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Sample records for ciliate zoothamnium niveum

  1. The giant ciliate Zoothamnium niveum and its thiotrophic epibiont Candidatus Thiobios zoothamnicoli: a model system to study interspecies cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Monika; Espada-Hinojosa, Salvador; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Volland, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Symbioses between chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing (thiotrophic) bacteria and protists or animals are among the most diverse and prevalent in the ocean. They are extremely difficult to maintain in aquaria and no thiotrophic symbiosis involving an animal host has ever been successfully cultivated. In contrast, we have cultivated the giant ciliate Zoothamnium niveum and its obligate ectosymbiont Candidatus Thiobios zoothamnicoli in small flow-through aquaria. This review provides an overview of the host and the symbiont and their phylogenetic relationships. We summarize our knowledge on the ecology, geographic distribution and life cycle of the host, on the vertical transmission of the symbiont, and on the cultivation of this symbiosis. We then discuss the benefits and costs involved in this cooperation compared with other thiotrophic symbioses and outline our view on the evolution and persistence of this byproduct mutualism. PMID:24778630

  2. A Novel Colonial Ciliate Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) and Its Ectosymbiont Candidatus Navis piranensis gen. nov., sp. nov. from Shallow-Water Wood Falls.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Lukas; Bright, Monika

    Symbioses between ciliate hosts and prokaryote or unicellular eukaryote symbionts are widespread. Here, we report on a novel ciliate species within the genus Zoothamnium Bory de St. Vincent, 1824, isolated from shallow-water sunken wood in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea), proposed as Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. We found this ciliate species to be associated with a novel genus of bacteria, here proposed as "Candidatus Navis piranensis" gen. nov., sp. nov. The descriptions of host and symbiont species are based on morphological and ultrastructural studies, the SSU rRNA sequences, and in situ hybridization with symbiont-specific probes. The host is characterized by alternate microzooids on alternate branches arising from a long, common stalk with an adhesive disc. Three different types of zooids are present: microzooids with a bulgy oral side, roundish to ellipsoid macrozooids, and terminal zooids ellipsoid when dividing or bulgy when undividing. The oral ciliature of the microzooids runs 1¼ turns in a clockwise direction around the peristomial disc when viewed from inside the cell and runs into the infundibulum, where it makes another ¾ turn. The ciliature consists of a paroral membrane (haplokinety), three adoral membranelles (polykineties), and one stomatogenic kinety (germinal kinety). One circular row of barren kinetosomes is present aborally (trochal band). Phylogenetic analyses placed Z. ignavum sp. nov. within the clade II of the polyphyletic family Zoothamniidae (Oligohymenophorea). The ectosymbiont was found to occur in two different morphotypes, as rods with pointed ends and coccoid rods. It forms a monophyletic group with two uncultured Gammaproteobacteria within an unclassified group of Gammaproteobacteria, and is only distantly related to the ectosymbiont of the closely related peritrich Z. niveum (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1831) Ehrenberg, 1838.

  3. A Novel Colonial Ciliate Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) and Its Ectosymbiont Candidatus Navis piranensis gen. nov., sp. nov. from Shallow-Water Wood Falls

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Lukas; Bright, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Symbioses between ciliate hosts and prokaryote or unicellular eukaryote symbionts are widespread. Here, we report on a novel ciliate species within the genus Zoothamnium Bory de St. Vincent, 1824, isolated from shallow-water sunken wood in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea), proposed as Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. We found this ciliate species to be associated with a novel genus of bacteria, here proposed as “Candidatus Navis piranensis” gen. nov., sp. nov. The descriptions of host and symbiont species are based on morphological and ultrastructural studies, the SSU rRNA sequences, and in situ hybridization with symbiont-specific probes. The host is characterized by alternate microzooids on alternate branches arising from a long, common stalk with an adhesive disc. Three different types of zooids are present: microzooids with a bulgy oral side, roundish to ellipsoid macrozooids, and terminal zooids ellipsoid when dividing or bulgy when undividing. The oral ciliature of the microzooids runs 1¼ turns in a clockwise direction around the peristomial disc when viewed from inside the cell and runs into the infundibulum, where it makes another ¾ turn. The ciliature consists of a paroral membrane (haplokinety), three adoral membranelles (polykineties), and one stomatogenic kinety (germinal kinety). One circular row of barren kinetosomes is present aborally (trochal band). Phylogenetic analyses placed Z. ignavum sp. nov. within the clade II of the polyphyletic family Zoothamniidae (Oligohymenophorea). The ectosymbiont was found to occur in two different morphotypes, as rods with pointed ends and coccoid rods. It forms a monophyletic group with two uncultured Gammaproteobacteria within an unclassified group of Gammaproteobacteria, and is only distantly related to the ectosymbiont of the closely related peritrich Z. niveum (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1831) Ehrenberg, 1838. PMID:27683199

  4. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of zoothamnium (ciliophora, peritrichia, sessilida).

    PubMed

    Clamp, John C; Williams, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The gene coding for 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in seven free-living, marine species of the sessiline peritrich genus Zoothamnium. These were Zoothamnium niveum, Zoothamnium alternans, Zoothamnium pelagicum, and four unidentified species. The ssu rRNA gene also was sequenced in Vorticella convallaria, Vorticella microstoma, and in an unidentified, freshwater species of Vorticella. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using these new sequences to test a previously published phylogenetic association between Zoothamnium arbuscula, currently in the family Zoothamniidae, and peritrichs in the family Vorticellidae. Trees constructed by means of neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods all had similar topologies. The seven new sequences of Zoothamnium species grouped into three well-supported clades, each of which contained a diversity of morphological types. The three clades formed a poorly supported, larger clade that was deeply divergent from Z. arbuscula, which remained more closely associated with vorticellid peritrichs. It is apparent that Zoothamnium is a richly diverse genus and that a much more intensive investigation, involving both morphological and molecular data and a wider selection of species, will be necessary to resolve its phylogeny. A greater amount of molecular diversity than is predicted by morphological data exists within all major clades of sessiline peritrichs that have been included in molecular phylogenies, indicating that characteristics of stalk and peristomial structure traditionally used to differentiate taxa at the generic level and above may not be uniformly reliable.

  5. Morphology and Phylogenetic Placement of Three New Zoothamnium species (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from Coastal Waters of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhuo; Ji, Daode; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    The morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system of three peritrichous ciliates, Zoothamnium bucciniiformum sp. n., Zoothamnium florens sp. n., and Zoothamnium zhanjiangense sp. n., were investigated based on both living and silver-stained specimens. Zoothamnium bucciniiformum sp. n., collected from coastal waters (salinity 30‰) off Zhanjiang, southern China, can be distinguished by the following characters: dichotomously branched stalk, peristomial lip with medial circumferential infolding, contractile vacuole apically positioned, 32-49 silverlines between the anterior end and the aboral trochal band, 15-26 between the aboral trochal band and the scopula; two kineties in peniculus 3, not parallel to each other. Zoothamnium florens sp. n., collected from a mangrove wetland (salinity 13‰) off Zhanjiang, is characterized by its large conical zooid, tuberculate peristomial lip, asymmetrical dichotomously branched colony, 59-81 silverlines between the anterior end and the aboral trochal band and 29-36 between the aboral trochal band and the scopula. Zoothamnium zhanjiangense, collected from a mangrove wetland (salinity about 9.5‰) off Zhanjiang, differs from its congeners by the alternately branched stalk, peristomial lip with medial circumferential infolding, 40-63 silverlines from the peristomial area to the aboral trochal band and 13-24 from the aboral trochal band to the scopula. The comparison and analysis of SSU rDNA sequences also support present identifications.

  6. Monophyly or polyphyly? Possible conflict between morphological and molecular interpretations of the well-known genus Zoothamnium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lifang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we explore possible conflict between morphological and molecular interpretations of phylogenetic relationships within the well-known peritrichous genus Zoothamnium. On the basis of morphological evidence, for a long time this genus has been believed to be a well-defined monophyletic taxon. Nonetheless, Zoothamnium exhibits higher genetic diversity than the gross morphology of its species. Here, we used all available genetic information for the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) for this genus to reconstruct phylogenies for four datasets (SSU rRNA, ITS1, ITS2, and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and a combined dataset (SSU rRNA+ITS1-5.8SITS2) using different phylogenetic methods and with consideration of the secondary structure of the genes. Confidence in phylogenetic tree selection was assessed with the approximately unbiased test. The molecular results showed both that Zoothamnium is more likely to be polyphyletic, and morphologically similar genera Zoothamnopsis and Myoschiston were always nested among Zoothamnium species. Accordingly, as with some other groups of ciliates, to understand more fully the correct phylogeny of Zoothamnium there remains a need for additional data from both morphological and molecular studies, covering additional Zoothamnium spp. and members of closely related genera (e.g. Zoothamnopsis, Myoschiston, and Epistylis).

  7. Reconsideration of the phylogenetic positions of five peritrich genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella, Zoothamnopsis, Zoothamnium, and Epicarchesium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida), based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Lifang; Song, Weibo; Warren, Alan; Shin, Mann Kyoon; Chen, Zigui; Ji, Daode; Sun, Ping

    2008-01-01

    In order to re-evaluate the systematics of sessilid peritrich ciliates, small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were determined for 12 species belonging to five genera: Vorticella, Pseudovorticella, Epicarchesium, Zoothamnium, and Zoothamnopsis. Phylogenetic trees were deduced using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that (1) sessilids which have stalks with continuous myonemes that contract in a zig-zag fashion form a separate clade from those which have stalks that contract independently and in a spiral fashion, supporting the separation of the family Zoothamniidae from the family Vorticellidae and (2) Epicarchesium and Pseudovorticella, both of which have reticulate silverline systems, are more closely related to each other than to other vorticellids, suggesting that differences in the silverline system (i.e. transverse vs. reticulate) may be the result of genuine evolutionary divergence among sessilid peritrichs. However, the newly sequenced Zoothamnopsis sinica, which has a reticulate silverline pattern, nests within the unresolved Zoothamnium species that have transverse silverline patterns. Thus, there were at least two evolutions of the reticulate silverline pattern character state from a plesiomorphic transverse state in the peritrichid ciliates. The molecular work demonstrates the genus Zoothamnium to be paraphyletic in relation to morphological studies, and suggests that Astylozoon, Opisthonecta, and Vorticella microstoma possibly share a SSU rRNA secondary structure in the helix E10-1 region.

  8. Growth of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) estimated from laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Utz, L R P

    2008-05-01

    Peritrich ciliates are commonly found colonizing living substrates. Although this a well known phenomenon, biological aspects of this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Assessment of growth rates in peritrichs has been the subject of very few studies. Only species in the genera Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1830 and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 had their growth rates evaluated in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, growth, colonization (colonies/host), and proliferation (zooids/colony) rates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 attached to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1848 were evaluated in the laboratory in two food regimes: bacteria only, and algal based diet. Results showed that growth, colonization, and proliferation rates were similar for both diets. Maximum growth rates obtained for Z. intermedium was 0.85 and 0.83 per day, for bacteria and algae respectively. Maximum colonization rates were 0.5 per day for both diets, and the maximum proliferation rates were 0.44 and 0.42 per day for bacteria and algae respectively. These results demonstrate that Z. intermedium is able to grow at the same rate of other peritrichs on bacterial and algal based diets.

  9. Zoothamnium duplicatum infestation of cultured horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Shinn, Andrew P; Mühlhölzl, Alexander P; Coates, Christopher J; Metochis, Christoforos; Freeman, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    An outbreak of the sessile peritrich Zoothamnium duplicatum in a pilot, commercial-scale Limulus polyphemus hatchery resulted in the loss of ∼96% (40,000) second/third instar larvae over a 61day period. peritrich growth was heavy, leading to mechanical obstruction of the gills and physical damage. The peritrichs were controlled without resultant loss of juvenile crabs by administering 10ppm chlorine in freshwater for 1h and the addition of aquarium grade sand; a medium into which the crabs could burrow and facilitate cleaning of the carapace. Peritrich identity was confirmed from a partial SSU rDNA contiguous sequence of 1343bp (99.7% similarity to Z. duplicatum). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of the spasmin 1 gene in Zoothamnium arbuscula strain Kawagoe (protozoa, ciliophora) and its relation to other spasmins and centrins.

    PubMed

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Mikami, Kazuyuki; Asai, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    Zoothamnium arbuscula strain Kawagoe is a giant sessile peritrich ciliated protozoa that possesses a contractile organelle called a spasmoneme. We report here on the molecular characterization and provide an opportunity to discuss the evolutionary relationships of the Z. arbuscula spasmin; spasmins belong to the calmodulin superfamily and are the major components of spasmoneme filaments. We analysed and obtained the whole sequence of the spasmin 1 gene and a partial sequence of the spasmin 2 gene. It is surprising that the sequence of spasmin 1 does not contain introns and encodes an open reading frame of 531 bp. It predicts a product of 177 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19659 Da and a pI of 4.68. The amino acid sequence has two putative calcium-binding domains. One of them is a functional domain, as defined by the EF-hand consensus. The varieties of spasmins were revealed by comparison with amino acid components and molecular relationships of spasmin 1 protein and other spasmins. A comparison of the amino acid sequence between the Z. arbuscula spasmin and known centrins indicates that spasmins have a one residue deletion in the EF-hand domain-2 and four residue insertions in domain-4, as does the Vorticella spasmin. However, there are large variations in the amino acid sequence at domain-4 within spasmin 1, spasmin 2 and the Vorticella spasmin.

  11. Spore inoculum optimization to maximize cyclosporin A production in Tolypocladium niveum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Jin; Lee, Han-Na; Han, Kyubeom; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2008-05-01

    The cyclic undecapeptide, cyclosporin A (CyA), is one of the most commonly prescribed immunosuppressive drugs. It is generated nonribosomally from a multifunctional cyclosporin synthetase enzyme complex by the filamentous fungus Tolypocladium niveum. In order to maximize the production of CyA by wild-type T. niveum (ATCC 34921), each of three culture stages (sporulation culture, growth culture, and production culture) were sequentially optimized. Among the three potential sporulation media, the SSMA medium generated the highest numbers of T. niveum spores. The SSM and SM media were then selected as the optimal growth and production culture media, respectively. The addition of valine and fructose to the SM production medium was also determined to be crucial for CyA biosynthesis. In this optimized three-stage culture system, 3% of the spore inoculum generated the highest level of CyA productivity in a 15-day T. niveum production culture, thereby implying that the determination of an appropriate size of T. niveum spore inoculum plays a critical role in the maximization of CyA production.

  12. Ciliates by the Slice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boynton, John E.; Small, Eugene B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes new methods of collecting and examining ciliates, particularly those found in the sediments of lakes, rivers, and estuaries. Discusses extraction methods in preparation for observations in the classroom. Suggests investigations of ciliate ecology as an area of increasing research interest. (JM)

  13. Ciliates by the Slice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boynton, John E.; Small, Eugene B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes new methods of collecting and examining ciliates, particularly those found in the sediments of lakes, rivers, and estuaries. Discusses extraction methods in preparation for observations in the classroom. Suggests investigations of ciliate ecology as an area of increasing research interest. (JM)

  14. Photomovements in Ciliated Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Hans-Werner

    Ciliates are unicellular, nonphotosynthetic organisms which show a number of light-induced responses. Orientation with respect to the direction of light, phototaxis, has been demonstrated in some species of ciliates. Most of these species bear conspicuous cell organelles such as subpellicular pigment granules, a colored stigma, a watchglass organelle, or a compound crystalline organelle. Several lines of evidence suggest that these kinds of organelles are prerequisites for phototactic orientation of the cells. Photoreceptor molecules presumedly mediating the photobehavior of two species have been identified. The ecological advantage of light-induced responses in ciliated protozoa is still debated. In some cases the organisms may utilize this behavior either to approach their potential prey, to escape their predators, to escape damaging light, or to meet a mating partner. Several species of ciliates display inverse phototactic behavior at different stages of their life cycle.

  15. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    PubMed

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  16. Scavenging effect and antispasmodic activity of the essential oil of Cyclotrichium niveum.

    PubMed

    Cetinus, Senay Akkuş; Göze, Ismihan; Saraç, Bülent; Vural, Nilüfer

    2007-02-01

    The radical scavenging and the spasmolitic activity of Cyclotrichium niveum essential oil were evaluated in vitro. It showed an IC(50) of 1750 microg/ml on DPPH method and dose dependently (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml) inhibits the contraction induced by carbachol on rabbit bladder from 15 to 100%. Moreover, it was able to inhibit the rat ileum muscle by 30 to 100%.

  17. Epigenetics of Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, Douglas L.; Meyer, Eric; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    Research using ciliates revealed early examples of epigenetic phenomena and continues to provide novel findings. These protozoans maintain separate germline and somatic nuclei that carry transcriptionally silent and active genomes, respectively. Examining the differences in chromatin within distinct nuclei of Tetrahymena identified histone variants and established that transcriptional regulators act by modifying histones. Formation of somatic nuclei requires both transcriptional activation of silent chromatin and large-scale DNA elimination. This somatic genome remodeling is directed by homologous RNAs, acting with an RNA interference (RNAi)-related machinery. Furthermore, the content of the parental somatic genome provides a homologous template to guide this genome restructuring. The mechanisms regulating ciliate DNA rearrangements reveal the surprising power of homologous RNAs to remodel the genome and transmit information transgenerationally. PMID:24296171

  18. Functional diversity of aquatic ciliates.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas

    2017-04-13

    This paper first reviews the concept of functional diversity in general terms and then applies it to free-living aquatic ciliates. Ciliates are extremely versatile organisms and display an enormous functional diversity as key elements of pelagic food webs, acting as predators of bacteria, algae, other protists and even some metazoans. Planktonic ciliates are important food for zooplankton, and mixotrophic and functionally autotrophic species may significantly contribute to primary production in the ocean and in lakes. The co-occurrence of many ciliate species in seemingly homogenous environments indicates a wide range of their ecological niches. Variation in space and time may foster co-occurrence and prevent violating the competitive exclusion principle among ciliates using the same resources. Considering that many ciliates may be dormant and/or rare in many habitats, ciliate species diversity must be higher than can be deduced from simple sampling techniques; molecular methods of identification clearly point to this hidden diversity. From a functional point of view, the question is how much of this diversity represents redundancy. A key challenge for future research is to link the ecophysiological performance of naturally co-occurring ciliates to their functional genes. To this end, more experimental research is needed with with functionally different species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  20. Antioxidant activity of A-type proanthocyanidins from Geranium niveum (Geraniaceae).

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Perla D; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Mata, Rachel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2005-03-23

    Geranium niveum S. Watson (Geraniaceae) is a medicinal herb widely used by the Tarahumara Indians of Mexico. This species is rich in proanthocyanidins and other phenolics. Previous in vitro assays have demonstrated that proanthocyanidins exhibited antiinflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. In view of its medicinal use and chemical composition, the aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts and two proanthocyanidins (geranins A and D) from the roots of G. niveum by using seven different assay systems, namely, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion (O2*-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (OH*), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and singlet oxygen ((1)O2). Two known antioxidants, resveratrol and ascorbic acid, were used as positive controls. The results showed that geranins A and D and the extracts were able to scavenge ABTS, DPPH, O2*-, OH*, and HOCl. The scavenging ability of geranins A and D was similar to that of resveratrol and ascorbic acid in the following assays: ABTS, O2*-, and HOCl. The scavenging capacity of ascorbic acid for DPPH was higher than that of both geranins and resveratrol. On the other hand, the OH* scavenging action of both geranins and resveratrol was similar. The methanol-CHCl3 (1:1) extract had a higher ability to scavenge ABTS, DPPH, and O2*- radicals than the chloroform extract. In turn, the latter was more potent than the methanol-CHCl3 (1:1) extract as OH* or HOCl scavenger agent. Neither geranins A and D nor the extracts were able to scavenge H2O2 and (1)O2. In conclusion, G. niveum roots have proanthocyanidins with powerful radical scavenging in vitro activity. This property may partially explain the wide use of this plant in the Tarahumara indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal illnesses (other than spasms

  1. The Ciliate Colpoda: "Instant" Protozoan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne Muller; Giese, Arthur C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan which is able to survive in a dry, encysted state for long periods of time. Outlines the procedures for culturing the organism and producing cyst preparations, and recommends its use in the high school biology laboratory. (JR)

  2. The DNA of ciliated protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, D M

    1994-01-01

    Ciliates contain two types of nuclei: a micronucleus and a macronucleus. The micronucleus serves as the germ line nucleus but does not express its genes. The macronucleus provides the nuclear RNA for vegetative growth. Mating cells exchange haploid micronuclei, and a new macronucleus develops from a new diploid micronucleus. The old macronucleus is destroyed. This conversion consists of amplification, elimination, fragmentation, and splicing of DNA sequences on a massive scale. Fragmentation produces subchromosomal molecules in Tetrahymena and Paramecium cells and much smaller, gene-sized molecules in hypotrichous ciliates to which telomere sequences are added. These molecules are then amplified, some to higher copy numbers than others. rDNA is differentially amplified to thousands of copies per macronucleus. Eliminated sequences include transposonlike elements and sequences called internal eliminated sequences that interrupt gene coding regions in the micronuclear genome. Some, perhaps all, of these are excised as circular molecules and destroyed. In at least some hypotrichs, segments of some micronuclear genes are scrambled in a nonfunctional order and are recorded during macronuclear development. Vegetatively growing ciliates appear to possess a mechanism for adjusting copy numbers of individual genes, which corrects gene imbalances resulting from random distribution of DNA molecules during amitosis of the macronucleus. Other distinctive features of ciliate DNA include an altered use of the conventional stop codons. Images PMID:8078435

  3. The Ciliate Colpoda: "Instant" Protozoan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne Muller; Giese, Arthur C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan which is able to survive in a dry, encysted state for long periods of time. Outlines the procedures for culturing the organism and producing cyst preparations, and recommends its use in the high school biology laboratory. (JR)

  4. Rubber-like elasticity and volume changes in the isolated spasmoneme of giant Zoothamnium sp. under Ca2+-induced contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Y; Okamoto, H; Asai, H

    1999-01-01

    Using glycerinated spasmoneme of giant Zoothamnium sp., the physical properties of spasmoneme before and after Ca2+-induced contraction (pCa 4.5) were investigated. The volume change of spasmoneme contraction was measured under zero tension. The length and diameter decreased by about 50% of their initial value as a result of contraction, which means that contraction is nearly isotropic. Thus the volume of spasmoneme decreased drastically by 86% of its original value. The swollen ratio of extended and contracted spasmoneme were 0.07 and 0.37, respectively. Tension-extension relationships of extended and contracted spasmonemes were measured. By applying the theory of rubber elasticity, the number of segments of a chain in originally extended spasmoneme was only 3.3, i.e., the chain was almost a straight one. On the other hand, the number of segments of a chain in contracted spasmoneme was more than 100, i.e., the chain was essentially a random one. Furthermore, the total number of chains in single spasmoneme was the same in extended and contracted spasmoneme. This means that the interchain cross-links of chains were not influenced by addition or removal of Ca2+. Moreover, the molecular weight of a chain is estimated to be at most about 50 kd. By considering all these results, it is concluded that the contractile mechanism of spasmoneme originates in the intramolecular folding and unfolding induced by Ca2+ binding and detaching. PMID:9916030

  5. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  6. Genetic mapping and identification of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 1 and 2 in watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). Fon race 1 is most prevalent throughout the U.S. while race 2 is more virulent. Our overall objective is to identify and utilize ...

  7. Quantitative trait loci mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides using genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the most devastating watermelon diseases worldwide, Fusarium wilt, is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). Spread of the particularly virulent Fon race 2 in the United States, coupled with the lack of resistance in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lan...

  8. Local ciliate communities associated with aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Anna M; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2014-03-01

    This study, based within the catchment area of the River Frome, an important chalk stream in the south of England, compared ciliated protozoan communities associated with three species of aquatic macrophyte common to lotic habitats: Ranunculus penicillatus subsp. pseudofluitans, Nasturtium officinale and Sparganium emersum. A total of 77 ciliate species were counted. No species-specific ciliate assemblage was found to be typical of any one plant species. Ciliate abundance between plant species was determined to be significantly different. The ciliate communities from each plant species were unique in that the number of species increased with ciliate abundance. The community associated with R. penicillatus subsp. pseudofluitans showed the highest consistency and species richness whereas S. emersum ciliate communities were unstable. Most notably, N. officinale was associated with low ciliate abundances and an apparent reduction in biofilm formation, discussed herein in relation to the plant's production of the microbial toxin phenethyl isothiocyanate. We propose that the results reflect differences in the quantity and quality of biofilm present on the plants, which could be determined by the different plant morphologies, patterns of plant decay and herbivore defense systems, all of which suppress or promote the various conditions for biofilm growth.

  9. Relationship between the flagellates and the ciliates.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R E; Kugrens, P

    1992-01-01

    The flagellates and the ciliates have long been considered to be closely related because of their unicellular nature and the similarity in the structures of the axoneme of the flagella and cilia in both groups. Most protozoologists believe that the ciliates arose from a flagellate. The flagellates that are most similar in structure to the ciliates are the dinoflagellates and two genera of uncertain taxonomic position, Colponema and Katablepharis. Structurally, dinoflagellates have a number of similarities with ciliates. These include the similarity of the cortical alveoli in the ciliates to the thecal vesicles in the dinoflagellates, the possession of tubular cristae, the similarity of the parasomal sac of the ciliates to the pusule of the dinoflagellates, the possession of similar trichocysts and mucocysts, and some similarity in the feeding apparatus. Colponema spp. are probably related to the dinoflagellates and have many of the same similarities with the ciliates. Katablepharis spp. are very similar in structure to the swarmer (embryo) of the suctorian ciliates. Indeed, reduction in the number of cilia to two in the suctorian swarmer and elimination of the macronucleus would result in a cell that is very similar to the Katablepharis cell. The feeding apparatus of Katablepharis spp. and the rest of the ciliates consists of two concentric microtubular arrays associated with vesicles. Information available from nucleotide sequencing of rRNA places the dinoflagellates in an ancestral position to the ciliates. The rRNA of Colponema and Katablepharis spp. has not yet been investigated. The use of stop codons in mRNA is discussed in relation to phylogeny. Images PMID:1480107

  10. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  11. Ciliates expel environmental Legionella-laden pellets to stockpile food.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Fuhito; Sato, Daisuke; Matsuo, Junji; Miyake, Masaki; Nakamura, Shinji; Kunichika, Miyuki; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Takemura, Hiromu; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    When Tetrahymena ciliates are cultured with Legionella pneumophila, the ciliates expel bacteria packaged in free spherical pellets. Why the ciliates expel these pellets remains unclear. Hence, we determined the optimal conditions for pellet expulsion and assessed whether pellet expulsion contributes to the maintenance of growth and the survival of ciliates. When incubated with environmental L. pneumophila, the ciliates expelled the pellets maximally at 2 days after infection. Heat-killed bacteria failed to produce pellets from ciliates, and there was no obvious difference in pellet production among the ciliates or bacterial strains. Morphological studies assessing lipid accumulation showed that pellets contained tightly packed bacteria with rapid lipid accumulation and were composed of the layers of membranes; bacterial culturability in the pellets rapidly decreased, in contrast to what was seen in ciliate-free culture, although the bacteria maintained membrane integrity in the pellets. Furthermore, ciliates newly cultured with pellets were maintained and grew vigorously compared with those without pellets. In contrast, a human L. pneumophila isolate killed ciliates 7 days postinfection in a Dot/Icm-dependent manner, and pellets harboring this strain did not support ciliate growth. Also, pellets harboring the human isolate were resuscitated by coculturing with amoebae, depending on Dot/Icm expression. Thus, while ciliates expel pellet-packaged environmental L. pneumophila for stockpiling food, the pellets packaging the human isolate are harmful to ciliate survival, which may be of clinical significance.

  12. Antibiotic effect of exogenously applied salicylic acid on in vitro soilborne pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Raza, Waseem; Fan, Jia-Qin; Sun, Yong-Gang; Bao, Wei; Liu, Dong-Yang; Huang, Qi-Wei; Mao, Ze-Sheng; Shen, Qi-Rong; Miao, Wei-Guo

    2008-12-01

    Salicylic acid, which is biosynthesized inside plant and is often found and accumulated in soil due to plant debris decaying, is considered as a signaling substance during plant-microbe interactions. It is involved in the cycling of biogeochemistry and related to plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. The antibiotic effect of salicylic acid on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.niveum (FON) was studied to investigate the relationships between the salicylic acid and the fungus in the ecological interaction of plant-microbe. Results showed that the biomass, colony diameter, number of conidium germination and conidium production of FON were decreased by 52.0%, 25.7%, 100% and 100% at concentrations of 800 mg L(-1). However, mycotoxin yield was increased by 233%, pectinase activity raised by 168.0% and cellulase activity increased by 1325% compared to control at higher concentrations. It was concluded that salicylic acid as an allelochemical greatly inhibited FON growth and conidia formation and germination, though stimulated mycotoxin production and activities of hydrolytic enzymes by FON.

  13. Root Exudates from Grafted-Root Watermelon Showed a Certain Contribution in Inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-01-01

    Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants. PMID:23700421

  14. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-01-01

    Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants.

  15. A genotype-by-sequencing-single nucleotide polymorphism based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, do...

  16. Ciliated Protozoa in marine pollution studies. A conspectus

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.G.

    1983-04-01

    The ecological role of the marine ciliates is discussed with reference to the interaction of this group with contaminants. While the ciliates may be of some value in routine screening of potential toxins, simple laboratory bioassays are unlikely to be of predictive value in assessing threats to the marine environment. There is some evidence that ciliates may take part in the transfer and transformation of potential pollutants. Further field and laboratory studies are required in order to identify and quantify the role of ciliates in these processes.

  17. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65 psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9 psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5 psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5 psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5 psu, 8.9 psu, 29.5 psu and 50.5 psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5 psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5 psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils.

  18. Ciliated Protozoa of the polluted Tees estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, James G.

    1981-03-01

    In a study of the ciliated Protozoa of Bran Sand, a sheltered beach in the Tees estuary, 20 putative species were identified. This beach was richer in species than the nearby North Gare beach. In experimental batch cultures, seawater from the estuary had an inhibitory effect upon growth of a strain of Uronema marinum Dujardin which was isolated from an unpolluted beach at Robin Hood's Bay. The tolerance to metals of a Tees strain of U. marinum was assessed in simple toxicity tests; lethal levels for this strain were found to be similar to those reported elsewhere for the Robin Hood's Bay strain.

  19. Ciliates and the rare biosphere: a review.

    PubMed

    Dunthorn, Micah; Stoeck, Thorsten; Clamp, John; Warren, Alan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Here we provide a brief review of the rare biosphere from the perspective of ciliates and other microbial eukaryotes. We trace research on rarity from its lack of much in-depth focus in morphological and Sanger sequencing projects, to its central importance in analyses using high throughput sequencing strategies. The problem that the rare biosphere is potentially comprised of mostly errors is then discussed in the light of asking community-comparative, novel-diversity, and ecosystem-functioning questions. © 2014 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2014 International Society of Protistologists.

  20. Reality-and-Desire in Ciliates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brijder, Robert; Hoogeboom, Hendrik Jan

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has a number of similarities with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both theories model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper, we show how the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, can be used in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  1. Ciliate communities in a constructed mangrove wetland for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Hua; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Shin, Paul K S; Cheung, Siu-Giu; Xu, Run-Lin

    2009-05-01

    In wetlands constructed for treating municipal and industrial wastewater, including mangroves, the effect of wastewater discharged on the substrate has often been neglected. Ciliates, an important group of protozoa, are sensitive to pollutants and any changes in ciliate diversity and community structure reflects the habitat quality. The ciliate communities at six sections along a constructed mangrove belt (33 m in length) planted with Aegicerascorniculatum were investigated in Shenzhen, South China. In all samples collected in both rainy and dry seasons, 183 ciliate species were observed. Most species (56%) were free-swimming forms, while only 10.8% were sessile ciliates. The abundance and species number of ciliates were both found to decrease from the anterior (the wastewater inlet) to the posterior (the outlet) parts of the wetland belt, indicating that organic matter and bacteria in wastewater, which served as food for most ciliates, were gradually removed by the constructed wetland. The r/K (number of r- and K-selected species) ratios at the six sections were relatively small, between 0.2 and 0.4, whereas the C/P (abundance of colpodids and polyhymenophorans) quotient at some sections was higher than 1. These results indicate that although most of the environments along the constructed wetland belt were not stressful for ciliate communities, there were habitats that favored colpodids in high abundances.

  2. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  3. Network of Interactions Between Ciliates and Phytoplankton During Spring

    PubMed Central

    Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Pomati, Francesco; Pernthaler, Jakob; Pitsch, Gianna; Eckert, Ester M.

    2015-01-01

    The annually recurrent spring phytoplankton blooms in freshwater lakes initiate pronounced successions of planktonic ciliate species. Although there is considerable knowledge on the taxonomic diversity of these ciliates, their species-specific interactions with other microorganisms are still not well understood. Here we present the succession patterns of 20 morphotypes of ciliates during spring in Lake Zurich, Switzerland, and we relate their abundances to phytoplankton genera, flagellates, heterotrophic bacteria, and abiotic parameters. Interspecific relationships were analyzed by contemporaneous correlations and time-lagged co-occurrence and visualized as association networks. The contemporaneous network pointed to the pivotal role of distinct ciliate species (e.g., Balanion planctonicum, Rimostrombidium humile) as primary consumers of cryptomonads, revealed a clear overclustering of mixotrophic/omnivorous species, and highlighted the role of Halteria/Pelagohalteria as important bacterivores. By contrast, time-lagged statistical approaches (like local similarity analyses, LSA) proved to be inadequate for the evaluation of high-frequency sampling data. LSA led to a conspicuous inflation of significant associations, making it difficult to establish ecologically plausible interactions between ciliates and other microorganisms. Nevertheless, if adequate statistical procedures are selected, association networks can be powerful tools to formulate testable hypotheses about the autecology of only recently described ciliate species. PMID:26635757

  4. Free-living ciliates from epiphytic tank bromeliads in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Durán-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto; García-Franco, José Guadalupe; Foissner, Wilhelm; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura

    2015-02-01

    The ciliate diversity of Mexican bromeliads is poorly known. We studied the ciliate community of two species of epiphytic tank bromeliads from 48 individuals of Tillandsia heterophylla and four of T. prodigiosa. The bromeliads occurred on over 22 tree host species. Samples were collected during 2009 and 2010 in a mountain cloud forest and in two coffee plantations and in a pine-oak forest. The ciliates were identified in live and protargol preparations. We recorded 61 ciliate species distributed in 39 genera grouped in eight classes. Ten species were frequent in the 52 samples (20 ± 3.2) and Leptopharynx bromeliophilus was the most frequent recorded in 25 samples. Thirty-three species are new for the fauna of Mexico, 24 species have been recorded for the first time in tank bromeliads. The classes Spirotrichea, Oligohymenophorea and Colpodea presented the highest number of species, 16, 14, and 12, respectively. Colpoda was the most species-rich genus being present with six species. A low similarity between areas and seasons was obtained with Jaccard's index. We conclude that the two bromeliads species host a rich ciliate diversity whose knowledge contributes to the question of ciliate distribution and specifically, in tank bromeliads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Ciliate Diversity in Stream Biofilms▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Free-living protozoa are thought to be of fundamental importance in aquatic ecosystems, but there is limited understanding of their diversity and ecological role, particularly in surface-associated communities such as biofilms. Existing eukaryote-specific PCR primers were used to survey 18S rRNA gene sequence diversity in stream biofilms but poorly revealed protozoan diversity, demonstrating a need for protozoan-targeted primers. Group-specific PCR primers targeting 18S rRNA genes of the protozoan phylum Ciliophora were therefore designed and tested using DNA extracted from cultured protozoan isolates. The two most reliable primer combinations were applied to stream biofilm DNA, followed by cloning and sequencing analysis. Of 44 clones derived from primer set 384F/1147R, 86% were of probable ciliate origin, as were 25% of 44 clones detected by primer set 121F/1147R. A further 29% of 121F/1147R-detected clones matched sequences from the closely related phylum Apicomplexa. The highly ciliate-specific primer set 384F/1147R was subsequently used in PCRs on biofilm DNA from four streams exhibiting different levels of human impact, revealing differences in ciliate sequence diversity in samples from each site. Of a total of 240 clones, 73% were of probable ciliate origin; 54 different putative ciliate sequences were detected from throughout seven taxonomic ciliate classes. Sequences from Oligohymenophorea were most commonly detected in all samples, followed by either Spirotrichea or Phyllopharyngea. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profile-based analysis of clones suggested a potentially higher level of diversity than did sequencing. Nevertheless, newly designed PCR primers 384F/1147R were considered to provide an effective molecular basis for characterization of ciliate diversity in stream biofilms. PMID:18223112

  6. Planktonic ciliates in a hypertrophic pond: functional role and importance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Rodriguez, Ma del Rosario; Lugo Vazquez, Alfonso; Oliva Martinez, Ma Guadalupe; Verver y Vargas, Jaqueline Garcia; Rodriguez Rocha, Armando; Peralta Soriano, Laura

    2011-07-01

    Taxonomical composition and abundance of the planktonic ciliate assemblage in a Lake Tezozomoc, a hypertrophic pond located into an urban park in Mexico City, was investigated along the rainy season (May to October). The aims of the study were to know the main trophic roles and ecological significance of ciliates in a highly productive environment. A low number of taxa (27) and a wide abundance fluctuation (104-387 cil ml(-1)) were found. The most abundant species (up to 162 cil ml(-1)) was Halteria grandinella, an oligotrich ciliate that graze on bacteria and picoplankton, but also several big body sized species that feed on pico and nanoplankton were abundant. Sudden temporal changes in species dominance occurred. Ciliate biomass was very high and fluctuated widely (1.6-88 10(6) microm(3) ml(-1)) being dominated by the >50 microm size fraction that mainly included the pico and nanoplankton feeders. Ciliates are a very important component in the plankton of hypertrophic lakes and their main control factor seems to be the grazing by big-body size Daphnia species.

  7. Colonization dynamics of ciliate morphotypes modified by shifting sandy sediments.

    PubMed

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Felsmann, Katja; Mutz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment. Sediment shifting significantly affected the abundance and growth rate of the ciliate morphotypes. The free-swimming filter feeder Dexiostoma campylum was vulnerable to washout by sediment shifting since significantly higher numbers occurred in the overlying water than in pore water. Abundance of D. campylum only increased in pore water of stable sediments. On the contrary, the vagile grasper feeder Chilodonella uncinata and the sessile filter feeder Vorticella convallaria had positive growth rates and successfully colonized sediments that shifted periodically and continuously. Thus, the spatio-temporal pattern of sediment dynamics acts as an essential factor of impact on the structure, distribution and function of ciliate communities in sand-bed streams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung development and repair: Contribution of the ciliated lineage

    PubMed Central

    Rawlins, Emma L.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Randell, Scott H.; Hogan, Brigid L. M.

    2007-01-01

    The identity of the endogenous epithelial cells in the adult lung that are responsible for normal turnover and repair after injury is still controversial. In part, this is due to a paucity of highly specific genetic lineage tools to follow efficiently the fate of the major epithelial cell populations: the basal, secretory, ciliated, neuroendocrine, and alveolar cells. As part of a program to address this problem we have used a 1-kb FOXJ1 promoter to drive CreER in the ciliated cells of the embryonic and adult lung. Analysis of FOXJ1-GFP transgenic lungs shows that labeled cells appear in a proximal-distal pattern during embryogenesis and that the promoter drives expression in all ciliated cells. Using FOXJ1CreER adult mice, we have followed the fate of ciliated cells after epithelial injury by naphthalene or sulfur dioxide. From quantitative analysis and confocal microscopy we conclude that ciliated cells transiently change their morphology in response to lung injury but do not proliferate or transdifferentiate as part of the repair process. PMID:17194755

  9. Lung development and repair: contribution of the ciliated lineage.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, Emma L; Ostrowski, Lawrence E; Randell, Scott H; Hogan, Brigid L M

    2007-01-09

    The identity of the endogenous epithelial cells in the adult lung that are responsible for normal turnover and repair after injury is still controversial. In part, this is due to a paucity of highly specific genetic lineage tools to follow efficiently the fate of the major epithelial cell populations: the basal, secretory, ciliated, neuroendocrine, and alveolar cells. As part of a program to address this problem we have used a 1-kb FOXJ1 promoter to drive CreER in the ciliated cells of the embryonic and adult lung. Analysis of FOXJ1-GFP transgenic lungs shows that labeled cells appear in a proximal-distal pattern during embryogenesis and that the promoter drives expression in all ciliated cells. Using FOXJ1CreER adult mice, we have followed the fate of ciliated cells after epithelial injury by naphthalene or sulfur dioxide. From quantitative analysis and confocal microscopy we conclude that ciliated cells transiently change their morphology in response to lung injury but do not proliferate or transdifferentiate as part of the repair process.

  10. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Charles J.; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described. PMID:26635774

  11. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  12. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shixia; Shen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g., Congo Red and Calcofluor White) and oxidative stress (e.g., H2O2 and paraquat), decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways. PMID:27695445

  13. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-03-15

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B{sup -/-} mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag{sup +}/Cu{sup +} transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  14. The role of oestrogen in the control of ciliated cells of the human endometrium.

    PubMed

    More, I A; Masterton, R G

    1976-05-01

    The incidence of ciliated cells in the human endometrium was determined. Conditions associated with an excess of oestrogenic activity were characterized by an increased incidence of ciliated cells, whilst oestrogen deficiency was associated with decreased numbers. When endometrium was cultured, addition of oestradiol-17 beta caused an increase in the ciliated cell population.

  15. Transposon Domestication versus Mutualism in Ciliate Genome Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Alexander; Goldman, Aaron David; Mochizuki, Kazufumi; Landweber, Laura F.

    2013-01-01

    Ciliated protists rearrange their genomes dramatically during nuclear development via chromosome fragmentation and DNA deletion to produce a trimmer and highly reorganized somatic genome. The deleted portion of the genome includes potentially active transposons or transposon-like sequences that reside in the germline. Three independent studies recently showed that transposase proteins of the DDE/DDD superfamily are indispensible for DNA processing in three distantly related ciliates. In the spirotrich Oxytricha trifallax, high copy-number germline-limited transposons mediate their own excision from the somatic genome but also contribute to programmed genome rearrangement through a remarkable transposon mutualism with the host. By contrast, the genomes of two oligohymenophorean ciliates, Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia, encode homologous PiggyBac-like transposases as single-copy genes in both their germline and somatic genomes. These domesticated transposases are essential for deletion of thousands of different internal sequences in these species. This review contrasts the events underlying somatic genome reduction in three different ciliates and considers their evolutionary origins and the relationships among their distinct mechanisms for genome remodeling. PMID:23935529

  16. [Early morphogenesis of ciliated cells in human oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Kurtova, A I; Chernikov, V P; Savel'ev, S V

    2013-01-01

    Ciliated cells were found in the epithelium of the oral cavity of human embryos and fetuses starting from the seventh week of prenatal development. At the early stages of prenatal development (until the 13th week), cells with cilia cover most of the dorsal surface of the tongue and the soft palate, whereas they are found only near the gland ducts in the circumvallate and foliate lingual papillae after 17 weeks of development. The ultrastructure of the axoneme of cilia corresponds to the structure of motile cilia and is represented by nine microtubule doublets that surround the central pair of microtubule singlets. An immunohistochemical study performed on weeks 10-12 of development identified nerve endings associated with the ciliated cells. Until the 14th week of development, the cytoplasm of ciliated cells is immunopositive for NSE. The spatial distribution of ciliated cells in the tongue epithelium until the 13th week of development is not related to the morphogenesis of lingual papillae, and their role in the human oral cavity during the first trimester of pregnancy is unclear and requires further study.

  17. A Cryptic Marine Ciliate Feeds on Progametes of Noctiluca scintillans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuwen; Chan, Kit Yu Karen; Shen, Zhuo; Cheung, Shunyan; Landry, Michael R; Liu, Hongbin

    2017-02-01

    The dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) has the ability to reproduce sexually, which may help to increase or restore its population size during periods of blooms or environmental stress. Here, we documented for the first time a marine ciliate Strombidium sp. that feeds on Noctiluca's progametes undergoing stages 5 to 9 of nuclear division. This ciliate frequently swam on or around gametogenic and some vegetative Noctiluca cells. The ciliates associated with gametogenic cells had significantly lower swimming speed and changed direction more frequently than those associated with vegetative cells, which overall increased their time spent around the food patches (progametes). This trophic interaction constitutes an upside-down predator-prey link, in which ciliates within the typical size range of Noctiluca prey, become the predators. Based on the phylogenetic tree (maximum-likelihood), there are 14 environmental clones similar to Strombidium sp. found in other coastal waters, where Noctiluca presence or blooms have been reported. This novel predator-prey relationship could therefore be common in other Noctiluca habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of its impacts on Noctiluca population dynamics and plankton bloom succession.

  18. Class I release factors in ciliates with variant genetic codes

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Yuji; Doolittle, W. Ford

    2001-01-01

    In eukaryotes with the universal genetic code a single class I release factor (eRF1) most probably recognizes all stop codons (UAA, UAG and UGA) and is essential for termination of nascent peptide synthesis. It is well established that stop codons have been reassigned to amino acid codons at least three times among ciliates. The codon specificities of ciliate eRF1s must have been modified to accommodate the variant codes. In this study we have amplified, cloned and sequenced eRF1 genes of two hypotrichous ciliates, Oxytricha trifallax (UAA and UAG for Gln) and Euplotes aediculatus (UGA for Cys). We also sequenced/identified three protist and two archaeal class I RF genes to enlarge the database of eRF1/aRF1s with the universal code. Extensive comparisons between universal code eRF1s and those of Oxytricha, Euplotes and Tetrahymena, which represent three lineages that acquired variant codes independently, provide important clues to identify stop codon-binding regions in eRF1. Domain 1 in the five ciliate eRF1s, particulary the TASNIKS heptapeptide and its adjacent region, differs significantly from domain 1 in universal code eRF1s. This observation suggests that domain 1 contains the codon recognition site, but that the mechanism of eRF1 codon recognition may be more complex than proposed by Nakamura et al. or Knight and Landweber. PMID:11160924

  19. Alterations of ciliate phosducin phosphorylation in Blepharisma japonicum cells.

    PubMed

    Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Fabczak, Hanna; Fabczak, Stanisław

    2005-05-13

    We have previously reported that motile photophobic response in ciliate Blepharisma japonicum correlates with dephosphorylation of a cytosolic 28 kDa phosphoprotein (PP28) exhibiting properties similar to those of phosducin. Here we demonstrate in in vivo phosphorylation assay that the light-elicited dephosphorylation of the PP28 is significantly modified by cell incubation with substances known to modulate protein phosphatase and kinase activities. Immunoblot analyses showed that incubation of ciliates with okadaic acid and calyculin A, potent inhibitors of type 1 or 2A protein phosphatases, distinctly increased phosphorylation of PP28 in dark-adapted cells and markedly weakened dephosphorylation of the ciliate phosducin following cell illumination. An enhancement of PP28 phosphorylation was also observed in dark-adapted ciliates exposed to 8-Br-cAMP and 8-Br-cGMP, slowly hydrolysable cyclic nucleotide analogs and 3-isobutyryl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a non-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDEs) inhibitor. Only slight changes in light-evoked dephosphorylation levels of PP28 were observed in cells treated with the cyclic nucleotide analogs and IBMX. Incubation of ciliates with H 89 or KT 5823, highly selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), respectively, decreased PP28 phosphorylation levels in dark-adapted cells, whereas the extent of light-evoked dephosphorylation of the phosphoprotein was only slightly influenced. Cell treatment with higher Ca2+ concentration together with ionophore A23187 in culture medium resulted in marked increase in PP28 phosphorylation levels, while quite an opposite effect was observed in cells exposed to Ca2+ chelators, EGTA or BAPTA/AM as well as calmodulin antagonists, such as trifluoperazine (TFP), W-7 or calmidazolium. Light-dependent dephosphorylation was not considerably affected by these treatments. The experimental findings presented here suggest that an

  20. Raman microspectrometry as a powerful tool for a quick screening of thiotrophy: an application on mangrove swamp meiofauna of Guadeloupe (F.W.I.).

    PubMed

    Maurin, Leslie C; Himmel, David; Mansot, Jean-Louis; Gros, Olivier

    2010-06-01

    The mangrove swamp environment constitutes a sulphide rich habitat harbouring some thioautotrophic organisms. The ciliate Zoothamnium niveum and the nematode Eubostrichus dianae, both known to live associated with bacterial sulphide-oxidizing ectosymbionts, were analysed as positive controls by Raman microspectrometry. The detection of the 3 Raman bands characteristic of elemental sulphur (S(8)) allows us to define a positive model of sulphide-oxidizing symbiotic invertebrates and by extrapolation, of thioautotrophic organisms. A fast screening using this tool was carried out on eukaryotic organisms such as hydrozoan, nematodes, annelids, copepods, and ciliate (Pseudovorticella sp.) and on free-living filamentous bacteria found on decomposing leaves in order to detect thioautotrophic organisms. The Raman microspectrometry permits us: (i) to reveal thioautotrophic metabolism of free-living bacteria (Beggiatoa sp.) and even for Archaea and (ii) to detect sulphide-oxidizing endosymbiotic and ectosymbiotic bacteria associated with the Bivalve Lucina pectinata and Pseudovorticella sp., respectively. Raman microspectrometry represents a fast, easy and non destructive technique which can be used on living organisms without constraints of sample size. The Raman analysis can also be completed by ultrastructural analysis (SEM, TEM) on the same sample.

  1. The Tara Oceans voyage reveals global diversity and distribution patterns of marine planktonic ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Gimmler, Anna; Korn, Ralf; de Vargas, Colomban; Audic, Stéphane; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Illumina reads of the SSU-rDNA-V9 region obtained from the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition allow the investigation of protistan plankton diversity patterns on a global scale. We analyzed 6,137,350 V9-amplicons from ocean surface waters and the deep chlorophyll maximum, which were taxonomically assigned to the phylum Ciliophora. For open ocean samples global planktonic ciliate diversity is relatively low (ca. 1,300 observed and predicted ciliate OTUs). We found that 17% of all detected ciliate OTUs occurred in all oceanic regions under study. On average, local ciliate OTU richness represented 27% of the global ciliate OTU richness, indicating that a large proportion of ciliates is widely distributed. Yet, more than half of these OTUs shared <90% sequence similarity with reference sequences of described ciliates. While alpha-diversity measures (richness and exp(Shannon H)) are hardly affected by contemporary environmental conditions, species (OTU) turnover and community similarity (β-diversity) across taxonomic groups showed strong correlation to environmental parameters. Logistic regression models predicted significant correlations between the occurrence of specific ciliate genera and individual nutrients, the oceanic carbonate system and temperature. Planktonic ciliates displayed distinct vertical distributions relative to chlorophyll a. In contrast, the Tara Oceans dataset did not reveal any evidence that latitude is structuring ciliate communities. PMID:27633177

  2. Ultrastructure of extrusomes in hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Wang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Jun; Gu, Fukang

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of extrusomes of the hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova was observed in scanning and transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-cytochemistry. The results show that the distribution, morphological characteristics, morphogenesis process, and extrusive process of the extrusomes in P. nova are different from the trichocysts in Paramecium, suggesting that the extrusomes of P. nova can respond to environmental stimuli, play an important role in the defense of this species, and cannot be regarded as "trichocysts". The results also suggest that the extrusomes might be originated from the Golgi apparatus and mature in the cytoplasm; after the extrusion of mature extrusomes, the residual substance might be reabsorbed and reused by the ciliate cell via food vacuoles, and take part in material recycling of the cell.

  3. Phylogeny of Intestinal Ciliates, Including Charonina ventriculi, and Comparison of Microscopy and 18S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing for Rumen Ciliate Community Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devente, Savannah R.; Kirk, Michelle R.; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups. PMID:25616800

  4. Phylogeny of intestinal ciliates, including Charonina ventriculi, and comparison of microscopy and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for rumen ciliate community structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Devente, Savannah R; Kirk, Michelle R; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Evolution of the Exon-Intron Structure in Ciliate Genomes.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Vladyslav S; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2016-01-01

    A typical eukaryotic gene is comprised of alternating stretches of regions, exons and introns, retained in and spliced out a mature mRNA, respectively. Although the length of introns may vary substantially among organisms, a large fraction of genes contains short introns in many species. Notably, some Ciliates (Paramecium and Nyctotherus) possess only ultra-short introns, around 25 bp long. In Paramecium, ultra-short introns with length divisible by three (3n) are under strong evolutionary pressure and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons, which, in the case of intron retention, cause premature termination of mRNA translation and consequent degradation of the mis-spliced mRNA by the nonsense-mediated decay mechanism. Here, we analyzed introns in five genera of Ciliates, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Ichthyophthirius, Oxytricha, and Stylonychia. Introns can be classified into two length classes in Tetrahymena and Ichthyophthirius (with means 48 bp, 69 bp, and 55 bp, 64 bp, respectively), but, surprisingly, comprise three distinct length classes in Oxytricha and Stylonychia (with means 33-35 bp, 47-51 bp, and 78-80 bp). In most ranges of the intron lengths, 3n introns are underrepresented and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons in all studied species. Introns of Paramecium, Tetrahymena, and Ichthyophthirius are preferentially located at the 5' and 3' ends of genes, whereas introns of Oxytricha and Stylonychia are strongly skewed towards the 5' end. Analysis of evolutionary conservation shows that, in each studied genome, a significant fraction of intron positions is conserved between the orthologs, but intron lengths are not correlated between the species. In summary, our study provides a detailed characterization of introns in several genera of Ciliates and highlights some of their distinctive properties, which, together, indicate that splicing spellchecking is a universal and evolutionarily conserved process in the biogenesis of short introns in

  6. Evolution of the Exon-Intron Structure in Ciliate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    A typical eukaryotic gene is comprised of alternating stretches of regions, exons and introns, retained in and spliced out a mature mRNA, respectively. Although the length of introns may vary substantially among organisms, a large fraction of genes contains short introns in many species. Notably, some Ciliates (Paramecium and Nyctotherus) possess only ultra-short introns, around 25 bp long. In Paramecium, ultra-short introns with length divisible by three (3n) are under strong evolutionary pressure and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons, which, in the case of intron retention, cause premature termination of mRNA translation and consequent degradation of the mis-spliced mRNA by the nonsense-mediated decay mechanism. Here, we analyzed introns in five genera of Ciliates, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Ichthyophthirius, Oxytricha, and Stylonychia. Introns can be classified into two length classes in Tetrahymena and Ichthyophthirius (with means 48 bp, 69 bp, and 55 bp, 64 bp, respectively), but, surprisingly, comprise three distinct length classes in Oxytricha and Stylonychia (with means 33–35 bp, 47–51 bp, and 78–80 bp). In most ranges of the intron lengths, 3n introns are underrepresented and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons in all studied species. Introns of Paramecium, Tetrahymena, and Ichthyophthirius are preferentially located at the 5' and 3' ends of genes, whereas introns of Oxytricha and Stylonychia are strongly skewed towards the 5' end. Analysis of evolutionary conservation shows that, in each studied genome, a significant fraction of intron positions is conserved between the orthologs, but intron lengths are not correlated between the species. In summary, our study provides a detailed characterization of introns in several genera of Ciliates and highlights some of their distinctive properties, which, together, indicate that splicing spellchecking is a universal and evolutionarily conserved process in the biogenesis of short introns in

  7. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A checklist of ciliate parasites (Ciliophora) of fishes from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Islas-Ortega, Alma Gabriela

    2015-10-02

    A database with all available published accounts of the ciliate parasite species of Mexican fishes was assembled. This information, along with records derived from own recent research, allow generating a checklist containing all the records, which is a necessary first step to address future questions in the areas of ecology, evolutionary biology and biogeography of these host-parasite associations. The checklist is presented as a parasite-host list, and a host-parasite list. The checklist contains 30 nominal species, from 9 genera and 8 families of ciliate parasites. Most of the primary records were done for exotic fish species, artificially introduced to Mexico for aquaculture purposes; however, recent works have been conducted in diverse species of native fishes. Excepting one, all the ciliate species listed here have been previously recorded for diverse fish species from different localities around the world. Based on the amount of information contained in this checklist, much more effort is necessary to accurately know the diversity of species of this type of parasites in fish fauna of Mexico.

  9. Comparison of ciliature microtubule organelles in three hypotrichous ciliate species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yisong; Shi, Lei; Gu, Fukang

    2010-05-01

    We examined the structure and spatial organization of ciliature base-associated microtubules (BAM) in three hypotrichous ciliates ( Stylonychia mytilus, Pseudourostyla cristata, Euplotes woodruffi) in fluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that BAM, including the anterior (ALM), posterior longitudinal microtubule (PLM) and the transverse microtubule (TM) bands, are composed of tubulin. The respective microtubular bands have cytoplasmic polarization patterns that are significantly asymmetric. The BAM of the midventral files in P. cristata appear cord-shaped compared with the ALM bands of transverse cirri in both S. mytilus and E. woodruffi, which extend to the left anterior side of the cell before converging. The TM bands of the left marginal cirri (MC) in S. mytilus extend to the right side of the cell, while those of the right MC bands extend to the left. Our observations suggest that BAM traits are common in hypotrichous ciliates even though different species possess different microtubule arrangements related to the conserved cirral morphogenetic patterns in the respective species. The differing development of BAM in the three ciliate suggests that the microtubules may be conserved in different hypotrichs. We have also demonstrated that the BAM, which appear polar and asymmetric, are localized in specific cytoskeletal positions and extend in different orientations within the cortex to connect with other ciliature-associated structures and, thus, strengthen the cortex. These BAM features indicate that they are directly associated with cell motion.

  10. Coupling molecules and morphology to discover new clades of ciliates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grattepanche, J. D.; Maurer-Alcalá, X. X.; Tucker, S. J.; McManus, G. B.; Katz, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    In a previous study using high-throughput sequencing (Grattepanche et al submitted, oral presentation?), we observe the presence of two clades of spirotrich ciliates mainly present in marine deep-water along the New England coast. These clades, clusters X1 and X2, are characterized by several deletions in their SSU-rDNA and have been observed elsewhere as both identical and similar sequences have been deposited on GenBank from other environmental studies, but lack morphological description. In order to link molecules (SSU-rDNA sequence) to their morphology, we sample below the photic zone (between 60 to 400m of depth) in the New England coast (Northeast Atlantic) in a transect crossing the continental shelf. We designed an oligonucleotide probe specific for choreotrich and oligotrich ciliates and another specific to clusters X1 and X2 to describe these clades through a combination of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) and light microscopy. Our aim is to increase our knowledge on the morphology of these `unknown' clades of ciliates, which will allow for future ecological studies.

  11. Resistance of nitrifiers inhabiting activated sludge to ciliate grazing.

    PubMed

    Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Fyda, Janusz; Babko, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We monitored the succession of nitrifiers in a newly opened wastewater treatment plant for five weeks. After the first distinct decrease in total nitrogen, we began monitoring the appearance, size and number of nitrifying bacteria colonies using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) colonies were visualized under green excitation as red, and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) colonies were visualized under blue excitation as green. The changes in protozoan community were monitored simultaneously. Ciliates were divided into four functional groups: predatory, bacterivorous free-swimming, bacterivorous crawling, and sessile. The results showed that at the time of the first distinct total nitrogen decrease, the mean length of both AOB and NOB were relatively low, but the colonies, especially those of nitrite oxidizers, were abundant. In time, the distribution of ammonia oxidizer colonies shifted towards larger sizes, but their quantity decreased. In the case of nitrite oxidizers, a similar trend was noticeable but less pronounced. These changes corresponded with an increasing number of crawling bacterivorous ciliates dominated by the "scavenger" genus Aspidisca. The increasing size of nitrifier colonies may have been due to the growing grazing pressure from crawling bacterivorous ciliates. The strong grazing pressure did not negatively affect N-NH(4)(+) removal effectiveness.

  12. Marine ciliates as a widespread source of tetrahymanol and hopan-3β-ol in sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Mcmanus, George B.

    1991-11-01

    We observed tetrahymanol (gammaceran-3β-ol) as a principal neutral lipid in eight marine ciliate species, most of which were scuticociliates, a group of ciliates that feeds mainly on bacteria. Tetrahymanol abundance in pure cultures and field samples (sediment traps, water column particulates, and enrichments from coastal and estuarine environments) shows good agreement with ciliate biovolume ( R2 = 0.89), suggesting that tetrahymanol is a specific marker for marine ciliates that feed on bacteria. Hopan-3β-ol was also positively identified in several ciliates, but did not occur in all species examined. Because of their widespread distribution in modern marine systems, these organisms provide a likely source for the common appearance of tetrahymanol in many marine sediments. By analogy, the presumed presence of ciliates in ancient seas may explain the occurrence of its diagenetic product, gammacerane, in more mature sediments and crude oils.

  13. [In vitro Cultivation of Functioning Passaged Ciliated Epithelium for Trachea Tissue Engineering].

    PubMed

    Baranovsky, D S; Lyundup, A V; Parshin, V D

    2015-01-01

    Currently all tissue engineered trachea transplants had no ciliated epithelium until transplantation, and long-term temporary lack of mucociliary clearance leads to patients' condition decline and reduced life quality in postoperative period. So, the need for a better cultivation method and studying ciliated epithelium growth characteristics in cell culture increased rapidly. The aim of our study was to investigate cultivation offunctionally complete passaged ciliated epitheliumfor trachea tissue engineering. Human ciliated epithelium isolated from intraoperative bioptate was used for culturing in the special complex medium with morphological and functional characteristics evaluation. Ciliated epithelial cell-groups were obtained by culturing in the special complex medium. Generated cell-groups had ciliary activity and showed well-coordinated movement with functional characteristics similar to native epithelial tissue. The basic parameters of cell-activity were studied. Thus our study provides a new insight for the problem of ciliated epithelium in vitro culturing as well as developing the optimal laboratory method.

  14. Marine ciliates as a widespread source of tetrahymanol and hopan-3. beta. -ol in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, H.R.; McManus, G.B. )

    1991-11-01

    The authors observed tetrahymanol (gammaceran-3{beta}-ol) as a principal neutral lipid in eight marine ciliate species, most of which were scuticociliates, a group of ciliates that feeds mainly on bacteria. Tetrahymanol abundance in pure cultures and field samples (sediment traps, water column particulates, and enrichments from coastal and estuarine environments) shows good agreement with ciliate biovolume (R{sup 2} = 0.89), suggesting that tetrahymanol is a specific marker for marine ciliates that feed on bacteria. Hopan-3{beta}-ol was also positively identified in several ciliates, but did not occur in all species examined. Because of their widespread distribution in modern marine systems, these organisms provide a likely source for the common appearance of tetrahymanol in many marine sediments. By analogy, the presumed presence of ciliates in ancient seas may explain the occurrence of its diagenetic product, gammacerane, in more mature sediments and crude oils.

  15. Elucidating Mechanisms by which Invertebrate Larval Settlement is Affected by Biofilm Ciliates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimeta, J.; Watson, M. G.; Zalizniak, L.; Scardino, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    Despite extensive studies of benthic invertebrate larvae responding to settlement cues from bacteria and microalgae in biofilms, the roles of protozoa have been largely ignored. We recently showed that an assemblage of biofilm ciliates affected larval settlement and survival rates among two polychaetes, a mussel, and a bryozoan, being inhibitory to some and facilitative to others. Here we investigated settlement inhibition further for the serpulid worm, Galeolaria caespitosa, and the mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Single species of ciliates were capable of inhibiting settlement by up to 68%. The effects were density dependent, with the strength of inhibition being directly related to ciliate abundance. The strength of inhibition also differed significantly among ciliate species, suggesting that both the abundance and makeup of ciliate assemblages could be an important variable determining settlement rates in the field. We studied the mechanisms of inhibition further with G. caespitosa and the ciliate, Euplotes minuta. Filtrate from ciliate cultures failed to inhibit settlement, indicating that dissolved chemicals were not the inhibiting factor. Physical presence of ciliates was inhibitory, as demonstrated by video analysis of larval search behavior. Following contact with a ciliate, larval swimming was disrupted, including retreat from the substratum and significant changes in swimming angles. Ciliates may also have influenced settlement indirectly by altering cues from biofilm bacteria. Although bacterial densities were unaffected by ciliate grazing during the assays, bacterial distributions were significantly more clumped in the presence of ciliates, which could perhaps affect the suitability of the biofilm for larvae. These organism-scale interactions at the biofilm boundary could produce significant constraints on larval recruitment patterns and suggest that further studies are needed on the roles of protozoans in boundary layer processes.

  16. Functional groups of marine ciliated protozoa and their relationships to water quality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Xu, Henglong; Hu, Xiaozhong; Warren, Alan; Song, Weibo

    2013-08-01

    Ciliated protozoa (ciliates) play important ecological roles in coastal waters, especially regarding their interaction with environmental parameters. In order to increase our knowledge and understanding on the functional structure of ciliate communities and their relationships to environmental conditions in marine ecosystems, a 12-month study was carried out in a semi-enclosed bay in northern China. Samples were collected biweekly at five sampling stations with differing levels of pollution/eutrophication, giving a total of 120 samples. Thirteen functional groups of ciliates (A-M) were defined based on their specific spatio-temporal distribution and relationships to physico-chemical parameters. Six of these groups (H-M) were the primary contributors to the ciliate communities in the polluted/eutrophic areas, whereas the other seven groups (A-G) dominated the communities in less polluted areas. Six groups (A, D, G, H, I and K) dominated during the warm seasons (summer and autumn), with the other seven (B, C, E, F, J, L and M) dominating in the cold seasons (spring and winter). Of these, groups B (mainly aloricate ciliates), I (aloricate ciliates) and L (mainly loricate tintinnids) were the primary contributors to the communities. It was also shown that aloricate ciliates and tintinnids represented different roles in structuring and functioning of the communities. The results suggest that the ciliate communities may be constructed by several functional groups in response to the environmental conditions. Thus, we conclude that these functional groups might be potentially useful bioindicators for bioassessment and conservation in marine habitats.

  17. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  18. Prevalent Ciliate Symbiosis on Copepods: High Genetic Diversity and Wide Distribution Detected Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally. PMID:23024768

  19. A GBS-SNP-based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides.

    PubMed

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Farnham, Mark W; Patrick Wechter, W

    2017-02-01

    A major QTL for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 was mapped to a narrow 1.2 Mb interval using a high-density GBS-SNP linkage map, the first map of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides. Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, does not exist in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Cll) and has been well described in a few plant introductions of the wild subspecies of watermelon, C. lanatus var. citroides (Clc). Clc provides a vital source of genetic diversity, as well as resistance to numerous diseases. Unfortunately, both genetic diversity and disease resistance are lacking in Cll due to the narrow genetic base. Despite the importance of Clc to continued watermelon improvement, intra-variety genetic studies are lacking. Here, we present the first Clc genetic linkage map, generated with 2495 single nucleotide polymorphisms developed through genotyping-by-sequencing, and use it to identify quantitative trait loci associated with Fon race 2 resistance. Multiple QTL mapping in a Clc F2:3 population (N = 173) identified one major and four minor QTL. The major QTL explained 43% of the variation in Fon race 2 resistance and was delimited to a 1.2-Mb interval on chromosome 9, a region spanning 44 genes.

  20. Act together—implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Dziallas, Claudia; Allgaier, Martin; Monaghan, Michael T.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mutual interactions in the form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments, and protection from grazers. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh, and nutrient-deficient habitats. It is therefore not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of the symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging questions in this field

  1. Reversal of phenol and naphthalene effects on ciliate chemoattraction

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Ting, R.S.; Roberts, R.O. ); Mills, B.A. ); Stewart, K.C. )

    1990-02-01

    In an effort to address research needs in the area of rapid screening tests for aquatic toxicology, the authors engaged in a study of pollutant effects on protozoan chemoattraction. Among pollutants tested were metals and hydrocarbons. To ascertain whether inhibition observed after brief exposures to certain concentrations of the pollutants were irreversible, they examined the possibility of nullifying the inhibitory effect by removing protozoa from the toxicants after short exposures. Earlier work showed that inhibitory effects of metals could be removed, and they report here the nullification and reversibility of effects of phenol and naphthalene on certain ciliates.

  2. Bioassay of environmental nickel dusts in a particle feeding ciliate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Leibovitz, B.; Donathan, R.; Fisher, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium was used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nickel particles. The biological response of these eukaryotic cells to pure nickel powder and iron-nickel powder was assayed and compared to the effect of the inorganic carcinogen nickel subsulfide. Cytotoxicity was determined by the percent survival of treated cells. Genotoxicity was indicated by significant increases in the fraction of nonviable offspring (presumed index of lethal mutations) found after self-fertilization (autogamy) in parents from the nickel-treated versus neutral control groups. The cells were exposed to the dusts and the biological effects determined. Only the nickel subsulfide consistently showed a significant increase in offspring lethality.

  3. Abundance, variability, and potential grazing impact of planktonic ciliates in the open subaratic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Suzanne L.; Postel, James R.; Booth, Beatrice C.

    The abundance and variability of planktonic ciliates in the open subarctic Pacific were determined during four month-long cruises in 1987 and 1988. The ciliate community, numerically dominated by relatively small aloricate choreotrichs, was comparable in abundance to communities in a range of oceanic and neritic environments, including waters with much higher average chlorophyll concentrations. Integrated (0-80m) ciliate biomass was typically 100-200mgC m -2, although 3- to 4-fold higher levels were observed on two occasions in spring. Ciliate community biomass, in general, was dominated by large (>20 μm width) individuals, although in August 1988 the biomass of smaller cells was as great or greater. The estimated grazing impact of the ciliate community averaged 20% of the primary production. On one instance in May 1988, however, a large biomass of ciliates led to an estimated grazing impact equivalent to 55% of phytoplankton production. While ciliates may be major phytoplankton grazers during sporadic ciliate “blooms”, dino- and other heterotrophic flagellates, which make up the bulk of microheterotroph biomass, must normally be of equal or greater importance as herbivores in this ocean region.

  4. A novel approach to quantifying ciliary physiology: microfluidic mixing driven by a ciliated biological surface

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Stephan; Zhou, Elaine; Deniz, Engin; Huang, Brendan; Chandrasekera, Kenny; Bhattacharya, Dipankan; Wu, Yu; Fan, Rong; Deserno, Thomas M.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Chomaa, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    From the lungs to the central nervous system, cilia-driven fluid flow plays a fundamental role in many facets of life. Yet, there are few quantitative methods for analysing the function of ciliated surfaces. Here, we report a novel microfluidic approach for quantifying the performance of a ciliated surface using mixing performance as an integrated readout. PMID:23970350

  5. EVIDENCE FOR A CRYPTOMONAD SYMBIONT IN THE CILIATE, CYCLOTRICHIUM MEUNIERI(1).

    PubMed

    Barber, R T; White, A W; Siegelman, H W

    1969-03-01

    Extracts of the marine ciliate Cyclotrichium meunieri contained chlorophylls a and c, carotenoids, and a phycoerythrin with a single absorbance maximum at 542 nm. This assemblage of pigments suggests that the numerous photosynthetic symbionts present in each ciliate cell belong to the Cryptophyceae.

  6. Planktonic ciliate community structure in shallow lakes of lowland Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Wichelen, Jeroen; Johansson, Liselotte S; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Declerck, Steven A J; Lauridsen, Torben L; De Meester, Luc; Jeppesen, Erik; Vyverman, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Temperate shallow meso- to eutrophic lakes can exist in one of two alternative states with contrasting foodwebs, referred to as the clear-water and the turbid state. We describe the planktonic ciliate communities of such lakes based on a survey of 66 northwestern European lakes. Ciliates were enumerated and identified to species level according to the quantitative protargol staining technique. Ciliate biomass was on average twice as high in the turbid than in the clear-water lakes. The ciliate communities were dominated by oligotrichs and protostomatids, and no differences in functional composition or α-diversity could be detected between turbid and clear-water lakes, although β-diversity tended to be higher in the latter. At the species level, however, community structure strongly differed between turbid and clear-water lakes, and several indicator species could be identified for the different lake categories. Variation partitioning showed that nutrient status did not explain ciliate community structure independent of the alternative states, while lake area was identified as an additional structuring factor for the ciliate communities. These results stress the importance of the ecosystem structure in shaping ciliate communities in temperate shallow lakes and suggest that nutrient status has little direct effect on ciliate community structure in such lakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Actin evolution in ciliates (Protist, Alveolata) is characterized by high diversity and three duplication events.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Huang, Lijuan; Yang, Ran; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2016-03-01

    Ciliates possess two distinct nuclear genomes and unique genomic features, including highly fragmented chromosomes and extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Recent transcriptomic surveys have revealed that ciliates have several multi-copy genes providing an ideal template to study gene family evolution. Nonetheless, this process remains little studied in ciliated protozoa and consequently, the evolutionary patterns that govern it are not well understood. In this study, we focused on obtaining fine-scale information relative to ciliate species divergence for the first time. A total of 230 actin gene sequences were derived from this study, among which 217 were from four closely related Pseudokeronopsis species and 13 from other hypotrichous ciliates. Our investigation shows that: (1) At least three duplication events occurred in ciliates: diversification of three actin genes (Actin I, II, III) happened after the divergence of ciliate classes but before that of subclasses. And several recent and genus-specific duplications were followed within Actin I (Sterkiella, Oxytricha, Uroleptus, etc.), Actin II (Sterkiella), respectively. (2) Within the genus Pseudokeronopsis, Actin I gene duplication events happened after P. carnea and P. erythrina diverged. In contrast, in the morphologically similar species P. flava and P. rubra, the duplication event preceded diversification of the two species. The Actin II gene duplication events preceded divergence of the genus Pseudokeronopsis. (3) Phylogenetic analyses revealed that actin is suitable for resolving ciliate classes, but may not be used to infer lower taxon relationships.

  8. New Primers Targeting Full-Length Ciliate 18S rRNA Genes and Evaluation of Dietary Effect on Rumen Ciliate Diversity in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Sun, Peng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene sequences of rumen ciliates is more reliable for taxonomical classification and diversity assessment than the analysis of partial hypervariable regions only. The objective of this study was to develop new oligonucleotide primers targeting the full-length 18S rRNA genes of rumen ciliates, and to evaluate the effect of different sources of dietary fiber (corn stover or a mixture of alfalfa hay and corn silage) and protein (mixed rapeseed, cottonseed, and/or soybean meals) on rumen ciliate diversity in dairy cows. Primers were designed based on a total of 137 previously reported ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences. The 3'-terminal sequences of the newly designed primers, P.1747r_2, P.324f, and P.1651r, demonstrated >99% base coverage. Primer pair D (P.324f and P.1747r_2) was selected for the cloning and sequencing of ciliate 18S rRNA genes because it produced a 1423-bp amplicon, and did not amply the sequences of other eukaryotic species, such as yeast. The optimal species-level cutoff value for distinguishing between the operational taxonomic units of different ciliate species was 0.015. The phylogenetic analysis of full-length ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequences showed that distinct ciliate profiles were induced by the different sources of dietary fiber and protein. Dasytricha and Entodinium were the predominant genera in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle, and Dasytricha was significantly more abundant in cows fed with corn stover than in cows fed with alfalfa hay and corn silage.

  9. Intestinal ciliate composition found in the feces of racing horses from Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde; Göçmen, Bayram

    2012-08-01

    Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates were investigated in the feces from 15 racing horses living near Izmir, Turkey. Thirty-seven species belonging to 21 genera were identified. Although no new species were observed, this is the first report on intestinal ciliates in racing horses living in Turkey. The mean number of ciliates was 26.4 ± 13.9 × 10(4) cells ml(-1) of feces and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 18.8 ± 7.1. No ciliates were observed in one horse. Bundleia and Polymorphella were found to be the two dominant genera, occurring in high proportions. In contrast, Didesmis and Prorodonopsis were only observed at a low frequency. Bundleia nana, Blepharoconus hemiciliatus, Paraisotrichopsis composita, Prorodonopsis coli and Spirodinium equi were newly recorded from Turkey.

  10. Influence of different water masses on planktonic ciliate distribution on the East China Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cuixia; Zhang, Wuchang; Ni, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Lingfeng; Xiao, Tian

    2015-01-01

    In summer 2006 and winter 2007, ciliate abundance and biomass were investigated in the East China Sea in connection with water masses, frontal zones, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a concentrations, and picoplankton and nanoflagellate abundances. In addition, tintinnid ciliates were identified to species based on lorica morphology. There was no significant difference of ciliate abundance and biomass between Changjiang diluted water (CDW) and shelf mixing water (SMW) in the Changjiang river estuary and its adjacent sea in summer, or among the coastal water (CoW), the SMW and the Kuroshio water (KW) on the shelf in winter. The influence of water masses on ciliate distribution was slight, except that distinct increases in ciliate abundance were observed in the vicinity of frontal structures. Most tintinnids were neritic species, with no discrimination between two water masses in the Changjiang river estuary. However, cosmopolitan and warm water species were very mainly restricted to SMW and KW; neritic species were essentially present in CoW and SMW on the continental shelf. Total ciliate biomass was closely correlated with picoplankton biomass in the CDW and KW. Picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus were the potential food source of ciliates. In winter, within KW, nanoflagellates would play a major role in the transfer of organic matter from picoplankton to ciliates in the microbial community within KW. In the low-oxygen and hypoxia area adjacent to the Changjiang estuary where relatively high ciliate abundance and biomass occurred, heterotrophic bacteria would appear to exhibit a potential prey effect on the distribution of bacterivorous aloricated ciliates and nanoflagellates acting as intermediates between bacteria and tintinnids.

  11. A comparative in-silico analysis of autophagy proteins in ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Küçükoğlu, Nurçin; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy serves as a turnover mechanism for the recycling of redundant and/or damaged macromolecules present in eukaryotic cells to re-use them under starvation conditions via a double-membrane structure known as autophagosome. A set of eukaryotic genes called autophagy-related genes (ATGs) orchestrate this highly elaborative process. The existence of these genes and the role they play in different eukaryotes are well-characterized. However, little is known of their role in some eukaryotes such as ciliates. Here, we report the computational analyses of ATG genes in five ciliate genomes to understand their diversity. Our results show that Oxytricha trifallax is the sole ciliate which has a conserved Atg12 conjugation system (Atg5-Atg12-Atg16). Interestingly, Oxytricha Atg16 protein includes WD repeats in addition to its N-terminal Atg16 domain as is the case in multicellular organisms. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that E2-like conjugating protein Atg10 is only present in Tetrahymena thermophila. We fail to find critical autophagy components Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8 in the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Contrary to previous reports, we also find that ciliate genomes do not encode typical Atg1 since all the candidate sequences lack an Atg1-specific C-terminal domain which is essential for Atg1 complex formation. Consistent with the absence of Atg1, ciliates also lack other members of the Atg1 complex. However, the presence of Atg6 in all ciliates examined here may rise the possibility that autophagosome formation could be operated through Atg6 in ciliates, since Atg6 has been shown as an alternative autophagy inducer. In conclusion, our results highlight that Atg proteins are partially conserved in ciliates. This may provide a better understanding for the autophagic destruction of the parental macronucleus, a developmental process also known as programmed nuclear death in ciliates. PMID:28123910

  12. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one.

  13. Graviperception in ciliates: steps in the transduction chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmersbach, R.; Krause, M.; Bräucker, R.; Ivanova, K.

    Due to their clear gravity-induced behavioural responses (gravitaxis and gravikinesis) ciliates represent suitable model systems to study the mechanisms of gravity perception and signal transduction. While the development of distinct gravisensory organelles is the exception in ciliates (e.g. mueller organelles in Loxodes), a common strategy seems to be that the whole cytoplasm acts as statolith stimulating mechanosensitive ion channels in the cell membrane. In order to test this hypothesis, electrophysiological studies were performed, revealing the proposed changes (de- or hyperpolarizations) depending on the cell's (Stylonychia mytilus) spatial orientation. In order to test the involvement of second messengers in the gravity-signal transduction-chain, cAMP levels of Paramecium were measured under altered gravitational stimulation (TEXUS 37; centrifuge). We found a decrease in cAMP in microgravity and an increase in hypergravity (5 x g) compared to the 1 x g controls. Furthermore, the behaviour of Paramecium and Stylonychia was analyzed during the variable acceleration conditions of parabolic flights (5th German Parabolic Flight Campaign) and compared to data already known from TEXUS, MAXUS, and drop facilities (ZARM, JAMIC). The feasibility of parabolic flights with respect to threshold determination will be discussed.

  14. THE CONTRACTILE PROCESS IN THE CILIATE, STENTOR COERULEUS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, B.; Pitelka, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The structural basis for the function of microtubules and filaments in cell body contractility in the ciliate Stentor coeruleus was investigated. Cells in the extended state were obtained for ultrastructural analysis by treatment before fixation with a solution containing 10 mM EGTA, 50–80 mM Tris, 3 mM MgSO4, 7.5 mM NH4Cl, 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.1). The response of Stentor to changes in the divalent cation concentrations in this solution suggests that Ca+2 and Mg+2 are physiologically important in the regulation of ciliate contractility. The generation of motive force for changes in cell length in Stentor resides in two distinct longitudinal cortical fiber systems, the km fibers and myonemes. Cyclic changes in cell length are associated with (a) the relative sliding of parallel, overlapping microtubule ribbons in the km fibers, and (b) a distinct alteration in the structure of the contractile filaments constituting the myonemes. The microtubule and filament systems are distinguished functionally as antagonistic contractile elements. The development of motive force for cell extension is accomplished by active microtubule-to-microtubule sliding generated by specific intertubule bridges. Evidence is presented which suggests that active shortening of contractile filaments, reflected in a reversible structural transformation of dense 4-nm filaments to tubular 10–12-nm filaments, provides the basis for rapid cell contraction. PMID:4633444

  15. An evolutionary balance: conservation vs innovation in ciliate membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, Sabrice; Plattner, Helmut; Richardson, Elisabeth; Dacks, Joel B; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2017-01-01

    As most of eukaryotic diversity lies in single-celled protists, they represent unique opportunities to ask questions about the balance of conservation and innovation in cell biological features. Among free-living protists the ciliates offer ease of culturing, a rich array of experimental approaches, and versatile molecular tools, particularly in Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. These attributes have been exploited by researchers to analyze a wealth of cellular structures in these large and complex cells. This mini-review focuses on 3 aspects of ciliate membrane dynamics, all linked with endolysosomal trafficking. First is nutrition based on phagocytosis and maturation of food vacuoles. Secondly, we discuss regulated exocytosis from vesicles that have features of both dense core secretory granules but also lysosome-related organelles. The third topic is the targeting, breakdown and resorption of parental nuclei in mating partners. For all 3 phenomena, it is clear that elements of the canonical membrane-trafficking system have been retained and in some cases repurposed. In addition, there is evidence that recently evolved, lineage-specific proteins provide determinants in these pathways.

  16. Simulation of micro-organisms swimming near ciliated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Henry; Tripathi, Anurag; Yeomans, Julia; Balazs, Anna

    2012-11-01

    Ciliated tissues can be found lining the respiratory tract and Fallopian tubes in mammals. The main function of the cilia is to sweep objects such as the ovum, dirt or bacteria in a directed manner. The self-cleaning action of these tissues would be a desirable property for surfaces that are continually submerged and prone to biofouling. We therefore investigate the effect of artificially driven cilia on swimming organisms. In this study we use a 3-D immersed boundary approach, with the fluid flow solved by the lattice Boltzmann method and the immersed objects modeled as elastic structures. Two types of objects are considered: (i) cilia, which are driven by an external field, and (ii) bacteria, which are self-motile and propelled by a rotating helical flagellum. Placing a bacterial cell in the vicinity of a surface covered by an array of actuated cilia yields a rich system to explore. Of particular interest is the possibility of guiding the motion of bacteria towards, along or away from the ciliated surface.

  17. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  18. Methane production in Dutch freshwater sediments: No substantial contribution by ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Hackstein, J.H.P.; Drift, C. vd

    1996-12-31

    Methanogenesis, the presence of ciliates, and a number of biotic and abiotic parameters were monitored over the course of a year in four different freshwater sediments near Nijmegen, The Netherlands. All sample places exhibited substantial biotic and abiotic differences. Whereas three of the sample places contained several species of ciliates, one location was devoid of substantial numbers of anaerobic protozoa. This location had the highest content of photosynthetic organisms, the lowest conductivity and lacked all kinds of ciliates. The degrees of pollution and the amounts of organic material present in the four sediments differed substantially. The annual course of the in situ temperature of the sediments was comparable, and neither superficial freezing of the sample places nor elevated summer temperatures caused dramatic variations in the methanogenic potential of the sediments. Direct counts of ciliates, their removal by electromigration, and the selective killing of protozoa by heat shock allowed the authors to calculate the contribution by the anaerobic ciliates to the methane emissions. In all three sediments that contained substantial amounts of ciliates, the contribution by these protozoa was less than 5--10%. Only during one exceptional month, the contribution by ciliates raised to 25% of the methane emissions.

  19. First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

  20. Zooxanthellae harvested by ciliates associated with brown band syndrome of corals remain photosynthetically competent.

    PubMed

    Ulstrup, Karin E; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G

    2007-03-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae.

  1. Complement-Mediated Death of Ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis Caused by Human Blood Serum.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, P A; Faktor, M I; Karpova, N S; Cheremnykh, E G; Brusov, O S

    2016-04-01

    Toxicity of human blood serum for ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis is determined by the complement system. When ciliate are dying after being exposed to blood serum, cell membrane permeability for low-molecular-weight compounds significantly increases, probably due to pore formation. Serine protease inhibitors or exposure to physical factors inducing complement inactivation (e.g., heating up to 56°C) completely prevented ciliate death under the effect of human serum. Activation of serum complement upon interaction with Tetrahymena cells occurred by the classical or lectin pathway, while the contribution of the alternative activation pathway was negligible.

  2. Graviperception in ciliates: Steps in the transduction chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmersbach, R.; Krause, M.; Bräucker, R.; Ivanova, K.

    Ciliates represent suitable model systems to study the mechanisms of graviperception and signal transduction as they show clear gravity-induced behavioural responses (gravitaxis and gravikinesis). The cytoplasm seems to act as a "statolith" stimulating mechanosensitive ion channels in the cell membrane. In order to test this hypothesis, electrophysiological studies with Stylonychia mytilus were performed, revealing the proposed changes (de- or hyperpolarization) depending on the cell's spatial orientation. The behaviour of Paramecium and Stylonychia was also analyzed during variable acceleration conditions of parabolic flights (5th German Parabolic Flight Campaign, 2003). The corresponding data confirm the relaxation of the graviresponses in microgravity as well as the existence of thresholds of graviresponses, which are found to be in the range of 0.4× g (gravikinesis) and 0.6× g (gravitaxis).

  3. Cryptophyte farming by symbiotic ciliate host detected in situ

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Protist–alga symbiosis is widespread in the ocean, but its characteristics and function in situ remain largely unexplored. Here we report the symbiosis of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum with cryptophyte cells during a red-tide bloom in Long Island Sound. In contrast to the current notion that Mesodinium retains cryptophyte chloroplasts or organelles, our multiapproach analyses reveal that in this bloom the endosymbiotic Teleaulax amphioxeia cells were intact and expressing genes of membrane transporters, nucleus-to-cytoplasm RNA transporters, and all major metabolic pathways. Among the most highly expressed were ammonium transporters in both organisms, indicating cooperative acquisition of ammonium as a major N nutrient, and genes for photosynthesis and cell division in the cryptophyte, showing active population proliferation of the endosymbiont. We posit this as a “Mesodinium-farming-Teleaulax” relationship, a model of protist–alga symbiosis worth further investigation by metatranscriptomic technology. PMID:27791006

  4. Metabolism of biogenic monoamines in the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, N; Sugiyama, K

    1993-09-01

    1. The three-dimensional HPLC system was used to detect the presence and determine the levels of biogenic monoamines, including precursor amino acids and metabolites, simultaneously in an extract of the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena pyriformis. 2. Representative biogenic monoamines, such as dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), epinephrine (E) and kynurenine (KYN) were found to be synthesized in Tetrahymena and released into the growth medium. 3. The following metabolic pathways were suggested to be operative: (L-DOPA)-DA-(Epinine)-E-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (DOPEG)-vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and tyrosine-4 (TYR-4)-tyramine (TYRA)-hydroxyphenylacetic acid-4 (HPAC-4) in the case of catecholamines, and tryptophan (TRP)-5-HT and TRP-KYN-xanthurenic acid (XA) in the case of indolalkylamines. 4. As judged from the released metabolites, systems for generation of biogenic monoamines in Tetrahymena seem to be active during the logarithmic phase of its growth.

  5. Pharmacological characterization of an opioid receptor in the ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, R; Silva, W I; Renaud, F L

    1993-01-01

    A pharmacological characterization has been performed of the opioid receptor involved in modulation of phagocytosis in the protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena. Studies on inhibition of phagocytosis by mammalian prototypic opioid agonists revealed that morphine and beta-endorphin have the highest intrinsic activity, whereas all the other opioids tested can only be considered partial agonists. However, morphine (a mu-receptor agonist) is twice as potent as beta-endorphin (a delta-receptor agonist). Furthermore, the sensitivity for the opioid antagonist naloxone, determined in the presence of morphine and beta-endorphin, is very similar to the sensitivity exhibited by mammalian tissues rich in mu-opioid receptors. We suggest that the opioid receptor coupled to phagocytosis in Tetrahymena is mu-like in some of its pharmacological characteristics and may serve as a model system for studies on opioid receptor function and evolution.

  6. Cryptophyte farming by symbiotic ciliate host detected in situ.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Lin, Senjie

    2016-10-25

    Protist-alga symbiosis is widespread in the ocean, but its characteristics and function in situ remain largely unexplored. Here we report the symbiosis of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum with cryptophyte cells during a red-tide bloom in Long Island Sound. In contrast to the current notion that Mesodinium retains cryptophyte chloroplasts or organelles, our multiapproach analyses reveal that in this bloom the endosymbiotic Teleaulax amphioxeia cells were intact and expressing genes of membrane transporters, nucleus-to-cytoplasm RNA transporters, and all major metabolic pathways. Among the most highly expressed were ammonium transporters in both organisms, indicating cooperative acquisition of ammonium as a major N nutrient, and genes for photosynthesis and cell division in the cryptophyte, showing active population proliferation of the endosymbiont. We posit this as a "Mesodinium-farming-Teleaulax" relationship, a model of protist-alga symbiosis worth further investigation by metatranscriptomic technology.

  7. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate’s initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens’ Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The

  8. The effects of coronavirus on human nasal ciliated respiratory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Chilvers, M A; McKean, M; Rutman, A; Myint, B S; Silverman, M; O'Callaghan, C

    2001-12-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) accounts for 15-30% of common colds, but only one case report has described the effect of a coronavirus infection, that was asymptomatic, on human respiratory epithelium. The authors examined the effects of infection with HCoV on ciliary structure and function in healthy volunteers infected by intranasal inoculation with HCoV 229E. A further four volunteers were sham infected with ultraviolet-inactivated virus. Immediately before inoculation (day 0) and 3 days later (day 3), ciliated epithelium was obtained by brushing the inferior nasal turbinate. Ciliary beat frequency was determined and beat pattern analysed for evidence of dyskinesia (0=normal, 3=severely dyskinetic) using digital high-speed video photography. Ciliary ultrastructure was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Symptom diaries were kept for the duration of the study. All subjects inoculated with HCoV, including the three who did not develop symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection, had disruption of their respiratory epithelium on day 3. Although there was no difference in the mean ciliary beat frequency between day 0 (11.3 Hz (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-14.0) and day 3 (9.4 Hz (95% CI 7.2-11.6)), there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the ciliary dyskinesia score between day 0 (0.2 (95% CI 0-0.5)) and day 3 (1.1 (95% CI 0.5-1.7). In sham-infected subjects, no differences in epithelial integrity, or ciliary structure and function were found between day 0 and day 3. Inoculation of healthy volunteers with human coronavirus caused disruption of the ciliated epithelium and ciliary dyskinesia. This is likely to impair mucociliary clearance. Damage to the respiratory epithelium, due to human coronavirus infection, may occur without overt clinical symptoms.

  9. Novel ciliate lipases for enzyme replacement during exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Brock, Alexander; Aldag, Ingo; Edskes, Stella; Hartmann, Marcus; Herzog, Torsten; Uhl, Waldemar; Schnekenburger, Juergen

    2016-11-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency caused by inflammation or pancreatic tumors results in nutrient malfunction by a lack of digestive enzymes and neutralization compounds. Despite satisfactory clinical results with current enzyme therapies, a normalization of fat absorption in patients is rare. An individualized therapy is required that includes high dosage of enzymatic units, usage of enteric coating, and addition of gastric proton pump inhibitors. The key goal to improve this therapy is to identify digestive enzymes with high activity and stability in the gastrointestinal tract. We cloned and analyzed three novel ciliate lipases derived from Tetrahymena thermophila. Using highly precise pH-STAT-titration and colorimetric methods, we determined stability and lipolytic activity under physiological conditions in comparison with commercially available porcine and fungal digestive enzyme preparations. We measured from pH 2.0 to 9.0, with different bile salts concentrations, and substrates such as olive oil and fat derived from pig diet. Ciliate lipases CL-120, CL-130, and CL-230 showed activities up to 220-fold higher than Creon, pancreatin standard, and rizolipase Nortase within a pH range from pH 2.0 to 9.0. They are highly active in the presence of bile salts and complex pig diet substrate, and more stable after incubation in human gastric juice compared with porcine pancreatic lipase and rizolipase. The newly cloned and characterized lipases fulfilled all requirements for high activity under physiological conditions. These novel enzymes are therefore promising candidates for an improved enzyme replacement therapy for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

  10. Phytoplankton Microcosm: An Oceanic Study on Algal Blooms and Ciliate Community Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grattepanche, J. D.; Juarez, D.; McManus, G. B.; Katz, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the dynamics of microbes in marine food webs, we conducted an environmental study on the effects of algal blooms on ciliate communities. To date, there is limited information on how microbial communities function in marine settings. We assessed whether differences in size of prey influence community composition based on the basic principle that the bigger you are, the more you will eat. To represent the blooms, we used four treatments: control (No phytoplankton addition), Phaeodactylum tricornutum (diatom), Tetraselmis chuii (chlorophyte) and Isochrysis galbana (haptophyte). By using DGGE, a molecular fingerprinting technique, we are elucidating the impact of bloom on ciliate community composition.Our preliminary data suggest (1) the size does not matter: there is very little difference in responses by nanosized and microsized ciliate, (2) the chlorophyte seems to support a more diverse community, and (3) incubation affects ciliate communities (T0).

  11. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates from ponds of different salinity in the solar saltwork of Sfax, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elloumi, Jannet; Carrias, Jean-François; Ayadi, Habib; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Boukhris, Mekki; Bouaïn, Abderrahmen

    2006-03-01

    The planktonic ciliated protozoa of 14 ponds of increasing salinity were investigated in the saline of Sfax, Tunisia. Taxa of the classes of Spirotrichea and Heterotrichea were the numerous ciliates. Abundance of the community ranged from 0.0 to 11.8 × 10 4 ciliates per litre. Values decrease significantly with salinity gradient, as species richness does. Based on the range of salinity over which ciliate taxa appeared, we distinguished three groups of ciliates. The first group is mainly composed of oligotrichs and choreotrichs that are commonly found in marine coastal waters. Small ciliates belonging to the order Prostomatida were found in a large range of salinity values, but their densities also decreased with salt concentration. In contrast, large-size species of heterotrichous ciliates were found in ponds with high salinity values only. In these ponds, the presence of prey appeared as an important factor in controlling the abundances of these halotolerant ciliates. Our data also suggest that Fabrea salina, a common halophile ciliate, acts as a competitor of the brine shrimp Artemia salina in the saline of Sfax. Salinity, prey availability, and the presence of competitors seem to be the main factors for the distribution of ciliate taxa in this hypersaline environment.

  12. Benthic ciliate and meiofaunal communities in two contrasting habitats of an intertidal estuarine wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongfen; Xu, Kuidong; Warren, Alan; Lei, Yanli; Dai, Renhai

    2012-05-01

    Annual variations in benthic meiofaunal and ciliated protozoan communities were investigated using monthly samplings from June 2006 to May 2007 in two habitats characterized by different vegetal coverage in an estuarine intertidal wetland of Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay, China. The sediment composition was stable at each site: sediments densely covered with seagrass (Suaeda glauca) in the lower estuarine site (Station S) were finer, with higher content of organic matter, phaeopigments and water than sediments at the upper estuarine site (Station S-P) which was unvegetated other than for patches of S. glauca and common reed (Phragmites australis). Chlorophyll a exhibited a similar distribution in the two habitats. A total of 14 meiofaunal groups, and 249 species of ciliates belonging to 37 genera, 28 families and 16 orders, were isolated from the two sites. Univariate and multivariate measures of the communities were significantly different between the two habitats. There were higher abundances of ciliates and meiofauna, and a greater diversity of ciliates, at Station S than Station S-P (223 vs. 61 species). Herbivorous ciliates were numerically predominant in ciliate communities at both sites. The representative ciliates at Station S-P belonged to the Cyrtophorida and appeared to be a reduced subset of the assemblage at Station S, which was characterized by members of the Prostomatida, Cyrtophorida, Hypotrichida and Scuticociliatida. More than 96% of the total meiofauna were nematodes, accounting for 93% of the differences in the abundance compositions of the meiofaunal communities between habitats. The average individual weights of nematodes were nearly 3 times greater at Station S than Station S-P, indicating a distinctive species composition at each site. Temperature, salinity and food availability were key factors that regulated the ciliate and meiofaunal community structure. Nematodes were the dominant group in terms of the combined abundance, biomass and benthic

  13. Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton in german lakes: distribution, motility, and bacterivory.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Samantha L; Tang, Kam W; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate(-1) h(-1) and 24.33 μl ciliate(-1) h(-1), respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations.

  14. Moderation of ruminal fermentation by ciliated protozoa in cattle fed a high-grain diet.

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, T G; Towne, G; Beharka, A A

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of ciliated protozoa on ruminal fermentation in cattle fed high-grain diets. Six ruminally cannulated steers fed a corn-based grain diet (85% concentrate plus 15% alfalfa hay) at 12-h intervals were assigned randomly to two groups, ciliate free and faunated, in a crossover design. Defaunation was by ruminal emptying, omasal flushing, and treatment with sodium sulfosuccinate. Two to 3 weeks after defaunation, the ruminal contents of all steers were sampled before the morning feeding (0 h) and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after feeding to measure pH, analyze fermentation products, and monitor counts of ciliated protozoa and lactic acid-producing and -fermenting bacterial groups. Total numbers of ciliated protozoa in the faunated steers averaged 4.3 x 10(5)/g, and the protozoa consisted of nine genera. Ciliate-free steers had lower (P less than 0.01) ruminal pHs (pH 5.97) than faunated cattle (pH 6.45); however, the treatment-time interaction was not significant. Ruminal lactate and ammonia concentrations were similar in both groups. The total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher (P less than 0.05) in the ciliate-free steers than in the faunated steers and exhibited a treatment-time interaction (P less than 0.05). The acetate-to-propionate ratio was higher (P less than 0.05) in the faunated group than in the ciliate-free group and showed a treatment-time interaction (P less than 0.05). Total anaerobic bacterial counts were about fourfold higher in the ciliate-free group than in the faunated group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1514789

  15. Ciliates rapidly enhance the frequency of conjugation between Escherichia coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Junji; Oguri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinji; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yao, Takashi; Akizawa, Kouzi; Suzuki, Haruki; Simizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism underlying bacterial conjugation through protozoa was investigated. Kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli SM10λ+ carrying pRT733 with TnphoA was used as donor bacteria and introduced by conjugation into ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli clinical isolate recipient bacteria. Equal amounts of donor and recipient bacteria were mixed together in the presence or absence of protozoa (ciliates, free-living amoebae, myxamoebae) in Page's amoeba saline for 24 h. Transconjugants were selected with Luria broth agar containing kanamycin and ciprofloxacin. The frequency of conjugation was estimated as the number of transconjugants for each recipient. Conjugation frequency in the presence of ciliates was estimated to be approximately 10⁻⁶, but in the absence of ciliates, or in the presence of other protozoa, it was approximately 10⁻⁸. Conjugation also occurred in culture of ciliates at least 2 h after incubation. Successful conjugation was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction. Addition of cycloheximide or latrunculin B resulted in suppression of conjugation. Heat killing the ciliates or bacteria had no effect on conjugation frequency. Co-localization of green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli and PKH-67-vital-stained E. coli was observed in the same ciliate vesicles, suggesting that both donor and recipient bacteria had accumulated in the same vesicle. In this study, the conjugation frequency of bacteria was found to be significantly higher in vesicles purified from ciliates than those in culture suspension. We conclude that ciliates rapidly enhance the conjugation of E. coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.

  16. Comparing the responses of rumen ciliate protozoa and bacteria to excess carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, César R V; Lana, Rogério de Paula; Tao, Junyi; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2017-06-01

    When given excess carbohydrate, certain microbial species respond by storing energy (synthesizing reserve carbohydrate), but other species respond by dissipating the energy as heat (spilling energy). To determine the importance of these responses in the rumen microbial community, this study quantified the responses of mixed ciliate protozoa vs bacteria to glucose. We hypothesized that ciliates would direct more glucose to synthesis of reserve carbohydrate (and less to energy spilling) than would bacteria. Ciliates and bacteria were isolated from rumen fluid using filtration and centrifugation, resuspended in nitrogen-free buffer to limit growth, and dosed with 5 mM glucose. Compared with bacteria, ciliates consumed glucose >3-fold faster and synthesized reserve carbohydrate 4-fold faster. They incorporated 53% of glucose carbon into reserve carbohydrate-nearly double the value (27%) for bacteria. Energy spilling was not detected for ciliates, as all heat production (104%) was accounted by synthesis of reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism. For bacteria, reserve carbohydrate and endogenous metabolism accounted for only 68% of heat production, and spilling was detected within 11 min of dosing glucose. These results suggest that ciliates alter the course of ruminal carbohydrate metabolism by outcompeting bacteria for excess carbohydrate, maximizing reserve carbohydrate synthesis, and minimizing energy spilling. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Soil ciliate species richness and abundance associated with the rhizosphere of different subtropical plant species.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Mercado, Dimaris; Lynn, Denis H

    2004-01-01

    Soil protozoa, and ciliates in particular, represent a microbial group abundant in the rhizosphere with an influential role on nutrient cycling. Under laboratory conditions, ciliates regulate the size and the composition of bacterial communities, and appear to stimulate ammonification and nitrification. In spite of their important ecological role, our understanding about the factors that control their diversity and abundance in natural forest ecosystems is still rudimentary. Plant species-specific interactions have been demonstrated between plants and soil bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, due in part to the release of phytohormones and C- and N-rich exudates. We tested the hypothesis that the rhizosphere environments of different plant species also influence the species richness and abundance of soil ciliates. Plant effect, soil pH, moisture content, microbial biomass C, and inorganic nitrogen were measured among five plant species to determine the best predictor variables for soil ciliate species richness and total abundance in a subtropical moist forest in Puerto Rico. Based on an analysis of variance, we rejected the hypothesis that there was a plant species-specific effect on soil ciliates, unlike other microbial groups mentioned above. Using multiple regression analysis, we demonstrated that the flush of total inorganic nitrogen was the best predictor variable for both species richness and abundance of ciliates.

  18. Pelagic ciliate communities within the Amundsen Sea polynya and adjacent sea ice zone, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Liu, Qian; Yang, Eun Jin; Wang, Min; Kim, Tae Wan; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    Polynyas, areas of open water surrounded by sea ice, are sites of intense primary production and ecological hotspots in the Antarctic Ocean. This study determined the spatial variation in communities of pelagic ciliates in an Amundsen Sea polynya (ASP) and adjacent sea ice zones (SIZ) during austral summer from February to March 2012, and the results were compared with biotic and abiotic environmental factors. The species number, abundance and biomass were higher in the ASP than SIZ. Canonical analysis indicated that the communities in the ASP were distinct from those under the sea ice. The pelagic ciliate community structure was closely correlated with environmental variability. Several primary environmental variables, both alone and in combination, were found to affect community spatial patterns. The ciliate biomasses in the ASP and SIZ areas were both significantly correlated with total and nano-Chl a. This analysis of the ciliated microzooplankton communities associated with high primary production provides new insights into the roles of ciliates in biogeochemical cycles in high-latitude polynyas. Additionally, our findings provide detailed data on the composition, distribution, and structure of polynya ciliate communities in the Amundsen Sea.

  19. Short-term Influence of Drilling Fluid on Ciliates from Activated Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors.

    PubMed

    Babko, Roman; Kuzmina, Tatiana; Łagód, Grzegorz; Jaromin-Gleń, Katarzyna; Danko, Yaroslav; Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Pawłowski, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Spent drilling muds are the liquid residues of rock drilling operations. Due to a high concentration of suspended solids and potentially detrimental chemical properties, they can negatively affect microorganisms participating in wastewater treatment processes. We evaluated the addition of a potassium-polymer drilling fluid (DF) to activated sludge in laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment. Ciliate assemblage, the most dynamic component of eukaryotes in activated sludge, and which is highly sensitive to changes in the system, was evaluated. The average ciliate abundance dropped by about 51% (SBR 2; 1% DF added) and 33% (SBR 3; 3% DF added) in comparison to the control (SBR 1; wastewater only). A decrease in the total number of ciliate species during the experiment was observed, from 25 to 24 in SBR 2 and from 17 to 13 in SBR 3. Moreover, a drop in the number of dominant (>100 individuals mL) ciliate species was observed during the experiment-from eight in the control to five in SBR 2 and four in SBR 3-signaling noticeable changes in the quantitative structure of ciliate species. The species analyzed showed different responses to DF addition. The most sensitive was , which is bacteriovorus. In contrast, two predators, and , showed no reaction to DF addition. Our results indicate that addition of potassium-polymer DF, in doses of 1 to 3% of the treated wastewater volume, had no toxic effects on ciliates, but qualitative and quantitative changes in their community were observed.

  20. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    SciTech Connect

    Rutten, A.A.; Beems, R.B.; Wilmer, J.W.; Feron, V.J.

    1988-09-01

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated (methyl-3H)-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration.

  1. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  2. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  3. Pelagic Ciliates in a Large Mesotrophic Lake: Seasonal Succession and Taxon-Specific Bacterivory in Lake Constance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleven, Ernst-Josef

    2004-07-01

    The taxonomic composition of the ciliate assemblage and their taxon-specific bacterial grazing rates in Lake Constance were investigated over the course of one year. Bacterial grazing rates were measured using natural fluorescently labelled bacteria (FLB) and compared to bacterial production. Small species such as Balanion planctonicum/Urotricha furcata and Rimostrombidium spp./Halteria sp. were the most numerous ciliates on the annual average. Larger ciliates such as Rimostrombidium lacustris and Limnostrombidium spp. contributed significantly to total ciliate biomass, but were relatively unimportant as bacterial grazers. Per capita ingestion rates ranged from 0-194 bacteria ciliate-1 h-1 and changed seasonally up to a hundredfold within a given taxon. Approximately 1% of the bacterial production were removed by the ciliate community on the annual average. (

  4. Abandoning sex: multiple origins of asexuality in the ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Doerder, F Paul

    2014-05-28

    By segregating somatic and germinal functions into large, compound macronuclei and small diploid micronuclei, respectively, ciliates can explore sexuality in ways other eukaryotes cannot. Sex, for instance, is not for reproduction but for nuclear replacement in the two cells temporarily joined in conjugation. With equal contributions from both conjugants, there is no cost of sex which theory predicts should favor asexuality. Yet ciliate asexuality is rare. The exceptional Tetrahymena has abandoned sex through loss of the micronucleus; its amicronucleates are abundant in nature where they reproduce by binary fission but never form conjugating pairs. A possible reason for their abundance is that the Tetrahymena macronucleus does not accumulate mutations as proposed by Muller's ratchet. As such, Tetrahymena amicronucleates have the potential to be very old. This study used cytochrome oxidase-1 barcodes to determine the phylogenetic origin and relative age of amicronucleates isolated from nature. Amicronucleates constituted 25% of Tetrahymena-like wild isolates. Of the 244 amicronucleates examined for cox1 barcodes, 237 belonged to Tetrahymena, seven to other genera. Sixty percent originated from 12 named species or barcoded strains, including the model Tetrahymena thermophila, while the remaining 40% represent 19 putative new species, eight of which have micronucleate counterparts and 11 of which are known only as amicronucleates. In some instances, cox1 haplotypes were shared among micronucleate and amicronucleates collected from the same source. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most amicronucleates belong to the "borealis" clade in which mating type is determined by gene rearrangement. Some amicronucleate species were clustered on the SSU phylogenetic tree and had longer branch lengths, indicating more ancient origin. Naturally occurring Tetrahymena amicronucleates have multiple origins, arising from numerous species. Likely many more new species remain to be

  5. Abandoning sex: multiple origins of asexuality in the ciliate Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background By segregating somatic and germinal functions into large, compound macronuclei and small diploid micronuclei, respectively, ciliates can explore sexuality in ways other eukaryotes cannot. Sex, for instance, is not for reproduction but for nuclear replacement in the two cells temporarily joined in conjugation. With equal contributions from both conjugants, there is no cost of sex which theory predicts should favor asexuality. Yet ciliate asexuality is rare. The exceptional Tetrahymena has abandoned sex through loss of the micronucleus; its amicronucleates are abundant in nature where they reproduce by binary fission but never form conjugating pairs. A possible reason for their abundance is that the Tetrahymena macronucleus does not accumulate mutations as proposed by Muller’s ratchet. As such, Tetrahymena amicronucleates have the potential to be very old. This study used cytochrome oxidase-1 barcodes to determine the phylogenetic origin and relative age of amicronucleates isolated from nature. Results Amicronucleates constituted 25% of Tetrahymena-like wild isolates. Of the 244 amicronucleates examined for cox1 barcodes, 237 belonged to Tetrahymena, seven to other genera. Sixty percent originated from 12 named species or barcoded strains, including the model Tetrahymena thermophila, while the remaining 40% represent 19 putative new species, eight of which have micronucleate counterparts and 11 of which are known only as amicronucleates. In some instances, cox1 haplotypes were shared among micronucleate and amicronucleates collected from the same source. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most amicronucleates belong to the “borealis” clade in which mating type is determined by gene rearrangement. Some amicronucleate species were clustered on the SSU phylogenetic tree and had longer branch lengths, indicating more ancient origin. Conclusions Naturally occurring Tetrahymena amicronucleates have multiple origins, arising from numerous species. Likely

  6. The effect of humic acid on uptake/adsorption of copper by a marine bacterium and two marine ciliates.

    PubMed

    Lores, E M; Snyder, R A; Pennock, J R

    1999-01-01

    The effect of humic acid (HA) on Cu uptake by a bacterium and two bacterivorus ciliates was investigated. The presence of HA resulted in a statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in Cu associated with bacteria that were exposed to 67 microg Cu L(-1). Complexation of Cu appears to lower the availability of Cu with respect to bacterial cell surface binding and uptake. For ciliates, 10 mg HA L(-1) significantly reduced uptake of Cu by Uronema, but did not reduce uptake of Cu by Pleuronema. Uronema exposed to 67 microg Cu L(-1) accumulated 54% less Cu when 10 mg HA L(-1) was present (0.50 pg ciliate(-1) vs 0.23 pg ciliate(-1)). Uronema feeding on V. natriegens, took up less than half as much Cu as unfed Uronema when exposed to Cu without HA (0.41 pg Cu fed ciliate(-1) vs 0.86 pg Cu unfed ciliate(-1), but only 40% less when exposed to Cu and HA (0.31 pg Cu fed ciliate(-1) vs 0.51 pg Cu unfed ciliate(-1)). The lower % reduction attributable to fed ciliates in the presence of HA suggests that some of the Cu associated with HA is available through trophic processes.

  7. Hydrodynamical entrapment of ciliates at the air-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferracci, Jonathan; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2012-11-01

    We found the new phenomenon of the entrapment of ciliates at the air-water interface, though they are not trapped by a solid interface. We first characterize the behaviours of cells at the interface by comparing it to those away from interfaces. The results showed that the cell's swimming velocity is considerably reduced at the air-water interface. In order to experimentally verify the possible physiological causes of the entrapment, we observed their behaviours in absence of positive chemotaxis for oxygen and the negative geotaxis. The results illustrated that the entrapment phenomenon was not dependent on these physiological conditions. The experiments using surfactant revealed that the entrapment phenomenon was strongly affected by the velocity-stress conditions at the interface. This fact was confirmed numerically by a boundary element method, i.e. the stress-free condition at the air-liquid interface is one of the main mechanisms of the entrapment phenomenon found in the experiments. Since the entrapment phenomenon found in this study affects the cell-cell interactions and the mass transport at the interface, the knowledge obtained in this study is useful for better understanding the complex behaviours of swimming microorganisms in nature. PhD student in the Physiological Flow Studies Laboratory.

  8. New light sensor molecules of single-cell ciliates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Nengbing; Song, Pill-Soon

    1994-05-01

    The unicellular ciliate, Stentor coeruleus, exhibits sensitive light-avoiding behavior. The photosensor stentorin showed a (M - H)- at 591.1304, which is in accord with the formula C34H23O10. Acetylated stentorin, when FAB-desorbed as (M + H)+, shows a series of ions indicating the presence of eight hydroxyl groups. Additional confirmation is a collisionally activated decomposition (CAD) spectrum of the (M + H)+ of the octaacetate. The NMR spectrum of stentorin shows characteristic signals of isopropyl groups. Similar studies indicate that photosensor blepharismin from Blepharisma japonicum is structurally different from stentorin. Time-resolved fluorescence decays indicated that a primary event occurs within a few picoseconds. The stimulus light signal absorbed/perceived by Stentor and possibly by Blepharisma, is apparently amplified by a transient calcium influx into the cell. Preliminary studies suggest that signal transduction in both organisms utilizes G-protein(s) as an initial transducer and a cGMP-phosphodiesterase as the effector system, analogous to the visual system of higher animals.

  9. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-04-15

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment.

  10. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment.

  11. Extraordinary genome stability in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Sung, Way; Tucker, Abraham E; Doak, Thomas G; Choi, Eunjin; Thomas, W Kelley; Lynch, Michael

    2012-11-20

    Mutation plays a central role in all evolutionary processes and is also the basis of genetic disorders. Established base-substitution mutation rates in eukaryotes range between ∼5 × 10(-10) and 5 × 10(-8) per site per generation, but here we report a genome-wide estimate for Paramecium tetraurelia that is more than an order of magnitude lower than any previous eukaryotic estimate. Nevertheless, when the mutation rate per cell division is extrapolated to the length of the sexual cycle for this protist, the measure obtained is comparable to that for multicellular species with similar genome sizes. Because Paramecium has a transcriptionally silent germ-line nucleus, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection operates on the cumulative germ-line replication fidelity per episode of somatic gene expression, with the germ-line mutation rate per cell division evolving downward to the lower barrier imposed by random genetic drift. We observe ciliate-specific modifications of widely conserved amino acid sites in DNA polymerases as one potential explanation for unusually high levels of replication fidelity.

  12. Extraordinary genome stability in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Way; Tucker, Abraham E.; Doak, Thomas G.; Choi, Eunjin; Thomas, W. Kelley; Lynch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Mutation plays a central role in all evolutionary processes and is also the basis of genetic disorders. Established base-substitution mutation rates in eukaryotes range between ∼5 × 10−10 and 5 × 10−8 per site per generation, but here we report a genome-wide estimate for Paramecium tetraurelia that is more than an order of magnitude lower than any previous eukaryotic estimate. Nevertheless, when the mutation rate per cell division is extrapolated to the length of the sexual cycle for this protist, the measure obtained is comparable to that for multicellular species with similar genome sizes. Because Paramecium has a transcriptionally silent germ-line nucleus, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection operates on the cumulative germ-line replication fidelity per episode of somatic gene expression, with the germ-line mutation rate per cell division evolving downward to the lower barrier imposed by random genetic drift. We observe ciliate-specific modifications of widely conserved amino acid sites in DNA polymerases as one potential explanation for unusually high levels of replication fidelity. PMID:23129619

  13. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment. PMID:27079173

  14. Ionic conductances of membranes in ciliated and deciliated Paramecium.

    PubMed Central

    Machemer, H; Ogura, A

    1979-01-01

    1. Paramecium caudatum was deciliated with ethanol. The ionic conductance of the membrane was investigated with constant current, voltage clamp and mechanical stimuli. 2. The resting potential was not modified by the removal of the cilia. The dependence of the resting potential on the extracellular concentrations of Ca and K was the same in deciliated and control cells. 3. The input resistance in deciliated and ciliated cells increased after the ethanol treatment. 4. The membrane capacitance decreased to 48% after deciliation, suggesting that the ciliary surface area is equal to the somatic surface area. 5. Deciliation completely removed the regenerative response (graded action potential) elicited by depolarizing current pulses or mechanical stimuli. 6. Deciliated cells retained the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing mechanoreceptor responses. 7. Voltage-clamp experiments demonstrated the loss of the early inward current in deciliated cells; it was restored during ciliary regeneration. Steady-state current-voltage relationships were unchanged by deciliation. 8. The time courses of the recovery of the membrane capacitance and of the early inward current were similar, suggesting that the number of voltage-sensitive Ca channels is proportional to the ciliary membrane area. 9. We conclude that the voltage-sensitive Ca channels reside in the ciliary membrane (in confirmation of Dunlap, 1976; Ogura & Takahashi, 1976), while mechanoreceptor channels, rectifier channels and resting conductances are localized in the somatic membrane. PMID:529122

  15. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments.

  16. Responses of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to planktonic and benthic resource enrichment.

    PubMed

    Norf, Helge; Arndt, Hartmut; Weitere, Markus

    2009-05-01

    Four experiments covering different seasons were performed to test the impact of increased benthic and planktonic resource availability on the structure of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities which were cultivated in river bypass systems. The growth of benthic bacteria was stimulated by the addition of dissolved organic carbon. The enrichment of the planktonic resource was achieved by supplementation with suspended bacteria. It was shown that both resource enrichments can differentially influence abundance and taxonomic structure of ciliate communities. Furthermore, both resources can influence different stages during biofilm colonization. Increased benthic bacterial growth mainly resulted in both an accumulation of primarily grazing-resistant bacterial filaments and in an increase in the number of vagile heterotrophic flagellates. This can stimulate nanophagous ciliates (feeding on flagellates) in addition to the direct stimulation of bacteriovorous ciliates. The effects of the planktonic bacteria enrichments were twofold: They could have been utilized either directly by suspension-feeding ciliates or indirectly through an enhanced growth of suspension-feeding attached heterotrophic flagellates, which were then in turn grazed upon by ciliates. The magnitude of responses of the total ciliate abundance to the two resource enrichments further depended on the background conditions, thereby showing temporarily variable limitations of these resources. Furthermore, the particular taxonomic groups stimulated by one resource type sometimes differed between the experiments, an observation which demonstrates that the response depends on different environmental factors and is not easily predictable based simply on resource type. Taken together, our results emphasize the need of a differentiated view on the effects of resources on complex biofilm-dwelling consumer communities with respect to both the origin of carbon source as well as the particular environmental conditions.

  17. On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-07-01

    Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal "courtship" dances and contacts. Using simulated "social" trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to "suitors" and "rivals" when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing "harder-to-get" via metabolically wasteful avoidance displays that hinder the exchange of preconjugal touches between "courting" couples. Conversely, prudent savers conserve energy pending situations more favorable for conjugating a partner. These ciliates reply with lower avoidance frequencies, guaranteeing nearby conspecifics of being "easier-to-get". By deciding to switch from behavioral strategies signaling conspicuous consumption to those signaling prudent savings, fitter ciliates learn to altruistically sacrifice net payoffs and persuade suitors to participate in paired reproduction. Less fit ciliates, unable to sustain long periods of high response rates, switch their behavioral strategies of prudent savings to briefly emit conspicuous consumption and thus learn to opportunistically cheat superior rivals. Mating competency depends, in part, on the efficiency of heuristics formed from recursive strategy searches and use. Heuristics represent stored patterns of action which evolve into ordered computational networks supporting entire courting repertoires. As ciliates expand signaling skills over many trials, the connectivity between strategies strengthens from Hebbian-like learning, leading to faster decisions about the appropriateness of courting messages and replies. The best experts master signaling decisions at efficiencies comparable to finding target solutions from superposed states with Grover's quantum search algorithm. I here append these findings with a critique on the feasibility of serial behavioral strategies to

  18. Evaluation of the efficiency of metabolism of dinoflagellate phosphorus and carbon by a planktonic ciliate.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Mikhail V; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2009-08-01

    The trophic transfer of nutrients through the microbial food web is a key top-down control in aquatic ecosystems which is notoriously difficult to evaluate, particularly for planktonic protists. In this study, a sensitive dual-radioactive tracer technique was developed to simultaneously assess the ingestion rate, and carbon- and phosphorus-specific assimilation efficiencies, of the marine planktonic ciliate Strobilidium neptuni feeding on the autotrophic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra. Dinoflagellate prey were simultaneously 16h pulse labelled with NaH(14)CO(3) and H(3)(33)PO(4) before being fed to the ciliate, and radioactive labels were traced into ciliate biomass and the experimental medium, as well as being monitored in the prey cells. Rates measured in short-term (10min) incubations, as commonly used to estimate protist uptake of fluorescently labelled prey, were approximately 6 times higher and 3-6 times more variable than rates measured in longer 3-5h incubations. The efficiency of accumulation of prey carbon (54+/-9%) by ciliates was lower than that of prey phosphorus (68+/-3%) suggesting that the phosphorus to carbon ratio in the ciliates was 1.3 times higher than in the labelled dinoflagellate biomass. Rates of phosphorus accumulation and release were combined to reveal that ciliates consumed 3.2+/-0.6 dinoflagellates cell(-1)h(-1). The assessment of carbon tracer release by ciliates was less reliable due to (14)CO(2) exchange between the experimental media and air. The study concludes that the dual phosphorus-carbon radioactive tracer labelling of algal prey allowed the quantification of protist herbivory and nutrient remineralisation in laboratory experiments, thereby providing a potential technique for studying planktonic microbial trophic interactions in situ.

  19. Are Freshwater Mixotrophic Ciliates Less Sensitive to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation than Heterotrophic Ones?1

    PubMed Central

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; SUMMERER, MONIKA; SOMMARUGA, RUBEN

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether mixotrophic ciliates are more resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than heterotrophic ones because symbiotic algae can provide self-shading by cell matter absorption and eventually by direct UV screening from mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Sensitivity of a natural assemblage to solar radiation was tested in experiments in the original lake and in a more UV transparent alpine lake after transplantation of the ciliates. In both lakes, the assemblage was exposed either to full sunlight, to photosynthetically active radiation only, or kept in the dark. In each lake, exposure was for 5 h at the surface and at the depth corresponding to the 10% attenuation depth at 320 nm. Overall, when the assemblage was exposed to surface UVR, only one out of four dominant mixotrophic ciliates, Vorticella chlorellata, was more resistant than heterotrophic species. The higher UV resistance in V. chlorellata was related to the presence of MAAs and the high percentage of ciliate volume occupied by algal symbionts. Our results indicate that effects of UVR were species-specific and depended on efficient screening of these wavelengths, but also on the depth preference of the ciliates and thus, on their previous exposure history to UVR. PMID:21414057

  20. Epithelial cell culture from human adenoids: a functional study model for ciliated and secretory cells.

    PubMed

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca(2+) levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms.

  1. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

  2. Patchiness of Ciliate Communities Sampled at Varying Spatial Scales along the New England Shelf

    PubMed Central

    McManus, George B.; Katz, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Although protists (microbial eukaryotes) provide an important link between bacteria and Metazoa in food webs, we do not yet have a clear understanding of the spatial scales on which protist diversity varies. Here, we use a combination of DNA fingerprinting (denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis or DGGE) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to assess the ciliate community in the class Spirotrichea at varying scales of 1–3 km sampled in three locations separated by at least 25 km—offshore, midshelf and inshore—along the New England shelf. Analyses of both abundant community (DGGE) and the total community (HTS) members reveal that: 1) ciliate communities are patchily distributed inshore (i.e. the middle station of a transect is distinct from its two neighboring stations), whereas communities are more homogeneous among samples within the midshelf and offshore stations; 2) a ciliate closely related to Pelagostrobilidium paraepacrum ‘blooms’ inshore and; 3) environmental factors may differentially impact the distributions of individual ciliates (i.e. OTUs) rather than the community as a whole as OTUs tend to show distinct biogeographies (e.g. some OTUs are restricted to the offshore locations, some to the surface, etc.). Together, these data show the complexity underlying the spatial distributions of marine protists, and suggest that biogeography may be a property of ciliate species rather than communities. PMID:27936137

  3. Are freshwater mixotrophic ciliates less sensitive to solar ultraviolet radiation than heterotrophic ones?

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Bettina; Summerer, Monika; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether mixotrophic ciliates are more resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than heterotrophic ones because symbiotic algae can provide self-shading by cell matter absorption and eventually by direct UV screening from mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Sensitivity of a natural assemblage to solar radiation was tested in experiments in the original lake and in a more UV transparent alpine lake after transplantation of the ciliates. In both lakes, the assemblage was exposed either to full sunlight, to photosynthetically active radiation only, or kept in the dark. In each lake, exposure was for 5 h at the surface and at the depth corresponding to the 10% attenuation depth at 320 nm. Overall, when the assemblage was exposed to surface UVR, only one out of four dominant mixotrophic ciliates, Vorticella chlorellata, was more resistant than heterotrophic species. The higher UV resistance in V. chlorellata was related to the presence of MAAs and the high percentage of ciliate volume occupied by algal symbionts. Our results indicate that effects of UVR were species-specific and depended on efficient screening of these wavelengths, but also on the depth preference of the ciliates and thus, on their previous exposure history to UVR.

  4. Distribution of Ciliates in Intertidal Sediments across Geographic Distances: A Molecular View.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of the diversity and geographic distribution of protists in particular ciliates has long been an ongoing debate. We estimated the distribution of ciliates in intertidal sediments with geographic distance ranging from 10cm to 1,000km, using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Higher community similarity, in particular that of rare ciliate taxa, occurred between replicates than between sites. Statistical analyses showed that the community dissimilarities of both abundant and moderately abundant ciliates had correlations with geographic distance at the scales of 50m, 200km and 1000km, indicating a distance-decay relationship. No significant correlation was observed for rare taxa. The analysis of Bray-Curtis similarity showed a higher pairwise community similarity in abundant taxa than in moderately abundant taxa, and that in rare taxa was the lowest. Abundant taxa usually can disperse in a wider range than rare taxa, though their distribution is restricted by distance to some extent. Rare taxa are potentially more sensitive to changing environments, but no distance-decay relationship could be observed. The data indicate contrasting patterns of geographic distribution of the abundant and rare ciliate taxa and a weak distance-decay relationship for relatively abundant taxa at a scale over 50m. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of renal ciliates infecting farmed snails in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segade, P; Kher, C P; Lynn, D H; Iglesias, R

    2009-06-01

    Renal infections by parasitic ciliates were studied in adult snails of Helix aspersa aspersa and Helix aspersa maxima collected from 2 mixed rearing system-based heliciculture farms located in Galicia (NW Spain). The occurrence of ciliates was also examined in slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) invading the greenhouses where first growing and fattening of snails is carried out. Histological examinations revealed a severe destruction of the renal epithelium in heavily infected hosts. Three ciliate isolates, one from each host species, were obtained and grown in axenic cultures. Cultured and parasitic ciliates were characterized morphologically and morphometrically. In addition, the encystment behaviour, the occurrence of autogamy, and the sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes were also studied in the 3 isolates. A polymorphic life cycle involving resting and reproductive cysts, together with the morphological and morphometrical characteristics and the confirmation that autogamy occurs within cysts, demonstrate that our ciliates belong to the species Tetrahymena rostrata (Kahl, 1926) Corliss, 1952. The 3 isolates formed a well-supported clade using both genetic markers, and were clearly separate from the strain ATCC(R) 30770, which has been identified as Tetrahymena rostrata. We argue that our Spanish isolates should be regarded as Tetrahymena rostrata, and that the ATCC isolate should be regarded as a misidentification as neither cytological nor cytogenetical support for its identity has been presented.

  6. Ciliates from ancient permafrost: Assessment of cold resistance of the resting cysts.

    PubMed

    Shatilovich, Anastasia; Stoupin, Daniel; Rivkina, Elizaveta

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that resting cysts of soil ciliates and numerous taxa of other protists can survive in permafrost for thousands of years at subzero temperatures; however, our knowledge about mechanisms of long term cryobiosis remains incomplete. In order to better understand the means by which ancient cysts survive, we investigated resistance to cyclical supercooling stress of resting cysts of the soil ciliate Colpoda steinii (Colpodida, Ciliophora). Three clonal strains were used for comparison, isolated from Siberian tundra soil, ancient Holocene (5-7,000 y) and late Pleistocene (32-35,000 y) permafrost sediments. To determine the viability of the ancient and contemporary ciliate cysts we improved and validated a cultivation-independent method of vital fluorescent staining with a combination of two nucleic acid binding dyes, acridine orange and propidium iodide. The viability of Colpoda steinii cysts during low-temperature experiments was measured using both the proposed vital fluorescent staining method and standard germination test. Our results indicate that the dual-fluorescence technique is a more accurate, rapid, and efficient method for estimating cyst viability. We found that cysts of ancient ciliates display lower tolerance to the impact of cyclical cold compared to cysts of contemporary ciliates from Siberian permafrost affected soils.

  7. Diversity of oligotrichia and choreotrichia ciliates in coastal marine sediments and in overlying plankton.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mary; Tamura, Maiko; Vriezen, Jan A C; McManus, George B; Katz, Laura A

    2010-06-01

    Elucidating the relationship between ciliate communities in the benthos and the plankton is critical to understanding ciliate diversity in marine systems. Although data for many lineages are sparse, at least some members of the dominant marine ciliate clades Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia can be found in both plankton and benthos, in the latter either as cysts or active forms. In this study, we developed a molecular approach to address the relationship between the diversity of ciliates in the plankton and those of the underlying benthos in the same locations. Samples from plankton and sediments were compared across three sites along the New England coast, and additional subsamples were analyzed to assess reproducibility of methods. We found that sediment and plankton subsamples differed in their robustness to repeated subsampling. Sediment subsamples (i.e., 1-g aliquots from a single approximately 20-g sample) gave variable estimates of diversity, while plankton subsamples produced consistent results. These results indicate the need for additional study to determine the spatial scale over which diversity varies in marine sediments. Clustering of phylogenetic types indicates that benthic assemblages of oligotrichs and choreotrichs appear to be more like those from spatially remote benthic communities than the ciliate communities sampled in the water above them.

  8. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  9. Delineating cellular interactions between ciliates and fish by co-culturing Tetrahymena thermophila with fish cells.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Bols, Niels C

    2014-10-01

    Although several species of Tetrahymena are often described as histophagous and opportunistic pathogens of fish, little is known about ciliate/fish cell interactions, but one approach for studying these is in vitro with cell lines. In this study, T. thermophila, B1975 (wild type) and NP1 (temperature sensitive mutant for phagocytosis) were cultured on monolayers of 3 fish epithelial cell lines, CHSE-214, RTgill-W1, and ZEB2J, and the rabbit kidney epithelial cell line, RK-13. Generally the ciliates flourished, whereas the monolayers died, being completely consumed over several days. The destruction of monolayers required that the ciliates could make contact with the animal cells through swimming, which appeared to dislodge or loosen cells so that they could be phagocytosed. The ciliates internalized into food vacuoles ZEB2J from cell monolayers as well as from cell suspensions. Phagocytosis was essential for monolayer destruction as monolayers remained intact under conditions where phagocytosis was impeded, such as 37°C for NP1 and 4°C for B1975. Monolayers of fish cells supported the proliferation of ciliates. Thus T. thermophila can 'eat' animal cells or be histophagous in vitro, with the potential to be histophagous in vivo.

  10. Diversity of Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia Ciliates in Coastal Marine Sediments and in Overlying Plankton▿

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Mary; Tamura, Maiko; Vriezen, Jan A. C.; McManus, George B.; Katz, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating the relationship between ciliate communities in the benthos and the plankton is critical to understanding ciliate diversity in marine systems. Although data for many lineages are sparse, at least some members of the dominant marine ciliate clades Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia can be found in both plankton and benthos, in the latter either as cysts or active forms. In this study, we developed a molecular approach to address the relationship between the diversity of ciliates in the plankton and those of the underlying benthos in the same locations. Samples from plankton and sediments were compared across three sites along the New England coast, and additional subsamples were analyzed to assess reproducibility of methods. We found that sediment and plankton subsamples differed in their robustness to repeated subsampling. Sediment subsamples (i.e., 1-g aliquots from a single ∼20-g sample) gave variable estimates of diversity, while plankton subsamples produced consistent results. These results indicate the need for additional study to determine the spatial scale over which diversity varies in marine sediments. Clustering of phylogenetic types indicates that benthic assemblages of oligotrichs and choreotrichs appear to be more like those from spatially remote benthic communities than the ciliate communities sampled in the water above them. PMID:20435761

  11. [Comparison of ciliate diversity in biodisc reactors which purify industrial wastewater].

    PubMed

    Luna-Pabello, V M; Durán De Bazúa, C; Aladro-Lubel, M A

    1995-01-01

    The comparative study of the ciliate populations present in rotating biological reactors (biodiscs reactors) of 20 l working volume, treating three different wastewaters is the aim of this project. Wastewaters chosen were those of a maize mill, of a sugarcane/ethyl alcohol plant, and of a recycled paper mill. Its dissolved organic contents, measured as soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), were 2040 mg COD/l and 585 mg BOD5/l for maize mill effluents (nejayote), 2000 mg COD/l and 640 mg BOD5/l for sugarcane/ethanol effluents (vinasses), and 960 mg COD/l and 120 mg BOD5/l for whitewaters of the paper industry. Results obtained indicate that ciliate proliferate in all chambers of reactors treating these wastewaters. The ciliates were more abundant in vinasses, followed by nejayote, and then whitewaters. Among protozoa, ciliates were present as follows: 19 species in total. Three of them were common for the three systems. Free swimming ciliates were in higher proportion than pedunculated ones. Its diversity was higher for the whitewaters system, next for nejayote, and the lesser, for vinasses, corroborating the fact that less polluted waters have higher organisms' diversity.

  12. Gene Network Landscape of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Lu, Xingyi; Chang, Yue; Liu, Yifan; Fu, Chengjie; Pearlman, Ronald E.; Miao, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide expression data of gene microarrays can be used to infer gene networks. At a cellular level, a gene network provides a picture of the modules in which genes are densely connected, and of the hub genes, which are highly connected with other genes. A gene network is useful to identify the genes involved in the same pathway, in a protein complex or that are co-regulated. In this study, we used different methods to find gene networks in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, and describe some important properties of this network, such as modules and hubs. Methodology/Principal Findings Using 67 single channel microarrays, we constructed the Tetrahymena gene network (TGN) using three methods: the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) and the context likelihood of relatedness (CLR) algorithm. The accuracy and coverage of the three networks were evaluated using four conserved protein complexes in yeast. The CLR network with a Z-score threshold 3.49 was determined to be the most robust. The TGN was partitioned, and 55 modules were found. In addition, analysis of the arbitrarily determined 1200 hubs showed that these hubs could be sorted into six groups according to their expression profiles. We also investigated human disease orthologs in Tetrahymena that are missing in yeast and provide evidence indicating that some of these are involved in the same process in Tetrahymena as in human. Conclusions/Significance This study constructed a Tetrahymena gene network, provided new insights to the properties of this biological network, and presents an important resource to study Tetrahymena genes at the pathway level. PMID:21637855

  13. Macronuclear DNA of the hypotrichous ciliate Oxytricha fallax

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Peter M. M.; Spear, Brian B.

    1978-01-01

    DNA in the macronuclei of Oxytricha fallax, as in other hypotrichous ciliate protozoa, exists as small, achromosomal molecules rather than in chromosomes. We report studies on O. fallax DNA using physicochemical procedures and nucleic acid hybridization. Macronuclear DNA molecules range in size from 22 kilobase pairs (kb) to about 0.5 kb. The DNA has a buoyant density in CsCl of 1.694 g·cm-3 and a melting temperature in 15 mM NaCl/1.5 mM sodium citrate, pH 7, at 65.4°. These values correspond to 34.7% Gua + Cyt and 28.1% Gua + Cyt, respectively, and base composition determined by thin-layer chromatography of nucleotides is 32.4% Gua + Cyt. The only modified nucleotide that is detectable is N6-methyldeoxyadenylate (0.2%), and the amount and kind of modification cannot account for the discrepancies in nucleotide composition determination by the three methods. The genes for 25S and 19S rRNA are contained in DNA molecules 6.67 kb in length, of which at least 6.15 kb is transcribed. These rDNA molecules show no intrastrand complementarity as does rDNA in some other lower eukaryotes, and they have two asymmetric sites recognized by endonuclease EcoRI. The genes for 5S RNA are in DNA molecules 0.69 kb in length. Digestion of this DNA with restriction enzymes BamHI, BsuI, HhaI, and TaqI gives no evidence for a tandemly repeated sequence. It is likely that both 19S + 25S rRNA genes and 5S RNA genes in the Oxytricha macronucleus exist as single transcription units, and both may have “spacer” regions approximately 0.5 kb long. Images PMID:105360

  14. Discovery of a new hypotrich ciliate from petroleum contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Bharti, Daizy; Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2017-01-01

    Pollution after oil spill represents extreme habitat for survival and is a major concern for loss of species diversity in the affected area. In this study, we investigated soil samples collected from a petrochemical industry, Ulsan, South Korea. The soil was in the phase of recovery from the contamination of crude oil spill. Detailed investigation, based on morphology, ontogenesis, and molecular phylogenetic methods, resulted in discovery of a novel hypotrich ciliate, i.e., Metasterkiella koreana n. gen., n. sp., which is morphologically characterized by a semirigid body, undulating membranes in Oxytricha pattern, 18 frontal-ventral-transverse cirri with cirrus V/3 placed posteriorly, one right and one left row of marginal cirri, four dorsal kineties, two dorsomarginal rows, and caudal cirri at the end of dorsal kineties 1, 2, and 4. Interestingly, during ontogenesis, formation of three common anlagen for the proter and the opisthe and involvement of cirrus V/3 in anlagen formation was observed. The dorsal ontogenesis was typical of oxytrichids, i.e., simple fragmentation of dorsal kinety 3 and formation of dorsomarginal rows close to the right marginal row. The new species was found to be similar with Sterkiella subtropica, except for some minor differences in morphometry, and at gene level with only one base pair difference. In phylogenetic analyses, based on SSU rRNA gene sequence, M. koreana cluster in a clade away from Sterkiella species, which could be explained by the differences in the morphogenetic pattern between these two genera. It is proposed that S. subtropica probably belongs to Metasterkiella; however, we do not perform changes and wait for the reinvestigation of its morphogenetic pattern.

  15. A Case of Ciliate Protozoa Colpoda Spp. (Ciliata: Colpodidae) Detected In Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Costache, C; Bursaşiu, S; Filipaş, C; Colosi, I

    2011-01-01

    In the urine of a patient with chronic prostatitis, renal microlithiasis and acute cystitis we found the ciliate protozoa Colpoda spp., both in vegetative and cystic form. The entry point was most likely the urinary tract. Keeping in mind that only four more cases of Colpoda spp. existent in human urine have already been described, and that in the case of our patient the ciliate was present at repeated examinations of his urine, we presumed that it is not only a spurious infection of the urogenital tract. It still remains to be analyzed whether this ciliate belongs to a species of Colpoda adapted to parasitism in homeothermae and whether it can be pathogenic for humans. PMID:22347320

  16. First record of entodiniomorph ciliates in a carnivore, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vynne, Carly; Kinsella, John M

    2009-06-01

    The entodiniomorph ciliates (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida) are endosymbiotes widely found in the intestines of herbivorous mammals. These commensals commonly occur in the Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla and have also been described in the Proboscidea, Primates, Rodentia, and Diprotodontia. This study reports the first finding of a ciliate in a member of order Carnivora, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Fecal samples from wild and captive maned wolves were screened using ethyl acetate sedimentation. Prevalence in fecal samples collected from free-ranging maned wolves in Brazil was 40% (6 of 15). Fecal samples from two of four captive individuals from the St. Louis Zoo also had the same species of ciliate. The largely frugivorous diet of the maned wolf likely explains the occurrence of these normally herbivore-associated endosymbiotes in a carnivore.

  17. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Identification and Detection of Prokaryotic Symbionts in the Ciliate Metopus from Anaerobic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prokaryotic community structure of the anaerobic ciliate, Metopus sp. using rRNA sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Metopus sp. was physically separated from anaerobic granular sludge in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and anoxically cultivated for 7 d. 16S rRNA gene sequences from the prokaryotes Methanoregula boonei and Clostridium aminobutyricum were abundantly detected in Metopus ciliates. The FISH analysis using the oligonucleotide probes Mg1200b and Cla568 demonstrated that these prokaryotes were localized within Metopus cells. These results identify M. boonei- and C. aminobutyricum-like prokaryotes as novel endosymbionts of Metopus ciliates.

  19. Comparing the distribution of ciliate plankton in inner and outer areas of a harbor divided by an artificial breakwater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ok; Chae, Jinho; Hong, Jae-Sang; Jang, Pung-Guk

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of ciliate plankton was compared between inner and outer areas of a harbor divided by an artificial breakwater in Kuryongpo, on the eastern coast of Korea, from February 2001 to October 2003. Less dissolved oxygen and higher concentrations of nitrogenous nutrients and phosphate were observed in the inner area. The abundance of oligotrich ciliates peaked in February 2001, when nanoflagellates bloomed in the inner area. The photosynthetic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum showed differing population dynamics annually, with blooming peaks in October 2001 in the inner area and in February 2003 in the outer area. The tintinnid species Tintinnopsis beroidea and Helicostomella subulata were generally more abundant in the outer area. Total ciliates were significantly related to oligotrich abundance in the inner area, and to tintinnid abundances in the outer area. Ciliate distribution showed quantitative and qualitative differences between the inner and outer areas in connection with the distribution of other plankton communities: oligotrich ciliate abundance increased with nanoflagellate blooms; dominance of M. rubrum was consistent with blooming of micro-sized phytoplankton (diatoms and dinoflagellates); large-sized tintinnids concurred with small dinoflagellates; and ciliate abundances decreased with mesozooplankton increases. The results indicate that the breakwater induces eutrophication in the inner area and provides suitable conditions for nanoflagellate blooms, which serially trigger opportunistic increases in oligotrich ciliates.

  20. Ciliate Epibionts Associated with Crustacean Zooplankton in German Lakes: Distribution, Motility, and Bacterivory

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Samantha L.; Tang, Kam W.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate−1 h−1 and 24.33 μl ciliate−1 h−1, respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations. PMID:22783247

  1. Trends on the distribution of ciliates in the open Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Fernando

    2007-09-01

    The distribution of planktonic ciliates, aloricate (naked) and loricate (tintinnid) was investigated in the open waters of the Oyashio and Kuroshio Currents, Philippine, Sulu, Celebes and South China Seas, and the western and central equatorial Pacific. The abundance of nauplii and post-naupliar copepods as potential predators was estimated. In average, the tintinnids represented 10-20% of the abundance of aloricate ciliates (50-200 cells L -1). One hundred and two species of 37 genera of tintinnids were recorded. As a general trend, the highest species richness was found in moderate oligotrophic waters. Photographic records of some taxa of interest and unidentified specimens were reported. In the subarctic waters of the Oyashio Current, a few tintinnid species showed high abundance fluctuations that may be controlled by the copepods. During the summer the species of Parafavella with longer loricae predominated in parallel to the increase of the copepodite abundance. In warm open waters, the success of a ciliate species could depend on its anti-grazing strategy. Eutintinnus apertus attached to a spine-bearing diatom was the most ubiquitous species. Tintinnids may be subjected to lower predation pressure than aloricate ciliates. The increase of the lorica length or the association with diatoms may be an anti-grazing strategy, which determines the success of one tintinnid taxon versus other congeneric species. Although the aloricate ciliates would be less affected than tintinnids by the reduction of food availability under oligotrophic conditions, the ciliate populations as a general trend seem to be controlled by the predators (top-down) rather than by the availability of food resources (bottom-up).

  2. Rare Freshwater Ciliate Paramecium chlorelligerum Kahl, 1935 and Its Macronuclear Symbiotic Bacterium "Candidatus Holospora parva".

    PubMed

    Lanzoni, Olivia; Fokin, Sergei I; Lebedeva, Natalia; Migunova, Alexandra; Petroni, Giulio; Potekhin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated protists often form symbioses with many diverse microorganisms. In particular, symbiotic associations between ciliates and green algae, as well as between ciliates and intracellular bacteria, are rather wide-spread in nature. In this study, we describe the complex symbiotic system between a very rare ciliate, Paramecium chlorelligerum, unicellular algae inhabiting its cytoplasm, and novel bacteria colonizing the host macronucleus. Paramecium chlorelligerum, previously found only twice in Germany, was retrieved from a novel location in vicinity of St. Petersburg in Russia. Species identification was based on both classical morphological methods and analysis of the small subunit rDNA. Numerous algae occupying the cytoplasm of this ciliate were identified with ultrastructural and molecular methods as representatives of the Meyerella genus, which before was not considered among symbiotic algae. In the same locality at least fifteen other species of "green" ciliates were found, thus it is indeed a biodiversity hot-spot for such protists. A novel species of bacterial symbionts living in the macronucleus of Paramecium chlorelligerum cells was morphologically and ultrastructurally investigated in detail with the description of its life cycle and infection capabilities. The new endosymbiont was molecularly characterized following the full-cycle rRNA approach. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the novel bacterium is a member of Holospora genus branching basally but sharing all characteristics of the genus except inducing connecting piece formation during the infected host nucleus division. We propose the name "Candidatus Holospora parva" for this newly described species. The described complex system raises new questions on how these microorganisms evolve and interact in symbiosis.

  3. Acute toxicity of lead, chromium, and other heavy metals to ciliates from activated sludge plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madoni, P.; Gorbi, G. ); Davoli, D. )

    1994-09-01

    Numerous papers deal with the occurrence of heavy metals in the various components of freshwater ecosystems and sewage treatment systems. However, few papers refer to the presence and effect of heavy metals in populations of aquatic cilated protozoa. In particular, the lethal concentrations (LC50) of heavy metals in ciliate populations that colonize the activated sludge or the biofilm of waste treatment plants. Ciliated protozoa are very numerous in all types of aerobic biological-treatment systems. They play an important role in the purification process removing, through predation, the major part of dispersed bacteria that cause high turbidity in the final effluent. Changes in the community structure and types of ciliate species may affect the food web of these artifical ecosystems, and may also influence the biological performance of plants. Heavy metals can limit growth of protozoa in aquatic environments. The toxicity of heavy metals in biological treatment depends mainly upon two factors, namely, metal species and concentration. Although the resistance of biological systems to metal toxicity may be enhanced greatly by proper acclimatization, a too-high metal concentration may cause serious upsets in the system. It is important to determine the concentrations of heavy metals causing lethal effects on ciliates. Madoni recently studied the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc on six species of ciliated protozoa from activated sludge plants. The present paper describes the toxic effects of lead and chromium (VI) on 6 cilate species. The acute toxicity of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn on two other ciliates (Drepanomonas revoluta and Spirostomum teres) is also reported. 18 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Indication of spatial variations in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates to environmental change in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian; Warren, Alan

    2017-03-15

    The indication of spatial variations in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates to environmental changes was studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different hydrographic conditions during a 1-year cycle. The second-stage-matrix-based multivariate approach was used to summarize the internal interactions of the ciliate functional groups among five stations during a 1-year period. The functional groups of the ciliates represented a clear spatial variation in annual cycle among five stations. Mantel analysis demonstrated that the spatial variation in annual cycles of the ciliate functional groups were significantly correlated with the changes nutrients (mainly soluble reactive phosphates and nitrates), alone or in combination with salinity among five stations. Based the results, it is suggested that the spatial variation in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates may indicated the changes of hydrographic conditions.

  5. Dynamic Change of Cellular Localization of Microtubule-Organizing Center During Conjugation of Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Kushida, Yasuharu; Takaine, Masak; Nakano, Kentaro; Sugai, Toshiro; Numata, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a comprehensive picture of microtubule dynamics during conjugation, the mode of sexual reproduction in ciliates, we combined indirect immunofluorescence and three-dimensional imaging using confocal laser-scanning microscope to visualize the cellular localization of DNA, microtubules, and γ-tubulin, the main component of the microtubule-organizing center in mating Tetrahymena cells. As the conjugational stages proceeded, the distribution of γ-tubulin changed drastically and microtubules showed dynamic appearance and disappearance during meiosis, nuclear selection, nuclear exchange, and the development of new macronuclei. This study highlights the involvement of cytoskeletal regulation in the modulation of germline nuclear motilities required for ciliate reproduction.

  6. Evidence for isolated evolution of deep-sea ciliate communities through geological separation and environmental selection.

    PubMed

    Stock, Alexandra; Edgcomb, Virginia; Orsi, William; Filker, Sabine; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Yakimov, Michail M; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2013-07-08

    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are isolated habitats at the bottom of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, which originate from the ancient dissolution of Messinian evaporites. The different basins have recruited their original biota from the same source, but their geological evolution eventually constituted sharp environmental barriers, restricting genetic exchange between the individual basins. Therefore, DHABs are unique model systems to assess the effect of geological events and environmental conditions on the evolution and diversification of protistan plankton. Here, we examine evidence for isolated evolution of unicellular eukaryote protistan plankton communities driven by geological separation and environmental selection. We specifically focused on ciliated protists as a major component of protistan DHAB plankton by pyrosequencing the hypervariable V4 fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. Geospatial distributions and responses of marine ciliates to differential hydrochemistries suggest strong physical and chemical barriers to dispersal that influence the evolution of this plankton group. Ciliate communities in the brines of four investigated DHABs are distinctively different from ciliate communities in the interfaces (haloclines) immediately above the brines. While the interface ciliate communities from different sites are relatively similar to each other, the brine ciliate communities are significantly different between sites. We found no distance-decay relationship, and canonical correspondence analyses identified oxygen and sodium as most important hydrochemical parameters explaining the partitioning of diversity between interface and brine ciliate communities. However, none of the analyzed hydrochemical parameters explained the significant differences between brine ciliate communities in different basins. Our data indicate a frequent genetic exchange in the deep-sea water above the brines. The "isolated island character" of the different brines

  7. Freshwater biodiversity of Guam. 1. Introduction, with new records of ciliates and a heliozoan

    PubMed Central

    LOBBAN, CHRISTOPHER S.; SCHEFTER, MARÍA

    2008-01-01

    Inland waters are the most endangered ecosystems in the world because of complex threats and management problems, yet the freshwater microbial eukaryotes and microinvertebrates are generally not well known and from Guam are virtually unknown. Photodocumentation can provide useful information on such organisms. In this paper we document protists from mostly lentic inland waters of Guam and report twelve freshwater ciliates, especially peritrichs, which are the first records of ciliates from Guam or Micronesia. We also report a species of Raphidiophrys (Heliozoa). Undergraduate students can meaningfully contribute to knowledge of regional biodiversity through individual or class projects using photodocumentation. PMID:19079802

  8. Evidence for isolated evolution of deep-sea ciliate communities through geological separation and environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are isolated habitats at the bottom of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, which originate from the ancient dissolution of Messinian evaporites. The different basins have recruited their original biota from the same source, but their geological evolution eventually constituted sharp environmental barriers, restricting genetic exchange between the individual basins. Therefore, DHABs are unique model systems to assess the effect of geological events and environmental conditions on the evolution and diversification of protistan plankton. Here, we examine evidence for isolated evolution of unicellular eukaryote protistan plankton communities driven by geological separation and environmental selection. We specifically focused on ciliated protists as a major component of protistan DHAB plankton by pyrosequencing the hypervariable V4 fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. Geospatial distributions and responses of marine ciliates to differential hydrochemistries suggest strong physical and chemical barriers to dispersal that influence the evolution of this plankton group. Results Ciliate communities in the brines of four investigated DHABs are distinctively different from ciliate communities in the interfaces (haloclines) immediately above the brines. While the interface ciliate communities from different sites are relatively similar to each other, the brine ciliate communities are significantly different between sites. We found no distance-decay relationship, and canonical correspondence analyses identified oxygen and sodium as most important hydrochemical parameters explaining the partitioning of diversity between interface and brine ciliate communities. However, none of the analyzed hydrochemical parameters explained the significant differences between brine ciliate communities in different basins. Conclusions Our data indicate a frequent genetic exchange in the deep-sea water above the brines. The “isolated island

  9. Relative Diversity and Community Structure of Ciliates in Stream Biofilms According to Molecular and Microscopy Methods▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Ciliates are an important component of aquatic ecosystems, acting as predators of bacteria and protozoa and providing nutrition for organisms at higher trophic levels. Understanding of the diversity and ecological role of ciliates in stream biofilms is limited, however. Ciliate diversity in biofilm samples from four streams subject to different impacts by human activity was assessed using microscopy and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 18S rRNA sequences. Analysis of 3′ and 5′ terminal fragments yielded very similar estimates of ciliate diversity. The diversity detected using microscopy was consistently lower than that suggested by T-RFLP analysis, indicating the existence of genetic diversity not apparent by morphological examination. Microscopy and T-RFLP analyses revealed similar relative trends in diversity between different streams, with the lowest level of biofilm-associated ciliate diversity found in samples from the least-impacted stream and the highest diversity in samples from moderately to highly impacted streams. Multivariate analysis provided evidence of significantly different ciliate communities in biofilm samples from different streams and seasons, particularly between a highly degraded urban stream and less impacted streams. Microscopy and T-RFLP data both suggested the existence of widely distributed, resilient biofilm-associated ciliates as well as ciliate taxa restricted to sites with particular environmental conditions, with cosmopolitan taxa being more abundant than those with restricted distributions. Differences between ciliate assemblages were associated with water quality characteristics typical of urban stream degradation and may be related to factors such as nutrient availability and macroinvertebrate communities. Microscopic and molecular techniques were considered to be useful complementary approaches for investigation of biofilm ciliate communities. PMID:19561192

  10. Diversity and fluctuation in ciliate protozoan population in the rumen of cattle.

    PubMed

    Abrar, Arfan; Watanabe, Haruki; Kitamura, Tasuku; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Matsui, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity and fluctuation in the ciliate protozoan population in the rumen of cattle. DNA was extracted from the rumen of three ruminally cannulated, crossbred cattle and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-derived clone library was constructed, using a specific primer set targeting 18S ribosomal RNA genes of ciliate protozoa. DNA fragments of seven selected clones were validated for standard DNA of the protozoa-specific real-time PCR assay. Furthermore, population fluctuation of ciliate protozoa and methanogens in the cattle rumen was determined by real-time PCR. A total of 60 clones were sequenced, phylogenetically analyzed, and classified into 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a 99% similarity criterion. More than 80% sequences were phylogenetically placed in the genus Entodinium. The rest of the sequences were placed in the genus Diploplastron (5%), Dasytricha (8.3%) and Isotricha (3.3%). The results suggest that Entodinium was the dominant group in the rumen of cattle used in this study. The ciliate protozoan population showed no significant change in numbers during the monitoring period and reached a peak at 3 h after feeding. Changes in the protozoa population were lower than those of the methanogens. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Ciliated micropillars for the microfluidic-based isolation of nanoscale lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongxing; Wu, Hung-jen; Fine, Daniel; Schmulen, Jeffrey; Hu, Ye; Godin, Biana; Zhang, John X J; Liu, Xuewu

    2013-08-07

    We fabricated a microfluidic device consisting of ciliated micropillars, forming a porous silicon nanowire-on-micropillar structure. We demonstrated that the prototype device can preferentially trap exosome-like lipid vesicles, while simultaneously filtering out proteins and cell debris. Trapped lipid vesicles can be recovered intact by dissolving the porous nanowires in PBS buffer.

  12. Use of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to determine environmental quality status of coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Eun Jin

    2014-02-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that the ecological features of protozoan communities have many advantages as a favorable bioindicator to evaluate environmental stress and anthropogenic impact in many aquatic ecosystems. The ability of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities for assessing environmental quality status was studied, using glass slides as an artificial substratum, during a 1-year cycle (August 2011-July 2012) in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. The samples were collected monthly at a depth of 1m from four sampling stations with a spatial gradient of environmental stress. Environmental variables, e.g., salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and soluble reactive phosphates (SRP), were measured synchronously for comparison with biotic parameters. Results showed that: (1) the community structures of the ciliates represented significant differences among the four sampling stations; (2) spatial patterns of the ciliate communities were significantly correlated with environmental variables, especially COD and the nutrients; (3) five dominant species (Hartmannula angustipilosa, Metaurostylopsis sp.1, Discocephalus ehrenbergi, Stephanopogon minuta and Pseudovorticella paracratera) were significantly correlated with nutrients or COD; and (4) the species richness measure was significantly correlated with the nutrient NO3-N. It is suggested that biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities might be used as a potentially robust bioindicator for discriminating environmental quality status in coastal waters.

  13. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  14. Comparative evaluation of soil toxicity using lettuce seeds and soil ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, N.; Pratt, J.R.; Beeson, D.; Lewis, M.

    1997-02-01

    The toxicity of elutriates from 25 putatively contaminated soils was evaluated using the standard seed (Lactuca sativa) germination test and a recently developed soil ciliate (Colpoda inflata) growth test. Correspondence in the identification of presence or absence of toxicity in the 25 soil elutriates between the two tests was 60% and concordance in ranking of toxicity between the two tests was significant (p < 0.05) using Spearman`s rank correlation test (r{sub s} = 0.3831). Stepwise multiple regression analysis of toxicity results against soil elutriate chemistry indicated that pH explained the greatest amount of variation in response in both tests, despite high concentrations of several metals in the elutriates. For the germination test, a multiple regression model that included pH and cadmium explained 58.5% of response variation, whereas over 83% of response variation in the ciliate growth test could be explained by pH, copper, and cadmium. Differences in the response of the plant and protozoan models appeared to be due primarily to differences in their sensitivity to elutriate pH. In addition to better correspondence between elutriate chemistry and ciliate response compared to the seed germination test, lower response variability associated with the measure of ciliate growth compared with seed germination provided greater statistical sensitivity for detecting toxic effects.

  15. Application of an indicator based on taxonomic relatedness of ciliated protozoan assemblages for marine environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2011-08-01

    Ciliated protozoa play important roles in aquatic ecosystems especially regarding their functions in micro-food web and have many advantages in environmental assessment compared with most other eukaryotic organisms. The aims of this study were focused on analyzing the application of an indicator based on taxonomic relatedness of ciliated protozoan assemblages for marine environmental assessment. The spatial taxonomic patterns and diversity measures in response to physical-chemical variables were studied based on data from samples collected during 1-year cycle in the semi-enclosed Jiaozhou Bay, northern China. The spatial patterns of ciliate communities were significantly correlated with the changes of environmental status. The taxonomic distinctness (Δ*) and the average taxonomic distinctness (Δ+) were significantly negatively correlated with the changes of nutrients (e.g., nitrate nitrogen and soluble active phosphate; P<0.05). Pairwise indices of Δ+ and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ+) showed a decreasing trend of departure from the expected taxonomic breadth in response to the eutrophication stress and anthropogenic impact. The taxonomic relatedness (especially the pairwise Δ+ and Λ+) indices of ciliate communities are robust as an indicator with scientifically operational value in marine environmental assessment.

  16. Ciliated protozoa community of a combined UASB-activated sludge system in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Rossetto, Renato; Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoa in the activated sludge of a full-scale combined anaerobic-aerobic system operating in a tropical country and (2) to study the relationship between the effluent quality, the physicochemical variables, and the ciliates present in the operating system. The total ciliate fauna of the activated sludge of the Piçarrão Wastewater Treatment Plant (Piçarrão WWTP) was composed of 36 morphospecies belonging to 33 genera. These included 21 species observed in the activated sludge samples on the day of collection and 15 species found in cultures. The activated sludge of the Piçarrão WWTP contained a diversified ciliate community composed mainly of indicator organisms. The most frequently occurring morphospecies were Aspidisca cicada, Vorticella spp., Gastronauta aloisi, Acineria uncinata, and Epistylis plicatilis complex. These results showed that satisfactory operating conditions prevailed at the Piçarrão WWTP. In the combined UASB-activated sludge system, the presence of Aspidisca cicada suggests the occurrence of denitrification in the process while the presence of Acineria uncinata and G. alosi indicates the removal of carbonaceous organic matter.

  17. Characterization of ciliate diversity in bromeliad tank waters from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Simão, Taiz L L; Borges, Adriana Giongo; Gano, Kelsey A; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Fagen, Jennie R; Triplett, Eric W; Dias, Raquel; Mondin, Claudio A; da Silva, Renata M; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R P

    2017-05-17

    Bromeliads are a diverse group of plants that includes many species whose individuals are capable of retaining water, forming habitats called phytotelmata. These habitats harbor a diversity of organisms including prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes, metazoans, and fungi. Among single-celled eukaryotic organisms, ciliates are generally the most abundant. In the present study, we used Illumina DNA sequencing to survey the eukaryotic communities, especially ciliates, inhabiting the tanks of the bromeliads Aechmea gamosepala and Vriesea platynema in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. Filtered sequences were clustered into distinct OTUs using a 99% identity threshold, and then assigned to phylum and genus using a BLAST-based approach (implemented in QIIME) and the SILVA reference database. Both bromeliad species harbored very diverse eukaryotic communities, with Arthropoda and Ciliophora showing the highest abundance (as estimated by the number of sequence reads). The ciliate genus Tetrahymena was the most abundant among single-celled organisms, followed by apicomplexan gregarines and the ciliate genus Glaucoma. Another interesting finding was the presence and high abundance of Trypanosoma in these bromeliad tanks, demonstrating their occurrence in this type of environment. The results presented here demonstrate a hidden diversity of eukaryotes in bromeliad tank waters, opening up new avenues for their in-depth characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional ecology of the ciliate Glaucomides bromelicola, and comparison with the sympatric species Bromeliothrix metopoides.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ecology and life strategy of Glaucomides bromelicola (family Bromeliophryidae), a very common ciliate in the reservoirs (tanks) of bromeliads, assessing its response to food quality and quantity and pH. Further, we conducted competition experiments with the frequently coexisting species Bromeliothrix metopoides (family Colpodidae). In contrast to B. metopoides and many other colpodean ciliates, G. bromelicola does not form resting cysts, which jeopardizes this ciliate when its small aquatic habitats dry out. Both species form bactivorous microstomes and flagellate-feeding macrostomes. However, only G. bromelicola has a low feeding threshold and is able to adapt to different protist food. The higher affinity to the local bacterial and flagellate food renders it the superior competitor relative to B. metopoides. Continuous encystment and excystment of the latter may enable stable coexistence of both species in their natural habitat. Both are tolerant to a wide range of pH (4-9). These ciliates appear to be limited to tank bromeliads because they either lack resting cysts and vectors for long distance dispersal (G. bromelicola) and/or have highly specific food requirements (primarily B. metopoides).

  19. Bromeliothrix metopoides, a boom and bust ciliate (Ciliophora, Colpodea) from tank bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the recently described colpodid ciliate Bromeliothrix metopoides in a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the environmental factors that constrain this species to its peculiar habitat, i.e. the tanks of bromeliads. Our results demonstrated that the various life stages of this ciliate (bacterivorous theronts and microstome trophonts, flagellate-feeding macrostomes) have specific demands in terms of food quality and quantity. Bromeliothrix required a high food threshold (>1.4 mg CL(-1)) in order to thrive. Food quality also affected resting cyst formation of B. metopoides when the experimental containers dried out. Its maximum growth rates (μmax=4.71 d(-1), i.e., 6.8 doublings d(-1)) belong to the highest ones recorded thus far for free-living ciliates. The pH niche of B. metopoides was relatively wide (pH ∼4 to >9) under optimal food conditions. However, its high sensitivity to unfavourable environmental conditions let the population collapse within several hours. We conclude that B. metopoides is a boom and bust ciliate that is specifically adapted to its peculiar habitat but virtually unviable in other environments.

  20. Bromeliothrix metopoides, a boom and bust ciliate (Ciliophora, Colpodea) from tank bromeliads

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the recently described colpodid ciliate Bromeliothrix metopoides in a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the environmental factors that constrain this species to its peculiar habitat, i.e. the tanks of bromeliads. Our results demonstrated that the various life stages of this ciliate (bacterivorous theronts and microstome trophonts, flagellate-feeding macrostomes) have specific demands in terms of food quality and quantity. Bromeliothrix required a high food threshold (>1.4 mg C L−1) in order to thrive. Food quality also affected resting cyst formation of B. metopoides when the experimental containers dried out. Its maximum growth rates (μmax = 4.71 d−1, i.e. 6.8 doublings d−1) belong to the highest ones recorded thus far for free-living ciliates. The pH niche of B. metopoides was relatively wide (pH ∼4 to >9) under optimal food conditions. However, its high sensitivity to unfavourable environmental conditions let the population collapse within several hours. We conclude that B. metopoides is a boom and bust ciliate that is specifically adapted to its peculiar habitat but virtually unviable in other environments. PMID:23541138

  1. Functional Ecology of the Ciliate Glaucomides bromelicola, and Comparison with the Sympatric Species Bromeliothrix metopoides

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ecology and life strategy of Glaucomides bromelicola (family Bromeliophryidae), a very common ciliate in the reservoirs (tanks) of bromeliads, assessing its response to food quality and quantity and pH. Further, we conducted competition experiments with the frequently coexisting species Bromeliothrix metopoides (family Colpodidae). In contrast to B. metopoides and many other colpodean ciliates, G. bromelicola does not form resting cysts, which jeopardizes this ciliate when its small aquatic habitats dry out. Both species form bactivorous microstomes and flagellate-feeding macrostomes. However, only G. bromelicola has a low feeding threshold and is able to adapt to different protist food. The higher affinity to the local bacterial and flagellate food renders it the superior competitor relative to B. metopoides. Continuous encystment and excystment of the latter may enable stable coexistence of both species in their natural habitat. Both are tolerant to a wide range of pH (4–9). These ciliates appear to be limited to tank bromeliads because they either lack resting cysts and vectors for long distance dispersal (G. bromelicola) and/or have highly specific food requirements (primarily B. metopoides). PMID:23865693

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of the Intracellular Bacterial Symbiont TC1 in the Anaerobic Ciliate Trimyema compressum.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Naoya; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Saitoh, Seikoh; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakano, Kazuma; Shimoji, Makiko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Hirano, Takashi; Yamada, Takanori; Nobu, Masaru K; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Shirai, Yumi; Park, Sanghwa; Narihiro, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-09-22

    A free-living ciliate, Trimyema compressum, found in anoxic freshwater environments harbors methanogenic archaea and a bacterial symbiont named TC1 in its cytoplasm. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the TC1 symbiont, consisting of a 1.59-Mb chromosome and a 35.8-kb plasmid, which was determined using the PacBio RSII sequencer.

  3. Ciliated Adenosquamous Carcinoma: Expanding the Phenotypic Diversity of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Tumors.

    PubMed

    Radkay-Gonzalez, Lisa; Faquin, William; McHugh, Jonathan B; Lewis, James S; Tuluc, Madalina; Seethala, Raja R

    2016-06-01

    This study describes a unique subset of ciliated, human papillomavirus (HPV) related, adenosquamous carcinomas (AsqCA) of the head and neck that in contrast to most AsqCA, often show areas with lower grade cytonuclear features. They are comprised of largely non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma components with cystic change, gland formation, mucin production, and cilia in tumor cells. Seven cases of ciliated AsqCA were retrieved. Site distribution was as follows: palatine tonsil--3/7, base of tongue--1/7, and neck (unknown primary site)--3/7. Despite the occasional resemblance to mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the tumors showed focal keratinizing morphology and atypia, and all tumors were negative for MAML2 rearrangements. Oropharyngeal and neck tumors were uniformly p16 positive and showed punctate staining by in situ hybridization for high risk HPV DNA. There were two distant metastases (lung), and one tumor related death. Thus, ciliated AsqCA are HPV-associated lesions that pose unique pitfalls, closely mimicking MEC and other salivary gland tumors. These tumors add to the list of those which defy the dogma that ciliated epithelium always equates to a benign process.

  4. Direct and indirect effects of pollutants on algae and algivorous ciliates in an aquatic indoor microcosm.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Markus; Schmidt, Gunnar; Bontje, Daniel; Kooi, Bob W; Streck, Georg; Traunspurger, Walter; Knacker, Thomas

    2008-06-23

    An aquatic indoor microcosm was used to study effects of the pesticides parathion-methyl and prometryn on phototrophic flagellates (Cryptomonas sp.) and predatory ciliates (Urotricha furcata). Parathion-methyl caused effects to flagellates and ciliates at the range of low mg L(-1), regardless of whether the organisms were exposed separately or combined in the multi-species test system. Prometryn caused effects on the flagellates at low microg L(-1) concentrations, resulting in a NOEC of 6.9 microg L(-1) in the single-species test and a NOEC of 15.2 microg L(-1) in the multi-species microcosm. For ciliates the NOEC decreased by factor 145 in the multi-species test compared to the NOEC of 2.2 mg L(-1) in the single-species test when exposed to prometryn. The lower NOEC for ciliates exposed to prometryn in the microcosm was most likely caused by an indirect effect due to reduced availability of flagellates as food. The measurement of nutrient concentrations in the test media and organisms facilitated the modelling of effects. The presented aquatic indoor microcosm is considered as a tool which could be standardised and applied as an instrument to provide data for higher tier risk assessment.

  5. Comparison of soil toxicity estimates using lettuce seeds and soil ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, J.R.; Bowers, N.J.; Beeson, D.; Lewis, M.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminants in soils affect microbes, fungi, animals and plants, yet few tests species are available to assess soil toxicity. Many soil microbes are adapted to grow rapidly after wetting and can be used to assess contaminants in the soil solution. The authors compared the growth of the soil ciliate, Colpoda inflata, to germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca saliva) seeds exposed to water elutriate from twenty-five soil samples suspected of being toxic. Exposure to full strength elutriate resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reduction in seed germination in 15 of 25 elutriates, five of which produced no germination. Growth (total dry weight) of the seeds that germinated was unaffected. Growth of C. inflata was reduced by more than 70% in 12 of 25 elutriates. All C. inflata were killed following exposure to the same five elutriates that resulted in no seed germination. The ciliate growth test identified three elutriates as toxic that were not identified as toxic by the seed germination test. Conversely, the seed germination test identified seven elutriates as toxic that were not toxic in the ciliate growth test. Stepwise regression using concentrations of nine metals in the soil elutriates indicated that cadmium, copper, and arsenic significantly reduced C. inflata growth (r{sup 2} = 0.77), whereas copper, arsenic, and lead significantly reduced lettuce seed germination (r{sup 2} = 0.61). The plant and microbe models showed different responses, and there was a greater correspondence between elutriate chemistry and ciliate response than in the plant tests.

  6. Microcetus lappus gen. nov., sp. nov.: new species of ciliated protozoon from the bovine rumen.

    PubMed Central

    Orpin, C G; Mathiesen, S D

    1986-01-01

    A new species of small, ciliated protozoon, Microcetus lappus gen. nov., sp. nov., from the rumen of Norwegian Red cattle is described. M. lappus possesses a novel cytopharyngeal apparatus of two rod-shaped structures, one situated on the dorsal side of the buccal cavity and one on the ventral side, suggesting that it belongs to a previously undescribed taxon. Images PMID:3094449

  7. Analysis of damage to human ciliated nasopharyngeal epithelium by Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, D S; Whitney, A M; Melly, M A; Hoffman, L H; Farley, M M; Frasch, C E

    1986-01-01

    We used an in vitro model of human nasopharyngeal tissue in organ culture to evaluate the effects of Neisseria meningitidis on human cilia and ciliary function. Encapsulated, viable meningococci damaged ciliated epithelium of nasopharyngeal organ cultures, whereas Neisseria subflava, a commensal species, did not. Meningococcus-induced ciliary damage was due to loss of ciliated cells to which meningococci were not attached. Damage was seen with piliated and nonpiliated meningococci and did not appear to require the presence of other specific meningococcal surface proteins. Meningococcal viability was a requirement for both ciliary damage and interactions of meningococci with microvilli of nonciliated epithelial cells. That is, filter-sterilized supernatants from meningococcus-infected organ cultures, heat-killed meningococci at high inoculum, and purified meningococcal or gonococcal lipopolysaccharide at concentrations of 100 micrograms/ml did not damage ciliary activity of nasopharyngeal organ cultures. In contrast, meningococcal lipopolysaccharide at 10 micrograms/ml markedly damaged ciliary activity of human fallopian tube organ cultures, suggesting a selective toxicity of lipopolysaccharide for specific human ciliated cells. Damage to nasopharyngeal ciliated epithelium by N. meningitidis may be an important first step in meningococcal colonization of the human nasopharynx, but meningococcal lipopolysaccharide does not appear to be directly responsible for this toxicity. Images PMID:2867973

  8. Seasonal and vertical distribution of the ciliated protozoa and micrometazoa in Kaštela Bay (central Adriatic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanić, N.; Šolić, M.; Krstulović, N.; Marasović, I.; Ninčević, Ž.; Vidjak, O.

    2001-07-01

    Seasonal and vertical distribution of tintinnids, non-loricate ciliates and micrometazoa were studied in Kaštela Bay (central Adriatic Sea) throughout 1995. The species composition of tintinnids and copepods were studied as well. This is the first estimation of non-loricate ciliate biomass in the coastal area of the central Adriatic. Non-loricate ciliates were quantitatively the best represented ciliated protozoa, whereas nauplii were the most numerous micrometazoan organisms. Temperature affected the distribution of most micrometazoan components of the zooplankton and that of non-loricate ciliates. The temperature-dependent presence of individual size categories of non-loricate ciliates was also established. Apart from the interaction between microzooplankton groups, the influence of biotic factors, such as phytoplankton, bacteria, non-pigmented nanoflagellates (NNF) and mesozooplankton, was also discussed. The abundance of ciliates was controlled by both food supply (phytoplankton and NNF) and micrometazoan grazing. The results point to very complex trophic relationships within the planktonic community, suggesting that microzooplankton could be an important link between the microbial food web and higher trophic levels.

  9. DNA Analysis of Algal Endosymbionts of Ciliates Reveals the State of Algal Integration and the Surprising Specificity of the Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Hoshina, Ryo; Kusuoka, Yasushi

    2016-04-01

    Many freshwater protists harbor unicellular green algae within their cells, but little is known of their degree of integration and specificity. Using algae-targeted PCR of whole ciliate cells collected at irregular intervals over 15 months from Lake Biwa, Japan, we explored the SSU-ITS rDNA of the endosymbiotic algae and its changes over time, obtaining sequences of algal rDNA fragments from four ciliate species. A high proportion of clonal algae was evident within the ciliate cells. The differences observed in those sequences from the SSU through to the ITS region were less than 1%. The name 'Chlorb' is proposed for these algae, with the implication that they represent a single 'species.' The sequences of the algal DNA fragments were identical for any given host species throughout the collection period, thus we conclude that these four ciliates stably retain their algae over long term. In contrast, algal DNA fragments obtained from Didinium sp. were variable within each sample, which indicates that this ciliate only temporarily holds its algal cells. The ITS1 sequences of Chlorb populations are close (at intraspecific level) to those of algae isolated from ciliates in Austria, which raises the possibility that Chlorb algae are universally shared as symbionts among various ciliates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Bottom-up versus top-down effects on ciliate community composition in four eutrophic lakes (China).

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chen, Feizhou; Liu, Zhengwen; Zhao, Xiuxia; Yang, Kun; Lu, Wenxuan; Cui, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that ciliate plankton is generally controlled by food resources (e.g., algae) and predators (e.g., metazooplankton). Among lakes with similar trophic levels but different distributions of phyto- and metazooplankton, the main forces acting on ciliate assemblages may be different. We investigated the relationship between ciliate communities and bottom-up versus top-down variables based on a survey of four subtropical eutrophic lakes (China). Two of the lakes (Chaohu, Taihu) are located on the Mid-lower Yangtze Plain near sea level, and the other two (Dianchi, Xingyunhu) on the Yunnan-Kweichow Plateau at 1700 m above sea level. Blooms of cyanobacteria developed during summer in Lakes Chaohu and Taihu and throughout the year in Lakes Dianchi and Xingyunhu. Ciliate functional feeding groups differed significantly between lakes. The results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and variation partitioning showed that cyanobacteria significantly influence ciliate species, whereas 'edible' algae (cryptophytes, diatoms) and cladocerans were the important variables in explaining the ciliate community structure of Lakes Dianchi and Xingyunhu compared with Lakes Taihu and Chaohu. Our results highlight the importance of consistent cyanobacterial blooms in shaping the ciliate community in subtropical eutrophic shallow lakes by interacting with top-down and bottom-up factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploitation or cooperation? Evolution of a host (ciliate)-benefiting alga in a long-term experimental microcosm culture.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki; Matsubara, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Yuko; Miyake, Daisuke

    2013-09-01

    Controversy persists as to whether the acquisition of beneficial metabolic functions via endosymbiosis can occur suddenly on an evolutionary time scale. In this study, an early stage of endosymbiotic associations, which evolved from previously unassociated auto (photo)- and heterotrophic unicellular organisms was analyzed using an experimental ecosystem model, called CET microcosm. This ecosystem model was composed of a green alga (Micractinium sp.; formerly described as Chlorella vulgaris), a bacterium (Escherichia coli), and a ciliate (Tetrahymena thermophila). Our previous study using a CET microcosm that was cultured 3-5 years revealed that fitness of the ciliate increased by harboring algal cells within its own cells. This fact suggested three possibilities: (i) the ciliate evolved the ability to exploit intracellular algal cells ("exploiter ciliate hypothesis"), (ii) the alga evolved the ability to benefit the host ciliate by providing photosynthates ("cooperator alga hypothesis"), and (iii) a combination of (i) and (ii). To test these hypotheses, two-by-two co-cultures were conducted between the ancestral or derived ciliate and the ancestral or derived alga. The experimental results demonstrated that a cooperative alga evolved in the microcosm, although the possibility remains that an exploitative genotype of the ciliate might also exist in the population as a polymorphism. Remarkably, an algal isolate prolonged the longevity of not only the isolated ciliate, but also the ancestral ciliate. This result suggests that once a cooperative algal genotype evolves in a local population, it can then be transmitted to other individuals of the prospective host species and spread rapidly beyond the local range due to its positive effect on the host fitness. Such transmission suggests the possibility of a sudden acquisition of beneficial autotrophic function by the pre-associated host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Summertime Ciliate and Copepod Nauplii Distributions and Micro-zooplankton Herbivorous Activity in the Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, R.

    2000-07-01

    The abundance and biomass of ciliated protozoa and copepod nauplii were investigated at 21 grid stations and two anchored stations in the Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China in June 1998. Dilution incubations were carried out to investigate micro-zooplankton grazing pressure at the anchored stations during spring tide and neap tide. The dominant species were Tintinnopsis amoyensis , T. chinglanensis, T. pallida and aloricate ciliates. A total of 13 species of tintinnids were found. The total abundance of ciliates and nauplii ranged from 30 to 2390 ind l -1at grid stations. Tintinnopsis amoyensis was the only ciliate found at the anchored stations and in concentrations which varied from 0 to 6700 ind l -1. The spatial distribution of ciliates was patchy. Tintinnopsis amoyensis and T. pallida were distributed in the Weihe River mouth and Xiaoqinghe River mouth respectively. The aloricate ciliates, T. chinglanensis and Codonellopsis ostenfeldi dominated offshore in sequence. The water mixing process may affect the spatial pattern of the dominant ciliate species. The abundance and biomass of copepod nauplii were in the range of 0-140 ind l -1and 0-7 μg C 1 -1respectively, with the peak appearing at grid station 15. The total biomass of ciliates and copepod nauplii was in the range of 1·5-25 μg C 1 -1. Water column biomass of ciliates and nauplii varied from 2·37 to 52·3 mg C m -2. At the anchored stations, the phytoplankton growth rates ranged from undetectable to 0·21 d -1and micro-zooplankton grazing rates from 0·13 to 0·57 d -1. The grazing pressure of micro-zooplankton were 12 to 43% of the chlorophyll standing stock and 84 to 267% of the chlorophyll production per day.

  13. The D1-D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA as barcode for ciliates.

    PubMed

    Stoeck, T; Przybos, E; Dunthorn, M

    2014-05-01

    Ciliates are a major evolutionary lineage within the alveolates, which are distributed in nearly all habitats on our planet and are an essential component for ecosystem function, processes and stability. Accurate identification of these unicellular eukaryotes through, for example, microscopy or mating type reactions is reserved to few specialists. To satisfy the demand for a DNA barcode for ciliates, which meets the standard criteria for DNA barcodes defined by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL), we here evaluated the D1-D2 region of the ribosomal DNA large subunit (LSU-rDNA). Primer universality for the phylum Ciliophora was tested in silico with available database sequences as well as in the laboratory with 73 ciliate species, which represented nine of 12 ciliate classes. Primers tested in this study were successful for all tested classes. To test the ability of the D1-D2 region to resolve conspecific and congeneric sequence divergence, 63 Paramecium strains were sampled from 24 mating species. The average conspecific D1-D2 variation was 0.18%, whereas congeneric sequence divergence averaged 4.83%. In pairwise genetic distance analyses, we identified a D1-D2 sequence divergence of <0.6% as an ideal threshold to discriminate Paramecium species. Using this definition, only 3.8% of all conspecific and 3.9% of all congeneric sequence comparisons had the potential of false assignments. Neighbour-joining analyses inferred monophyly for all taxa but for two Paramecium octaurelia strains. Here, we present a protocol for easy DNA amplification of single cells and voucher deposition. In conclusion, the presented data pinpoint the D1-D2 region as an excellent candidate for an official CBOL barcode for ciliated protists.

  14. Effects of histamine on ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells from guinea pigs nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    An, Fengwei; Xing, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lei

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) through combining high-speed digital microscopy and patch-clamp technology. Ciliated cells were obtained from septum and turbinate of 90-120-day-old healthy male guinea pigs. Tight seal was formed by applying negative pressure on the glass electrode after the drawing and pushing progress. Then, we enrolled high-speed digital microscopy to measure CBF before and after treatment with histamine of different concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol/L in Hank's solution and D-Hank's solution as well as after administrating adenosine triphosphate. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical comparisons. Glass electrode fix up ciliated cell is available at tip diameter of 2-5 μm and negative pressure of 10-20 cmH2O column. The baseline CBF in Hank's solution was higher than in D-Hank's solution. Treatment with 10(-6)-l0(-3) mol/L histamine of concentrations can stimulate a rise of CBF. Nevertheless, CBF in all groups decreased to baseline CBF within 20 min. Generally, 10(-2) mol/L histamine can stimulate a rise of CBF; meanwhile, the high concentration of histamine killed 50% ciliated cell. Histamine at 10(-1) mol/L killed all ciliated cells. Ciliary beating activity decreased in Ca(2+)-free solution. Moreover, adenosine triphosphate could increase CBF effectively after the stimulation effect of histamine. We construct an effective technology integrating patch-clamp technique with CBF measurements on ciliated cells. Extracellular histamine stimulation could increase CBF effectively.

  15. De Novo Transcriptomes of a Mixotrophic and a Heterotrophic Ciliate from Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Santoferrara, Luciana F.; Guida, Stephanie; Zhang, Huan; McManus, George B.

    2014-01-01

    Studying non-model organisms is crucial in the context of the current development of genomics and transcriptomics for both physiological experimentation and environmental characterization. We investigated the transcriptomes of two marine planktonic ciliates, the mixotrophic oligotrich Strombidium rassoulzadegani and the heterotrophic choreotrich Strombidinopsis sp., and their respective algal food using Illumina RNAseq. Our aim was to characterize the transcriptomes of these contrasting ciliates and to identify genes potentially involved in mixotrophy. We detected approximately 10,000 and 7,600 amino acid sequences for S. rassoulzadegani and Strombidinopsis sp., respectively. About half of these transcripts had significant BLASTP hits (E-value <10−6) against previously-characterized sequences, mostly from the model ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. Transcriptomes from both the mixotroph and the heterotroph species provided similar annotations for GO terms and KEGG pathways. Most of the identified genes were related to housekeeping activity and pathways such as the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and vitamins. Although S. rassoulzadegani can keep and use chloroplasts from its prey, we did not find genes clearly linked to chloroplast maintenance and functioning in the transcriptome of this ciliate. While chloroplasts are known sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we found the same complement of antioxidant pathways in both ciliates, except for one enzyme possibly linked to ascorbic acid recycling found exclusively in the mixotroph. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find qualitative differences in genes potentially related to mixotrophy. However, these transcriptomes will help to establish a basis for the evaluation of differential gene expression in oligotrichs and choreotrichs and experimental investigation of the costs and benefits of mixotrophy. PMID:24983246

  16. Bose-Einstein condensates form in heuristics learned by ciliates deciding to signal 'social' commitments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-03-01

    Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate

  17. Cutaneous ciliated cyst: a case report with focus on mullerian heterotopia and comparison with eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Bivin, William W; Heath, Jonathon E; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Strauch, Eric D; Papadimitriou, John C

    2010-10-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst is an exceedingly rare, benign lesion most commonly found in the dermis or subcutis of the lower extremities of young female patients in their second and third decades. The pathogenesis of the cyst is unknown. We report a cutaneous ciliated cyst in the lower extremity of a 13-year-old female patient. On histologic examination, clusters of eccrine sweat glands were observed adjacent to the cyst. Upon comparison of the immunohistochemical profile of the cutaneous ciliated cyst and the eccrine sweat glands, they appeared almost completely unrelated. The histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings of this case and the literature provide evidence in favor of the Mullerian heterotopia theory.

  18. Unusually abundant and large ciliate xenomas in oysters, Crassostrea virginica, from Great Bay, New Hampshire, USA.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Emily Scarpa; Ford, Susan; Bushek, David

    2016-06-01

    During routine histological examination of oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Great Bay, New Hampshire, USA, a high prevalence and intensity of ciliate xenomas has been noted since sampling began in 1997. Xenomas are hypertrophic lesions on the gills of bivalve molluscs caused by intracellular ciliates, likely Sphenophrya sp. Although not known to cause mortality in oysters, xenomas have not previously been reported at this high abundance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the xenomas, describe the ciliates, and gather baseline epizootiological data with correlations to environmental and biological parameters. Upon gross examination, xenomas appeared as white nodules, up to 3mm in diameter, located in the gill tissue and occasionally fusing into large masses along the gill filaments. Light microscopy of histological sections revealed xenomas located in the gill water tubes, which they often completely blocked. Higher magnification revealed dual nuclei, eight kineties, and conjugation of the ciliates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dual nuclei that varied in density, a maximum of twenty cilia in each kinety radiating from the oral apparatus to the posterior, and a 9+2 axoneme structure within the cilia. These traits place the ciliates into the Order Rhynchodida, but insufficient molecular data exist to confirm classification of this ciliate to the Genus Sphenophrya. Since 1997, xenoma prevalence has fluctuated with peaks in 2000, 2004, and 2011. Infected oysters generally contained <30 xenomas, but 2.1% contained >100, sharply contrasting the rare prevalence and low intensity reported elsewhere. Prevalence increased with oyster size, leveling off near 50% in oysters >60mm. Infection intensity peaked in 70-90mm oysters and declined in larger oysters. Individual oyster condition was not associated with xenoma intensity, but sites with oysters in higher condition generally had a greater prevalence and intensity of xenoma infections

  19. Rumen ciliates in Brazilian sheep (Ovis aries), with new records and redescription of Entodinium contractum (Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae).

    PubMed

    Cedrola, Franciane; Martinele, Isabel; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; Fregulia, Priscila; D'agosto, Marta

    2016-03-08

    The species composition, prevalence, and average relative abundance of rumen ciliates were analyzed in 16 Brazilian sheep. 28 species of ciliates were identified belonging to 3 families: Isotrichidae, Ophryoscolecidae, and Parentodiniidae. Among these ciliates, Entodinium alces, Metadinium esalqum, and M. rotundatum were found for the first time in sheep, and other 12 species for the first time in Brazilian sheep. Different morphotypes of parentodiniid ciliates were identified in 7 of the 16 sheep analyzed and this is the second report of this family in ruminants. The species Entodinium contractum was redescribed based on the new data on the general morphological features; for the first time, we described the oral infraciliature, which in this species is of the Entodinium-type. In this species, it is noteworthy that the prominent vestibular polybrachykinety can be used as an important identifying characteristic.

  20. Description of Diploplastron dehorityi sp. nov. (Entodiniomorphida, Ophryoscolecidae), a new rumen ciliate from Brazilian sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Cedrola, Franciane; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta

    2017-05-03

    To date the genus Diploplastron comprised only one species of ophryoscolecid ciliate, Diploplastron affine, which is characterized by having two retractable ciliary zones in the anterior end of the body, two slender and juxtaposed skeletal plates on the right side, a rod shape macronucleus, and two contractile vacuoles. During study on the characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in Brazilian domestic sheep, we observed ciliates with atypical morphology but with diagnostic features of genus Diploplastron. This study describes Diploplastron dehorityi, a new species of ophryoscolecid ciliate, that differs from D. affine, primarily, in the morphology of skeletal plates, morphology of nuclear apparatus and body shape. In addition to the similarities between the new species and congener species, D. dehorityi has some morphological similarities to species of genus Eremoplastron.

  1. Intestinal ciliate fauna of the Asian elephant from Gaziantep, Turkey and the description of Brevitentaculum antebum n. g., n. sp.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this investigation were to identify and quantify ciliates inhabiting the large intestine of Asian elephants living in Gaziantep Zoo, Turkey, and to describe a new suctorian genus and species. Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates voided in the feces of two Asian elephants were examined. Fifteen species of intestinal ciliates, representing 7 genera, were identified. One new suctorian genus and species, Brevitentaculum antebum n. g., n. sp., was described. This new species has two short truncated terminal projections, with two longitudinally lined bands located between the two projections, near the convex surface of the cell. Short clavate-like tentacles are in two fascicles near each base of terminal projections on the flattened surface of the body. Ciliate densities in the two fecal samples were 4.5×10(4)mL(-1) and 10×10(4)mL(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of a Ciliate (Oligohymenophorea: Scuticociliatia) Associated with Brown Band Disease on Corals of the Great Barrier Reef▿

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, David G.; Boyett, Holly V.; Henderson, Meegan E.; Muirhead, Andrew; Willis, Bette L.

    2008-01-01

    A ciliate associated with the coral disease brown band (BrB) was identified as a new species belonging to the class Oligohymenophorea, subclass Scuticociliatia. The ciliates were characterized by the presence of large numbers of intracellular dinoflagellates and displayed an elongated, tube-shaped body structure. They had uniform ciliature, except for three distinct cilia in the caudal region, and were typically 200 to 400 μm in length and 20 to 50 μm in width. PMID:18083868

  3. Beyond the "Code": A Guide to the Description and Documentation of Biodiversity in Ciliated Protists (Alveolata, Ciliophora).

    PubMed

    Warren, Alan; Patterson, David J; Dunthorn, Micah; Clamp, John C; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Aescht, Erna; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Carr, Martin; Day, John G; Dellinger, Marc; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Fan, Yangbo; Gao, Feng; Gao, Shan; Gong, Jun; Gupta, Renu; Hu, Xiaozhong; Kamra, Komal; Langlois, Gaytha; Lin, Xiaofeng; Lipscomb, Diana; Lobban, Christopher S; Luporini, Pierangelo; Lynn, Denis H; Ma, Honggang; Macek, Miroslav; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline; Makhija, Seema; Mansergh, Robert I; Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; McMiller, Nettie; Montagnes, David J S; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Ong'ondo, Geoffrey Odhiambo; Pérez-Uz, Blanca; Purushothaman, Jasmine; Quintela-Alonso, Pablo; Rotterová, Johana; Santoferrara, Luciana; Shao, Chen; Shen, Zhuo; Shi, Xinlu; Song, Weibo; Stoeck, Thorsten; La Terza, Antonietta; Vallesi, Adriana; Wang, Mei; Weisse, Thomas; Wiackowski, Krzysztof; Wu, Lei; Xu, Kuidong; Yi, Zhenzhen; Zufall, Rebecca; Agatha, Sabine

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have revolutionized research on all aspects of the biology of organisms, including ciliates, and created unprecedented opportunities for pursuing a more integrative approach to investigations of biodiversity. However, this goal is complicated by large gaps and inconsistencies that still exist in the foundation of basic information about biodiversity of ciliates. The present paper reviews issues relating to the taxonomy of ciliates and presents specific recommendations for best practice in the observation and documentation of their biodiversity. This effort stems from a workshop that explored ways to implement six Grand Challenges proposed by the International Research Coordination Network for Biodiversity of Ciliates (IRCN-BC). As part of its commitment to strengthening the knowledge base that supports research on biodiversity of ciliates, the IRCN-BC proposes to populate The Ciliate Guide, an online database, with biodiversity-related data and metadata to create a resource that will facilitate accurate taxonomic identifications and promote sharing of data. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  4. Bioaccumulation of ultraviolet sunscreen compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids) by the heterotrophic freshwater ciliate Bursaridium living in alpine lakes

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Bettina; Kammerlander, Barbara; Summerer, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ciliates in shallow alpine lakes are exposed to high levels of incident solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We observed the presence of specific sunscreen compounds, the mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), in several populations of Bursaridium, a relatively large ciliate species found in such lakes. The populations from 3 highly UV transparent lakes revealed the presence of 7 MAAs (MG, SH, PR, PI, AS, US, and PE) in total concentrations of 3.6–52.4 10−5 μg μg−1 dry weight (DW) per individual, whereas in one glacially turbid and less UV transparent lake, no MAAs were detected in the Bursaridium population. The MAAs in the ciliates generally reflected the composition and relative amounts of the lakes’ seston MAAs, assuming that the ciliates fed on MAA-rich plankton. We experimentally found that naturally acquired MAAs prevented ciliate mortality under simulated UVR and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) conditions. We further tested the dietary regulation of the MAAs-content in the ciliates under artificial UVR and PAR exposure and found an increase in MAAs concentrations in all treatments. Our assumption was that several stress factors other than irradiation were involved in the synthesis or up-regulation of MAAs. PMID:28690781

  5. Dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin morbilliviral epizootic.

    PubMed

    Schulman, F Y; Lipscomb, T P

    1999-03-01

    Dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. The lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. In one dolphin, there was an associated lymphadenitis with ciliates, and in another, bronchopneumonia with rare intrabronchiolar ciliates. Ten of the dolphins were female, and eight were male. The animals ranged in length from 148 to 260 cm. Eleven were from Virginia, four were from New Jersey, and three were from Florida. In 13 dolphins, results of immunohistochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for morbillivirus infection. Results of immunohistochemical tests were negative in four dolphins that were not also tested with PCR. Results were also negative in one dolphin tested using both methods. Nine dolphins had concomitant bacterial, fungal, and/or other protozoal infections. Fourteen other dolphins with ciliate-associated dermatitis were identified from 414 Atlantic bottlenose dolphin cases (3%) archived at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The incidence of dermatitis with invasive ciliates is much greater in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 epizootic.

  6. The bacterivory of interstitial ciliates in association with bacterial biomass and production in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream.

    PubMed

    Königs, Sascha; Cleven, Ernst-Josef

    2007-07-01

    Rates of bacteria ingestion by interstitial ciliates were estimated and compared to bacterial biomass and production. Investigation was carried out in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream. FISH was applied to quantitatively determine bacteria within the ciliate's food vacuoles. To estimate bacteria ingestion rates using FISH, we had to strike a new path. When numbers of bacteria in the food vacuoles remains constant with time (bacterial digestion and ingestion are at equilibrium), ingestion rate can be estimated based on the digestion time and the average number of bacteria per cell. Ciliate community was predominantly composed of bacterivorous ciliates. FISH-signals deriving from ingested bacteria were detected in Cinetochilum margaritaceum, 'other small scuticociliates', Pleuronema spp., and Vorticella spp. Ingestion rates for these taxa were 78, 150, 86, and 38 bacteria ind(-1) h(-1), respectively. The grazing impacts on bacterial biomass and carbon production were calculated based on these ingestion rates. Ciliate grazing caused a decrease in bacterial biomass of 0.024% day(-1) and in bacterial carbon production of 1.60%. These findings suggest that interstitial ciliate grazing impact on bacteria biomass and production was too low to represent an important link in the carbon flow of the hyporheic zone under study.

  7. Molecular evidence that phylogenetically diverged ciliates are active in microbial mats of deep-sea cold-seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Kakizoe, Natsuki; Yoshida, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Cold seeps are areas of the seafloor where hydrogen sulfide- and methane-rich fluid seepage occurs, often sustaining chemosynthetic ecosystems. It is well known that both archaea and bacteria oxidize sulfides and methane to produce chemical energy and that several endemic animals use this energy to thrive in cold seeps. On the other hand, there is little knowledge regarding diversity and ecology of microbial eukaryotes in this ecosystem. In this study we isolated environmental RNA and DNA from microbial mats of cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan, and retrieved eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences with polymerase chain reaction methods followed by clone library construction. Most RNA-derived clones obtained were from ciliates, although DNA-derived clones were mainly from the fungus Cryptococcus curvatus, suggesting that ciliates are active in the environment. The ciliate sequences were phylogenetically diverse, and represented eight known class lineages as well as undesignated lineages. Because most ciliates are bacterivorous, it is highly likely that the ciliates for which sequences were recovered play a role in the food web of this ecosystem as grazers of microbial mats. In addition, given that the environment studied is under highly reduced (anoxic) conditions, based on the prokaryotic community structure deduced from T-RFLP profiles, the ciliates detected may be obligatory or facultative anaerobes.

  8. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Guénola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

    2006-01-01

    Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches. PMID:16472398

  9. Ciliate diversity, community structure, and novel taxa in lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Vick-Majors, Trista; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael; Priscu, John C; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2014-10-01

    We report an in-depth survey of next-generation DNA sequencing of ciliate diversity and community structure in two permanently ice-covered McMurdo Dry Valley lakes during the austral summer and autumn (November 2007 and March 2008). We tested hypotheses on the relationship between species richness and environmental conditions including environmental extremes, nutrient status, and day length. On the basis of the unique environment that exists in these high-latitude lakes, we expected that novel taxa would be present. Alpha diversity analyses showed that extreme conditions-that is, high salinity, low oxygen, and extreme changes in day length-did not impact ciliate richness; however, ciliate richness was 30% higher in samples with higher dissolved organic matter. Beta diversity analyses revealed that ciliate communities clustered by dissolved oxygen, depth, and salinity, but not by season (i.e., day length). The permutational analysis of variance test indicated that depth, dissolved oxygen, and salinity had significant influences on the ciliate community for the abundance matrices of resampled data, while lake and season were not significant. This result suggests that the vertical trends in dissolved oxygen concentration and salinity may play a critical role in structuring ciliate communities. A PCR-based strategy capitalizing on divergent eukaryotic V9 hypervariable region ribosomal RNA gene targets unveiled two new genera in these lakes. A novel taxon belonging to an unknown class most closely related to Cryptocaryon irritans was also inferred from separate gene phylogenies.

  10. Ciliate and bacterial communities associated with White Syndrome and Brown Band Disease in reef-building corals

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Michael; Bythell, John

    2012-01-01

    White Syndrome (WS) and Brown Band Disease (BrB) are important causes of reef coral mortality for which causal agents have not been definitively identified. Here we use culture-independent molecular techniques (DGGE and clone libraries) to characterize ciliate and bacterial communities in these diseases. Bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and ciliate (18S rRNA gene) communities were highly similar between the two diseases. Four bacterial and nine ciliate ribotypes were observed in both diseases, but absent in non-diseased specimens. Only one of the bacteria, Arcobacter sp. (JF831360) increased substantially in relative 16S rRNA gene abundance and was consistently represented in all diseased samples. Four of the eleven ciliate morphotypes detected contained coral algal symbionts, indicative of the ingestion of coral tissues. In both WS and BrB, there were two ciliate morphotypes consistently represented in all disease lesion samples. Morph1 (JN626268) was observed to burrow into and underneath the coral tissues at the lesion boundary. Morph2 (JN626269), previously identified in BrB, appears to play a secondary, less invasive role in pathogenesis, but has a higher population density in BrB, giving rise to the visible brown band. The strong similarity in bacterial and ciliate community composition of these diseases suggests that they are actually the same syndrome. PMID:22507379

  11. Ciliates and their picophytoplankton-feeding activity in a high-altitude warm-monomictic saline lake.

    PubMed

    Pestová, Dana; Macek, Miroslav; Elena Martínez Pérez, María

    2008-02-01

    The impact of feeding on autotrophic picoplankton (APP) on the ciliate composition of the assemblage was surveyed monthly along a depth gradient in the maar crater, athalassohaline, warm monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico) from June 2003 to December 2005. Numbers of APP were evaluated from their autofluorescence. DAPI staining and the Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria technique were employed to count ciliates and estimate their feeding rates. A total of 38 taxa of ciliates have been identified using Quantitative Protargol Staining. Peritrichs followed by minute spirotrichs (particularly Halteria grandinella) often numerically dominated the ciliate assemblage and emerged as the most efficient APP feeders. A maximum of 54 ciliate cells ml(-1) was observed in the surface layer at the end of the mixing period, during the development of diatoms (Cyclotella alchichicana), the cyanobacterial bloom (Nodularia sp.) and its decay. Vorticellids (Pelagovorticella natans, Vorticella sp.) had the highest APP uptake (median 130 APP cil(-1) h(-1)). Mixotrophic Euplotes cf. daidaleos were important APP grazers near the oxycline. Scuticociliates (Cyclidium glaucoma, Uronema nigricans and an anaerobic cf. Isocyclidium globossum), were numerically dominant within the hypolimnetic assemblages and did not ingest APP. Generally, APP were not an important food source for the majority of the ciliate assemblage, being positively selected by a few species during the APP decay in aerobic and microaerobic conditions.

  12. Ultrastructural modification of the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda following chronic exposure to partially degraded crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rogerson, A.; Berger, J.

    1982-06-01

    Protozoa are important consumers of the microflora that biodegrade oil spills. In the study presented, the ultrastructural effects induced by chronic oil stress in the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda are discussed. Colpidia were grown in control cultures containing a dilute organic medium and a dense suspension of prey bacteria. After 20 days' oil exposure, C. colpoda contained more stained cytoplasmic inclusions than ciliates grown in the control media. Although the extent of Sudan Black staining in the oil-stressed cells indicates the presence of lipids, these droplets are better termed lipid-hydrocarbon (LH) inclusions until their definitive composition is known. C. colpoda accumulated significant quantities of lipid-hydrocarbons accounting for up to 20% of their cellular volume. Studies are currently being conducted to characterized these inclusions and to evaluate the effects of feeding these ''oil-labeled'' prey to predators, an important issue with the increasing concern about the biomagnification of environmental pollutants. (JMT)

  13. Necessity Is the Mother of Invention: Ciliates, Transposons, and Transgenerational Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sarah E; Nowacki, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    Ciliates are a fascinating model system for the study of the interaction between eukaryotic germlines and somatic lines, especially with regard to the invasion and defence against transposable elements. They separate their germline and somatic line into two nuclei within the same cell, and they silence transposons and repetitive elements by way of deleting them from their somatic genome. This large-scale deletion event uses a series of intricate sequence targeting pathways involving small RNAs and transposases, part of which consists of a transnuclear comparison between maternal soma and daughter germline. We present recent progress in this dynamic field, and argue that these DNA targeting pathways provide an optimal system for the transgenerational inheritance of acquired traits. Ciliates thus also demonstrate the evolutionary value of transposable elements, both as sources of sequence diversity and also as drivers of adaptive evolution by necessitating defensive systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems.

  15. Identification and cloning of first cadmium metallothionein like gene from locally isolated ciliate, Paramecium sp.

    PubMed

    Shuja, Rukhsana Nighat; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2009-03-01

    First cadmium metallothionein like gene PMCd1 of a ciliate, Paramecium sp., isolated from industrial wastewater has been cloned and sequenced. PMCd1 is an intronless gene, encoding 612 nucleotides, with TAA coding for glutamine. The coding region of PMCd1 comprises 203 amino acids, including 37 cysteine residues with a conserved structural pattern in the form of recurring structural motifs, arranged in 17 x-cys-x-y-cys-x, 1 x-cys-cys-x and x-cys-x contexts. Both, the deduced amino acids and nucleotide sequence differ, not only from other animal metallothioneins (MTs), but also from the previously characterized Tetrahymena Cu and Cd-MTs. The translated protein of PMCd1 contains conserved cysteine residues, peculiar characteristic of stress inducible metallothionein genes of ciliates and other groups of organisms.

  16. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L.; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:26680591

  17. Ciliated sensory cells and associated neurons in the lip of Octopus joubini Robson.

    PubMed

    Emery, D G

    1975-01-01

    The lip of Octopus joubini is a fleshy fold around the beak that is subdivided distally into finger-like papillae and overlayed by an uninterrupted noncellular cuticle. The muscular core of the lip has a high proportion of nervous tissue. The simple epithelium contains numerous ciliated sensory cells, especially in the papillae. In many of these cells the cilia lie deep within the cytoplasm and usually appear to extend toward the surface. Receptors with intracellular cilia also lie below the epithelium and send dendrites bearing cilia to the surface. Large unipolar interneurons that may receive synapses from the ciliated receptors lie in the musculature near the papillae. The sensory system of the octopus lip is more advanced than that of the squid, and it is very similar to that of Sepia. The relationship of these findings to the phylogeny and ecology of cephalopods is discussed.

  18. The interface between air and water: a perturbation source eliciting adaptive behaviour in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Ricci, N; Erra, F; Russo, A; Banchetti, R

    1992-01-01

    Interference with the water-air interface, both direct (by contact with a flat, rigid surface) and indirect (by inducing a meniscus) caused the ciliated protozoa we investigated to actively collect in the water column or on the substrate directly under the area of altered surface tension. A crowding effect is observed in this "rest area" reaching plateau values within one hour after onset of the experiment. The simple experimental procedures described here induced analogous behaviour in both Paramecium caudatum (a swimmer) and Oxytricha bifaria (a crawler). The ciliates seem in this reaction to be seeking a refuge from vibrations transmitted by the free interface. Our discovery is discussed in its implications for the adaptive biology and ecology of these micro-organisms.

  19. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain <65% of the total variance. With the increase of the sampling frequency, the biotic data showed stronger correlations with seasonal variables (e.g., temperature, salinity) in combination with nutrients. It is suggested that the 8-sampling events per year may be an optimal sampling strategy for ciliated protozoan seasonal research in marine ecosystems.

  20. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by “rivals” and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell–cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via “power” or “refrigeration” cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and non-modal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  1. Visualization of ex vivo human ciliated epithelium and induced flow using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yuye; Gamm, Uta A.; Yao, Xinwen; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Emala, Charles W.; Choma, Michael A.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-04-01

    The ciliated epithelium is important to the human respiratory system because it clears mucus that contains harmful microorganisms and particulate matter. We report the ex vivo visualization of human trachea/bronchi ciliated epithelium and induced flow characterized by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A total number of 17 samples from 7 patients were imaged. Samples were obtained from Columbia University Department of Anesthesiology's tissue bank. After excision, the samples were placed in Gibco Medium 199 solution with oxygen at 4°C until imaging. The samples were maintained at 36.7°C throughout the experiment. The imaging protocol included obtaining 3D volumes and 200 consecutive B-scans parallel to the head-to-feet direction (superior-inferior axis) of the airway, using Thorlabs Telesto system at 1300 nm at 28 kHz A-line rate and a custom built high resolution SDOCT system at 800nm at 32 kHz A-line rate. After imaging, samples were processed with H and E histology. Speckle variance of the time resolved datasets demonstrate significant contrast at the ciliated epithelium sites. Flow images were also obtained after injecting 10μm polyester beads into the solution, which shows beads traveling trajectories near the ciliated epithelium areas. In contrary, flow images taken in the orthogonal plane show no beads traveling trajectories. This observation is in line with our expectation that cilia drive flow predominantly along the superior-inferior axis. We also observed the protective function of the mucus, shielding the epithelium from the invasion of foreign objects such as microspheres. Further studies will be focused on the cilia's physiological response to environmental changes such as drug administration and physical injury.

  2. Rapid Quantification of Planktonic Ciliates: Comparison of Improved Live Counting with Other Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sime-Ngando, Telesphore; Hartmann, Hans Julian; Groliere, Claude Alain

    1990-01-01

    The following efficient and quantitatively valid method to filter concentrate and count live planktonic ciliates was developed and compared with other treatments: unconcentrated (raw) samples and centrifuged samples were counted live, and the effects of five different fixatives (HgCl2, Lugol's iodine, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, and Champy-DaFano) on the counts were monitored. Samples originated from a eutrophic mountain lake (Lake Aydat, near Clermont-Ferrand, France). Overall, live filtered counts were similar to counts of raw samples, but they were significantly higher (2 to 2.3 fold, P < 0.05) by analysis of variance than counts from centrifuged samples. Nevertheless, some taxa, i.e., Halteria and Loxodes spp., were sensitive to filtration. The live filtered counts were also comparable to counts of raw HgCl2-fixed and settled samples. HgCl2 and Lugol fixation consistently gave the highest total counts, while significantly lower counts were always obtained with Champy-DaFano-fixed samples. Losses due to fixation were insignificant for raw samples but were substantial and statistically significant in concentrated samples (15% after filtration and 71% after centrifugation, compared with counts from the corresponding live samples). Live counting of passively filter-concentrated ciliates has many advantages over other methods. It is two to four times quicker and more efficient. Ciliates are recognized with certainty, more species are identified, and enumeration of dead organisms (e.g., tintinnid loricas) is avoided. It should be recommended as a quantitatively valid alternative to classical methods for assessing planktonic ciliate populations. PMID:16348242

  3. A broad molecular phylogeny of ciliates: identification of major evolutionary trends and radiations within the phylum.

    PubMed Central

    Baroin-Tourancheau, A; Delgado, P; Perasso, R; Adoutte, A

    1992-01-01

    The cellular architecture of ciliates is one of the most complex known within eukaryotes. Detailed systematic schemes have thus been constructed through extensive comparative morphological and ultrastructural analysis of the ciliature and of its internal cytoskeletal derivatives (the infraciliature), as well as of the architecture of the oral apparatus. In recent years, a consensus was reached in which the phylum was divided in eight classes as defined by Lynn and Corliss [Lynn, D. H. & Corliss, J. O. (1991) in Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates: Protozoa (Wiley-Liss, New York), Vol. 1, pp. 333-467]. By comparing partial sequences of the large subunit rRNA molecule, and by using both distance-matrix and maximum-parsimony-tree construction methods (checked by boot-strapping), we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 22 species belonging to seven of these eight classes. At low taxonomic levels, the traditional grouping of the species is generally confirmed. At higher taxonomic levels, the branching pattern of these seven classes is resolved in several deeply separated major branches. Surprisingly, the first emerging one contains the heterotrichs and is strongly associated with a karyorelictid but deeply separated from hypotrichs. The litostomes, the oligohymenophorans, and the hypotrichs separate later in a bush-like topology hindering the resolution of their order of diversification. These results show a much more ancient origin of heterotrichs than was classically assumed, indicating that asymmetric, abundantly ciliated oral apparatuses do not correspond to "highly evolved" traits as previously thought. They also suggest the occurrence of a major radiative explosion in the evolutionary history of the ciliates, yielding five of the eight classes of the phylum. These classes appear to differ essentially according to the cytoskeletal architecture used to shape and sustain the cellular cortex (a process of essential adaptative and morphogenetic importance in

  4. Assessing mariculture water quality with the structural and functional characteristics of a ciliate community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiqiu; Xu, Henglong; Lin, Xiaofeng; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa play important roles in micro-ecosystems, especially in marine biotopes. However, few studies have been carried out on the periphytic, or aufwuch, forms in mariculture waters so far. In this study, we sampled periphytic ciliate communities in two closed mariculture ponds (ponds CP1 and CP2) and a natural seawater reservoir (pond RP) using a glass slide method to evaluate their colonizing processes and general ecological features, as well as their application as water quality indicators. We analyzed species compositions, structural parameters (species number, richness, diversity, evenness, abundance and d BP) and functional parameters ( G, S eq and T 90%). Pond RP was characterized by higher levels of structural parameters (except for abundance and d BP) and more equal proportion of the major taxonomic groups. The values of S eq were significantly higher in pond RP and similar in both pond CP1 and CP2. It was also demonstrated that environmental factors, including NO2-H, NO3-H, NH3-H, soluble reactive phosphate, temperature and pH, were the first principal factors affecting the communities. Among them, temperature and chemical factors were all significantly and negatively correlated with species number ( P<0.01), richness ( P<0.01), diversity ( P<0.01), and positive correlated with abundance ( P<0.01). Opposite correlations between pH and structural parameters were observed. This study showed that there were significant differences in species composition, structural parameters and functional parameters of the periphytic ciliate communities among the ponds, which were in agreement with the water quality. Results of this study confirmed the periphytic ciliate communities to be useful bioindicators of water quality in intensive mariculture waters.

  5. Epithelial ciliated beating cells essential for ex vivo ALI culture growth.

    PubMed

    Gras, Delphine; Petit, Aurélie; Charriot, Jérémy; Knabe, Lucie; Alagha, Khuder; Gamez, Anne Sophie; Garulli, Céline; Bourdin, Arnaud; Chanez, Pascal; Molinari, Nicolas; Vachier, Isabelle

    2017-05-03

    Bronchial epithelium plays a key role in orchestrating innate and adaptive immunity. The fate of ex vivo airway epithelial cultures growing at the air liquid interface (ALI) derived from human endobronchial biopsies or brushings is not easy to predict. Calibrating and differentiating these cells is a long and expensive process requiring rigorous expertise. Pinpointing factors associated with ALI culture success would help researchers gain further insight into epithelial progenitor behavior. A successful ALI culture was defined as one in which a pseudostratified epithelium has formed after 28 days in the presence of all differentiated epithelial cell types. A 4-year prospective bi-center study was conducted with adult subjects enrolled in different approved research protocols. 463 consecutive endobronchial biopsies were obtained from normal healthy volunteers, healthy smokers, asthmatic patients and smokers with COPD. All demographic variables, the different fiber optic centers and culture operators, numbers of endo-bronchial biopsies and the presence of ciliated cells were carefully recorded. Univariate and multivariate models were developed. A stepwise procedure was used to select the final logistic regression model. ALI culture success was independently associated with the presence of living ciliated cells within the initial biopsy (OR = 2.18 [1.50-3.16], p < 0.001). This finding highlights the properties of the cells derived from the epithelium dedifferentiation process. The preferential selection of samples with ciliated beating cells would probably save time and money. It is still unknown whether successful ALI culture is related to indicators of general cell viability or a purported stem cell state specifically associated with ciliated beating cells.

  6. Immunocytochemical localization of tubulin, actin, and myosin in axonemes of ciliated cells from quail oviduct.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, D; Gounon, P; Karsenti, E; Sauron, M E

    1982-05-01

    Tubulin, actin, and myosin have been localized in isolated demembranated ciliated cells from quail oviduct by immunocytochemistry in both light and electron microscopy by using purified antibodies. The peripheral doublets and the central tubules are stained by the antitubulin whereas the kinetosomes are poorly stained. Actin antibodies clearly stain the axonemes, but only on the proximal-half portion, whereas myosin antibodies stain a small area of the axonemes just above the ciliary neck region.

  7. Immunocytochemical localization of tubulin, actin, and myosin in axonemes of ciliated cells from quail oviduct.

    PubMed Central

    Sandoz, D; Gounon, P; Karsenti, E; Sauron, M E

    1982-01-01

    Tubulin, actin, and myosin have been localized in isolated demembranated ciliated cells from quail oviduct by immunocytochemistry in both light and electron microscopy by using purified antibodies. The peripheral doublets and the central tubules are stained by the antitubulin whereas the kinetosomes are poorly stained. Actin antibodies clearly stain the axonemes, but only on the proximal-half portion, whereas myosin antibodies stain a small area of the axonemes just above the ciliary neck region. Images PMID:7048302

  8. Survival of Legionella pneumophila in the cold-water ciliate Tetrahymena vorax

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Somerville, H.E.; Huryn, V.B.; Walker, C.; Winters, A.L. )

    1991-09-01

    The processing of phagosomes containing Legionella pneumophila and Escerichia coli were compared in Tetrahymena vorax, a hymenostome ciliated protozoan that prefers lower temperatures. L. pneumophila did not multiply in the ciliate when incubated at 20 to 22C, but vacuoles containing L. pneumophila were retained in the cells for a substantially longer time than vacuoles with E. coli. Electron micrographs showed no evidence of degradation of L. pneumophila cells through 12 h, while E. coli cells in the process of being digested were observed in vacuoles 75 min after the addition of the bacterium T. vorax ingested L. pneumophila normally, but by 10 to 15 min, the vacuolar membrane appeared denser than that surrounding nascent or newly formed phagosomes. In older vacuoles, electron-dense particles lined portions of the membrane. Acidification of the phagosomes indicated by the accumulation of neutral red was similar in T. vorax containing L. pneumophila or E. coli. This ciliate could provide a model for the analysis of virulence-associated intracellular events independent of the replication of L. pneumophila.

  9. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hegan, Peter S; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M; Mooseker, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost.

  10. Seasonal cycle of the ciliated protozoan and micrometazoan biomass in a Gulf of Maine estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelante, Noelia; Gilmartin, Malvern

    1987-11-01

    The annual cycle of microzooplankton and their potential prey were followed in an estuary typical of the drowned river valleys of the Gulf of Maine. Changes in dominant components and size-class structure indicated an annual cycle forming a predator-prey link to the spring phytoplankton bloom, increasing in size-class structure to a maximum in early summer, implying a prey-predator link to larval fish populations. During most of the year the non-tintinnid ciliates dominated in both abundance and biomass, with tintinnids and micrometazoans only being important during a three-month period in late summer. The non-tintinnid ciliate seasonal cycle was more closely coupled with the nanoplankton prey crop compared with other components, indicating similar biological characteristics. Increases in the biomass of the phytoplankton prey crop occurred towards the head of the estuary, evenly across the size spectrum. In contrast, concurrent increases in the microzooplankton were biased towards the larger size classes into the estuary. The distribution of the phototrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum suggests it may be a potentially important primary producer in the estuary.

  11. Kinesin-14 is Important for Chromosome Segregation During Mitosis and Meiosis in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Kushida, Yasuharu; Takaine, Masak; Nakano, Kentaro; Sugai, Toshiro; Vasudevan, Krishna Kumar; Guha, Mayukh; Jiang, Yu-Yang; Gaertig, Jacek; Numata, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Ciliates such as Tetrahymena thermophila have two distinct nuclei within one cell: the micronucleus that undergoes mitosis and meiosis and the macronucleus that undergoes amitosis, a type of nuclear division that does not involve a bipolar spindle, but still relies on intranuclear microtubules. Ciliates provide an opportunity for the discovery of factors that specifically contribute to chromosome segregation based on a bipolar spindle, by identification of factors that affect the micronuclear but not the macronuclear division. Kinesin-14 is a conserved minus-end directed microtubule motor that cross-links microtubules and contributes to the bipolar spindle sizing and organization. Here, we use homologous DNA recombination to knock out genes that encode kinesin-14 orthologues (KIN141, KIN142) in Tetrahymena. A loss of KIN141 led to severe defects in the chromosome segregation during both mitosis and meiosis but did not affect amitosis. A loss of KIN141 altered the shape of the meiotic spindle in a way consistent with the KIN141's contribution to the organization of the spindle poles. EGFP-tagged KIN141 preferentially accumulated at the spindle poles during the meiotic prophase and metaphase I. Thus, in ciliates, kinesin-14 is important for nuclear divisions that involve a bipolar spindle. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  12. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hegan, Peter S.; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M.; Mooseker, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost. PMID:26446290

  13. Antibody production using a ciliate generates unusual antibody glycoforms displaying enhanced cell-killing activity

    PubMed Central

    Calow, Jenny; Bockau, Ulrike; Struwe, Weston B.; Nowaczyk, Marc M.; Loser, Karin; Crispin, Max

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody glycosylation is a key parameter in the optimization of antibody therapeutics. Here, we describe the production of the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody rituximab in the unicellular ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. The resulting antibody demonstrated enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which we attribute to unusual N-linked glycosylation. Detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis revealed afucosylated, oligomannose-type glycans, which, as a whole, displayed isomeric structures that deviate from the typical human counterparts, but whose branches were equivalent to fragments of metabolic intermediates observed in human glycoproteins. From the analysis of deposited crystal structures, we predict that the ciliate glycans adopt protein-carbohydrate interactions with the Fc domain that closely mimic those of native complex-type glycans. In addition, terminal glucose structures were identified that match biosynthetic precursors of human glycosylation. Our results suggest that ciliate-based expression systems offer a route to large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies exhibiting glycosylation that imparts enhanced cell killing activity. PMID:27594301

  14. Myosin at the apical pole of ciliated epithelial cells as revealed by a monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (CC-212), obtained in a fusion experiment in which basal bodies from quail oviduct were used as immunogen, has been shown to label the apical pole of ciliated cells and to react with a 200-kD protein. This monoclonal antibody was demonstrated to be an anti- myosin from smooth muscle or from nonmuscular cells using the following criteria: On Western blots it reacted with the myosin heavy chains from gizzard and platelet extracts and from cultured cell line extracts, but did not react with striated muscle myosin heavy chains. By immunofluorescence it decorated the stress fibers of well-spread cells with a characteristic striated pattern, while it did not react with myotubes containing organized myofibrils. On native ciliated cells as well as on Triton-extracted ciliated cortices from quail oviduct, this monoclonal antibody decorated the apical pole with a stronger labeling of the periphery of the apical area. Ultrastructural localization was attempted using the immunogold technique on the same preparation. Myosin was associated with a filamentous material present between striated rootlets and the proximal extremities of the basal bodies. No labeling of the basal body itself or of axoneme was observed. PMID:3525577

  15. Respiration, growth and grazing rates of three ciliate species in hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Emma; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-08-30

    Marine hypoxic episodes are affecting both marine and freshwater bodies all over the world. Yet, limited data exists with regard to the effects of decreasing oxygen on protist metabolism. Three ciliate species were therefore isolated from Hong Kong coastal waters. Controlled hypoxic conditions were simulated in the lab environment, during which time growth, respiration and grazing rates were measured. Euplotes sp. and a Oxytrichidae-like ciliate showed decreased growth and respiration below 2.5 mg O2 L(-1), however Uronema marinum kept steady growth and respiration until below 1.5 mg O2 L(-1). Euplotes sp. and the Oxytrichidae-like ciliate had the highest ingestion rate, which dropped significantly below 3.0 mg O2 L(-1). U.marinum grazing rates were affected at and below 1.5 mg O2 L(-1), correlating with their drop in growth and respiration at this lower concentration. This study illustrates the slowing metabolism of key grazing protists, as well as species-specific tolerance in response to hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrative taxonomy of ciliates: Assessment of molecular phylogenetic content and morphological homology testing.

    PubMed

    Vďačný, Peter

    2017-02-24

    The very diverse and comparatively complex morphology of ciliates has given rise to numerous taxonomic concepts. However, the information content of the utilized molecular markers has seldom been explored prior to phylogenetic analyses and taxonomic decisions. Likewise, robust testing of morphological homology statements and the apomorphic nature of diagnostic characters of ciliate taxa is rarely carried out. Four phylogenetic techniques that may help address these issues are reviewed. (1) Split spectrum analysis serves to determine the exact number and quality of nucleotide positions supporting individual nodes in phylogenetic trees and to discern long-branch artifacts that cause spurious phylogenies. (2) Network analysis can depict all possible evolutionary trajectories inferable from the dataset and locate and measure the conflict between them. (3) A priori likelihood mapping tests the suitability of data for reconstruction of a well resolved tree, visualizes the tree-likeness of quartets, and assesses the support of an internal branch of a given tree topology. (4) Reconstruction of ancestral morphologies can be applied for analyzing homology and apomorphy statements without circular reasoning. Since these phylogenetic tools are rarely used, their principles and interpretation are introduced and exemplified using various groups of ciliates. Finally, environmental sequencing data are discussed in this light.

  17. On the nature of species: insights from Paramecium and other ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Meaghan S.; Katz, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The multiple species concepts currently in use by the scientific community (e.g. Morphological, Biological, Phylogenetic) are united in that they all aim to capture the process of divergence between populations. For example, the Biological Species Concept (BSC) defines a species as a natural group of organisms that is reproductively isolated from other such groups. Here we synthesize nearly a century of research on the ciliate genus Paramecium that highlights the shortcomings of our prevailing notions on the nature of species. In this lineage, there is discordance between morphology, mating behavior, and genetics, features assumed to be correlated, at least after sufficient time has passed, under all species concepts. Intriguingly, epigenetic phenomena are well documented in ciliates where they influence features such as germline/soma differentiation and mating type determination. Consequently, we hypothesize that divergence within ciliate populations is due to a dynamic interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors. The growing list of examples of epigenetic phenomena that potentially impact speciation (i.e. by influencing the dynamics of sex chromosomes, fate of hybrids, zygotic drive and genomic conflicts) suggests that interactions between genetics and epigenetics may also drive divergence in other eukaryotic lineages. PMID:21505762

  18. The effects of organic selenium supplementation on the rumen ciliate population in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mihaliková, K; Gresáková, L; Boldizárová, K; Faix, S; Leng, L; Kisidayová, S

    2005-01-01

    The effect of selenium supplementation on the rumen protozoan population of sheep was demonstrated. Both the total and generic counts of rumen ciliates in sheep fed a diet with basal Se content (70 microg/kg dry matter) were compared to those of animals given feed supplemented with inorganic (disodium selenite) or organic Se (selenized yeast) (310 microg/kg dry matter). The genera of Entodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Ophryoscolex, Diploplastron and Polyplastron occurred in all sheep except for the control, in which Ophryoscolex was not observed. The population of Ophryoscolex caudatus f. tricoronatus was significantly higher in sheep supplemented with organic Se than in animals given inorganic Se (by 160 %). Supplementation of feed with selenized yeast induced significant growth in the Diploplastron population (by 63 %) while no change occurred in sheep given selenite. The populations of Dasytricha ruminantium and Polyplastron multivesiculatum were higher than control in both Se-supplemented groups. The ciliate population of Entodinium spp. was not influenced by Se supplements. Our results suggest a protective effect of Se feed supplementation on the development of some rumen ciliate species in young ruminants.

  19. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst with high intra-cystic carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Weidenfeld, Jonathan; Bradichevsky, Tania; Weitzman, Ella; Rimon, Uri; Inbar, Yael; Amitai, Michal; Bar-Zachai, Barak; Eshkenazy, Roni; Ariche, Arie; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-11-21

    A ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC) is a rare foregut developmental malformation usually diagnosed in adulthood. Five percent of reported cases of CHFC transform into squamous cell carcinoma. We report the presentation, evaluation, and surgical management of a symptomatic 45-year-old male found to have a 6.2 cm CHFC. Contrast tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration demonstrated columnar, ciliated epithelium consistent with the histologic diagnosis of CHFC. The intracystic levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were extremely high (978118 U/mL and 973 μg/L, respectively). Histologically, the wall of the cyst showed characteristic pseudopapillae lined with a ciliated stratified columnar epithelium, underlying smooth muscle, an outer fibrous layer and no atypia. Immunohistochemistry for CA19-9 and CEA was positive. This is the first case report of a CHFC in which levels of CA 19-9 and CEA were measured. Our findings suggest that a large sized multilocular cyst and elevated cyst CA19-9 and CEA levels do not exclude a CHFC from consideration in the diagnosis. CHFCs should be included in the differential diagnosis of hepatic lesions. Accurate diagnosis of a CHFC is necessary given its potential for malignant transformation, and surgical excision is recommended.

  20. Genetic code deviations in the ciliates: evidence for multiple and independent events.

    PubMed Central

    Tourancheau, A B; Tsao, N; Klobutcher, L A; Pearlman, R E; Adoutte, A

    1995-01-01

    In several species of ciliates, the universal stop codons UAA and UAG are translated into glutamine, while in the euplotids, the glutamine codon usage is normal, but UGA appears to be translated as cysteine. Because the emerging position of this monophyletic group in the eukaryotic lineage is relatively late, this deviant genetic code represents a derived state of the universal code. The question is therefore raised as to how these changes arose within the evolutionary pathways of the phylum. Here, we have investigated the presence of stop codons in alpha tubulin and/or phosphoglycerate kinase gene coding sequences from diverse species of ciliates scattered over the phylogenetic tree constructed from 28S rRNA sequences. In our data set, when deviations occur they correspond to in frame UAA and UAG coding for glutamine. By combining these new data with those previously reported, we show that (i) utilization of UAA and UAG codons occurs to different extents between, but also within, the different classes of ciliates and (ii) the resulting phylogenetic pattern of deviations from the universal code cannot be accounted for by a scenario involving a single transition to the unusual code. Thus, contrary to expectations, deviations from the universal genetic code have arisen independently several times within the phylum. PMID:7621837

  1. Unfolding Thermodynamics of Cysteine-Rich Proteins and Molecular Thermal-Adaptation of Marine Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Cazzolli, Giorgia; Škrbić, Tatjana; Guella, Graziano; Faccioli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Euplotes nobilii and Euplotes raikovi are phylogenetically closely allied species of marine ciliates, living in polar and temperate waters, respectively. Their evolutional relation and the sharply different temperatures of their natural environments make them ideal organisms to investigate thermal-adaptation. We perform a comparative study of the thermal unfolding of disulfide-rich protein pheromones produced by these ciliates. Recent circular dichroism (CD) measurements have shown that the two psychrophilic (E. nobilii) and mesophilic (E. raikovi) protein families are characterized by very different melting temperatures, despite their close structural homology. The enhanced thermal stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is realized notwithstanding the fact that these proteins form, as a rule, a smaller number of disulfide bonds. We perform Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in a structure-based coarse-grained (CG) model to show that the higher stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is due to the lower locality of the disulfide bonds, which yields a lower entropy increase in the unfolding process. Our study suggests that the higher stability of the mesophilic E. raikovi phermones is not mainly due to the presence of a strongly hydrophobic core, as it was proposed in the literature. In addition, we argue that the molecular adaptation of these ciliates may have occurred from cold to warm, and not from warm to cold. To provide a testable prediction, we identify a point-mutation of an E. nobilii pheromone that should lead to an unfolding temperature typical of that of E. raikovi pheromones. PMID:24970199

  2. Unfolding thermodynamics of cysteine-rich proteins and molecular thermal-adaptation of marine ciliates.

    PubMed

    Cazzolli, Giorgia; Skrbić, Tatjana; Guella, Graziano; Faccioli, Pietro

    2013-11-18

    Euplotes nobilii and Euplotes raikovi are phylogenetically closely allied species of marine ciliates, living in polar and temperate waters, respectively. Their evolutional relation and the sharply different temperatures of their natural environments make them ideal organisms to investigate thermal-adaptation. We perform a comparative study of the thermal unfolding of disulfide-rich protein pheromones produced by these ciliates. Recent circular dichroism (CD) measurements have shown that the two psychrophilic (E. nobilii) and mesophilic (E. raikovi) protein families are characterized by very different melting temperatures, despite their close structural homology. The enhanced thermal stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is realized notwithstanding the fact that these proteins form, as a rule, a smaller number of disulfide bonds. We perform Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in a structure-based coarse-grained (CG) model to show that the higher stability of the E. raikovi pheromones is due to the lower locality of the disulfide bonds, which yields a lower entropy increase in the unfolding process. Our study suggests that the higher stability of the mesophilic E. raikovi phermones is not mainly due to the presence of a strongly hydrophobic core, as it was proposed in the literature. In addition, we argue that the molecular adaptation of these ciliates may have occurred from cold to warm, and not from warm to cold. To provide a testable prediction, we identify a point-mutation of an E. nobilii pheromone that should lead to an unfolding temperature typical of that of E. raikovi pheromones.

  3. Bioassay of genotoxic effects of environmental particles in a feeding ciliate.

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Sonneborn, J; Palizzi, R A; McCann, E A; Fisher, G L

    1983-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan, Paramecium, can be used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ingested complex environmental particles. Cytotoxicity is quantitated by the increased proportion of treated versus control cells which do not retain their capacity for normal cell replication. Genotoxic effects are assessed by the increased fraction of nonviable offspring from treated versus control parent cells after the self-fertilization process of autogamy. Since these cells ingest nonnutrient respirable-sized particles, biological activity of intracellular extraction of dusts and fly ash can be compared before and after extraction with polar and nonpolar solvents. Previous studies indicated that coal fly ash was mutagenic in these eukaryotic cells. Mutagenicity of coal fly ash was not detectable after extraction with a concentration of HCl known to remove nonmatrix trace elements. These results suggested that this ciliate bioassay might be a detector of mineral mutagens. Fine particles of the carcinogenic nickel compounds, alpha-nickel subsulfide, and beta-nickel sulfide were compared for their biological activity in this bioassay. Both nickel compounds were ingested by the ciliates and induced heritable damage in the progeny of the treated parent cells. PMID:6641654

  4. Ciliates and the rare biosphere-community ecology and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Application of deep sequencing technologies to environmental samples and some detailed morphological studies suggest that there is a vast, yet unexplored rare ciliate biosphere, tentatively defined in terms of operational taxonomic units. However, very few studies complemented molecular and phylogenetic data with morphological and ecological descriptions of the species inventory. This is mainly because the sampling effort increases strongly with decreasing species abundance. In spite of this limited knowledge, it is clear that species that are rare under certain environmental conditions (temporal rare biosphere) may become abundant when the physical, chemical, and biological variables of their habitat change. Furthermore, some species may always be present in low numbers if their dispersal rates are exceedingly high (accidental rare biosphere). An intriguing question is whether there are some species that are always rare, i.e., in every suitable environment. This permanent rare biosphere is conceptually different from the temporal rare biosphere. This review characterizes typical aquatic habitats of the rare ciliate biosphere, portrays different scenarios under which some or even many species may be permanently rare (background fauna), and identifies some fundamental questions that need to be addressed to achieve a better understanding of the population dynamics of the rare ciliate biosphere. © 2014 The Authors The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  5. Declines in both redundant and trace species characterize the latitudinal diversity gradient in tintinnid ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, John R; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Rhee, Tae Siek

    2016-01-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a well-known biogeographic pattern. However, rarely considered is how a cline in species richness may be reflected in the characteristics of species assemblages. Fewer species may equal fewer distinct ecological types, or declines in redundancy (species functionally similar to one another) or fewer trace species, those occurring in very low concentrations. We focused on tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton in which the ciliate cell is housed inside a species-specific lorica or shell. The size of lorica oral aperture, the lorica oral diameter (LOD), is correlated with a preferred prey size and maximum growth rate. Consequently, species of a distinct LOD are distinct in key ecologic characteristics, whereas those of a similar LOD are functionally similar or redundant species. We sampled from East Sea/Sea of Japan to the High Arctic Sea. We determined abundance distributions of biological species and also ecological types by grouping species in LOD size-classes, sets of ecologically similar species. In lower latitudes there are more trace species, more size-classes and the dominant species are accompanied by many apparently ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy appears to decline markedly with latitude in assemblages of tintinnid ciliates. Furthermore, the relatively small species pools of the northern high latitude assemblages suggest a low capacity to adapt to changing conditions. PMID:26990873

  6. Heavy metals generate reactive oxygen species in terrestrial and aquatic ciliated protozoa.

    PubMed

    Rico, Daniel; Martín-González, Ana; Díaz, Silvia; de Lucas, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Juan-Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction by exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cu or Zn) in diverse free-living ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena sp. and three strains of Colpoda steinii, isolated from freshwater and soils with different level of metal pollution) has been evaluated. Using specific fluorophores, such as 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, hydroethidine and dihydrorhodamine 123, and a fluorescence microscope with the program MetaMorph Imaging System 4.0, we have analyzed both the average fluorescence emission and the heterogeneous distribution of fluorescence in control and treated cells. This is the first time that these fluorophores are used to detect ROS production in ciliated protozoa. All metals generate ROS, mainly superoxide and peroxides, showing a remarkable inter- and intra-specific variations. Likewise, resistance against each metal was also very diverse. Cu and specially Cd, the most toxic heavy metal for these ciliates, are the best oxidative stress inducers. However, a correlation between fluorescence emission intensity and cellular metal sensitivity for each strain cannot be established. Results are discussed and compared with similar findings previously published in other unicellular and pluricellular organisms.

  7. Chloroplast symbiosis in a marine ciliate: ecophysiology and the risks and rewards of hosting foreign organelles.

    PubMed

    McManus, George B; Schoener, Donald M; Haberlandt, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous use of both heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolism ("mixotrophy") is common among protists. Strombidium rassoulzadegani is a planktonic mixotrophic marine ciliate that saves chloroplasts from its algal food and obtains a nutritional subsidy via photosynthesis. Cultures from the northeast, northwest, and southwest Atlantic Ocean show similar numerical response parameters (maximum growth rate, food concentration at which growth is half its maximum, and threshold food concentration for growth), and some isolates have been maintained in vitro for over 3 years. This ciliate grows equally well when fed on the green alga Tetraselmis chui (strain PLY429) or the cryptophyte Rhodomonas lens (strain RHODO). It appears to be an obligate mixotroph, requiring both food and light to achieve positive growth, when feeding on either of these algae. However, it has also been grown for several weeks (>10 generations) heterotrophically on the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (strain EXUV) during which it grows better in dark than in light. In this paper, we review the ecology of S. rassoulzadegani, discuss some aspects of its photo- and feeding physiology, and speculate on benefits and costs to the ciliate of chloroplast symbiosis.

  8. Chemical Defense by Erythrolactones in the Euryhaline Ciliated Protist, Pseudokeronopsis erythrina.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Federico; Anesi, Andrea; Giuseppe, Graziano Di; Guella, Graziano; Ortenzi, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Pseudokeronopsis erythrina produces three new secondary metabolites, erythrolactones A2, B2 and C2, and their respective sulfate esters (A1, B1, C1), the structures of which have been recently elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data coupled to high resolution mass measurements (HR-MALDI-TOF). An analysis of the discharge of the protozoan pigment granules revealed that the non-sulfonated erythrolactones are exclusively stored in these cortical organelles, which are commonly used by a number of ciliates as chemical weapons in offense/defense interactions with prey and predators. We evaluated the toxic activity of pigment granule discharge on a panel of free-living ciliates and micro-invertebrates, and the activity of each single purified erythrolactone on three ciliate species. We also observed predator-prey interactions of P. erythrina with unicellular and multicellular predators. Experimental results confirm that only P. erythrina cells with discharged pigment granules were preferentially or exclusively hunted and eaten by at least some of its predators, whereas almost all intact (fully pigmented) cells remained alive. Our results indicate that erythrolactones are very effective as a chemical defense in P. erythrina.

  9. Ciliate communities and hidden biodiversity in freshwater biotopes of the Pistoia province (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessia; Boscaro, Vittorio; Carducci, Daniela; Serra, Valentina; Modeo, Letizia; Verni, Franco; Fokin, Sergei I; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    Ciliates are essential components of aquatic environments, playing a pivotal role in microbial loops. Thus, the composition and dynamics of ciliate communities have been subjected to intense studying. Morphological methods have been traditionally employed, until the development of next-generation sequencing recently allowed to explore the topic with exclusively molecular techniques. However, the results of the two approaches are hardly comparable, and the pictures they offer can be quite different. This may be due, among other reasons, to two factors: (1) morphological descriptions may miss a large portion of "hidden biodiversity" (including rare species and resistance forms) that is detected instead by molecular methods; (2) identification errors may arise due to difficulties in recognizing microbial taxa without in-depth analyses. In this survey of freshwater systems of the Pistoia province (Tuscany, Italy) we address both issues, trying to quantify the hidden diversity through prolonged observations of differentially treated sample aliquots, combining morphological identification with Sanger sequencing. We provide the first insights into the ciliate fauna of this area presenting results that are suitable for future comparisons thanks to their multidisciplinary origin, and supply the first molecular data on well-known taxa such as Linostomella and Disematostoma.

  10. Ciliate biogeography in Antarctic and Arctic freshwater ecosystems: endemism or global distribution of species?

    PubMed

    Petz, Wolfgang; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Schiftner, Uwe; Quesada, Antonio; Cynan Ellis-Evans, J

    2007-02-01

    Ciliate diversity was investigated in situ in freshwater ecosystems of the maritime (South Shetland Islands, mainly Livingston Island, 63 degrees S) and continental Antarctic (Victoria Land, 75 degrees S), and the High Arctic (Svalbard, 79 degrees N). In total, 334 species from 117 genera were identified in both polar regions, i.e. 210 spp. (98 genera) in the Arctic, 120 spp. (73 genera) in the maritime and 59 spp. (41 genera) in the continental Antarctic. Forty-four species (13% of all species) were common to both Arctic and Antarctic freshwater bodies and 19 spp. to both Antarctic areas (12% of all species). Many taxa are cosmopolitans but some, e.g. Stentor and Metopus spp., are not, and over 20% of the taxa found in any one of the three areas are new to science. Cluster analysis revealed that species similarity between different biotopes (soil, moss) within a study area was higher than between similar biotopes in different regions. Distinct differences in the species composition of freshwater and terrestrial communities indicate that most limnetic ciliates are not ubiquitously distributed. These observations and the low congruence in species composition between both polar areas, within Antarctica and between high- and temperate-latitude water bodies, respectively, suggest that long-distance dispersal of limnetic ciliates is restricted and that some species have a limited geographical distribution.

  11. Ciliate diversity and distribution across an environmental and depth gradient in Long Island Sound, USA.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mary; Tamura, Maiko; Costas, Barbara A; Ritchie, Mark E; McManus, George B; Katz, Laura A

    2010-04-01

    The nature and extent of microbial biodiversity remain controversial with persistent debates over patterns of distributions (i.e. cosmopolitanism versus endemism) and the processes that structure these patterns (neutrality versus selection). We used culture-independent approaches to address these issues focusing on two groups of ciliates, the Oligotrichia (Spirotrichea) and Choreotrichia (Spirotrichea) across an environmental gradient. We assessed SSU rDNA diversity in ciliate communities at six stations in Long Island Sound spanning the frontal region that separates the fresher Connecticut River outflow plume from the open Sound. As in previous studies, we find one abundant cosmopolitan species (Strombidium biarmatum), a few moderately abundant sequences, and a long list of rare sequences. Furthermore, neither ciliate diversity nor species composition showed any clear relationship to measured environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, accessory pigment composition and chorophyll). Overall, we observed that diversity decreased moving from nearshore to offshore. We also conducted analyses to detect clustering among the sampled communities using the software Unifrac. This approach revealed three significant clusters grouping samples from nearshore, surface and deep/well mixed stations. We find no strong fit of our communities to log series, geometric or log normal distributions, though one of the 3 clusters is most consistent with a log series distribution. However, when we remove the abundant cosmopolitan species S. biarmatum, all three clusters fit to a log series distribution. These analyses suggest that, with the exception of one cosmopolitan species, the oligotrich and choreotrich communities at these stations may be distributed in a neutral manner.

  12. Protozoa ciliates community structure in urban streams and their environmental use as indicators.

    PubMed

    Debastiani, C; Meira, B R; Lansac-Tôha, F M; Velho, L F M; Lansac-Tôha, F A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the patterns of diversity and abundance of ciliates protozoa community in three tropical urban streams and verify which species can be considered bioindicators of water quality. In each stream, three regions (headwater, middle and mouth) were sampled in two years, in the rainy and dry seasons. The abiotic factors (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, turbidity, width, depth, flow and conductivity) and biotic factors (total coliforms, bacterioplankton, chlorophyll and flagellates) were analyzed using appropriate methods and ciliates were identified and counted through specialized literature. We identified 84 species distributed into 24 orders. Peniculida was the most representative order followed by Prorodontida. The RDA scores showed a spatial difference between streams. On the other hand, regarding the temporal variation, there was no separation of the sampled data. The Indval analysis showed ten species indicators, such as Coleps hirtus, Euplotes moebiusi and Tintinidium pusillum. The Cluster analysis per stream versus period showed a greater distinction of the streams in the dry season. On the other hand, a low similarity was observed between sections within the same stream. In summary, the results indicated that the ciliates can be used as important tools as bioindicators in lotic environments affected by different degrees of pollution, due to the fact that they have short life cycle, allowing the detection of impacts on a small time scale, as well as by having direct answers to environmental changes and high sensitivity to contaminants.

  13. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: four case reports with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ayako W; Steelman, Charlotte K; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Ricketts, Richard R; Durham, Megan; Clifton, Matthew; Pandya, Samir; Shehata, Bahig M

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts (CHFCs) are rare congenital legions that arise from the embryonic foregut. The cysts are formed during fetal development by evagination from their respective portions of the foregut, and are characterized by a ciliated epithelial lining. Approximately 100 cases of CHFC have been reported, of which only 13 were in children. Although CHFC is typically benign, malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been reported in 3 cases. Survival rate after progression to malignancy is poor, as SCC in this setting is biologically aggressive. We present 4 new cases of CHFC in children between 5 months and 17 years old. Our cases are unusual, as some of the cysts exhibit multilocularity and biliary communication, and 2 of our patients were diagnosed under the age of 1. Additionally, 1 of the cysts was 19.3 cm in diameter, making it the largest reported CHFC to our knowledge. Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of hepatic lesions.

  14. Ciliated foregut cyst of the gall bladder: the largest ever described.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Alexia; Blazic, Ivan; Andrejevic, Predrag

    2017-07-14

    A 78-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department with acute abdominal pain. A CT scan done to investigate the pain showed an intra-abdominal abscess medial to the caecum and an incidental exophytic lesion in the gall bladder. This was excised during surgery and sent for histological examination. Histology showed a ciliated foregut cyst of the gall bladder. A literature review revealed that this was the 13th case worldwide, as ciliated foregut cysts are usually found either above the diaphragm or in the liver. It was also the largest cyst described, with 45 mm diameter. So far none of these cysts found in the gall bladder have shown malignant transformation, though those found in the liver have been known to become malignant. Due to histological similarity, excision of ciliated foregut cysts of the gall bladder should be considered as there is still a risk of malignant transformation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. The marine mixotroph, Mesodinium rubrum is far more than a greenhouse ciliate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yih, W.; Myung, G.; Kim, H. S.; Yoo, Y. D.; Rho, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Permanent symbiosis between the mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum and the cryptomonad symbionts has long been assumed since 1908, when Hans Lohmann firstly described the reddish-brown globules inside M. rubrum ("Halteria rubra") cells as symbiotic algae ("Erythromonas haltericola"). Thus, M. rubrum was envisioned as a host greenhouse where numerous cryptomonad symbionts could be farmed. During last two decades, however, information on the species interaction among marine protists including M. rubrum was so impressively accumulated that the more real picture of the `symbiotic relationship' could be revealed. In addition to the obligate replacement of the selected organelles from a `symbiont', multiple donor strains for the klepto-organelles of M. rubrum was also explored. Hence, experimentally designed organelle trades for M. rubrum is not impossible today. This unique mixotrophic ciliate must be a pivotal member of marine plankton ecosystem with its superior klepto-organelles, motility, growth rate, and linkablilty to higher trophic levels. M. rubrum can link marine heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria to its own predators which in turn could be consumed by other carnivores. Supported by the klepto-organelles and vitamins from prey cryptomonads as well as N(from cyanobacteria) and P(from heterotrophic bacteria) nutrients, M. rubrum thrives at diverse marine environments. Bacterivory by the protistan members of `Mesodinium food chain' may need to be further studied before we can better understand the superiority of the unique ciliate species in the sea.

  16. Methods for the cultivation of ciliated protozoa from the large intestine of horses.

    PubMed

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Miltko, Renata; Michałowski, Tadeusz; McEwan, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cultivation methods for ciliates from the digestive tract of horses. Members of three different genera were successfully grown in vitro for short periods of time. However, only cells belonging to the genus Blepharocorys, which resides in the horse's large intestine, were maintained for longer periods. This Blepharocorys culture was successfully grown in vitro after inoculation of freshly excreted horse faeces in culture medium containing a population of bacteria. The ciliates survived for over six months, and the density of their population varied between 1.7 × 10(3) and 2.4 × 10(3) cells mL(-1). Favourable conditions for the prolonged cultivation of this ciliate were observed when the medium was prepared by mixing horse faeces and 'caudatum' salt solution in a 1:1 V/V ratio together with food (60% powdered meadow hay, 16% wheat gluten, 12% barley flour and 12% microcrystalline cellulose) supplied as 0.20 mg mL(-1) culture per day. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. PAX-8 expression in cutaneous ciliated cysts: evidence for Müllerian origin.

    PubMed

    Joehlin-Price, Amy S; Huang, Jui-Han; Brooks, John S; Scharschmidt, Thomas J; Iwenofu, O Hans

    2014-02-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cysts (CCC) are exquisitely rare, benign cystic lesions demonstrating simple, ciliated epithelial linings reminiscent of fallopian tube epithelium. Most commonly, CCC show a predilection for the lower extremities of young reproductive age women and demonstrate immunohistochemical positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors, supporting the theory that they are derived from ectopic Müllerian rests. PAX-8 is a paired box gene, important in the development of Müllerian and thyroid organs and has utility in the identification of tumors of Müllerian, renal, and thyroid origin. Prompted by the precedent studies on PAX-8 immunohistochemical expression in tumors of Müllerian origin, this article aimed to explore the utility of this antibody in defining the histogenesis of 2 bona fide cases of CCC, both occurring in young reproductive age women. Herein, 2 prototypic index cases of CCC with strong nuclear positivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors are shown to also have positive nuclear staining for PAX-8, further supporting their likely Müllerian origin. These data support the designation of these lesions as cutaneous Müllerian cysts, distinct from potential ciliated cysts of eccrine origin.

  18. Microstome--macrostome transformation in the polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax leads to mechanosensitivity associated with prey-capture behaviour.

    PubMed

    Grønlien, Heidi K; Hagen, Bjarne; Sand, Olav

    2011-07-01

    Ciliates feed by phagocytosis. Some ciliate species, such as Tetrahymena vorax, are polymorphic, a strategy that provides more flexible food utilization. Cells of the microstomal morph of T. vorax feed on bacteria, organic particles and organic solutes in a non-selective manner, whereas macrostome cells are predators that consume specific prey ciliates. In the present study, we investigated a possible correlation between phagocytosis and mechanosensitivity in macrostome T. vorax. Microstome cells seem to be insensitive to mechanical stimulation whereas macrostome cells depolarise in response to mechanical stimulation of the anterior part of the cell. The amplitude of the receptor potential induced by either a prey ciliate or a 5 μm push by a glass needle was sufficient to elicit a regenerative Ca²⁺ spike. The difference in mechanosensitivity of the two forms correlates with the swimming behaviour when hitting an obstacle; microstome cells swim alongside the obstacle whereas macrostome cells swim backwards, turn and resume forward swimming. Macrostome cells prevented from backward swimming and the subsequent turn failed to capture prey cells in their pouch. Macrostome cells consumed heterospecific prey ciliates preferentially over conspecific microstome cells. This selectivity is not due to electrical membrane responses elicited by physical contact. Both microstome and macrostome cells accumulated in an area containing putative substances released from heterospecific prey ciliates, but the substances did not elicit any electrophysiological membrane responses. We conclude that the mechanosensitivity of macrostome cells is associated with the prey-capture behaviour, whereas the selective phagocytosis is probably due to chemo-attraction to heterospecific prey ciliates.

  19. A tale of the ciliate tail: investigation into the adaptive significance of this sub-cellular structure

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, Brad J.; Jiang, Houshuo; Buskey, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Ciliates can form an important link between the microbial loop and higher trophic levels primarily through consumption by copepods. This high predation pressure has resulted in a number of ciliate species developing rapid escape swimming behaviour. Several species of these escaping ciliates also possess a long contractile tail for which the functionality remains unresolved. We use high-speed video, specialized optics and novel fluid visualization tools to evaluate the role of this contractile appendage in two free-swimming ciliates, Pseudotontonia sp. and Tontonia sp., and compare the performance to escape swimming behaviour of a non-tailed species, Strobilidium sp. Here, we show that ‘tailed’ species respond to hydrodynamic disturbances with extremely short response latencies (less than or equal to 0.89 ms) by rapidly contracting the tail which carries the cell body 2–4 cell diameters within a few milliseconds. This provides an advantage over non-tailed species during the critical first 10–30 ms of an escape. Two small, short-lived vortex rings are created during contraction of the tail. The flow imposed by the ciliate jumping can be described as two well-separated impulsive Stokeslets and the overall flow attenuates spatially as r−3. The high initial velocities and spatio-temporal arrangement of vortices created by tail contractions appear to provide a means for rapid escape as well as hydrodynamic ‘camouflage’ against fast striking, mechanoreceptive predators such as copepods. PMID:26180066

  20. Novel Ciliate Genetic Code Variants Including the Reassignment of All Three Stop Codons to Sense Codons in Condylostoma magnum.

    PubMed

    Heaphy, Stephen M; Mariotti, Marco; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Atkins, John F; Baranov, Pavel V

    2016-11-01

    mRNA translation in many ciliates utilizes variant genetic codes where stop codons are reassigned to specify amino acids. To characterize the repertoire of ciliate genetic codes, we analyzed ciliate transcriptomes from marine environments. Using codon substitution frequencies in ciliate protein-coding genes and their orthologs, we inferred the genetic codes of 24 ciliate species. Nine did not match genetic code tables currently assigned by NCBI. Surprisingly, we identified a novel genetic code where all three standard stop codons (TAA, TAG, and TGA) specify amino acids in Condylostoma magnum We provide evidence suggesting that the functions of these codons in C. magnum depend on their location within mRNA. They are decoded as amino acids at internal positions, but specify translation termination when in close proximity to an mRNA 3' end. The frequency of stop codons in protein coding sequences of closely related Climacostomum virens suggests that it may represent a transitory state. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Electrophysiological properties of the microstome and macrostome morph of the polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax.

    PubMed

    Grønlien, Heidi K; Bruskeland, Guttorm E; Jansen, Anne K; Sand, Olav

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphic ciliates, like Tetrahymena vorax, optimize food utilization by altering between different body shapes and behaviours. Microstome T. vorax feeds on bacteria, organic particles, and solutes, whereas the larger macrostome cells are predators consuming other ciliates. We have used current clamp and discontinuous single electrode voltage clamp to compare electrophysiological properties of these morphs. The resting membrane potential was approximately -30 mV in both morphs. The input resistance and capacitance of microstomes were approximately 350 MΩ and 105 pF, whereas the corresponding values for the macrostomes were 210 MΩ and 230 pF, reflecting the larger cell size. Depolarizing current injections elicited regenerative Ca(2+) spikes with a maximum rate of rise of 7.5 Vs(-1) in microstome and 4.7 Vs(-1) in macrostome cells. Depolarizing voltage steps from a holding potential of -40 mV induced an inward Ca(2+) -current (I(ca) ) peaking at -10 mV, reaching approximately the same value in microstome (-1.4 nA) and macrostome cells (-1.2 nA). Because the number of ciliary rows is the same in microstome and macrostome cells, the similar size of I(Ca) in these morphs supports the notion that the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in ciliates are located in the ciliary membrane. In both morphs, hyperpolarizing voltage steps revealed inward membrane rectification that persisted in Na(+) -free solution and was only partially inhibited by extracellular Cs(+) . The inward rectification was completely blocked by replacing Ca(2+) with Co(2+) or Ba(2+) in the recording solution, and is probably due to Ca(2+) -activated inward K(+) current secondary to Ca(2+) influx through channels activated by hyperpolarization. © 2012 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2012 International Society of Protistologists.

  2. Low Base-Substitution Mutation Rate in the Germline Genome of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophil

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hongan; Chang, Allan Y.-C.; Sung, Way; Wu, Steven H.; Balboa, Mariel; Azevedo, Ricardo B. R.; Cartwright, Reed A.; Lynch, Michael; Zufall, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation and is, therefore, central to evolutionary change. Previous work on Paramecium tetraurelia found an unusually low germline base-substitution mutation rate in this ciliate. Here, we tested the generality of this result among ciliates using Tetrahymena thermophila. We sequenced the genomes of 10 lines of T. thermophila that had each undergone approximately 1,000 generations of mutation accumulation (MA). We applied an existing mutation-calling pipeline and developed a new probabilistic mutation detection approach that directly models the design of an MA experiment and accommodates the noise introduced by mismapped reads. Our probabilistic mutation-calling method provides a straightforward way of estimating the number of sites at which a mutation could have been called if one was present, providing the denominator for our mutation rate calculations. From these methods, we find that T. thermophila has a germline base-substitution mutation rate of 7.61 × 10 − 12 per-site, per cell division, which is consistent with the low base-substitution mutation rate in P. tetraurelia. Over the course of the evolution experiment, genomic exclusion lines derived from the MA lines experienced a fitness decline that cannot be accounted for by germline base-substitution mutations alone, suggesting that other genetic or epigenetic factors must be involved. Because selection can only operate to reduce mutation rates based upon the "visible" mutational load, asexual reproduction with a transcriptionally silent germline may allow ciliates to evolve extremely low germline mutation rates. PMID:27635054

  3. Low Base-Substitution Mutation Rate in the Germline Genome of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophil.

    PubMed

    Long, Hongan; Winter, David J; Chang, Allan Y-C; Sung, Way; Wu, Steven H; Balboa, Mariel; Azevedo, Ricardo B R; Cartwright, Reed A; Lynch, Michael; Zufall, Rebecca A

    2016-09-15

    Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation and is, therefore, central to evolutionary change. Previous work on Paramecium tetraurelia found an unusually low germline base-substitution mutation rate in this ciliate. Here, we tested the generality of this result among ciliates using Tetrahymena thermophila. We sequenced the genomes of 10 lines of T. thermophila that had each undergone approximately 1,000 generations of mutation accumulation (MA). We applied an existing mutation-calling pipeline and developed a new probabilistic mutation detection approach that directly models the design of an MA experiment and accommodates the noise introduced by mismapped reads. Our probabilistic mutation-calling method provides a straightforward way of estimating the number of sites at which a mutation could have been called if one was present, providing the denominator for our mutation rate calculations. From these methods, we find that T. thermophila has a germline base-substitution mutation rate of 7.61 × 10 (-)  (12) per-site, per cell division, which is consistent with the low base-substitution mutation rate in P. tetraurelia Over the course of the evolution experiment, genomic exclusion lines derived from the MA lines experienced a fitness decline that cannot be accounted for by germline base-substitution mutations alone, suggesting that other genetic or epigenetic factors must be involved. Because selection can only operate to reduce mutation rates based upon the "visible" mutational load, asexual reproduction with a transcriptionally silent germline may allow ciliates to evolve extremely low germline mutation rates.

  4. Major epiplasmic proteins of ciliates are articulins: cloning, recombinant expression, and structural characterization

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of certain protists comprises an extensive membrane skeleton, the epiplasm, which contributes to the cell shape and patterning of the species-specific cortical architecture. The isolated epiplasm of the ciliated protist Pseudomicrothorax dubius consists of two major groups of proteins with molecular masses of 78-80 kD and 11- 13 kD, respectively. To characterize the structure of these proteins, peptide sequences of two major polypeptides (78-80 kD) as well as a cDNA representing the entire coding sequence of a minor and hitherto unidentified component (60 kD; p60) of the epiplasm have been determined. All three polypeptides share sequence similarities. They contain repeated valine- and proline-rich motifs of 12 residues with the consensus VPVP--V-V-V-. In p60 the central core domain consists of 24 tandemly repeated VPV motifs. Within the repeat motifs positively and negatively charged residues, when present, show an alternating pattern in register with the V and P positions. Recombinant p60 was purified in 8 M urea and dialyzed against buffer. Infrared spectroscopic measurements indicate 30% beta-sheet. Electron microscopy reveals short filamentous polymers with a rather homogenous diameter (approximately 15-20 nm), but variable lengths. The small polymers form thicker filaments, ribbons, and larger sheets or tubes. A core domain similar to that of P. dubius p60 is also found in the recently described epiplasmic proteins of the flagellate Euglena, the so-called articulins. Our results show that the members of this protein family are not restricted to flagellates, but are also present in the distantly related ciliates where they are major constituents of the epiplasm. Comparison of flagellate and ciliate articulins highlights common features of this novel family of cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:7559761

  5. [Morphometric variations of the rumen ciliate, Ophryoscolex purkynjei Stein, 1858 (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida) from cypriot domestic goats].

    PubMed

    Mermer, Ahmet; Göçmen, Bayram; Ciçek, Kerim; Ergen, Gürsel; Sezgin, Yavuz; Yildiz, Mehmet Z

    2006-01-01

    The species Ophryoscolex purkynjei and its four formae [O. p. f. purkynjei, O. p. f. bifidobicinctus, O. p. f. bicoronatus and O. p. f. tricoronatus] from the Cypriot domestic goats (Capra hircus) have been investigated from the viewpoint of the diagnostic morphometrical characteristics. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there was significant morphometrical variations among the same formae in different host animals. As the result of our investigation, it has been suggested that all of the morphometrical variations determined may originate from the individual physiological differences of the host animals (e.g. the other ciliate fauna, bacterial population, inter-specific antagonism etc.).

  6. CNT suspended nanofluid analysis in a flexible tube with ciliated walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher Akbar, Noreen; Wahid Butt, Adil

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: The current investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of heat transfer in a flexible tube with ciliated walls and carbon nanotubes. The problem has been formulated in the form of non-linear partial differential equations, which are then reduced to ordinary differential equation form using the dimensionless variables and the conditions of low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Exact solutions have been obtained for velocity, temperature and pressure gradient and graphs for velocity, temperature and pressure gradient have been plotted for a better analysis of the solution.

  7. Using Sorting by Reversal: Breakpoint Graph for Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brijder, Robert; Jan Hoogeboom, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has much in common with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper we show that the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, has many uses in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  8. Trichodina xenopodus, a Ciliated Protozoan, in a Laboratory-Maintained Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; White, Julie R; Lieggi, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A postmortem evaluation of a domestically bred, adult, female Xenopus laevis revealed the presence of a urinary bladder protozoan consistent with Trichodina xenopodus. T. xenopodus is considered an incidental finding, as its presence in the urinary bladder in frogs has not been correlated with disease or with urinary bladder epithelial lesions. Trichodina spp. are ciliated protozoa known to colonize many species of amphibians and fish. These protozoa frequently inhabit the skin and gills, but may also be present in the urinary bladder of infected animals. Their presence on the skin and gills in low numbers is not related to disease; however, large numbers may indicate poor water quality and overcrowding. PMID:24209965

  9. On the marine ciliate, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, ciliophora, scuticociliatida) with comparison of its related species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jun; Ma, Hong-Wei; Song, Wei-Bo

    2002-09-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 (1 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the right of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  10. What factors drive the variations of phytoplankton, ciliate and mesozooplankton communities in the polluted southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia?

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Drira, Zaher; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-08-01

    We studied the spatial distribution of phytoplankton, ciliate and mesozooplankton communities coupled with environmental factors in the southern coast of Sfax (central eastern coastline of Tunisia). Phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by Dinophyceae (69.99%) and Bacillariophyceae (15.88%). The ciliate community consisted of Spirotrichea with a dominance of Tintinnopsis beroidea (57.69%). The mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods representing 66.12% of the total zooplankton. Oithona nana showed a high frequency mainly in stations 9 and 10 with 66.86 and 64.65%, respectively. Some toxic phytoplankton species were recorded in the present study site. For this reason, the pollution generated in this area presents a slight degradation of the water quality and can be responsible for the bloom generated by the high proliferation of these toxic microalgae. The pollution generated by industrial activities has an effect on the spatial distribution of phytoplankton, ciliate and copepod communities with a reduction of their diversity indexes.

  11. Rare Freshwater Ciliate Paramecium chlorelligerum Kahl, 1935 and Its Macronuclear Symbiotic Bacterium “Candidatus Holospora parva”

    PubMed Central

    Lebedeva, Natalia; Migunova, Alexandra; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated protists often form symbioses with many diverse microorganisms. In particular, symbiotic associations between ciliates and green algae, as well as between ciliates and intracellular bacteria, are rather wide-spread in nature. In this study, we describe the complex symbiotic system between a very rare ciliate, Paramecium chlorelligerum, unicellular algae inhabiting its cytoplasm, and novel bacteria colonizing the host macronucleus. Paramecium chlorelligerum, previously found only twice in Germany, was retrieved from a novel location in vicinity of St. Petersburg in Russia. Species identification was based on both classical morphological methods and analysis of the small subunit rDNA. Numerous algae occupying the cytoplasm of this ciliate were identified with ultrastructural and molecular methods as representatives of the Meyerella genus, which before was not considered among symbiotic algae. In the same locality at least fifteen other species of “green” ciliates were found, thus it is indeed a biodiversity hot-spot for such protists. A novel species of bacterial symbionts living in the macronucleus of Paramecium chlorelligerum cells was morphologically and ultrastructurally investigated in detail with the description of its life cycle and infection capabilities. The new endosymbiont was molecularly characterized following the full-cycle rRNA approach. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the novel bacterium is a member of Holospora genus branching basally but sharing all characteristics of the genus except inducing connecting piece formation during the infected host nucleus division. We propose the name “Candidatus Holospora parva” for this newly described species. The described complex system raises new questions on how these microorganisms evolve and interact in symbiosis. PMID:27992463

  12. Changes in aquaporin 5 in the non-ciliated cells of mouse oviduct according to sexual maturation and oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Nah, Won Heum; Oh, Yeong Seok; Hwang, Jung Hye; Gye, M C

    2015-08-14

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels play an important role in fluid homeostasis and the control of epithelial cell volume. To understand the oviductal fluid homeostasis, the expression of aqp5 was examined in mouse oviduct. In the oviduct of cycling females, aqp1, aqp3, aqp4, aqp5, aqp6, aqp7, aqp8, and aqp11 mRNA were detected. Of these, expression of aqp5 mRNA increased significantly from the early prepubertal period to puberty. Epithelial AQP5 immunoreactivity was markedly increased during the same period and was most notable in the infundibulum. In immature female mice (3 weeks old), gonadotropin (pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (5 IU/head) and human chorionic gonadotropin (5 IU/head), single intraperitoneal injection) significantly increased oviductal aqp5 mRNA and AQP5 immunoreactivity in oviduct epithelia. In adult mouse oviduct epithelia, AQP5 was primarily found in the apical membrane, subapical cytoplasm and basolateral membrane of secretory non-ciliated cells, whereas weak to negligible immunoreactivity was found in β-tubulin-positive ciliated cells. Taking into account the fact that non-ciliated cells are well developed with subapical secretory vesicles as well as endosomes, AQP5 may also participate in the secretion and endocytosis in addition to water movement through non-ciliated secretory cells. AQP5 immunoreactivity was also found in the isthmic muscle and lamina propria beneath the epithelia. In cycling females, oviductal aqp5 mRNA levels were the highest at oestrus and the lowest at di-oestrus. AQP5 immunoreactivity in non-ciliated cells was notable in the infundibulum, where AQP5 immunoreactivity was relatively high at oestrus but low at dioestrus and pro-oestrus, indicating synchrony between aqp5 gene activation and the ovarian cycle. Together, the findings of the present study indicate that aqp5 specific to non-ciliated cells is activated during sexual maturation, supporting fluid homeostasis in mouse oviduct.

  13. Phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a are significant factors controlling ciliate communities in summer in the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao; Cao, Wenqing; Zheng, Lianming; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates (protozoa) are ubiquitous components of plankton community and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems in regards of their abundance, biomass, diversity and energy turnover. Based on the stratified samples collected from the northern Beibu Gulf in August 2011, species composition, abundance, biomass, diversity and spatial pattern of planktonic ciliates were studied. Furthermore the main environmental factors controlling ciliate communities were determined. A total of 101 species belonging to 44 genera and 7 orders (i.e., Oligotrichida, Haptorida, Euplotida, Sessilida, Pleurostomatida, Scuticociliatida and Tintinnida) were identified. The variation of ciliate communities was significant at horizontal level, but that was not at vertical level. Based on cluster analysis, ciliate communities were divided into three main groups. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that Group A, existing in the waters with higher concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen, was dominated by Tintinnidium primitivum. Group B in the waters with lower temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by Leegaardiella ovalis. Group C, existing in the waters with higher temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by large Strombidium spp. and Mesodinium rubrum. Combining multiple analytic methods, our results strongly supported that phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a were the most significant factors affecting the ciliate communities in the northern Beibu Gulf in summer. Concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen primarily influenced ciliate biomass, implying a potential impact of eutrophication on ciliate growth. The correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration, on one hand indicate the response of ciliates to the food availability, and on the other hand, the ciliates containing chloroplasts or endosymbionts may contribute greatly to the chlorophyll-a.

  14. A Cover of Glass: First Report of Biomineralized Silicon in a Ciliate, Maryna umbrellata (Ciliophora: Colpodea)

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, WILHELM; WEISSENBACHER, BIRGIT; KRAUTGARTNER, WOLF-DIETRICH; LÜTZ-MEINDL, URSULA

    2010-01-01

    Using hydrofluoric acid, scanning electron microscope-assisted X-ray microanalysis, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, we present the first definite proof of biomineralized silicon [(SiO2)]n in a ciliophoran protist, Maryna umbrellata, a common inhabitant of ephemeral pools. In the trophic specimen, the amorphic silicon (glass) granules are accumulated in the anterior half of the body. When entering the dormant stage, most glass granules are excreted to form the surface cover of the globular resting cyst. Most likely, the silicon granules are synthesized in vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. First, nanospheres with a size of 20–40 nm are formed in a fibrous matrix; they grow to be spongious complexes, eventually becoming amorphous glass granules with an average size of 819 nm × 630 nm. In the transmission electron microscope, the silicon granules show the characteristic fracture pattern of glass known from many other silicon-bearing organisms. A literature survey suggests that silicon is very rare in ciliates. The fine structure and genesis of silicon granules in M. umbrellata are very similar to those of other organisms, including vascular plants and animals, indicating a common mechanism. Light perception and protection against mechanical stress and predators might be functions of the silicon granules in M. umbrellata. The palaeontological significance of glass cysts in ciliates is also discussed. PMID:19883440

  15. Enumeration of protozoan ciliates in activated sludge: determination of replicate number using probability.

    PubMed

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, N F

    2009-08-01

    A new approach to the enumeration of ciliate protozoa in activated sludge is described. A 25 microL sub-sample volume is optimal for routine analysis using a standard slide and 24 x 24 mm cover slip requiring between 20 and 40 min per sub-sample for full enumeration and identification of species. However, to achieve high probability (>or=95%) of recovering all species large numbers of replicates are required (i.e. 23-47). To achieve high probabilities of recovery using less replicates it is necessary to neglect rare species with low densities (<0.5%); based on the assumption that they do not play a significant role in plant performance. The precise number of replicates required for different probabilities of recovering species is determined by conducting an initial pilot survey analysing a minimum of 8 replicates and using a probability equation to determine the optimum replicate number for that particular plant. Six replicate 25 microL sub-samples provided excellent species recovery (90-95% excluding up to 3 rare species), while analysing just two or three replicates, as commonly used in previous wastewater studies, only gave probabilities of 25 and 50% respectively for the same recovery. Ciliate analysis should be completed within 8h of collection with significant changes in community structure occurring beyond this period.

  16. Structures, biological activities and phylogenetic relationships of terpenoids from marine ciliates of the genus Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-07-08

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  17. The fluid dynamics of the ciliate Pseudotontonia sp. jumping by ``tail'' contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Gemmell, Brad; Buskey, Edward

    2015-11-01

    The marine planktonic ciliate Pseudotontonia sp. (~ 80 μm in cell size) possesses two sets of propulsive machinery: (1) an anteriorly located ciliary band that beats to let the cell swim backward, and (2) a long, contractile appendage (i.e. the `tail') that at times contracts rapidly to pull the cell body backward, resulting in the tail contraction and body jumping motion being oppositely directed inwards towards the same location. We use high-speed microscale imaging and micro-particle image velocimetry techniques to measure the ciliate swimming and jumping kinematics and imposed flow fields. We show that the cilia-propelled swimming achieves a sustained swimming speed ~ 10 mm s-1 that can last more than 100 ms. The swimming imposed flow conforms to the steady stresslet flow field that decays spatially at r-2. On the other hand, the tail contraction causes the cell to jump at a peak speed ~ 55 mm s-1 and cover a jumping distance 2-4 cell lengths within ~ 12 ms jumping time. The jumping imposed flow fits quite well to the unsteady impulsive stokeslet flow field that decays spatially at r-3. Based on the measured jumping kinematics, we develop a fluid dynamics model to explain the thrust generation due to the tail contraction.

  18. The Hippo Pathway Maintains the Equatorial Division Plane in the Ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Yang; Maier, Wolfgang; Baumeister, Ralf; Minevich, Gregory; Joachimiak, Ewa; Ruan, Zheng; Kannan, Natarajan; Clarke, Diamond; Frankel, Joseph; Gaertig, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    The mechanisms that govern pattern formation within the cell are poorly understood. Ciliates carry on their surface an elaborate pattern of cortical organelles that are arranged along the anteroposterior and circumferential axes by largely unknown mechanisms. Ciliates divide by tandem duplication: the cortex of the predivision cell is remodeled into two similarly sized and complete daughters. In the conditional cdaI-1 mutant of Tetrahymena thermophila, the division plane migrates from its initially correct equatorial position toward the cell's anterior, resulting in unequal cell division, and defects in nuclear divisions and cytokinesis. We used comparative whole genome sequencing to identify the cause of cdaI-1 as a mutation in a Hippo/Mst kinase. CdaI is a cortical protein with a cell cycle-dependent, highly polarized localization. Early in cell division, CdaI marks the anterior half of the cell, and later concentrates at the posterior end of the emerging anterior daughter. Despite the strong association of CdaI with the new posterior cell end, the cdaI-1 mutation does not affect the patterning of the new posterior cortical organelles. We conclude that, in Tetrahymena, the Hippo pathway maintains an equatorial position of the fission zone, and, by this activity, specifies the relative dimensions of the anterior and posterior daughter cell. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Diversity of apostome ciliates, Chromidina spp. (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae), parasites of cephalopods of the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chromidina spp. are enigmatic apostome ciliates (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae) that parasitise the renal and pancreatic appendages of cephalopods. Only four species have been described, among which only three have been formally named. No DNA sequence has been reported so far. To investigate Chromidina spp. diversity, we sampled cephalopods in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunis, Tunisia, and identified two distinct Chromidina spp. in two different host species: Loligo vulgaris and Sepia officinalis. From haematoxylin-stained slides, we described morphological traits for these parasitic species and compared them to previous descriptions. We also re-described the morphology of Chromidina elegans (Foettinger, 1881) from Chatton and Lwoff’s original materials and designated a neohapantotype and paraneohapantotypes for this species. We describe a new species, Chromidina chattoni Souidenne, Florent and Grellier n. sp., found in L. vulgaris off Tunisia, and evidence for a probable novel species, found in S. officinalis off Tunisia, although this latter species presents similarities to some morphological stages previously described for Chromidina cortezi Hochberg, 1971. We amplified, for the first time, an 18S rDNA marker for these two Chromidina species. Phylogenetic analysis supports the association of Chromidina within apostome ciliates. Genetic distance analysis between 18S rDNA sequences of representative apostomes indicates Pseudocollinia as the most closely related genus to Chromidina. PMID:27530149

  20. "Candidatus Haloectosymbiotes riaformosensis" (Halobacteriaceae), an archaeal ectosymbiont of the hypersaline ciliate Platynematum salinarum.

    PubMed

    Filker, Sabine; Kaiser, Marina; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Dunthorn, Micah; Lax, Gordon; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2014-06-01

    The novel ciliate Platynematum salinarum (Scuticociliatia) was isolated only recently from a thalassohaline solar saltern pond (12%) in Portugal. Scanning electron microscopy showed numerous bacterial-shaped cells covering the complete surface of the ciliate. The rod-shaped epibionts were identified and characterized following the "Full-Cycle rRNA Approach". The almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence was obtained using archaeal-specific primers and two species-specific probes were designed for fluorescence in situ hybridization. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the epibiotic cells showed 87% sequence identity with the type strain sequence of the closest characterized species Halolamina pelagica. Phylogenetic reconstructions affiliated the novel organism to the genus Halolamina (Halobacteria, Archaea). Attempts to isolate the epibionts failed and, therefore, growth experiments incorporating the antibiotic anisomycin were conducted in order to investigate the potential symbiotic relationship between P. salinarum and the epibionts. The results suggested an obligate symbiosis between the two organisms and revealed the first symbiotic representative of the Halobacteria. Based on the phylogenetic analyses and growth experiments we propose the classification of this novel organism in a new genus, with the taxon name "Candidatus Haloectosymbiotes riaformosensis". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A recombinase system facilitates cloning of expression cassettes in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Weide, Thomas; Bockau, Ulrike; Rave, Angelika; Herrmann, Lutz; Hartmann, Marcus WW

    2007-01-01

    Background Tetrahymena thermophila is one of the best characterized unicellular eukaryotes and its genome is sequenced in its entirety. However, the AT-richness of the genome and an unusual codon usage cause problems in cloning and expression of the ciliate DNA. To overcome these technical hiatuses we developed a Cre-dependent recombinase system. Results We created novel donor and acceptor vectors that facilitate the transfer of expression cassettes from the donor into novel acceptor plasmid. Expression vectors were used that encode the 19 kDa C-terminus of the MSP1 protein of Plasmodium falciparum and a blasticidin S (bsdR) resistance gene, respectively. The functional expression of these genes was demonstrated by western blot analysis with MSP1 specific antibodies and by a blasticidin growing assay. Conclusion The Cre dependent recombinase system in combination with the modular structure of the donor vectors ease cloning and expression of foreign genes in the ciliate system, providing a powerful tool for protistology research in future. PMID:17328820

  2. Compositionally distinct nuclear pore complexes of functionally distinct dimorphic nuclei in the ciliate Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Osakada, Hiroko; Mori, Chie; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nagao, Koji; Obuse, Chikashi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nuclear pore complex (NPC), a gateway for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, is composed of ∼30 different proteins called nucleoporins. It remains unknown whether the NPCs within a species are homogeneous or vary depending on the cell type or physiological condition. Here, we present evidence for compositionally distinct NPCs that form within a single cell in a binucleated ciliate. In Tetrahymena thermophila, each cell contains both a transcriptionally active macronucleus (MAC) and a germline micronucleus (MIC). By combining in silico analysis, mass spectrometry analysis for immuno-isolated proteins and subcellular localization analysis of GFP-fused proteins, we identified numerous novel components of MAC and MIC NPCs. Core members of the Nup107–Nup160 scaffold complex were enriched in MIC NPCs. Strikingly, two paralogs of Nup214 and of Nup153 localized exclusively to either the MAC or MIC NPCs. Furthermore, the transmembrane components Pom121 and Pom82 localize exclusively to MAC and MIC NPCs, respectively. Our results argue that functional nuclear dimorphism in ciliates is likely to depend on the compositional and structural specificity of NPCs. PMID:28386019

  3. Unexpected biodiversity of ciliates in marine samples from below the photic zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grattepanche, J. D.; Katz, L. A.; Tucker, S. J.; McManus, G. B.; Santoferrara, L. F.

    2016-02-01

    Marine microbial eukaryotes play critical roles in planktonic food webs and have been described as most diverse in the photic zone where productivity is high. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to analyze the spatial distribution of planktonic ciliate diversity from shallow waters (<30m depth) to beyond the continental shelf (>800m depth) along a 163Km transect off the coast of New England, USA. Using HTS and specific primers, we observed that the most abundant OTUs correspond to those previously-reported elsewhere. However, we did not find the expected decrease of diversity below the photic zone and instead saw an increase of diversity with depth. This highly diversity within samples taken below the photic zone also reveals the prevalence of two `new' clades (i.e. lacking sequenced morphospecies) defined by two deletions within the region of the SSU-rDNA analyzed here. Further, the ciliate communities cluster by layer (e.g. surface, pycnocline) and degree of water column stratification, suggesting that community assembly is driven by environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, phytoplankton and mesozooplankton. Together, these data reinforce that we still have much to learn about microbial diversity in marine ecosystems, especially in deeper waters that may be a reservoir for rare species.

  4. Packaging of Campylobacter jejuni into Multilamellar Bodies by the Ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis

    PubMed Central

    Trigui, Hana; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Transmission to humans occurs through consumption of contaminated food or water. The conditions affecting the persistence of C. jejuni in the environment are poorly understood. Some protozoa package and excrete bacteria into multilamellar bodies (MLBs). Packaged bacteria are protected from deleterious conditions, which increases their survival. We hypothesized that C. jejuni could be packaged under aerobic conditions by the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii or the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, both of which are able to package other pathogenic bacteria. A. castellanii did not produce MLBs containing C. jejuni. In contrast, when incubated with T. pyriformis, C. jejuni was ingested, packaged in MLBs, and then expelled into the milieu. The viability of the bacteria inside MLBs was confirmed by microscopic analyses. The kinetics of C. jejuni culturability showed that packaging increased the survival of C. jejuni up to 60 h, in contrast to the strong survival defect seen in ciliate-free culture. This study suggests that T. pyriformis may increase the risk of persistence of C. jejuni in the environment and its possible transmission between different reservoirs in food and potable water through packaging. PMID:26921427

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Catania, Francesco; Lynch, Michael

    2010-05-04

    In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa) remains a virtually unexplored issue. By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Our observations 1) shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2) are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3) reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa) remains a virtually unexplored issue. Results By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions Our observations 1) shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2) are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3) reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes. PMID:20441586

  7. Strengths and Biases of High-Throughput Sequencing Data in the Characterization of Freshwater Ciliate Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Boscaro, Vittorio; Rossi, Alessia; Vannini, Claudia; Verni, Franco; Fokin, Sergei I; Petroni, Giulio

    2017-05-01

    Molecular surveys of eukaryotic microbial communities employing high-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques are rapidly supplanting traditional morphological approaches due to their larger data output and reduced bench work time. Here, we directly compare morphological and Illumina data obtained from the same samples, in an effort to characterize ciliate faunas from sediments in freshwater environments. We show how in silico processing affects the final outcome of our HTS analysis, providing evidence that quality filtering protocols strongly impact the number of predicted taxa, but not downstream conclusions such as biogeography patterns. We determine the abundance distribution of ciliates, showing that a small fraction of abundant taxa dominates read counts. At the same time, we advance reasons to believe that biases affecting HTS abundances may be significant enough to blur part of the underlying biological picture. We confirmed that the HTS approach detects many more taxa than morphological inspections, and highlight how the difference varies among taxonomic groups. Finally, we hypothesize that the two datasets actually correspond to different conceptions of "diversity," and consequently that neither is entirely superior to the other when investigating environmental protists.

  8. Growth phase and elemental stoichiometry of bacterial prey influences ciliate grazing selectivity.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David F; Tuorto, Steven; Taghon, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    Protozoa are known to selectively graze bacteria and can differentiate prey based on size and viability, but less is known about the effects of prey cellular composition on predator selectivity. We measured the effect of growth phase and elemental stoichiometry of Escherichia coli on grazing by two ciliates, Euplotes vannus and Cyclidium glaucoma. Bacterial cells of a single strain were transformed with green and red fluorescent protein and harvested from culture at differing growth stages. Cells in exponential growth phase had low carbon:phosphorus (39) and nitrogen:phosphorus (9) ratios, while cells from stationary phase had high carbon:phosphorus of 104 and nitrogen:phosphorus of 26. When offered an equal mixture of both types of bacteria, Cyclidium grazed stationary phase, high carbon:phosphorus, high nitrogen:phosphorus cells to 22% of initial abundance within 135 min, while Euplotes reduced these cells to 33%. Neither ciliate species decreased the abundance of the exponential phase cells, lower carbon:phosphorus and nitrogen:phosphorus, relative to control treatments. Because protozoa have higher nitrogen:phosphorus and carbon:phosphorus ratios than their prokaryotic prey, this study raises the possibility that it may be advantageous for protozoa to preferentially consume more slowly growing bacteria.

  9. Helical arrays of U-shaped ATP synthase dimers form tubular cristae in ciliate mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mühleip, Alexander W.; Joos, Friederike; Wigge, Christoph; Frangakis, Achilleas S.; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Davies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    F1Fo-ATP synthases are universal energy-converting membrane protein complexes that synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. In mitochondria of yeast and mammals, the ATP synthase forms V-shaped dimers, which assemble into rows along the highly curved ridges of lamellar cristae. Using electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging, we have determined the in situ structure and organization of the mitochondrial ATP synthase dimer of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. The ATP synthase forms U-shaped dimers with parallel monomers. Each complex has a prominent intracrista domain, which links the c-ring of one monomer to the peripheral stalk of the other. Close interaction of intracrista domains in adjacent dimers results in the formation of helical ATP synthase dimer arrays, which differ from the loose dimer rows in all other organisms observed so far. The parameters of the helical arrays match those of the cristae tubes, suggesting the unique features of the P. tetraurelia ATP synthase are directly responsible for generating the helical tubular cristae. We conclude that despite major structural differences between ATP synthase dimers of ciliates and other eukaryotes, the formation of ATP synthase dimer rows is a universal feature of mitochondria and a fundamental determinant of cristae morphology. PMID:27402755

  10. Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution among cryptic species of the ciliate morphospecies Chilodonella uncinata

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Laura A.; DeBerardinis, Jennifer; Hall, Meaghan S.; Kovner, Alexandra M.; Dunthorn, Micah; Muse, Spencer V.

    2012-01-01

    While molecular analyses have provided insight into the phylogeny of ciliates, the few studies assessing intraspecific variation have largely relied on just a single locus (e.g. nuclear small subunit rDNA (nSSU-rDNA) or mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I). In this study, we characterize the diversity of several nuclear protein-coding genes plus both nSSU-rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU-rDNA) of five isolates of the ciliate morphospecies Chilodonella uncinata. Although these isolates have nearly identical nSSU-rDNA sequences, they differ by up to 8.0% in mtSSU-rDNA. Comparative analyses of all loci, including β-tubulin paralogs, indicate a lack of recombination between strains, demonstrating that the morphospecies C. uncinata consists of multiple cryptic species. Further, there is considerable variation in substitution rates among loci as some protein-coding domains are nearly identical between isolates while others differ by up to 13.2% at the amino acid level. Combining insights on macronuclear variation among isolates, the focus of this study, with published data from the micronucleus of two of these isolates indicates that C. uncinata lineages are able to maintain both highly divergent and highly conserved genes within a rapidly evolving germline genome. PMID:22258433

  11. A sequence-based analysis of the pointer distribution of stichotrichous ciliates.

    PubMed

    Verlan, Sergey; Alhazov, Artiom; Petre, Ion

    2010-08-01

    Micronuclear genes in stichotrichous ciliates are broken into blocks separated by noncoding sequences, sometimes with the blocks in a shuffled order, some even inverted. During reproduction, all blocks are assembled in the correct order and orientation. This process is possible due to the special structure of micronuclear genes: each coding block M ends with a short nucleotide sequence (called pointer) that is repeated at the beginning of the coding block that should follow M in the assembled gene. Many of the pointers have multiple occurrences along both strands of the gene. This yields a very high number of pointer-induced possible divisions into coding and noncoding blocks. We investigate the distribution of pointers for all currently sequenced micronuclear ciliate genes with the goal of identifying what distinguishes the real gene structure among all possible coding/noncoding divisions. We find a sharp criterion in the average a/t-content of the noncoding blocks: the real division has, in most cases, the maximum such content among all possible combinations. Even for pointers as short as two nucleotides, the real division is one of very few with an average a/t-content of its noncoding blocks over 80%. The separation is most clear when the loci of pointers of up to four nucleotides (even three in the case of unscrambled genes) are fixed (e.g., through a template-based recombination mechanism).

  12. Compositionally distinct nuclear pore complexes of functionally distinct dimorphic nuclei in ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Osakada, Hiroko; Mori, Chie; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nagao, Koji; Obuse, Chikashi; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2017-04-06

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC), a gateway for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, is composed of about 30 different proteins called nucleoporins. It remains unknown whether the NPCs within a species are homogeneous or vary depending on the cell type, or physiological condition. Here, we present evidence for compositionally distinct NPCs that form within a single cell in a binucleated ciliate. In Tetrahymena thermophila, each cell contains both a transcriptionally-active macronucleus (MAC) and a germline micronucleus (MIC). By combining in silico analysis, mass spectrometry analysis for immuno-isolated proteins, and subcellular localization analysis of GFP fused proteins, we identified numerous novel components of MAC and MIC NPCs. Core members of the Nup107-160 scaffold complex were enriched in MIC NPCs. Strikingly, two paralogs of Nup214 and of Nup153 localized exclusively to either MAC or MIC NPCs. Furthermore, the transmembrane components Pom121 and Pom82 localize exclusively to MAC and MIC NPCs, respectively. Our results argue that functional nuclear dimorphism in ciliates is likely to depend on compositional and structural specificity of NPCs.

  13. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    PubMed Central

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. PMID:20714425

  14. Biotests using unicellular algae and ciliates for predicting long-term effects of toxicants.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, H; Hettler, H; Fritsche, U; Pitzen, G; Röderer, G; Wenzel, A

    1994-02-01

    Test systems for predicting long-term effects with the freshwater algae Chlamydomonas reinhardi and Scenedesmus subspicatus and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis were evaluated with respect to the following reference chemicals: atrazine, bromacil, diuron, methyl parathion, lindane, 3,4-dichloroaniline, pentachlorophenol, cadmium, copper, and the volatile 1,2-dichloropropane. In growth-inhibition tests under static conditions the algae revealed a higher sensitivity to the toxicants than the ciliate except for lindane and methyl parathion. Comparison of the impairment of photosynthetic efficiency (EPR, NOEC 24 hr) with the inhibition of growth (NOEC 72 hr) of S. subspicatus revealed a higher sensitivity of the EPR parameter for inhibitors of the photosynthesis. A flowthrough system was developed for long-term tests and testing of volatile and instable substances. Under flowthrough conditions C. reinhardi was more susceptible to the chemicals than under static test conditions, except for pentachlorophenol. Due to the high volatility, 1,2-dichloropropane was only tested in the flowthrough system. The data obtained from these toxicity tests provide information about effects on organisms representing different levels of the aquatic food web, possessing differences in sensitivity against toxicants. The presented flowthrough system allows the testing of volatile and instable chemicals, problematic in static test systems, and the EPR parameter is suitable for the early characterization of chemicals acting as specific inhibitors of the photosynthetic electron transport chain.

  15. Soil Ciliates from Saudi Arabia, Including Descriptions of Two New Genera and Six New Species

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm; QUINTELA-ALONSO, Pablo; AL-RASHEID, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Summary Six soil samples from natural and cultivated sites of Saudi Arabia were investigated for ciliate diversity, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, and silver impregnation. We identified 135 species, all new for the fauna of Saudi Arabia, of which seven were undescribed: Spathidium alqasabi nov. spec.; Enchelyodon alqasabi nov. spec.; Metauroleptus arabicus nov. gen., nov. spec.; Pseudohemisincirra arabica nov. gen., nov. spec.; Saudithrix terricola​ Berger, Al-Rasheid and Foissner, 2006; Oxytricha arabica nov. spec.; and Erimophrya monostyla nov. spec. Based on Spathidium alqasabi, S. seppelti foissneri​ Vd’ačný et al., 2006 and S. seppelti etoschense​ Foissner et al., 2002 are raised to species rank; for the latter, a new name is required to avoid homonymy: Spathidium fraterculum nov. nom. The new genus Metauroleptus, which possesses two long and two to three short ventral cirral rows, generates all dorsal kineties intrakinetally and produces caudal cirri exclusively in dorsal kinety 1. Metauroleptus belongs to the hypotrichs, while family classification remains doubtful. The same applies to the new hypotrich genus Pseudohemisincirra, which has frontoventral and transverse cirri, while buccal cirri and caudal cirri are absent. The number of species contained in Saudi Arabian soils, including sand dunes, is in the range reported from other regions of the earth, suggesting that ciliates are well adapted to dry habitats, possibly mainly by their ability to produce very resistant resting cysts, most surviving for a long time due to reduced metazoan predation. PMID:20890459

  16. A cover of glass: first report of biomineralized silicon in a ciliate, Maryna umbrellata (Ciliophora: Colpodea).

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Weissenbacher, Birgit; Krautgartner, Wolf-Dietrich; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Using hydrofluoric acid, scanning electron microscope-assisted X-ray microanalysis, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, we present the first definite proof of biomineralized silicon [(SiO(2))](n) in a ciliophoran protist, Maryna umbrellata, a common inhabitant of ephemeral pools. In the trophic specimen, the amorphic silicon (glass) granules are accumulated in the anterior half of the body. When entering the dormant stage, most glass granules are excreted to form the surface cover of the globular resting cyst. Most likely, the silicon granules are synthesized in vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. First, nanospheres with a size of 20-40 nm are formed in a fibrous matrix; they grow to be spongious complexes, eventually becoming amorphous glass granules with an average size of 819 nm x 630 nm. In the transmission electron microscope, the silicon granules show the characteristic fracture pattern of glass known from many other silicon-bearing organisms. A literature survey suggests that silicon is very rare in ciliates. The fine structure and genesis of silicon granules in M. umbrellata are very similar to those of other organisms, including vascular plants and animals, indicating a common mechanism. Light perception and protection against mechanical stress and predators might be functions of the silicon granules in M. umbrellata. The palaeontological significance of glass cysts in ciliates is also discussed.

  17. An annotated and revised checklist of pleurostome ciliates (Protista: Ciliophora: Litostomatea) from Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Vďačný, Peter; Rajter, L'ubomír

    2014-02-04

    Pleurostomatids are predatory ciliates, living especially in the periphyton and benthos of various freshwater and marine habitats. In the present work, we provide an annotated and revised checklist of this ciliate group from the territory of Slovakia. Altogether 29 pleurostome species belonging to five genera have been reported there: Acineria incurvata, Ac. punctata, Ac. uncinata, Amphileptus claparedii, Am. falcatus, Am. fusiformis, Am. parafusidens, Am. pleurosigma, Am. procerus, Am. punctatus, A. rotundus, Litonotus alpestris, Li. anguilla, Li. carinatus, Li. crystallinus, Li. cygnus, Li. fasciola, Li. fusidens, Li. hirundo, Li. lamella, Li. minisculus, Li. muscorum, Li. obtusus, Li. triqueter, Li. varsaviensis, Loxophyllum helus, Lo. meleagris, Lo. rostratum, and Siroloxophyllum utriculariae. We have catalogued these records providing the following data for each species: (1) author(s) and date of publication; (2) name(s) of the species as appeared in the publication(s) followed by chronologically listed references including relevant page(s) in literature; (3) nomenclatural and taxonomic notes if needed; (4) main morphological characters; (5) morphological data on Slovak populations if available; and (6) all faunistic records.

  18. Membrane trafficking in protozoa SNARE proteins, H+-ATPase, actin, and other key players in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Due to their well-defined pathways of vesicle trafficking and manyfold mutants ciliates have served as good model systems. Further studies required the development of databases, now available for Paramecium and Tetrahymena. A variety of key players have been identified and characterized based on BLAST search, domain analysis, localization, and gene-silencing studies. They include NSF (N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor), SNAREs (soluble NSF attachment protein [SNAP] receptors), the H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and actin, while Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) and Rab-type small GTPases, COPs (coatamer proteins) and many others remain to be elucidated. The number of SNAREs, H(+)-ATPase subunits, and actins ever found within one cell type are unexpectedly high and most of the manifold vesicle types seem to be endowed with specific molecular components pertinent to trafficking. As in higher eukaryotes, multifactorial targeting likely occurs. It appears that, in parallel to higher organisms, ciliates have evolved a similar structural and molecular complexity of vesicle trafficking.

  19. Ciliated adenocarcinomas of the lung: a tumor of non-terminal respiratory unit origin.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Young; Kim, Mi Hyun; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jung Hee; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Jee Yeon; Park, Do Youn; Lee, Chang Hun; Sol, Mee Young

    2012-09-01

    Whereas most carcinomas occur through a sequential step, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma pathway is known for pulmonary adenocarcinoma. This type is known as terminal respiratory unit adenocarcinoma. Based on our observation of transitions from normal ciliated columnar cells to adenocarcinoma via dysplastic mucous columnar cells, we reviewed our archive of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma was defined as adenocarcinoma with type II pneumocyte, Clara cell, or bronchiolar cell morphology according to previous reports. Among 157 cases, 121 cases have been identified as terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma and 36 cases as non-terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma. Among non-terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma, 24 cases revealed mucous columnar cell changes that were continuous with bronchial ciliated columnar cells. The mucous columnar cells became dysplastic showing loss of cilia, disorientation, and enlarged nuclei. Adenocarcinoma arose from these dysplastic mucous columnar cells and, characteristically, this type of adenocarcinoma showed acute inflammation, and honeycombing changes in the background. TTF1 immunostaining was consistently negative. In a case study with 14 males and 10 females, including 12 smokers or ex-smokers, EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 3 and 6 patients, respectively. We think that this kind of adenocarcinoma arising through mucous columnar cell change belongs to non-terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma, and mucous columnar cell change is a precursor lesion of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  20. Survival characteristics of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes and Helicobacter pylori during passage through the free-living ciliate, Tetrahymena sp.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ciliates prey on bacteria in water and waste water systems. Compartmentalization of ingested material (including bacteria) in the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena and its egestion in the fecal pellet has been described and the survival of Salmonella enterica and E. coli O157:H7 in such fecal pellets ha...

  1. Ciliates use both variant and universal genetic codes: evidence of omnipotent eRF1s in the class Litostomatea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oanh Thi Phuong; Sakurai, Aki; Saito, Kazuki; Ito, Koichi; Ikehara, Kenji; Harumoto, Terue

    2008-07-01

    Stop codon reassignments have occurred very frequently in ciliates. In some ciliate species, the universal stop codons UAA and UAG are translated into glutamine, while in some other species, the universal stop codon UGA appears to be translated into cysteine or tryptophan. The class Litostomatea has been hypothesized to be the only group of ciliates using the universal genetic code. However, the hypothesis was based on a statistical analysis of quite small sequence dataset which was insufficient to elucidate the codon usage of the class among such highly deviated phylum. In this study, together with the updated database sequence analysis for the class, we approached the problem of stop codon usage by examining the capacity of the translation termination factor eRF1 for recognizing stop codons. Using in vivo assay systems in budding yeast, we estimated the activity of eRF1 from two litostome species Didinium nasutum and Dileptus margaritifer. The results clearly showed that Didinium and Dileptus eRF1s efficiently recognize all three stop codons. This is the first experimental evidence that strongly supports the hypothesis that litostome ciliates use universal genetic code.

  2. Polymorphism, recombination and alternative unscrambling in the DNA polymerase alpha gene of the ciliate Stylonychia lemnae (Alveolata; class Spirotrichea).

    PubMed Central

    Ardell, David H; Lozupone, Catherine A; Landweber, Laura F

    2003-01-01

    DNA polymerase alpha is the most highly scrambled gene known in stichotrichous ciliates. In its hereditary micronuclear form, it is broken into >40 pieces on two loci at least 3 kb apart. Scrambled genes must be reassembled through developmental DNA rearrangements to yield functioning macronuclear genes, but the mechanism and accuracy of this process are unknown. We describe the first analysis of DNA polymorphism in the macronuclear version of any scrambled gene. Six functional haplotypes obtained from five Eurasian strains of Stylonychia lemnae were highly polymorphic compared to Drosophila genes. Another incompletely unscrambled haplotype was interrupted by frameshift and nonsense mutations but contained more silent mutations than expected by allelic inactivation. In our sample, nucleotide diversity and recombination signals were unexpectedly high within a region encompassing the boundary of the two micronuclear loci. From this and other evidence we infer that both members of a long repeat at the ends of the loci provide alternative substrates for unscrambling in this region. Incongruent genealogies and recombination patterns were also consistent with separation of the two loci by a large genetic distance. Our results suggest that ciliate developmental DNA rearrangements may be more probabilistic and error prone than previously appreciated and constitute a potential source of macronuclear variation. From this perspective we introduce the nonsense-suppression hypothesis for the evolution of ciliate altered genetic codes. We also introduce methods and software to calculate the likelihood of hemizygosity in ciliate haplotype samples and to correct for multiple comparisons in sliding-window analyses of Tajima's D. PMID:14704164

  3. Survival characteristics of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes and Helicobacter pylori during passage through the free-living ciliate, Tetrahymena sp.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charlotte D; Berk, Sharon G; Brandl, Maria T; Riley, Lee W

    2012-12-01

    Free-living protozoa have been implicated in the survival and transport of pathogens in the environment, but the relationship between non-Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Helicobacter pylori and ciliates has not been characterized. Six diarrheagenic pathotypes of E. coli and an isolate of H. pylori were evaluated for their susceptibility to digestion by Tetrahymena, an aquatic ciliate. Tetrahymena strain MB125 was fed E. coli or H. pylori, and the ciliate's egested products examined for viable bacterial pathogens by the BacLight(™) LIVE/DEAD (™) assay, a cell elongation method, and by colony counts. All six diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes survived digestion, whereas H. pylori was digested. Growth of E. coli on agar plates indicated that the bacteria were able to replicate after passage through the ciliate. Transmission electron micrographs of E. coli cells as intact rods vs. degraded H. pylori cells corroborated these results. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a net-like matrix around intact E. coli cells in fecal pellets. These results suggest a possible role for Tetrahymena and its egested fecal pellets in the dissemination of diarrheagenic E. coli in the environment. This bacterial-protozoan interaction may increase opportunities for transmission of diarrheagenic E. coli to mammalian hosts including humans. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Meiosis gene inventory of four ciliates reveals the prevalence of a synaptonemal complex-independent crossover pathway.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jingyun; Mahé, Frédéric; Loidl, Josef; Logsdon, John; Dunthorn, Micah

    2014-03-01

    To establish which meiosis genes are present in ciliates, and to look for clues as to which recombination pathways may be treaded by them, four genomes were inventoried for 11 meiosis-specific and 40 meiosis-related genes. We found that the set of meiosis genes shared by Tetrahymena thermophila, Paramecium tetraurelia, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and Oxytricha trifallax is consistent with the prevalence of a Mus81-dependent class II crossover pathway that is considered secondary in most model eukaryotes. There is little evidence for a canonical class I crossover pathway that requires the formation of a synaptonemal complex (SC). This gene inventory suggests that meiotic processes in ciliates largely depend on mitotic repair proteins for executing meiotic recombination. We propose that class I crossovers and SCs were reduced sometime during the evolution of ciliates. Consistent with this reduction, we provide microscopic evidence for the presence only of degenerate SCs in Stylonychia mytilus. In addition, lower nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation rates of some of the meiosis genes suggest that, in contrast to most other nuclear genes analyzed so far, meiosis genes in ciliates are largely evolving at a slower rate than those genes in fungi and animals.

  5. Notes on soil ciliates from Singapore, with description of Suturothrix monoarmata nov. gen., nov. spec. (Protozoa, Ciliophora).

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Few data are available on soil ciliates from Asia. Thus, seven samples were collected in Singapore in February 1987 and investigated between December 1987 and May 1989, using the non-flooded Petri dish method, live observation, and silver impregnation. One hundred and three ciliate taxa, all new for the fauna of Singapore and Malaysia, were found. This applies also to Hemimastix amphikineta, a highly characteristic, euglenid flagellate with Gondwanan distribution. At least three undescribed ciliate species were discovered, viz., Ottowphrya magna, which has been published by Foissner (1993), Dileptus microstoma Vd'ačný & Foissner (2008), and Suturothrix monoarmata, which is described in the present paper. The new genus Suturothrix belongs to the order Haptorida and is unique in having a heteromorphic dorsal brush consisting of three staggered rows, thus forming a suture with the last right side ciliary row. Suturothrix monoarmata is a slender, middle-sized (~ 100 × 15 μm) ciliate easily recognisable by the single or two thick extrusomes in the centre of the minute oral bulge. The species is not restricted to Asia but has been found also in soil from the Amazon floodplain, Brazil.

  6. Notes on soil ciliates from Singapore, with description of Suturothrix monoarmata nov. gen., nov. spec. (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    PubMed Central

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available on soil ciliates from Asia. Thus, seven samples were collected in Singapore in February 1987 and investigated between December 1987 and May 1989, using the non-flooded Petri dish method, live observation, and silver impregnation. One hundred and three ciliate taxa, all new for the fauna of Singapore and Malaysia, were found. This applies also to Hemimastix amphikineta, a highly characteristic, euglenid flagellate with Gondwanan distribution. At least three undescribed ciliate species were discovered, viz., Ottowphrya magna, which has been published by Foissner (1993), Dileptus microstoma Vd’ačný & Foissner (2008), and Suturothrix monoarmata, which is described in the present paper. The new genus Suturothrix belongs to the order Haptorida and is unique in having a heteromorphic dorsal brush consisting of three staggered rows, thus forming a suture with the last right side ciliary row. Suturothrix monoarmata is a slender, middle-sized (~ 100 × 15 μm) ciliate easily recognisable by the single or two thick extrusomes in the centre of the minute oral bulge. The species is not restricted to Asia but has been found also in soil from the Amazon floodplain, Brazil. PMID:21151764

  7. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P < 0.05), while no similar result was observed at other sites. At 75 m deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  8. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Song, Weibo; Lu, Lu; Alan, Warren

    2005-09-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32 x 9.51 ( R 2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was found to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86 x+0.89 ( R 2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2 862.85 e -0.08 x ( R 2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=127.15 e -0.13 x ( R 2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  9. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  10. Evaluation of double formalin--Lugol's fixation in assessing number and biomass of ciliates: an example of estimations at mesoscale in NE Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Karayanni, Hera; Christaki, Urania; Van Wambeke, France; Dalby, Andrew P

    2004-03-01

    Ciliated protozoa are potential grazers of primary and bacterial production and act as intermediaries between picoplankton and copepods and other large suspension feeders. Accurate determination of ciliate abundance and feeding mode is crucial in oceanic carbon budget estimations. However, the impact of different fixatives on the abundance and cell volume of ciliates has been investigated in only a few studies using either laboratory cultures or natural populations. Lugol's solution and formalin are the most commonly used fixatives for the preservation of ciliates samples. In the present study, the aim was to compare 0.4% Lugol's solution and 2% borated-formalin fixation and evaluate the need of counting duplicate samples each using a different fixative. For this, a large number of samples (n = 110) from the NE Atlantic was analyzed in the frame of POMME program (Multidisciplinary Mesoscale Ocean Program). We established a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.0001) between Lugol's and formalin fixed samples for both abundance (r2 = 0.50) and biomass (r2 = 0.76) of aloricate ciliates which showed that counts were higher in Lugol's solution by a factor of 2 and a non-taxon specific cell-loss in formalin. However, loricate ciliate abundance in our samples which were represented primarily by Tintinnus spp. did not show any difference between the two treatments. Abundance and biomass of mixotrophic ciliates (chloroplast-bearing cells) were for various reasons underestimated in both treatments. Our results show that unique fixation by formalin may severely underestimate ciliates abundance and biomass although their population may not alter. For this reason, Lugol's solution is best for the estimation of their abundance and biomass. However, for counts of mixotrophs and the evaluation of the ecological role of ciliates in carbon flux, double fixation is essential. Compromises regarding the fixatives have lead to severe underestimations of mixotrophs in studies

  11. A simplified experimental model for clearance of some pathogenic bacteria using common bacterivorous ciliated spp. in Tigris river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Talib Hassan; Saleh, Dhuha Saad

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-specific uptake rates of three different protozoan taxa on a pure and mixed bacterial community was studied by means of a simplified and functionally reproducible experimental model. The bacterial species Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were isolated and classified from stool samples of patients suffering from diarrhea. Paramecium caudatum, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Halteria grandinella, free living ciliate Protozoans, were isolated and identified from Tigris river water. Pure and mixed ( E. coli + S. typhi), ( E. coli + Sh. flexneri) bacterial cultures were used with each ciliate genera to evaluate the following: predator duplication rate, prey reduction rate, clearance rate and net grazing rate. We used selective lactose fermentation phenomena of enteric bacteria on MacConkey medium for the quantification of bacteria cultural characteristics. The final bacteria concentration was reduced by growing protozoa of 98-99.9 % compared to protozoa-free controls. It showed that Tetrahymena pyriformis had the highest duplication rate (4.13 time/day) in both types of cultures (pure and mixed), followed by Paramecium caudatum and Halteria grandinella, respectively. Paramecium caudatum had the highest rate of ingestion in both types of cultures (26 × 103 bacteria/organism/hr) and yielded the longest time required for 90 % bacterial reduction in a pure suspension of S. typhi (166 h). Clearance rates of pathogenic bacteria by ciliates ranged between 106 nanoliter/organism/h by P. caudatum to S. typhi and 1.92 nanoliter/organism/h seen in T. pyriformis in ( E. coli + S. typhi) mixed culture. We used aquatic experimental microcosms under controlled conditions to explore bacteria-dependent ciliate growth and examined whether these ciliates could discriminate between equally sized bacterial preys in a mixture.

  12. Effects of cadmium and copper on chemotaxis of marine and freshwater ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Gunderson, J.H.; Derk, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    Recommendations of a workshop on biological screening requested the inclusion of behavior studies to reveal subtle, dysfunctional effects of pollutants on organisms and suggestions for additional research in development of behavioral tests incorporated into testing protocols were made at the ASTM Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. The present study addresses these research needs by examining a rapid behavioral bioassay using protozoa, microfauna with important roles in microbial-based food chains, regeneration of nutrients, and regulation of bacterial populations in aquatic environments. In this study, ciliated protozoa from both marine and freshwater environments were examined with respect to their response to an attractant in the presence of a variety of concentrations of cadmium and copper.

  13. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar

    2017-03-01

    The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.

  14. Homology Modeling Procedures for Cytoskeletal Proteins of Tetrahymena and Other Ciliated Protists.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni J; Hufnagel, Linda A; King, Roberta S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been an explosive increase in the number of annotated protein sequences available through genome sequencing, as well as an accumulation of published protein structural data based on crystallographic and NMR methods. When taken together with the development of computational methods for the prediction of protein structural and functional properties through homology modeling, an opportunity exists for prediction of properties of cytoskeletal proteins in a suitable model organism, such as Tetrahymena thermophila and its ciliated protist relatives. In particular, the recently sequenced genome of T. thermophila, long a model for cytoskeletal studies, provides a good starting point for undertaking such homology modeling studies. Homology modeling can produce functional predictions, for example regarding potential molecular interactions, that are of great interest to the drug industry and Tetrahymena is an attractive model system in which to follow up computational predictions with experimental analyses. We provide here procedures that can be followed to gain entry into this promising avenue of analysis.

  15. Effect of Cypermethrin on the Growth of Ciliate Protozoan Paramecium caudatum

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of cypermethrin on the growth of ciliate protozoan Paramecium caudatum. Materials and Methods: Monoxenic culture of P. caudatum, were exposed to different doses (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 µg/L) of cypermethrin along with control for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h time interval. The total numbers of live and dead cells were counted after trypan blue staining in Neubauer hemocytometer. Results: Marked decrease in the number of living cells with the increase in the concentration of cypermethrin and with increasing exposure time intervals was recorded. Conclusion: The results indicate that cypermethrin is toxic to P. caudatum even at low concentrations when it enters in the aquatic system through runoff. PMID:26862268

  16. A pseudo-phytochelatin synthase in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Francisco; Ruotolo, Roberta; Martín-González, Ana; Faccini, Andrea; Ottonello, Simone; Gutiérrez, Juan-Carlos

    2009-05-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) and metallothioneins (MTs) are the two major heavy metal chelating peptides in eukaryotes. We report here on the identification of a biosynthetically inactive pseudo-phytochelatin synthase enzyme (TtpsiPCS) in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, the first of this kind (pseudo-PCS) to be described in eukaryotes. TtpsiPCS which resembles a true PCS at the N-terminal region, while it is most divergent in its Cys-poor C-terminal region, was found to be up-regulated under cadmium stress conditions. However, only glutathione (GSH) hydrolysis products, but not PCs, could be detected in extracts from Cd-treated cells. The latter feature is reminiscent of pseudo-PCS enzymes recently identified in cyanobacteria, which are also biosynthetically inactive, but capable to hydrolyze GSH.

  17. Current status of parasitic ciliates Chilodonella spp. (Phyllopharyngea: Chilodonellidae) in freshwater fish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bastos Gomes, G; Jerry, D R; Miller, T L; Hutson, K S

    2016-07-30

    Freshwater fish farming contributes to more than two-thirds of global aquaculture production. Parasitic ciliates are one of the largest causes of production loss in freshwater farmed fishes, with species from the genus Chilodonella being particularly problematic. While Chilodonella spp. include 'free-living' fauna, some species are involved in mortality events of fish, particularly in high-density aquaculture. Indeed, chilodonellosis causes major productivity losses in over 16 species of farmed freshwater fishes in more than 14 countries. Traditionally, Chilodonella species are identified based on morphological features; however, the genus comprises yet uncharacterized cryptic species, which indicates the necessity for molecular diagnostic methods. This review synthesizes current knowledge on the biology, ecology and geographic distribution of harmful Chilodonella spp. and examines pathological signs, diagnostic methods and treatments. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics and the ability to culture Chilodonella spp. in vitro will enable the development of preventative management practices and sustained freshwater fish aquaculture production.

  18. Nuclear Architecture and Patterns of Molecular Evolution Are Correlated in the Ciliate Chilodonella uncinata

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X.; Katz, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life is not well understood, partly because molecular evolution is traditionally explored as changes in base pairs along a linear sequence without considering the context of nuclear position of chromosomes. The ciliate Chilodonella uncinata is an ideal system to address the relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution as the somatic macronucleus of this ciliate is composed of a peripheral DNA-rich area (orthomere) and a DNA-poor central region (paramere) to form a “heteromeric” macronucleus. Moreover, because the somatic chromosomes of C. uncinata are highly processed into “gene-sized” chromosomes (i.e., nanochromosomes), we can assess fine-scale relationships between location and sequence evolution. By combining fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transcriptome data from C. uncinata, we find that highly expressed genes have the greatest codon usage bias and are enriched in DNA-poor regions. In contrast, genes with less biased sequences tend to be concentrated in DNA abundant areas, at least during vegetative growth. Our analyses are consistent with recent work in plants and animals where nuclear architecture plays a role in gene expression. At the same time, the unusual localization of nanochromosomes suggests that the highly structured nucleus in C. uncinata may create a “gene bank” that facilitates rapid changes in expression of genes required only in specific life history stages. By using “nonmodel” organisms like C. uncinata, we can explore the universality of eukaryotic features while also providing examples of novel properties (i.e., the presence of a gene bank) that build from these features. PMID:27189988

  19. Emerging roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C in the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Leondaritis, George; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2011-09-01

    Phospholipases C (PLCs) that hydrolyze inositol phospholipids regulate vital cellular functions in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The PLC superfamily consists of eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific PLCs (PI-PLCs), bacterial PLCs and trypanosomal PLCs.1 PI-PLCs hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P(2)) to produce inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins1,4,5P(3)) and constitute a hallmark feature of eukaryotic cells. In metazoa, this reaction is coupled to receptor signaling via specific PI-PLC isoforms and results in acute increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels by Ins1,4,5P(3)-sensitive Ca(2+) channels (IP(3)-receptors, IP3Rs).2 A striking result of many studies so far has been the presence of a single PI-PLC gene in all unicellular eukaryotes investigated, as opposed to expansion of PI-PLC isoforms in metazoa;3 this has suggested that a single housekeeping PI-PLC represents an archetypal and simplified form of PI-PLC signaling.3 Several studies however have noted a unique expansion of PI-PLC/IP3R pathway components in ciliates.4,5 In a recent paper we showed the presence of multiple functional PI-PLC genes in Tetrahymena thermophila and biochemical characterization, pharmacological studies and study of their expression patterns suggested that they are likely to serve distinct non-redundant roles.4 In this report we discuss these studies and how they advance our understanding of PI-PLC functions in ciliates.

  20. Emerging roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C in the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium

    PubMed Central

    Leondaritis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipases C (PLCs) that hydrolyze inositol phospholipids regulate vital cellular functions in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The PLC superfamily consists of eukaryotic phosphoinositide-specific PLCs (PI-PLCs), bacterial PLCs and trypanosomal PLCs.1 PI-PLCs hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) to produce inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins1,4,5P3) and constitute a hallmark feature of eukaryotic cells. In metazoa, this reaction is coupled to receptor signaling via specific PI-PLC isoforms and results in acute increase of cytosolic Ca2+ levels by Ins1,4,5P3-sensitive Ca2+ channels (IP3-receptors, IP3Rs).2 A striking result of many studies so far has been the presence of a single PI-PLC gene in all unicellular eukaryotes investigated, as opposed to expansion of PI-PLC isoforms in metazoa;3 this has suggested that a single housekeeping PI-PLC represents an archetypal and simplified form of PI-PLC signaling.3 Several studies however have noted a unique expansion of PI-PLC/IP3R pathway components in ciliates.4,5 In a recent paper we showed the presence of multiple functional PI-PLC genes in Tetrahymena thermophila and biochemical characterization, pharmacological studies and study of their expression patterns suggested that they are likely to serve distinct non-redundant roles.4 In this report we discuss these studies and how they advance our understanding of PI-PLC functions in ciliates. PMID:22046467

  1. PLASTID DYNAMICS DURING SURVIVAL OF DINOPHYSIS CAUDATA WITHOUT ITS CILIATE PREY(1).

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Gil; Park, Jong Soo; Kim, Miran; Yih, Wonho

    2008-10-01

    To survive, the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis caudata Saville-Kent must feed on the plastidic ciliate Myrionecta rubra (=Mesodinium rubrum), itself a consumer of cryptophytes. Whether D. caudata has its own permanent chloroplasts or retains plastids from its ciliate prey, however, remains unresolved. Further, how long D. caudata plastids (or kleptoplastids) persist and remain photosynthetically active in the absence of prey remains unknown. We addressed those issues here, using the first established culture of D. caudata. Phylogenetic analyses of the plastid 16S rRNA and psbA gene sequences directly from the three organisms (D. caudata, M. rubra, and a cryptophyte) revealed that the sequences of both genes from the three organisms are almost identical to each other, supporting that the plastids of D. caudata are kleptoplastids. A 3-month starvation experiment revealed that D. caudata can remain photosynthetically active for ∼2 months when not supplied with prey. D. caudata cells starved for more than 2 months continued to keep the plastid 16S rRNA gene but lost the photosynthesis-related genes (i.e., psaA and psbA genes). When the prey was available again, however, D. caudata cells starved for more than 2 months were able to reacquire plastids and slowly resumed photosynthetic activity. Taken all together, the results indicate that the nature of the relationship between D. caudata and its plastids is not that of permanent cellular acquisitions. D. caudata is an intriguing protist that would represent an interesting evolutionary adaptation with regard to photosynthesis as well as help us to better understand plastid evolution in eukaryotes.

  2. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Gao, Shan; Min, Gi-Sik; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  3. Ciliate pellicular proteome identifies novel protein families with characteristic repeat motifs that are common to alveolates.

    PubMed

    Gould, Sven B; Kraft, Lesleigh G K; van Dooren, Giel G; Goodman, Christopher D; Ford, Kristina L; Cassin, Andrew M; Bacic, Antony; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Waller, Ross F

    2011-03-01

    The pellicles of alveolates (ciliates, apicomplexans, and dinoflagellates) share a common organization, yet perform very divergent functions, including motility, host cell invasion, and armor. The alveolate pellicle consists of a system of flattened membrane sacs (alveoli, which are the defining feature of the group) below the plasma membrane that is supported by a membrane skeleton as well as a network of microtubules and other filamentous elements. We recently showed that a family of proteins, alveolins, are common and unique to this pellicular structure in alveolates. To identify additional proteins that contribute to this structure, a pellicle proteome study was conducted for the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We found 1,173 proteins associated with this structure, 45% (529 proteins) of which represented novel proteins without matches to other functionally characterized proteins. Expression of four newly identified T. thermophila pellicular proteins as green fluorescent protein-fusion constructs confirmed pellicular location, and one new protein located in the oral apparatus. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 21% of the putative pellicular proteins, predominantly the novel proteins, contained highly repetitive regions with strong amino acid biases for particular residues (K, E, Q, L, I, and V). When the T. thermophila novel proteins were compared with apicomplexan genomic data, 278 proteins with high sequence similarity were identified, suggesting that many of these putative pellicular components are shared between the alveolates. Of these shared proteins, 126 contained the distinctive repeat regions. Localization of two such proteins in Toxoplasma gondii confirmed their role in the pellicle and in doing so identified two new proteins of the apicomplexan invasive structure--the apical complex. Screening broadly for these repetitive domains in genomic data revealed large and actively evolving families of such proteins in alveolates, suggesting that these

  4. Tetrahymena pyriformis in the ciliate mobility test. Validation and description of a testing procedure for the registration of harmful substances in the air as well as the effects of cigarette smoke on the human respiratory ciliated epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gräf, W; Gräf, H; Wenz, M

    1999-02-01

    The damage of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium or its ciliar activity caused by mixtures of harmful substances in the air and cigarette smoke is a considerable parameter for the judgment of acute harmful influences on the human respiratory tract. As an immediate measuring or a quantitative statement about the influence on cilia in vivo at human beings is extremely difficult and problematic, a convenient model experimental system in form of the so called ciliate mobility test (CMT) has been used. In this connection the influence on cilia of the protozan single-celled organism Tetrahymena pyriformis, regarding its average speed of locomotion has been taken as standard. The proof, that the cilia are identical in morphological and functional respect at the human ciliated epithelium and at T. pyriformis has been reached by electron optical comparative representation and bibliographical known substances, influencing cilia (theophylline, bromhexine, ambroxol, terpin hydrate, mercaptoethanesulfonat-sodium, amrinon, salbutamol, tetracosactid-hexaacetate, histamine, and phenol). With regard to the comparability and applicability to the human respiratory ciliated epithelium we have been able to gain statements by means of the CMT. By constructing a special reaction vessel the influence of harmful gases at a thin layer of ciliate culture suspension (1 cm) for a standardised exposure time (1 hour) has been made possible and with that a model for the comparability with the conditions of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium has been created. A number of harmful gases, that are relevant in the air hygiene (CO, CO2, N2, N2O, NO2, O3, SO2) as well as cigarette smoke at active smokers (primary stream smoke) and the inhalation of the smoke of other people's cigarettes has been tested. It turned out, that especially NO2 (nitric oxide) shows a high ciliar toxicity, while the controversially discussed ozone (O3) has not resulted in detraction of cilia. CO, N2O and SO2 have

  5. Ciliate community structure and interactions within the planktonic food web in two alpine lakes of contrasting transparency.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Koinig, Karin A; Rott, Eugen; Sommaruga, Ruben; Tartarotti, Barbara; Trattner, Florian; Sonntag, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Climate warming is accelerating the retreat of glaciers and recently, many 'new' glacial turbid lakes have been created. In the course of time, the loss of the hydrological connectivity to a glacier causes, however, changes in their water turbidity and turns these ecosystems into clear ones.To understand potential differences in the food-web structure between glacier-fed turbid and clear alpine lakes, we sampled ciliates, phyto-, bacterio- and zooplankton in one clear and one glacial turbid alpine lake, and measured key physicochemical parameters. In particular, we focused on the ciliate community and the potential drivers for their abundance distribution.In both lakes, the zooplankton community was similar and dominated by the copepod Cyclops abyssorum tatricus and rotifers including Polyarthra dolichoptera, Keratella hiemalis, Keratella cochlearis and Notholca squamula. The phytoplankton community structure differed and it was dominated by the planktonic diatom Fragilaria tenera and the cryptophyte alga Plagioselmis nannoplanctica in the glacial turbid lake, while chrysophytes and dinoflagellates were predominant in the clear one.Ciliate abundance and richness were higher in the glacial turbid lake (∼4000-27 800 Ind L(-1), up to 29 species) than in the clear lake (∼570-7150 Ind L(-1), up to eight species). The dominant species were Balanion planctonicum, Askenasia cf. chlorelligera, Urotricha cf. furcata and Mesodinium cf. acarus. The same species dominated in both lakes, except for Mesodinium cf. acarus and some particle-associated ciliates, which occurred exclusively in the glacial turbid lake. The relative underwater solar irradiance (i.e. percentage of PAR and UVR at depth) significantly explained their abundance distribution pattern, especially in the clear water lake. In the glacial turbid lake, the abundance of the dominating ciliate taxa was mainly explained by the presence of predatory zooplankton.Our results revealed an unexpected high

  6. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  7. Colonisation and succession of marine biofilm-dwelling ciliate assemblages on biocidal antifouling and fouling-release coatings in temperate Australia.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew G; Scardino, Andrew J; Zalizniak, Liliana; Shimeta, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Ciliate assemblages are often overlooked, but ubiquitous components of microbial biofilms which require a better understanding. Ciliate, diatom and bacterial colonisation were evaluated on two fouling-release (FR) coatings, viz. Intersleek 970 and Hempasil X3, and two biocidal antifouling (AF) coatings, viz. Intersmooth 360 and Interspeed 5640, in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. A total of 15 genera were identified during the 10 week deployment. Intersleek 970 displayed the most rapid fouling by ciliates, reaching 63.3(± 5.9) cells cm(-2). After 10 weeks, all four coatings were extensively fouled. However, the toxicity of the AF coatings still significantly inhibited microbial fouling compared to the FR coatings. On all treatments, colonies of sessile peritrichs dominated the ciliate assemblage in the early stage of succession, but as the biofilm matured, vagile ciliates exerted more influence on the assemblage structure. The AF coatings showed selective toxic effects, causing significant differences in the ciliate species assemblages among the treatments.

  8. Structure and seasonal dynamics of the protozoan community (heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, amoeboid protozoa) in the plankton of a large river (River Danube, Hungary).

    PubMed

    Kiss, Aron Keve; Acs, Eva; Kiss, Keve Tihamér; Török, Júlia Katalin

    2009-05-01

    Seasonal dynamics of all major protozoan groups were investigated in the plankton of the River Danube, upstream of Budapest (Hungary), by bi-weekly sampling over a 1-year long period. Sixty-one heterotrophic flagellate, 14 naked amoeba, 50 testate amoeba, 4 heliozoan and 83 ciliate morphospecies were identified. The estimated abundance ranges of major groups throughout the year were as follows: heterotrophic flagellates, 0.27-7.8 x 10(6)ind.l(-1); naked amoebae, max. 3300ind.l(-1); testaceans, max. 1600ind.l(-1); heliozoans, max. 8500ind.l(-1); ciliates, 132-34,000ind.l(-1). In terms of biovolume, heterotrophic flagellates dominated throughout the year (max. 0.58mm(3)l(-1)), and ciliates only exceeded their biovolume in summer (max. 0.76mm(3)l(-1)). Naked amoeba and heliozoan biovolume was about one, and testacean biovolume 1-3, orders of magnitude lower than that of ciliates. In winter, flagellates, mainly chrysomonads, had the highest biomass, whilst ciliates were dominated by peritrichs. In 2005 from April to July a long spring/summer peak occurred for all protozoan groups. Beside chrysomonads typical flagellates were choanoflagellates, bicosoecids and abundant microflagellates (large chrysomonads and Collodictyon). Most abundant ciliates were oligotrichs, while Phascolodon, Urotricha, Vorticella, haptorids, Suctoria, Climacostomum and Stokesia also contributed significantly to biovolume during rapid succession processes. In October and November a second high protozoan peak occurred, with flagellate dominance, and slightly different taxonomic composition.

  9. Enzymatic and chemical mapping of nucleosome distribution in purified micro- and macronuclei of the ciliated model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Gao, Shan; Liu, Yifan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yurui; Song, Weibo

    2016-09-01

    Genomic distribution of the nucleosome, the basic unit of chromatin, contains important epigenetic information. To map nucleosome distribution in structurally and functionally differentiated micronucleus (MIC) and macronucleus (MAC) of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified MIC and MAC and performed micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion as well as hydroxyl radical cleavage. Different factors that may affect MNase digestion were examined, to optimize mono-nucleosome production. Mono-nucleosome purity was further improved by ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient. As MNase concentration increased, nucleosomal DNA sizes in MIC and MAC converged on 147 bp, as expected for the nucleosome core particle. Both MNase digestion and hydroxyl radical cleavage consistently showed a nucleosome repeat length of ~200 bp in MAC of Tetrahymena, supporting ~50 bp of linker DNA. Our work has systematically tested methods currently available for mapping nucleosome distribution in Tetrahymena, and provided a solid foundation for future epigenetic studies in this ciliated model organism.

  10. A community model of ciliate Tetrahymena and bacteria E. coli. Part 2: Interactions in a batch system

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworska, J.S.; Hallam, T.G.; Schultz, T.W.

    1996-03-01

    Premised on relatively simple assumptions, mathematical models like those of Monod, Pirt or Droop inadequately explain the complex transient behavior of microbial populations. In particular, these models fail to explain many aspects of the dynamics of a Tetrahymena Pyriformis-Escherichia coli community. in this study an alternative approach, an individual-based model, is employed to investigate the growth and interactions of Tetrahymena pyriformis and E. coli in a batch culture. Due to improved representation of physiological processes, the model provides a better agreement with experimental data of bacterial density and ciliate biomass than previous modeling studies. It predicts a much larger coexistence domain than rudimentary models, dependence of biomass dynamics on initial conditions (bacteria to ciliate biomasses ratio) and appropriate timing of minimal bacteria density. Moreover, it is found that accumulation of E. coli sized particles and E. coli toxic metabolites has a stabilizing effect on the system.

  11. Hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from a temporary pond in Argentina, with redescription of Apoamphisiella hymenophora (Stokes, 1886) Berger, 1999.

    PubMed

    Küppers, Gabriela C; Claps, María C

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrichous ciliates collected in the plankton and soil samples from a temporary pond in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, were characterized after live observations and protargol impregnation. Apoamphisiella hymenophora (Stokes) Berger is redescribed and the neotype material deposited. Apoamphisiella hymenophora differs from its congeners in having 2 macronuclear nodules, 1 contractile vacuole with anterior and posterior collecting canals, the absence of cortical granules, 2 cirri behind the rightmost frontal cirrus, 1 postoral cirrus, 6 dorsal rows of dikinetids along with scattered dikinetids on the right body margin, and 3-9 caudal cirri arranged in groups at the ends of dorsal rows 1, 2, and 4. Rigidohymena candens, R. quadrinucleata, Histriculus histrio, Gastrostyla steinii, and Pseudouroleptus caudatus are new for the Argentine microfauna. Since especially the soil ciliates have been almost unexplored in South America, the results from the present investigation describe and contribute to the knowledge of the diversity of these microorganisms within this geographical region.

  12. Ectopic Ciliated Cyst in the Mandible Secondary to Genioplasty and Lefort after Two Years: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Safoura; Sohanian, Shabnam; Khakbaz, Oveis; Abesi, Farida; Aliakbarpour, Fatemeh; Rayani, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The ectopic ciliated cyst is a rare non-odontogenic cyst which occurs as a delayed complication after maxillary sinus radical surgery; this lesion emerges due to the destruction of the sinus mucosa during the surgery and entrapment of the respiratory epithelium in the region. This lesion has been observed in very rare cases following genioplasty and bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Case Report: We reported a case of the ectopic ciliated cyst in in the mandible of a 37-year-old Iranian woman following genioplasty and Lefort 1 surgery after 2 years. Its treatment was enucleation. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up after cosmetic surgery of both jaws is recommended due to the probability of this cyst. PMID:27738612

  13. Morphology, ultrastructure, and molecular phylogeny of the ciliate Sonderia vorax with insights into the systematics of order Plagiopylida

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ciliates of the family Sonderiidae are common members of the eukaryotic communities in various anoxic environments. They host both ecto- and endosymbiotic prokaryotes (the latter associated with hydrogenosomes) and possess peculiar morpho-ultrastructural features, whose functions and homologies are not known. Their phylogenetic relationships with other ciliates are not completely resolved and the available literature, especially concerning electron microscopy and molecular studies, is quite scarce. Results Sonderia vorax Kahl, 1928 is redescribed from an oxygen-deficient, brackish-water pond along the Ligurian Sea coastlines of Italy. Data on morphology, morphometry, and ultrastructure are reported. S. vorax is ovoid-ellipsoid in shape, dorsoventrally flattened, 130 x 69 μm (mean in vivo); it shows an almost spherical macronucleus, and one relatively large micronucleus. The ventral kinetom has a “secant system” including fronto-ventral and fronto-lateral kineties. A distinctive layer of bacteria laying between kineties covers the ciliate surface. Two types of extrusomes and hydrogenosomes-endosymbiotic bacteria assemblages are present in the cytoplasm. The phylogeny based on 18S rRNA gene sequences places S. vorax among Plagiopylida; Sonderiidae clusters with Plagiopylidae, although lower-level relationships remain uncertain. The studied population is fixed as neotype and the ciliate is established as type species of the genus, currently lacking. Conclusions This is the first description of a representative of Sonderiidae performed with both morphological and molecular data. To sum up, many previous hypotheses on this interesting, poorly known taxon are confirmed but confusion and contradictory data are as well highlighted. PMID:23418998

  14. Chemo-accumulation without changes in membrane potential in the microstome form of the ciliate Tetrahymena vorax.

    PubMed

    Grønlien, Heidi K; Rønnevig, Anna Kari; Hagen, Bjarne; Sand, Olav

    2010-12-01

    The swimming behaviour of ciliates is mainly determined by membrane potential and transmembrane fluxes. In a chemical gradient, swimming ciliates may approach or move away from the source. Based on experiments on Paramecium, it is generally assumed that chemical attractants and repellents affect the swimming behaviour of ciliates by specific changes in the membrane potential. We have examined whether there is a causal relationship between membrane potential and chemo-accumulation in the microstome form of the polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax. Effects of chemo-attractants on the membrane potential of Tetrahymena have not been previously reported. Microstome T. vorax cells aggregated close to a point source of l-cysteine and the complex meat hydrolysate proteose peptone. Chemo-accumulated cells displayed a significantly higher turning frequency than control cells at a similar cell density. A concentration of 20 mmol l(-1) l-cysteine did not evoke any detectable change in the membrane potential whereas 1% proteose peptone depolarised the cells by ∼12 mV. This is contrary to the current model, which predicts agents that induce a moderate depolarisation to be repellents. A solution of 1% proteose peptone contains 21 mmol(-1) Na(+). A solution of 21 mmol(-1) NaCl without organic compounds also caused ∼12 mV depolarisation but had no aggregating effect on the cells. Collectively, the electrophysiological and behavioural data indicate that chemo-accumulation in the microstome form of T. vorax is not governed obligatorily by the membrane potential. We thus suggest that the simple membrane potential model for chemokinesis in Paramecium may not be valid for T. vorax.

  15. Chibby functions to preserve normal ciliary morphology through the regulation of intraflagellar transport in airway ciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Siller, Saul S; Burke, Michael C; Li, Feng-Qian; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Airway cilia provide the coordinated motive force for mucociliary transport, which prevents the accumulation of mucus, debris, pollutants, and bacteria in our respiratory tracts. As airway cilia are constantly exposed to the environment and, hence, are an integral component of the pathogenesis of several congenital and chronic pulmonary disorders, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms that control ciliated cell differentiation and ciliogenesis. We have previously reported that loss of the basal body protein Chibby (Cby) results in chronic upper airway infection in mice due to a significant reduction in the number of airway cilia. In the present work, we demonstrate that Cby is required for normal ciliary structure and proper distribution of proteins involved in the bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT) system, which consists of 2 distinct sub-complexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, and is essential for ciliary biogenesis and maintenance. In fully differentiated ciliated cells, abnormal paddle-like cilia with dilated ciliary tips are observed in Cby-/- airways and primary cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs). In addition, IFT88, an IFT-B sub-complex protein, robustly accumulates within the dilated tips of both multicilia in Cby-/- MTECs and primary cilia in Cby-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Furthermore, we show that only IFT-B components, including IFT20 and IFT57, but not IFT-A and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins, amass with IFT88 in these distended tips in Cby-/- ciliated cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that Cby plays a role in the proper distribution of IFT particles to preserve normal ciliary morphology in airway ciliated cells.

  16. Determination of trace elements in freshwater rotifers and ciliates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woelfl, S.; Óvári, M.; Nimptsch, J.; Neu, T. R.; Mages, M.

    2016-02-01

    Element determination in plankton is important for the assessment of metal contamination of aquatic environments. Until recently, it has been difficult to determine elemental content in rotifers or ciliates derived from natural plankton samples because of the difficulty in handling and separation of these fragile organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for separation of rotifers and large ciliates from natural plankton samples (μg range dry weight) and subsequent analysis of their elemental content using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). Plankton samples were collected from different aquatic environments (three lakes, one river) in Chile, Argentina and Hungary. From one to eighty specimens of five rotifer species (Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus falcatus, Asplanchna sieboldii, Asplanchna sp., Philodina sp.) and four to twelve specimens of one large ciliate (Stentor amethystinus) were prepared according to the dry method originally developed for microcrustaceans, and analysed by TRXF following in situ microdigestion. Our results demonstrated that it possible to process these small and fragile organisms (individual dry mass: 0.17-9.39 μg ind- 1) via careful washing and preparation procedures. We found species-dependent differences of the element mass fractions for some of the elements studied (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb), especially for Cu, Fe and Mn. One large rotifer species (A. sieboldii) also showed a negative correlation between individual dry weight and the element content for Pb, Ni and Cr. We conclude that our application of the in situ microdigestion-TRXF method is suitable even for rotifers and ciliates, greatly expanding the possibilities for use of plankton in biomonitoring of metal contamination in aquatic environments.

  17. The influence of environmental characteristics on the distribution of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in an urban stream of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, R J P; Wieloch, A H; D'Agosto, M

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the ciliated protozoa community at three sampling stations that receive different levels of domestic sewage along the São Pedro Stream in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to determine the influence of organic pollution on this community and to assess the feasibility of using ciliates as water quality indicators. Four physical-chemical parameters of the water samples were evaluated: dissolved oxygen concentration, electrical conductivity, pH and temperature. The sediment was obtained manually, using dredges with capacity of 300 mL, at each collection point. Point 1 was located in a rural region that receives a low sewage load, while Points 2 and 3 were located in populated regions receiving high sewage loads. We found 22 ciliate species, of which 18 are included in the saprobic system and are considered bioindicators. These showed beta-mesosaprobic environments at Point 1 and alfa-mesosaprobic to polisaprobic environments at Points 2 and 3. The low levels of dissolved oxygen and the high electrical conductivity values at Points 2 and 3, together with the strong similarity between the ciliate taxocenoses of these points and the weak similarity between Point 1 and the other two, confirm the high sewage loads received at the latter two points. The combination of the biological indicators and physical-chemical analyses therefore proved itself to be an efficient method of evaluating water quality, and has excellent potential to support decisions on the conservation of headwaters and recuperation of degraded environments in lotic systems.

  18. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  19. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2012-08-01

    Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

  20. Sperm protein 17 and AKAP-associated sperm protein cancer/testis antigens are expressed in ciliated hepatic foregut cysts.

    PubMed

    Grizzi, Fabio; Franceschini, Barbara; Di Biccari, Sonia; Musardo, Stefano; Pedretti, Elisa; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Osipov, Vladimir; Fernández-Aceñero, Maria J

    2015-09-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts (CHFCs) are retained benign lesions of the liver. However, a case of squamous cell metaplasia and five cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from a CHFC have been described. The potential of malignant transformation makes the identification of new biomarkers necessary. As the cancer/testis antigen sperm protein 17 (Sp17) has been detected in oral and oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of Sp17 and AKAP-associated sperm protein (ASP), which has a shared N-terminal sequence with Sp17, in four surgically resected CHFCs. CHFC specimens were taken from two patients who attended the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA and two patients who attended the Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain. CHFCs were found to be immunopositive for Sp17 and ASP. Both proteins were localized to the cytoplasm of ciliated cells lining the cysts, and their cilia. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Sp17 and ASP overlapped in the same region of the cell. Sp17 and ASP cancer/testis antigens were found in ciliated cells of four CHFCs. Further characterization of Sp17 and ASP in patients with CHFCs may provide significant clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying their predisposition to develop squamous cell carcinomas. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution.

  2. Predation impact of ciliated and flagellated protozoa during a summer bloom of brown sulfur bacteria in a meromictic coastal lake.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Alessandro; Borrego, Carles M; Renda, Rossella; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Bruni, Vivia; Guglielmo, Letterio

    2009-10-01

    Anaerobic phagotrophic protozoa may play an important role in the carbon flux of chemically stratified environments, especially when phototrophic sulfur bacteria account for a high proportion of the primary production. To test this assumption, we investigated the vertical and temporal distribution of microbial heterotrophs and of autotrophic picoplankton throughout the water column of the meromictic coastal lake Faro (Sicily, Italy), in the summer of 2004, coinciding with a bloom of brown-colored green sulfur bacteria. We also assessed the grazing impact of ciliated and flagellated protozoa within the sulfur bacteria plate using a modification of the fluorescently labeled bacteria uptake approach, attempting to minimize the biases intrinsic to the technique and to preserve the in situ anoxic conditions. Significant correlations were observed between ciliate biomass and bacteriochlorophyll e concentration, and between heterotrophic nanoflagellate biomass and chlorophyll a concentration in the water column. The major predators of anaerobic picoplankton were pleuronematine ciliates and cryptomonad flagellates, with clearances of 26.6 and 9.5 nL per cell h(-1), respectively, and a cumulative impact on the picoplankton gross growth rate ranging between 36% and 72%. We concluded that protozoan grazing channels a large proportion of anaerobic picoplankton production to higher trophic levels without restraining photosynthetic bacteria productivity.

  3. Ciliate community associated with aquatic macrophyte roots: effects of nutrient enrichment on the community composition and species richness.

    PubMed

    Buosi, Paulo Roberto Bressan; Pauleto, Gustavo Mayer; Lansac-Tôha, Fábio Amodeo; Velho, Luiz Felipe Machado

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the impact of nutrient enrichment on the diversity of the ciliate community associated with the roots of the aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes. The experiment was performed in the Garças Lake, located in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. We conducted two treatments (fertilized and control) with three replicates each. To increase the initial nutrient concentrations in each mesocosm of the fertilized treatment, we added 1000 μgL(-1) of KNO(3) and 200 μgL(-1) of KH(2)PO(4) during each sampling date. We found a relative high number of ciliate species (85 species) and a predominance of hypotrichs. Among the recorded species, about 25% occurred exclusively in the fertilized treatment. Moreover, detrended correspondence analysis demonstrated that the ciliate community associated with E. crassipes roots changed significantly in response to the nutrient input in such a way that the species composition of the fertilized treatment was remarkably different from that of the control. In contrast to our expectations, species richness in the fertilized treatment was significantly higher than that in the control, refuting our hypothesis that species richness decreases under eutrophic conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The differentiated airway epithelium infected by influenza viruses maintains the barrier function despite a dramatic loss of ciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nai-Huei; Yang, Wei; Beineke, Andreas; Dijkman, Ronald; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Thiel, Volker; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Meng, Fandan; Herrler, Georg

    2016-12-22

    Virus-host interactions in the respiratory epithelium during long term influenza virus infection are not well characterized. Therefore, we developed an air-liquid interface culture system for differentiated porcine respiratory epithelial cells to study the effect of virus-induced cellular damage. In our well-differentiated cells, α2,6-linked sialic acid is predominantly expressed on the apical surface and the basal cells mainly express α2,3-linked sialic acid. During the whole infection period, release of infectious virus was maintained at a high titre for more than seven days. The infected epithelial cells were subject to apoptosis resulting in the loss of ciliated cells together with a thinner thickness. Nevertheless, the airway epithelium maintained trans-epithelial electrical resistance and retained its barrier function. The loss of ciliated cells was compensated by the cells which contained the KRT5 basal cell marker but were not yet differentiated into ciliated cells. These specialized cells showed an increase of α2,3-linked sialic acid on the apical surface. In sum, our results help to explain the localized infection of the airway epithelium by influenza viruses. The impairment of mucociliary clearance in the epithelial cells provides an explanation why prior viral infection renders the host more susceptible to secondary co-infection by another pathogen.

  5. Rumen ciliates of domestic cattle (Bos taurus taurus) in Kastamonu, Turkey, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde

    2016-10-01

    Species composition and distribution of ciliates were investigated in the rumen contents of 25 domestic cattle (Bos taurus taurus L.) living in Kastamonu, Turkey. Forty-seven species and 37 morphotypes representing 15 genera were identified. Of them, a new species of Ostracodinium was recognized and described as Ostracodinium anatolicum n. sp. This new species has two caudal lobes. The dorsal lobe is small and rounded and the ventral lobe is triangular shaped and bent toward the dorsal side like a thick hook. Furthermore, the anterior end of the macronucleus (1/5 of the length) is bent toward the left like a hook. The density of rumen ciliates in cattle was 96.8±43.3×10(4)cellsmL(-1) and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 14.2±4.4. Entodinium longinucleatum, E. nanellum, E. simulans and Isotricha prostoma were the most abundant species, each with a prevalence of 88%. Entodinium chatterjeei, E. bifidum m. monospinosum, Hsiungia triciliata, Oligoisotricha bubali, Ostracodinium dogieli, O. mammosum and O. munham are new host records for cattle from Turkey. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions.

  7. Generation of novel AAV variants by directed evolution for improved CFTR delivery to human ciliated airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Li, Wuping; Zhang, Liqun; Johnson, Jarrod S; Zhijian, Wu; Grieger, Joshua C; Ping-Jie, Xiao; Drouin, Lauren M; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Pickles, Raymond J; Samulski, R Jude

    2009-12-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene have been used to deliver CFTR to the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, no significant CFTR function has been demonstrated likely due to low transduction efficiencies of the AAV vectors. To improve AAV transduction efficiency for human airway epithelium (HAE), we generated a chimeric AAV library and performed directed evolution of AAV on an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium. Two independent and novel AAV variants were identified that contained capsid components from AAV-1, AAV-6, and/or AAV-9. The transduction efficiencies of the two novel AAV variants for human ciliated airway epithelium were three times higher than that for AAV-6. The novel variants were then used to deliver CFTR to ciliated airway epithelium from CF patients. Here we show that our novel AAV variants, but not the parental, AAV provide sufficient CFTR delivery to correct the chloride ion transport defect to ~25% levels measured in non-CF cells. These results suggest that directed evolution of AAV on relevant in vitro models will enable further improvements in CFTR gene transfer efficiency and the development of an efficacious and safe gene transfer vector for CF lung disease.

  8. Generation of Novel AAV Variants by Directed Evolution for Improved CFTR Delivery to Human Ciliated Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wuping; Zhang, Liqun; Johnson, Jarrod S; Zhijian, Wu; Grieger, Joshua C; Ping-Jie, Xiao; Drouin, Lauren M; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Pickles, Raymond J; Samulski, R Jude

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene have been used to deliver CFTR to the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, no significant CFTR function has been demonstrated likely due to low transduction efficiencies of the AAV vectors. To improve AAV transduction efficiency for human airway epithelium (HAE), we generated a chimeric AAV library and performed directed evolution of AAV on an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium. Two independent and novel AAV variants were identified that contained capsid components from AAV-1, AAV-6, and/or AAV-9. The transduction efficiencies of the two novel AAV variants for human ciliated airway epithelium were three times higher than that for AAV-6. The novel variants were then used to deliver CFTR to ciliated airway epithelium from CF patients. Here we show that our novel AAV variants, but not the parental, AAV provide sufficient CFTR delivery to correct the chloride ion transport defect to ~25% levels measured in non-CF cells. These results suggest that directed evolution of AAV on relevant in vitro models will enable further improvements in CFTR gene transfer efficiency and the development of an efficacious and safe gene transfer vector for CF lung disease. PMID:19603002

  9. Revealing the Diversity and Quantity of Peritrich Ciliates in Environmental Samples Using Specific Primer-based PCR and Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xihan; Gong, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Peritrichs are a diverse, ecologically important ciliate group usually with a complex life cycle. To date, the community of the peritrichs has been investigated by using morphology-based methods such as living observation and silver staining. Here we show a molecular approach for characterizing the diversity and quantity of free-living peritrichs in environmental samples. We newly designed four peritrich-specific primers targeting 18S rRNA genes that allow clone library construction, screening and analysis. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to quantify peritrichs in environmental samples by using rDNA copy number as an indicator. DNA extracted from four water samples of contrasting environmental gradients was analysed. The results showed that the peritrich community was differentiated among these samples, and that the diversity decreased with the increase of water salinity. The qPCR results are consistent with the library sequence analysis in terms of quantity variations from sample to sample. The development of peritrich-specific primers, for the first time, for conventional PCR and qPCR assays, provides useful molecular tools for revealing the diversity and quantity of peritrich ciliates in environmental samples. Also, our study illustrates the potential of these molecular tools to ecological studies of other ciliate groups in diverse environments. PMID:23100023

  10. Diversification dynamics of rhynchostomatian ciliates: the impact of seven intrinsic traits on speciation and extinction in a microbial group.

    PubMed

    Vďačný, Peter; Rajter, Ľubomír; Shazib, Shahed Uddin Ahmed; Jang, Seok Won; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2017-08-30

    Ciliates are a suitable microbial model to investigate trait-dependent diversification because of their comparatively complex morphology and high diversity. We examined the impact of seven intrinsic traits on speciation, extinction, and net-diversification of rhynchostomatians, a group of comparatively large, predatory ciliates with proboscis carrying a dorsal brush (sensoric structure) and toxicysts (organelles used to kill the prey). Bayesian estimates under the binary-state speciation and extinction model indicate that two types of extrusomes and two-rowed dorsal brush raise diversification through decreasing extinction. On the other hand, the higher number of contractile vacuoles and their dorsal location likely increase diversification via elevating speciation rate. Particular nuclear characteristics, however, do not significantly differ in their diversification rates and hence lineages with various macronuclear patterns and number of micronuclei have similar probabilities to generate new species. Likelihood-based quantitative state diversification analyses suggest that rhynchostomatians conform to Cope's rule in that their diversity linearly grows with increasing body length and relative length of the proboscis. Comparison with other litostomatean ciliates indicates that rhynchostomatians are not among the cladogenically most successful lineages and their survival over several hundred million years could be associated with their comparatively large and complex bodies that reduce the risk of extinction.

  11. Molecular characterization of ABC transporters in marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus: Identification and response to cadmium and benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hokyun; Yim, Bora; Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Haeyeon; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-01-27

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters participate in transporting various substances, including xenobiotics, in or out of cells. However, their genetic information and function in ciliates remain still unclear. In this study, we sequenced and characterized two ABC transporter genes (EcABCB and EcABCC), and investigated the effect of cadmium (Cd) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on their function and gene expression, using efflux assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively, in the marine ciliate, Euplotes crassus. Sequencing analysis and efflux assay showed that EcABCB and EcABCC are typical ABC transporters, possessing conserved function. Exposure to Cd (≥5mg/L) and B[a]P (≥50.5μg/L) enhanced accumulation of a substrate. A significant increase in the expression of EcABCB and EcABC mRNA was observed at lower concentration in response to Cd and B[a]P. Our findings indicate that Cd and B[a]P could inhibit the efflux function of ABC transporters, leading to cellular toxicity in the ciliate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that: 1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and 2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata-specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family -- a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc) -- from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals: 1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and 2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. PMID:24749903

  13. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Common and Rare Taxa of Planktonic Ciliates: Influence of Flood Events and Biogeographic Patterns in Neotropical Floodplains.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Bianca Trevizan; Dias, Juliana Déo; Cabral, Adalgisa Fernanda; Meira, Bianca Ramos; Lansac-Tôha, Fernando Miranda; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio Amodêo; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Velho, Luiz Felipe Machado

    2017-04-06

    After much discussion about the cosmopolitan nature of microbes, the great issue nowadays is to identify at which spatial extent microorganisms may display biogeographic patterns and if temporal variation is important in altering those patterns. Here, planktonic ciliates were sampled from shallow lakes of four Neotropical floodplains, distributed over a spatial extent of ca. 3000 km, during high and low water periods, along with several abiotic and biotic variables potentially affecting the ciliate community. We found that common ciliate species were more associated with environmental gradients and rare species were more related to spatial variables; however, this pattern seemed to change depending on the temporal and spatial scales considered. Environmental gradients were more important in the high waters for both common and rare species. In low waters, common species continued to be mainly driven by environmental conditions, but rare species were more associated with the spatial component, suggesting dispersal limitation likely due to differences in dispersal ability and ecological tolerance of species. We also found that common and rare species were related to different environmental variables, suggesting different ecological niches. At the largest spatial extents, rare species showed clear biogeographic patterns.

  15. Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a marine ciliate, Pleuronema coronatum (ciliophora, scuticociliatida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yantao, Qiu; Weibo, Song

    2002-10-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol’s iodine solution to a commonly occurred marine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the results highlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capability to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00×10-6 and 43.57×10-6, while those of Lugol’s solutions were 90.13 and 67.84×10-6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol’s iodine solution and potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  16. The differentiated airway epithelium infected by influenza viruses maintains the barrier function despite a dramatic loss of ciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nai-Huei; Yang, Wei; Beineke, Andreas; Dijkman, Ronald; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Thiel, Volker; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Meng, Fandan; Herrler, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Virus-host interactions in the respiratory epithelium during long term influenza virus infection are not well characterized. Therefore, we developed an air-liquid interface culture system for differentiated porcine respiratory epithelial cells to study the effect of virus-induced cellular damage. In our well-differentiated cells, α2,6-linked sialic acid is predominantly expressed on the apical surface and the basal cells mainly express α2,3-linked sialic acid. During the whole infection period, release of infectious virus was maintained at a high titre for more than seven days. The infected epithelial cells were subject to apoptosis resulting in the loss of ciliated cells together with a thinner thickness. Nevertheless, the airway epithelium maintained trans-epithelial electrical resistance and retained its barrier function. The loss of ciliated cells was compensated by the cells which contained the KRT5 basal cell marker but were not yet differentiated into ciliated cells. These specialized cells showed an increase of α2,3-linked sialic acid on the apical surface. In sum, our results help to explain the localized infection of the airway epithelium by influenza viruses. The impairment of mucociliary clearance in the epithelial cells provides an explanation why prior viral infection renders the host more susceptible to secondary co-infection by another pathogen. PMID:28004801

  17. Macronuclear Genome Sequence of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a Model Eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Jonathan A; Coyne, Robert S; Wu, Martin; Wu, Dongying; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Wortman, Jennifer R; Badger, Jonathan H; Ren, Qinghu; Amedeo, Paolo; Jones, Kristie M; Tallon, Luke J; Delcher, Arthur L; Salzberg, Steven L; Silva, Joana C; Haas, Brian J; Majoros, William H; Farzad, Maryam; Carlton, Jane M; Smith, Roger K; Garg, Jyoti; Pearlman, Ronald E; Karrer, Kathleen M; Sun, Lei; Manning, Gerard; Elde, Nels C; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Asai, David J; Wilkes, David E; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Collins, Kathleen; Stewart, B. Andrew; Lee, Suzanne R; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Weinberg, Zasha; Ruzzo, Walter L; Wloga, Dorota; Gaertig, Jacek; Frankel, Joseph; Tsao, Che-Chia; Gorovsky, Martin A; Keeling, Patrick J; Waller, Ross F; Patron, Nicola J; Cherry, J. Michael; Stover, Nicholas A; Krieger, Cynthia J; del Toro, Christina; Ryder, Hilary F; Williamson, Sondra C; Barbeau, Rebecca A; Hamilton, Eileen P; Orias, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC) has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC), which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases), using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters), and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins). In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates), no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from other model

  18. Molecular Characterization of a Copper Metallothionein Gene From a Ciliate Tetrahymena farahensis.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Muhammad Tariq; Shakoori, Farah Rauf; Zulifqar, Soumble; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Al-Ghanim, Khalid; Mehboob, Shahid; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf

    2016-08-01

    A new copper metallothionein (TfCuMT) gene has been identified from a locally isolated ciliate Tetrahymena farahensis. It contains 327 nucleotides encoding a peptide chain of 108 amino acids and belongs to class MTT2 and subfamily 7b. Amplification from both gDNA and mRNA confirmed the intronless nature of this gene. Like most of the metallohtioneins, cysteine residues contribute nearly 30% content with the specific CKC motifs. Structural repeats present in peptide sequence of TfCuMT indicate internal duplication of gene at some stage of gene evolution. The predicted model of copper metallothionein protein showed that copper ions are mainly chelated by thiol sulfur of cysteine residues and are embedded in the folds of polypeptide chain. For in vivo expression of TfCuMT in Escherichia coli host cells the classical stop codons, which coded for glutamine in the ciliate were mutated to CAA and CAG through site directed mutagenesis. The mutated gene showed higher expression in pET28a expression vector compared with pET21a. Optimum expression was obtained after 6-8 h of 0.1 mM IPTG induction. Stability of His tagged TfCuMT in 5% SDS was low, with half-life of about 104 min. Presence of 1.0 μM copper increased the expression level by 1.65-fold. Presence of 100 μM Cysteine in culture medium caused 2.4-fold increase in expression level. His tagged TfCuMT was purified through affinity chromatography using NTN-His binding resin in the presence of 0.1 M imidazole and NaCl. The modeled structure of the TfCuMT showed a cleft for Cu binding with correct orientation of Cys residues in the motif CKC. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1843-1854, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Jonathan A; Coyne, Robert S; Wu, Martin; Wu, Dongying; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Wortman, Jennifer R; Badger, Jonathan H; Ren, Qinghu; Amedeo, Paolo; Jones, Kristie M; Tallon, Luke J; Delcher, Arthur L; Salzberg, Steven L; Silva, Joana C; Haas, Brian J; Majoros, William H; Farzad, Maryam; Carlton, Jane M; Smith, Roger K; Garg, Jyoti; Pearlman, Ronald E; Karrer, Kathleen M; Sun, Lei; Manning, Gerard; Elde, Nels C; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Asai, David J; Wilkes, David E; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Collins, Kathleen; Stewart, B Andrew; Lee, Suzanne R; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Weinberg, Zasha; Ruzzo, Walter L; Wloga, Dorota; Gaertig, Jacek; Frankel, Joseph; Tsao, Che-Chia; Gorovsky, Martin A; Keeling, Patrick J; Waller, Ross F; Patron, Nicola J; Cherry, J Michael; Stover, Nicholas A; Krieger, Cynthia J; del Toro, Christina; Ryder, Hilary F; Williamson, Sondra C; Barbeau, Rebecca A; Hamilton, Eileen P; Orias, Eduardo

    2006-09-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC) has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC), which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases), using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters), and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins). In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates), no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from other model

  20. Voltage dependence of two inward currents carried by calcium and barium in the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus.

    PubMed Central

    Deitmer, J W

    1986-01-01

    Two voltage-dependent inward currents in the fresh-water hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia mytilus have been investigated, using two intracellular micro-electrodes, when either Ca ions or Ba ions are the charge carriers. In cells bathed in Ca-free Ba solution the two inward currents, named current I and current II, could be identified and studied in the absence of outward currents. The two inward currents could also be separated by addition of the plant lectin concanavalin A (0.5 microgram/ml) to the external medium, which resulted in the selective inhibition of current I. When the holding potential was set at values between -45 and -65 mV (normal resting potential is -50 mV), current I was shifted parallel to the holding potential along the voltage axis. This shift was 7.6 mV per 10 mV change in holding potential. The amplitude and voltage relationship of current II was not affected by these changes in the holding potential. The amplitude of current I in Ba solution was maximal when the membrane potential was held at -55 mV; it decreased with higher and lower holding potentials. The rate of activation of current I remained virtually unaffected at holding potentials between -45 and -60 mV, and was somewhat reduced at a holding potential of -65 mV. When the extracellular Ca concentration was varied between 0.1 and 5.0 mM, or when the cells were loaded with EGTA to reduce the intracellular level of ionized Ca, the resting membrane potential and the voltage relationships of both current I and II and of the outward current were shifted along the voltage axis according to the expected changes in membrane surface potential. Double-pulse experiments with varying interval potentials suggested voltage-dependent inactivation of current I and Ca-dependent inactivation of current II. Pre-hyperpolarizing steps of only 1 mV amplitude and 30 ms duration could result in the activation of current I, indicating that the activation voltage of current I closely followed the actual

  1. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell D; Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12-13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6-11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  2. [Mating types in the ciliate Dileptus anser. Inheritance and genetic determination].

    PubMed

    Iudin, A L; Uspenskaia, Z I

    2006-01-01

    Hybridological analysis of mating types (MTs) has been first made for the lower ciliate Dileptus anser. Clones of an initially unknown genotype belonging to three MTs (MT I, MT II and MT III), characteristic of D. anser, were isolated from natural reservoirs and further used for crosses. In one group crosses, synclonal inheritance and typical Mendelian behaviour of the character were observed over sexual generations of ciliates. The results suggest that MTs in D. anser may be directly controlled by a single mat locus with three alleles showing peck-order dominance (mat1 > mat2 > mat3). In other words, cells with mat1/mat1, mat1/mat2 and mat1/mat3 genotypes belong to MT I, those with mat2/mat2 and mat2/mat3, and the mat3/mat3 belong to MT II and MT III, respectively. Sexually mature exconjugant clones stably retain their MTs corresponding to their genotypes on vegetative reproduction. The progeny of other group crosses showed various deviations from typical Mendelian behaviour of the character. In some cases, standard Mendelian ratios were more or less violated. Most typical was instability of differentiation for MT in maturing exconjugant clones. Shortly after their maturation, the majority of clones change their MT, rather frequently more than once, although the finally established MT is stably inherited afterwards, during vegetative reproduction. When unstable, exconjugant clones can successively express two or even three MTs characteristic of this species, including MTs that should not have been expected on the basis of parental genotypes available in a given cross. It looks likely that the mat locus in D. anser is complex and multipotential; it is inherited as a whole providing for expression of any MT characteristic of the species (in this respect bearing similarity with Tetrahymena thermophila). Other mechanisms, epigenetic in particular (Nanney, 1958), determine the final expression of one of the three MT potentialities by a given exconjugant clone. Stable

  3. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mitchell D.; Vaughan, Joshua M.; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12–13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6–11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  4. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    PubMed

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  5. Incomplete sterols and hopanoids pathways in ciliates: gene loss and acquisition during evolution as a source of biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Tomazic, Mariela L; Poklepovich, Tomas J; Nudel, Clara B; Nusblat, Alejandro D

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic triterpenoids, such as sterols and hopanoids, are essential components of plasmatic membrane in eukaryotic organisms. Although it is generally assumed that ciliates do not synthesize sterols, and many of them are indeed auxotrophic, a large set of annotated genomic sequences and experimental data from recently studied organisms indicate that they can carry putative genes and respond to the presence/absence of precursors in various ways. The pre-squalene pathway, for instance, is largely present in all sequenced ciliates except in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis; although Paramecium tetraurelia lacks the squalene synthase and Oxytricha trifallax the squalene hopene synthase, in addition to the former. On the other hand, the post-squalene pathway, requiring oxygen in several steps, is mostly incomplete in all ciliates analyzed. Nevertheless, a number of predicted genes, with high sequence similarity to C-4 methyl oxidase/s, C-14 demethylase, C-5 and C-7 desaturases and C-24 reductase of sterols are found in Tetrahymena and Paramecium, and scattered in other Stichotrichia ciliates. Moreover, several of these sequences are present in multiples paralogs, like the C-7 desaturase in Paramecium, that carries six versions of the only one present in Tetrahymena. The phylogenetic analyses suggest a mixed origin for the genes involved in the biosynthesis of sterols and surrogates in this phylum; while the genes encoding enzymes of the pre-squalene pathway are most likely of bacterial origin, those involved in the post-squalene pathway, including the processing of sterols obtained from the environment, may have been partially retained or acquired indistinctly from lower eukaryotes or prokaryotes. This particular combination of diverse gene/s acquisition patterns allows for survival in conditions of poor oxygen availability, in which tetrahymanol and other hopanoids may be advantageous, but also conditions of excess oxygen availability and abundant sterols, in which the

  6. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of the photoreceptor stentorins from the ciliate stentor coeruleus

    SciTech Connect

    Savikhin, S.; Struve, W.S. ); Tao, N.; Song, P.S. )

    1993-11-25

    Polarized absorption difference profiles have been obtained with 3-6-ps resolution between 565 and 630 nm for the chromoproteins stentorin I and stentorin II, isolated from the protozoan ciliate Stentor coeruleus. Control experiments were performed on hypericin and on the stentorin chromophore in methanol. The isotropic decays of stentorin I and the stentorin chromophore are dominated by components with lifetimes conservatively longer than 1 ns. Stentorin I, the stentorin chromophore, and hypericin all develop, within <5 ps, an intense excited-state absorption band that is blue-shifted from and polarized essentially perpendicular to the main long-wavelength absorption band. The presence of this excited-state absorption band is signaled by the appearance of strongly wavelength-dependent initial anisotropies r(0), which assume large positive as well as negative values (>0.4 and <[minus]0.2). To our knowledge, such anisotropies have not been reported in polarized pump-probe studies of rotational diffusion in solution or of energy-transfer kinetics in photosynthetic antennae. Hypericin itself exhibits 0.4-6-ps excited-state absorption decay kinetics, which are likely associated with intramolecular excited-state proton transfer. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Role of the Cytosolic Heat Shock Protein 70 Ssa5 in the Ciliate Protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Akematsu, Takahiko; Attiq, Rizwan; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka; Pearlman, Ronald E

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a member of a family of conserved chaperone proteins whose function is well investigated in many model organisms. Here we focus on an Hsp70 called Ssa5 in the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, and reveal that its translation is heat inducible as for general Hsps. Moreover, the protein is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm during sexual reproduction (conjugation) as well as in response to heat-stress. Knocking out of SSA5 (ΔSSA5) does not affect the survival of the cell under heat-stress, likely due to other Hsp70 paralogs compensating for the defect. During conjugation, ΔSSA5 leads to a fertilization defect in which the two pronuclei are in close proximity but never fuse. The unfertilized pronuclei differentiate, resulting in a heterokaryon with developed haploid germline and somatic nuclei. In addition, degeneration of the parental somatic nucleus is not affected. These results suggest a specific involvement of Ssa5 in pronuclear fusion and fertilization. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. Morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a new marine ciliate, Trichototaxis marina n. sp. (Ciliophora, Urostylida).

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoteng; Gao, Feng; Shao, Chen; Hu, Xiaozhong; Warren, Alan

    2014-10-01

    The live morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new urostylid ciliate, Trichototaxis marina n. sp., collected from coastal water in Qingdao, China, were studied based on the observations of live and silver stained specimens. The new species is characterised as follows: body very flexible and contractile, slight to brick-reddish in colour due to irregularly-shaped, brick-red pigments; ca. 70 adoral membranelles; about 17 frontal cirri arranged in a bicorona; average 67 midventral pairs, the right base of each pair being conspicuously larger than the left base; five to seven transverse cirri; constantly two frontoterminal, one buccal and two pretransverse ventral cirri; two or three left marginal rows; right and innermost left marginal rows with 56-92 and 66-106 cirri, respectively; six bipolar dorsal kineties; more than 100 macronuclear nodules. The characteristic morphogenetic feature in T. marina is the development of the left marginal rows, that is, only one left marginal row is newly built the other one or two being retained from the parental cell. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit ribosomal gene sequence data reveal a close relationship of T. marina with members of family Pseudokeronopsidae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Using in situ flow cytometry images of ciliates and dinoflagellates for aquatic system monitoring.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G C; Figueiredo, A R; Ebecken, N F F

    2017-08-17

    Short-period variability in plankton communities is poorly documented, especially for variations occurring in specific groups in the assemblage because traditional analysis is laborious and time-consuming. Moreover, it does not allow the high sampling frequency required for decision making. To overcome this limitation, we tested the submersible CytoSub flow cytometer. This device was anchored at a distance of approximately 10 metres from the low tide line at a depth of 1.5 metres for 12 hours to monitor the plankton at a site in the biological reserve of Barra da Tijuca beach, Rio de Janeiro. Data analysis was performed with two-dimensional scatter plots, individual pulse shapes and micro images acquisition. High-frequency monitoring results of two interesting groups are shown. The abundance and carbon biomass of ciliates were relatively stable, whereas those from dinoflagellates were highly variable along the day. The linear regression of biovolume measures between classical microscopy and in situ flow cytometry demonstrate high degree of adjustment. Despite the success of the trial and the promising results obtained, the large volume of images generated by the method also creates a need to develop pattern recognition models for automatic classification of in situ cytometric images.

  10. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Barsi, Julius C; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis.

  11. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin W H; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion.

  12. Experimental identification and analysis of macronuclear non-coding RNAs from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Kasper L.; Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is an important eukaryotic model organism that has been used in pioneering studies of general phenomena, such as ribozymes, telomeres, chromatin structure and genome reorganization. Recent work has shown that Tetrahymena has many classes of small RNA molecules expressed during vegetative growth or sexual reorganization. In order to get an overview of medium-sized (40–500 nt) RNAs expressed from the Tetrahymena genome, we created a size-fractionated cDNA library from macronuclear RNA and analyzed 80 RNAs, most of which were previously unknown. The most abundant class was small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), many of which are formed by an unusual maturation pathway. The modifications guided by the snoRNAs were analyzed bioinformatically and experimentally and many Tetrahymena-specific modifications were found, including several in an essential, but not conserved domain of ribosomal RNA. Of particular interest, we detected two methylations in the 5′-end of U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) that has an unusual structure in Tetrahymena. Further, we found a candidate for the first U8 outside metazoans, and an unusual U14 candidate. In addition, a number of candidates for new non-coding RNAs were characterized by expression analysis at different growth conditions. PMID:21967850

  13. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Silva, Malan; Haas, Leonard A; Morsci, Natalia S; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Hall, David H; Barr, Maureen M

    2014-03-03

    Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to the small size (100 nm) of the ECVs. We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies. Intraflagellar transport and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail-chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating-related behaviors.

  14. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Silva, Malan; Haas, Leonard; Morsci, Natalia; Nguyen, Ken C.Q.; Hall, David H.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to their small size (100nm). We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Intraflagellar transport (IFT) and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating related behaviors. PMID:24530063

  15. Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda).

    PubMed

    Irwin, Nicholas A T; Lynn, Denis H

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate subclass Peritrichia, composed of the orders Mobilida and Sessilida, have recently come under debate as morphological and molecular analyses have struck contrasting conclusions as to the monophyly of the group. We provide additional molecular data to assess the monophyly of the Peritrichia by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of two symbiotic peritrichs, Urceolaria korschelti and Scyphidia ubiquita, found inhabiting the mantle cavity of limpets. Although phylogenetic analyses indicated a nonmonophyletic Peritrichia, approximately unbiased tests revealed that the monophyletic hypothesis could not be rejected. With regard to the Mobilida, our analysis showed divergence within the family Trichodinidae related to host taxa-a molluscan clade and a fish clade. For the Sessilida, the family Scyphidiidae was sister to the Astylozoidae. In our sampling of U. korschelti and S. ubiquita, both species showed significant genetic divergence among geographically isolated, yet morphologically indistinguishable populations. We hypothesize that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argue that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs.

  16. Lithium-induced developmental anomalies in the spirotrich ciliate Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida).

    PubMed

    Makhija, Seema; Gupta, Renu; Toteja, Ravi

    2015-08-01

    Lithium is known to have profound biological effects of varying intensity in different life forms. In the present investigation, the effect of lithium was studied on the spirotrich ciliate Stylonychia lemnae. Lithium treatment brings about quantitative changes in the patterning of ciliary structures in S. lemnae. The dorsal surface of the affected cells develops supernumerary ciliary kineties due to excessive proliferation of the kinetosomes. The ventral surface on the other hand develops fewer than normal cirri formed from reduced numbers of ciliary primordia. The adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) fails to remodel properly as, in certain segments, membranelles become disarranged and misaligned. Lithium-induced changes are transitory as the normal pattern is restored during recovery after the cells are shifted to normal medium, suggesting non-genic regulation of cortical pattern. Lithium also affects the process of cell proliferation as the number of cells undergoing division is negligible as compared to reorganizing cells. The results point to the extremely complex and heterogeneous organization of the cellular cortex (plasma membrane and cytoskeleton) which is capable of exerting autonomous control over the phenotype and cortical pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of the digestive vacuole membrane of the alga-bearing ciliate Paramecium bursaria.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuuki; Fujishima, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    Cells of the ciliate Paramecium bursaria harbor symbiotic Chlorella spp. in their cytoplasm. To establish endosymbiosis with alga-free P. bursaria, symbiotic algae must leave the digestive vacuole (DV) to appear in the cytoplasm by budding of the DV membrane. This budding was induced not only by intact algae but also by boiled or fixed algae. However, this budding was not induced when food bacteria or India ink were ingested into the DVs. These results raise the possibility that P. bursaria can recognize sizes of the contents in the DVs. To elucidate this possibility, microbeads with various diameters were mixed with alga-free P. bursaria and traced their fate. Microbeads with 0.20μm diameter did not induce budding of the DVs. Microbeads with 0.80μm diameter produced DVs of 5-10μm diameter at 3min after mixing; then the DVs fragmented and became vacuoles of 2-5μm diameter until 3h after mixing. Each microbead with a diameter larger than 3.00μm induced budding similarly to symbiotic Chlorella. These observations reveal that induction of DV budding depends on the size of the contents in the DVs. Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, greatly inhibited DV budding, suggesting that dynamin might be involved in DV budding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-Mendelian inheritance and homology-dependent effects in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric; Garnier, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    Ciliates are single-celled eukaryotes that harbor two kinds of nuclei. The germline micronuclei function only to perpetuate the genome during sexual reproduction; the macronuclei are polyploid, somatic nuclei that differentiate from the micronuclear lineage at each sexual generation. Macronuclear development involves extensive and reproducible rearrangements of the genome, including chromosome fragmentation and precise excision of numerous internal sequence elements. In Paramecium and Tetrahymena, homology-dependent maternal effects have been evidenced by transformation of the vegetative macronucleus with germline sequences containing internal eliminated sequences (short single-copy elements), which can result in a specific inhibition of the excision of the homologous elements during development of a new macronucleus in the sexual progeny of transformed clones. Furthermore, transformation of the Paramecium maternal macronucleus with cloned macronuclear sequences can specifically induce new fragmentation patterns or internal deletions in the zygotic macronucleus. These experiments show that the processing of many germline sequences in the developing macronucleus is sensitive to the presence and copy number of homologous sequences in the maternal macronucleus. The generality and sequence specificity of this transnuclear, epigenetic regulation of rearrangements suggest that it is mediated by pairing interactions between zygotic sequences and sequences originating from the maternal macronucleus, presumably RNA molecules. Alternative macronuclear versions of the genome can be maternally inherited across sexual generations, suggesting a molecular model for some of the long-known cases of non-Mendelian inheritance, and in particular for the developmental determination and maternal inheritance of mating types in Paramecium tetraurelia.

  19. Adaptation responses of individuals to environmental changes in the ciliate Euplotes crassus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ju, Se-Jong

    2017-02-01

    Although the response unit of living organisms to environmental changes is at the individual level, most experiments on the adaptation responses of ciliates have been conducted in batches, comprising multiple-individuals, due to their microscopic size. However, here, we confirmed that individuals undergo different division cycles in monocultures of Euplotes crassus. They also exhibited transcript variations of 4.63-fold in SSU and of 22.78- fold in Hsp70. Additionally, in salt-stressed E. crassus individuals, SSU transcripts of individuals varied by 6.92-fold at 27 psu, 8.69- fold at 32 psu, and 2.51-fold at 37 psu. However, the maximum difference in Hsp70 was only 4.23-fold under all conditions. These results suggest there may be different biological rhythms even in siblings derived from the same parent. It can also be inferred that various environmental factors have different effects on different E. crassus individuals. Therefore, to elucidate relationships between organism adaptations and environmental changes, studies at the individual level should be conducted with multi-individual approaches.

  20. In vitro culture technique for Cryptocaryon irritans, a parasitic ciliate of marine teleosts.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Akiyama, Kousuke; Nishida, Sayoko; Nakane, Motoyuki; Ogawa, Kazuo; Hirose, Hitomi

    2007-12-13

    A medium for the in vitro culture of Cryptocaryon irritans, which is an obligatorily parasitic ciliate of marine teleosts and causes 'white spot disease', was developed. The medium consisted of a layer of cultured fish cells (FHM), with an agarose gel layer covering the cell layer. The agarose gel contained 0.22% agarose, 10% fetal calf serum, 100 I.U. ml(-1) Penicillin G potassium and 100 microg ml(-1) streptomycin sulphate. Theronts of C. irritans transformed to trophonts and grew to 180 microm in mean length in the medium, although they gradually decreased in number. When trophonts fully developed in medium were transferred into seawater 4 d after inoculation, approximately 70% of them transformed to encysted tomonts and released theronts. When fish were challenged with theronts obtained from in vitro-raised parasites, approximately 40% of the theronts were recovered from fish, indicating comparative infectivity of in vitro-raised theronts to those of in vivo-raised theronts. This is the first report that C. irritans fully developed in vitro and its entire life cycle was completed without a host fish.

  1. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B.; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (106 cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity. PMID:26627232

  2. The transport of polymeric microspheres across the ciliated epithelia of the bullfrog.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hameed, M D; Baker, H J; Kellaway, I W

    1999-03-25

    The influence of some hydrophilic polymers on the clearance of particles across the ciliated epithelium of the bullfrog palate has been examined. The polymers studied were Carbopol 907 cross-linked with maltose to provide microspheres of varying cross-link density, Carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol). Transport rates were determined relative to glass spheres. The polymers in dilute solution (0.1 and 0.5% w/v) resulted in a reduction in the transport rate of the glass spheres. For non-cross-linked microspheres, Carbopol 934P exhibited a lower transport rate than the more slowly hydrating chitosan. The cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) microspheres showed clearance rates which were dependent on the cross-link density. Incorporation of some preservatives (EDTA, methylhydroxybenzoate, chlorbutol and chlorocresol), known to reversibly retard clearance, into the cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) microspheres produced effects dependent on cross-link density: lightly cross-linked microspheres were cleared more slowly than the preservative-free microspheres whilst for more heavily cross-linked particles the converse was observed.

  3. Ultrastructural features of the tomont of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Fan, Xinpeng; Yin, Fei; Ni, Bing; Gu, Fukang

    2017-01-30

    Numerous studies have been conducted on the cellular morphology of Cryptocaryon irritans. However, details regarding the tomont stage of its life cycle remain lacking. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the tomont stage throughout encystment and cell division using light and electron microscopy. Results showed that there was no secretion of encystation-specific secretory vesicles or extrusomes during formation of the cyst wall. Instead, the synthesis and construction of the C. irritans cyst wall materials may involve molecular events at the pellicle. The somatic cilia and the cytostome were present during encystment and covered by the newly formed cyst wall. New somatic cilia were continuously created between old cilia and showed various lengths during cell division, a process that was similar to morphogenesis in many free-living ciliates. During cell division inside the tomont, dividing daughter cells formed temporary cell chains with no oral primordia before separating from each other into dissociative tomite precursors. The process of cell division may not be accompanied by stomatogenesis, and new oral primordia in offspring cells likely formed before the dividing cell chains split into dissociative spherical tomites. Mitochondrial autophagy was observed in encysting C. irritans cells. Numerous endosymbionts and Golgi structures were observed in the tomont cytoplasm. Cellular metabolic activity in the C. irritans tomont was quite high, with large amounts of materials or cellular organelles potentially being synthesized and prepared for the following infective theront stage.

  4. Impact of local temperature increase on the early development of biofilm-associated ciliate communities.

    PubMed

    Norf, Helge; Arndt, Hartmut; Weitere, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Indications of global climate change and associated unusual temperature fluctuations have become increasingly obvious over the past few decades. Consequently, the relevance of temperature increases for ecological communities and for whole ecosystems is one of the major challenges of current ecological research. One approach to investigating the effects of increasing temperatures on communities is the use of fast-growing microbial communities. Here we introduce a river bypass system in which we tested the effect of temperature increases (0, 2, 4, 6 degrees C above the long-term average) on both the colonization speed and the carrying capacity of biofilm-associated ciliate communities under different seasonal scenarios. We further investigated interactions of temperature and resource availability by cross-manipulations in order to test the hypothesis that temperature-mediated effects will be strongest in environments that are not resource-limited. Strong seasonal differences in both tested parameters occurred under natural conditions (no resource addition), and the effects of temperature increase at a given time were relatively low. However, increasing temperature can significantly accelerate the colonization speed and reduce the carrying capacity in particular seasons. These effects were strongest in winter. Simultaneous manipulation of temperature and of resource availability amplified the response to temperature increase, adumbrating strong interactive control of populations by temperature and resource availability. Our results show that the response of communities to local temperature increases strongly depends on the seasonal setting, the resource availability and the stage of succession (early colonization speed vs. carrying capacity).

  5. Phylogeographical pattern of Euplotes nobilii, a protist ciliate with a bipolar biogeographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Barbieri, Michele; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo; Dini, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear (18S and ITS) and mitochondrial (16S) ribosomal RNA gene sequences were determined from genetically distinct wild-type strains of Antarctic (nine strains), Fuegian (four strains), Greenland (nine strains) and Svalbard (three strains) populations of the marine ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, and analysed for their nucleotide polymorphisms. A close genetic homogeneity was found within and between the Antarctic and Fuegian populations, while more significant levels of genetic differentiation were detected within and between the two Arctic populations, as well as between these populations and the Antarctic/Fuegian ones. The phylogeographical pattern that was derived from these data indicates that gene flow is not limited among Arctic populations; it equally connects the Arctic and Antarctic populations either directly, or through the Fuegian population. This indication reinforces previous evidence from laboratory assays of mating interactions between some of the strains analysed in this work that Southern and Northern polar populations of E. nobilii belong to a unique, panmictic population that substantially share the same gene pool. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Epistylis portoalegrensis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Peritrichia): A New Freshwater Ciliate Species from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kühner, Steffen; Simão, Taiz L L; Safi, Lúcia S L; Gazulha, Fernanda B; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R P

    2016-01-01

    The peritrich ciliate Epistylis portoalegrensis n. sp. was found in two bodies of freshwater located in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Morphological features were investigated using live and protargol-stained specimens. The zooids presented a vase to cylindrical shape narrowed at the scopula, and a mean size of 131 × 37 μm in vivo. A C-shaped macronucleus lay in the middle of the cell close to a single contractile vacuole. The oral infraciliature was typical for the genus, with all infundibular polykineties composed by three distinct rows of kinetosomes. Colonies are often nonbranched with no lateral stalk, carrying several zooids stemming from a single point. Specimens from the two sampling sites showed identical arrangement of the infraciliature, similar morphometry, identical 18S rDNA sequences, and a single nucleotide difference across the more variable ITS regions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses placed E. portoalegrensis in a well-supported clade containing other Epistylis species, within the order Vorticellida. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  7. Effect of preillumination on photomotile responses of the marine ciliate Fabrea salina.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Roberto; Colombetti, Giuliano

    2003-02-01

    Fabrea salina is a marine ciliate that shows photomotile responses such as positive phototaxis and a step-down photophobic reaction. We found that preilluminated F. salina cells show a phototactic response significantly greater than that of dark-adapted cells when exposed to the same phototactic light stimulus. In particular, positive phototaxis is strongly enhanced by preillumination. This enhancement effect depends on the preillumination light irradiance, on the total preillumination dose, and on the duration of the dark interval between preillumination and the phototaxis measurement. Our results show that the determining factor is the total preillumination dose given to the sample. The enhancement effect shows an asymptotic behavior over a certain range of energy values (10-200 W/m2). Further, the effect is transient; after 120 s in the dark, the cells lose any memory of the preillumination, independent of the preillumination energy received. These results are tentatively discussed in terms of light-driven membrane potential or membrane channel conductances.

  8. Genealogical analyses of multiple loci of litostomatean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Litostomatea).

    PubMed

    Vd'ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-11-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of free-living and endocommensal species. However, their traditional morphology-based classification conflicts with 18S rRNA gene phylogenies indicating (1) a deep bifurcation of the Litostomatea into Rhynchostomatia and Haptoria+Trichostomatia, and (2) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea. To test whether 18S rRNA molecules provide a suitable proxy for litostomatean evolutionary history, we used eighteen new ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region sequences from various free-living litostomatean orders. These single- and multiple-locus analyses are in agreement with previous 18S rRNA gene phylogenies, supporting that both 18S rRNA gene and ITS region sequences are effective tools for resolving phylogenetic relationships among the litostomateans. Despite insertions, deletions and mutational saturations in the ITS region, the present study shows that ITS1 and ITS2 molecules can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships not only at species level but also at higher taxonomic ranks when their secondary structure information is utilized to aid alignment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genealogical analyses of multiple loci of litostomatean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Litostomatea)

    PubMed Central

    Vd’ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A.; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S.; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of free-living and endocommensal species. However, their traditional morphology-based classification conflicts with 18S rRNA gene phylogenies indicating (1) a deep bifurcation of the Litostomatea into Rhynchostomatia and Haptoria + Trichostomatia, and (2) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea. To test whether 18S rRNA molecules provide a suitable proxy for litostomatean evolutionary history, we used eighteen new ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region sequences from various free-living litostomatean orders. These single- and multiple-locus analyses are in agreement with previous 18S rRNA gene phylogenies, supporting that both 18S rRNA gene and ITS region sequences are effective tools for resolving phylogenetic relationships among the litostomateans. Despite insertions, deletions and mutational saturations in the ITS region, the present study shows that ITS1 and ITS2 molecules can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships not only at species level but also at higher taxonomic ranks when their secondary structure information is utilized to aid alignment. PMID:22789763

  10. Distribution of a centrosomal antigen during morphogenesis in the ciliated protozoan Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Fleury, A; Lemullois, M; Coffe, G

    1998-07-01

    Ciliates assemble basal bodies in great number at many stages of the life-cycle. In order to understand their assembly mechanisms, we screened a library of monoclonal antibodies directed against pericentriolar material. One of these antibodies, CTR210, was used previously to follow steps of this assembly process: in Paraurostyla, new basal bodies appear along a scaffold of linear structures recognized by this antibody. The very unusual behavior of this antigen deserved confirmation in other species. In the present study, we show by immunofluorescence that, in another phylogenetically very distant species, Euplotes, basal bodies are assembled in the same pathway during division. In addition, this antibody recognizes a filamentous ring located at the division furrow and linking many basal body assemblages. By cell fractionation and cytoskeletal extraction, we obtained fractions enriched in basal bodies and associated material. Such fractions still display a high complexity in protein composition. These fractions were used to characterize the main target of the antibody as a doublet of 45 kDa. These results confirm previous results in terms of functionality of the protein recognized by the antibody, but raise new questions in terms of the assignment of the recognized protein to the HSP70 family as hypothesized previously.

  11. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity.

  12. Adaptation responses of individuals to environmental changes in the ciliate Euplotes crassus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ju, Se-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Although the response unit of living organisms to environmental changes is at the individual level, most experiments on the adaptation responses of ciliates have been conducted in batches, comprising multiple-individuals, due to their microscopic size. However, here, we confirmed that individuals undergo different division cycles in monocultures of Euplotes crassus. They also exhibited transcript variations of 4.63-fold in SSU and of 22.78- fold in Hsp70. Additionally, in salt-stressed E. crassus individuals, SSU transcripts of individuals varied by 6.92-fold at 27 psu, 8.69- fold at 32 psu, and 2.51-fold at 37 psu. However, the maximum difference in Hsp70 was only 4.23-fold under all conditions. These results suggest there may be different biological rhythms even in siblings derived from the same parent. It can also be inferred that various environmental factors have different effects on different E. crassus individuals. Therefore, to elucidate relationships between organism adaptations and environmental changes, studies at the individual level should be conducted with multi-individual approaches.

  13. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    PubMed

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of enumeration time periods on analyzing colonization features and taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum for marine bioassessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2012-09-01

    Colonization features and taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliate communities have been used as useful indicators for marine bioassessment. The influence of enumeration time periods on analyzing colonization features measures of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, during the period of May-June 2010. Ciliated protozoan samples were collected at depths of 1 m using an artificial substratum and were analyzed with different enumeration schemes. The ciliate species were identified using living observation and silver impregnation. Data analyses were conducted using a range of multivariate statistical routines. Enumeration time periods represented a strong influence on analyzing both colonization and taxonomic relatedness features of periphytic ciliate communities, although no significant changes occurred in colonization patterns between two enumeration schemes (within 24 and 24-48 h after sampling). The delayed enumeration (within 24-48 h) may result in the species richness, individual abundance, colonization rate decreasing to standard errors of >10 % in samples with almost all colonization ages, and in the similarities of the communities being reduced to 11-38 %. However, the species biodiversity (e.g., species diversity and evenness, except species richness) and taxonomic relatedness (taxonomic diversity, taxonomic distinctness and average taxonomic distinctness, except variation in taxonomic distinctness) measures of periphytic ciliate communities were weakly sensitive to disturbance from the delayed enumeration, achieving standard errors of <10 and <5 % during the colonization periods, respectively. These results suggest that the enumeration should be completed as soon as possible within 24 h after sampling to analyze colonization and taxonomic relatedness features of periphytic ciliate communities, and that the species diversity and taxonomic distinctness measures can be used on a robust bioindicator

  15. Distribution and Abundance of Interstitial Ciliates in Southampton Water in Relation to Physicochemical Conditions, Metal Pollution and the Availability of Food Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rasheid, K. A. S.; Sleigh, M. A.

    1995-07-01

    Sediment samples were collected at low tide from eight sandy and muddy shores around Southampton Water on one occasion in July and one occasion in September. The temperature and pH of the sediments were measured at the time of collection, the water content of the sediments was determined and samples subjected to granulometric analysis. The population densities of bacteria and microflagellates were determined and the ciliates in sub-samples were identified to genus level and enumerated. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and nickel in the interstitial water and in the dried sediments were measured by the dithizone and atomic absorption methods, respectively. These metal concentrations were compared with literature values for other British estuaries. Ciliates belonging to 23 genera were found in the sediments, the diversity of ciliates varying widely between stations. Bacterial numbers (mean ˜5×10 8 cm -3) at the various stations correlate with the surface area of the sediment particles and also correlate weakly with flagellate numbers (mean ˜2×10 4 cm -3). Total ciliate numbers (mean ˜1×10 3 cm -3) correlated quite strongly with flagellate numbers, but not with bacterial numbers. Euplotes, Strombidiumand Uronemawere common at all stations and generally dominated; Didinium, Mesodinium pulexand Pleuronemawere also found at all stations, and the latter two were often numerous; Uronychiawas found at seven stations. The distributions of Acinetopsis, Blepharisma, Lacrymaria, M. pulex, Paramecium, Spirostomum, Strombidiumand Vorticellashowed similar correlations to one another, and tended to favour sites nearer to sources of freshwater; these ciliates also showed a correlation with pH, river waters locally being alkaline. None of the ciliates showed correlations with any physical characteristics of the sediments. There were no negative correlations of ciliate distributions with metal pollutants. The levels of metal pollutants found in water drained

  16. Ultrastructure of the ciliated cells of the free-swimming larva, and sessile stages, of the marine sponge Haliclona indistincta (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida).

    PubMed

    Stephens, Kelly M; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Lalor, Pierce; McCormack, Grace P

    2013-11-01

    We provide a detailed, comparative study of the ciliated cells of the marine haplosclerid sponge Haliclona indistincta, in order to make data available for future phylogenetic comparisons at the ultrastructural level. Our study focuses on the description and analysis of the larval epithelial cells, and choanocytes of the metamorphosed juvenile sponge. The ultrastructure of the two cell types is sufficiently different to prevent our ability to conclusively determine the origin of the choanocytes from the larval ciliated cells. However, ciliated, epithelial cells were observed in a migratory position within the inner cell mass of the larval stages. Some cilia were observed within the cell's cytoplasm, which is indicative of the ciliated epithelial cell undergoing transdifferentiation into a choanocyte; while traces of other ciliated epithelial cells were contained within phagosomes, suggesting they are phagocytosed. We compared our data with other species described in the literature. However, any phylogenetic inference must wait until further detailed comparisons can be made with species whose phylogenetic position has been determined by other means, such as phylogenomics, in order to more closely link genomic, and morphological information.

  17. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand.

  18. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Barsi, Julius C.; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H.

    2015-01-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis. PMID:25655703

  19. Excitable Membranes and Action Potentials in Paramecia: An Analysis of the Electrophysiology of Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Schlaepfer, Charles H.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The ciliate Paramecium caudatum possesses an excitable cell membrane whose action potentials (APs) modulate the trajectory of the cell swimming through its freshwater environment. While many stimuli affect the membrane potential and trajectory, students can use current injection and extracellular ionic concentration changes to explore how APs cause reversal of the cell’s motion. Students examine these stimuli through intracellular recordings, also gaining insight into the practices of electrophysiology. Paramecium’s large size of around 150 µm, simple care, and relative ease to penetrate make them ideal model organisms for undergraduate students’ laboratory study. The direct link between behavior and excitable membranes has thought provoking evolutionary implications for the study of paramecia. Recording from the cell, students note a small resting potential around −30 mV, differing from animal resting potentials. By manipulating ion concentrations, APs of the relatively long length of 20–30 ms up to several minutes with depolarizations maxing over 0 mV are observed. Through comparative analysis of membrane potentials and the APs induced by either calcium or barium, students can deduce the causative ions for the APs as well as the mechanisms of paramecium APs. Current injection allows students to calculate quantitative electric characteristics of the membrane. Analysis will follow the literature’s conclusion in a V-Gated Ca++ influx and depolarization resulting in feedback from intracellular Ca++ that inactivates V-Gated Ca++ channels and activates Ca-Dependent K+ channels through a secondary messenger cascade that results in the K+ efflux and repolarization. PMID:26557800

  20. Mechanical strain determines the axis of planar polarity in ciliated epithelia.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Keller, Ray; Kintner, Chris; Shook, David R

    2015-11-02

    Epithelia containing multiciliated cells align beating cilia along a common planar axis specified by the conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Specification of the planar axis is also thought to require a long-range cue to align the axis globally, but the nature of this cue in ciliated and other epithelia remains poorly understood. We examined this issue using the Xenopus larval skin, where ciliary flow aligns to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We first show that a planar axis initially arises in the developing skin during gastrulation, based on the appearance of polarized apical microtubules and cell junctions with increased levels of stable PCP components. This axis also arises in severely ventralized embryos, despite their deficient embryonic patterning. Because ventralized embryos still gastrulate, producing a mechanical force that strains the developing skin along the A-P axis, we asked whether this strain alone drives global planar patterning. Isolated skin explanted before gastrulation lacks strain and fails to acquire a global planar axis but responds to exogenous strain by undergoing cell elongation, forming polarized apical microtubules, and aligning stable components of the PCP pathway orthogonal to the axis of strain. The planar axis in embryos can be redirected by applying exogenous strain during a critical period around gastrulation. Finally, we provide evidence that apical microtubules and the PCP pathway interact to align the planar axis. These results indicate that oriented tissue strain generated by the gastrulating mesoderm plays a major role in determining the global axis of planar polarity of the developing skin.

  1. Three rDNA Loci-Based Phylogenies of Tintinnid Ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Choreotrichida).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Agatha, Sabine; Zhang, Wuchang; Dong, Jun; Yu, Ying; Jiao, Nianzhi; Gong, Jun

    2017-03-01

    To improve understanding of diversity, phylogeny and evolution in tintinnid ciliates, it is essential to link multiple molecular markers with properly identified and documented morphospecies. Accordingly, 54 tintinnid morphospecies/isolates mainly from the Yellow and East China Seas were collected and analysed. Using single-cell approaches, sequences were obtained for three rDNA loci (18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, D1-D5 region of 28S). Twenty-six tintinnid morphospecies (29 isolates) are documented by micrographs, measurements, morphologically described, and compared with the original species description. Three rDNA loci-based phylogenetic analyses were then performed for these identified isolates. Sequences from 25 unidentified species/isolates were also included in the comparison of the three rDNA loci. Ribosomal DNA genes of the genus Leprotintinnus were analysed for the first time, showing that Leprotintinnus was closely related to Tintinnopsis radix and branched distinctly apart from the family Tintinnidiidae. Four novel clades (VI to IX) of the Tintinnopsis complex emerged in the 18S genealogies. Analyses of the relative variability in the ITS and 28S regions vs. the 18S rDNA showed that the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and ITS2 regions well co-varied with the 18S rDNA when the variations of the latter were less than 3%, whereas at difference of less than 1%, no correlation was found between the compared loci. These findings highlight the difficulties in using variable locus-based cut-off divergences in circumscribing tintinnid morphospecies.

  2. Swimming performance in early development and the "other" consequences of egg size for ciliated planktonic larvae.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kathryn A; Grünbaum, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    The evolutionary significance of egg size in marine invertebrates is commonly perceived in energetic terms. Embryonic size should also have direct effects upon the forces that govern swimming, a behavior common to early larval development in the plankton. If swimming is ecologically important, early larvae may need to perform to a certain "standard", or threshold of speed and/or stability. The existence of performance standards in early development could therefore act to constrain the evolution of egg size and the evolution of development. Here we present the key parameters that characterize the upward swimming speed of ciliated spheroidal larvae moving at very low Reynolds numbers. The dependence of maximum supported mass upon larval size, and the independence of neutral-weight swimming speed from size, lead to hypotheses about scaling of swimming speed with size. Experimental studies with thirteen broadcast-spawning planktotrophs demonstrate that free-living embryonic swimmers in all of these species conform to a strong negative scaling of density with size that offsets increases in mass with increasing size. This trend suggests that swimming ability is broadly under selection in early development. In experimental studies and in a hydrodynamic model of larval swimming, the performance of trochophore larvae provides support for our hypothesized scaling relationships, and also for the concept of a standard in swimming speed. Echinoid blastulae, however, show relationships between speed and size that are not predicted by our scaling arguments. Results for echinoids suggest that differences in ciliary tip speed, or possibly in spatial density of cilia over the blastula's surface, result in significant differences in species' performance. Strong phyletic differences in the initial patterning and growth of structures used for swimming thus appear to cause significant differences in the relationship of swimming ability with embryo size.

  3. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy, Jason W; Xu, Peng; Li, Ping; Xu, De-Hai; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Klesius, Phillip; Arias, Covadonga; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2007-01-01

    Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate). Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan). BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value < 10-5) hits and further Gene Ontology (GO) analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289). Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence. PMID:17577414

  4. Chemotactic effect of odorants and tastants on the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Láng, Júlia; Rákász, Virág; Magyar, Anna; Pállinger, Éva; Kohidai, László

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring aroma compounds are able to elicit physiological and migratory responses such as chemotaxis even at nano to femtomolar concentrations in organisms at different levels of phylogeny. Despite the amazing chemical variety of these substances the apparatus by which they can be detected i.e. the chemosensory receptors and the signaling pathways seem to be rather uniform and evolutionary well-conserved. The intracellular signaling process is supposed to be mediated by either cAMP or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The present work aimed to investigate the chemotactic behavior of 11 odorants that occur naturally in foods and are also used by the industry as additives, on the eukaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Intracellular signaling pathways that might be activated by these compounds were also investigated. Activation of the phospholipase C (PLC) was measured by FACS and the stimulation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases (IP3K) was measured using two specific inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002. The strongest chemoattractant character was observed for isoamyl acetate (10(⁻6) M), propyl isobutyrate (10(⁻8) M), isobutyl propionate (10(⁻6) M). The strongest repellent action was exerted by benzyl acetate (10(⁻8) M), furfuryl thioacetate (10(⁻12) M). Our results suggest that Tetrahymena responds in a very sensitive way to slight changes in the molecular structure. According to our study, tracer amounts of solvents do not contribute significantly to the chemotactic profile of the respective odorants. No significant activation of PLC or PI3K could be observed following stimulation with attractant odorants which implies that some other pathways may be involved, hence further investigation is needed.

  5. Further insights into the phylogeny of two ciliate classes Nassophorea and Prostomatea (Protista, Ciliophora).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Yi, Zhenzhen; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Gong, Jun; Song, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    The Nassophorea and Prostomatea are two of the key classes in understanding the morphological diversification and higher classification of the phylum Ciliophora. However, their phylogenetic relationships with other ciliate groups within the subphylum Intramacronucleata remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the small and large subunit (SSU and LSU) rRNA gene-based phylogeny of these groups with sequences of additional taxa including several key species. The results show that: (1) the class Nassophorea remains polyphyletic, with the microthoracids clustering with the Phyllopharyngea, whereas the nassulids represent a basal group of the CONthreeP superclade in the SSU tree; (2) the Prostomatea is not depicted as a monophyletic group in phylogenetic trees, and the monophyly of this class is marginally rejected by statistical tree topology tests; (3) the nassulid genus Parafurgasonia is more closely related to the family Colpodidiidae than to Furgasonia; (4) Paranassula, which was previously thought to be a nassulid, is phylogenetically related to the oligohymenophorean peniculids in both the SSU and LSU trees; (5) the microthoracid genus Discotricha does not group with the other microthoracids in either SSU or LSU trees; (6) the family Plagiocampidae is closely related to the prostome parasite Cryptocaryon irritans and to the family Urotrichidae in the order Prorodontida; and (7) the family Placidae, represented by Placus salinus, is sister to the family Holophryidae in the order Prorodontida. Based on the present data, we consider the genus Discotricha to be an unclassified taxon within the CONthreeP. We also propose resurrecting the order Paranassulida and classifying it within the subclass Peniculia, class Oligohymenophorea. Primary and secondary structure signatures for higher taxa within Phyllopharyngea and Nassophorea are supplied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical strain determines the axis of planar polarity in ciliated epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Keller, Ray; Kintner, Chris; Shook, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelia containing multiciliated cells align beating cilia along a common planar axis specified by the conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Specification of the planar axis is also thought to require a long-range cue to align the axis globally, but the nature of this cue in ciliated and other epithelia remains poorly understood. We examined this issue using the Xenopus larval skin where ciliary flow aligns to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We first show that a planar axis initially arises in the developing skin during gastrulation, based on the appearance of polarized apical microtubules and cell junctions with increased levels of stable PCP components. This axis also arises in severely ventralized embryos despite their deficient embryonic patterning. Since ventralized embryos still gastrulate, producing a mechanical force that strains the developing skin along the A-P axis, we asked whether this strain alone drives global planar patterning. Isolated skin explanted before gastrulation lacks strain, fails to acquire a global planar axis, but responds to exogenous strain by undergoing cell elongation, forming polarized apical microtubules, and aligning stable components of the PCP pathway orthogonal to the axis of strain. The planar axis in embryos can be redirected by applying exogenous strain during a critical period around gastrulation. Finally, we provide evidence that apical microtubules and the PCP pathway interact to align the planar axis. These results indicate that oriented tissue strain generated by the gastrulating mesoderm plays a major role in determining the global axis of planar polarity of the developing skin. PMID:26441348

  7. Preliminary Insights into the Impact of Dietary Starch on the Ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in Captive Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Procházka, Petr; Modrý, David; Bolechová, Petra; Petrželková, Klára J.

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD) (average 14.7% of starch) for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD) (average 0.1% of starch) for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0±134.7) than during the LoSD (3.5±6.8). A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7±0.06 (SE), z = 47.7; p<<0.001). We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections. PMID:24282589

  8. Lutetium(III)-dependent self-assembly study of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lian; Zhao, Ya-Qin; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Li, Guo-Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua; Yang, Bin-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    Ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) is a member of the EF-hand superfamily of calcium-binding proteins, which often associated with the centrosomes and basal bodies. To explore the possible structural role of EoCen, we initiated a physicochemical study of the self-assembly properties of the purified protein in vitro. The native PAGE results indicate that only the integral protein shows multimers in the presence of Lu(3+). The dependence of Lu(3+) induced self-assembly of EoCen on various chemical and physical factors, including temperature, protein concentration, ionic strength and pH, was characterized using resonance light scattering (RLS). Control experiments with different metal ions suggest that Ca(2+) and Lu(3+) bindings to the N-terminal domain of EoCen are all positive to the self-assembly of the protein, and Lu(3+) exhibits the stronger effect, however, Mg(2+) alone cannot take the same effect. The experiments of 2-ptoluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) binding and ionic strength demonstrate that the lutetium(III)-dependent self-assembly is closely related to the exposure of hydrophobic cavity. Control experiment on pH value with EoCen and the fragments of it, N-terminal domain of EoCen (N-EoCen), indicates that the electrostatic effect is of small tendency to be served as the main driving force in the self-assembly of EoCen. The specific oligomerization form of the protein was exhibited by cross-linking experiment.

  9. Declines in Both Redundant and Trace Species Characterize the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient in Tintinnid Ciliates of the Microzooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, J. R.; Yang, E. J.

    2016-02-01

    Lower species richness with increasing latitude is a well-known biogeographic pattern but rarely considered is how lower species richness may be reflected in the characteristics of species assemblages. Fewer species may equal fewer distinct ecological types, or declines in redundancy (species functionally similar to one another), thus impacting potential adaptability of an assemblage. We focused on tintinnid ciliates of the microzooplankton in which the ciliate cell is housed inside a species-specific lorica or shell. The size of lorica oral aperture, the lorica oral diameter (LOD), is correlated with a preferred prey size and maximum growth rate. Consequently, species of a distinct LOD are distinct in key ecologic characteristics while those of a similar LOD are functionally similar or redundant species. We sampled from East Sea/Sea of Japan to the High Arctic Sea. We determined abundance distributions of biological species and also ecological types by grouping species in LOD size-classes, sets of ecologically similar species. Across the 5 assemblages, the overall size range of LODs was unchanged but there were declines in both the number of LOD size-classes occupied within the range, the portion of LOD size-classes containing multiple species, and numbers of trace species, those encountered as single individuals. In lower latitudes there are more size-classes and dominant species are accompanied by many apparently ecologically similar species, presumably able to replace the dominant species, at least with regard to the size of prey exploited. Such redundancy appears to decline markedly with latitude in assemblages of tintinnid ciliates.

  10. Cross-study analysis of genomic data defines the ciliate multigenic epiplasmin family: strategies for functional analysis in Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Damaj, Raghida; Pomel, Sébastien; Bricheux, Geneviève; Coffe, Gérard; Viguès, Bernard; Ravet, Viviane; Bouchard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background The sub-membranous skeleton of the ciliate Paramecium, the epiplasm, is composed of hundreds of epiplasmic scales centered on basal bodies, and presents a complex set of proteins, epiplasmins, which belong to a multigenic family. The repeated duplications observed in the P. tetraurelia genome present an interesting model of the organization and evolution of a multigenic family within a single cell. Results To study this multigenic family, we used phylogenetic, structural, and analytical transcriptional approaches. The phylogenetic method defines 5 groups of epiplasmins in the multigenic family. A refined analysis by Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA) identifies structural characteristics of 51 epiplasmins, defining five separate groups, and three classes. Depending on the sequential arrangement of their structural domains, the epiplasmins are defined as symmetric, asymmetric or atypical. The EST data aid in this classification, in the identification of putative regulating sequences such as TATA or CAAT boxes. When specific RNAi experiments were conducted using sequences from either symmetric or asymmetric classes, phenotypes were drastic. Local effects show either disrupted or ill-shaped epiplasmic scales. In either case, this results in aborted cell division. Using structural features, we show that 4 epiplasmins are also present in another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Their affiliation with the distinctive structural groups of Paramecium epiplasmins demonstrates an interspecific multigenic family. Conclusion The epiplasmin multigenic family illustrates the history of genomic duplication in Paramecium. This study provides a framework which can guide functional analysis of epiplasmins, the major components of the membrane skeleton in ciliates. We show that this set of proteins handles an important developmental information in Paramecium since maintenance of epiplasm organization is crucial for cell morphogenesis. PMID:19493334

  11. Cross-study analysis of genomic data defines the ciliate multigenic epiplasmin family: strategies for functional analysis in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Damaj, Raghida; Pomel, Sébastien; Bricheux, Geneviève; Coffe, Gérard; Viguès, Bernard; Ravet, Viviane; Bouchard, Philippe

    2009-06-03

    The sub-membranous skeleton of the ciliate Paramecium, the epiplasm, is composed of hundreds of epiplasmic scales centered on basal bodies, and presents a complex set of proteins, epiplasmins, which belong to a multigenic family. The repeated duplications observed in the P. tetraurelia genome present an interesting model of the organization and evolution of a multigenic family within a single cell. To study this multigenic family, we used phylogenetic, structural, and analytical transcriptional approaches. The phylogenetic method defines 5 groups of epiplasmins in the multigenic family. A refined analysis by Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA) identifies structural characteristics of 51 epiplasmins, defining five separate groups, and three classes. Depending on the sequential arrangement of their structural domains, the epiplasmins are defined as symmetric, asymmetric or atypical. The EST data aid in this classification, in the identification of putative regulating sequences such as TATA or CAAT boxes. When specific RNAi experiments were conducted using sequences from either symmetric or asymmetric classes, phenotypes were drastic. Local effects show either disrupted or ill-shaped epiplasmic scales. In either case, this results in aborted cell division. Using structural features, we show that 4 epiplasmins are also present in another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Their affiliation with the distinctive structural groups of Paramecium epiplasmins demonstrates an interspecific multigenic family. The epiplasmin multigenic family illustrates the history of genomic duplication in Paramecium. This study provides a framework which can guide functional analysis of epiplasmins, the major components of the membrane skeleton in ciliates. We show that this set of proteins handles an important developmental information in Paramecium since maintenance of epiplasm organization is crucial for cell morphogenesis.

  12. Scuticociliatid ciliate outbreak in Australian potbellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827): clinical signs, histopathologic findings, and treatment with metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Di Cicco, Emiliano; Paradis, Erika; Stephen, Craig; Turba, Maria Elena; Rossi, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    A severe outbreak of scuticociliatosis occurred in Australian pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1872), kept at the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada). Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, irregular respiration, and death. Cytology and histopathology revealed a high number of histophagous ciliated protozoa within the tissues. The parasite, identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi, was observed in several internal organs that appeared edematous and hemorrhagic upon postmortem examination. Severe histopathologic lesions were reported in particular in the ovary, the kidney, and the intestine. This infection was successfully treated with metronidazole via bath therapy. No further evidence of this parasite was found in the treated fish.

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Phosphoinositide Kinome from Two Ciliates Reveals Novel Evolutionary Links for Phosphoinositide Kinases in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leondaritis, George; Siokos, John; Skaripa, Irini; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity of phosphoinositide signaling in higher eukaryotes is partly due to expansion of specific families and types of phosphoinositide kinases (PIKs) that can generate all phosphoinositides via multiple routes. This is particularly evident in the PI3Ks and PIPKs, and it is considered an evolutionary trait associated with metazoan diversification. Yet, there are limited comprehensive studies on the PIK repertoire of free living unicellular organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a genome-wide analysis of putative PIK genes in two free living ciliated cells, Tetrahymena and Paramecium. The Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia genomes were probed with representative kinases from all families and types. Putative homologs were verified by EST, microarray and deep RNA sequencing database searches and further characterized for domain structure, catalytic efficiency, expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships. In total, we identified and characterized 22 genes in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome and 62 highly homologues genes in Paramecium tetraurelia suggesting a tight evolutionary conservation in the ciliate lineage. Comparison to the kinome of fungi reveals a significant expansion of PIK genes in ciliates. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlights four important aspects concerning ciliate and other unicellular PIKs. First, ciliate-specific expansion of PI4KIII-like genes. Second, presence of class I PI3Ks which, at least in Tetrahymena, are associated with a metazoan-type machinery for PIP3 signaling. Third, expansion of divergent PIPK enzymes such as the recently described type IV transmembrane PIPKs. Fourth, presence of possible type II PIPKs and presumably inactive PIKs (hence, pseudo-PIKs) not previously described. Taken together, our results provide a solid framework for future investigation of the roles of PIKs in ciliates and indicate that novel functions and novel regulatory pathways of

  14. Disentangling sources of variation in SSU rDNA sequences from single cell analyses of ciliates: impact of copy number variation and experimental error.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Yurui; Katz, Laura A; Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo

    2017-07-26

    Small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) is widely used for phylogenetic inference, barcoding and other taxonomy-based analyses. Recent studies indicate that SSU rDNA of ciliates may have a high level of sequence variation within a single cell, which impacts the interpretation of rDNA-based surveys. However, sequence variation can come from a variety of sources including experimental errors, especially the mutations generated by DNA polymerase in PCR. In the present study, we explore the impact of four DNA polymerases on sequence variation and find that low-fidelity polymerases exaggerate the estimates of single-cell sequence variation. Therefore, using a polymerase with high fidelity is essential for surveys of sequence variation. Another source of variation results from errors during amplification of SSU rDNA within the polyploidy somatic macronuclei of ciliates. To investigate further the impact of SSU rDNA copy number variation, we use a high-fidelity polymerase to examine the intra-individual SSU rDNA polymorphism in ciliates with varying levels of macronuclear amplification: Halteria grandinella, Blepharisma americanum and Strombidium stylifer We estimate the rDNA copy numbers of these three species by single-cell quantitative PCR. The results indicate that: (i) sequence variation of SSU rDNA within a single cell is authentic in ciliates, but the level of intra-individual SSU rDNA polymorphism varies greatly among species; (ii) rDNA copy numbers vary greatly among species, even those within the same class; (iii) the average rDNA copy number of Halteria grandinella is about 567 893 (s.d. = 165 481), which is the highest record of rDNA copy number in ciliates to date; and (iv) based on our data and the records from previous studies, it is not always true in ciliates that rDNA copy numbers are positively correlated with cell or genome size. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Use of ciliates (Protozoa: Ciliophora) as bioindicator to assess sediment quality of two constructed mangrove sewage treatment belts in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Hua; Xu, Run-Lin; Tam, Nora F Y; Cheung, Siu Gin; Shin, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    To complement physical and chemical data, information of biological communities is important to assess the qualities of mangrove sediments receiving wastewater. Ciliate communities have cosmopolitan distribution, short life cycle and high sensitivity to pollutants, which make them useful as biological indicators of the sediment environment. In most literature, ciliates are widely used as bioindicators for the state of water quality. In this study, the physico-chemical parameters and ciliate community structure of surface sediment collected at different sampling points from two constructed mangrove (Aegiceras and Sonneratia) belts for treatment of municipal sewage in southern China were investigated. Results showed that most (> 80%) of the 216 species ciliates identified at the two constructed mangrove belts were either omnivorous or bacterivorous. Sediment redox potential (Eh) was considered an important factor to govern the distribution of ciliate species within the mangrove sediment. The saprobic system originally derived from freshwater ecosystem was used to evaluate the saprobic degrees of these constructed mangrove belts. Saprobic index (SI) values declined from the sewage inlet to the outlet points of the constructed belts, suggesting better sediment quality at the outlet point caused by treatment processes within the mangrove belt system. Sediment quality of the sewage outlet area of the constructed Aegiceras belt was determined as class II-III (SI = 2.48), while that of the Sonneratia belt was as class III (SI = 2.71) according to the saprobic classification, indicating that a better sewage treatment efficiency was apparent in the Aegiceras than Sonneratia belt. The present data suggested that ciliates could serve as a good bioindicator in assessing organically polluted sediment qualities.

  16. A proposed superfamily of transposase genes: transposon-like elements in ciliated protozoa and a common "D35E" motif.

    PubMed Central

    Doak, T G; Doerder, F P; Jahn, C L; Herrick, G

    1994-01-01

    The transposon-like elements TBE1, Tec1, and Tec2 of hypotrichous ciliated protozoa appear to encode a protein that belongs to the IS630-Tc1 family of transposases. The Anabaena IS895 transposase also is placed in this family. We note that most family members transpose into the dinucleotide target, TA, and that members with eukaryotic hosts have a tendency for somatic excision that is carried to an extreme by the ciliate elements. Alignments including the additional members, and also mariner elements, show that transposases of this family share strongly conserved residues in a large C-terminal portion, including a fully conserved dipeptide, Asp-Glu (DE), and a block consisting of a fully conserved Asp and highly conserved Glu, separated by 34 or 35 residues (D35E). This D35E motif likely is homologous to the previously characterized D35E motif of the family of retroviral-retrotransposon integrases and IS3-like transposases. Because it is known that the IS3-retroposon D35E region is a critical portion of a domain capable of various in vitro transposition-related reactions, the results suggest that the two families share homologous catalytic transposase domains and that members of both families may share a common transposition mechanism. PMID:8302872

  17. Cell-specific transcriptional profiling of ciliated sensory neurons reveals regulators of behavior and extracellular vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Kaletsky, Rachel; Silva, Malan; Williams, April; Haas, Leonard; Androwski, Rebecca; Landis, Jessica; Patrick, Cory; Rashid, Alina; Santiago-Martinez, Dianaliz; Gravato-Nobre, Maria; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Hall, David H.; Murphy, Coleen T.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cilia and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are signaling organelles[1]. Cilia act as cellular sensory antennae, with defects resulting in human ciliopathies. Cilia both release and bind to EVs[1]. EVs are submicron-sized particles released by cells and function in both short and long range intercellular communication. In C. elegans and mammals, the Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) gene products polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 localize to both cilia and EVs, act in the same genetic pathway, and function in a sensory capacity, suggesting ancient conservation[2]. A fundamental understanding of EV biology and the relationship between the polycystins, cilia, and EVs is lacking. To define properties of a ciliated EV-releasing cell, we performed RNAseq on 27 GFP-labeled EV releasing neurons (EVNs) isolated from adult C. elegans. We identified 335 significantly overrepresented genes, of which 61 were validated by GFP reporters. The EVN transcriptional profile uncovered new pathways controlling EV biogenesis and polycystin signaling and also identified EV cargo, which included an antimicrobial peptide and ASIC channel. Tumor necrosis associated factor (TRAF) homologues trf-1 and trf-2 and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pmk-1 acted in polycystin signaling pathways controlling male mating behaviors. pmk-1 was also required for EV biogenesis, independent of the innate immunity MAPK signaling cascade. This first high-resolution transcriptome profile of a subtype of ciliated sensory neurons isolated from adult animals reveals the functional components of an EVN. PMID:26687621

  18. "Candidatus anadelfobacter veles" and "Candidatus cyrtobacter comes," two new rickettsiales species hosted by the protist ciliate Euplotes harpa (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea).

    PubMed

    Vannini, Claudia; Ferrantini, Filippo; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Verni, Franco; Petroni, Giulio

    2010-06-01

    The order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) is a well-known group containing obligate endocellular prokaryotes. The order encompasses three families (Rickettsiaceae, Anaplasmataceae, and Holosporaceae) and a fourth, family-level cluster, which includes only one candidate species, "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii," as well as several unnamed bacterial symbionts. The broad host range exhibited by the members of the "Candidatus Midichloria" clade suggests their eventual relevance for a better understanding of the evolution of symbiosis and host specificity of Rickettsiales. In this paper, two new bacteria belonging to the "Candidatus Midichloria" clade, hosted by two different strains of the ciliate protist Euplotes harpa, are described on the basis of ultrastructural observations, comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and an estimation of the percentage of infection. Ultrastructure of these bacteria shows some unusual features: one has an electron-dense cytoplasm, and the other one lacks a symbiosomal membrane. The latter was up to now considered an exclusive feature of bacteria belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis unambiguously places the new bacteria in the "Candidatus Midichloria" clade, although their phylogenetic relationships with other members of the clade are not clearly resolved. This is the first report of a ciliate-borne bacterium belonging to the "Candidatus Midichloria" clade. On the basis of the data obtained, the two bacteria are proposed as two new candidate genera and species, "Candidatus Anadelfobacter veles" and "Candidatus Cyrtobacter comes."

  19. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  20. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    PubMed

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial variations in annual cycles of body-size spectra of planktonic ciliates and their environmental drivers in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-11-15

    Body-size spectra has proved to be a useful taxon-free resolution to summarize a community structure for bioassessment. The spatial variations in annual cycles of body-size spectra of planktonic ciliates and their environmental drivers were studied based on an annual dataset. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations in a bay of the Yellow Sea, northern China during a 1-year cycle. Based on a multivariate approach, the second-stage analysis, it was shown that the annual cycles of the body-size spectra were significantly different among five sampling stations. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the spatial variations in the body-size spectra were significantly related to changes of environmental conditions, especially dissolved nitrogen, alone or in combination with salinity and dissolve oxygen. Based on results, it is suggested that the nutrients may be the environmental drivers to shape the spatial variations in annual cycles of planktonic ciliates in terms of body-size spectra in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and fibre breakdown in the rumen ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G; Withers, S E

    1991-02-01

    The effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in microbial populations from the digesta solids and liquor fractions of rumen contents was examined after the refaunation of ciliate-free sheep with an A-type rumen protozoal population. Although the culturable rumen bacterial population was reduced after refaunation the number of fibrolytic micro-organisms detected was higher; the xylanolytic bacterial population and numbers of fungal zoospores were increased after refaunation. The proportion of propionic acid was lower in the refaunated animals, whereas the concentration of ammonia and the acidic metabolites acetate, butyrate and valerate were all increased. The range of enzyme activities present in the digesta subpopulations were the same in defaunated and refaunated animals. The activities of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, however, were increased in the microbial populations associated with the digesta solids after refaunation, and at 16 h after feeding the activities were 4-8 times (beta-D-xylosidase 20 times) higher than the levels detected in the adherent population from defaunated sheep. The protozoa, either directly through their own enzymes or indirectly as a consequence of their effects on the population size and activity of the other fibrolytic micro-organisms present, have an important role in determining the level of activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in the rumen ecosystem. Although the extent of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) hay digestion was similar after 24 h in the absence or presence of protozoa, the initial ruminal degradation was higher in refaunated sheep.

  3. Effect of antibiotics, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and pyromellitic diimide on methanogenesis in rumen ciliate cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Váradyová, Z; Kisidayová, S; Zelenák, I; Siroka, P

    2001-01-01

    The effects of penicillin G, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and pyromellitic diimide on total gas, methane, volatile fatty acid production and food degradability after 24 h of incubation in vitro were investigated in the cultures of two rumen ciliates. The inocula of both rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum and Epidinium ecaudatum were used at a volume of 34 ml into the 50 ml glass syringes together with the feed and compounds tested. Despite penicillin G--streptomycin treatment methane production in both cultures was significantly decreased by the inhibitors for Epidinium ecaudatum. Methane production of the bacterial fraction of both protozoan species was significantly lower than in the whole cultures. No epifluorescence of methanogens on (or in) the cells of Entodinium caudatum was observed in contrast to Epidinium with which strong epifluorescence of methanogens on the cell surface was detected. Microscopic observation could indicate that the methane production by Entodinium caudatum was probably caused by their intracellular methanogenic activity, while methane production by Epidinium ecaudatum could be related to both the methanogenic bacterial fraction from their external surface and probably also to intracellular activity. Decreased feed degradability and differences in the fermentation end products accompanied the inhibition of methanogenesis in both in vitro cultures. Entodinium caudatum appeared to be more sensitive than Epidinium ecaudatum to the compounds tested.

  4. Bioassessment of water quality status using a potential bioindicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-09-15

    The feasibility of a potential ecological indicator based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates for bioassessment of water quality status were studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different water quality status during a 1-year period. The multivariate approach based on "bootstrap-average" analysis was used to summarize the spatial variation in functional structure of the samples. The functional patterns represented a significant spatial variability, and were significantly correlated with the changes of nutrients (mainly nitrate nitrogen, NO3-N), alone or in combination with dissolve oxygen and salinity among five stations. The functional diversity represented a clear spatial variation among five stations, and was found to be significantly related to the nutrient NO3-N. According to the results, we suggest that the ecological parameter based on functional groups of planktonic ciliates may be used as a potential bioindicator of water quality status in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stimulus-response coupling in mammalian ciliated cells. Demonstration of two mechanisms of control for cytosolic [Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, M; Hinds, T R; Verdugo, P

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cytosolic [Ca2+] have been proposed to couple stimulation of ciliary movement, however, quantitative measurements of fluctuations of intracellular free [Ca2+] associated with stimulation of ciliated cells have not been investigated. In primary cultures of rabbit oviductal ciliated cells, the stimulation of ciliary activity produced by micromolar concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) was associated with a transient increase of intracellular [Ca2+]. Whereas the increase of cytosolic [Ca2+] and beat frequency produced by ATP were inhibited by the Ca-channel blocker LaCl3, the rise of cytosolic [Ca2+] and frequency of ciliary beat produced by PGF2 alpha was not affected by LaCl3. These results are the first direct demonstration that fluctuations of cytosolic [Ca2+] are associated with increased ciliary beat frequency in mammalian epithelial cells. The present findings suggest two different calcium-dependent mechanisms for stimulus-coupling in ciliary epithelium: ATP acting via purinergic receptor coupled to transmembrane influx of Ca2+, and PGF2 alpha acting via receptor-mediated release of intracellular sequestered Ca. PMID:2611335

  6. Two T-box genes play independent and cooperative roles to regulate morphogenesis of ciliated Kupffer's vesicle in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amack, Jeffrey D; Wang, Xinghao; Yost, H Joseph

    2007-10-15

    The brain, heart and gastro-intestinal tract develop distinct left-right (LR) asymmetries. Asymmetric cilia-dependent fluid flow in the embryonic node in mouse, Kupffer's vesicle in zebrafish, notochordal plate in rabbit and gastrocoel roof plate in frog appears to be a conserved mechanism that directs LR asymmetric gene expression and establishes the orientation of organ asymmetry. However, the cellular processes and genetic pathways that control the formation of these essential ciliated structures are unknown. In zebrafish, migratory dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) give rise to Kupffer's vesicle (KV), a ciliated epithelial sheet that forms a lumen and generates fluid flow. Using the epithelial marker atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) and other markers to analyze DFCs and KV cells, we describe a multi-step process by which DFCs form a functional KV. Using mutants and morpholinos, we show that two T-box transcription factors-No tail (Ntl)/Brachyury and Tbx16/Spadetail-cooperatively regulate an early step of DFC mesenchyme to epithelial transition (MET) and KV cell specification. Subsequently, each transcription factor independently controls a distinct step in KV formation: Tbx16 regulates apical clustering of KV cells and Ntl is necessary for KV lumen formation. By targeting morpholinos to DFCs, we show that these cell autonomous functions in KV morphogenesis are necessary for LR patterning throughout the embryo.

  7. Several RNase T2 enzymes function in induced tRNA and rRNA turnover in the ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kasper L; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    RNase T2 enzymes are produced by a wide range of organisms and have been implicated to function in diverse cellular processes, including stress-induced anticodon loop cleavage of mature tRNAs to generate tRNA halves. Here we describe a family of eight RNase T2 genes (RNT2A-RNT2H) in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We constructed strains lacking individual or combinations of these RNT2 genes that were viable but had distinct cellular and molecular phenotypes. In strains lacking only one Rnt2 protein or lacking a subfamily of three catalytically inactive Rnt2 proteins, starvation-induced tRNA fragments continued to accumulate, with only a minor change in fragment profile in one strain. We therefore generated strains lacking pairwise combinations of the top three candidates for Rnt2 tRNases. Each of these strains showed a distinct starvation-specific profile of tRNA and rRNA fragment accumulation. These results, the delineation of a broadened range of conditions that induce the accumulation of tRNA halves, and the demonstration of a predominantly ribonucleoprotein-free state of tRNA halves in cell extract suggest that ciliate tRNA halves are degradation intermediates in an autophagy pathway induced by growth arrest that functions to recycle idle protein synthesis machinery.

  8. Fate of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles in an aquatic environment and their toxicity toward 14 ciliated protist species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Pu, Zhichao; Du, Songyan; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The potential environmental impacts of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on aquatic organisms have remained largely unknown. Therefore, the laboratory study featured herein was performed to determine the fate of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment and their toxicity towards 14 different ciliated protist species at a specified population level. An investigation of 48 h aggregation kinetics in the Dryl's solution showed the CeO2 NPs to be relatively stable. The pH values in three test medium were too far away from PZC, which explained the stability of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs generally elicited more toxicity with increasing NP concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. Nano-CeO2 resulted in greater toxicity in a particle state than when added as bulk material. LC50 values showed a negative correlation with the surface-to-volume ratio for these protists, suggesting that surface adsorption of CeO2 NPs might contribute to the observed toxicity. Additionally, acute toxic responses of 14 ciliated protist species to CeO2 NPs were not significantly phylogenetically conserved. The results of these observations provide a better insight into the potential risks of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment.

  9. Pyrosequencing for assessing diversity of eukaryotic microbes: analysis of data on marine planktonic ciliates and comparison with traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Santoferrara, Luciana F; Grattepanche, Jean-David; Katz, Laura A; McManus, George B

    2014-09-01

    Assessing microbial diversity requires analysis of all three domains of life, including eukaryotic microbes. We examined the diversity of two ecologically important clades of microbial eukaryotes, ciliates in the subclasses Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia (class Spirotrichea), by comparing pyrosequencing to Sanger-sequenced clone libraries and microscopy. Using samples from a large temperate estuary (Long Island Sound, USA), we gained three major insights. First, richness estimates varied by up to one order of magnitude either using different criteria for pyrosequence processing or among pyrosequencing, cloning and microscopy, while taxon identification was almost always coherent. Error-correcting algorithms for pyrosequences ('denoising') reduced discrepancies in richness but also removed known morphospecies from the data. Second, although most of the pyrosequenced operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were distributed within known orders and families, we found evidence of a previously uncharacterized or unknown clade even in these ciliate lineages that have a rich history of morphological description. Third, pyrosequencing allowed the detection of OTUs that were either dominant or extremely rare in different samples. Our findings confirm the potential of pyrosequencing for quantifying microbial diversity, but also highlight the importance of careful evaluation of pyrosequence processing for using this method to address ecological questions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Coding genes and molecular structures of the diffusible signalling proteins (pheromones) of the polar ciliate, Euplotes nobilii.

    PubMed

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Pedrini, Bill; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2012-12-01

    In protozoan ciliates, diffusible signalling proteins (pheromones) regulate the vegetative growth and mating interactions. Here, the coding genes and the structures of the encoded pheromones were studied in genetically distinct wild-type strains representing interbreeding Antarctic and Arctic populations of the marine ciliate Euplotes nobilii. Determination of seven allelic pheromone-coding DNA sequences revealed that an unusual extension and high structural conservation of the 5' non-coding region are peculiar traits of this gene family, implying that this region is directly involved in the mechanism of pheromone gene expression, possibly through phenomena of intron splicing and/or frame-shifting. For four pheromones, the three-dimensional structures were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in solution. These structures show that the pheromones represent a protein family which adapts to its polar environment by combining a structurally stable core of a three-helix bundle with extended polypeptide segments that are devoid of regular secondary structures and concomitantly show enhanced structural flexibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Host-Parasite list updating of Ciliates and fermentation in the digestive tract of wild miscellaneous herbivores in South Africa (RSA).

    PubMed

    Booyse, D G; Dehority, B A

    2017-05-03

    This article is dedicated to the Author, Burk Dehority, who became very ill with cancer. Fortunately he confirmed or corrected all identifications on ciliates in this article. This paper was 80% finished when he became ill. He unfortunately passed away in February 2016.

  12. Mullerian-Type Ciliated Cyst of the Thigh with PAX-8 and WT1 Positivity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fabien-Dupuis, Corinthia; Cooper, Brian; Upperman, Jeffrey; Zhou, Shengmei

    2016-01-01

    Mullerian-type ciliated cysts are uncommon lesions usually found in the lower extremities and perineal region of young females. They have however been reported in males and in other anatomic sites. The cyst lining is typically positive for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), PAX-8, and WT1 immunohistochemical stains. This staining pattern has led to the notion that these cysts are of Müllerian origin. The vast majority of cases are located in the dermis where the preferred nomenclature is cutaneous ciliated cyst (CCC). We report a case of Müllerian-type ciliated cyst in the thigh of a 16-year-old girl. Unlike most of the cases reported in the English literature, this cyst was not centered in the dermis. Only a few other cases of Müllerian-type ciliated cysts with no cutaneous connection have been reported. We propose the term ectopic Müllerian cyst for this rare subset of lesions that are not skin based as is the current case. PMID:28070193

  13. Marked amplification and diversification of products of ras genes from rat brain, Rab GTPases, in the ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nakahara, Tohru; Nakano, Kentaro; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Numata, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Small GTPase Rab (products of ras genes from rat brain) is a widely conserved molecular switch among eukaryotes and regulates membrane trafficking pathways. It is generally considered that the number of Rab encoded in the genome correlates with multicellularity; however, we found that unicellular ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila (Tt) and Paramecium tetraurelia (Pt) possess many more Rab genes in their genome than the 64 HsRab genes in the human genome. We succeeded in isolating 86 cDNA clones of 88 TtRab genes in the Tetrahymena genome. By comparing the amino acid sequence of Rab in humans and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 42 TtRab belonged to subfamilies functionally characterized and designated as conventional Rab, while the remaining 44 TtRab were considered to be species-specific. To examine the diversity of Rab in ciliates, we searched for Rab genes in the genome database of P. tetraurelia. Overall, 229 PtRab genes were found and categorized as 157 conventional and 72 species-specific PtRab, respectively. Among them, nine PtRab genes showed high homology to seven TtRab, suggesting the conservation of ciliate-specific Rab. These data suggested that the range of Rab is markedly amplified and diversified in ciliates, which may support the elaborate cellular structures and vigorous phagocytosis of those organisms.

  14. Quantification and visualization of injury and regeneration in the developing ciliated epithelium using quantitative flow imaging and speckle variance optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamm, Ute A.; Huang, Brendan K.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2017-02-01

    Premature infants are at a high risk for respiratory diseases owing to an underdeveloped respiratory system that is very susceptible to infection and inflammation. One aspect of respiratory health is the state of the ciliated respiratory epithelium which lines the trachea and bronchi. The ciliated epithelium is responsible for trapping and removing pathogens and pollutants from the lungs and an impairment of ciliary functionality can lead to recurring respiratory infections and subsequent lung damage. Mechanisms of cilia-driven fluid flow itself but also factors influenced by development like ciliary density and flow generation are incompletely understood. Furthermore, medical interventions like intubation and accidental aspiration can lead to focal or diffuse loss of cilia and disruption of flow. In this study we use two animal models, Xenopus embryo and ex vivo mouse trachea, to analyze flow defects in the injured ciliated epithelium. Injury is generated either mechanically with a scalpel or chemically by calcium chloride (CaCl2) shock, which efficiently but reversibly deciliates the embryo skin. In this study we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to quantify cilia driven fluid flow over the surface of the Xenopus embryo. We additionally visualized damage to the ciliated epithelium by capturing 3D speckle variance images that highlight beating cilia. Mechanical injury disrupted cilia-driven fluid flow over the injured site, which led to a reduction in cilia-driven fluid flow over the whole surface of the embryo (n=7). The calcium chloride shock protocol proved to be highly effective in deciliating embryos (n=6). 3D speckle variance images visualized a loss of cilia and cilia-driven flow was halted immediately after application. We also applied CaCl2-shock to cultured ex vivo mouse trachea (n=8) and found, similarly to effects in Xenopus embryo, an extensive loss of cilia with resulting cessation of flow. We

  15. Ex vivo visualization of human ciliated epithelium and quantitative analysis of induced flow dynamics by using optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yuye; Yao, Xinwen; Gamm, Ute A; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Emala, Charles W; Choma, Michael A; Hendon, Christine P

    2017-03-01

    Cilia-driven mucociliary clearance is an important self-defense mechanism of great clinical importance in pulmonary research. Conventional light microscopy possesses the capability to visualize individual cilia and its beating pattern but lacks the throughput to assess the global ciliary activities and flow dynamics. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides depth-resolved cross-sectional images, was recently introduced to this area. Fourteen de-identified human tracheobronchial tissues are directly imaged by two OCT systems: one system centered at 1,300 nm with 6.5 μm axial resolution and 15 μm lateral resolution, and the other centered at 800 nm with 2.72 μm axial resolution and 5.52 μm lateral resolution. Speckle variance images are obtained in both cross-sectional and volumetric modes. After imaging, sample blocks are sliced along the registered OCT imaging plane and processed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for comparison. Quantitative flow analysis is performed by tracking the path-lines of microspheres in a fixed cross-section. Both the flow rate and flow direction are characterized. The speckle variance images successfully segment the ciliated epithelial tissue from its cilia-denuded counterpart, and the results are validated by corresponding H&E stained sections. A further temporal frequency analysis is performed to extract the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) at cilia cites. By adding polyester microspheres as contrast agents, we demonstrate ex vivo imaging of the flow induced by cilia activities of human tracheobronchial samples. This manuscript presents an ex vivo study on human tracheobronchial ciliated epithelium and its induced mucous flow by using OCT. Within OCT images, intact ciliated epithelium is effectively distinguished from cilia-denuded counterpart, which serves as a negative control, by examining the speckle variance images. The cilia beat frequency is extracted by temporal frequency analysis. The flow rate, flow

  16. Directed Induction of Functional Multi-ciliated Cells in Proximal Airway Epithelial Spheroids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Satoshi; Gotoh, Shimpei; Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Korogi, Yohei; Nagasaki, Tadao; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Ito, Isao; Tsukita, Sachiko; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary Multi-ciliated airway cells (MCACs) play a role in mucociliary clearance of the lung. However, the efficient induction of functional MCACs from human pluripotent stem cells has not yet been reported. Using carboxypeptidase M (CPM) as a surface marker of NKX2-1+-ventralized anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs), we report a three-dimensional differentiation protocol for generating proximal airway epithelial progenitor cell spheroids from CPM+ VAFECs. These spheroids could be induced to generate MCACs and other airway lineage cells without alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, the directed induction of MCACs and of pulmonary neuroendocrine lineage cells was promoted by adding DAPT, a Notch pathway inhibitor. The induced MCACs demonstrated motile cilia with a “9 + 2” microtubule arrangement and dynein arms capable of beating and generating flow for mucociliary transport. This method is expected to be useful for future studies on human airway disease modeling and regenerative medicine. PMID:26724905

  17. Differentiated retinal Müller glia are ciliated--ultrastructural evidence in the teleost Poecilia reticulata P.

    PubMed

    Ennis, S; Kunz, Y W

    1986-08-01

    It is generally held that the cells in all retinal layers bear a cilium during development but there have been controversial reports as to whether the ciliation of the Müller cell persists after birth. The present study of the developing and fully formed adult eye of the teleost Poecilia reticulata reveals that just prior to the formation of the photoreceptors in the embryonic retina, the Müller cell contains only a diplosome. Throughout development the diplosome is seen to migrate apically, always juxtaposed to many microtubules. When the photoreceptors are differentiated and capable of photomechanical movement, the Müller cell in Poecilia bears a cilium situated vitreally to the external limiting membrane. The cilium persists in juvenile and adult retinae in both the light- and dark-adapted state. The functional significance of the cilium in the Müller cell is presently unknown.

  18. Biological weighting function of the UV-B-induced impairment of phototaxis in the freshwater ciliate Ophryoglena flava.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Roberto; Marroni, Fabio; Gioffré, Domenico; Ghetti, Francesco; Colombetti, Giuliano

    2004-01-01

    We determined the biological weighting function (BWF) of the effect of UV radiation on phototaxis of the freshwater, histophagous ciliate Ophryoglena flava. Dose-effect curves were measured by exposing the cells to 12 different irradiation regimens obtained with two different levels of UV-B radiation and by using six filters with cutoff wavelengths ranging from 280 to 335 nm. The results show that there are significant damages to phototaxis at the doses used and that the effect increases when the cutoff is shifted toward short wavelengths. The data were used to calculate the BWF of phototaxis impairment by applying a nonlinear fit procedure. The BWF thus obtained decays exponentially with increasing wavelength in agreement with similar findings reported in the literature for other systems.

  19. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-02-20

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass.

  20. Description and Phylogeny of Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Hypotricha, Pseudokeronopsidae), a New Benthic Marine Ciliate from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; de Albuquerque, Amanda Ferreira Cavalcante; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudokeronopsidae Borror & Wicklow, 1983 are biotechnologically important ciliate protists which produce toxic defense substances; however, their diversity is still little known in Brazil. In the present study, Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi, a new genus and species of marine pseudokeronopsid hypotrichs is described from samples of water with bottom sediment collected from the coast of São Paulo state. Its phylogenetic affinities to the “core urostyloids” are hypothesized based on analyses of the 18S-rDNA marker, and a new subfamily, the Nothoholostichinae subfam. nov., is erected to name the monophylum composed of pseudokeronopsids in which the anterior corona is usually formed by four frontal cirri. In addition, the new combination Monocoronella longissima comb. nov. is proposed for Nothoholosticha longissima (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Li et al., 2009. PMID:24586456

  1. Description and phylogeny of Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Hypotricha, Pseudokeronopsidae), a new benthic marine ciliate from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Thiago da Silva; de Albuquerque, Amanda Ferreira Cavalcante; Borges, Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudokeronopsidae Borror & Wicklow, 1983 are biotechnologically important ciliate protists which produce toxic defense substances; however, their diversity is still little known in Brazil. In the present study, Tetrakeronopsis silvanetoi, a new genus and species of marine pseudokeronopsid hypotrichs is described from samples of water with bottom sediment collected from the coast of São Paulo state. Its phylogenetic affinities to the "core urostyloids" are hypothesized based on analyses of the 18S-rDNA marker, and a new subfamily, the Nothoholostichinae subfam. nov., is erected to name the monophylum composed of pseudokeronopsids in which the anterior corona is usually formed by four frontal cirri. In addition, the new combination Monocoronella longissima comb. nov. is proposed for Nothoholosticha longissima (Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986) Li et al., 2009.

  2. The symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean within a new species of calcifying ciliate (Tiarina sp.).

    PubMed

    Mordret, Solenn; Romac, Sarah; Henry, Nicolas; Colin, Sébastien; Carmichael, Margaux; Berney, Cédric; Audic, Stéphane; Richter, Daniel J; Pochon, Xavier; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Symbiotic partnerships between heterotrophic hosts and intracellular microalgae are common in tropical and subtropical oligotrophic waters of benthic and pelagic marine habitats. The iconic example is the photosynthetic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium that establishes mutualistic symbioses with a wide diversity of benthic hosts, sustaining highly biodiverse reef ecosystems worldwide. Paradoxically, although various species of photosynthetic dinoflagellates are prevalent eukaryotic symbionts in pelagic waters, Symbiodinium has not yet been reported in symbiosis within oceanic plankton, despite its high propensity for the symbiotic lifestyle. Here we report a new pelagic photosymbiosis between a calcifying ciliate host and the microalga Symbiodinium in surface ocean waters. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy, together with an 18S rDNA-based phylogeny, showed that the host is a new ciliate species closely related to Tiarina fusus (Colepidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the endosymbionts based on the 28S rDNA gene revealed multiple novel closely related Symbiodinium clade A genotypes. A haplotype network using the high-resolution internal transcribed spacer-2 marker showed that these genotypes form eight divergent, biogeographically structured, subclade types that do not seem to associate with any benthic hosts. Ecological analyses using the Tara Oceans metabarcoding data set (V9 region of the 18S rDNA) and contextual oceanographic parameters showed a global distribution of the symbiotic partnership in nutrient-poor surface waters. The discovery of the symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean provides new insights into the ecology and evolution of this pivotal microalga and raises new hypotheses about coastal pelagic connectivity.

  3. Natural products from aquatic eukaryotic microorganisms for cancer therapy: Perspectives on anti-tumour properties of ciliate bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Catalani, Elisabetta; Proietti Serafini, Francesca; Zecchini, Silvia; Picchietti, Simona; Fausto, Anna Maria; Marcantoni, Enrico; Buonanno, Federico; Ortenzi, Claudio; Perrotta, Cristiana; Cervia, Davide

    2016-11-01

    Several modern drugs, including those for cancer therapy, have been isolated from natural sources, are based on natural products and its derivatives, or mime natural products. Some of them are in clinical use, others in clinical trials. The success of natural products in drug discovery is related to their biochemical characteristics and to the technologic methods used to study their feature. Natural compounds may acts as chemo-preventive agents and as factors that increase therapeutic efficacy of existing drugs, thus overcoming cancer cell drug resistance that is the main factor determining the failure in conventional chemotherapy. Water environment, because of its physical and chemical conditions, shows an extraordinary collection of natural biological substances with an extensive structural and functional diversity. The isolation of bioactive molecules has been reported from a great variety of aquatic organisms; however, the therapeutic application of molecules from eukaryotic microorganisms remains inadequately investigated and underexploited on a systematic basis. Herein we describe the biological activities in mammalian cells of selected substances isolated from ciliates, free-living protozoa common almost everywhere there is water, focusing on their anti-tumour actions and their possible therapeutic activity. In particular, we unveil the cellular and molecular machine mediating the effects of cell type-specific signalling protein pheromone Er-1 and secondary metabolites, i.e. euplotin C and climacostol, in cancer cells. To support the feasibility of climacostol-based approaches, we also present novel findings and report additional mechanisms of action using both in vitro and in vivo models of mouse melanomas, with the scope of highlighting new frontiers that can be explored also in a therapeutic perspective. The high skeletal chemical difference of ciliate compounds, their sustainability and availability, also through the use of new organic synthesis

  4. The symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean within a new species of calcifying ciliate (Tiarina sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Mordret, Solenn; Romac, Sarah; Henry, Nicolas; Colin, Sébastien; Carmichael, Margaux; Berney, Cédric; Audic, Stéphane; Richter, Daniel J; Pochon, Xavier; de Vargas, Colomban; Decelle, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic partnerships between heterotrophic hosts and intracellular microalgae are common in tropical and subtropical oligotrophic waters of benthic and pelagic marine habitats. The iconic example is the photosynthetic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium that establishes mutualistic symbioses with a wide diversity of benthic hosts, sustaining highly biodiverse reef ecosystems worldwide. Paradoxically, although various species of photosynthetic dinoflagellates are prevalent eukaryotic symbionts in pelagic waters, Symbiodinium has not yet been reported in symbiosis within oceanic plankton, despite its high propensity for the symbiotic lifestyle. Here we report a new pelagic photosymbiosis between a calcifying ciliate host and the microalga Symbiodinium in surface ocean waters. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy, together with an 18S rDNA-based phylogeny, showed that the host is a new ciliate species closely related to Tiarina fusus (Colepidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the endosymbionts based on the 28S rDNA gene revealed multiple novel closely related Symbiodinium clade A genotypes. A haplotype network using the high-resolution internal transcribed spacer-2 marker showed that these genotypes form eight divergent, biogeographically structured, subclade types that do not seem to associate with any benthic hosts. Ecological analyses using the Tara Oceans metabarcoding data set (V9 region of the 18S rDNA) and contextual oceanographic parameters showed a global distribution of the symbiotic partnership in nutrient-poor surface waters. The discovery of the symbiotic life of Symbiodinium in the open ocean provides new insights into the ecology and evolution of this pivotal microalga and raises new hypotheses about coastal pelagic connectivity. PMID:26684730

  5. Conserved Asf1-importin β physical interaction in growth and sexual development in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Garg, Jyoti; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Karsou, Abdel; Marquez, Susanna; Nabeel-Shah, Syed; Bertucci, Virginia; Retnasothie, Dashaini V; Radovani, Ernest; Pawson, Tony; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Pearlman, Ronald E; Fillingham, Jeffrey S

    2013-12-06

    How the eukaryotic cell specifies distinct chromatin domains is a central problem in molecular biology. The ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila features a separation of structurally and functionally distinct germ-line and somatic chromatin into two distinct nuclei, the micronucleus (MIC) and macronucleus (MAC) respectively. To address questions about how distinct chromatin states are assembled in the MAC and MIC, we have initiated studies to define protein-protein interactions for T. thermophila chromatin-related proteins. Affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry analysis of the conserved Asf1 histone chaperone in T. thermophila revealed that it forms a complex with an importin β, ImpB6. Furthermore, these proteins co-localized to both the MAC and MIC in growth and development. We suggest that newly synthesized histones H3 and H4 in T. thermophila are transported via Asf1-ImpB6 in an evolutionarily conserved pathway to both nuclei where they then enter nucleus-specific chromatin assembly pathways. These studies set the stage for further use of functional proteomics to elucidate details of the characterization and functional analysis of the unique chromatin domains in T. thermophila. Asf1 is an evolutionarily conserved chaperone of H3 and H4 histones that functions in replication dependent and independent chromatin assembly. Although Asf1 has been well studied in humans and yeast (members of the Opisthokonta lineage of eukaryotes), questions remain concerning its mechanism of function. To obtain additional insight into the Asf1 function we have initiated a proteomic analysis in the ciliate protozoan T. thermophila, a member of the Alveolata lineage of eukaryotes. Our results suggest that an evolutionarily conserved function of Asf1 is mediating the nuclear transport of newly synthesized histones H3 and H4. © 2013.

  6. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  7. Quantification and visualization of injury and regeneration to the ciliated epithelium using quantitative flow imaging and speckle variance optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamm, Ute A.; Huang, Brendan K.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Mucociliary flow is an important defense mechanism in the lung to remove inhaled pathogens and pollutants. A disruption of ciliary flow can lead to respiratory infections. Even though patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) either have or are very susceptible to respiratory infections, mucociliary flow is not well understood in the ICU setting. We recently demonstrated that hyperoxia, a consequence of administering supplemental oxygen to a patient in respiratory failure, can lead to a significant reduction of cilia-driven fluid flow in mouse trachea. There are other factors that are relevant to ICU medicine that can damage the ciliated tracheal epithelium, including inhalation injury and endotracheal tube placement. In this study we use two animal models, Xenopus embryo and ex vivo mouse trachea, to analyze flow defects in the injured ciliated epithelium. Injury is generated either mechanically with a scalpel or chemically by calcium chloride (CaCl2) shock, which efficiently but reversibly deciliates the embryo skin. In this study we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to quantify cilia driven fluid flow over the surface of the Xenopus embryo. We additionally visualized damage to the ciliated epithelium by capturing 3D speckle variance images that highlight beating cilia. Mechanical injury disrupted cilia-driven fluid flow over the injured site, which led to a reduction in cilia-driven fluid flow over the whole surface of the embryo (n=7). The calcium chloride shock protocol proved to be highly effective in deciliating embryos (n=6). 3D speckle variance images visualized a loss of cilia and cilia-driven flow was halted immediately after application. We also applied CaCl2-shock to cultured ex vivo mouse trachea (n=8) and found, similarly to effects in Xenopus embryo, an extensive loss of cilia with resulting cessation of flow. We investigated the regeneration of the ciliated epithelium after an 8 day incubation period

  8. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  9. Impacts of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on summer distribution of phytoplankton, copepods and ciliates in relation to abiotic variables along the near-shore of the southwestern Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Drira, Zaher; Guermazi, Wassim; Elloumi, Jannet; Maalej, Sami; Aleya, Lotfi; Ayadi, Habib

    2012-02-01

    In connection with the Taparura Project, studies of spatial distribution of the crustacean zooplankton community, nutrients, phytoplankton and ciliates were conducted in July 2007 at 45 stations spread over fifteen transects along the coast north of Sfax. The results showed that the N/P ratio was lower than the Redfield ratio, suggesting potential N limitation. Phytoplankton was characterised by the proliferation of several diatoms, while ciliates were largely dominated by spirotrichs. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton present during the entire study period, comprising 61% of the total zooplankton community. Twelve copepod families were identified at every station, with a high percentage of Oithonidae (77% of copepods) dominated by Oithona nana. The abundance of this species was correlated with that of diatoms, Cocoolithophorideae and ciliated Colpodea, suggesting that O. nana may feed on a wide range of prey. Despite human pressure and industrial activities, the coastal waters north of Sfax showed a wide diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates and zooplankton.

  10. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia.

    PubMed

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss.

  11. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst discovered after kidney transplantation in a hepatitis C virus-infected patient: a report of one case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lubrano, Jean; Rouquette, Alexandre; Huet, Emmanuel; François, Arnaud; Goria, Odile; Etienne, Isabelle; Fabre, Monique; Scotté, Michel

    2008-04-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC) is a rare liver lesion derived from the embryonic foregut. In most cases, CHFC remains asymptomatic but some malignant transformations have been reported. Typical imaging features usually lead to diagnosis using ultrasonography, computed tomography scan examination or MRI. When the diagnosis remains uncertain, a fine needle aspiration with cytology is appropriate. The presence of ciliated epithelial cells with hepatocytes and mucous cells on aspiration cytology is enough to assess the diagnosis. Surgery is recommended when there is uncertain diagnosis or malignant lesion suspicion. We report herein, the case of a CHFC discovered in a hepatitis C virus-infected patient following a renal transplantation. To eliminate a lymphoma or a liver tumor arising because of patient's immunosuppression status, a surgical resection of the lesion was performed. The surgical outcome was uneventful. Regarding this case, embryogenesis, morphological characteristics and treatment of the lesions are discussed.

  12. [Morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of astome ciliates Almophrya bivacuolata and A. maediovacuolata (protozoa: ciliophora) endocommensal of terricolous oligochaetes in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Nana, P A; Ngassam, P; Fokam, Z; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Coffe, G; Sime, Gando T; Zébazé, Togouet S H

    2010-12-01

    The silver impregnation supplemented by DAPI and Feulgen nuclear coloration enabled us to study the morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of two species of endocommensal Astome ciliates, Almophrya bivacuoloata (de Puytorac & Dragesco, 1968) and A. mediovocuolata (Ngassam, 1983). We highlighted important digitations and the presence of dark bands in the structure of the "H" macronucleus of the small cellular types as well as the presence of intermediate forms between "H" and "X" in these two species.

  13. Impacts of restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on the seasonal distribution of abiotic variables, phytoplankton, copepods, and ciliates in a man-made solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Kobbi-Rebai, Rayda; Annabi-Trabelsi, Neila; Khemakhem, Hajer; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2013-03-01

    The restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum landfill was investigated for its effects on the seasonal distribution of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods. Sampling was carried out monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 at four ponds of increasing salinity (A1, 41 psu; A5, 46 psu; A16, 67 psu; and C31, 77 psu) in the Sfax solar saltern (southeastern Tunisia). Physicochemical and biological analyses were carried out using standard methods. Results showed drastic reduction of phosphate input and greater diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods than before restoration. Pennate diatoms and new ciliates, considered bio-indicators of less-stressed marine ecosystems, proliferated in the A1 pond for the first time after restoration. Copepods appeared to feed on a wide range of prey. Economically, removal of the 1.7 million m(3) of phosphate improved the quality of the site's salt production, enabling the salt company to receive the quality ISO 9001 accreditation.

  14. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  15. Can a fermentation gas mainly produced by rumen Isotrichidae ciliates be a potential source of biohydrogen and a fuel for a chemical fuel cell?

    PubMed

    Piela, Piotr; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata; Szewczyk, Krzysztof; Sikora, Radosław; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Sikora, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a hydrogen-rich fermentation gas produced by selected rumen ciliates to feed a low-temperature hydrogen fuel cell. A biohydrogen fuel cell (BHFC) was constructed consisting of (i) a bioreactor, in which a hydrogen-rich gas was produced from glucose by rumen ciliates, mainly of the Isotrichidae family, deprived of intra- and extracellular bacteria, methanogens, and fungi, and (ii) a chemical fuel cell of the polymer-electrolyte type (PEFC). The fuel cell was used as a tester of the technical applicability of the fermentation gas produced by the rumen ciliates for power generation. The average estimated hydrogen yield was ca. 1.15 mol H2 per mol of fermented glucose. The BHFC performance was equal to the performance of the PEFC running on pure hydrogen. No fuel cell poisoning effects were detected. A maximum power density of 1.66 kW/m2 (PEFC geometric area) was obtained at room temperature. The maximum volumetric power density was 128 W/m3 but the coulombic efficiency was only ca. 3.8%. The configuration of the bioreactor limited the continuous operation time of this BHFC to ca. 14 hours.

  16. The use of multiple endpoints to assess cellular responses to environmental contaminants in the interstitial marine ciliate Euplotes crassus.

    PubMed

    Gomiero, A; Sforzini, S; Dagnino, A; Nasci, C; Viarengo, A

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents the results of investigations on the suitability of Euplotes crassus, an interstitial marine ciliate, to be used as model organism in ecotoxicology and thereafter to evaluate the toxicity of estuarine and coastal sediments upon laboratory exposure. Nowadays, anthropogenic activities have resulted in accumulation of metals and organic pollutants in the environment as well as in the food chain hence leading to serious ecological and human health problems. This may pose a risk to benthic and epibenthic organisms and it is crucial to discover toxicity tests that will identify adverse effects of sediment-associated chemicals on benthic organisms. Due to their nature as a eukaryotic cell/organism and their position in the food web, ciliated protozoa are suitable models for evaluating the effects of pollution on aquatic communities. Lethal and sublethal effects of exposure to inorganic and organic pollutants were tested on the cell mortality, replication rate, lysosomal membrane stability and endocytosis rate of E. crassus. Increasing nominal concentrations of individual and mixtures of mercury, copper, and benzo(a)pyrene were investigated in this study as they might be bioavailable in naturally occurring polluted sites. A significant decrease in the mean replication rate (p<0.05) was found after 24h exposures to m/μM concentrations of all tested pollutants. At the same time, significant decreases of lysosomal membrane stability (p<0.05) were observed for Cu (5 μM), Hg (10 nM), and B(a)P (200 nM). Among the entire suite of tests, endocytosis rate test demonstrated the highest sensitivity. Exposures to binary mixtures of all studied pollutants were performed showing both inorganic-organic and inorganic-inorganic additive and/or antagonist effects. Moreover, medium salinity was also varied to mimic estuarine-like environmental conditions linking biological response to ionic strengths. Under these conditions significant increases of both endocytosis

  17. Detecting in situ copepod diet diversity using molecular technique: development of a copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-inclusive PCR protocol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Simin; Guo, Zhiling; Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey

  18. Detecting In Situ Copepod Diet Diversity Using Molecular Technique: Development of a Copepod/Symbiotic Ciliate-Excluding Eukaryote-Inclusive PCR Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J.; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey

  19. Morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of the soil ciliate Rigidohymena quadrinucleata (Dragesco and Njine, 1971) Berger, 2011 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha, Oxytrichidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Li, Lifang; Warren, Alan; Shao, Chen

    2017-08-01

    Morphogenesis in the soil hypotrich ciliate, Rigidohymena quadrinucleata (Dragesco and Njine, 1971) Berger, 2011; was investigated using protargol staining. The main events during binary fission are as follows: (1) the proter retains the parental adoral zone of membranelles entirely, whereas the old undulating membranes dedifferentiate into an anlage that gives rise to the leftmost frontal cirrus and the new undulating membranes of the proter; (2) six streaks of frontoventral-transverse cirral anlagen are segmented in the pattern 1:3:3:3:4:4 from left to right, which form three frontal, four frontoventral, one buccal, five ventral and five transverse cirri, respectively; (3) the postoral ventral cirrus V/3 is not involved in primordia formation demonstrating that this species belongs to the stylonychines; (4) marginal anlagen are formed intrakinetally and the right marginal anlagen develop much earlier than the left ones; (5) the generation of the dorsal kineties is of typical Oxytricha-pattern and three caudal cirri are formed, one at the posterior end of each of dorsal kineties 1, 2 and 4. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequence data indicate that Rigidohymena is polyphyletic and that R. quadrinucleata clusters with R. candens with full support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. The water-born protein pheromones of the polar protozoan ciliate, Euplotes nobilii: Coding genes and molecular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Pedrini, Bill; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2010-08-01

    The protozoan ciliate Euplotes nobilii found in Antarctic and Arctic coastal waters relies on secretion of water-soluble cell type-specific signal proteins (pheromones) to regulate its vegetative growth and sexual mating. For three of these psychrophilic pheromones we previously determined the three-dimensional structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with protein solutions purified from the natural sources, which led to evidence that their adaptation to cold is primarily achieved by increased flexibility through an extension of regions free of regular secondary structures, and by increased exposure of negative charges on the protein surface. Then we cloned the coding genes of these E. nobilii pheromones from the transcriptionally active cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus) and characterized the full-length sequences. These sequences all contain an open reading frame of 252-285 nucleotides, which is specific for a cytoplasmic pheromone precursor that requires two proteolytic cleavages to remove a signal peptide and a pro segment before release of the mature protein into the extracellular environment. The 5‧ and 3‧ non-coding regions are two- to three-fold longer than the coding region and appear to be tightly conserved, probably in relation to the inclusion of intron sequences destined to be alternatively removed to play key regulatory roles in the mechanism of the pheromone gene expression.

  1. Morphologic and Genetic Variability in the Marine Planktonic Ciliate Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia), with Notes on its Ontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    AGATHA, SABINE; STRÜDER-KYPKE, MICHAELA C.; BERAN, ALFRED

    2010-01-01

    Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 is a conspicuous oligotrich ciliate in the marine plankton. In order to compare different populations, the morphology of specimens from the Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, and Irish Sea was investigated using live observation, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the PCR-amplified products of the SSrRNA gene from a monoclonal culture of L. strobila from the Mediterranean Sea were sequenced and aligned with sequences of other oligotrichs, including a population of L. strobila from the Atlantic coast of the USA. Finally, the data from the ecological literature were summarized and the cultivation methods were described. The SSrRNA gene sequences of the two distantly located L. strobila populations from the North Atlantic are identical. Likewise, the morphometrics of most populations so far investigated after protargol impregnation (i.e. from the North Atlantic) do not show obvious differences. In all computed phylogenetic trees, L. strobila groups with Strombidium species, forming a monophyletic taxon corresponding to the subclass Oligotrichia. These results are corroborated by the ontogenetic comparison. Since no type species was fixed for Laboea Lohmann, 1908, L. strobila was designated in the present paper. PMID:15218695

  2. Prototapirella ciliates from wild habituated Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda with the descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Eckardt, Winnie; Stoinski, Tara S; Gillespie, Thomas R; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of Prototapirella fosseyi n. sp., P. rwanda n. sp. and P. gorillaeImai, Ikeda, Collet, and Bonhomme, 1991 in the Entodiniomorphida were described from the mountain gorillas, Gorilla beringei beringei, in Rwanda. The ciliates have a retractable adoral ciliary zone, four non-retractable ciliary tufts in four caudalia, and one broad skeletal plate beneath the body surface. P. rwanda has a dorsal lobe and ventral lobes in two rows whereas P. fosseyi has no lobes. These two new species have an elongated body, a flat tail flap leaning to the ventral, a macronucleus with a tapering anterior end, a round posterior end and a shallow depression on the dorsal side, a micronucleus lying near the anterior end of macronucleus, a thin left region of the skeletal plate, a distinct skeletal rod plate, and four contractile vacuoles. P. gorillae has some variations in the nuclei and the skeletal plate. The infraciliary bands of three Prototapirella species were the same as some Triplumaria species; a C-shaped adoral polybrachykinety, a slender perivestibular polybrachykinety, and paralabial kineties in their retractable adoral ciliary zone and short lateral polybrachykineties in their four caudalia. The perivestibular polybrachykinety is joined only to the right end of adoral polybrachykinety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphology and Phylogeny of the Soil Ciliate Metopus yantaiensis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Metopida), with Identification of the Intracellular Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Omar, Atef; Zhang, Qianqian; Zou, Songbao; Gong, Jun

    2017-03-17

    The morphology and infraciliature of a new ciliate, Metopus yantaiensis n. sp., discovered in coastal soil of northern China, were investigated. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following features: nuclear apparatus situated in the preoral dome; 18-21 somatic ciliary rows, of which three extend onto the preoral dome (dome kineties); three to five distinctly elongated caudal cilia, and 21-29 adoral poly