long lasting differential methylation altering transcriptional activity that correlates with disease. In a house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease, we measured airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation between mice exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (CS) or filtered air (FA). DNA methylation and gene expression were then measured in lung tissue. We demonstrate that HDM-treated CS mice develop a more severe allergic airway disease compared to HDM-treated FA mice including increased AHR and airway inflammation. While DNA methylation changes between the two HDM-treated groups failed to reach genome-wide significance, 99 DMRs had an uncorrected p-value < 0.001. 6 of these 99 DMRs were selected for validation, based on the immune function of adjacent genes, and only 2 of the 6 DMRs confirmed the bisulfite sequencing data. Additionally, genes near these 6 DMRs (Lif, Il27ra, Tle4, Ptk7, Nfatc2, and Runx3) are differentially expressed between HDM-treated CS mice and HDM-treated FA mice. Our findings confirm that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to modify allergic airway disease; however, it is unlikely that specific methylation changes account for the exposure-response relationship. These findings highlight the important role in utero cigarette smoke exposure plays in the development of allergic airway disease. PMID:26642056

  18. Perceptions and Perceived Impact of Graphic Cigarette Health Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior Among U.S. Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In 2011, the Food and Drug Administration published a final rule requiring cigarette packages and advertisements to include graphic health warning labels (HWLs) with new warning statements. Implementation of this rule has been stalled by legal challenge. This study assessed correlates of smoking-related intentions related to graphic HWLs among current cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in a national sample of U.S. young adults aged 18–34. Methods: Data were collected from 4,236 participants aged 18–34 using an online panel in January 2012 for the Legacy Young Adult Cohort Study. Analyses were weighted to provide nationally representative estimates. Our main outcome was assessed with a single item: “Do you think that new warning labels with graphic pictures would make you think about not smoking?” Results: Twenty-two percent of the young adults were current cigarette smokers. Fifty-three percent endorsed that new graphic HWLs would make them think about not smoking (40% among current smokers compared with 56% among nonsmokers). Among nonsmokers, those aged 18–24, females, Hispanics, and those who were aware of graphic cigarette HWLs were more likely to report intention to not smoke related to graphic HWLs. Among current smokers, intending to quit within the next 6 months was correlated with intention resulting from graphic HWLs. Hispanic ethnicity and intention to quit within 30 days were strong correlates of intention in light, nondaily, and self-identified social/occasional smokers. Conclusions: This study supports previous findings that graphic HWLs play an important role in preventing smoking, in addition to encouraging cessation in young adults. PMID:24212476

  19. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  20. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hookah Pens and Vapes: Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Do stronger school ... the health behaviour in school-aged children survey Perception of electronic cigarettes in the general population: does ...

  1. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Kids and Smoking Secondhand Smoke Nicotine: What Parents Need to Know Word! Nicotine Smoking Stinks! Smokeless Tobacco E-Cigarettes Smoking Secondhand Smoke How Can I Quit Smoking? Contact Us ...

  2. The fire-safe cigarette.

    PubMed

    Botkin, J R

    1988-07-01

    Fires caused by cigarettes through the ignition of upholstered furniture and mattresses are a serious public health problem, accounting for more than 1500 deaths and 7000 serious injuries per year in the United States. Fire-resistant fabrics and stuffings, public education, and smoke detectors have had a limited impact on this problem. The federal government recently has completed a three-year study of possible modifications in cigarette design. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of product design changes that would substantially reduce the propensity of cigarettes to ignite fires. Legislation currently is pending in Congress and in three state legislatures to mandate a cigarette fire safety standard. This legislation deserves strong support by the medical profession.

  3. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, William; Zachariasen, Hans; Andersen, Ivar

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco plant contains nickel and several other toxic metals, most probably absorbed from the soil, fertilizing products or from pesticides. It has been stated that nickel in a burning cigarette might form the volatile, gaseous compound, nickel tetracarbonyl, and thereby be introduced into the respiratory tract. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study was to find out if nickel content in inhaled smoke from ordinary cigarettes and nickel-contaminated cigarettes handmade by nickel process workers might be a supplementary source of nickel exposure to cigarette smoking process workers leading to additional risk of occupational respiratory cancer in these workers. Blood and urine samples from 318 randomly selected employees from Falconbridge Nickel Refinery in Kristiansand, Norway, allocated to 197 smokers and 121 non-smokers, were analysed for nickel content. Nickel quantities in tobacco from various cigarette brands, from nickel-contaminated cigarettes made by process workers or from cigarettes added known amounts of various nickel salts were analysed before being smoked. The cigarettes were smoked in a smoking machine device applying an electrostatic filter. Blood and urine, tobacco, ash and precipitates in the filter from the main stream smoke of the cigarettes were analysed for nickel quantities by atomic absorption spectrometry methods as previously described by the authors. The nickel concentrations in blood plasma and urine were quite similar among smokers and non-smokers, 6.2 and 48.1 microg L(-1) in smokers, and 6.4 and 50.5 microg L(-1) in non-smokers respectively. We recovered 1.1% or even less of nickel in the mainstream smoke after smoking the entire cigarettes without leaving any butt. Most of the tobacco nickel was recovered in the ash. We conclude that the inhaled nickel in the working atmosphere is probably the main source of the nickel exposure to the respiratory tract in these workers. It remains to be determined why cigarette

  4. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Torjussen, William; Zachariasen, Hans; Andersen, Ivar

    2003-04-01

    The tobacco plant contains nickel and several other toxic metals, most probably absorbed from the soil, fertilizing products or from pesticides. It has been stated that nickel in a burning cigarette might form the volatile, gaseous compound, nickel tetracarbonyl, and thereby be introduced into the respiratory tract. Accordingly, the main objective of the present study was to find out if nickel content in inhaled smoke from ordinary cigarettes and nickel-contaminated cigarettes handmade by nickel process workers might be a supplementary source of nickel exposure to cigarette smoking process workers leading to additional risk of occupational respiratory cancer in these workers. Blood and urine samples from 318 randomly selected employees from Falconbridge Nickel Refinery in Kristiansand, Norway, allocated to 197 smokers and 121 non-smokers, were analysed for nickel content. Nickel quantities in tobacco from various cigarette brands, from nickel-contaminated cigarettes made by process workers or from cigarettes added known amounts of various nickel salts were analysed before being smoked. The cigarettes were smoked in a smoking machine device applying an electrostatic filter. Blood and urine, tobacco, ash and precipitates in the filter from the main stream smoke of the cigarettes were analysed for nickel quantities by atomic absorption spectrometry methods as previously described by the authors. The nickel concentrations in blood plasma and urine were quite similar among smokers and non-smokers, 6.2 and 48.1 microg L(-1) in smokers, and 6.4 and 50.5 microg L(-1) in non-smokers respectively. We recovered 1.1% or even less of nickel in the mainstream smoke after smoking the entire cigarettes without leaving any butt. Most of the tobacco nickel was recovered in the ash. We conclude that the inhaled nickel in the working atmosphere is probably the main source of the nickel exposure to the respiratory tract in these workers. It remains to be determined why cigarette

  5. The Effect of Cigarette Smoke-derived Oxidants on the Inflammatory Response of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Foronjy, Robert; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    The inhalation of cigarette smoke triggers a marked cellular influx in the lung and this inflammation is believed to play a central role in the development of smoke-related lung diseases such as asthma and COPD. Studies demonstrate that smoke-derived oxidants are a major factor in this inflammatory reaction to cigarette smoke. These oxidants can overwhelm the lung’s antioxidant defenses and they can up regulate inflammation by a number of mechanisms. Free radicals directly stimulate the production of chemotactic compounds such as 8-isoprostane. In addition, smoke-derived oxidants can activate several intracellular signaling cascades including NF-κB, MAPK and AP-1. This transcriptional activation induces the expression of cytokines and intracellular adhesion molecules that facilitates the trafficking of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes into the lung. Moreover, oxidants can promote chromatin remodeling that facilitates the expression of proinflammatory genes by stimulating the acetylation of histone residues in the nucleosome. This leads to conformational changes that enhance expression by rendering the gene more accessible to binding to transcriptional factors. Thus, the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance generated by cigarette smoke can promote inflammation which is critical to the functional decline that occurs in both asthma and COPD patients. Future research is needed to better define the effects of smoke-derived oxidants on lung inflammation and to determine the most efficacious strategies for generating significant antioxidant protection in the lung. PMID:23997664

  6. Effect of bacoside A on brain antioxidant status in cigarette smoke exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Anbarasi, K; Vani, G; Balakrishna, K; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2006-02-16

    Free radicals mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases and antioxidant nutrients are reported to prevent the oxidative damage induced by smoking. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant role of bacoside A (triterpenoid saponin isolated from Bacopa monniera) against chronic cigarette smoking induced oxidative damage in rat brain. Adult male albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for a period of 12 weeks and simultaneously administered with bacoside A (10 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.). Antioxidant status of the brain was assessed from the levels of reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin A and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The levels of copper, iron, zinc and selenium in brain and serum ceruloplasmin activity were also measured. Oxidative stress was evident from the diminished levels of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Alterations in the levels of trace elements with accumulation of copper and iron, and depletion of zinc and selenium were also observed. Bacoside A administration improved the antioxidant status and maintained the levels of trace elements. These results suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure enhances oxidative stress, thereby disturbing the tissue defense system and bacoside A protects the brain from the oxidative damage through its antioxidant potential.

  7. Trends in Quit Attempts Among Adult Cigarette Smokers - United States, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, S René; Malarcher, Ann; Jama, Amal; Neff, Linda; Debrot, Karen; Whalen, Laura

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Quitting smoking is beneficial to health at any age, and cigarette smokers who quit before age 35 years have mortality rates similar to those of persons who never smoked. What is added by this report?During 2001–2010, the proportion of adult cigarette smokers who had made a quit attempt in the past year increased significantly in 29 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands. During 2011–2013, the proportion who had made a quit attempt increased in Hawaii and Puerto Rico and decreased in New Mexico. In 2013, the proportion who had made a quit attempt ranged from 56.2% (Kentucky) to 76.4% (Puerto Rico and Guam) with a median of 65.9%, and was generally lower in older age groups. What are the implications for public health practice? Continued implementation of effective evidence-based public health interventions can reduce the health and costs impacts of smoking-related disease and death and accelerate progress toward meeting the Healthy People 2020 target to increase to ≥80% the proportion of U.S. adult cigarette smokers who made a quit attempt in the past year. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, conducting educational mass media campaigns, and providing insurance coverage for all effective cessation treatments as well as access to quitlines. PMID:26468619

  8. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions. PMID:15721046

  9. Effects of percentage Brahman and Angus breeding, age-season of feeding and slaughter end point on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Huffman, R D; Williams, S E; Hargrove, D D; Johnson, D D; Marshall, T T

    1990-08-01

    Steers (n = 165) of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding were used to study effects of breed group (A, 3/4A:1/4B, 1/2A:1/2B, 1/4A:3/4B), age-season of feeding (calves fed during the cool season vs yearlings fed during the warm season) and slaughter end point (less than .90, 1.0 to 1.15, 1.27 to 1.40, greater than or equal to 1.5 cm of adjusted fat over the ribeye) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had heavier (P less than .05) initial and final feedlot weights than the A and 1/4B steers and higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than the A steers did. Breed types did not differ for feed efficiency. Yearling steers fed in the warm season had higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than calves fed in the cool season, but ADG calculated on an empty-rumen basis did not differ between the two age-seasons of feeding. Calves fed in the cool season were more efficient (P less than .05) than yearlings fed in the warm season when efficiency was expressed on an empty-rumen basis; however, on a live weight basis there was no difference in feed efficiency. No breed group by age-season of feeding interactions on performance were detected. Slaughter end point did not significantly affect feed efficiency on an empty-rumen basis. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had smaller ribeye areas (REA) per 100 kg hot carcass and lower marbling scores than the 1/4B and A steers. Yearlings fed in the warm season produced heavier carcasses (P less than .05) than calves fed in the cool season. As s.c. fat thickness at slaughter increased, hot carcass weight and numerical yield grade increased, whereas REA per 100 kg of hot carcass decreased. Marbling also increased as fatness increased up to about 1.5 cm subcutaneous fat. PMID:2401646

  10. Molecular recognition in a diverse set of protein-ligand interactions studied with molecular dynamics simulations and end-point free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liwei; Hurley, Thomas D; Meroueh, Samy O

    2013-10-28

    End-point free energy calculations using MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA provide a detailed understanding of molecular recognition in protein-ligand interactions. The binding free energy can be used to rank-order protein-ligand structures in virtual screening for compound or target identification. Here, we carry out free energy calculations for a diverse set of 11 proteins bound to 14 small molecules using extensive explicit-solvent MD simulations. The structure of these complexes was previously solved by crystallography and their binding studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data enabling direct comparison to the MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA calculations. Four MM-GBSA and three MM-PBSA calculations reproduced the ITC free energy within 1 kcal·mol(-1) highlighting the challenges in reproducing the absolute free energy from end-point free energy calculations. MM-GBSA exhibited better rank-ordering with a Spearman ρ of 0.68 compared to 0.40 for MM-PBSA with dielectric constant (ε = 1). An increase in ε resulted in significantly better rank-ordering for MM-PBSA (ρ = 0.91 for ε = 10), but larger ε significantly reduced the contributions of electrostatics, suggesting that the improvement is due to the nonpolar and entropy components, rather than a better representation of the electrostatics. The SVRKB scoring function applied to MD snapshots resulted in excellent rank-ordering (ρ = 0.81). Calculations of the configurational entropy using normal-mode analysis led to free energies that correlated significantly better to the ITC free energy than the MD-based quasi-harmonic approach, but the computed entropies showed no correlation with the ITC entropy. When the adaptation energy is taken into consideration by running separate simulations for complex, apo, and ligand (MM-PBSAADAPT), there is less agreement with the ITC data for the individual free energies, but remarkably good rank-ordering is observed (ρ = 0.89). Interestingly, filtering MD snapshots by prescoring

  11. Percutaneous Ventricular Restoration Therapy Using the Parachute Device in Chinese Patients with Ischemic Heart Failure: Three-Month Primary End-point Results of PARACHUTE China Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yue-Jin; Huo, Yong; Xu, Ya-Wei; Wang, Jian-An; Han, Ya-Ling; Ge, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Rui-Yan; Yan, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Run-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary cause of ischemic heart failure (HF) is myocardial infarction (MI) resulting in left ventricle (LV) wall motion abnormality secondary to ventricular remodeling. A prospective, nonrandomized study conducted in China was designed to assess safety and efficacy of the percutaneous ventricular restoration therapy using Parachute device (CardioKinetix, Inc., CA, USA) in ischemic HF patients as a result of LV remodeling after anterior wall MI. Methods: Thirty-one patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II, III ischemic HF, ejection fraction between 15% and 40%, and dilated akinetic or dyskinetic anterior-apical wall without the need to be revascularized were enrolled from seven sites in China from October to December 2014. The Parachute device was implanted through femoral artery. All patients received low-dose aspirin and anticoagulation with warfarin for at least 12 months postdevice implantation. The primary end-point was the assessment of efficacy as measured by the reduction in LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) against baseline LVESVI at 3 months postdevice implantation, determined by the echocardiography and measured by echocardiography core laboratory. Quality of life was assessed using EQ-5D and visual analog scale (VAS). For quantitative data comparison, paired t-test (normality data) and signed-rank test (abnormality data) were used; application of signed-rank test was for the ranked data comparison. Results: A change in LVESVI as measured by echocardiography from the preimplant baseline to 3-month postdevice implantation revealed a statistically significant reduction from 77.5 ± 20.0 ml/m2 to 53.1 ± 17.0 ml/m2 (P < 0.0001). The trial met its primary end-point. Of the 31 patients, the procedural success was 96.8%. Overall, NYHA HF class assessment results showed an improvement of more than half a class at 3 months (P < 0.001). Quality of life assessed by the VAS value increased 11.5 points (P < 0.01), demonstrating

  12. Effects of percentage Brahman and Angus breeding, age-season of feeding and slaughter end point on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Huffman, R D; Williams, S E; Hargrove, D D; Johnson, D D; Marshall, T T

    1990-08-01

    Steers (n = 165) of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding were used to study effects of breed group (A, 3/4A:1/4B, 1/2A:1/2B, 1/4A:3/4B), age-season of feeding (calves fed during the cool season vs yearlings fed during the warm season) and slaughter end point (less than .90, 1.0 to 1.15, 1.27 to 1.40, greater than or equal to 1.5 cm of adjusted fat over the ribeye) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had heavier (P less than .05) initial and final feedlot weights than the A and 1/4B steers and higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than the A steers did. Breed types did not differ for feed efficiency. Yearling steers fed in the warm season had higher (P less than .05) unshrunk ADG than calves fed in the cool season, but ADG calculated on an empty-rumen basis did not differ between the two age-seasons of feeding. Calves fed in the cool season were more efficient (P less than .05) than yearlings fed in the warm season when efficiency was expressed on an empty-rumen basis; however, on a live weight basis there was no difference in feed efficiency. No breed group by age-season of feeding interactions on performance were detected. Slaughter end point did not significantly affect feed efficiency on an empty-rumen basis. The 1/2B and 3/4B steers had smaller ribeye areas (REA) per 100 kg hot carcass and lower marbling scores than the 1/4B and A steers. Yearlings fed in the warm season produced heavier carcasses (P less than .05) than calves fed in the cool season. As s.c. fat thickness at slaughter increased, hot carcass weight and numerical yield grade increased, whereas REA per 100 kg of hot carcass decreased. Marbling also increased as fatness increased up to about 1.5 cm subcutaneous fat.

  13. Electronic Cigarette Use by College Students

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or ecigarettes, are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapor. There is considerable controversy about the disease risk and toxicity of ecigarettes and empirical evidence on short- and long-term health effects is minimal. Limited data on e-cigarette use and correlates exist, and to our knowledge, no prevalence rates among U.S. college students have been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ecigarette use and identify correlates of use among a large, multi-institution, random sample of college students. Methods 4,444 students from 8 colleges in North Carolina completed a Webbased survey in fall 2009. Results Ever use of ecigarettes was reported by 4.9% of students, with 1.5% reporting past month use. Correlates of ever use included male gender, Hispanic or “Other race” (compared to non-Hispanic Whites), Greek affiliation, conventional cigarette smoking and e-cigarette harm perceptions. Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, 12% of ever e-cigarette users had never smoked a conventional cigarette. Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use was negatively associated with lack of knowledge about e-cigarette harm, but was not associated with intentions to quit. Conclusions Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, it was not exclusive to them. E-cigarette use was not associated with intentions to quit smoking among a sub-sample of conventional cigarette smokers. Unlike older, more established cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use by college students does not appear to be motivated by the desire to quit cigarette smoking. PMID:23746429

  14. Educational Differences in Associations of Noticing Anti-Tobacco Information with Smoking-Related Attitudes and Quit Intentions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…

  15. Doctors Divided on Safety, Use of Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cigarettes When patients ask about safety and using e-cigarettes to stop smoking, doctors' advice differs To use ... of the devices -- specifically, about the safety of e-cigarettes compared to traditional cigarettes, according to the Stanford ...

  16. The association between exposure to "Tips" and smoking-related outcomes among adolescents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Cai, Xiaomei

    2016-10-01

    The Tips From Former Smokers ("Tips") campaign in the United States primarily targets adult smokers, but considers adolescents an important secondary audience. This study examines the association between exposure to Tips and smoking outcomes in the adolescent population in the United States. We analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of middle- and high-school students in the United States (n = 18 406). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationships between exposure to Tips advertisements and quitting intentions among current smokers and smoking susceptibility among experimenters and never smokers. Among current smokers, exposure to one Tips ad (versus no exposure) was positively associated with intending to quit. Similar associations also emerged for higher levels of exposure but did not reach significance. Among never smokers, exposure to four and more ads (versus no exposure) was associated with lower smoking susceptibility. Exposure to Tips ads was unrelated to smoking susceptibility among experimenters. The associations observed in the study suggest an intricate, and generally favorable, relationship between campaign exposure and smoking-related outcomes among current smokers and never smokers. Close monitoring of the Tips' impact on the adolescent population is needed. PMID:27422897

  17. Real-time predictions of drug release and end point detection of a coating operation by in-line near infrared measurements.

    PubMed

    Gendre, Claire; Boiret, Mathieu; Genty, Muriel; Chaminade, Pierre; Pean, Jean Manuel

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this work was to carry out real-time near infrared (NIR) predictions of drug release from sustained release coated tablets and to determine end point of coating operation. In-line measurements were ensured by implementation of a NIR probe inside a pan coater. Tablets were coated using a functional aqueous dispersion of ethylcellulose blended with PVA-PEG graft copolymer to obtain a controlled drug release dosage form over 16h. Samples were collected at regular intervals and subjected to a standardized curing step. Percentages of released drug at 4h, 8h and 12h were selected to describe the controlled drug release of cured tablets. These dissolution criteria were used as reference values to calibrate NIR spectral information and to develop three partial least squares regressions. Low predictive errors of 1.7%, 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively, were obtained. The coating operation was stopped while desired dissolution criteria were achieved, corresponding to a coating level around 10%. The present study demonstrated that real-time NIR measurements could be performed on non-finished drug products to predict dissolution properties of cured coated tablets. This novel and innovative approach fulfils the expectations of ICH Q8 guideline on pharmaceutical development, in terms of process understanding and process analytical technology (PAT) control strategy. This approach should be however adapted to curing operation to allow a real-time release testing.

  18. To prepare and characterize microcrystalline cellulose granules using water and isopropyl alcohol as granulating agents and determine its end-point by thermal and rheological tools.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Smruti P; Dave, Rutesh H

    2015-05-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC-102) is one of the most commonly used excipient in the pharmaceutical industry. For this research purpose, authors have developed a different technique to determine the end point for MCC-102 using water and isopropyl alcohol 70% (IPA) as granulating agent. Wet and dry granules obtained were characterized for their flow properties using the powder rheometer and thermal analysis. Powder rheometer was used to measure basic flowability energy (BFE), specific energy (SE), percentage compressibility, permeability and aeration. Thermal analysis includes effusivity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. BFE and SE results showed water granules requires high energy as compared to IPA granules. Permeability and compressibility results suggest IPA forms more porous granules and have better compressibility as compared to water granules. Hardness data reveals interesting phenomena in which as the amount of water increases, hardness decreases and vice-versa for IPA. Optimal granules were obtained in the range of 45-55% w/w. DSC data supported the formation of optimal granules. Empirical measurements like angle of repose did not reveal any significant differences between powder flow among various granules. In this paper, with the help of thermal effusivity and powder rheology we were able to differentiate between various powder flows and determine the optimal range for granule formation.

  19. Defectless Monolithic Low-k/Cu Interconnects Produced by Chemically Controlled Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process with In situ End-Point-Detection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, Makoto; Onodera, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Akira; Hoshino, Susumu; Hayashi, Yoshihiro

    2009-04-01

    Defectless monolithic low-k/Cu interconnects have been obtained for low-power LSIs by a chemically controlled local chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process to remove a Cu/TaN barrier on hydrophobic SiOCH low-k films. In the first step, Cu-CMP, a unique end-point-detection (EDP) method is implemented to detect a very thin Cu layer (˜100 nm) that remains on the TaN barrier by in situ white-light interferometry, which is implemented in the local CMP apparatus where the wafers undergoing polishing are oriented face-up. In the second step, TaN-CMP, a SiO2 hard-mask (HM) layer on the low-k film is selectively removed to reduce the nonuniformity of the Cu line thickness, and accordingly, those of the resistance and capacitance. Here, a CMP slurry with an oxidizer is used to change the low-k surface from a hydrophobic condition to a hydrophilic condition, improving wettability and reducing the number of scratches and abrasive particles. In the post-CMP cleaning, an alkaline rinse solution with an oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of less than -0.5 V vs a normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) produces a clean low-k surface resulting in monolithic low-k/Cu interconnects with excellent dielectric properties comparable to those of SiO2/Cu interconnects.

  20. Inter-laboratory assessment by trained panelists from France and the United Kingdom of beef cooked at two different end-point temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Micol, Didier; Picard, Brigitte; Terlouw, Claudia E M; Moloney, Aidan P; Juin, Hervé; Meteau, Karine; Scollan, Nigel; Richardson, Ian; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Eating quality of the same meat samples from different animal types cooked at two end-point cooking temperatures (55°C and 74°C) was evaluated by trained panels in France and the United Kingdom. Tenderness and juiciness scores were greater at 55°C than at 74°C, irrespective of the animal type and location of the panel. The UK panel, independently of animal type, gave greater scores for beef flavour (+7 to +24%, P<0.001) but lower scores for abnormal flavour (-10 to -17%, P<0.001) at 74°C. Abnormal flavour score by the French panel was higher at 74°C than at 55°C (+26%, P<0.001). Irrespective of the data set, tenderness was correlated with juiciness and beef flavour. Overall, this study found that cooking beef at a lower temperature increased tenderness and juiciness, irrespective of the location of the panel. In contrast, cooking beef at higher temperatures increased beef flavour and decreased abnormal flavour for the UK panelists but increased abnormal flavour for the French panel. PMID:27501233

  1. Comet assay with gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis end point tools for biomonitoring of water antibiotic contamination: Biological treatment is a reliable process for detoxification.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Nadia; Zouiten, Amina; Dridi, Dorra; Tahrani, Leyla; Zouiten, Dorra; Mosrati, Ridha; Cherif, Ameur; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the ability of Pseudomonas peli to treat industrial pharmaceuticals wastewater (PW). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis revealed the presence, in this PW, of a variety of antibiotics such as sulfathiazole, sulfamoxole, norfloxacine, cloxacilline, doxycycline, and cefquinome.P. peli was very effective to be grown in PW and inducts a remarkable increase in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (140.31 and 148.51%, respectively). On the other hand, genotoxicity of the studied effluent, before and after 24 h of shaking incubation with P. peli, was evaluated in vivo in the Mediterranean wild mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. Results show that PW exhibited a statistically significant (p< 0.001) genotoxic effect in a dose-dependent manner; indeed, the percentage of genotoxicity was 122.6 and 49.5% after exposure to 0.66 ml/kg body weight (b.w.); 0.33 ml/kg b.w. of PW, respectively. However, genotoxicity decreased strongly when tested with the PW obtained after incubation with P. peli We can conclude that using comet assay genotoxicity end points are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of water. Also, it could be concluded that P. peli can treat and detoxify the studied PW.

  2. A two-step experimental design for a sediment bioassay using growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca for the test end point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kubitz, Jody A.; Besser, John M.; Giesy, John P.

    1996-01-01

    We designed a sediment bioassay using 25% growth inhibition of Hyalella azteca as the end point.Hyalella azteca exhibits size-specific fecundity, so growth is a surrogate of reproductive production. We investigated density effects on growth to address whether crowding could affect test interpretation; amphipods in 14,000/m2 exposures were 16 to 20% smaller than those at 7,000/m2. Using power analysis, we found that 20 to 25 samples are required to determine significance when α = 0.10 and 1 − β = 0.90. To minimize the need for laboratory resources, we designed a two-step (screening and confirmatory) bioassay, which we tested with field-collected sediments. The screening bioassay compared 11 sediments to a reference. Three sediments were “toxic” (significant growth inhibition when 1 − β = 0.66 and n = 5), five sediments were “nontoxic” (>90% of reference), and three sediments were “possibly toxic” (growth inhibition was insignificant). In the confirmatory bioassay, three possibly toxic and two nontoxic samples were reevaluated. Two were toxic (1 − β = 0.91 and n = 20), and the remaining four samples were nontoxic. In summary, five sediments were toxic and six sediments were nontoxic. The two-step analysis used minimal laboratory resources but maximized statistical power, where needed, to discriminate growth effects.

  3. Inter-laboratory assessment by trained panelists from France and the United Kingdom of beef cooked at two different end-point temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Micol, Didier; Picard, Brigitte; Terlouw, Claudia E M; Moloney, Aidan P; Juin, Hervé; Meteau, Karine; Scollan, Nigel; Richardson, Ian; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Eating quality of the same meat samples from different animal types cooked at two end-point cooking temperatures (55°C and 74°C) was evaluated by trained panels in France and the United Kingdom. Tenderness and juiciness scores were greater at 55°C than at 74°C, irrespective of the animal type and location of the panel. The UK panel, independently of animal type, gave greater scores for beef flavour (+7 to +24%, P<0.001) but lower scores for abnormal flavour (-10 to -17%, P<0.001) at 74°C. Abnormal flavour score by the French panel was higher at 74°C than at 55°C (+26%, P<0.001). Irrespective of the data set, tenderness was correlated with juiciness and beef flavour. Overall, this study found that cooking beef at a lower temperature increased tenderness and juiciness, irrespective of the location of the panel. In contrast, cooking beef at higher temperatures increased beef flavour and decreased abnormal flavour for the UK panelists but increased abnormal flavour for the French panel.

  4. Characterizing Loop Dynamics and Ligand Recognition in Human- and Avian-Type Influenza Neuraminidases via Generalized Born Molecular Dynamics and End-Point Free Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, Rommie E; Cheng, Xiaolin; Ivanov, Ivaylo N; Xu, Dong; McCammon, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The comparative dynamics and inhibitor binding free energies of group-1 and group-2 pathogenic influenza A subtype neuraminidase (NA) enzymes are of fundamental biological interest and relevant to structure-based drug design studies for antiviral compounds. In this work, we present seven generalized Born molecular dynamics simulations of avian (N1)- and human (N9)-type NAs in order to probe the comparative flexibility of the two subtypes, both with and without the inhibitor oseltamivir bound. The enhanced sampling obtained through the implicit solvent treatment suggests several provocative insights into the dynamics of the two subtypes, including that the group-2 enzymes may exhibit similar motion in the 430-binding site regions but different 150-loop motion. End-point free energy calculations elucidate the contributions to inhibitor binding free energies and suggest that entropic considerations cannot be neglected when comparing across the subtypes. We anticipate the findings presented here will have broad implications for the development of novel antiviral compounds against both seasonal and pandemic influenza strains.

  5. Drug-induced rotation intensity in unilateral dopamine-depleted rats is not correlated with end point or qualitative measures of forelimb or hindlimb motor performance.

    PubMed

    Metz, G A; Whishaw, I Q

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacological induction of rotational (circling) behavior is widely used to assess the effects of lesions to the dopaminergic system and the success of treatment strategies in rat models of Parkinson's disease. While the number of rotations under apomorphine, L-DOPA and amphetamine is related to the extent of dopamine depletion after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine system, the relationship of the intensity of rotational behavior to the degree of impairment in motor behavior is unclear. The present study examined this question by correlating rotational behavior and motor abilities in a rat analogue for Parkinson's disease produced by unilateral nigrostriatal bundle lesion with 6-hydroxydopamine. Ipsiversive and contraversive rotation was measured in the rats following systemic administration of low and high doses of apomorphine, the dopamine precursor L-DOPA, and amphetamine. The motor assessment included end point and qualitative measures of fore- and hindlimbs assessed in a skilled reaching task and a skilled ladder rung walking task. The intensity of drug-induced rotation did not correlate with the measures of motor performance. We conclude that independence of rotational behavior and motor performance argues that both the assessment of 6-hydroxydopamine behavioral deficits and potential treatments for the functional deficits require comprehensive assessment, including both measures of rotation and motor behavior. PMID:11983318

  6. Enhanced detection of DNA sequences using end-point PCR amplification and online gel electrophoresis (GE)-ICP-MS: determination of gene copy number variations.

    PubMed

    González, T Iglesias; Espina, M; Sierra, L M; Bettmer, J; Blanco-González, E; Montes-Bayón, M; Sanz-Medel, A

    2014-11-18

    The design and evaluation of analytical methods that permit quantitative analysis of specific DNA sequences is exponentially increasing. For this purpose, highly sensitive methodologies usually based on labeling protocols with fluorescent dyes or nanoparticles are often explored. Here, the possibility of label-free signal amplification using end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are exploited using on-column agarose gel electrophoresis as separation and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the detection of phosphorus in amplified DNA sequences. The calibration of the separation system with a DNA ladder permits direct estimation of the size of the amplified gene fragment after PCR. With this knowledge, and considering the compound-independent quantification capabilities exhibited by ICP-MS for phosphorus (it is only dependent on the number of P atoms per molecule), the correlation of the P-peak area of the amplified gene fragment, with respect to the gene copy numbers (in the starting DNA), is then established. Such a relationship would permit the determination of copy number variations (CNVs) in genomic DNA using ICP-MS measurements. The method detection limit, in terms of the required amount of starting DNA, is ∼6 ng (or 1000 cells if 100% extraction efficiency is expected). The suitability of the proposed label-free amplification strategy is applied to CNVs monitoring in cells exposed to a chemical agent capable of deletion induction, such as cisplatin. PMID:25312744

  7. The use of RT-PCR for determination of separate end-points for the strains IB H120 and IB D274 in titration of the combination vaccine Poulvac IB® primer.

    PubMed

    Geerligs, H J; Meinders, C A M; Snel, J; Duyves, W

    2013-11-01

    Poulvac IB® Primer is a lyophilized vaccine containing two attenuated infectious bronchitis strains in one vial, IB H120 and IB D274. For quantification of the viral content of the vaccine, dilution series of the final product are inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs. After the incubation period of seven days standard practice is for the embryos to be taken from each egg and examined visually for IB specific lesions; these readings are used to determine an end-point in viral titrations. The result is a titre value to which both strains contribute. However, it is not clear what the live virus titre is for strain IB H120 and for strain IB D274. In order to determine end-points in the titration for each of the two strains, we collected the allantoic fluids from each egg after the incubation period and tested these for the presence of IB H120 and IB D274 by a strain specific reverse phase PCR. Based on the data obtained by PCR we were able to determine an end-point for each of the two strains. For a given commercial batch of Poulvac IB primer we determined titres of 10(6.31) EID50 per vial for IB H120 and 10(6.59) EID50 for IB D274 using PCR for end-point determination. These end-points matched well with the end-point determined for both strains cumulatively after visual examination, i.e. 10(6.67) EID50 per vial. It is concluded that PCR is a suitable means to determine end-points in titrations of live viruses.

  8. E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy S.L.; Bigman, Cabral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. Purpose To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts and intention to quit. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Results Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents, and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger, more educated respondents and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. Awareness and perceived harm were not associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts or intention to quit. Conclusions Overall e-cigarette awareness increased while smokers’ perceived harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. PMID:24794422

  9. Estimates of price and income elasticity in Greece. Greek debt crisis transforming cigarettes into a luxury good: an econometric approach

    PubMed Central

    Tarantilis, Filippos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Zavras, Dimitris; Vozikis, Athanassios; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Objective During the past decades, smoking prevalence in Greece was estimated to be near or over 40%. Following a sharp fall in cigarette consumption, as shown in current data, our objective is to assess smokers’ sensitivity to cigarette price and consumer income changes as well as to project health benefits of an additional tax increase. Methods Cigarette consumption was considered as the dependent variable, with Weighted Average Price as a proxy for cigarette price, gross domestic product as a proxy for consumers’ income and dummy variables reflecting smoking restrictions and antismoking campaigns. Values were computed to natural logarithms and regression was performed. Then, four scenarios of tax increase were distinguished in order to calculate potential health benefits. Results Short-run price elasticity is estimated at −0.441 and short-run income elasticity is estimated at 1.040. Antismoking campaigns were found to have a statistically significant impact on consumption. Results indicate that, depending on the level of tax increase, annual per capita consumption could fall by at least 209.83 cigarettes; tax revenue could rise by more than €0.74 billion, while smokers could be reduced by up to 530 568 and at least 465 smoking-related deaths could be averted. Conclusions Price elasticity estimates are similar to previous studies in Greece, while income elasticity estimates are far greater. With cigarettes regarded as a luxury good, a great opportunity is presented for decisionmakers to counter smoking. Increased taxation, along with focused antismoking campaigns, law reinforcement (to ensure compliance with smoking bans) and intensive control for smuggling could invoke a massive blow to the tobacco epidemic in Greece. PMID:25564137

  10. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Design Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999–2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. Setting UK. Participants UK smokers. Measurements Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. Findings TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and ‘ultra-low price’ (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Conclusions Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. PMID:23445255

  11. The response of human nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures to repeated whole cigarette smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Talikka, Marja; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Mathis, Carole; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Merg, Celine; Geertz, Marcel; Martin, Florian; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is linked to the development of respiratory diseases, and there is a need to understand the mechanisms whereby CS causes damage. Although animal models have provided valuable insights into smoking-related respiratory tract damage, modern toxicity testing calls for reliable in vitro models as alternatives for animal experimentation. We report on a repeated whole mainstream CS exposure of nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures that mimic the morphological, physiological, and molecular attributes of the human respiratory tract. Despite the similar cellular staining and cytokine secretion in both tissue types, the transcriptomic analyses in the context of biological network models identified similar and diverse biological processes that were impacted by CS-exposed nasal and bronchial cultures. Our results demonstrate that nasal and bronchial tissue cultures are appropriate in vitro models for the assessment of CS-induced adverse effects in the respiratory system and promising alternative to animal experimentation. PMID:25297719

  12. Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Moysidou, Anastasia; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E.; Voudris, Vassilis; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Kourea, Kallirrhoe; Barbouni, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4) out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate the adverse effects

  13. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    MedlinePlus

    Electronic cigarettes; Electronic hookahs; Vaping; Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Smoking - electronic cigarettes ... cartridge into a vapor. The cartridge may contain nicotine or other flavors or chemicals. It also contains ...

  14. E-Cigarettes Emit Toxic Vapors

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160107.html E-Cigarettes Emit Toxic Vapors: Study Levels depend on ... findings could be important to both makers of e-cigarettes and regulators who want to reduce the ...

  15. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  16. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  17. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  18. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  19. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a Customs Duties U.S... cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes...

  20. Electronic cigarettes: a short review.

    PubMed

    Bertholon, J F; Becquemin, M H; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dautzenberg, B

    2013-01-01

    Marketed since 2004 as an alternative to nicotine delivery and advertised as a valid means to smoking cessation, the electronic (e)-cigarette has been the subject of much controversy but very little experimental study. This review provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of this product. Propylene glycol and glycerol, the main ingredients of the fluid that is vaporized, have proved to be harmless in the fog machines of the entertainment industry. However, in the case of the e-cigarette fluid, the composition is not properly labeled: additives like nicotine and flavors vary between and within brands and contamination with various chemicals has been detected. The short-term toxicity seems low, but the long-term toxicity is unknown. The usefulness of the e-cigarette in smoking cessation has still to be clinically established.

  1. Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin in the Preoperative Multimodality Treatment of Rectal Cancer: Surgical End Points From National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Trial R-04

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Michael J.; Colangelo, Linda H.; Beart, Robert W.; Petrelli, Nicholas J.; Allegra, Carmen J.; Sharif, Saima; Pitot, Henry C.; Shields, Anthony F.; Landry, Jerome C.; Ryan, David P.; Parda, David S.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Arora, Amit; Evans, Lisa S.; Bahary, Nathan; Soori, Gamini S.; Eakle, Janice; Robertson, John M.; Moore, Dennis F.; Mullane, Michael R.; Marchello, Benjamin T.; Ward, Patrick J.; Wozniak, Timothy F.; Roh, Mark S.; Yothers, Greg; Wolmark, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. Patients and Methods Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who were undergoing preoperative RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus a boost of 5.4 Gy to 10.8 Gy in three to six daily fractions) were randomly assigned to one of the following chemotherapy regimens: continuous intravenous infusional fluorouracil (CVI FU; 225 mg/m2, 5 days per week), with or without intravenous oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 once per week for 5 weeks) or oral capecitabine (825 mg/m2 twice per day, 5 days per week), with or without oxaliplatin (50 mg/m2 once per week for 5 weeks). Before random assignment, the surgeon indicated whether the patient was eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery based on clinical staging. The surgical end points were complete pathologic response (pCR), sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging (conversion to sphincter-sparing surgery). Results From September 2004 to August 2010, 1,608 patients were randomly assigned. No significant differences in the rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, or surgical downstaging were identified between the CVI FU and capecitabine regimens or between the two regimens with or without oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (P < .001). Conclusion Administering capecitabine with preoperative RT achieved similar rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging compared with CVI FU. Adding oxaliplatin did not improve surgical outcomes but added significant toxicity. The definitive analysis of local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival will be performed when the protocol-specified number of events has occurred. PMID:24799484

  2. Effect of dronedarone on clinical end points in patients with atrial fibrillation and coronary heart disease: insights from the ATHENA trial

    PubMed Central

    Pisters, Ron; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Naditch-Brûlé, Lisa; Page, Richard L.; Crijns, Harry J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to assess safety and cardiovascular outcomes of dronedarone in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) with coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary heart disease is prevalent among AF patients and limits antiarrhythmic drug use because of their potentially life-threatening ventricular proarrhythmic effects. Methods and results This post hoc analysis evaluated 1405 patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF and CHD from the ATHENA trial. Follow-up lasted 2.5 years, during which patients received either dronedarone (400 mg twice daily) or a double-blind matching placebo. Primary outcome was time to first cardiovascular hospitalization or death due to any cause. Secondary end points included first hospitalization due to cardiovascular events. The primary outcome occurred in 350 of 737 (47%) placebo patients vs. 252 of 668 (38%) dronedarone patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.62–0.86; P = 0.0002] without a significant increase in number of adverse events. In addition, 42 of 668 patients receiving dronedarone suffered from a first acute coronary syndrome compared with 67 of 737 patients from the placebo group (HR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.46–0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusion In this post hoc analysis, dronedarone on top of standard care in AF patients with CHD reduced cardiovascular hospitalization or death similar to that in the overall ATHENA population, and reduced a first acute coronary syndrome. Importantly, the safety profile in this subpopulation was also similar to that of the overall ATHENA population, with no excess in proarrhythmias. The mechanism of the cardiovascular protective effects is unclear and warrants further investigation. PMID:24072451

  3. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P < 0.05) cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P < 0.05). Both STP and eSTP increased pH, whereas SPP and eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). The higher orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with STP or SPP compared to their encapsulated counterparts (P < 0.05). The lowest OP was determined in samples with HMP or eHMP (P < 0.05). A 77 °C EPCT resulted in lower OP in chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P < 0.05), dissimilar to beef, where EPCT did not affect OP. In encapsulated or unencapsulated form, using STP and SPP enhanced reduction in TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) compared with HMP (P < 0.05). Regardless of the phosphate type, more effective lipid oxidation inhibition was achieved by the use of encapsulated forms (P < 0.05). Increasing EPCT resulted in lower TBARS in beef and higher LPO values in both beef and chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT.

  4. Milk thistle and prostate cancer: differential effects of pure flavonolignans from Silybum marianum on antiproliferative end points in human prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Davis-Searles, Paula R; Nakanishi, Yuka; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Wani, Mansukh C; Wall, Monroe E; Agarwal, Rajesh; Kroll, David J

    2005-05-15

    Extracts from the seeds of milk thistle, Silybum marianum, are known commonly as silibinin and silymarin and possess anticancer actions on human prostate carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Seven distinct flavonolignan compounds and a flavonoid have been isolated from commercial silymarin extracts. Most notably, two pairs of diastereomers, silybin A and silybin B and isosilybin A and isosilybin B, are among these compounds. In contrast, silibinin is composed only of a 1:1 mixture of silybin A and silybin B. With these isomers now isolated in quantities sufficient for biological studies, each pure compound was assessed for antiproliferative activities against LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 human prostate carcinoma cell lines. Isosilybin B was the most consistently potent suppressor of cell growth relative to either the other pure constituents or the commercial extracts. Isosilybin A and isosilybin B were also the most effective suppressors of prostate-specific antigen secretion by androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Silymarin and silibinin were shown for the first time to suppress the activity of the DNA topoisomerase IIalpha gene promoter in DU145 cells and, among the pure compounds, isosilybin B was again the most effective. These findings are significant in that isosilybin B composes no more than 5% of silymarin and is absent from silibinin. Whereas several other more abundant flavonolignans do ultimately influence the same end points at higher exposure concentrations, these findings are suggestive that extracts enriched for isosilybin B, or isosilybin B alone, might possess improved potency in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

  5. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P < 0.05) cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P < 0.05). Both STP and eSTP increased pH, whereas SPP and eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). The higher orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with STP or SPP compared to their encapsulated counterparts (P < 0.05). The lowest OP was determined in samples with HMP or eHMP (P < 0.05). A 77 °C EPCT resulted in lower OP in chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P < 0.05), dissimilar to beef, where EPCT did not affect OP. In encapsulated or unencapsulated form, using STP and SPP enhanced reduction in TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) compared with HMP (P < 0.05). Regardless of the phosphate type, more effective lipid oxidation inhibition was achieved by the use of encapsulated forms (P < 0.05). Increasing EPCT resulted in lower TBARS in beef and higher LPO values in both beef and chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT. PMID:26317488

  6. Comparison of Burrowing and Stimuli-Evoked Pain Behaviors as End-Points in Rat Models of Inflammatory Pain and Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Arjun; Kuo, Andy; Jacob, Meera; Lourdesamy, Jacintha S.; Carvalho, Lara Melo Soares Pinho De; Nicholson, Janet R.; Corradini, Laura; Smith, Maree T.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment and validation of ethologically-relevant, non-evoked behavioral end-points as surrogate measures of spontaneous pain in rodent pain models has been proposed as a means to improve preclinical to clinical research translation in the pain field. Here, we compared the utility of burrowing behavior with hypersensitivity to applied mechanical stimuli for pain assessment in rat models of chronic inflammatory and peripheral neuropathic pain. Briefly, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to the burrowing environment and trained over a 5-day period. Rats that burrowed ≤ 450 g of gravel on any 2 days of the individual training phase were excluded from the study. The remaining rats received either a unilateral intraplantar injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) or saline, or underwent unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve- or sham-surgery. Baseline burrowing behavior and evoked pain behaviors were assessed prior to model induction, and twice-weekly until study completion on day 14. For FCA- and CCI-rats, but not the corresponding groups of sham-rats, evoked mechanical hypersensitivity developed in a temporal manner in the ipsilateral hindpaws. Although burrowing behavior also decreased in a temporal manner for both FCA-and CCI- rats, there was considerable inter-animal variability. By contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hindpaws of FCA- and CCI-rats respectively, exhibited minimal inter-animal variability. Our data collectively show that burrowing behavior is altered in rodent models of chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain. However, large group sizes are needed to ensure studies are adequately powered due to considerable inter-animal variability. PMID:27242458

  7. Human health and endocrine disruption: a simple multicriteria framework for the qualitative assessment of end point specific risks in a context of scientific uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Martin, Olwenn V; Lester, John N; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Boobis, Alan R

    2007-08-01

    Endocrine disruption remains one of the most controversial contemporary environmental issues. While the desired level of protection is ultimately a societal choice, endocrine toxicity could result in a wide spectrum of adverse health effects. Although the application of the causal framework of weight-of-evidence approaches to complex toxicological issues has incited much interest, no international criteria or guidance have yet been developed. In this context, the evidence on end point-specific risks to human health contained in the International Program on Chemical Safety Global assessment of the State-of-Science on Endocrine Disruptors report was updated and assessed qualitatively using three simple criteria relevant to the practical application of the precautionary principle (PP): incidence trends, association, and consequence. The current degree of knowledge was then ranked according to ignorance, uncertainty, and risk. The main sources of scientific uncertainty in relation to incidence trends were associated with the evolution of diagnostic criteria or diagnostic tests, while genetic susceptibility is often proposed as an explanation for the wide geographic variations in the incidence of some diseases. Such genetic polymorphisms are also offered as a potential explanation for some of the inconsistent findings or lack of clear dose-response gradients described under the association criterion. The methodology yielded a relative paucity of data addressing directly the impact for adverse human health effect from both individual and public health perspectives. Results are discussed within the context of the application of the PP. Within a participatory context, this simple framework could provide a useful decision-making tool to both communicate scientific uncertainty to the wider public and manage uncertain risks.

  8. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities

    PubMed Central

    Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified

  9. Effectiveness of a Television Advertisement Campaign on Giving Cigarettes in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yu; Su, Jian; Xiang, Quanyong; Hu, Yihe; Xu, Guanqun; Ma, Jiuhua; Shi, Zumin

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-tobacco television advertisement campaigns may convey messages on smoking-related health consequences and create norms against giving cigarettes. Methods Altogether, 156 and 112 slots of a television advertisement “Giving cigarettes is giving harm” were aired on Suzhou and Yizheng, respectively, over one month in 2010. Participants were recruited from 15 locations in Suzhou and 8 locations in Yizheng using a street intercept method. Overall 2306 residents aged 18–45 years completed questionnaires, including 1142 before the campaign and 1164 after, with respective response rates of 79.1% and 79.7%. Chi square tests were used to compare the difference between categorical variables. Results After the campaign, 36.0% of subjects recalled that they had seen the advertisement. Residents of Suzhou had a higher recall rate than those of Yizheng (47.6% vs. 20.6%, P < 0.001). The rate of not giving cigarettes dropped from 32.1% before the campaign to 28.5% after (P = 0.05). In the post-campaign evaluation, participants who reported seeing the advertisement were more likely not to give cigarettes in the future than those who reported not seeing the advertisement (38.7% vs. 27.5%, P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study showed that an anti-tobacco television advertisements helped change societal norms and improve health behavior. Continuous and adequate funding of anti-tobacco media campaigns targeted at different levels of the general population is needed, in conjunction with a comprehensive tobacco control effort. PMID:25196169

  10. Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2004-01-01

    Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. (210)Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with (208)Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO(3), HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The (210)Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of (210)Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of (210)Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of (210)Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of (210)Po and (210)Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of (210)Po and (210)Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 193 and 251 microSv from

  11. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Henningfield, J.; Benowitz, N.; Slade, J.; Houston, T.; Davis, R.; Deitchman, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of relevant journal articles, other government publications, and presentations made at scientific conferences.
DATA SYNTHESIS—The role of nicotine in causing and sustaining tobacco use was evaluated to project the impact of a nicotine reduction strategy on initiation and maintenance of, and relapse to, tobacco use. A range of potential concerns and barriers was addressed, including the technical feasibility of reducing cigarette nicotine content to non-addictive levels, the possibility that compensatory smoking would reduce potential health benefits, and whether such an approach would foster illicit ("black market") tobacco sales. Education, treatment, and research needs to enable a nicotine reduction strategy were also addressed. The Council on Scientific Affairs came to the following conclusions: (a) gradually eliminating nicotine from cigarettes is technically feasible; (b) a nicotine reduction strategy holds great promise in preventing adolescent tobacco addiction and assisting the millions of current cigarette smokers in their efforts to quit using tobacco products; (c) potential problems such as compensatory over-smoking of denicotinised cigarettes and black market sales could be minimised by providing alternate forms of nicotine delivery with less or little risk to health, as part of expanded access to treatment; and (d) such a strategy would need to be accompanied by relevant research and increased efforts to educate consumers and health professionals about

  12. Corrective Taxes and Cigarette Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Calcott, Paul; Petkov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    If cigarette design was exogenous, inefficiencies arising from smoking could be addressed either with a tax per packet or with an ad valorem tax. However, it is well known that the consequences of these two instruments differ when product characteristics are endogenous. We consider three such characteristics: nicotine, tar, and flavor. Implementation of the first-best social optimum typically requires the capacity to tax or regulate harmful ingredients. Without such a capacity, the next-best policy often combines a per-unit tax on cigarettes with an ad valorem subsidy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Smoking-related behavior, beliefs, and social environment of young black women in subsidized public housing in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L; Warnecke, R; Buis, M

    1992-02-01

    Survey data indicate that young Black female smokers living in public housing are heavier smokers and have weaker motivation to quit, health beliefs and social environment less conducive to cessation, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit than other young Black female smokers in metropolitan Chicago. Compared with White women, the latter, other Black women smoke fewer cigarettes daily and have a stronger desire to quit and more concern about health reasons for quitting, but have a weaker belief in the risk of lung cancer from smoking, greater concern about quitting difficulties, and less knowledge of where to get help to quit. Low education, not race, is associated with higher smoking prevalence and less social pressure to quit or support for quitting.

  14. Antismoking initiatives: effects of analysis versus production media literacy interventions on smoking-related attitude, norm, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    This study developed inoculation-driven antismoking interventions aimed at changing attitudes, norms and intentions about smoking to influence smoking behavior in adolescents. This study explored the efficacy of 2 intervention approaches designed to help adolescents to refrain from smoking initiation. Participants were junior high students (6th, 7th, and 8th grade) from schools in the Northeast. Two kinds of experimental workshops and a control group were designed as stimulus material in a repeated measure nonequivalent group experimental design. The 2 intervention workshops developed included: analysis + analysis (where participants discussed and analyzed cigarette and antismoking ads) and analysis + production (where participants discussed, analyzed, and then created their own antismoking ads). The analysis + production workshop was generally more successful than the analysis + analysis workshop and control group in changing participants' behavioral intention to smoke and attitude toward smoking but not subjective norms over time. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17617012

  15. Are all cigarettes just the same? Female's perceptions of slim, coloured, aromatized and capsule cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Mackintosh, Anne; Purves, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Twelve focus groups in Glasgow (Scotland) were conducted with female non-smokers and occasional smokers aged 12-24 years (N = 75), with each group shown 11 cigarettes: two (standard) cigarettes with cork filters; two coloured cigarettes (pink or brown); four slim cigarettes; an aromatized black cigarette; a menthol cigarette and a cigarette with a flavour-changing rupturable capsule in the filter. Participants were asked to rank the cigarettes by appeal, taste and harm. The capsule cigarette was then discussed in depth. The pink coloured cigarette and slim cigarettes created significant interest and were generally perceived as most appealing and pleasant tasting, and least harmful. The black aromatized cigarette received a mixed response, with some disliking the dark colour and associating it with low appeal, strong taste and increased harm, whereas for others the smell helped to enhance appeal and taste perceptions and lower perceptions of harm. The novel capsule cigarette, when discussed in-depth, was viewed very positively. Just as research shows that cigarette packs can influence perceptions of appeal, harm and taste, this study suggests that the actual cigarettes can do likewise. The findings have implications for tobacco education and policy.

  16. Hippocampal and Insular Response to Smoking-Related Environments: Neuroimaging Evidence for Drug-Context Effects in Nicotine Dependence.

    PubMed

    McClernon, F Joseph; Conklin, Cynthia A; Kozink, Rachel V; Adcock, R Alison; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Addicott, Merideth A; Chou, Ying-hui; Chen, Nan-kuei; Hallyburton, Matthew B; DeVito, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Environments associated with prior drug use provoke craving and drug taking, and set the stage for lapse/relapse. Although the neurobehavioral bases of environment-induced drug taking have been investigated with animal models, the influence of drug-environments on brain function and behavior in clinical populations of substance users is largely unexplored. Adult smokers (n=40) photographed locations personally associated with smoking (personal smoking environments; PSEs) or personal nonsmoking environment (PNEs). Following 24-h abstinence, participants underwent fMRI scanning while viewing PSEs, PNEs, standard smoking and nonsmoking environments, as well as proximal smoking (eg, lit cigarette) and nonsmoking (eg, pencil) cues. Finally, in two separate sessions following 6-h abstinence they viewed either PSEs or PNEs while cue-induced self-reported craving and smoking behavior were assessed. Viewing PSEs increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in right posterior hippocampus (pHPC; F(2,685)=3.74, p<0.024) and bilateral insula (left: F(2,685)=6.87, p=0.0011; right: F(2,685)=5.34, p=0.005). In the laboratory, viewing PSEs, compared with PNEs, was associated with higher craving levels (F(2,180)=18.32, p<0.0001) and greater ad lib smoking (F(1,36)=5.01, p=0.032). The effect of PSEs (minus PNEs) on brain activation in right insula was positively correlated with the effect of PSEs (minus PNEs) on number of puffs taken from a cigarette (r=0.6, p=0.001). Our data, for the first time in humans, elucidates the neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of real-world drug-associated environments on drug taking behavior under conditions of drug abstinence. These findings establish targets for the development and evaluation of treatments seeking to reduce environment provoked relapse.

  17. The Toxic Effects of Cigarette Additives. Philip Morris' Project Mix Reconsidered: An Analysis of Documents Released through Litigation

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Marcia S.; Kyriss, Thomas; Paranjape, Suman; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2009, the promulgation of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco regulation focused attention on cigarette flavor additives. The tobacco industry had prepared for this eventuality by initiating a research program focusing on additive toxicity. The objective of this study was to analyze Philip Morris' Project MIX as a case study of tobacco industry scientific research being positioned strategically to prevent anticipated tobacco control regulations. Methods and Findings We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents to identify internal strategies for research on cigarette additives and reanalyzed tobacco industry peer-reviewed published results of this research. We focused on the key group of studies conducted by Phillip Morris in a coordinated effort known as “Project MIX.” Documents showed that Project MIX subsumed the study of various combinations of 333 cigarette additives. In addition to multiple internal reports, this work also led to four peer-reviewed publications (published in 2001). These papers concluded that there was no evidence of substantial toxicity attributable to the cigarette additives studied. Internal documents revealed post hoc changes in analytical protocols after initial statistical findings indicated an additive-associated increase in cigarette toxicity as well as increased total particulate matter (TPM) concentrations in additive-modified cigarette smoke. By expressing the data adjusted by TPM concentration, the published papers obscured this underlying toxicity and particulate increase. The animal toxicology results were based on a small number of rats in each experiment, raising the possibility that the failure to detect statistically significant changes in the end points was due to underpowering the experiments rather than lack of a real effect. Conclusion The case study of Project MIX shows tobacco industry scientific research on the use of cigarette additives cannot be taken at face value. The

  18. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    PubMed

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases. PMID:25451345

  19. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    PubMed

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases.

  20. [The challenge of electronic cigarettes].

    PubMed

    Córdoba García, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cig) is a device with a conventional cigarette shape that releases a determined dose of nicotine vapour through an electronic heating process. The nicotine cartridges vary significantly in the amount of nicotine released, even within the same brand. Not all brands admit that they contain nicotine, but this is detected in the majority of units analysed. The e-cig usually contains a propellant, such as propylene glycol, which is a lung irritant. The short-term respiratory effect of the vapour of an e-cig is similar to that caused by the smoke of a cigarette, and is a cause of broncho-restriction. The majority of brands contain glycerine and at least one case of lipoid pneumonia has been detected due to this substance. Many brands contain traces of N-nitrosamines, heavy metals, and other products that are found in conventional cigarette smoke, but in a much higher proportion. There is currently no scientific evidence available that shows it is an effective device for quitting smoking, thus it should not be pro-actively recommended for this purpose, and may interfere with the use of demonstrated scientific evidence-based treatments for quitting smoking. It may have an undesirable effect on promoting the starting of smoking in adolescents or keeping adult smokers consuming nicotine and on gestural dependency. The toxicity of the vapour is not well known, but it is known that they are not innocuous, thus they should not be used in closed public spaces.

  1. Cigarette smoking and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, J B; Hegedüs, L

    1994-01-01

    Relevant English language articles published from 1970 through 1993 regarding the possible influence of cigarette smoking on the thyroid were identified through a MEDLINE search and manual searches of identified articles. Thiocyanate in tobacco smoke influences the thyroid by a competitive inhibition of iodine uptake and organification in the gland. Also the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system by cigarette smoke and benzpyrene, another constituent of tobacco, is thought to influence thyroid gland function. The thyroid hormones and TSH receptor autoantibodies are not affected by smoking, but serum TSH levels have been found to be slightly reduced. Smokers have a higher frequency of goiter and increased serum thyroglobulin levels, especially in iodine-deficient areas. Graves' ophthalmopathy is strongly associated with cigarette smoking; the more severe the eye disease the stronger the association. Graves' disease without ophthalmopathy is also associated with smoking, though this association is weaker. Thiocyanate level in cord blood equilibrates completely with the level in the mother, and a reverse correlation has been demonstrated between birth weight and thiocyanate level in cord blood. Cigarette smoking induces similar changes in thyroid function in the adult and the fetus. No separate study has elucidated the effects of cessation of smoking, but there seems to be longstanding effects induced by smoking, some probably irreversible.

  2. Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Gerry; Mahmood, Lamia; Leyland, Alastair H; Batty, G David

    2011-01-01

    Background Women now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past. Objectives To compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths. Methods Data on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was then calculated. Results There was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male ‘excess’ of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100 000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100 000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, while alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20% to 30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10% to 20% elsewhere in Europe. Conclusions Smoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in the coming decades. PMID:21228431

  3. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys.

    PubMed

    Springvloet, L; Willemsen, M C; Mons, U; van den Putte, B; Kunst, A E; Guignard, R; Hummel, K; Allwright, S; Siahpush, M; de Vries, H; Nagelhout, G E

    2015-10-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Higher educated smokers noticed anti-tobacco information slightly more often than lower educated smokers (F(2) = 25.78, P < 0.001). Noticing anti-tobacco information was associated with more negative smoking-related attitudes (β = 0.05, P < 0.001) and more quit intentions (OR = 1.08, P < 0.001). Among smokers without a quit intention at baseline, a positive association was found for noticing anti-tobacco information at baseline with follow-up quit intention (OR = 1.14, P = 0.003). No other longitudinal associations were found. No educational differences were found in the association of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes but associations with quit intentions were found only among low (OR = 1.12, P = 0.001) and high educated respondents (OR = 1.11, P < 0.001) and not among moderate educated respondents (OR = 1.02, P = 0.43). Noticing anti-tobacco information may positively influence quit intentions and possibly smoking-related attitudes. Lower educated smokers were as likely to be influenced by anti-tobacco information as higher educated smokers but noticed anti-tobacco information less often; increasing reach of anti-tobacco information may increase impact in this group.

  4. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Higher educated smokers noticed anti-tobacco information slightly more often than lower educated smokers (F(2) = 25.78, P < 0.001). Noticing anti-tobacco information was associated with more negative smoking-related attitudes (β = 0.05, P < 0.001) and more quit intentions (OR = 1.08, P < 0.001). Among smokers without a quit intention at baseline, a positive association was found for noticing anti-tobacco information at baseline with follow-up quit intention (OR = 1.14, P = 0.003). No other longitudinal associations were found. No educational differences were found in the association of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes but associations with quit intentions were found only among low (OR = 1.12, P = 0.001) and high educated respondents (OR = 1.11, P < 0.001) and not among moderate educated respondents (OR = 1.02, P = 0.43). Noticing anti-tobacco information may positively influence quit intentions and possibly smoking-related attitudes. Lower educated smokers were as likely to be influenced by anti-tobacco information as higher educated smokers but noticed anti-tobacco information less often; increasing reach of anti-tobacco information may increase impact in this group. PMID:26324396

  5. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  6. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    PubMed

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use. PMID:23673789

  7. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  8. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?*

    PubMed Central

    Knorst, Marli Maria; Benedetto, Igor Gorski; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso

    2014-01-01

    The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use. PMID:25410845

  9. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Knorst, Marli Maria; Benedetto, Igor Gorski; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso

    2014-10-01

    The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

  10. Brain activity during anticipation of smoking-related and emotionally positive pictures in smokers and nonsmokers: a new measure of cue reactivity.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ashley B; Gilbert, David G

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that a brain wave pattern known as stimulus preceding negativity (SPN) can index the anticipation of motivationally relevant events. The present study was the first to use SPN as an index of the motivational significance of smoking-related pictures. Emotionally positive and neutral pictures served as controls. The paradigm involved the following sequence: (a) presentation of a picture (S1) for 500 ms, (b) a fixation cross for 3,500 ms, (c) a second presentation (S2) of the same picture for 2,000 ms, and (d) another fixation cross signifying the beginning of a new S1-S2 trial using a different picture. The participants (N = 24, half smokers and half nonsmokers) viewed pictures from three categories (smoking-related, emotionally positive, or emotionally neutral). Consistent with predictions, smokers exhibited significantly greater mean SPN amplitudes in anticipation of smoking-related pictures relative to neutral pictures. Among nonsmokers the SPN was significantly smaller in anticipation of smoking pictures compared with neutral pictures. These findings are consistent with the incentive sensitization theory of addiction and other conditioning and cue-reactivity models.

  11. Investigating cigarette affordability in 60 cities using the cigarette price‐daily income ratio

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Ming‐yue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate cigarette affordability in 60 cities. Methods Affordability of cigarettes is defined as the ratio of the price of one pack of cigarettes to daily income (cigarette price‐daily income ratio: CPDIR). Daily income data were calculated using the mean of the seven occupations with the lowest daily wage, as listed in the 2006 Union Bank of Switzerland survey; cigarette prices in 2006 were sourced from the Economist Intelligence Unit. Results Cigarette affordability in most of the surveyed cities remains high. There is a tendency for cities with high income economies to have a high level of cigarette affordability. Most of the cities in Western Europe and South and North America have high cigarette affordability, whereas 66.7% of their counterparts in Eastern Europe have medium cigarette affordability. In Asia, all cities with high cigarette affordability belong to the group of upper middle to high income economies, except for the Philippines. In Africa, Johannesburg and Nairobi have high and medium levels of cigarette affordability, respectively. Conclusion Cigarette affordability for most of the sampled cities, especially those in high income economies, is high. There is room for increasing cigarette prices via tax increases. There is a risk that the increase in cigarette prices in newly emerging economies lags behind the high speed of economic growth being experiencing. Tax increases should be given high priority. PMID:18048622

  12. ILLICIT CIGARETTE TRADE IN THAILAND

    PubMed Central

    Pavananunt, Pirudee

    2012-01-01

    The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

  13. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012–2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. EXPOSURES Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. RESULTS Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary

  14. Hand rolling cigarette papers as the reference point for regulating cigarette fire safety

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, M; Duncanson, M; Fraser, T; McClellan, V; Linehan, B; Shirley, R

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare the burning characteristics of the tobacco and paper of manufactured and hand rolled cigarettes, and set a fire safety standard of manufacture to largely reduce the fire risk from discarded cigarettes. Methods: (1) Cigarette extinction test of ignition strength: 40 cigarettes per brand, lit and placed on 15 layers of filter paper, in accordance with ASTM test standard E2187-02. (2) Citrate extracted by 0.1N hydrochloric acid from cigarette papers and from tobacco in manufactured cigarettes, the supernatant analysed by high performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet visual light spectrophotometer. (3) Survey of 750 nationally representative adults age 18 years and over, by telephone, including 184 smokers. Materials: (a) New Zealand made Holiday, and Horizon, and US made Marlboro manufactured cigarettes; (b) US manufactured Merit with banded paper; (c) Holiday, Horizon and Marlboro hand rolling tobaccos, hand rolled in Rizla cigarette papers; (d) manufactured cigarettes as in (a), reconstructed using Rizla hand rolling cigarette papers. Results: 1. (a) For each brand of manufactured cigarettes, 40/40 burnt full length; (b) for Merit banded paper cigarettes 29/40 (73%) burnt full length; (c) for each brand of hand rolled cigarettes 0/40 burnt full length; (d) 0/40 manufactured cigarettes reconstructed with Rizla hand rolling paper burnt full length. 2. Citrate content: (a) In manufactured cigarette papers: 0.3–0.8 mg; in tobacco of manufactured cigarettes: Holiday 0, Horizon 0, Marlboro 8.8 mg; (b) Merit: in banded paper 0.418 mg; in tobacco 10.23 mg; (c) In hand rolled cigarettes: in the papers < 0.08 mg; in hand rolled tobacco 13.3–15.0 mg; (d) In hand rolling papers of reconstructed cigarettes: < 0.018 mg. 3. Requiring manufactured cigarettes to compulsorily self-extinguish when left unattended was supported by 67% of smokers, 61% of manufactured cigarette smokers, 82% of hand rolled smokers, and by 68% of non-smokers. Conclusion: The

  15. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to varying types of emotional and cigarette stimuli in smokers: a content comparison.

    PubMed

    Minnix, Jennifer A; Versace, Francesco; Robinson, Jason D; Lam, Cho Y; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Cui, Yong; Brown, Victoria L; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Identifying neural mechanisms associated with addiction has substantially improved the overall understanding of addictive processes. Indeed, research suggests that drug-associated cues may take advantage of neural mechanisms originally intended for emotional processing of stimuli relevant to survival. In this study, we investigated cortical responses to several categories of emotional cues (erotic, romance, pleasant objects, mutilation, sadness, and unpleasant objects) as well as two types of smoking-related cues (people smoking and cigarette-related objects). We recorded ERPs from 180 smokers prior to their participation in a smoking cessation clinical trial and assessed emotional salience by measuring the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP; 400 to 600 ms after picture onset). As expected, emotional and cigarette-related pictures prompted a significantly larger LPP than neutral pictures. The amplitude of the LPP increased as a function of picture arousal level, with high-arousing erotic and mutilation pictures showing the largest response in contrast to low-arousing pleasant and unpleasant objects, which showed the smallest response (other than neutral). Compared to females, male participants showed larger LPPs for high-arousing erotic and mutilation pictures. However, unlike emotional pictures, no difference was noted for the LPP between cigarette stimuli containing people versus those containing only objects, suggesting that in contrast to emotional objects, cigarette-related objects are highly relevant for smokers. We also compared the smokers to a small (N=40), convenience sample of never-smokers. We found that never-smokers had significantly smaller LPPs in response to erotic and cigarette stimuli containing only objects compared to smokers. PMID:23643564

  16. IMPACT OF THE “GIVING CIGARETTES IS GIVING HARM” CAMPAIGN ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF CHINESE SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Ling; Thrasher, James F.; Jiang, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Chang, Yvette; Walsemann, Katrina M.; Friedman, Daniela B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To date there is limited published evidence on the efficacy of tobacco control mass media campaigns in China. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a mass media campaign “Giving Cigarettes is Giving Harm” (GCGH) on Chinese smokers’ knowledge of smoking-related harms and attitudes toward cigarette gifts. Methods Population-based, representative data were analyzed from a longitudinal cohort of 3,709 adult smokers who participated in the International Tobacco Control China Survey conducted in six Chinese cities before and after the campaign. Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between campaign exposure and attitudes about cigarettes as gifts measured post-campaign. Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the effects of campaign exposure on post-campaign knowledge, adjusting for pre-campaign knowledge. Findings Fourteen percent (n=335) of participants recalled the campaign within the cities where the GCGH campaign was implemented. Participants in the intervention cities who recalled the campaign were more likely to disagree that cigarettes are good gifts (71% vs. 58%, p<0.01) and had greater levels of campaign-targeted knowledge than those who did not recall the campaign (Mean=1.97 vs. 1.62, p<0.01). Disagreeing that cigarettes are good gifts was higher in intervention cities than in control cities. Changes in campaign-targeted knowledge were similar in both cities, perhaps due to a secular trend, low campaign recall, or contamination issues. Conclusions These findings suggest that the GCGH campaign increased knowledge of smoking harms, which could promote downstream cessation. Findings provide evidence to support future campaign development to effectively fight the tobacco epidemic in China. PMID:24813427

  17. Scientific assessment of the use of sugars as cigarette tobacco ingredients: A review of published and other publicly available studies

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ewald; Schorp, Matthias K; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Seeman, Jeffrey I; Leyden, Donald E; Haussmann, Hans-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Sugars, such as sucrose or invert sugar, have been used as tobacco ingredients in American-blend cigarettes to replenish the sugars lost during curing of the Burley component of the blended tobacco in order to maintain a balanced flavor. Chemical-analytical studies of the mainstream smoke of research cigarettes with various sugar application levels revealed that most of the smoke constituents determined did not show any sugar-related changes in yields (per mg nicotine), while ten constituents were found to either increase (formaldehyde, acrolein, 2-butanone, isoprene, benzene, toluene, benzo[k]fluoranthene) or decrease (4-aminobiphenyl, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosonornicotine) in a statistically significant manner with increasing sugar application levels. Such constituent yields were modeled into constituent uptake distributions using simulations of nicotine uptake distributions generated on the basis of published nicotine biomonitoring data, which were multiplied by the constituent/nicotine ratios determined in the current analysis. These simulations revealed extensive overlaps for the constituent uptake distributions with and without sugar application. Moreover, the differences in smoke composition did not lead to relevant changes in the activity in in vitro or in vivo assays. The potential impact of using sugars as tobacco ingredients was further assessed in an indirect manner by comparing published data from markets with predominantly American-blend or Virginia-type (no added sugars) cigarettes. No relevant difference was found between these markets for smoking prevalence, intensity, some markers of dependence, nicotine uptake, or mortality from smoking-related lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, thorough examination of the data available suggests that the use of sugars as ingredients in cigarette tobacco does not increase the inherent risk and harm of cigarette smoking. PMID:22263649

  18. E-cigarettes: facts, perceptions, and marketing messages.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are perceived as an alternative to standard tobacco cigarette smoking, primarily because of the e-cigarette industry's marketing messages. However, scientific studies about e-cigarette safety and efficacy remain limited. This column presents some of the issues associated with e-cigarette use, such as potential components of regulation, perceptions that e-cigarettes can help users quit smoking, and free-wheeling marketing strategies that include expanding e-cigarette use to young people. Nurses can be a reliable source of information about e-cigarettes.

  19. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  20. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  1. 21 CFR 1141.14 - Misbranding of cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Misbranding of cigarettes. 1141.14 Section 1141.14...) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings § 1141.14 Misbranding of cigarettes. (a) A cigarette shall be deemed to be misbranded under section...

  2. 21 CFR 1141.14 - Misbranding of cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Misbranding of cigarettes. 1141.14 Section 1141.14...) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings § 1141.14 Misbranding of cigarettes. (a) A cigarette shall be deemed to be misbranded under section...

  3. 21 CFR 1141.14 - Misbranding of cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Misbranding of cigarettes. 1141.14 Section 1141.14...) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTE PACKAGE AND ADVERTISING WARNINGS; (Eff. 9-22-12) Cigarette Package and Advertising Warnings § 1141.14 Misbranding of cigarettes. (a) A cigarette shall be deemed to be...

  4. Evaluation of the effects of rivastigmine on cigarette smoking by methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    De la Garza, R; Yoon, J H

    2011-12-01

    Compared to smokers alone, smokers with co-morbid substance use disorders are at greater risk of suffering from smoking-related death. Despite this, relatively few studies have examined smoking cessation treatments for those with stimulant dependence. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the effects produced by short-term exposure to the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine (0, 3 or 6 mg) on cigarette smoking in non-treatment-seeking, methamphetamine-dependent volunteers. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study that took place over 9 days. The data indicate that rivastigmine treatment did not alter Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores, carbon monoxide readings, or cigarettes smoked per day, but a trend toward reduced urges to smoke (p<0.09) was detected during treatment with rivastigmine 3mg. These data, while preliminary, indicate that cholinesterase inhibitors warrant consideration as treatments for nicotine dependence, including use in stimulant-dependent individuals who exhibit significantly higher rates of smoking than the general population.

  5. Online E-cigarette Marketing Claims: A Systematic Content and Legal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Elizabeth G.; Berman, Micah; Hemmerich, Natalie; Carlson, Cristen; Htut, SuSandi; Slater, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. Methods We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen. We analyzed English-language websites where ENDS are sold for implicit and explicit health-related claims. A legal analysis determined whether such claims are permissible under the US Food and Drug Administration’s regulations. Results The vast majority of ENDS manufacturer (N = 78) and retailer (N = 32) websites made at least one health-related claim (77% and 65%, respectively). Modified risk claims and secondhand smoke-related claims were most prevalent, with an average of 2 claims per site. Conclusions Health-related claims are plentiful within ENDS manufacturer and retailer websites. Results demonstrate that these sites focus on potential benefits while minimizing or eliminating information about possible harmful effects of ENDS. These claims are subject to the current regulatory authority by the FDA, and pose a risk of misinforming consumers. PMID:27446984

  6. Functional neuroimaging study in identical twin pairs discordant for regular cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Lepore, Rebecca L; Kristjansson, Sean D; Schlaggar, Bradley L; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Petersen, Steven E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the tremendous public health and financial burden of cigarette smoking, relatively little is understood about brain mechanisms that subserve smoking behavior. This study investigated the effect of lifetime regular smoking on brain processing in a reward guessing task using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a co-twin control study design in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs that maximally controls for genetic and family background factors. Young adult (24-34 years) MZ female twin pairs (n = 15 pairs), discordant for regular smoking defined using Centers for Disease Control criteria as having smoked ≥100 cigarettes in their lifetime, were recruited from an ongoing genetic epidemiological longitudinal study of substance use and psychopathology. We applied hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain analyses to investigate the effect of regular smoking on reward processing. Reduced response to reward and punishment in regular compared with never-regular smokers was seen in hypothesis-driven ROI analysis of bilateral ventral striatum. Whole-brain analysis identified bilateral reward-processing regions that showed activation differences in response to winning or losing money but no effect of regular smoking; and frontal/parietal regions, predominantly in the right hemisphere, that showed robust effect of regular smoking but no effect of winning or losing money. Altogether, using a study design that maximally controls for group differences, we found that regular smoking had modest effects on striatal reward processing regions but robust effects on cognitive control/attentional systems. PMID:22340136

  7. Cigarette smoking induces small airway epithelial epigenetic changes with corresponding modulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Buro-Auriemma, Lauren J; Salit, Jacqueline; Hackett, Neil R; Walters, Matthew S; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Staudt, Michelle R; Fuller, Jennifer; Mahmoud, Mai; Stevenson, Christopher S; Hilton, Holly; Ho, Melisa W Y; Crystal, Ronald G

    2013-12-01

    The small airway epithelium (SAE), the first site of smoking-induced lung pathology, exhibits genome-wide changes in gene expression in response to cigarette smoking. Based on the increasing evidence that the epigenome can respond to external stimuli in a rapid manner, we assessed the SAE of smokers for genome-wide DNA methylation changes compared with nonsmokers, and whether changes in SAE DNA methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of these cells. Using genome-wide methylation analysis of SAE DNA of nonsmokers and smokers, the data identified 204 unique genes differentially methylated in SAE DNA of smokers compared with nonsmokers, with 67% of the regions with differential methylation occurring within 2 kb of the transcriptional start site. Among the genes with differential methylation were those related to metabolism, transcription, signal transduction and transport. For the differentially methylated genes, 35 exhibited a correlation with gene expression, 54% with an inverse correlation of DNA methylation with gene expression and 46% a direct correlation. These observations provide evidence that cigarette smoking alters the DNA methylation patterning of the SAE and that, for some genes, these changes are associated with the smoking-related changes in gene expression.

  8. Functional Neuroimaging Study in Identical Twin Pairs Discordant for Regular Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Lepore, Rebecca L.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Petersen, Steven E.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the tremendous public health and financial burden of cigarette smoking, relatively little is understood about brain mechanisms that subserve smoking behavior. This study investigated the effect of lifetime regular smoking on brain processing in a reward guessing task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a cotwin-control study design in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs that maximally controls for genetic and family background factors. Young adult (24–34 years) MZ female twin pairs (n=15 pairs), discordant for regular smoking defined using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria as having smoked ≥100 cigarettes lifetime were recruited from an ongoing genetic epidemiological longitudinal study of substance use and psychopathology. We applied hypothesis-driven region of interest and whole brain analyses to investigate the effect of regular smoking on reward processing. Reduced response to reward and punishment in regular compared to never-regular smokers was seen in hypothesis-driven region of interest analysis of bilateral ventral striatum. Whole brain analysis identified bilateral reward-processing regions that showed activation differences in response to winning or losing money but no effect of regular smoking; and frontal/parietal regions, predominantly in the right hemisphere, that showed robust effect of regular smoking but no effect of winning or losing money. Altogether, using a study design that maximally controls for group differences, we found that regular smoking had modest effects on striatal reward processing regions but robust effects on cognitive control/attentional systems. PMID:22340136

  9. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.

  10. HOW DO SMOKERS RESPOND TO CIGARETTE TAXES? EVIDENCE FROM CHINA'S CIGARETTE INDUSTRY.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Rizzo, John A; Sun, Qi; Wu, Fang

    2014-07-18

    This paper examines how Chinese smokers respond to tax-driven cigarette price increases by estimating a discrete choice model of demand for differentiated products, using annual nationwide brand-level cigarette sales data in China from 2005 to 2010. We allow for substitution between different cigarette brands and also incorporate key features of rational addiction theory into the model. Results show that the average own-price elasticity of demand for cigarettes at the brand level is -0.807, and the overall price elasticity of cigarettes at the market level is -0.488 in China. We find tax-induced substitution toward low-price cigarettes as well as high-tar cigarettes and that tax hikes encourage within-class substitution more than across-class substitution. These results have important policy implications for the potential effects of cigarette taxation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044632

  11. Menthol Cigarettes | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Menthol is a substance naturally found in mint plants such as peppermint and spearmint. It gives a cooling sensation. It is often used to relieve minor pain and irritation and prevent infection.    Menthol is added to many products. These include lozenges, syrups, creams and ointments, nasal sprays, powders, and candy. But none of these products are lighted or smoked when used. That makes them different from menthol cigarettes.  

  12. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette

  13. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's ‘effectiveness’ as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Conclusions Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons. PMID:24732162

  14. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  15. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Methods: This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Results: Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31–40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31–40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers. PMID:27688867

  16. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Methods: This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Results: Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31–40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31–40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers.

  17. 75 FR 69523 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Experience 1. Getting Consumers' Attention 2. Influencing Consumers' Awareness of Cigarette-Related Health...; Iran; Jordan; Latvia; Malaysia; Mauritius; Mexico; Mongolia; New Zealand; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay... cigarette smokers. Although the cigarette industry regularly loses customers through user cessation...

  18. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  19. Effects of cigarette smoking on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Dechanet, C; Anahory, T; Mathieu Daude, J C; Quantin, X; Reyftmann, L; Hamamah, S; Hedon, B; Dechaud, H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is associated with lower fecundity rates, adverse reproductive outcomes and a higher risk of IVF failures. Over the last few decades, prevalence of smoking among women of reproductive age has increased. This review focuses on current knowledge of the potential effects of smoke toxicants on all reproductive stages and the consequences of smoke exposure on reproductive functions. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on the impact of cigarette smoking and smoke constituents on the different stages of reproductive function, including epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. We attempted to create hypotheses and find explanations for the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke observed in experimental studies. RESULTS Cigarette smoke contains several thousand components (e.g. nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cadmium) with diverse effects. Each stage of reproductive function, folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and uterine myometrium is a target for cigarette smoke components. The effects of cigarette smoke are dose-dependent and are influenced by the presence of other toxic substances and hormonal status. Individual sensitivity, dose, time and type of exposure also play a role in the impact of smoke constituents on human fertility. CONCLUSIONS All stages of reproductive functions are targets of cigarette smoke toxicants. Further studies are necessary to better understand the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke compounds on the reproductive system in order to improve health care, help to reduce cigarette smoking and provide a better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in reproductive toxicology.

  20. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross‐sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double‐log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were −0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74 to −0.17) and −0.74 (95% CI −1.13 to −0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of −0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of −0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  1. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers. PMID:25746178

  2. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within—and between—participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' ‘lived experience’ of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. Methods and analyses This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. Ethics and dissemination This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be

  3. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Rosalie V.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Stephens, W. Edryd; Cummings, K. Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced. PMID:24452255

  4. Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosalie V; O'Connor, Richard J; Stephens, W Edryd; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-20

    Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

  5. LDOC1 silenced by cigarette exposure and involved in oral neoplastic transformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Huei; Pan, Kao-Lu; Tang, Ya-Chu; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Cheng, Ann-Joy; Shen, Mei-Ya; Cheng, Ying-Min; Huang, Tze-Ta; Lin, Pinpin

    2015-09-22

    Previously, we identified global epigenetic aberrations in smoking-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We hypothesized that cigarette exposure triggers OSCC through alteration of the methylome of oral cells. Here we report that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) significantly changes the genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content and nuclear accumulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNMT3A in human untransformed oral cells. By using integrated analysis of cDNA and methylation arrays of the smoking-associated dysplastic oral cell line and OSCC tumors, respectively, we identified four epigenetic targets--UCHL1, GPX3, LXN, and LDOC1--which may be silenced by cigarette. Results of quantitative methylation-specific PCR showed that among these four genes, LDOC1 promoter was the most sensitive to CSC. LDOC1 promoter hypermethylation and gene silencing followed 3 weeks of CSC treatment. LDOC1 knockdown led to a proliferative response and acquired clonogenicity of untransformed oral cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that LDOC1 was downregulated in 53.3% (8/15) and 57.1% (20/35) of premalignant oral tissues and early stage OSCCs, respectively, whereas 76.5% (13/17) of normal oral tissues showed high LDOC1 expression. Furthermore, the microarray data showed that LDOC1 expression had decreased in the lung tissues of current smokers compared with that in those of never smokers and had significantly decreased in the lung tumors of smokers compared with that in normal lung tissues. Our data suggest that CSC-induced promoter methylation may contribute to LDOC1 downregulation, thereby conferring oncogenic features to oral cells. These findings also imply a tumor suppressor role of LDOC1 in smoking-related malignancies such as OSCC and lung cancer. PMID:26317789

  6. Effect of cigarette smoke and dietary cholesterol on plasma lipoprotein composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hojnacki, J.L.; Mulligan, J.J.; Cluette, J.E.; Kew, R.R.; Stack, D.J.; Huber, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Pigeons were assigned to four treatment groups: 1) Controls fed a chow diet ad libitum and retained in their cages; 2) Sham pigeons fed a cholesterol-saturated fat diet and exposed to fresh air by the Lorillard smoking machine; 3) Low nicotine-low carbon monoxide (LoLo) animals also fed the cholesterol diet and exposed to low concentrations of cigarette smoke; and 4) High nicotine-high carbon monoxide (HiHi) birds fed the cholesterol diet and subjected to high concentrations of inhalants. Plasma very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL), and high density (HDL) lipoproteins were isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Smoke-related differences appeared in HiHi HDL which contained relatively more free and esterified cholesterol and total lipid, but less total protein than HDL from Sham-smoked pigeons. VLDL from birds exposed to cigarette smoke (LoLo and HiHi) contained relatively more total lipid, but less total protein than VLDL from Sham pigeons. Inhalation smoke produced a marked depression in the HDL2/HDL3 ratio resulting from an increased proportion of the HDL3 subfraction relative to HDL2. Pigeons fed the cholesterol-saturated fat diet circulated HDL with greater free and esterified cholesterol mass than Controls. Diet also altered the type of cholesteryl ester present in HDL with cholesteryl linoleate representing the predominant form in Control pigeons and cholesteryl oleate in cholesterol-fed birds. These results demonstrate that cigarette smoking can mediate alterations in lipoprotein composition independent of changes induced by dietary cholesterol and saturated fat.

  7. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Langleben, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study’s objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  8. Emotional graphic cigarette warning labels reduce the electrophysiological brain response to smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Wang, An-Li; Romer, Dan; Elman, Igor; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Ruben C; Langleben, Daniel D

    2015-03-01

    There is an ongoing public debate about the new graphic warning labels (GWLs) that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to place on cigarette packs. Tobacco companies argued that the strongly emotional images FDA proposed to include in the GWLs encroached on their constitutional rights. The court ruled that FDA did not provide sufficient scientific evidence of compelling public interest in such encroachment. This study's objectives were to examine the effects of the GWLs on the electrophysiological and behavioral correlates of smoking addiction and to determine whether labels rated higher on the emotional reaction (ER) scale are associated with greater effects. We studied 25 non-treatment-seeking smokers. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed a random sequence of paired images, in which visual smoking (Cues) or non-smoking (non-Cues) images were preceded by GWLs or neutral images. Participants reported their cigarette craving after viewing each pair. Dependent variables were magnitude of P300 ERPs and self-reported cigarette craving in response to Cues. We found that subjective craving response to Cues was significantly reduced by preceding GWLs, whereas the P300 amplitude response to Cues was reduced only by preceding GWLs rated high on the ER scale. In conclusion, our study provides experimental neuroscience evidence that weighs in on the ongoing public and legal debate about how to balance the constitutional and public health aspects of the FDA-proposed GWLs. The high toll of smoking-related illness and death adds urgency to the debate and prompts consideration of our findings while longitudinal studies of GWLs are underway. PMID:24330194

  9. Examining the effects of initial smoking abstinence on response to smoking-related stimuli and response inhibition in a human laboratory model

    PubMed Central

    Bradstreet, Matthew P.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Kozink, Rachel V.; Skelly, Joan M.; Washio, Yukiko; Lopez, Alexa A.; Parry, Marie A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Research is needed on initial smoking abstinence and relapse risk. Objective This study aims to investigate the effects of different durations of initial abstinence on sensitivity to smoking-related stimuli and response inhibition in the context of a larger battery of outcome measures. Methods Smokers were randomly assigned to receive payment contingent on smoking abstinence across all 15 study days (15C) or just the final 2 days (2C). Smoking status and subject ratings were assessed daily. Participants completed fMRI sessions at baseline and day 14 during which they completed craving ratings after exposure to smoking-related and neutral stimuli and performed a response inhibition task. On day 15, participants completed a smoking preference session involving 20 exclusive choices between smoking and money. Results The payment contingencies were effective in producing greater smoking abstinence in the 15C vs. 2C conditions. Ratings of withdrawal decreased, while ratings of ease and confidence in abstaining increased in the 15C vs. 2C conditions across the 15-day study. 15C participants were less likely to choose the smoking option in the preference session. 15C participants reported greater reductions in craving compared to the 2C participants in the presence of smoking-related and neutral stimuli (i.e., decreases in generalized craving), but no differences were noted in cue reactivity per se or in response inhibition. Conclusions Results systematically replicate prior observations that a period 2 weeks of initial abstinence decreases the relative reinforcing effects of smoking and improves other outcomes associated with relapse risk compared to the initial day or two of a cessation effort, and extends them by underscoring the importance of generalized rather than cue-induced craving in relation to relapse risk during the initial weeks of smoking cessation. PMID:24337077

  10. E-cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among US adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Lauren M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance E-cigarette use is increasing rapidly among adolescents and e-cigarettes are currently unregulated. Objective Examine e-cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking. Design Cross-sectional analyses of survey data. Setting 2011 and 2012 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) Participants Representative sample of US middle and high school students in 2011 (n=17,353) and 2012 (n=22,529) Exposures Ever and current e-cigarette use Main outcome measures Experimentation with, ever, and current smoking; smoking abstinence Results In pooled analyses, among cigarette experimenters (≥1 puff), ever e-cigarette use was associated with higher odds of ever smoking cigarettes (≥100 cigarettes; OR= 6.31, 95% CI [5.39-7.39) and current cigarette smoking (OR=5.96 [5.67-6.27]). Current e-cigarette use was positively associated with ever smoking cigarettes (OR=7.42 [5.63-9.79]) and current cigarette smoking (OR= 7.88 [6.01-10.32]. In 2011, current cigarette smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were more likely to intend to quit smoking within the next year (OR=1.53 [1.03-2.28]). Among experimenters with conventional cigarettes, ever use of e-cigarettes was also associated with lower 30-day (OR=0.24 [0.21-0.28]), 6-month (OR=0.24 [0.21-0.28]), and 1-year (OR=0.25 [0.21-0.30]) abstinence from cigarettes. Current e-cigarette use was also associated with lower 30-day (OR=0.11 [0.08-0.15]), 6-month (OR=0.11 [0.08-0.15]), and 1-year (OR=0.12 [0.07-0.18]) abstinence. Among ever smokers of cigarettes (≥100 cigarettes), ever e-cigarette use was negatively associated with 30-day (OR=0.61, [0.42-0.89]), 6-month (OR=0.53, [0.33-0.83]) and one-year (OR=0.32 [0.18-0.56) abstinence from conventional cigarettes. Current e-cigarette use was also negatively associated with 30-day (OR=0.35 [0.18-0.69]), 6-month (OR=0.30 [0.13-0.68]), and one-year (OR=0.34 [0.13-0.87]) abstinence. Conclusions E-cigarette use was associated with higher odds of ever or current cigarette smoking, higher

  11. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  12. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  13. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  14. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  15. Comparison between a Broad-Range Real-Time and a Broad-Range End-Point PCR Assays for the Detection of Bacterial 16S rRNA in Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Meddeb, Mariam; Koebel, Christelle; Jaulhac, Benoît; Schramm, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Broad range PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene is widely used to test clinical samples for the presence of bacterial DNA. End-point 16S PCR is both time-consuming and at high risk of cross-contamination. Prior to the replacement of the 16S end-point PCR assay routinely used in our clinical laboratory by a new 16S real-time PCR assay, we aimed to compare the performances of both techniques for the direct diagnosis of bacterial infections in clinical samples. In this prospective study, 129 clinical samples were included for direct comparison of both techniques. The sensitivity of 16S real-time PCR assay (76%) was significantly higher than that of end-point 16S PCR assay (41%) (p<0.01). Specificities of both PCR assays did not differ significantly (p=0.43). The 16S real-time PCR assay yielded an etiological diagnosis in 19% of culture-negative samples. It constitutes a reliable and complementary diagnostic tool to the bacterial culture.

  16. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    PubMed Central

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  17. Smokers' and E-Cigarette Users' Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are "not a safe alternative to smoking". However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration's proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen's advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse's. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive. PMID:27376310

  18. A review on engineering of cellulosic cigarette paper to reduce carbon monoxide delivery of cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Li, Jinsong; Qian, Xueren; Ren, Wanshan; Fatehi, Pedram

    2014-01-30

    In cigarette production, the cellulosic paper essentially derived from flax fibers or other fiber materials is used as the wrapping material. During smoking of cigarettes, the highly toxic carbon monoxide is produced. To decrease the amount of carbon monoxide emission in the mainstream smoke, the engineering of all cigarette components including cellulosic cigarette paper and tobacco column is critical. This review summarizes the concepts related to engineering of cigarette paper. These mainly include permeability control, increased use of burn additives, optimization of fiber basis weight, engineering of calcium carbonate fillers, and incorporation of catalysts/oxidants. In particular, catalytic and/or oxidative conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide has been very widely reported. The control of permeability/diffusivity of cigarette paper is also of critical importance for enhanced diffusion of carbon monoxide out of the cigarette. The development of new concepts and combination of various concepts may lead to breakthroughs in this area.

  19. Characterization of SPECTRUM Variable Nicotine Research Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Patricia; Steven, Pappas R.; Bravo, Roberto; Lisko, Joseph G.; Damian, Maria; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Keong, Lisa M.; Kimbrell, Jacob B.; Kuklenyik, Peter; Lawler, Tameka S.; Lee, Grace E.; Mendez, Magaly; Perez, Jose; Smith, Shakia; Tran, Hang; Tyx, Robert; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide researchers an extensive characterization of the SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes. Methods Data on cigarette physical properties, nicotine content, harmful and potentially harmful constituents in the tobacco filler was compiled. Results Data on physical properties, concentrations of menthol, nicotine and minor alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ammonia, and toxic metals in the filler tobacco for all available varieties of Spectrum research cigarettes are provided. The similarity in the chemistry and physical properties of SPECTRUM cigarettes to commercial cigarettes renders them acceptable for use in behavioral studies. Baseline information on harmful and potentially harmful constituents in research tobacco products, particularly constituent levels such as minor alkaloids that fall outside typical ranges reported for commercial, provide researchers with the opportunity to monitor smoking behavior and to identify biomarkers that will inform efforts to understand the role of nicotine in creating and sustaining addiction. Conclusions Well characterized research cigarettes suitable for human consumption are an important tool in clinical studies for investigating the physiological impacts of cigarettes delivering various levels of nicotine, the impact of reduced nicotine cigarettes on nicotine addiction, and the relationship between nicotine dose and smoking behavior. PMID:26779559

  20. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  1. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  2. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  3. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  4. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  5. E-Cigarettes | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    You may have heard people talking about using electronic cigarettes (also called e-cigarettes or e-cigs) as a way to try to quit smoking. If you’re thinking about using an e-cig, here are three things you should know.

  6. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Cancer.gov

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  7. Cigarette Warning Labels as Educational Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; And Others

    This paper reports an investigation on the educational impact of warning labels on cigarette packages on adolescents. Subjects were asked to identify the locations of warning labels on cigarette packages and advertising and to restate the warning label. Results indicated that official warnings may be well known in general terms but poorly known in…

  8. Candy cigarettes: do they encourage children's smoking?

    PubMed

    Klein, J D; Forehand, B; Oliveri, J; Patterson, C J; Kupersmidt, J B; Strecher, V

    1992-01-01

    Candy and bubble gum cigarettes are packaged to resemble cigarette brands, and so they may encourage young children to smoke. Two studies of the role of these products in the development of children's attitudes and behaviors toward smoking were conducted. In the first study, six focus group interviews were conducted with 25 children in three age groups (4 through 5, 6 through 8, and 9 through 11 years old). Children in each group were shown five candy and snack foods and asked about their opinions and experiences with each item. In the second study, 195 seventh-grade students in a southeastern city school system were surveyed about their cigarette smoking and candy cigarette use. In the focus groups, candy cigarettes were recognized by most children. Young children played with the candy cigarettes more than with other candy or snack items and made general references to smoking behaviors. Older children made favorable references to smoking behavior; most knew which stores sold candy cigarettes, and many had chosen to buy and use these items, despite parental disapproval. Candy cigarettes may play a role in the development of children's attitudes toward smoking as an acceptable, favorable, or normative behavior. Elimination of these products should be part of efforts to prevent initiation of smoking by children. PMID:1728016

  9. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-30

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality.

  10. Conditional risk assessment of adolescents’ electronic cigarette perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Chaffee, Benjamin W.; Gansky, Stuart A.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Couch, Elizabeth T.; Essex, Gwen; Walsh, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adapt an established instrument for measuring adolescents’ cigarette-related perceptions for new application with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods In this exploratory study, 104 male high school students (40% tobacco ever-users) estimated the probability of potential e-cigarette risks (eg, lung cancer) or benefits (eg, look cool). We calculated associations between risk/benefit composite scores, ever-use, and use intention for e-cigarettes and analogously for combustible cigarettes. Results E-cigarette ever-use was associated with lower perceived risks, with adjusted differences versus never-users greater for e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Risk composite score was inversely associated, and benefit score positively associated, with e-cigarette ever-use and use intention. Conclusion Conditional risk assessment characterized adolescents’ perceived e-cigarette risk/benefit profile, with potential utility for risk-perception measurement in larger future studies. PMID:25741686

  11. Cigarette ignition of soft furnishings: A literature review with commentary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasny, John F.

    1987-04-01

    Literature pertinent to the ignition by smoldering cigarettes of upholstered furniture and mattresses (soft furnishings) was searched through early 1986. This included literature on the smoldering behavior of cigarettes in air; their behavior on a variety of substrates simulating soft furnishings; mechanism of smoldering in substrates; relative cigarette ignition resistance of substrates; and relative propensity of commercial cigarette packings to ignite substrates. According to the reviewed literature, the smoldering behavior of cigarettes on substrates differs from that of cigarettes burning in air: on substrates, cigarette temperatures tend to be lower, and burning rates slower. These differences seem to be larger for substrates which ignite than for those which self-extinguish after the cigarette burns out. The characteristics of soft furnishings which insure resistance to cigarette ignition have been established, but those of cigarettes with low propensity to ignite furnishings have not. No mathematical model has been reported for the interaction of cigarette and substrate, but some empirical data do exist.

  12. State cigarette excise taxes - United States, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-03-30

    Increasing the price of cigarettes reduces the demand for cigarettes, thereby reducing youth smoking initiation and cigarette consumption and decreasing the prevalence of cigarette use in the United States overall, particularly among youths and young adults. The most common way governments have increased the price of cigarettes is by increasing cigarette excise taxes, which currently are imposed by all states and the District of Columbia. To update data on state cigarette excise taxes in 2009, CDC conducted a survey of changes in state cigarette excise taxes during 2010-2011. During that period, eight states increased their cigarette excise taxes, and one state decreased its tax; as a result, the mean state tax increased from $1.34 in 2009 to $1.46 in 2011. Previous evidence indicates that further increases in cigarette excise taxes would be expected to result in further reductions in demand for cigarettes, decreasing smoking and associated morbidity and mortality. PMID:22456118

  13. The Effects of Smoking-Related Television Advertising on Smoking and Intentions to Quit Among Adults in the United States: 1999–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoonsang; Choi, Young Ku; Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether state-sponsored antitobacco advertisements are associated with reduced adult smoking, and interactions between smoking-related advertising types. Methods. We measured mean exposure to smoking-related advertisements with television ratings for the top-75 US media markets from 1999 to 2007. We combined these data with individual-level Current Population Surveys Tobacco Use Supplement data and state tobacco control policy data. Results. Higher exposure to state-sponsored, Legacy, and pharmaceutical advertisements was associated with less smoking; higher exposure to tobacco industry advertisements was associated with more smoking. Higher exposure to state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements was positively associated with intentions to quit and having made a past-year quit attempt; higher exposure to ads for pharmaceutical cessation aids was negatively associated with having made a quit attempt. There was a significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements. Conclusions. Exposure to state-sponsored advertisements was far below Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–recommended best practices. The significant negative relationships between antismoking advertising and adult smoking provide strong evidence that tobacco-control media campaigns help reduce adult smoking. The significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertising suggests that the campaigns reinforce one another. PMID:22397350

  14. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study

    PubMed Central

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. Methods and analysis The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10 269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. Ethics and dissemination TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a

  15. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  16. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  17. Electronic cigarettes: ambiguity and controversies of usage.

    PubMed

    Savant, Suyog; Shetty, Deeksha; Phansopkar, Sushil; Jamkhande, Amol

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes.

  18. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Karnik, A.S.; Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  19. Attenuation of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice by Apolipoprotein A-1 Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chorong; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Lee, Myoung Won; Paik, Sanghyun; Jang, An Soo; Kim, Do Jin; Uh, Sootaek; Kim, Yonghoon; Park, Choon-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and proteolysis participate primarily in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema. COPD is a highly prevalent smoking-related disease for which no effective therapy exists to improve the disease course. Although apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA1) has antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties as well as cholesterol efflux potential, its role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema has not been determined. Therefore, we investigated whether human ApoA1 transgenic (TG) mice, with conditionally induced alveolar epithelium to overexpress ApoA1, are protected against the CS-induced lung inflammatory response and development of emphysema. In this study, ApoA1 levels were significantly decreased in the lungs of patients with COPD and in the lungs of mice exposed to CS. ApoA1 TG mice did not develop emphysema when chronically exposed to CS. Compared with the control TG mice, ApoA1 overexpression attenuated lung inflammation, oxidative stress, metalloprotease activation, and apoptosis in CS-exposed mouse lungs. To explore a plausible mechanism of antiapoptotic activity of ApoA1, alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were treated with CS extract (CSE). ApoA1 prevented CSE-induced translocation of Fas and downstream death-inducing signaling complex into lipid rafts, thereby inhibiting Fas-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, the data showed that ApoA1 overexpression attenuated CS-induced lung inflammation and emphysema in mice. Augmentation of ApoA1 in the lung may have therapeutic potential in preventing smoking-related COPD/emphysema.

  20. Health Education and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Morison, James B.; Medovy, Herry; MacDonell, Gordon T.

    1964-01-01

    The smoking habits of Winnipeg school students were surveyed before and after a three-year program of health education on the hazards of smoking, directed to 8300 out of 48,000 students. The program consisted of informal approaches to students in elementary schools and a formal program of talks, lectures, films, and student participation for older students. There were fewer students at all ages who had never smoked a cigarette at the time of the second survey. There was a slight decrease in the number of regular smokers in high school, most marked in the school where the program was enthusiastically received and student participation was most active. A direct relationship between parental smoking and that of the student, and an inverse relationship between academic achievement and student smoking, were shown on both surveys. The majority of students believed that smoking caused lung cancer and other hazards to health, although this was less marked among smokers. The results indicated that an intensive program of health education directed to the teenagers in school was a potentially useful approach to the problem of cigarette smoking. PMID:14154295

  1. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.

    PubMed

    Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina

    2010-06-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.

  2. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation.

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation and Cigarette Smoking in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jun; Deng, Siyun; Yu, Kuai; Liu, Xuezhen; Deng, Qifei; Sun, Huizhen; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian; Guo, Huan; Chen, Weihong; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Bing; Kuang, Dan; He, Xiaosheng; Bai, Yansen; Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Li, Xiaoliang; Yang, Liangle; Jiang, Haijing; Zhang, Yizhi; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Longxian; Luo, Xiaoting; Mei, Wenhua; Zhou, Zhiming; Sun, Shunchang; Zhang, Liyun; Liu, Chuanyao; Guo, Yanjun; Zhang, Zhihong; Hu, Frank B.; Liang, Liming; Wu, Tangchun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a risk factor for many human diseases. DNA methylation has been related to smoking, but genome-wide methylation data for smoking in Chinese populations is limited. Objectives: We aimed to investigate epigenome-wide methylation in relation to smoking in a Chinese population. Methods: We measured the methylation levels at > 485,000 CpG sites (CpGs) in DNA from leukocytes using a methylation array and conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of DNA methylation and smoking in a total of 596 Chinese participants. We further evaluated the associations of smoking-related CpGs with internal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biomarkers and their correlations with the expression of corresponding genes. Results: We identified 318 CpGs whose methylation levels were associated with smoking at a genome-wide significance level (false discovery rate < 0.05), among which 161 CpGs annotated to 123 genes were not associated with smoking in recent studies of Europeans and African Americans. Of these smoking-related CpGs, methylation levels at 80 CpGs showed significant correlations with the expression of corresponding genes (including RUNX3, IL6R, PTAFR, ANKRD11, CEP135 and CDH23), and methylation at 15 CpGs was significantly associated with urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene, the most representative internal monohydroxy-PAH biomarker for smoking. Conclusion: We identified DNA methylation markers associated with smoking in a Chinese population, including some markers that were also correlated with gene expression. Exposure to naphthalene, a byproduct of tobacco smoke, may contribute to smoking-related methylation. Citation: Zhu X, Li J, Deng S, Yu K, Liu X, Deng Q, Sun H, Zhang X, He M, Guo H, Chen W, Yuan J, Zhang B, Kuang D, He X, Bai Y, Han X, Liu B, Li X, Yang L, Jiang H, Zhang Y, Hu J, Cheng L, Luo X, Mei W, Zhou Z, Sun S, Zhang L, Liu C, Guo Y, Zhang Z, Hu FB, Liang L, Wu T. 2016. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and cigarette smoking in Chinese. Environ

  4. Correlation of cadmium and aluminum in blood samples of kidney disorder patients with drinking water and tobacco smoking: related health risk.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Brahaman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia

    2016-02-01

    The combined exposure to aluminum (Al) and cadmium (Cd) causes more pronounced adverse health effects on humans. The kidneys are the main organs affected by internal exposure to Cd and Al via food and non-food items. The objective of present study was to measure the Al and Cd concentrations in cigarettes tobacco (branded and non-branded) and drinking water (domestic treated, ground and lake water) samples in southern part of Pakistan, to assess the risk due to ingestion of water and inhalation of cigarettes smoke containing high concentrations of both elements. The study population (kidney disorder and healthy) divided into two group based on consuming lake and ground water, while smoking non-branded cigarette as exposed, while drinking domestic treated water and smoking branded cigarette as non-exposed. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determined Cd and Al concentrations in tobacco, drinking water and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the levels of Al and Cd in lake and underground water were higher than the permissible limit in drinking water recommended by the World Health Organization. The biochemical parameters of exposed and referent patients, especially urinary N-acetyl-h-glucosaminidase, were used as a biomarkers of kidney disorder. Exposed kidney disorder patients have higher levels of Cd and Al than the exposed referents subjects, while difference was significant when compared to resulted data of non-exposed patients and referents (p = 0.01-0.001). The pearson correlation showed positive correlation between both toxic element concentrations in water, cigarettes versus blood samples of exposed subjects (r = 0.20-0.67 and 0.71-0.82), while lower values were observed for non-exposed subjects (r = 0.123-0.423 and 0.331-0.425), respectively.

  5. Correlation of cadmium and aluminum in blood samples of kidney disorder patients with drinking water and tobacco smoking: related health risk.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Brahaman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Arain, Sadaf Sadia

    2016-02-01

    The combined exposure to aluminum (Al) and cadmium (Cd) causes more pronounced adverse health effects on humans. The kidneys are the main organs affected by internal exposure to Cd and Al via food and non-food items. The objective of present study was to measure the Al and Cd concentrations in cigarettes tobacco (branded and non-branded) and drinking water (domestic treated, ground and lake water) samples in southern part of Pakistan, to assess the risk due to ingestion of water and inhalation of cigarettes smoke containing high concentrations of both elements. The study population (kidney disorder and healthy) divided into two group based on consuming lake and ground water, while smoking non-branded cigarette as exposed, while drinking domestic treated water and smoking branded cigarette as non-exposed. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determined Cd and Al concentrations in tobacco, drinking water and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the levels of Al and Cd in lake and underground water were higher than the permissible limit in drinking water recommended by the World Health Organization. The biochemical parameters of exposed and referent patients, especially urinary N-acetyl-h-glucosaminidase, were used as a biomarkers of kidney disorder. Exposed kidney disorder patients have higher levels of Cd and Al than the exposed referents subjects, while difference was significant when compared to resulted data of non-exposed patients and referents (p = 0.01-0.001). The pearson correlation showed positive correlation between both toxic element concentrations in water, cigarettes versus blood samples of exposed subjects (r = 0.20-0.67 and 0.71-0.82), while lower values were observed for non-exposed subjects (r = 0.123-0.423 and 0.331-0.425), respectively. PMID:26003113

  6. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  7. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except...

  8. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except...

  9. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  10. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except...

  11. 19 CFR 10.65 - Cigars and cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars and cigarettes. 10.65 Section 10.65 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.65 Cigars and cigarettes. (a) Imported cigars and cigarettes in bonded warehouse... cigarettes is made up of a number of units, each in a separate package, such units may be...

  12. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately...

  13. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  14. 19 CFR 10.65 - Cigars and cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigars and cigarettes. 10.65 Section 10.65 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.65 Cigars and cigarettes. (a) Imported cigars and cigarettes in bonded warehouse... cigarettes is made up of a number of units, each in a separate package, such units may be...

  15. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  16. 19 CFR 10.65 - Cigars and cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars and cigarettes. 10.65 Section 10.65 Customs... Equipment for Vessels § 10.65 Cigars and cigarettes. (a) Imported cigars and cigarettes in bonded warehouse... cigarettes is made up of a number of units, each in a separate package, such units may be...

  17. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  18. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  19. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately...

  20. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  1. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately...

  2. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  3. 27 CFR 40.23 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tax rates. 40.23... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.23 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following rates under 26...

  4. 27 CFR 41.74 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for cigarettes. 41..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.74 Notice for cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes, except...

  5. 27 CFR 41.32 - Cigarette tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tax rates. 41.32... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.32 Cigarette tax rates. Cigarettes are taxed at the following...

  6. Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: Free or Purchased?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Paul; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Forster, Jean L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have described youth cigarette sources in terms of whether the cigarettes were free or purchased. Understanding the different ways youth obtain tobacco can guide development of interventions to more effectively reduce youth smoking. Purpose: To determine the propensity for youth to purchase cigarettes versus obtain cigarettes for free,…

  7. 27 CFR 40.215 - Notice for cigarettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for cigarettes. 40..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES... cigarettes. Every package of cigarettes shall, before removal subject to tax, have adequately...

  8. Characteristics of Smoking Used Cigarettes among an Incarcerated Population

    PubMed Central

    Lantini, Ryan; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Roberts, Mary B.; Bock, Beth C.; Stein, L.A.R.; Parker, Donna R.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as “smoking used cigarettes.” Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes (‘butts’), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a US prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and female inmates at baseline. Prevalence of smoking used cigarettes was assessed using three questions; one about sharing cigarettes with strangers, one about smoking a “found” cigarette, and one about smoking previously used cigarettes. Factors associated with those who engaged in smoking used cigarettes were then compared to those who did not engage in smoking used cigarettes. A majority of participants (61.5%) endorsed engaging in at least one smoking used cigarette behavior in the past prior to incarceration. Those who engaged in these behaviors were more likely to have a higher degree of nicotine dependence, to have started smoking regularly at a younger age, and to have lived in an unstable living environment prior to incarceration. Our results indicate that a history of smoking used cigarettes is common among incarcerated persons in the US. Consistent with our hypothesis, engaging in smoking used cigarettes was found to be associated with a higher degree of nicotine dependence. PMID:25180554

  9. Patient–physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Michael B.; Giovenco, Daniel P.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smokers are likely asking their physicians about the safety of e-cigarettes and their potential role as a cessation tool; however, the research literature on this communication is scant. A pilot study of physicians in the United States was conducted to investigate physician–patient communication regarding e-cigarettes. Methods A total of 158 physicians were recruited from a direct marketing e-mail list and completed a short, web-based survey between January and April 2014. The survey addressed demographics, physician specialty, patient–provider e-cigarette communication, and attitudes towards tobacco harm reduction. Results Nearly two-thirds (65%) of physicians reported being asked about e-cigarettes by their patients, and almost a third (30%) reported that they have recommended e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool. Male physicians were significantly more likely to endorse a harm reduction approach. Discussion Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction. PMID:26844056

  10. A public health strategy for e-cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina

    2015-07-01

    The e-cigarette may present a new and significant Public Health problem: Studies published so far do not seem to indicate that e-cigarette use is just a passing trend. If e-cigarette use is less harmless than it is portrayed in many advertisements, Public Health would do well to start a serious discussion about a suitable prevention policy as soon as possible.The aim of this short paper is to discuss a range of measures designed to prevent e-cigarette consumption.Concretely, we suggest to monitor e-cigarette use, the e-cigarette industry and prevention policies, to implement a vapor-free policy, to develop help to quit e-cigarette use, to inform about the health risks of e-cigarette use, to establish regulations on e-cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and to introduce taxes on e-cigarettes.

  11. Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidence indicates that electronic cigarettes are by far a less harmful alternative to smoking and significant health benefits are expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to electronic cigarettes. Research will help make electronic cigarettes more effective as smoking substitutes and will better define and further reduce residual risks from use to as low as possible, by establishing appropriate quality control and standards. PMID:25083263

  12. Study protocol for a phase III multicentre, randomised, open-label, blinded-end point trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of immunoglobulin plus cyclosporin A in patients with severe Kawasaki disease (KAICA Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Aoyagi, Reiko; Hamada, Hiromichi; Sato, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Onouchi, Yoshihiro; Ebata, Ryota; Terauchi, Moe; Terai, Masaru; Hanaoka, Hideki; Hata, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown aetiology that predominantly affects infants and young children. We hypothesise that cyclosporin A (CsA) may be effective in treating KD by regulating the Ca2+/NFAT signalling pathway. This trial compares the current standard therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and the combined IVIG+CsA therapy in paediatric patients with severe KD. Methods and analysis This trial is a phase III, multicentre, randomised, open-label, blinded-end point trial that evaluates the efficacy and safety of IVIG+CsA therapy. Patients with severe KD who satisfy the eligibility criteria are randomised (1:1) to receive either CsA (5 mg/kg/day for 5 days; Neoral) plus high-dose IVIG (2 g/kg for 24 h and aspirin 30 mg/kg/day), or high-dose IVIG alone (2 g/kg for 24 h and aspirin 30 mg/kg/day). The primary end point is the frequency of occurrence of coronary artery abnormalities during the trial period. An independent end point review committee will be in charge of the trial assessment. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of each institution. The trial was notified and registered at the Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency, in Japan. The trial is currently on-going and is scheduled to finish in April 2017. The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration number JMA-IIA00174; Pre-results. PMID:26628527

  13. High School Students’ Use of Electronic Cigarettes to Vaporize Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly among high school (HS) students. Of concern, e-cigarettes can be used to vaporize cannabis, although use rates among adolescents are unknown. We evaluated lifetime rates of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis among all lifetime e-cigarette users (27.9%), all lifetime cannabis users (29.2%), and lifetime users of both e-cigarettes and cannabis (18.8%); common means of vaporizing cannabis including hash oil, wax infused with Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and dried cannabis; and demographic predictors of using e-cigarettes to vaporize cannabis. METHODS: In the spring of 2014, 3847 Connecticut HS students completed an anonymous survey assessing e-cigarette and cannabis use. RESULTS: Vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes was common among lifetime e-cigarette users, lifetime cannabis users, and lifetime dual users (e-cigarette 18.0%, cannabis 18.4%, dual users 26.5%). Students reported using e-cigarettes to vaporize hash oil (e-cigarette 15.4%, cannabis 15.5%, dual users 22.9%) and wax infused with THC (e-cigarette 10.0%, cannabis 10.2%, dual users 14.8%) and using portable electronic vaporizers to vaporize dried cannabis leaves (e-cigarette 19.6%, lifetime cannabis 23.1%, lifetime dual users 29.1%). Binary logistic regression indicated that male students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05), younger students (OR = 0.64), lifetime e-cigarette users (OR = 5.27), and lifetime cannabis users (OR = 40.89) were most likely to vaporize cannabis using e-cigarettes. Rates also differed by HS attended. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of vaporizing cannabis using e-cigarettes were high. These findings raise concerns about the lack of e-cigarette regulations and the potential use of e-cigarettes for purposes other than vaping nicotine. PMID:26347431

  14. Chinese “Herbal” Cigarettes are as Carcinogenic and Addictive as Regular Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Quan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Gonghuan; Goniewicz, Maciej; Benowitz, Neal L.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the Chinese tobacco industry's claim that herbal cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 135 herbal cigarette smokers and 143 regular smokers from one city in China completed a questionnaire on smoking behavior and provided a urine sample. Main Outcome Measures Cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine in all samples and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites (PAHs) (1-hydroxypyrene, naphthols, hydroxyfluorenes and hydroxyphnanthrenes) and the tobacco specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanol (NNAL) and NNAL-glucuronide in randomly selected 98 samples (47 from the herbal smokers' group and 51 from the regular smokers' group). Values were normalized by creatinine to correct for possible variability introduced by dilution or concentration of the urine. Results Health concern was among the main reasons that smokers switched to herbal cigarettes from regular cigarettes. Smokers reported increased consumption after switching to herbal cigarettes from regular cigarettes. For all the four markers analyzed (cotinine, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, total NNAL, total PAHs), we observed no significant difference in the levels (p=0.169, p=0.146, p=0.171, p=0.554) between smokers of herbal cigarettes and smokers of regular cigarettes. Both total NNAL and total PAHs were significantly correlated with cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (p<0.001 for all four correlations). Conclusions Our findings showed that herbal cigarettes did not deliver less carcinogens than regular cigarettes. The public needs to be aware of this fact and the Chinese tobacco industry should avoid misleading the public when promoting herbal cigarettes as safer products. PMID:19959701

  15. First-year impact of the 1989 California cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption.

    PubMed

    Flewelling, R L; Kenney, E; Elder, J P; Pierce, J; Johnson, M; Bal, D G

    1992-06-01

    We employed a time series design to evaluate the impact of the 1989 California cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption in California. Adult per capita consumption data from 1980 to 1990 were analyzed for California and the United States. Trend data indicated a sharp drop in California cigarette consumption coincident with the tax increase. Time-series regression analyses support this observation, and suggest that a 5% to 7% decline in consumption is attributable to the tax increase.

  16. Potentiometric study of reaction between periodate and iodide as their tetrabutylammonium salts in chloroform. Application to the determination of iodide and potentiometric detection of end points in acid-base titrations in chloroform.

    PubMed

    Pournaghi-Azar, M H; Farhadi, K

    1995-03-01

    A potentiometric method for the titration of tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) in chloroform using tetrabutylammonium periodate (TBAPI) as a strong and suitable oxidizing reagent is described. The potentiometric conditions were optimized and the equilibrium constants of the reactions occurring during the titration were determined. The method was used for the determination of iodide both in chloroform and aqueous solutions after extraction into chloroform as ion-association with tetraphenylarsonium. The reaction between TBAPI and TBAI was also used as acid indicator for the potentiometric detection of end points of acid-base titrations in chloroform.

  17. Cigarette smoke-induced morphological transformation of Bhas 42 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weisensee, Dirk; Poth, Albrecht; Roemer, Ewald; Conroy, Lynda L; Schlage, Walter K

    2013-05-01

    may be useful in product assessment, as well as for further investigation of the non-genotoxic carcinogenic activity of tobacco smoke-related test substances. PMID:23781935

  18. Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-08-07

    The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

  19. Effects of Experimental Income on Demand for Potentially Real Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Arlington George; Bickel, Warren K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette demand, or the change in cigarette consumption as a function of price, is a measure of reinforcement that is associated with level of tobacco dependence and other clinically relevant measures, but the effects of experimentally controlled income on real-world cigarette consumption have not been examined. Methods: In this study, income available for cigarette purchases was manipulated to assess the effect on cigarette demand. Tobacco-dependent cigarette smokers (n = 15) who smoked 10–40 cigarettes per day completed a series of cigarette purchasing tasks under a variety of income conditions meant to mimic different weekly cigarette budgets: $280, approximately $127, $70, or approximately $32 per week. Prices of $0.12, $0.25, $0.50, and $1.00 per cigarette were assessed in each income condition. Participants were instructed to purchase as many cigarettes as they would like for the next week and to only consume cigarettes purchased in the context of the study. One price in 1 income condition was randomly chosen to be “real,” and the cigarettes and the excess money in the budget for that condition were given to the participant. Results: Results indicate that demand elasticity was negatively correlated with income. Demand intensity (consumption at low prices) was unrelated to income condition and remained high across incomes. Conclusions: These results indicate that the amount of income that is available for cigarette purchases has a large effect on cigarette consumption, but only at high prices. PMID:25168032

  20. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

  1. [Cigarette prices, tobacco taxes and the proportion of contraband cigarettes in Germany].

    PubMed

    Effertz, T; Schlittgen, R

    2013-06-01

    Taxes on tobacco products are among the most efficient instruments against tobacco consumption and the arising cost of illness associated with them. The main argument of the tobacco industry against increases of excise taxes on cigarettes is a presumed substitution effect of smokers turning from consumption of legal cigarettes to smuggled ones. Besides deriving this proposition from the tobacco industry's own funded research, it has never been tested empirically. This article analyses the interdependence between contraband cigarettes and cigarette prices in Germany. Using VAR-modelling on the time-series of the variables of interest, we find no empirically valid correlation or causation between prices and untaxed contraband cigarettes. Furthermore, we find a positive relationship between contraband and legal taxed cigarettes, i. e., when the demand for legal cigarettes decreased in amount, so did the quantity of untaxed cigarettes. We conclude that the proposed relationship between prices and smuggled cigarettes as well as an overall substitution effect among smokers is non-existent. This has important implications for public health policy. The proposition that higher taxes on tobacco products incur social costs from increased smuggling activity cannot be corroborated empirically. Furthermore, this finding should encourage public health policy to keep using tobacco taxes as an instrument for prevention.

  2. [Cigarette prices, tobacco taxes and the proportion of contraband cigarettes in Germany].

    PubMed

    Effertz, T; Schlittgen, R

    2013-06-01

    Taxes on tobacco products are among the most efficient instruments against tobacco consumption and the arising cost of illness associated with them. The main argument of the tobacco industry against increases of excise taxes on cigarettes is a presumed substitution effect of smokers turning from consumption of legal cigarettes to smuggled ones. Besides deriving this proposition from the tobacco industry's own funded research, it has never been tested empirically. This article analyses the interdependence between contraband cigarettes and cigarette prices in Germany. Using VAR-modelling on the time-series of the variables of interest, we find no empirically valid correlation or causation between prices and untaxed contraband cigarettes. Furthermore, we find a positive relationship between contraband and legal taxed cigarettes, i. e., when the demand for legal cigarettes decreased in amount, so did the quantity of untaxed cigarettes. We conclude that the proposed relationship between prices and smuggled cigarettes as well as an overall substitution effect among smokers is non-existent. This has important implications for public health policy. The proposition that higher taxes on tobacco products incur social costs from increased smuggling activity cannot be corroborated empirically. Furthermore, this finding should encourage public health policy to keep using tobacco taxes as an instrument for prevention. PMID:22932830

  3. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of ‘light’ cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as ‘light’, ‘ultra-light’ and ‘low tar’ with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of ‘light’, ‘mild’ and ‘low’ on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called ‘low tar’ cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers’ attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. PMID:25492058

  4. EFFECTS OF D-CYCLOSERINE ON CUE-INDUCED CRAVING AND CIGARETTE SMOKING AMONG CONCURRENT COCAINE- AND NICOTINE-DEPENDENT VOLUNTEERS

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin H.; Newton, Thomas F.; Haile, Colin N.; Bordnick, Patrick S.; Fintzy, Rachel E.; Culbertson, Chris; Mahoney, James J.; Hawkins, Rollin Y.; LaBounty, Kathleen R.; Ross, Elizabeth L.; Aziziyeh, Adel I.; De La Garza, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are 3- to 4-fold greater among those with cocaine-dependence, and compared to non-users, cocaine users are at greater risk of incurring smoking-related negative health effects and death. The current study examined D-cycloserine’s (0 or 50 mg once weekly) 2) effects on 1) extinction of cue-induced craving for cigarettes, 2) cigarette smoking in conjunction with cognitive-behavioral therapy, and 3) safety and tolerability in cocaine-dependent smokers. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between groups, outpatient study. Participants (N=29) were concurrent cocaine- and nicotine-dependent volunteers seeking treatment for their cigarette smoking. Study visits were 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks. At each visit, participants received cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking, were exposed to smoking cues. A subset of participants (N=22) returned for 6-month follow-up visits. While craving decreased, no significant effects of D-cycloserine treatment were observed. Likewise, significant decreases in smoking were observed at study days 6 (p <0.002) and 12 (p <0.0001) relative to baseline, although no participants achieved complete abstinence. However, there was no effect of D-cycloserine on cigarette smoking during treatment or at 6-mos follow-up. The treatment was safe and tolerable, with nearly 90% of treatment sessions attended based on an intent-to-treat analysis. While no effects of D-cycloserine on craving or smoking were observed in the current study, the results do suggest smoking treatment is well accepted and may be effective for cocaine-dependent individuals. PMID:22560371

  5. Simultaneous analysis of 22 volatile organic compounds in cigarette smoke using gas sampling bags for high-throughput solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Maureen M; Chambers, David M; Pazo, Daniel Y; Moliere, Fallon; Blount, Benjamin C; Watson, Clifford H

    2014-07-15

    Quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke is necessary to establish smoke-related exposure estimates and evaluate emerging products and potential reduced-exposure products. In response to this need, we developed an automated, multi-VOC quantification method for machine-generated, mainstream cigarette smoke using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). This method was developed to simultaneously quantify a broad range of smoke VOCs (i.e., carbonyls and volatiles, which historically have been measured by separate assays) for large exposure assessment studies. Our approach collects and maintains vapor-phase smoke in a gas sampling bag, where it is homogenized with isotopically labeled analogue internal standards and sampled using gas-phase SPME. High throughput is achieved by SPME automation using a CTC Analytics platform and custom bag tray. This method has successfully quantified 22 structurally diverse VOCs (e.g., benzene and associated monoaromatics, aldehydes and ketones, furans, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, vinyl chloride, and nitromethane) in the microgram range in mainstream smoke from 1R5F and 3R4F research cigarettes smoked under ISO (Cambridge Filter or FTC) and Intense (Health Canada or Canadian Intense) conditions. Our results are comparable to previous studies with few exceptions. Method accuracy was evaluated with third-party reference samples (≤15% error). Short-term diffusion losses from the gas sampling bag were minimal, with a 10% decrease in absolute response after 24 h. For most analytes, research cigarette inter- and intrarun precisions were ≤20% relative standard deviation (RSD). This method provides an accurate and robust means to quantify VOCs in cigarette smoke spanning a range of yields that is sufficient to characterize smoke exposure estimates.

  6. Simultaneous Analysis of 22 Volatile Organic Compounds in Cigarette Smoke Using Gas Sampling Bags for High-Throughput Solid-Phase Microextraction

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Maureen M.; Chambers, David M.; Pazo, Daniel Y.; Moliere, Fallon; Blount, Benjamin C.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke is necessary to establish smoke-related exposure estimates and evaluate emerging products and potential reduced-exposure products. In response to this need, we developed an automated, multi-VOC quantification method for machine-generated, mainstream cigarette smoke using solidphase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS). This method was developed to simultaneously quantify a broad range of smoke VOCs (i.e., carbonyls and volatiles, which historically have been measured by separate assays) for large exposure assessment studies. Our approach collects and maintains vapor-phase smoke in a gas sampling bag, where it is homogenized with isotopically labeled analogue internal standards and sampled using gas-phase SPME. High throughput is achieved by SPME automation using a CTC Analytics platform and custom bag tray. This method has successfully quantified 22 structurally diverse VOCs (e.g., benzene and associated monoaromatics, aldehydes and ketones, furans, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, vinyl chloride, and nitromethane) in the microgram range in mainstream smoke from 1R5F and 3R4F research cigarettes smoked under ISO (Cambridge Filter or FTC) and Intense (Health Canada or Canadian Intense) conditions. Our results are comparable to previous studies with few exceptions. Method accuracy was evaluated with third-party reference samples (≤15% error). Short-term diffusion losses from the gas sampling bag were minimal, with a 10% decrease in absolute response after 24 h. For most analytes, research cigarette inter- and intrarun precisions were ≤20% relative standard deviation (RSD). This method provides an accurate and robust means to quantify VOCs in cigarette smoke spanning a range of yields that is sufficient to characterize smoke exposure estimates. PMID:24933649

  7. Addition of porphyrins to cigarette filters to reduce the levels of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changguo; Dai, Ya; Feng, Guanglin; He, Rong; Yang, Wenmin; Li, Dongliang; Zhou, Xuezheng; Zhu, Lijun; Tan, Lanlan

    2011-07-13

    Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) cause smoking-related diseases and environmental pollution. Porphyrins were added to cigarette filters to reduce B[a]P (porphyrins A-E) and TSNAs (porphyrin F) in MSS. The porphyrin-B[a]P and porphyrin F-TSNAs (N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN)) interactions were investigated by fluorescence quenching and UV-visible spectroscopy. The correlation coefficients were 0.987-0.997 (B[a]P) and 0.994-0.999 (TSNAs), and the binding constants were (1.67-5.02) × 10(5) (B[a]P) and 3.42 × 10(3)-1.40 × 10(4) (TSNAs). Up to 36.72% of B[a]P and 46.67% of the TSNAs were eliminated from MSS, with greater reductions when more porphyrin was included in the filter. With the same mass of porphyrin in the filter, the reduction trend for B[a]P by porphyrins A-E was A > B > C > D > E. The reduction trend for TSNAs by porphyrin F was NNN > NAB > NNK > NAT. The porphyrin mode of action is possibly through strong π-π interactions.

  8. Disrupting nicotine reinforcement: from cigarette to brain.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E

    2008-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a tenacious addiction that is maintained to a significant extent by the reinforcing effects of nicotine. An emerging theme in smoking cessation treatment is the development of methods for interfering with these reinforcing effects. By attenuating nicotine reinforcement, treatments may enhance a smoker's chances of successfully remaining abstinent. Several treatment approaches will be described, including the use of denicotinized cigarettes, nicotine vaccines, nicotinic receptor agonists and antagonists, and modulators of brain reinforcement processes. These techniques highlight the numerous sites along the path between the cigarette and the brain that can be targeted for intervention. In addition to unimodal therapies, treatment combinations will be discussed that might more effectively block cigarette reward and thereby further enhance smoking abstinence. PMID:18991961

  9. Sale of cigarettes to children in Exeter.

    PubMed

    Bradley, N C

    1983-09-01

    The sale of cigarettes to children in Exeter was investigated. Thirty-seven local shops were visited and the salespeople interviewed: 28 incorrectly understood the relevant law and seven had no knowledge of it. Only seven people said they tried to keep within the law. Only two of the 37 shops were displaying the Tobacco Advisory Council's explanatory notice sent to every cigarette retailer in the United Kingdom in 1981. Every shop sold cigarettes. It is proposed that: a notice explaining the law be displayed in all cigarette retailing shops; the tobacconist's licence (abolished in 1963) be reintroduced; and local civic and health authorities combine to educate retailers, their staff and the public. PMID:6631800

  10. Why Teens Choose E-Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... cigarettes in this young age group." States could tax the devices, hiking their prices, she suggested. Federal ... professor, psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.; Krysten Bold, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow in ...

  11. Benefits of E-Cigarettes Among Heavy Smokers Undergoing a Lung Cancer Screening Program: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Masiero, Marianna; Veronesi, Giulia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Spina, Stefania; Jemos, Costantino; Omodeo Salè, Emanuela; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes’ power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers’ baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review. Consequently, it is urgent to know if e-cigarettes may have a higher success rate than other nicotine replacement methods and under what conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the therapeutic setting and the relationship between individual characteristics and the success rate have not been tested. This protocol is particularly innovative, because it aims to test the effectiveness of electronic devices in a screening program (the COSMOS II lung cancer prevention program at the European Institute of Oncology), where tobacco reduction is needed to lower individuals’ lung cancer risks. Objective This protocol was designed with the primary aim of investigating the role of tobacco-free cigarettes in helping smokers improve lung health and either quit smoking or reduce their tobacco consumption. In particular, we aim to investigate the impact of a 3-month e-cigarettes program to reduce smoking-related respiratory symptoms (eg, dry cough, shortness of breath, mouth irritation, and phlegm) through reduced consumption of tobacco cigarettes. Furthermore, we evaluate the behavioral and psychological (eg, well-being, mood, and quality of life) effects of the treatment. Methods This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-parallel group study. The study is organized as a nested randomized

  12. Measurement of isomeric ratios for 89g,mZr, 91g,mMo, and 97g,mNb in the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 16 and 45-70 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G. N.; Schwengner, R.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Yang, S. C.; Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y.-U.; Massarczyk, R.; John, R.; Junghans, A.; Wagner, A.; Goswami, A.; Cho, M.-H.

    2016-03-01

    The independent isomeric yield ratios of 89g,mZr from the natZr(γ,xn) reactions and those of 91g, mMo and 97g,mNb from the natMo(γ,x) reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energy of 45-70 MeV were determined by an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using the 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Korea. The isomeric yield ratios of 89g,mZr and 97g,mNb from the natZr(γ, xn) and natMo(γ,x) reactions at the bremsstrahlung end-point energy of 16MeV were also determined by the same technique using the 20MeV electron linac at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Germany. The measured isomeric yield ratios of 89g,mZr, 91g,mMo, and 97g,mNb were compared with literature data to examine the role of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR). The isomeric yield ratios of the 89g,mZr, 91g,mMo, and 97g,mNb from the above reactions were also calculated by using the computer code TALYS 1.6 and compared with the experimental data to examine the validity of the theoretical model for independent isomeric yield ratio calculations.

  13. Transforming the tobacco market: why the supply of cigarettes should be transferred from for-profit corporations to non-profit enterprises with a public health mandate

    PubMed Central

    Callard, C; Thompson, D; Collishaw, N

    2005-01-01

    Current tobacco control strategies seek primarily to decrease the demand for cigarettes through measures that encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviours. These measures are impeded and undermined by tobacco corporations, whose profit drive compels them to seek to maintain and expand cigarette sales. Tobacco corporations seek to expand cigarette sales because they are for-profit business corporations and are obliged under law to maximise profits, even when this results in harm to others. It is not legally possible for a for-profit corporation to relinquish its responsibility to make profits or for it to temper this obligation with responsibilities to support health. Tobacco could be supplied through other non-profit enterprises. The elimination of profit driven behaviour from the supply of tobacco would enhance the ability of public health authorities to reduce tobacco use. Future tobacco control strategies can seek to transform the tobacco market from one occupied by for-profit corporations to one where tobacco is supplied by institutions that share a health mandate and will help to reduce smoking and smoking related disease and death. PMID:16046692

  14. Transforming the tobacco market: why the supply of cigarettes should be transferred from for-profit corporations to non-profit enterprises with a public health mandate.

    PubMed

    Callard, C; Thompson, D; Collishaw, N

    2005-08-01

    Current tobacco control strategies seek primarily to decrease the demand for cigarettes through measures that encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviours. These measures are impeded and undermined by tobacco corporations, whose profit drive compels them to seek to maintain and expand cigarette sales. Tobacco corporations seek to expand cigarette sales because they are for-profit business corporations and are obliged under law to maximise profits, even when this results in harm to others. It is not legally possible for a for-profit corporation to relinquish its responsibility to make profits or for it to temper this obligation with responsibilities to support health. Tobacco could be supplied through other non-profit enterprises. The elimination of profit driven behaviour from the supply of tobacco would enhance the ability of public health authorities to reduce tobacco use. Future tobacco control strategies can seek to transform the tobacco market from one occupied by for-profit corporations to one where tobacco is supplied by institutions that share a health mandate and will help to reduce smoking and smoking related disease and death.

  15. Multicomponent assessment and treatment of cigarette pica.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, H L; Iwata, B A; Kahng, S W

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a multicomponent assessment and treatment for 4 individuals who engaged in cigarette pica. During Phase 1, three stimulus preference assessments were conducted to identify (a) the reinforcing component of the cigarette, (b) potential alternative reinforcers that may be used during treatment, and (c) whether the alternative reinforcer would compete effectively with cigarettes. Results were successful in identifying the reinforcing component of the cigarette and suggested the feasibility of using alternative reinforcers during treatment to eliminate cigarette pica. During Phase 2, the effects of two treatment procedures were evaluated. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with the alternative edible reinforcer reduced the pica of 2 of the participants, but effects were not maintained when the initial dense schedule of NCR was thinned. Subsequently, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior with the alternative edible reinforcer was effective in reducing pica for 3 participants. An evaluation of nine treatment procedures failed to identify an effective intervention for the remaining participant; consequently, preventive measures were designed to minimize occurrences of cigarette pica. PMID:10513026

  16. Children's perceptions of advertisements for cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Aitken, P P; Leathar, D S; O'Hagan, F J

    1985-01-01

    Groups of children aged between 6 and 16 years discussed a series of advertisements, including those for cigarettes. Clear patterns emerged in their recognition of cigarette brand imagery. For example, in response to an advertisement for holidays which also presents the brand imagery of John Player Special cigarettes, 22% of primary school children and 91% of secondary school children said it advertises cigarettes. There were consistent trends in responses to the symbolism portrayed. Younger children were very much tied to what was specifically shown in the advertisements; older ones tended to perceive more complex imagery. For example, whereas 10-year-olds said people who like the advertisement for Kim cigarettes (which has symbols for drinking) would smoke and drink, some 12-year-olds and most 14- and 16-year-olds saw Kim as feminine, sociable, trendy and sporty. It seems that some 12-year-olds and most 14- and 16-year-olds perceive cigarette advertisements much in the way that young adults do; therefore advertising campaigns targeted at older teenagers and young adults are likely to present qualities which younger teenagers find attractive. PMID:4071115

  17. Passive exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use increases desire for combustible and e-cigarettes in young adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Matthews, Alicia K; Fridberg, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Background Passive exposure to combustible cigarette use has been shown to act as a cue to increase smoking urge. Given the resemblance of e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) to combustible cigarettes, we examined whether these devices could also act as a cue to increase smoking desire and urges in those passively exposed. Methods Young adult daily smokers (age 18–35 years; N=60) completed subjective ratings before and after exposure to a study confederate drinking bottled water (control cue) and then smoking either a combustible or e-cigarette (active cue). Smoking desire and urge ratings were measured with visual analogue scale items for desire for a regular and an e-cigarette and the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Results Passive exposure to both the e-cigarette and combustible cigarette cue significantly increased observers’ ratings of desire and urge to smoke a regular cigarette (all ps<0.05). Exposure to the e-cigarette cue but not the regular cigarette cue also increased desire to smoke an e-cigarette (p<0.01). Conclusions The results provide the first evidence in a controlled setting that electronic cigarette exposure may evoke smoking urges in young adult daily smokers. With replication, these findings may have relevance for ENDS regulation and policy. PMID:24848637

  18. Awareness of FDA-Mandated Cigarette Packaging Changes among Smokers of "Light" Cigarettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as "light", "ultra-light" and "low tar" with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and…

  19. Social Influences on Use of Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Hookah by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Participants: Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). Methods: An April 2013 online survey…

  20. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    PubMed

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.