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Sample records for ciliate zoothamnium niveum

  1. A Novel Colonial Ciliate Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) and Its Ectosymbiont Candidatus Navis piranensis gen. nov., sp. nov. from Shallow-Water Wood Falls

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Lukas; Bright, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Symbioses between ciliate hosts and prokaryote or unicellular eukaryote symbionts are widespread. Here, we report on a novel ciliate species within the genus Zoothamnium Bory de St. Vincent, 1824, isolated from shallow-water sunken wood in the North Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea), proposed as Zoothamnium ignavum sp. nov. We found this ciliate species to be associated with a novel genus of bacteria, here proposed as “Candidatus Navis piranensis” gen. nov., sp. nov. The descriptions of host and symbiont species are based on morphological and ultrastructural studies, the SSU rRNA sequences, and in situ hybridization with symbiont-specific probes. The host is characterized by alternate microzooids on alternate branches arising from a long, common stalk with an adhesive disc. Three different types of zooids are present: microzooids with a bulgy oral side, roundish to ellipsoid macrozooids, and terminal zooids ellipsoid when dividing or bulgy when undividing. The oral ciliature of the microzooids runs 1¼ turns in a clockwise direction around the peristomial disc when viewed from inside the cell and runs into the infundibulum, where it makes another ¾ turn. The ciliature consists of a paroral membrane (haplokinety), three adoral membranelles (polykineties), and one stomatogenic kinety (germinal kinety). One circular row of barren kinetosomes is present aborally (trochal band). Phylogenetic analyses placed Z. ignavum sp. nov. within the clade II of the polyphyletic family Zoothamniidae (Oligohymenophorea). The ectosymbiont was found to occur in two different morphotypes, as rods with pointed ends and coccoid rods. It forms a monophyletic group with two uncultured Gammaproteobacteria within an unclassified group of Gammaproteobacteria, and is only distantly related to the ectosymbiont of the closely related peritrich Z. niveum (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1831) Ehrenberg, 1838. PMID:27683199

  2. A molecular phylogenetic investigation of zoothamnium (ciliophora, peritrichia, sessilida).

    PubMed

    Clamp, John C; Williams, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The gene coding for 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) was sequenced in seven free-living, marine species of the sessiline peritrich genus Zoothamnium. These were Zoothamnium niveum, Zoothamnium alternans, Zoothamnium pelagicum, and four unidentified species. The ssu rRNA gene also was sequenced in Vorticella convallaria, Vorticella microstoma, and in an unidentified, freshwater species of Vorticella. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using these new sequences to test a previously published phylogenetic association between Zoothamnium arbuscula, currently in the family Zoothamniidae, and peritrichs in the family Vorticellidae. Trees constructed by means of neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods all had similar topologies. The seven new sequences of Zoothamnium species grouped into three well-supported clades, each of which contained a diversity of morphological types. The three clades formed a poorly supported, larger clade that was deeply divergent from Z. arbuscula, which remained more closely associated with vorticellid peritrichs. It is apparent that Zoothamnium is a richly diverse genus and that a much more intensive investigation, involving both morphological and molecular data and a wider selection of species, will be necessary to resolve its phylogeny. A greater amount of molecular diversity than is predicted by morphological data exists within all major clades of sessiline peritrichs that have been included in molecular phylogenies, indicating that characteristics of stalk and peristomial structure traditionally used to differentiate taxa at the generic level and above may not be uniformly reliable.

  3. Monophyly or polyphyly? Possible conflict between morphological and molecular interpretations of the well-known genus Zoothamnium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lifang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we explore possible conflict between morphological and molecular interpretations of phylogenetic relationships within the well-known peritrichous genus Zoothamnium. On the basis of morphological evidence, for a long time this genus has been believed to be a well-defined monophyletic taxon. Nonetheless, Zoothamnium exhibits higher genetic diversity than the gross morphology of its species. Here, we used all available genetic information for the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) for this genus to reconstruct phylogenies for four datasets (SSU rRNA, ITS1, ITS2, and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and a combined dataset (SSU rRNA+ITS1-5.8SITS2) using different phylogenetic methods and with consideration of the secondary structure of the genes. Confidence in phylogenetic tree selection was assessed with the approximately unbiased test. The molecular results showed both that Zoothamnium is more likely to be polyphyletic, and morphologically similar genera Zoothamnopsis and Myoschiston were always nested among Zoothamnium species. Accordingly, as with some other groups of ciliates, to understand more fully the correct phylogeny of Zoothamnium there remains a need for additional data from both morphological and molecular studies, covering additional Zoothamnium spp. and members of closely related genera (e.g. Zoothamnopsis, Myoschiston, and Epistylis).

  4. Morphology and Phylogenetic Placement of Three New Zoothamnium species (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from Coastal Waters of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhuo; Ji, Daode; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    The morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system of three peritrichous ciliates, Zoothamnium bucciniiformum sp. n., Zoothamnium florens sp. n., and Zoothamnium zhanjiangense sp. n., were investigated based on both living and silver-stained specimens. Zoothamnium bucciniiformum sp. n., collected from coastal waters (salinity 30‰) off Zhanjiang, southern China, can be distinguished by the following characters: dichotomously branched stalk, peristomial lip with medial circumferential infolding, contractile vacuole apically positioned, 32-49 silverlines between the anterior end and the aboral trochal band, 15-26 between the aboral trochal band and the scopula; two kineties in peniculus 3, not parallel to each other. Zoothamnium florens sp. n., collected from a mangrove wetland (salinity 13‰) off Zhanjiang, is characterized by its large conical zooid, tuberculate peristomial lip, asymmetrical dichotomously branched colony, 59-81 silverlines between the anterior end and the aboral trochal band and 29-36 between the aboral trochal band and the scopula. Zoothamnium zhanjiangense, collected from a mangrove wetland (salinity about 9.5‰) off Zhanjiang, differs from its congeners by the alternately branched stalk, peristomial lip with medial circumferential infolding, 40-63 silverlines from the peristomial area to the aboral trochal band and 13-24 from the aboral trochal band to the scopula. The comparison and analysis of SSU rDNA sequences also support present identifications.

  5. Reconsideration of the phylogenetic positions of five peritrich genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella, Zoothamnopsis, Zoothamnium, and Epicarchesium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida), based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Lifang; Song, Weibo; Warren, Alan; Shin, Mann Kyoon; Chen, Zigui; Ji, Daode; Sun, Ping

    2008-01-01

    In order to re-evaluate the systematics of sessilid peritrich ciliates, small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences were determined for 12 species belonging to five genera: Vorticella, Pseudovorticella, Epicarchesium, Zoothamnium, and Zoothamnopsis. Phylogenetic trees were deduced using Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood methods. The phylogenetic analyses suggest that (1) sessilids which have stalks with continuous myonemes that contract in a zig-zag fashion form a separate clade from those which have stalks that contract independently and in a spiral fashion, supporting the separation of the family Zoothamniidae from the family Vorticellidae and (2) Epicarchesium and Pseudovorticella, both of which have reticulate silverline systems, are more closely related to each other than to other vorticellids, suggesting that differences in the silverline system (i.e. transverse vs. reticulate) may be the result of genuine evolutionary divergence among sessilid peritrichs. However, the newly sequenced Zoothamnopsis sinica, which has a reticulate silverline pattern, nests within the unresolved Zoothamnium species that have transverse silverline patterns. Thus, there were at least two evolutions of the reticulate silverline pattern character state from a plesiomorphic transverse state in the peritrichid ciliates. The molecular work demonstrates the genus Zoothamnium to be paraphyletic in relation to morphological studies, and suggests that Astylozoon, Opisthonecta, and Vorticella microstoma possibly share a SSU rRNA secondary structure in the helix E10-1 region.

  6. Growth of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) estimated from laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Utz, L R P

    2008-05-01

    Peritrich ciliates are commonly found colonizing living substrates. Although this a well known phenomenon, biological aspects of this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Assessment of growth rates in peritrichs has been the subject of very few studies. Only species in the genera Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1830 and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 had their growth rates evaluated in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, growth, colonization (colonies/host), and proliferation (zooids/colony) rates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 attached to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1848 were evaluated in the laboratory in two food regimes: bacteria only, and algal based diet. Results showed that growth, colonization, and proliferation rates were similar for both diets. Maximum growth rates obtained for Z. intermedium was 0.85 and 0.83 per day, for bacteria and algae respectively. Maximum colonization rates were 0.5 per day for both diets, and the maximum proliferation rates were 0.44 and 0.42 per day for bacteria and algae respectively. These results demonstrate that Z. intermedium is able to grow at the same rate of other peritrichs on bacterial and algal based diets.

  7. Zoothamnium duplicatum infestation of cultured horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Shinn, Andrew P; Mühlhölzl, Alexander P; Coates, Christopher J; Metochis, Christoforos; Freeman, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    An outbreak of the sessile peritrich Zoothamnium duplicatum in a pilot, commercial-scale Limulus polyphemus hatchery resulted in the loss of ∼96% (40,000) second/third instar larvae over a 61day period. peritrich growth was heavy, leading to mechanical obstruction of the gills and physical damage. The peritrichs were controlled without resultant loss of juvenile crabs by administering 10ppm chlorine in freshwater for 1h and the addition of aquarium grade sand; a medium into which the crabs could burrow and facilitate cleaning of the carapace. Peritrich identity was confirmed from a partial SSU rDNA contiguous sequence of 1343bp (99.7% similarity to Z. duplicatum).

  8. Spore inoculum optimization to maximize cyclosporin A production in Tolypocladium niveum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Jin; Lee, Han-Na; Han, Kyubeom; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2008-05-01

    The cyclic undecapeptide, cyclosporin A (CyA), is one of the most commonly prescribed immunosuppressive drugs. It is generated nonribosomally from a multifunctional cyclosporin synthetase enzyme complex by the filamentous fungus Tolypocladium niveum. In order to maximize the production of CyA by wild-type T. niveum (ATCC 34921), each of three culture stages (sporulation culture, growth culture, and production culture) were sequentially optimized. Among the three potential sporulation media, the SSMA medium generated the highest numbers of T. niveum spores. The SSM and SM media were then selected as the optimal growth and production culture media, respectively. The addition of valine and fructose to the SM production medium was also determined to be crucial for CyA biosynthesis. In this optimized three-stage culture system, 3% of the spore inoculum generated the highest level of CyA productivity in a 15-day T. niveum production culture, thereby implying that the determination of an appropriate size of T. niveum spore inoculum plays a critical role in the maximization of CyA production.

  9. Characterization of the spasmin 1 gene in Zoothamnium arbuscula strain Kawagoe (protozoa, ciliophora) and its relation to other spasmins and centrins.

    PubMed

    Itabashi, Takeshi; Mikami, Kazuyuki; Asai, Hiroshi

    2003-06-01

    Zoothamnium arbuscula strain Kawagoe is a giant sessile peritrich ciliated protozoa that possesses a contractile organelle called a spasmoneme. We report here on the molecular characterization and provide an opportunity to discuss the evolutionary relationships of the Z. arbuscula spasmin; spasmins belong to the calmodulin superfamily and are the major components of spasmoneme filaments. We analysed and obtained the whole sequence of the spasmin 1 gene and a partial sequence of the spasmin 2 gene. It is surprising that the sequence of spasmin 1 does not contain introns and encodes an open reading frame of 531 bp. It predicts a product of 177 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19659 Da and a pI of 4.68. The amino acid sequence has two putative calcium-binding domains. One of them is a functional domain, as defined by the EF-hand consensus. The varieties of spasmins were revealed by comparison with amino acid components and molecular relationships of spasmin 1 protein and other spasmins. A comparison of the amino acid sequence between the Z. arbuscula spasmin and known centrins indicates that spasmins have a one residue deletion in the EF-hand domain-2 and four residue insertions in domain-4, as does the Vorticella spasmin. However, there are large variations in the amino acid sequence at domain-4 within spasmin 1, spasmin 2 and the Vorticella spasmin.

  10. Ciliates by the Slice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boynton, John E.; Small, Eugene B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes new methods of collecting and examining ciliates, particularly those found in the sediments of lakes, rivers, and estuaries. Discusses extraction methods in preparation for observations in the classroom. Suggests investigations of ciliate ecology as an area of increasing research interest. (JM)

  11. Photomovements in Ciliated Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Hans-Werner

    Ciliates are unicellular, nonphotosynthetic organisms which show a number of light-induced responses. Orientation with respect to the direction of light, phototaxis, has been demonstrated in some species of ciliates. Most of these species bear conspicuous cell organelles such as subpellicular pigment granules, a colored stigma, a watchglass organelle, or a compound crystalline organelle. Several lines of evidence suggest that these kinds of organelles are prerequisites for phototactic orientation of the cells. Photoreceptor molecules presumedly mediating the photobehavior of two species have been identified. The ecological advantage of light-induced responses in ciliated protozoa is still debated. In some cases the organisms may utilize this behavior either to approach their potential prey, to escape their predators, to escape damaging light, or to meet a mating partner. Several species of ciliates display inverse phototactic behavior at different stages of their life cycle.

  12. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  13. Epigenetics of Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Chalker, Douglas L.; Meyer, Eric; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2013-01-01

    Research using ciliates revealed early examples of epigenetic phenomena and continues to provide novel findings. These protozoans maintain separate germline and somatic nuclei that carry transcriptionally silent and active genomes, respectively. Examining the differences in chromatin within distinct nuclei of Tetrahymena identified histone variants and established that transcriptional regulators act by modifying histones. Formation of somatic nuclei requires both transcriptional activation of silent chromatin and large-scale DNA elimination. This somatic genome remodeling is directed by homologous RNAs, acting with an RNA interference (RNAi)-related machinery. Furthermore, the content of the parental somatic genome provides a homologous template to guide this genome restructuring. The mechanisms regulating ciliate DNA rearrangements reveal the surprising power of homologous RNAs to remodel the genome and transmit information transgenerationally. PMID:24296171

  14. A rapid inoculation technique for assessing pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis on Cucurbits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous-dip inoculation technique for rapid assessment of pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and F. o. melonis was developed. The method, adapted from a similar procedure for determining pathogenicity of Colletotrichum magna (causal agent of anthracnose of cucurbits), involves constant exposure of seedlings and cuttings (seedlings with root systems excised) of watermelon and muskmelon to conidial suspensions contained in small scintillation vials. Disease development in intact seedlings corresponded well to disease responses observed with the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The continuous-dip inoculation technique resulted in rapid disease development, with 50% of watermelon cuttings dying after 4–6 days of exposure to F. o. niveum. A mortality of 30% also was observed in watermelon cuttings exposed to conidia of F. o. melonis, as opposed to only a 0–2.5% mortality in seedlings with intact roots. Disease response was similar with muskmelon seedlings and cuttings continuously dip-inoculated with F. o. melonis isolates. However, no disease symptoms were observed in muskmelon seedlings or cuttings inoculated with F. o. niveum. Four nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum did not cause disease symptoms in either watermelon or muskmelon cuttings and seedlings when assayed by this technique. The proposed method enables a rapid screening of pathogenicity and requires less time, labor, and greenhouse space than the standard root-dip inoculation/pot assay. The reliability of the continuous-dip inoculation technique is limited, however, to exposure of intact seedlings at a concentration of 1 × 106conidia per milliliter; the method is not accurate at this range for excised seedlings.

  15. The Ciliate Colpoda: "Instant" Protozoan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne Muller; Giese, Arthur C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan which is able to survive in a dry, encysted state for long periods of time. Outlines the procedures for culturing the organism and producing cyst preparations, and recommends its use in the high school biology laboratory. (JR)

  16. The DNA of ciliated protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, D M

    1994-01-01

    Ciliates contain two types of nuclei: a micronucleus and a macronucleus. The micronucleus serves as the germ line nucleus but does not express its genes. The macronucleus provides the nuclear RNA for vegetative growth. Mating cells exchange haploid micronuclei, and a new macronucleus develops from a new diploid micronucleus. The old macronucleus is destroyed. This conversion consists of amplification, elimination, fragmentation, and splicing of DNA sequences on a massive scale. Fragmentation produces subchromosomal molecules in Tetrahymena and Paramecium cells and much smaller, gene-sized molecules in hypotrichous ciliates to which telomere sequences are added. These molecules are then amplified, some to higher copy numbers than others. rDNA is differentially amplified to thousands of copies per macronucleus. Eliminated sequences include transposonlike elements and sequences called internal eliminated sequences that interrupt gene coding regions in the micronuclear genome. Some, perhaps all, of these are excised as circular molecules and destroyed. In at least some hypotrichs, segments of some micronuclear genes are scrambled in a nonfunctional order and are recorded during macronuclear development. Vegetatively growing ciliates appear to possess a mechanism for adjusting copy numbers of individual genes, which corrects gene imbalances resulting from random distribution of DNA molecules during amitosis of the macronucleus. Other distinctive features of ciliate DNA include an altered use of the conventional stop codons. Images PMID:8078435

  17. Quantitative trait loci mapping of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most devastating watermelon diseases worldwide, Fusarium wilt, is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). Spread of the particularly virulent Fon race 2 in the United States, coupled with the lack of resistance in edible cultivars of the sweet cultivated watermelon Citrullus lan...

  18. Relationship between the flagellates and the ciliates.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R E; Kugrens, P

    1992-01-01

    The flagellates and the ciliates have long been considered to be closely related because of their unicellular nature and the similarity in the structures of the axoneme of the flagella and cilia in both groups. Most protozoologists believe that the ciliates arose from a flagellate. The flagellates that are most similar in structure to the ciliates are the dinoflagellates and two genera of uncertain taxonomic position, Colponema and Katablepharis. Structurally, dinoflagellates have a number of similarities with ciliates. These include the similarity of the cortical alveoli in the ciliates to the thecal vesicles in the dinoflagellates, the possession of tubular cristae, the similarity of the parasomal sac of the ciliates to the pusule of the dinoflagellates, the possession of similar trichocysts and mucocysts, and some similarity in the feeding apparatus. Colponema spp. are probably related to the dinoflagellates and have many of the same similarities with the ciliates. Katablepharis spp. are very similar in structure to the swarmer (embryo) of the suctorian ciliates. Indeed, reduction in the number of cilia to two in the suctorian swarmer and elimination of the macronucleus would result in a cell that is very similar to the Katablepharis cell. The feeding apparatus of Katablepharis spp. and the rest of the ciliates consists of two concentric microtubular arrays associated with vesicles. Information available from nucleotide sequencing of rRNA places the dinoflagellates in an ancestral position to the ciliates. The rRNA of Colponema and Katablepharis spp. has not yet been investigated. The use of stop codons in mRNA is discussed in relation to phylogeny. Images PMID:1480107

  19. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  20. On the evolution of the karyorelict ciliate life cycle: heterophasic ciliates and the origin of ciliate binary fission.

    PubMed

    Orias, E

    1991-01-01

    Karyorelict ciliates have near diploid somatic nuclei (macronuclei) incapable of division. If selective pressure favors nuclear division, how could such macronuclei have evolved? I propose that they initially evolved in the context of a diplophase stage that consisted entirely of a non-dividing trophont that was terminated by the induction of meiosis. The diploid macronucleus then differentiated, functioned and was destroyed in the absence of cell division. Such a life cycle would necessarily be heterophasic, i.e. with alternating haploid and diploid generations. I call these ancestors heterophasic ciliates. I further propose that the ability of this diploid trophont to undergo binary fission arose de novo. Ciliate binary fission would then be a derived characteristic, which possibly evolved indepedently in more than one heterophasic ciliate lineage. A progression of steps, leading to the reduction of the haplophase and the generation of the karyorelict life cycle, is proposed. The shared possession of nuclear dimorphism with non-dividing macronuclei, conjugation, and a putative heterophasic ancestry invites further investigation of the phylogenetic relationship between heterokaryotic foraminifera and karyorelict ciliates.

  1. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ning; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Dongsheng; Mao, Jiugeng; Huang, Qiwei; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-01-01

    Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON), but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants.

  2. A genotype-by-sequencing-single nucleotide polymorphism based linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum race 2 identified in Citrullus lanatus var. citroides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt, a fungal disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), devastates watermelon crop production worldwide. Several races, which are differentiated by host range, of the pathogen exist. Resistance to Fon race 2, a particularly virulent strain prevalent in the United States, do...

  3. Ciliated Protozoa in marine pollution studies. A conspectus

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.G.

    1983-04-01

    The ecological role of the marine ciliates is discussed with reference to the interaction of this group with contaminants. While the ciliates may be of some value in routine screening of potential toxins, simple laboratory bioassays are unlikely to be of predictive value in assessing threats to the marine environment. There is some evidence that ciliates may take part in the transfer and transformation of potential pollutants. Further field and laboratory studies are required in order to identify and quantify the role of ciliates in these processes.

  4. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65 psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9 psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5 psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5 psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5 psu, 8.9 psu, 29.5 psu and 50.5 psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5 psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5 psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils.

  5. Ciliate communities in a constructed mangrove wetland for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Hua; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Shin, Paul K S; Cheung, Siu-Giu; Xu, Run-Lin

    2009-05-01

    In wetlands constructed for treating municipal and industrial wastewater, including mangroves, the effect of wastewater discharged on the substrate has often been neglected. Ciliates, an important group of protozoa, are sensitive to pollutants and any changes in ciliate diversity and community structure reflects the habitat quality. The ciliate communities at six sections along a constructed mangrove belt (33 m in length) planted with Aegicerascorniculatum were investigated in Shenzhen, South China. In all samples collected in both rainy and dry seasons, 183 ciliate species were observed. Most species (56%) were free-swimming forms, while only 10.8% were sessile ciliates. The abundance and species number of ciliates were both found to decrease from the anterior (the wastewater inlet) to the posterior (the outlet) parts of the wetland belt, indicating that organic matter and bacteria in wastewater, which served as food for most ciliates, were gradually removed by the constructed wetland. The r/K (number of r- and K-selected species) ratios at the six sections were relatively small, between 0.2 and 0.4, whereas the C/P (abundance of colpodids and polyhymenophorans) quotient at some sections was higher than 1. These results indicate that although most of the environments along the constructed wetland belt were not stressful for ciliate communities, there were habitats that favored colpodids in high abundances.

  6. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yi; Cao, Zhongye; Huang, Lihong; Liu, Shixia; Shen, Zhihui; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming

    2016-01-01

    CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g., Congo Red and Calcofluor White) and oxidative stress (e.g., H2O2 and paraquat), decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways. PMID:27695445

  7. Impact of Soil Texture on Soil Ciliate Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. F.; Brown, S.; Habtom, E.; Brinson, F.; Epps, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water content and connectivity strongly influence microbial activities in soil, controlling access to nutrients and electron acceptors, and mediating interactions between microbes within and between trophic levels. These interactions occur at or below the pore scale, and are influenced by soil texture and structure, which determine the microscale architecture of soil pores. Soil protozoa are relatively understudied, especially given the strong control they exert on bacterial communities through predation. Here, ciliate communities in soils of contrasting textures were investigated. Two ciliate-specific primer sets targeting the 18S rRNA gene were used to amplify DNA extracted from eight soil samples collected from Sumter National Forest in western South Carolina. Primer sets 121F-384F-1147R (semi-nested) and 315F-959R were used to amplify soil ciliate DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the resulting PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to obtain quantity and band size. Approximately two hundred ciliate 18S rRNA sequences were obtained were obtained from each of two contrasting soils. Sequences were aligned against the NCBI GenBank database for identification, and the taxonomic classification of best-matched sequences was determined. The ultimate goal of the work is to quantify changes in the ciliate community under short-timescale changes in hydrologic conditions for varying soil textures, elucidating dynamic responses to desiccation stress in major soil ciliate taxa.

  8. Network of Interactions Between Ciliates and Phytoplankton During Spring

    PubMed Central

    Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Pomati, Francesco; Pernthaler, Jakob; Pitsch, Gianna; Eckert, Ester M.

    2015-01-01

    The annually recurrent spring phytoplankton blooms in freshwater lakes initiate pronounced successions of planktonic ciliate species. Although there is considerable knowledge on the taxonomic diversity of these ciliates, their species-specific interactions with other microorganisms are still not well understood. Here we present the succession patterns of 20 morphotypes of ciliates during spring in Lake Zurich, Switzerland, and we relate their abundances to phytoplankton genera, flagellates, heterotrophic bacteria, and abiotic parameters. Interspecific relationships were analyzed by contemporaneous correlations and time-lagged co-occurrence and visualized as association networks. The contemporaneous network pointed to the pivotal role of distinct ciliate species (e.g., Balanion planctonicum, Rimostrombidium humile) as primary consumers of cryptomonads, revealed a clear overclustering of mixotrophic/omnivorous species, and highlighted the role of Halteria/Pelagohalteria as important bacterivores. By contrast, time-lagged statistical approaches (like local similarity analyses, LSA) proved to be inadequate for the evaluation of high-frequency sampling data. LSA led to a conspicuous inflation of significant associations, making it difficult to establish ecologically plausible interactions between ciliates and other microorganisms. Nevertheless, if adequate statistical procedures are selected, association networks can be powerful tools to formulate testable hypotheses about the autecology of only recently described ciliate species. PMID:26635757

  9. Molecular Characterization of Ciliate Diversity in Stream Biofilms▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Free-living protozoa are thought to be of fundamental importance in aquatic ecosystems, but there is limited understanding of their diversity and ecological role, particularly in surface-associated communities such as biofilms. Existing eukaryote-specific PCR primers were used to survey 18S rRNA gene sequence diversity in stream biofilms but poorly revealed protozoan diversity, demonstrating a need for protozoan-targeted primers. Group-specific PCR primers targeting 18S rRNA genes of the protozoan phylum Ciliophora were therefore designed and tested using DNA extracted from cultured protozoan isolates. The two most reliable primer combinations were applied to stream biofilm DNA, followed by cloning and sequencing analysis. Of 44 clones derived from primer set 384F/1147R, 86% were of probable ciliate origin, as were 25% of 44 clones detected by primer set 121F/1147R. A further 29% of 121F/1147R-detected clones matched sequences from the closely related phylum Apicomplexa. The highly ciliate-specific primer set 384F/1147R was subsequently used in PCRs on biofilm DNA from four streams exhibiting different levels of human impact, revealing differences in ciliate sequence diversity in samples from each site. Of a total of 240 clones, 73% were of probable ciliate origin; 54 different putative ciliate sequences were detected from throughout seven taxonomic ciliate classes. Sequences from Oligohymenophorea were most commonly detected in all samples, followed by either Spirotrichea or Phyllopharyngea. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profile-based analysis of clones suggested a potentially higher level of diversity than did sequencing. Nevertheless, newly designed PCR primers 384F/1147R were considered to provide an effective molecular basis for characterization of ciliate diversity in stream biofilms. PMID:18223112

  10. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Charles J; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described.

  11. Colonization dynamics of ciliate morphotypes modified by shifting sandy sediments.

    PubMed

    Risse-Buhl, Ute; Felsmann, Katja; Mutz, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Sandy stream-bed sediments colonized by a diverse ciliate community are subject to various disturbance regimes. In microcosms, we investigated the effect of sediment shifting on the colonization dynamics of 3 ciliate morphotypes differing in morphology, behavior and feeding strategy. The dynamics of the ciliate morphotypes inhabiting sediment pore water and overlying water were observed at 3 sediment shifting frequencies: (1) stable sediments, (2) periodically shifting sediments such as migrating ripples, and (3) continuously shifting sediments as occurring during scour events of the uppermost sediment. Sediment shifting significantly affected the abundance and growth rate of the ciliate morphotypes. The free-swimming filter feeder Dexiostoma campylum was vulnerable to washout by sediment shifting since significantly higher numbers occurred in the overlying water than in pore water. Abundance of D. campylum only increased in pore water of stable sediments. On the contrary, the vagile grasper feeder Chilodonella uncinata and the sessile filter feeder Vorticella convallaria had positive growth rates and successfully colonized sediments that shifted periodically and continuously. Thus, the spatio-temporal pattern of sediment dynamics acts as an essential factor of impact on the structure, distribution and function of ciliate communities in sand-bed streams.

  12. The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Charles J.; de la Fuente, Gabriel; Belanche, Alejandro; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa in rumen microbial ecosystem remains unclear. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA libraries generated from the rumen of cattle, sheep, and goats has revealed an unexpected diversity of ciliated protozoa although variation in gene copy number between species makes it difficult to obtain absolute quantification. Despite repeated attempts it has proven impossible to maintain rumen protozoa in axenic culture. Thus it has been difficult to establish conclusively a role of ciliate protozoa in rumen fiber degradation. The development of techniques to clone and express ciliate genes in λ phage, together with bioinformatic indices to confirm the ciliate origin of the genes has allowed the isolation and characterization of fibrolytic genes from rumen protozoa. Elimination of the ciliate protozoa increases microbial protein supply by up to 30% and reduces methane production by up to 11%. Our recent findings suggest that holotrich protozoa play a disproportionate role in supporting methanogenesis whilst the small Entodinium are responsible for much of the bacterial protein turnover. As yet no method to control protozoa in the rumen that is safe and practically applicable has been developed, however a range of plant extract capable of controlling if not completely eliminating rumen protozoa have been described. PMID:26635774

  13. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-03-15

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B{sup -/-} mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag{sup +}/Cu{sup +} transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  14. The role of oestrogen in the control of ciliated cells of the human endometrium.

    PubMed

    More, I A; Masterton, R G

    1976-05-01

    The incidence of ciliated cells in the human endometrium was determined. Conditions associated with an excess of oestrogenic activity were characterized by an increased incidence of ciliated cells, whilst oestrogen deficiency was associated with decreased numbers. When endometrium was cultured, addition of oestradiol-17 beta caused an increase in the ciliated cell population.

  15. Genomes on the Edge: Programmed Genome Instability in Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Bracht, John R.; Fang, Wenwen; Goldman, Aaron David; Dolzhenko, Egor; Stein, Elizabeth M.; Landweber, Laura F.

    2013-01-01

    Ciliates are an ancient and diverse group of microbial eukaryotes that have emerged as powerful models for RNA-mediated epigenetic inheritance. They possess extensive sets of both tiny and long noncoding RNAs that, together with a suite of proteins that includes transposases, orchestrate a broad cascade of genome rearrangements during somatic nuclear development. This Review emphasizes three important themes: the remarkable role of RNA in shaping genome structure, recent discoveries that unify many deeply diverged ciliate genetic systems, and a surprising evolutionary “sign change” in the role of small RNAs between major species groups. PMID:23374338

  16. [Early morphogenesis of ciliated cells in human oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Kurtova, A I; Chernikov, V P; Savel'ev, S V

    2013-01-01

    Ciliated cells were found in the epithelium of the oral cavity of human embryos and fetuses starting from the seventh week of prenatal development. At the early stages of prenatal development (until the 13th week), cells with cilia cover most of the dorsal surface of the tongue and the soft palate, whereas they are found only near the gland ducts in the circumvallate and foliate lingual papillae after 17 weeks of development. The ultrastructure of the axoneme of cilia corresponds to the structure of motile cilia and is represented by nine microtubule doublets that surround the central pair of microtubule singlets. An immunohistochemical study performed on weeks 10-12 of development identified nerve endings associated with the ciliated cells. Until the 14th week of development, the cytoplasm of ciliated cells is immunopositive for NSE. The spatial distribution of ciliated cells in the tongue epithelium until the 13th week of development is not related to the morphogenesis of lingual papillae, and their role in the human oral cavity during the first trimester of pregnancy is unclear and requires further study.

  17. A Cryptic Marine Ciliate Feeds on Progametes of Noctiluca scintillans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuwen; Chan, Kit Yu Karen; Shen, Zhuo; Cheung, Shunyan; Landry, Michael R; Liu, Hongbin

    2017-02-01

    The dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Noctiluca) has the ability to reproduce sexually, which may help to increase or restore its population size during periods of blooms or environmental stress. Here, we documented for the first time a marine ciliate Strombidium sp. that feeds on Noctiluca's progametes undergoing stages 5 to 9 of nuclear division. This ciliate frequently swam on or around gametogenic and some vegetative Noctiluca cells. The ciliates associated with gametogenic cells had significantly lower swimming speed and changed direction more frequently than those associated with vegetative cells, which overall increased their time spent around the food patches (progametes). This trophic interaction constitutes an upside-down predator-prey link, in which ciliates within the typical size range of Noctiluca prey, become the predators. Based on the phylogenetic tree (maximum-likelihood), there are 14 environmental clones similar to Strombidium sp. found in other coastal waters, where Noctiluca presence or blooms have been reported. This novel predator-prey relationship could therefore be common in other Noctiluca habitats. Additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of its impacts on Noctiluca population dynamics and plankton bloom succession.

  18. Alterations of ciliate phosducin phosphorylation in Blepharisma japonicum cells.

    PubMed

    Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Fabczak, Hanna; Fabczak, Stanisław

    2005-05-13

    We have previously reported that motile photophobic response in ciliate Blepharisma japonicum correlates with dephosphorylation of a cytosolic 28 kDa phosphoprotein (PP28) exhibiting properties similar to those of phosducin. Here we demonstrate in in vivo phosphorylation assay that the light-elicited dephosphorylation of the PP28 is significantly modified by cell incubation with substances known to modulate protein phosphatase and kinase activities. Immunoblot analyses showed that incubation of ciliates with okadaic acid and calyculin A, potent inhibitors of type 1 or 2A protein phosphatases, distinctly increased phosphorylation of PP28 in dark-adapted cells and markedly weakened dephosphorylation of the ciliate phosducin following cell illumination. An enhancement of PP28 phosphorylation was also observed in dark-adapted ciliates exposed to 8-Br-cAMP and 8-Br-cGMP, slowly hydrolysable cyclic nucleotide analogs and 3-isobutyryl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a non-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDEs) inhibitor. Only slight changes in light-evoked dephosphorylation levels of PP28 were observed in cells treated with the cyclic nucleotide analogs and IBMX. Incubation of ciliates with H 89 or KT 5823, highly selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), respectively, decreased PP28 phosphorylation levels in dark-adapted cells, whereas the extent of light-evoked dephosphorylation of the phosphoprotein was only slightly influenced. Cell treatment with higher Ca2+ concentration together with ionophore A23187 in culture medium resulted in marked increase in PP28 phosphorylation levels, while quite an opposite effect was observed in cells exposed to Ca2+ chelators, EGTA or BAPTA/AM as well as calmodulin antagonists, such as trifluoperazine (TFP), W-7 or calmidazolium. Light-dependent dephosphorylation was not considerably affected by these treatments. The experimental findings presented here suggest that an

  19. The Tara Oceans voyage reveals global diversity and distribution patterns of marine planktonic ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Gimmler, Anna; Korn, Ralf; de Vargas, Colomban; Audic, Stéphane; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Illumina reads of the SSU-rDNA-V9 region obtained from the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition allow the investigation of protistan plankton diversity patterns on a global scale. We analyzed 6,137,350 V9-amplicons from ocean surface waters and the deep chlorophyll maximum, which were taxonomically assigned to the phylum Ciliophora. For open ocean samples global planktonic ciliate diversity is relatively low (ca. 1,300 observed and predicted ciliate OTUs). We found that 17% of all detected ciliate OTUs occurred in all oceanic regions under study. On average, local ciliate OTU richness represented 27% of the global ciliate OTU richness, indicating that a large proportion of ciliates is widely distributed. Yet, more than half of these OTUs shared <90% sequence similarity with reference sequences of described ciliates. While alpha-diversity measures (richness and exp(Shannon H)) are hardly affected by contemporary environmental conditions, species (OTU) turnover and community similarity (β-diversity) across taxonomic groups showed strong correlation to environmental parameters. Logistic regression models predicted significant correlations between the occurrence of specific ciliate genera and individual nutrients, the oceanic carbonate system and temperature. Planktonic ciliates displayed distinct vertical distributions relative to chlorophyll a. In contrast, the Tara Oceans dataset did not reveal any evidence that latitude is structuring ciliate communities. PMID:27633177

  20. Ultrastructure of extrusomes in hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Wang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Jun; Gu, Fukang

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructure of extrusomes of the hypotrichous ciliate Pseudourostyla nova was observed in scanning and transmission electron microscopy and enzyme-cytochemistry. The results show that the distribution, morphological characteristics, morphogenesis process, and extrusive process of the extrusomes in P. nova are different from the trichocysts in Paramecium, suggesting that the extrusomes of P. nova can respond to environmental stimuli, play an important role in the defense of this species, and cannot be regarded as "trichocysts". The results also suggest that the extrusomes might be originated from the Golgi apparatus and mature in the cytoplasm; after the extrusion of mature extrusomes, the residual substance might be reabsorbed and reused by the ciliate cell via food vacuoles, and take part in material recycling of the cell.

  1. Phylogeny of Intestinal Ciliates, Including Charonina ventriculi, and Comparison of Microscopy and 18S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing for Rumen Ciliate Community Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Devente, Savannah R.; Kirk, Michelle R.; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups. PMID:25616800

  2. Evolution of the Exon-Intron Structure in Ciliate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Mikhail S.

    2016-01-01

    A typical eukaryotic gene is comprised of alternating stretches of regions, exons and introns, retained in and spliced out a mature mRNA, respectively. Although the length of introns may vary substantially among organisms, a large fraction of genes contains short introns in many species. Notably, some Ciliates (Paramecium and Nyctotherus) possess only ultra-short introns, around 25 bp long. In Paramecium, ultra-short introns with length divisible by three (3n) are under strong evolutionary pressure and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons, which, in the case of intron retention, cause premature termination of mRNA translation and consequent degradation of the mis-spliced mRNA by the nonsense-mediated decay mechanism. Here, we analyzed introns in five genera of Ciliates, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Ichthyophthirius, Oxytricha, and Stylonychia. Introns can be classified into two length classes in Tetrahymena and Ichthyophthirius (with means 48 bp, 69 bp, and 55 bp, 64 bp, respectively), but, surprisingly, comprise three distinct length classes in Oxytricha and Stylonychia (with means 33–35 bp, 47–51 bp, and 78–80 bp). In most ranges of the intron lengths, 3n introns are underrepresented and have a high frequency of in-frame stop codons in all studied species. Introns of Paramecium, Tetrahymena, and Ichthyophthirius are preferentially located at the 5' and 3' ends of genes, whereas introns of Oxytricha and Stylonychia are strongly skewed towards the 5' end. Analysis of evolutionary conservation shows that, in each studied genome, a significant fraction of intron positions is conserved between the orthologs, but intron lengths are not correlated between the species. In summary, our study provides a detailed characterization of introns in several genera of Ciliates and highlights some of their distinctive properties, which, together, indicate that splicing spellchecking is a universal and evolutionarily conserved process in the biogenesis of short introns in

  3. A checklist of ciliate parasites (Ciliophora) of fishes from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Islas-Ortega, Alma Gabriela

    2015-10-02

    A database with all available published accounts of the ciliate parasite species of Mexican fishes was assembled. This information, along with records derived from own recent research, allow generating a checklist containing all the records, which is a necessary first step to address future questions in the areas of ecology, evolutionary biology and biogeography of these host-parasite associations. The checklist is presented as a parasite-host list, and a host-parasite list. The checklist contains 30 nominal species, from 9 genera and 8 families of ciliate parasites. Most of the primary records were done for exotic fish species, artificially introduced to Mexico for aquaculture purposes; however, recent works have been conducted in diverse species of native fishes. Excepting one, all the ciliate species listed here have been previously recorded for diverse fish species from different localities around the world. Based on the amount of information contained in this checklist, much more effort is necessary to accurately know the diversity of species of this type of parasites in fish fauna of Mexico.

  4. Comparison of ciliature microtubule organelles in three hypotrichous ciliate species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yisong; Shi, Lei; Gu, Fukang

    2010-05-01

    We examined the structure and spatial organization of ciliature base-associated microtubules (BAM) in three hypotrichous ciliates ( Stylonychia mytilus, Pseudourostyla cristata, Euplotes woodruffi) in fluorescence microscopy. The results revealed that BAM, including the anterior (ALM), posterior longitudinal microtubule (PLM) and the transverse microtubule (TM) bands, are composed of tubulin. The respective microtubular bands have cytoplasmic polarization patterns that are significantly asymmetric. The BAM of the midventral files in P. cristata appear cord-shaped compared with the ALM bands of transverse cirri in both S. mytilus and E. woodruffi, which extend to the left anterior side of the cell before converging. The TM bands of the left marginal cirri (MC) in S. mytilus extend to the right side of the cell, while those of the right MC bands extend to the left. Our observations suggest that BAM traits are common in hypotrichous ciliates even though different species possess different microtubule arrangements related to the conserved cirral morphogenetic patterns in the respective species. The differing development of BAM in the three ciliate suggests that the microtubules may be conserved in different hypotrichs. We have also demonstrated that the BAM, which appear polar and asymmetric, are localized in specific cytoskeletal positions and extend in different orientations within the cortex to connect with other ciliature-associated structures and, thus, strengthen the cortex. These BAM features indicate that they are directly associated with cell motion.

  5. Resistance of nitrifiers inhabiting activated sludge to ciliate grazing.

    PubMed

    Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Fyda, Janusz; Babko, Roman

    2010-01-01

    We monitored the succession of nitrifiers in a newly opened wastewater treatment plant for five weeks. After the first distinct decrease in total nitrogen, we began monitoring the appearance, size and number of nitrifying bacteria colonies using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) colonies were visualized under green excitation as red, and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) colonies were visualized under blue excitation as green. The changes in protozoan community were monitored simultaneously. Ciliates were divided into four functional groups: predatory, bacterivorous free-swimming, bacterivorous crawling, and sessile. The results showed that at the time of the first distinct total nitrogen decrease, the mean length of both AOB and NOB were relatively low, but the colonies, especially those of nitrite oxidizers, were abundant. In time, the distribution of ammonia oxidizer colonies shifted towards larger sizes, but their quantity decreased. In the case of nitrite oxidizers, a similar trend was noticeable but less pronounced. These changes corresponded with an increasing number of crawling bacterivorous ciliates dominated by the "scavenger" genus Aspidisca. The increasing size of nitrifier colonies may have been due to the growing grazing pressure from crawling bacterivorous ciliates. The strong grazing pressure did not negatively affect N-NH(4)(+) removal effectiveness.

  6. Prevalent ciliate symbiosis on copepods: high genetic diversity and wide distribution detected using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally.

  7. Prevalent Ciliate Symbiosis on Copepods: High Genetic Diversity and Wide Distribution Detected Using Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiling; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Simin; Li, Tao; Huang, Yousong; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2012-01-01

    Toward understanding the genetic diversity and distribution of copepod-associated symbiotic ciliates and the evolutionary relationships with their hosts in the marine environment, we developed a small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA)-based molecular method and investigated the genetic diversity and genotype distribution of the symbiotic ciliates on copepods. Of the 10 copepod species representing six families collected from six locations of Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, 9 were found to harbor ciliate symbionts. Phylogenetic analysis of the 391 ciliate 18S rDNA sequences obtained revealed seven groups (ribogroups), six (containing 99% of all the sequences) belonging to subclass Apostomatida, the other clustered with peritrich ciliate Vorticella gracilis. Among the Apostomatida groups, Group III were essentially identical to Vampyrophrya pelagica, and the other five groups represented the undocumented ciliates that were close to Vampyrophrya/Gymnodinioides/Hyalophysa. Group VI ciliates were found in all copepod species but one (Calanus sinicus), and were most abundant among all ciliate sequences obtained, indicating that they are the dominant symbiotic ciliates universally associated with copepods. In contrast, some ciliate sequences were found only in some of the copepods examined, suggesting the host selectivity and geographic differentiation of ciliates, which requires further verification by more extensive sampling. Our results reveal the wide occurrence and high genetic diversity of symbiotic ciliates on marine copepods and highlight the need to systematically investigate the host- and geography-based genetic differentiation and ecological roles of these ciliates globally. PMID:23024768

  8. Act together—implications of symbioses in aquatic ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Dziallas, Claudia; Allgaier, Martin; Monaghan, Michael T.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mutual interactions in the form of symbioses can increase the fitness of organisms and provide them with the capacity to occupy new ecological niches. The formation of obligate symbioses allows for rapid evolution of new life forms including multitrophic consortia. Microbes are important components of many known endosymbioses and their short generation times and strong potential for genetic exchange may be important drivers of speciation. Hosts provide endo- and ectosymbionts with stable, nutrient-rich environments, and protection from grazers. This is of particular importance in aquatic ecosystems, which are often highly variable, harsh, and nutrient-deficient habitats. It is therefore not surprising that symbioses are widespread in both marine and freshwater environments. Symbioses in aquatic ciliates are good model systems for exploring symbiont-host interactions. Many ciliate species are globally distributed and have been intensively studied in the context of plastid evolution. Their relatively large cell size offers an ideal habitat for numerous microorganisms with different functional traits including commensalism and parasitism. Phagocytosis facilitates the formation of symbiotic relationships, particularly since some ingested microorganisms can escape the digestion. For example, photoautotrophic algae and methanogens represent endosymbionts that greatly extend the biogeochemical functions of their hosts. Consequently, symbiotic relationships between protists and prokaryotes are widespread and often result in new ecological functions of the symbiotic communities. This enables ciliates to thrive under a wide range of environmental conditions including ultraoligotrophic or anoxic habitats. We summarize the current understanding of this exciting research topic to identify the many areas in which knowledge is lacking and to stimulate future research by providing an overview on new methodologies and by formulating a number of emerging questions in this field

  9. Bioassay of environmental nickel dusts in a particle feeding ciliate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Leibovitz, B.; Donathan, R.; Fisher, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium was used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nickel particles. The biological response of these eukaryotic cells to pure nickel powder and iron-nickel powder was assayed and compared to the effect of the inorganic carcinogen nickel subsulfide. Cytotoxicity was determined by the percent survival of treated cells. Genotoxicity was indicated by significant increases in the fraction of nonviable offspring (presumed index of lethal mutations) found after self-fertilization (autogamy) in parents from the nickel-treated versus neutral control groups. The cells were exposed to the dusts and the biological effects determined. Only the nickel subsulfide consistently showed a significant increase in offspring lethality.

  10. Reversal of phenol and naphthalene effects on ciliate chemoattraction

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Ting, R.S.; Roberts, R.O. ); Mills, B.A. ); Stewart, K.C. )

    1990-02-01

    In an effort to address research needs in the area of rapid screening tests for aquatic toxicology, the authors engaged in a study of pollutant effects on protozoan chemoattraction. Among pollutants tested were metals and hydrocarbons. To ascertain whether inhibition observed after brief exposures to certain concentrations of the pollutants were irreversible, they examined the possibility of nullifying the inhibitory effect by removing protozoa from the toxicants after short exposures. Earlier work showed that inhibitory effects of metals could be removed, and they report here the nullification and reversibility of effects of phenol and naphthalene on certain ciliates.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR A CRYPTOMONAD SYMBIONT IN THE CILIATE, CYCLOTRICHIUM MEUNIERI(1).

    PubMed

    Barber, R T; White, A W; Siegelman, H W

    1969-03-01

    Extracts of the marine ciliate Cyclotrichium meunieri contained chlorophylls a and c, carotenoids, and a phycoerythrin with a single absorbance maximum at 542 nm. This assemblage of pigments suggests that the numerous photosynthetic symbionts present in each ciliate cell belong to the Cryptophyceae.

  12. Abundance, variability, and potential grazing impact of planktonic ciliates in the open subaratic Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Suzanne L.; Postel, James R.; Booth, Beatrice C.

    The abundance and variability of planktonic ciliates in the open subarctic Pacific were determined during four month-long cruises in 1987 and 1988. The ciliate community, numerically dominated by relatively small aloricate choreotrichs, was comparable in abundance to communities in a range of oceanic and neritic environments, including waters with much higher average chlorophyll concentrations. Integrated (0-80m) ciliate biomass was typically 100-200mgC m -2, although 3- to 4-fold higher levels were observed on two occasions in spring. Ciliate community biomass, in general, was dominated by large (>20 μm width) individuals, although in August 1988 the biomass of smaller cells was as great or greater. The estimated grazing impact of the ciliate community averaged 20% of the primary production. On one instance in May 1988, however, a large biomass of ciliates led to an estimated grazing impact equivalent to 55% of phytoplankton production. While ciliates may be major phytoplankton grazers during sporadic ciliate “blooms”, dino- and other heterotrophic flagellates, which make up the bulk of microheterotroph biomass, must normally be of equal or greater importance as herbivores in this ocean region.

  13. Actin evolution in ciliates (Protist, Alveolata) is characterized by high diversity and three duplication events.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Huang, Lijuan; Yang, Ran; Lin, Xiaofeng; Song, Weibo

    2016-03-01

    Ciliates possess two distinct nuclear genomes and unique genomic features, including highly fragmented chromosomes and extensive chromosomal rearrangements. Recent transcriptomic surveys have revealed that ciliates have several multi-copy genes providing an ideal template to study gene family evolution. Nonetheless, this process remains little studied in ciliated protozoa and consequently, the evolutionary patterns that govern it are not well understood. In this study, we focused on obtaining fine-scale information relative to ciliate species divergence for the first time. A total of 230 actin gene sequences were derived from this study, among which 217 were from four closely related Pseudokeronopsis species and 13 from other hypotrichous ciliates. Our investigation shows that: (1) At least three duplication events occurred in ciliates: diversification of three actin genes (Actin I, II, III) happened after the divergence of ciliate classes but before that of subclasses. And several recent and genus-specific duplications were followed within Actin I (Sterkiella, Oxytricha, Uroleptus, etc.), Actin II (Sterkiella), respectively. (2) Within the genus Pseudokeronopsis, Actin I gene duplication events happened after P. carnea and P. erythrina diverged. In contrast, in the morphologically similar species P. flava and P. rubra, the duplication event preceded diversification of the two species. The Actin II gene duplication events preceded divergence of the genus Pseudokeronopsis. (3) Phylogenetic analyses revealed that actin is suitable for resolving ciliate classes, but may not be used to infer lower taxon relationships.

  14. Intestinal ciliate composition found in the feces of racing horses from Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde; Göçmen, Bayram

    2012-08-01

    Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates were investigated in the feces from 15 racing horses living near Izmir, Turkey. Thirty-seven species belonging to 21 genera were identified. Although no new species were observed, this is the first report on intestinal ciliates in racing horses living in Turkey. The mean number of ciliates was 26.4 ± 13.9 × 10(4) cells ml(-1) of feces and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 18.8 ± 7.1. No ciliates were observed in one horse. Bundleia and Polymorphella were found to be the two dominant genera, occurring in high proportions. In contrast, Didesmis and Prorodonopsis were only observed at a low frequency. Bundleia nana, Blepharoconus hemiciliatus, Paraisotrichopsis composita, Prorodonopsis coli and Spirodinium equi were newly recorded from Turkey.

  15. A comparative in-silico analysis of autophagy proteins in ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Küçükoğlu, Nurçin; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy serves as a turnover mechanism for the recycling of redundant and/or damaged macromolecules present in eukaryotic cells to re-use them under starvation conditions via a double-membrane structure known as autophagosome. A set of eukaryotic genes called autophagy-related genes (ATGs) orchestrate this highly elaborative process. The existence of these genes and the role they play in different eukaryotes are well-characterized. However, little is known of their role in some eukaryotes such as ciliates. Here, we report the computational analyses of ATG genes in five ciliate genomes to understand their diversity. Our results show that Oxytricha trifallax is the sole ciliate which has a conserved Atg12 conjugation system (Atg5-Atg12-Atg16). Interestingly, Oxytricha Atg16 protein includes WD repeats in addition to its N-terminal Atg16 domain as is the case in multicellular organisms. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that E2-like conjugating protein Atg10 is only present in Tetrahymena thermophila. We fail to find critical autophagy components Atg5, Atg7 and Atg8 in the parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Contrary to previous reports, we also find that ciliate genomes do not encode typical Atg1 since all the candidate sequences lack an Atg1-specific C-terminal domain which is essential for Atg1 complex formation. Consistent with the absence of Atg1, ciliates also lack other members of the Atg1 complex. However, the presence of Atg6 in all ciliates examined here may rise the possibility that autophagosome formation could be operated through Atg6 in ciliates, since Atg6 has been shown as an alternative autophagy inducer. In conclusion, our results highlight that Atg proteins are partially conserved in ciliates. This may provide a better understanding for the autophagic destruction of the parental macronucleus, a developmental process also known as programmed nuclear death in ciliates. PMID:28123910

  16. Revisiting fifty years of research on pheromone signaling in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Luporini, Pierangelo; Pedrini, Bill; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Among protists, pheromones have been identified in a great variety of algal species for their activity in driving gamete-gamete interactions for fertilization. Analogously in ciliates, pheromones have been identified for their activity in inducing the sexual phenomenon of conjugation. Although this identification was pioneered by Kimball more than fifty years ago, an effective isolation and chemical characterization of ciliate pheromones has remained confined to species of Blepharisma, Dileptus and Euplotes. In Euplotes species, in which the molecular structures have been determined, pheromones form species-specific families of structurally homologous helical, cysteine-rich, highly-stable proteins. Being structurally homologous, they can bind cells in competition with one another, raising interesting functional analogies with the families of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell differentiation and development in higher organisms. In addition to inducing conjugation by binding cells in heterologous fashion, Euplotes pheromones act also as autocrine growth factors by binding to, and promoting the vegetative reproduction of the same cells from which they originate. This autocrine activity is most likely primary, providing a concrete example of how the original function of a molecule can be obscured during evolution by the acquisition of a new one.

  17. Simulation of micro-organisms swimming near ciliated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Henry; Tripathi, Anurag; Yeomans, Julia; Balazs, Anna

    2012-11-01

    Ciliated tissues can be found lining the respiratory tract and Fallopian tubes in mammals. The main function of the cilia is to sweep objects such as the ovum, dirt or bacteria in a directed manner. The self-cleaning action of these tissues would be a desirable property for surfaces that are continually submerged and prone to biofouling. We therefore investigate the effect of artificially driven cilia on swimming organisms. In this study we use a 3-D immersed boundary approach, with the fluid flow solved by the lattice Boltzmann method and the immersed objects modeled as elastic structures. Two types of objects are considered: (i) cilia, which are driven by an external field, and (ii) bacteria, which are self-motile and propelled by a rotating helical flagellum. Placing a bacterial cell in the vicinity of a surface covered by an array of actuated cilia yields a rich system to explore. Of particular interest is the possibility of guiding the motion of bacteria towards, along or away from the ciliated surface.

  18. An evolutionary balance: conservation vs innovation in ciliate membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, Sabrice; Plattner, Helmut; Richardson, Elisabeth; Dacks, Joel B; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2017-01-01

    As most of eukaryotic diversity lies in single-celled protists, they represent unique opportunities to ask questions about the balance of conservation and innovation in cell biological features. Among free-living protists the ciliates offer ease of culturing, a rich array of experimental approaches, and versatile molecular tools, particularly in Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia. These attributes have been exploited by researchers to analyze a wealth of cellular structures in these large and complex cells. This mini-review focuses on 3 aspects of ciliate membrane dynamics, all linked with endolysosomal trafficking. First is nutrition based on phagocytosis and maturation of food vacuoles. Secondly, we discuss regulated exocytosis from vesicles that have features of both dense core secretory granules but also lysosome-related organelles. The third topic is the targeting, breakdown and resorption of parental nuclei in mating partners. For all 3 phenomena, it is clear that elements of the canonical membrane-trafficking system have been retained and in some cases repurposed. In addition, there is evidence that recently evolved, lineage-specific proteins provide determinants in these pathways.

  19. THE CONTRACTILE PROCESS IN THE CILIATE, STENTOR COERULEUS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, B.; Pitelka, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    The structural basis for the function of microtubules and filaments in cell body contractility in the ciliate Stentor coeruleus was investigated. Cells in the extended state were obtained for ultrastructural analysis by treatment before fixation with a solution containing 10 mM EGTA, 50–80 mM Tris, 3 mM MgSO4, 7.5 mM NH4Cl, 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.1). The response of Stentor to changes in the divalent cation concentrations in this solution suggests that Ca+2 and Mg+2 are physiologically important in the regulation of ciliate contractility. The generation of motive force for changes in cell length in Stentor resides in two distinct longitudinal cortical fiber systems, the km fibers and myonemes. Cyclic changes in cell length are associated with (a) the relative sliding of parallel, overlapping microtubule ribbons in the km fibers, and (b) a distinct alteration in the structure of the contractile filaments constituting the myonemes. The microtubule and filament systems are distinguished functionally as antagonistic contractile elements. The development of motive force for cell extension is accomplished by active microtubule-to-microtubule sliding generated by specific intertubule bridges. Evidence is presented which suggests that active shortening of contractile filaments, reflected in a reversible structural transformation of dense 4-nm filaments to tubular 10–12-nm filaments, provides the basis for rapid cell contraction. PMID:4633444

  20. First report of ciliate (Protozoa) epibionts on deep-sea harpacticoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, Linda; Thistle, David; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio; Carman, Kevin R.; Barry, James P.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first observations of ciliate epibionts on deep-sea, benthic harpacticoid copepods. One ciliate epibiont species belonged to class Karyorelictea, one to subclass Suctoria, and one to subclass Peritrichia. Our samples came from the continental rise off central California (36.709°N, 123.523°W, 3607 m depth). We found that adult harpacticoids carried ciliate epibionts significantly more frequently than did subadult copepodids. The reason for the pattern is unknown, but it may involve differences between adults and subadult copepodids in size or in time spent swimming. We also found that the ciliate epibiont species occurred unusually frequently on the adults of two species of harpacticoid copepod; a third harpacticoid species just failed the significance test. When we ranked the 57 harpacticoid species in our samples in order of abundance, three species identified were, as a group, significantly more abundant than expected by chance if one assumes that the abundance of the group and the presence of ciliate epibionts on them were uncorrelated. High abundance may be among the reasons a harpacticoid species carries a ciliate epibiont species disproportionately frequently. For the combinations of harpacticoid species and ciliate epibiont species identified, we found one in which males and females differed significantly in the proportion that carried epibionts. Such a sex bias has also been reported for shallow-water, calanoid copepods.

  1. Climate scaling behaviour in the dynamics of the marine interstitial ciliate community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Mazei, Yuri A.; Burkovsky, Igor; Efstathiou, Maria N.; Tzanis, Chris G.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper uses characteristics of the marine interstitial ciliate community in the White Sea intertidal sandflat during the period of 1991-2011, in order to study its long-term dynamics, investigating in particular whether it exhibits scaling behaviour into its fluctuations, which is a characteristic feature of the climate system. To this aim, a recently proposed version of the detrended fluctuation analysis is herewith employed which has been successfully applied to a wide range of simulated and physiologic time series in recent years. In case that the fluctuations of the ciliate community present self-similarity processes, an ideal field test for the currently proposed biological models will be established, allowing to evaluate their reliability. Indeed, we show for the first time that different ciliate species exhibit long-range power-law persistent correlations. This means that ciliate fluctuations in different intervals are positively correlated, obeying a power-law behaviour. Although the origin of power-law temporal evolution of ciliates should be further investigated, this finding is probably associated with the self-organized criticality of ciliates. It should be noted that the long-range correlations obtained do not imply the presence of specific cycles but rather the existence of dynamic links between long-term and short-term temporal evolution. The scaling behaviour found in marine interstitial ciliate community should be taken into account in the investigation of their response to the present or future climate change.

  2. Complement-Mediated Death of Ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis Caused by Human Blood Serum.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, P A; Faktor, M I; Karpova, N S; Cheremnykh, E G; Brusov, O S

    2016-04-01

    Toxicity of human blood serum for ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis is determined by the complement system. When ciliate are dying after being exposed to blood serum, cell membrane permeability for low-molecular-weight compounds significantly increases, probably due to pore formation. Serine protease inhibitors or exposure to physical factors inducing complement inactivation (e.g., heating up to 56°C) completely prevented ciliate death under the effect of human serum. Activation of serum complement upon interaction with Tetrahymena cells occurred by the classical or lectin pathway, while the contribution of the alternative activation pathway was negligible.

  3. Cryptophyte farming by symbiotic ciliate host detected in situ

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Dajun; Huang, Liangmin; Lin, Senjie

    2016-01-01

    Protist–alga symbiosis is widespread in the ocean, but its characteristics and function in situ remain largely unexplored. Here we report the symbiosis of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum with cryptophyte cells during a red-tide bloom in Long Island Sound. In contrast to the current notion that Mesodinium retains cryptophyte chloroplasts or organelles, our multiapproach analyses reveal that in this bloom the endosymbiotic Teleaulax amphioxeia cells were intact and expressing genes of membrane transporters, nucleus-to-cytoplasm RNA transporters, and all major metabolic pathways. Among the most highly expressed were ammonium transporters in both organisms, indicating cooperative acquisition of ammonium as a major N nutrient, and genes for photosynthesis and cell division in the cryptophyte, showing active population proliferation of the endosymbiont. We posit this as a “Mesodinium-farming-Teleaulax” relationship, a model of protist–alga symbiosis worth further investigation by metatranscriptomic technology. PMID:27791006

  4. Pharmacological characterization of an opioid receptor in the ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, R; Silva, W I; Renaud, F L

    1993-01-01

    A pharmacological characterization has been performed of the opioid receptor involved in modulation of phagocytosis in the protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena. Studies on inhibition of phagocytosis by mammalian prototypic opioid agonists revealed that morphine and beta-endorphin have the highest intrinsic activity, whereas all the other opioids tested can only be considered partial agonists. However, morphine (a mu-receptor agonist) is twice as potent as beta-endorphin (a delta-receptor agonist). Furthermore, the sensitivity for the opioid antagonist naloxone, determined in the presence of morphine and beta-endorphin, is very similar to the sensitivity exhibited by mammalian tissues rich in mu-opioid receptors. We suggest that the opioid receptor coupled to phagocytosis in Tetrahymena is mu-like in some of its pharmacological characteristics and may serve as a model system for studies on opioid receptor function and evolution.

  5. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate’s initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens’ Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The

  6. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates from ponds of different salinity in the solar saltwork of Sfax, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elloumi, Jannet; Carrias, Jean-François; Ayadi, Habib; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Boukhris, Mekki; Bouaïn, Abderrahmen

    2006-03-01

    The planktonic ciliated protozoa of 14 ponds of increasing salinity were investigated in the saline of Sfax, Tunisia. Taxa of the classes of Spirotrichea and Heterotrichea were the numerous ciliates. Abundance of the community ranged from 0.0 to 11.8 × 10 4 ciliates per litre. Values decrease significantly with salinity gradient, as species richness does. Based on the range of salinity over which ciliate taxa appeared, we distinguished three groups of ciliates. The first group is mainly composed of oligotrichs and choreotrichs that are commonly found in marine coastal waters. Small ciliates belonging to the order Prostomatida were found in a large range of salinity values, but their densities also decreased with salt concentration. In contrast, large-size species of heterotrichous ciliates were found in ponds with high salinity values only. In these ponds, the presence of prey appeared as an important factor in controlling the abundances of these halotolerant ciliates. Our data also suggest that Fabrea salina, a common halophile ciliate, acts as a competitor of the brine shrimp Artemia salina in the saline of Sfax. Salinity, prey availability, and the presence of competitors seem to be the main factors for the distribution of ciliate taxa in this hypersaline environment.

  7. Benthic ciliate and meiofaunal communities in two contrasting habitats of an intertidal estuarine wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongfen; Xu, Kuidong; Warren, Alan; Lei, Yanli; Dai, Renhai

    2012-05-01

    Annual variations in benthic meiofaunal and ciliated protozoan communities were investigated using monthly samplings from June 2006 to May 2007 in two habitats characterized by different vegetal coverage in an estuarine intertidal wetland of Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay, China. The sediment composition was stable at each site: sediments densely covered with seagrass (Suaeda glauca) in the lower estuarine site (Station S) were finer, with higher content of organic matter, phaeopigments and water than sediments at the upper estuarine site (Station S-P) which was unvegetated other than for patches of S. glauca and common reed (Phragmites australis). Chlorophyll a exhibited a similar distribution in the two habitats. A total of 14 meiofaunal groups, and 249 species of ciliates belonging to 37 genera, 28 families and 16 orders, were isolated from the two sites. Univariate and multivariate measures of the communities were significantly different between the two habitats. There were higher abundances of ciliates and meiofauna, and a greater diversity of ciliates, at Station S than Station S-P (223 vs. 61 species). Herbivorous ciliates were numerically predominant in ciliate communities at both sites. The representative ciliates at Station S-P belonged to the Cyrtophorida and appeared to be a reduced subset of the assemblage at Station S, which was characterized by members of the Prostomatida, Cyrtophorida, Hypotrichida and Scuticociliatida. More than 96% of the total meiofauna were nematodes, accounting for 93% of the differences in the abundance compositions of the meiofaunal communities between habitats. The average individual weights of nematodes were nearly 3 times greater at Station S than Station S-P, indicating a distinctive species composition at each site. Temperature, salinity and food availability were key factors that regulated the ciliate and meiofaunal community structure. Nematodes were the dominant group in terms of the combined abundance, biomass and benthic

  8. Ciliates rapidly enhance the frequency of conjugation between Escherichia coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Junji; Oguri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shinji; Hanawa, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Kouhei; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yao, Takashi; Akizawa, Kouzi; Suzuki, Haruki; Simizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Kamiya, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism underlying bacterial conjugation through protozoa was investigated. Kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli SM10λ+ carrying pRT733 with TnphoA was used as donor bacteria and introduced by conjugation into ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli clinical isolate recipient bacteria. Equal amounts of donor and recipient bacteria were mixed together in the presence or absence of protozoa (ciliates, free-living amoebae, myxamoebae) in Page's amoeba saline for 24 h. Transconjugants were selected with Luria broth agar containing kanamycin and ciprofloxacin. The frequency of conjugation was estimated as the number of transconjugants for each recipient. Conjugation frequency in the presence of ciliates was estimated to be approximately 10⁻⁶, but in the absence of ciliates, or in the presence of other protozoa, it was approximately 10⁻⁸. Conjugation also occurred in culture of ciliates at least 2 h after incubation. Successful conjugation was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction. Addition of cycloheximide or latrunculin B resulted in suppression of conjugation. Heat killing the ciliates or bacteria had no effect on conjugation frequency. Co-localization of green fluorescent protein-expressing E. coli and PKH-67-vital-stained E. coli was observed in the same ciliate vesicles, suggesting that both donor and recipient bacteria had accumulated in the same vesicle. In this study, the conjugation frequency of bacteria was found to be significantly higher in vesicles purified from ciliates than those in culture suspension. We conclude that ciliates rapidly enhance the conjugation of E. coli strains through bacterial accumulation in vesicles.

  9. Short-term Influence of Drilling Fluid on Ciliates from Activated Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors.

    PubMed

    Babko, Roman; Kuzmina, Tatiana; Łagód, Grzegorz; Jaromin-Gleń, Katarzyna; Danko, Yaroslav; Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Pawłowski, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Spent drilling muds are the liquid residues of rock drilling operations. Due to a high concentration of suspended solids and potentially detrimental chemical properties, they can negatively affect microorganisms participating in wastewater treatment processes. We evaluated the addition of a potassium-polymer drilling fluid (DF) to activated sludge in laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment. Ciliate assemblage, the most dynamic component of eukaryotes in activated sludge, and which is highly sensitive to changes in the system, was evaluated. The average ciliate abundance dropped by about 51% (SBR 2; 1% DF added) and 33% (SBR 3; 3% DF added) in comparison to the control (SBR 1; wastewater only). A decrease in the total number of ciliate species during the experiment was observed, from 25 to 24 in SBR 2 and from 17 to 13 in SBR 3. Moreover, a drop in the number of dominant (>100 individuals mL) ciliate species was observed during the experiment-from eight in the control to five in SBR 2 and four in SBR 3-signaling noticeable changes in the quantitative structure of ciliate species. The species analyzed showed different responses to DF addition. The most sensitive was , which is bacteriovorus. In contrast, two predators, and , showed no reaction to DF addition. Our results indicate that addition of potassium-polymer DF, in doses of 1 to 3% of the treated wastewater volume, had no toxic effects on ciliates, but qualitative and quantitative changes in their community were observed.

  10. Ciliated protozoa of two antarctic lakes: analysis by quantitative protargol staining and examination of artificial substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Coats, D. W.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Planktonic and artificial substrate-associated ciliates have been identified in two perennially ice-covered antarctic lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. Abundances estimated by quantitative protargol staining ranged from < 5 to 31690 cells l-1, levels that are comparable to those previously obtained using other methods. Nineteen ciliate taxa were identified from these lakes, with the most frequently encountered genera being Plagiocampa, Askenasia, Monodinium, Sphaerophrya and Vorticella. The taxonomic findings compare favorably with those of previous investigators; however four previously unreported genera were observed in both Lakes Fryxell and Hoare. The variability in the depth distributions of ciliates in Lake Fryxell is explained in terms of lake physicochemical properties and ciliate prey distributions, while factors related to temporal succession in the Lake Hoare assemblage remain unexplained. Local marine or temperate zone freshwater habitats are a more likely source than the surrounding dry valleys soils for present ciliate colonists in these lakes. Although the taxonomic uncertainties require further examination, our results suggest that ciliate populations in these antarctic lakes undergo significant fluctuations and are more diverse than was previously recognized.

  11. Ciliated cells in vitamin A-deprived cultured hamster tracheal epithelium do divide

    SciTech Connect

    Rutten, A.A.; Beems, R.B.; Wilmer, J.W.; Feron, V.J.

    1988-09-01

    The pseudostratified tracheal epithelium, composed of a heterogeneous phenotypically varying cell population, was studied with respect to the in vitro cell proliferative activity of differentiated epithelial cells. Ciliated tracheal epithelial cells so far have been considered to be terminally differentiated, nonproliferating cells. Tracheal organ cultures obtained from vitamin A-deprived Syrian Golden hamsters were cultured in a vitamin A-deficient, serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In vitamin A-deprived tracheal epithelium treated with physiologically active all-trans retinol and low cigarette-smoke condensate concentrations it is possible to stimulate the cell proliferation of both basal and columnar cells. Therefore, the probability of finding proliferating columnar cells was increased compared with the in vivo and the vitamin A-deprived situation in which cell proliferative activity is relatively low. In the presence of cigarette-smoke condensate in a noncytotoxic concentration, basal, small mucous granule, ciliated, and indifferent tracheal epithelial cells incorporated (methyl-3H)-thymidine into the DNA during the S phase. The finding that ciliated cells were labeled was supported by serial sections showing the same labeled ciliated cell in two section planes separated by 2 to 3 micron, without labeled epithelial cells next to the ciliated cell. Furthermore, a ciliated tracheal epithelial cell incorporating (methyl-/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA was also seen in tracheal cultures of vitamin A-deprived hamsters treated with all-trans retinol in a physiologic concentration.

  12. Pelagic ciliate communities within the Amundsen Sea polynya and adjacent sea ice zone, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Liu, Qian; Yang, Eun Jin; Wang, Min; Kim, Tae Wan; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, SangHoon

    2016-01-01

    Polynyas, areas of open water surrounded by sea ice, are sites of intense primary production and ecological hotspots in the Antarctic Ocean. This study determined the spatial variation in communities of pelagic ciliates in an Amundsen Sea polynya (ASP) and adjacent sea ice zones (SIZ) during austral summer from February to March 2012, and the results were compared with biotic and abiotic environmental factors. The species number, abundance and biomass were higher in the ASP than SIZ. Canonical analysis indicated that the communities in the ASP were distinct from those under the sea ice. The pelagic ciliate community structure was closely correlated with environmental variability. Several primary environmental variables, both alone and in combination, were found to affect community spatial patterns. The ciliate biomasses in the ASP and SIZ areas were both significantly correlated with total and nano-Chl a. This analysis of the ciliated microzooplankton communities associated with high primary production provides new insights into the roles of ciliates in biogeochemical cycles in high-latitude polynyas. Additionally, our findings provide detailed data on the composition, distribution, and structure of polynya ciliate communities in the Amundsen Sea.

  13. Abandoning sex: multiple origins of asexuality in the ciliate Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background By segregating somatic and germinal functions into large, compound macronuclei and small diploid micronuclei, respectively, ciliates can explore sexuality in ways other eukaryotes cannot. Sex, for instance, is not for reproduction but for nuclear replacement in the two cells temporarily joined in conjugation. With equal contributions from both conjugants, there is no cost of sex which theory predicts should favor asexuality. Yet ciliate asexuality is rare. The exceptional Tetrahymena has abandoned sex through loss of the micronucleus; its amicronucleates are abundant in nature where they reproduce by binary fission but never form conjugating pairs. A possible reason for their abundance is that the Tetrahymena macronucleus does not accumulate mutations as proposed by Muller’s ratchet. As such, Tetrahymena amicronucleates have the potential to be very old. This study used cytochrome oxidase-1 barcodes to determine the phylogenetic origin and relative age of amicronucleates isolated from nature. Results Amicronucleates constituted 25% of Tetrahymena-like wild isolates. Of the 244 amicronucleates examined for cox1 barcodes, 237 belonged to Tetrahymena, seven to other genera. Sixty percent originated from 12 named species or barcoded strains, including the model Tetrahymena thermophila, while the remaining 40% represent 19 putative new species, eight of which have micronucleate counterparts and 11 of which are known only as amicronucleates. In some instances, cox1 haplotypes were shared among micronucleate and amicronucleates collected from the same source. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most amicronucleates belong to the “borealis” clade in which mating type is determined by gene rearrangement. Some amicronucleate species were clustered on the SSU phylogenetic tree and had longer branch lengths, indicating more ancient origin. Conclusions Naturally occurring Tetrahymena amicronucleates have multiple origins, arising from numerous species. Likely

  14. Hydrodynamical entrapment of ciliates at the air-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferracci, Jonathan; Ueno, Hironori; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2012-11-01

    We found the new phenomenon of the entrapment of ciliates at the air-water interface, though they are not trapped by a solid interface. We first characterize the behaviours of cells at the interface by comparing it to those away from interfaces. The results showed that the cell's swimming velocity is considerably reduced at the air-water interface. In order to experimentally verify the possible physiological causes of the entrapment, we observed their behaviours in absence of positive chemotaxis for oxygen and the negative geotaxis. The results illustrated that the entrapment phenomenon was not dependent on these physiological conditions. The experiments using surfactant revealed that the entrapment phenomenon was strongly affected by the velocity-stress conditions at the interface. This fact was confirmed numerically by a boundary element method, i.e. the stress-free condition at the air-liquid interface is one of the main mechanisms of the entrapment phenomenon found in the experiments. Since the entrapment phenomenon found in this study affects the cell-cell interactions and the mass transport at the interface, the knowledge obtained in this study is useful for better understanding the complex behaviours of swimming microorganisms in nature. PhD student in the Physiological Flow Studies Laboratory.

  15. Ionic conductances of membranes in ciliated and deciliated Paramecium.

    PubMed Central

    Machemer, H; Ogura, A

    1979-01-01

    1. Paramecium caudatum was deciliated with ethanol. The ionic conductance of the membrane was investigated with constant current, voltage clamp and mechanical stimuli. 2. The resting potential was not modified by the removal of the cilia. The dependence of the resting potential on the extracellular concentrations of Ca and K was the same in deciliated and control cells. 3. The input resistance in deciliated and ciliated cells increased after the ethanol treatment. 4. The membrane capacitance decreased to 48% after deciliation, suggesting that the ciliary surface area is equal to the somatic surface area. 5. Deciliation completely removed the regenerative response (graded action potential) elicited by depolarizing current pulses or mechanical stimuli. 6. Deciliated cells retained the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing mechanoreceptor responses. 7. Voltage-clamp experiments demonstrated the loss of the early inward current in deciliated cells; it was restored during ciliary regeneration. Steady-state current-voltage relationships were unchanged by deciliation. 8. The time courses of the recovery of the membrane capacitance and of the early inward current were similar, suggesting that the number of voltage-sensitive Ca channels is proportional to the ciliary membrane area. 9. We conclude that the voltage-sensitive Ca channels reside in the ciliary membrane (in confirmation of Dunlap, 1976; Ogura & Takahashi, 1976), while mechanoreceptor channels, rectifier channels and resting conductances are localized in the somatic membrane. PMID:529122

  16. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment.

  17. Extraordinary genome stability in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Sung, Way; Tucker, Abraham E; Doak, Thomas G; Choi, Eunjin; Thomas, W Kelley; Lynch, Michael

    2012-11-20

    Mutation plays a central role in all evolutionary processes and is also the basis of genetic disorders. Established base-substitution mutation rates in eukaryotes range between ∼5 × 10(-10) and 5 × 10(-8) per site per generation, but here we report a genome-wide estimate for Paramecium tetraurelia that is more than an order of magnitude lower than any previous eukaryotic estimate. Nevertheless, when the mutation rate per cell division is extrapolated to the length of the sexual cycle for this protist, the measure obtained is comparable to that for multicellular species with similar genome sizes. Because Paramecium has a transcriptionally silent germ-line nucleus, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that natural selection operates on the cumulative germ-line replication fidelity per episode of somatic gene expression, with the germ-line mutation rate per cell division evolving downward to the lower barrier imposed by random genetic drift. We observe ciliate-specific modifications of widely conserved amino acid sites in DNA polymerases as one potential explanation for unusually high levels of replication fidelity.

  18. Ciliate Paramecium is a natural reservoir of Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Nakao, Ryo; Fujishima, Masahiro; Tachibana, Masato; Shimizu, Takashi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, replicates within alveolar macrophages and free-living amoebae. However, the lifestyle of L. pneumophila in the environment remains largely unknown. Here we established a novel natural host model of L. pneumophila endosymbiosis using the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. We also identified Legionella endosymbiosis-modulating factor A (LefA), which contributes to the change in life stage from endosymbiosis to host lysis, enabling escape to the environment. We isolated L. pneumophila strains from the environment, and they exhibited cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and induced host lysis. Acidification of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) was inhibited, and enlarged LCVs including numerous bacteria were observed in P. caudatum infected with L. pneumophila. An isogenic L. pneumophila lefA mutant exhibited decreased cytotoxicity toward P. caudatum and impaired the modification of LCVs, resulting in the establishment of endosymbiosis between them. Our results suggest that L. pneumophila may have a mechanism to switch their endosymbiosis in protistan hosts in the environment. PMID:27079173

  19. New light sensor molecules of single-cell ciliates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Nengbing; Song, Pill-Soon

    1994-05-01

    The unicellular ciliate, Stentor coeruleus, exhibits sensitive light-avoiding behavior. The photosensor stentorin showed a (M - H)- at 591.1304, which is in accord with the formula C34H23O10. Acetylated stentorin, when FAB-desorbed as (M + H)+, shows a series of ions indicating the presence of eight hydroxyl groups. Additional confirmation is a collisionally activated decomposition (CAD) spectrum of the (M + H)+ of the octaacetate. The NMR spectrum of stentorin shows characteristic signals of isopropyl groups. Similar studies indicate that photosensor blepharismin from Blepharisma japonicum is structurally different from stentorin. Time-resolved fluorescence decays indicated that a primary event occurs within a few picoseconds. The stimulus light signal absorbed/perceived by Stentor and possibly by Blepharisma, is apparently amplified by a transient calcium influx into the cell. Preliminary studies suggest that signal transduction in both organisms utilizes G-protein(s) as an initial transducer and a cGMP-phosphodiesterase as the effector system, analogous to the visual system of higher animals.

  20. The effect of humic acid on uptake/adsorption of copper by a marine bacterium and two marine ciliates.

    PubMed

    Lores, E M; Snyder, R A; Pennock, J R

    1999-01-01

    The effect of humic acid (HA) on Cu uptake by a bacterium and two bacterivorus ciliates was investigated. The presence of HA resulted in a statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in Cu associated with bacteria that were exposed to 67 microg Cu L(-1). Complexation of Cu appears to lower the availability of Cu with respect to bacterial cell surface binding and uptake. For ciliates, 10 mg HA L(-1) significantly reduced uptake of Cu by Uronema, but did not reduce uptake of Cu by Pleuronema. Uronema exposed to 67 microg Cu L(-1) accumulated 54% less Cu when 10 mg HA L(-1) was present (0.50 pg ciliate(-1) vs 0.23 pg ciliate(-1)). Uronema feeding on V. natriegens, took up less than half as much Cu as unfed Uronema when exposed to Cu without HA (0.41 pg Cu fed ciliate(-1) vs 0.86 pg Cu unfed ciliate(-1), but only 40% less when exposed to Cu and HA (0.31 pg Cu fed ciliate(-1) vs 0.51 pg Cu unfed ciliate(-1)). The lower % reduction attributable to fed ciliates in the presence of HA suggests that some of the Cu associated with HA is available through trophic processes.

  1. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments.

  2. On classical and quantum error-correction in ciliate mate selection.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-07-01

    Ciliated protozoa sensing pheromones secreted from nonself mating types engage in preconjugal "courtship" dances and contacts. Using simulated "social" trials, I recently showed the heterotrich ciliate, Spirostomum ambiguum, can learn to advertise degrees of mating fitness to "suitors" and "rivals" when serially contracting or (ciliary) reversing at variable rates. Conspicuous consumers signal higher quality reproductive status by playing "harder-to-get" via metabolically wasteful avoidance displays that hinder the exchange of preconjugal touches between "courting" couples. Conversely, prudent savers conserve energy pending situations more favorable for conjugating a partner. These ciliates reply with lower avoidance frequencies, guaranteeing nearby conspecifics of being "easier-to-get". By deciding to switch from behavioral strategies signaling conspicuous consumption to those signaling prudent savings, fitter ciliates learn to altruistically sacrifice net payoffs and persuade suitors to participate in paired reproduction. Less fit ciliates, unable to sustain long periods of high response rates, switch their behavioral strategies of prudent savings to briefly emit conspicuous consumption and thus learn to opportunistically cheat superior rivals. Mating competency depends, in part, on the efficiency of heuristics formed from recursive strategy searches and use. Heuristics represent stored patterns of action which evolve into ordered computational networks supporting entire courting repertoires. As ciliates expand signaling skills over many trials, the connectivity between strategies strengthens from Hebbian-like learning, leading to faster decisions about the appropriateness of courting messages and replies. The best experts master signaling decisions at efficiencies comparable to finding target solutions from superposed states with Grover's quantum search algorithm. I here append these findings with a critique on the feasibility of serial behavioral strategies to

  3. Responses of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to planktonic and benthic resource enrichment.

    PubMed

    Norf, Helge; Arndt, Hartmut; Weitere, Markus

    2009-05-01

    Four experiments covering different seasons were performed to test the impact of increased benthic and planktonic resource availability on the structure of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities which were cultivated in river bypass systems. The growth of benthic bacteria was stimulated by the addition of dissolved organic carbon. The enrichment of the planktonic resource was achieved by supplementation with suspended bacteria. It was shown that both resource enrichments can differentially influence abundance and taxonomic structure of ciliate communities. Furthermore, both resources can influence different stages during biofilm colonization. Increased benthic bacterial growth mainly resulted in both an accumulation of primarily grazing-resistant bacterial filaments and in an increase in the number of vagile heterotrophic flagellates. This can stimulate nanophagous ciliates (feeding on flagellates) in addition to the direct stimulation of bacteriovorous ciliates. The effects of the planktonic bacteria enrichments were twofold: They could have been utilized either directly by suspension-feeding ciliates or indirectly through an enhanced growth of suspension-feeding attached heterotrophic flagellates, which were then in turn grazed upon by ciliates. The magnitude of responses of the total ciliate abundance to the two resource enrichments further depended on the background conditions, thereby showing temporarily variable limitations of these resources. Furthermore, the particular taxonomic groups stimulated by one resource type sometimes differed between the experiments, an observation which demonstrates that the response depends on different environmental factors and is not easily predictable based simply on resource type. Taken together, our results emphasize the need of a differentiated view on the effects of resources on complex biofilm-dwelling consumer communities with respect to both the origin of carbon source as well as the particular environmental conditions.

  4. [Comparison of ciliate diversity in biodisc reactors which purify industrial wastewater].

    PubMed

    Luna-Pabello, V M; Durán De Bazúa, C; Aladro-Lubel, M A

    1995-01-01

    The comparative study of the ciliate populations present in rotating biological reactors (biodiscs reactors) of 20 l working volume, treating three different wastewaters is the aim of this project. Wastewaters chosen were those of a maize mill, of a sugarcane/ethyl alcohol plant, and of a recycled paper mill. Its dissolved organic contents, measured as soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), were 2040 mg COD/l and 585 mg BOD5/l for maize mill effluents (nejayote), 2000 mg COD/l and 640 mg BOD5/l for sugarcane/ethanol effluents (vinasses), and 960 mg COD/l and 120 mg BOD5/l for whitewaters of the paper industry. Results obtained indicate that ciliate proliferate in all chambers of reactors treating these wastewaters. The ciliates were more abundant in vinasses, followed by nejayote, and then whitewaters. Among protozoa, ciliates were present as follows: 19 species in total. Three of them were common for the three systems. Free swimming ciliates were in higher proportion than pedunculated ones. Its diversity was higher for the whitewaters system, next for nejayote, and the lesser, for vinasses, corroborating the fact that less polluted waters have higher organisms' diversity.

  5. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  6. Are freshwater mixotrophic ciliates less sensitive to solar ultraviolet radiation than heterotrophic ones?

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Bettina; Summerer, Monika; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether mixotrophic ciliates are more resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than heterotrophic ones because symbiotic algae can provide self-shading by cell matter absorption and eventually by direct UV screening from mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Sensitivity of a natural assemblage to solar radiation was tested in experiments in the original lake and in a more UV transparent alpine lake after transplantation of the ciliates. In both lakes, the assemblage was exposed either to full sunlight, to photosynthetically active radiation only, or kept in the dark. In each lake, exposure was for 5 h at the surface and at the depth corresponding to the 10% attenuation depth at 320 nm. Overall, when the assemblage was exposed to surface UVR, only one out of four dominant mixotrophic ciliates, Vorticella chlorellata, was more resistant than heterotrophic species. The higher UV resistance in V. chlorellata was related to the presence of MAAs and the high percentage of ciliate volume occupied by algal symbionts. Our results indicate that effects of UVR were species-specific and depended on efficient screening of these wavelengths, but also on the depth preference of the ciliates and thus, on their previous exposure history to UVR.

  7. Are Freshwater Mixotrophic Ciliates Less Sensitive to Solar Ultraviolet Radiation than Heterotrophic Ones?1

    PubMed Central

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; SUMMERER, MONIKA; SOMMARUGA, RUBEN

    2011-01-01

    We tested whether mixotrophic ciliates are more resistant to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) than heterotrophic ones because symbiotic algae can provide self-shading by cell matter absorption and eventually by direct UV screening from mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Sensitivity of a natural assemblage to solar radiation was tested in experiments in the original lake and in a more UV transparent alpine lake after transplantation of the ciliates. In both lakes, the assemblage was exposed either to full sunlight, to photosynthetically active radiation only, or kept in the dark. In each lake, exposure was for 5 h at the surface and at the depth corresponding to the 10% attenuation depth at 320 nm. Overall, when the assemblage was exposed to surface UVR, only one out of four dominant mixotrophic ciliates, Vorticella chlorellata, was more resistant than heterotrophic species. The higher UV resistance in V. chlorellata was related to the presence of MAAs and the high percentage of ciliate volume occupied by algal symbionts. Our results indicate that effects of UVR were species-specific and depended on efficient screening of these wavelengths, but also on the depth preference of the ciliates and thus, on their previous exposure history to UVR. PMID:21414057

  8. Delineating cellular interactions between ciliates and fish by co-culturing Tetrahymena thermophila with fish cells.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Bols, Niels C

    2014-10-01

    Although several species of Tetrahymena are often described as histophagous and opportunistic pathogens of fish, little is known about ciliate/fish cell interactions, but one approach for studying these is in vitro with cell lines. In this study, T. thermophila, B1975 (wild type) and NP1 (temperature sensitive mutant for phagocytosis) were cultured on monolayers of 3 fish epithelial cell lines, CHSE-214, RTgill-W1, and ZEB2J, and the rabbit kidney epithelial cell line, RK-13. Generally the ciliates flourished, whereas the monolayers died, being completely consumed over several days. The destruction of monolayers required that the ciliates could make contact with the animal cells through swimming, which appeared to dislodge or loosen cells so that they could be phagocytosed. The ciliates internalized into food vacuoles ZEB2J from cell monolayers as well as from cell suspensions. Phagocytosis was essential for monolayer destruction as monolayers remained intact under conditions where phagocytosis was impeded, such as 37°C for NP1 and 4°C for B1975. Monolayers of fish cells supported the proliferation of ciliates. Thus T. thermophila can 'eat' animal cells or be histophagous in vitro, with the potential to be histophagous in vivo.

  9. Epithelial Cell Culture from Human Adenoids: A Functional Study Model for Ciliated and Secretory Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Claudia; Espinosa, Marisol; Sánchez, María Trinidad; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Fonseca, Ximena; Villalón, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mucociliary transport (MCT) is a defense mechanism of the airway. To study the underlying mechanisms of MCT, we have both developed an experimental model of cultures, from human adenoid tissue of ciliated and secretory cells, and characterized the response to local chemical signals that control ciliary activity and the secretion of respiratory mucins in vitro. Materials and Methods. In ciliated cell cultures, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured in response to ATP, UTP, and adenosine. In secretory cultures, mucin synthesis and secretion were identified by using immunodetection. Mucin content was taken from conditioned medium and analyzed in the presence or absence of UTP. Results. Enriched ciliated cell monolayers and secretory cells were obtained. Ciliated cells showed a basal CBF of 10.7 Hz that increased significantly after exposure to ATP, UTP, or adenosine. Mature secretory cells showed active secretion of granules containing different glycoproteins, including MUC5AC. Conclusion. Culture of ciliated and secretory cells grown from adenoid epithelium is a reproducible and feasible experimental model, in which it is possible to observe ciliary and secretory activities, with a potential use as a model to understand mucociliary transport control mechanisms. PMID:23484122

  10. Diversity of oligotrichia and choreotrichia ciliates in coastal marine sediments and in overlying plankton.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mary; Tamura, Maiko; Vriezen, Jan A C; McManus, George B; Katz, Laura A

    2010-06-01

    Elucidating the relationship between ciliate communities in the benthos and the plankton is critical to understanding ciliate diversity in marine systems. Although data for many lineages are sparse, at least some members of the dominant marine ciliate clades Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia can be found in both plankton and benthos, in the latter either as cysts or active forms. In this study, we developed a molecular approach to address the relationship between the diversity of ciliates in the plankton and those of the underlying benthos in the same locations. Samples from plankton and sediments were compared across three sites along the New England coast, and additional subsamples were analyzed to assess reproducibility of methods. We found that sediment and plankton subsamples differed in their robustness to repeated subsampling. Sediment subsamples (i.e., 1-g aliquots from a single approximately 20-g sample) gave variable estimates of diversity, while plankton subsamples produced consistent results. These results indicate the need for additional study to determine the spatial scale over which diversity varies in marine sediments. Clustering of phylogenetic types indicates that benthic assemblages of oligotrichs and choreotrichs appear to be more like those from spatially remote benthic communities than the ciliate communities sampled in the water above them.

  11. Ciliates from ancient permafrost: Assessment of cold resistance of the resting cysts.

    PubMed

    Shatilovich, Anastasia; Stoupin, Daniel; Rivkina, Elizaveta

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that resting cysts of soil ciliates and numerous taxa of other protists can survive in permafrost for thousands of years at subzero temperatures; however, our knowledge about mechanisms of long term cryobiosis remains incomplete. In order to better understand the means by which ancient cysts survive, we investigated resistance to cyclical supercooling stress of resting cysts of the soil ciliate Colpoda steinii (Colpodida, Ciliophora). Three clonal strains were used for comparison, isolated from Siberian tundra soil, ancient Holocene (5-7,000 y) and late Pleistocene (32-35,000 y) permafrost sediments. To determine the viability of the ancient and contemporary ciliate cysts we improved and validated a cultivation-independent method of vital fluorescent staining with a combination of two nucleic acid binding dyes, acridine orange and propidium iodide. The viability of Colpoda steinii cysts during low-temperature experiments was measured using both the proposed vital fluorescent staining method and standard germination test. Our results indicate that the dual-fluorescence technique is a more accurate, rapid, and efficient method for estimating cyst viability. We found that cysts of ancient ciliates display lower tolerance to the impact of cyclical cold compared to cysts of contemporary ciliates from Siberian permafrost affected soils.

  12. Patchiness of Ciliate Communities Sampled at Varying Spatial Scales along the New England Shelf

    PubMed Central

    McManus, George B.; Katz, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Although protists (microbial eukaryotes) provide an important link between bacteria and Metazoa in food webs, we do not yet have a clear understanding of the spatial scales on which protist diversity varies. Here, we use a combination of DNA fingerprinting (denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis or DGGE) and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to assess the ciliate community in the class Spirotrichea at varying scales of 1–3 km sampled in three locations separated by at least 25 km—offshore, midshelf and inshore—along the New England shelf. Analyses of both abundant community (DGGE) and the total community (HTS) members reveal that: 1) ciliate communities are patchily distributed inshore (i.e. the middle station of a transect is distinct from its two neighboring stations), whereas communities are more homogeneous among samples within the midshelf and offshore stations; 2) a ciliate closely related to Pelagostrobilidium paraepacrum ‘blooms’ inshore and; 3) environmental factors may differentially impact the distributions of individual ciliates (i.e. OTUs) rather than the community as a whole as OTUs tend to show distinct biogeographies (e.g. some OTUs are restricted to the offshore locations, some to the surface, etc.). Together, these data show the complexity underlying the spatial distributions of marine protists, and suggest that biogeography may be a property of ciliate species rather than communities. PMID:27936137

  13. Macronuclear DNA of the hypotrichous ciliate Oxytricha fallax

    PubMed Central

    Rae, Peter M. M.; Spear, Brian B.

    1978-01-01

    DNA in the macronuclei of Oxytricha fallax, as in other hypotrichous ciliate protozoa, exists as small, achromosomal molecules rather than in chromosomes. We report studies on O. fallax DNA using physicochemical procedures and nucleic acid hybridization. Macronuclear DNA molecules range in size from 22 kilobase pairs (kb) to about 0.5 kb. The DNA has a buoyant density in CsCl of 1.694 g·cm-3 and a melting temperature in 15 mM NaCl/1.5 mM sodium citrate, pH 7, at 65.4°. These values correspond to 34.7% Gua + Cyt and 28.1% Gua + Cyt, respectively, and base composition determined by thin-layer chromatography of nucleotides is 32.4% Gua + Cyt. The only modified nucleotide that is detectable is N6-methyldeoxyadenylate (0.2%), and the amount and kind of modification cannot account for the discrepancies in nucleotide composition determination by the three methods. The genes for 25S and 19S rRNA are contained in DNA molecules 6.67 kb in length, of which at least 6.15 kb is transcribed. These rDNA molecules show no intrastrand complementarity as does rDNA in some other lower eukaryotes, and they have two asymmetric sites recognized by endonuclease EcoRI. The genes for 5S RNA are in DNA molecules 0.69 kb in length. Digestion of this DNA with restriction enzymes BamHI, BsuI, HhaI, and TaqI gives no evidence for a tandemly repeated sequence. It is likely that both 19S + 25S rRNA genes and 5S RNA genes in the Oxytricha macronucleus exist as single transcription units, and both may have “spacer” regions approximately 0.5 kb long. Images PMID:105360

  14. Rumen ciliate protozoa of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) in Kyrgyzstan.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek; Dehority, Burk A

    2016-03-01

    Species composition and concentration of rumen ciliate protozoa were investigated in the rumen contents of 14 domestic sheep and 1 goat living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. This is the first report on rumen ciliates from ruminants living in Kyrgyzstan. In sheep 12 genera, 28 species and 12 morphotypes were detected, whereas in goat 8 genera, 12 species and 4 morphotypes were detected. The density of ciliates in sheep was (28.1 ± 20.0) × 10(4) cells mL(-1) and in goat was 37.0 × 10(4) cells mL(-1). Dasytricha ruminantium, Isotricha prostoma, Entodinium simulans and Ophryoscolex caudatus were major species (100%) in sheep, and for the first time, Diplodinium rangiferi was detected in a domestic goat.

  15. First record of entodiniomorph ciliates in a carnivore, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vynne, Carly; Kinsella, John M

    2009-06-01

    The entodiniomorph ciliates (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida) are endosymbiotes widely found in the intestines of herbivorous mammals. These commensals commonly occur in the Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla and have also been described in the Proboscidea, Primates, Rodentia, and Diprotodontia. This study reports the first finding of a ciliate in a member of order Carnivora, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Fecal samples from wild and captive maned wolves were screened using ethyl acetate sedimentation. Prevalence in fecal samples collected from free-ranging maned wolves in Brazil was 40% (6 of 15). Fecal samples from two of four captive individuals from the St. Louis Zoo also had the same species of ciliate. The largely frugivorous diet of the maned wolf likely explains the occurrence of these normally herbivore-associated endosymbiotes in a carnivore.

  16. A Case of Ciliate Protozoa Colpoda Spp. (Ciliata: Colpodidae) Detected In Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Costache, C; Bursaşiu, S; Filipaş, C; Colosi, I

    2011-01-01

    In the urine of a patient with chronic prostatitis, renal microlithiasis and acute cystitis we found the ciliate protozoa Colpoda spp., both in vegetative and cystic form. The entry point was most likely the urinary tract. Keeping in mind that only four more cases of Colpoda spp. existent in human urine have already been described, and that in the case of our patient the ciliate was present at repeated examinations of his urine, we presumed that it is not only a spurious infection of the urogenital tract. It still remains to be analyzed whether this ciliate belongs to a species of Colpoda adapted to parasitism in homeothermae and whether it can be pathogenic for humans. PMID:22347320

  17. Trends on the distribution of ciliates in the open Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Fernando

    2007-09-01

    The distribution of planktonic ciliates, aloricate (naked) and loricate (tintinnid) was investigated in the open waters of the Oyashio and Kuroshio Currents, Philippine, Sulu, Celebes and South China Seas, and the western and central equatorial Pacific. The abundance of nauplii and post-naupliar copepods as potential predators was estimated. In average, the tintinnids represented 10-20% of the abundance of aloricate ciliates (50-200 cells L -1). One hundred and two species of 37 genera of tintinnids were recorded. As a general trend, the highest species richness was found in moderate oligotrophic waters. Photographic records of some taxa of interest and unidentified specimens were reported. In the subarctic waters of the Oyashio Current, a few tintinnid species showed high abundance fluctuations that may be controlled by the copepods. During the summer the species of Parafavella with longer loricae predominated in parallel to the increase of the copepodite abundance. In warm open waters, the success of a ciliate species could depend on its anti-grazing strategy. Eutintinnus apertus attached to a spine-bearing diatom was the most ubiquitous species. Tintinnids may be subjected to lower predation pressure than aloricate ciliates. The increase of the lorica length or the association with diatoms may be an anti-grazing strategy, which determines the success of one tintinnid taxon versus other congeneric species. Although the aloricate ciliates would be less affected than tintinnids by the reduction of food availability under oligotrophic conditions, the ciliate populations as a general trend seem to be controlled by the predators (top-down) rather than by the availability of food resources (bottom-up).

  18. Ciliate Epibionts Associated with Crustacean Zooplankton in German Lakes: Distribution, Motility, and Bacterivory

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Samantha L.; Tang, Kam W.; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate−1 h−1 and 24.33 μl ciliate−1 h−1, respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations. PMID:22783247

  19. Indication of spatial variations in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates to environmental change in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian; Warren, Alan

    2017-03-15

    The indication of spatial variations in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates to environmental changes was studied in a bay, northern Yellow Sea. Samples were biweekly collected at five stations with different hydrographic conditions during a 1-year cycle. The second-stage-matrix-based multivariate approach was used to summarize the internal interactions of the ciliate functional groups among five stations during a 1-year period. The functional groups of the ciliates represented a clear spatial variation in annual cycle among five stations. Mantel analysis demonstrated that the spatial variation in annual cycles of the ciliate functional groups were significantly correlated with the changes nutrients (mainly soluble reactive phosphates and nitrates), alone or in combination with salinity among five stations. Based the results, it is suggested that the spatial variation in annual cycles of functional groups of planktonic ciliates may indicated the changes of hydrographic conditions.

  20. Freshwater biodiversity of Guam. 1. Introduction, with new records of ciliates and a heliozoan

    PubMed Central

    LOBBAN, CHRISTOPHER S.; SCHEFTER, MARÍA

    2008-01-01

    Inland waters are the most endangered ecosystems in the world because of complex threats and management problems, yet the freshwater microbial eukaryotes and microinvertebrates are generally not well known and from Guam are virtually unknown. Photodocumentation can provide useful information on such organisms. In this paper we document protists from mostly lentic inland waters of Guam and report twelve freshwater ciliates, especially peritrichs, which are the first records of ciliates from Guam or Micronesia. We also report a species of Raphidiophrys (Heliozoa). Undergraduate students can meaningfully contribute to knowledge of regional biodiversity through individual or class projects using photodocumentation. PMID:19079802

  1. Evidence for isolated evolution of deep-sea ciliate communities through geological separation and environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are isolated habitats at the bottom of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, which originate from the ancient dissolution of Messinian evaporites. The different basins have recruited their original biota from the same source, but their geological evolution eventually constituted sharp environmental barriers, restricting genetic exchange between the individual basins. Therefore, DHABs are unique model systems to assess the effect of geological events and environmental conditions on the evolution and diversification of protistan plankton. Here, we examine evidence for isolated evolution of unicellular eukaryote protistan plankton communities driven by geological separation and environmental selection. We specifically focused on ciliated protists as a major component of protistan DHAB plankton by pyrosequencing the hypervariable V4 fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. Geospatial distributions and responses of marine ciliates to differential hydrochemistries suggest strong physical and chemical barriers to dispersal that influence the evolution of this plankton group. Results Ciliate communities in the brines of four investigated DHABs are distinctively different from ciliate communities in the interfaces (haloclines) immediately above the brines. While the interface ciliate communities from different sites are relatively similar to each other, the brine ciliate communities are significantly different between sites. We found no distance-decay relationship, and canonical correspondence analyses identified oxygen and sodium as most important hydrochemical parameters explaining the partitioning of diversity between interface and brine ciliate communities. However, none of the analyzed hydrochemical parameters explained the significant differences between brine ciliate communities in different basins. Conclusions Our data indicate a frequent genetic exchange in the deep-sea water above the brines. The “isolated island

  2. Relative Diversity and Community Structure of Ciliates in Stream Biofilms According to Molecular and Microscopy Methods▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Ciliates are an important component of aquatic ecosystems, acting as predators of bacteria and protozoa and providing nutrition for organisms at higher trophic levels. Understanding of the diversity and ecological role of ciliates in stream biofilms is limited, however. Ciliate diversity in biofilm samples from four streams subject to different impacts by human activity was assessed using microscopy and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 18S rRNA sequences. Analysis of 3′ and 5′ terminal fragments yielded very similar estimates of ciliate diversity. The diversity detected using microscopy was consistently lower than that suggested by T-RFLP analysis, indicating the existence of genetic diversity not apparent by morphological examination. Microscopy and T-RFLP analyses revealed similar relative trends in diversity between different streams, with the lowest level of biofilm-associated ciliate diversity found in samples from the least-impacted stream and the highest diversity in samples from moderately to highly impacted streams. Multivariate analysis provided evidence of significantly different ciliate communities in biofilm samples from different streams and seasons, particularly between a highly degraded urban stream and less impacted streams. Microscopy and T-RFLP data both suggested the existence of widely distributed, resilient biofilm-associated ciliates as well as ciliate taxa restricted to sites with particular environmental conditions, with cosmopolitan taxa being more abundant than those with restricted distributions. Differences between ciliate assemblages were associated with water quality characteristics typical of urban stream degradation and may be related to factors such as nutrient availability and macroinvertebrate communities. Microscopic and molecular techniques were considered to be useful complementary approaches for investigation of biofilm ciliate communities. PMID:19561192

  3. Diversity and fluctuation in ciliate protozoan population in the rumen of cattle.

    PubMed

    Abrar, Arfan; Watanabe, Haruki; Kitamura, Tasuku; Kondo, Makoto; Ban-Tokuda, Tomomi; Matsui, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity and fluctuation in the ciliate protozoan population in the rumen of cattle. DNA was extracted from the rumen of three ruminally cannulated, crossbred cattle and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-derived clone library was constructed, using a specific primer set targeting 18S ribosomal RNA genes of ciliate protozoa. DNA fragments of seven selected clones were validated for standard DNA of the protozoa-specific real-time PCR assay. Furthermore, population fluctuation of ciliate protozoa and methanogens in the cattle rumen was determined by real-time PCR. A total of 60 clones were sequenced, phylogenetically analyzed, and classified into 24 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on a 99% similarity criterion. More than 80% sequences were phylogenetically placed in the genus Entodinium. The rest of the sequences were placed in the genus Diploplastron (5%), Dasytricha (8.3%) and Isotricha (3.3%). The results suggest that Entodinium was the dominant group in the rumen of cattle used in this study. The ciliate protozoan population showed no significant change in numbers during the monitoring period and reached a peak at 3 h after feeding. Changes in the protozoa population were lower than those of the methanogens.

  4. Ciliated micropillars for the microfluidic-based isolation of nanoscale lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongxing; Wu, Hung-jen; Fine, Daniel; Schmulen, Jeffrey; Hu, Ye; Godin, Biana; Zhang, John X J; Liu, Xuewu

    2013-08-07

    We fabricated a microfluidic device consisting of ciliated micropillars, forming a porous silicon nanowire-on-micropillar structure. We demonstrated that the prototype device can preferentially trap exosome-like lipid vesicles, while simultaneously filtering out proteins and cell debris. Trapped lipid vesicles can be recovered intact by dissolving the porous nanowires in PBS buffer.

  5. Use of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to determine environmental quality status of coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Yang, Eun Jin

    2014-02-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that the ecological features of protozoan communities have many advantages as a favorable bioindicator to evaluate environmental stress and anthropogenic impact in many aquatic ecosystems. The ability of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities for assessing environmental quality status was studied, using glass slides as an artificial substratum, during a 1-year cycle (August 2011-July 2012) in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. The samples were collected monthly at a depth of 1m from four sampling stations with a spatial gradient of environmental stress. Environmental variables, e.g., salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) and soluble reactive phosphates (SRP), were measured synchronously for comparison with biotic parameters. Results showed that: (1) the community structures of the ciliates represented significant differences among the four sampling stations; (2) spatial patterns of the ciliate communities were significantly correlated with environmental variables, especially COD and the nutrients; (3) five dominant species (Hartmannula angustipilosa, Metaurostylopsis sp.1, Discocephalus ehrenbergi, Stephanopogon minuta and Pseudovorticella paracratera) were significantly correlated with nutrients or COD; and (4) the species richness measure was significantly correlated with the nutrient NO3-N. It is suggested that biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities might be used as a potentially robust bioindicator for discriminating environmental quality status in coastal waters.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Intracellular Bacterial Symbiont TC1 in the Anaerobic Ciliate Trimyema compressum.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Naoya; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Saitoh, Seikoh; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakano, Kazuma; Shimoji, Makiko; Shinzato, Misuzu; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Hirano, Takashi; Yamada, Takanori; Nobu, Masaru K; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Shirai, Yumi; Park, Sanghwa; Narihiro, Takashi; Liu, Wen-Tso; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-09-22

    A free-living ciliate, Trimyema compressum, found in anoxic freshwater environments harbors methanogenic archaea and a bacterial symbiont named TC1 in its cytoplasm. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the TC1 symbiont, consisting of a 1.59-Mb chromosome and a 35.8-kb plasmid, which was determined using the PacBio RSII sequencer.

  7. Functional ecology of the ciliate Glaucomides bromelicola, and comparison with the sympatric species Bromeliothrix metopoides.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ecology and life strategy of Glaucomides bromelicola (family Bromeliophryidae), a very common ciliate in the reservoirs (tanks) of bromeliads, assessing its response to food quality and quantity and pH. Further, we conducted competition experiments with the frequently coexisting species Bromeliothrix metopoides (family Colpodidae). In contrast to B. metopoides and many other colpodean ciliates, G. bromelicola does not form resting cysts, which jeopardizes this ciliate when its small aquatic habitats dry out. Both species form bactivorous microstomes and flagellate-feeding macrostomes. However, only G. bromelicola has a low feeding threshold and is able to adapt to different protist food. The higher affinity to the local bacterial and flagellate food renders it the superior competitor relative to B. metopoides. Continuous encystment and excystment of the latter may enable stable coexistence of both species in their natural habitat. Both are tolerant to a wide range of pH (4-9). These ciliates appear to be limited to tank bromeliads because they either lack resting cysts and vectors for long distance dispersal (G. bromelicola) and/or have highly specific food requirements (primarily B. metopoides).

  8. Bromeliothrix metopoides, a boom and bust ciliate (Ciliophora, Colpodea) from tank bromeliads.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the recently described colpodid ciliate Bromeliothrix metopoides in a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the environmental factors that constrain this species to its peculiar habitat, i.e. the tanks of bromeliads. Our results demonstrated that the various life stages of this ciliate (bacterivorous theronts and microstome trophonts, flagellate-feeding macrostomes) have specific demands in terms of food quality and quantity. Bromeliothrix required a high food threshold (>1.4 mg CL(-1)) in order to thrive. Food quality also affected resting cyst formation of B. metopoides when the experimental containers dried out. Its maximum growth rates (μmax=4.71 d(-1), i.e., 6.8 doublings d(-1)) belong to the highest ones recorded thus far for free-living ciliates. The pH niche of B. metopoides was relatively wide (pH ∼4 to >9) under optimal food conditions. However, its high sensitivity to unfavourable environmental conditions let the population collapse within several hours. We conclude that B. metopoides is a boom and bust ciliate that is specifically adapted to its peculiar habitat but virtually unviable in other environments.

  9. Bromeliothrix metopoides, a boom and bust ciliate (Ciliophora, Colpodea) from tank bromeliads

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the recently described colpodid ciliate Bromeliothrix metopoides in a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the environmental factors that constrain this species to its peculiar habitat, i.e. the tanks of bromeliads. Our results demonstrated that the various life stages of this ciliate (bacterivorous theronts and microstome trophonts, flagellate-feeding macrostomes) have specific demands in terms of food quality and quantity. Bromeliothrix required a high food threshold (>1.4 mg C L−1) in order to thrive. Food quality also affected resting cyst formation of B. metopoides when the experimental containers dried out. Its maximum growth rates (μmax = 4.71 d−1, i.e. 6.8 doublings d−1) belong to the highest ones recorded thus far for free-living ciliates. The pH niche of B. metopoides was relatively wide (pH ∼4 to >9) under optimal food conditions. However, its high sensitivity to unfavourable environmental conditions let the population collapse within several hours. We conclude that B. metopoides is a boom and bust ciliate that is specifically adapted to its peculiar habitat but virtually unviable in other environments. PMID:23541138

  10. Functional Ecology of the Ciliate Glaucomides bromelicola, and Comparison with the Sympatric Species Bromeliothrix metopoides

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ecology and life strategy of Glaucomides bromelicola (family Bromeliophryidae), a very common ciliate in the reservoirs (tanks) of bromeliads, assessing its response to food quality and quantity and pH. Further, we conducted competition experiments with the frequently coexisting species Bromeliothrix metopoides (family Colpodidae). In contrast to B. metopoides and many other colpodean ciliates, G. bromelicola does not form resting cysts, which jeopardizes this ciliate when its small aquatic habitats dry out. Both species form bactivorous microstomes and flagellate-feeding macrostomes. However, only G. bromelicola has a low feeding threshold and is able to adapt to different protist food. The higher affinity to the local bacterial and flagellate food renders it the superior competitor relative to B. metopoides. Continuous encystment and excystment of the latter may enable stable coexistence of both species in their natural habitat. Both are tolerant to a wide range of pH (4–9). These ciliates appear to be limited to tank bromeliads because they either lack resting cysts and vectors for long distance dispersal (G. bromelicola) and/or have highly specific food requirements (primarily B. metopoides). PMID:23865693

  11. Ciliate ingestion and digestion: flow cytometric measurements and regrowth of a digestion-resistant campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a method to measure ingestion and digestion rates of bacterivorous protists feeding on pathogenic bacteria. We tested this method using the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni and a freshwater colpodid ciliate. Campylobacter and a non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from the environment ...

  12. Ciliated protozoa community of a combined UASB-activated sludge system in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Rossetto, Renato; Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the abundance and taxonomic composition of ciliated protozoa in the activated sludge of a full-scale combined anaerobic-aerobic system operating in a tropical country and (2) to study the relationship between the effluent quality, the physicochemical variables, and the ciliates present in the operating system. The total ciliate fauna of the activated sludge of the Piçarrão Wastewater Treatment Plant (Piçarrão WWTP) was composed of 36 morphospecies belonging to 33 genera. These included 21 species observed in the activated sludge samples on the day of collection and 15 species found in cultures. The activated sludge of the Piçarrão WWTP contained a diversified ciliate community composed mainly of indicator organisms. The most frequently occurring morphospecies were Aspidisca cicada, Vorticella spp., Gastronauta aloisi, Acineria uncinata, and Epistylis plicatilis complex. These results showed that satisfactory operating conditions prevailed at the Piçarrão WWTP. In the combined UASB-activated sludge system, the presence of Aspidisca cicada suggests the occurrence of denitrification in the process while the presence of Acineria uncinata and G. alosi indicates the removal of carbonaceous organic matter.

  13. Direct and indirect effects of pollutants on algae and algivorous ciliates in an aquatic indoor microcosm.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Markus; Schmidt, Gunnar; Bontje, Daniel; Kooi, Bob W; Streck, Georg; Traunspurger, Walter; Knacker, Thomas

    2008-06-23

    An aquatic indoor microcosm was used to study effects of the pesticides parathion-methyl and prometryn on phototrophic flagellates (Cryptomonas sp.) and predatory ciliates (Urotricha furcata). Parathion-methyl caused effects to flagellates and ciliates at the range of low mg L(-1), regardless of whether the organisms were exposed separately or combined in the multi-species test system. Prometryn caused effects on the flagellates at low microg L(-1) concentrations, resulting in a NOEC of 6.9 microg L(-1) in the single-species test and a NOEC of 15.2 microg L(-1) in the multi-species microcosm. For ciliates the NOEC decreased by factor 145 in the multi-species test compared to the NOEC of 2.2 mg L(-1) in the single-species test when exposed to prometryn. The lower NOEC for ciliates exposed to prometryn in the microcosm was most likely caused by an indirect effect due to reduced availability of flagellates as food. The measurement of nutrient concentrations in the test media and organisms facilitated the modelling of effects. The presented aquatic indoor microcosm is considered as a tool which could be standardised and applied as an instrument to provide data for higher tier risk assessment.

  14. Comparative evaluation of soil toxicity using lettuce seeds and soil ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, N.; Pratt, J.R.; Beeson, D.; Lewis, M.

    1997-02-01

    The toxicity of elutriates from 25 putatively contaminated soils was evaluated using the standard seed (Lactuca sativa) germination test and a recently developed soil ciliate (Colpoda inflata) growth test. Correspondence in the identification of presence or absence of toxicity in the 25 soil elutriates between the two tests was 60% and concordance in ranking of toxicity between the two tests was significant (p < 0.05) using Spearman`s rank correlation test (r{sub s} = 0.3831). Stepwise multiple regression analysis of toxicity results against soil elutriate chemistry indicated that pH explained the greatest amount of variation in response in both tests, despite high concentrations of several metals in the elutriates. For the germination test, a multiple regression model that included pH and cadmium explained 58.5% of response variation, whereas over 83% of response variation in the ciliate growth test could be explained by pH, copper, and cadmium. Differences in the response of the plant and protozoan models appeared to be due primarily to differences in their sensitivity to elutriate pH. In addition to better correspondence between elutriate chemistry and ciliate response compared to the seed germination test, lower response variability associated with the measure of ciliate growth compared with seed germination provided greater statistical sensitivity for detecting toxic effects.

  15. Comparison of soil toxicity estimates using lettuce seeds and soil ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, J.R.; Bowers, N.J.; Beeson, D.; Lewis, M.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminants in soils affect microbes, fungi, animals and plants, yet few tests species are available to assess soil toxicity. Many soil microbes are adapted to grow rapidly after wetting and can be used to assess contaminants in the soil solution. The authors compared the growth of the soil ciliate, Colpoda inflata, to germination and growth of lettuce (Lactuca saliva) seeds exposed to water elutriate from twenty-five soil samples suspected of being toxic. Exposure to full strength elutriate resulted in significant (p < 0.05) reduction in seed germination in 15 of 25 elutriates, five of which produced no germination. Growth (total dry weight) of the seeds that germinated was unaffected. Growth of C. inflata was reduced by more than 70% in 12 of 25 elutriates. All C. inflata were killed following exposure to the same five elutriates that resulted in no seed germination. The ciliate growth test identified three elutriates as toxic that were not identified as toxic by the seed germination test. Conversely, the seed germination test identified seven elutriates as toxic that were not toxic in the ciliate growth test. Stepwise regression using concentrations of nine metals in the soil elutriates indicated that cadmium, copper, and arsenic significantly reduced C. inflata growth (r{sup 2} = 0.77), whereas copper, arsenic, and lead significantly reduced lettuce seed germination (r{sup 2} = 0.61). The plant and microbe models showed different responses, and there was a greater correspondence between elutriate chemistry and ciliate response than in the plant tests.

  16. Microcetus lappus gen. nov., sp. nov.: new species of ciliated protozoon from the bovine rumen.

    PubMed Central

    Orpin, C G; Mathiesen, S D

    1986-01-01

    A new species of small, ciliated protozoon, Microcetus lappus gen. nov., sp. nov., from the rumen of Norwegian Red cattle is described. M. lappus possesses a novel cytopharyngeal apparatus of two rod-shaped structures, one situated on the dorsal side of the buccal cavity and one on the ventral side, suggesting that it belongs to a previously undescribed taxon. Images PMID:3094449

  17. Seasonal and vertical distribution of the ciliated protozoa and micrometazoa in Kaštela Bay (central Adriatic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanić, N.; Šolić, M.; Krstulović, N.; Marasović, I.; Ninčević, Ž.; Vidjak, O.

    2001-07-01

    Seasonal and vertical distribution of tintinnids, non-loricate ciliates and micrometazoa were studied in Kaštela Bay (central Adriatic Sea) throughout 1995. The species composition of tintinnids and copepods were studied as well. This is the first estimation of non-loricate ciliate biomass in the coastal area of the central Adriatic. Non-loricate ciliates were quantitatively the best represented ciliated protozoa, whereas nauplii were the most numerous micrometazoan organisms. Temperature affected the distribution of most micrometazoan components of the zooplankton and that of non-loricate ciliates. The temperature-dependent presence of individual size categories of non-loricate ciliates was also established. Apart from the interaction between microzooplankton groups, the influence of biotic factors, such as phytoplankton, bacteria, non-pigmented nanoflagellates (NNF) and mesozooplankton, was also discussed. The abundance of ciliates was controlled by both food supply (phytoplankton and NNF) and micrometazoan grazing. The results point to very complex trophic relationships within the planktonic community, suggesting that microzooplankton could be an important link between the microbial food web and higher trophic levels.

  18. Bose-Einstein condensates form in heuristics learned by ciliates deciding to signal 'social' commitments.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kevin B

    2010-03-01

    Fringe quantum biology theories often adopt the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation when explaining how consciousness, emotion, perception, learning, and reasoning emerge from operations of intact animal nervous systems and other computational media. However, controversial empirical evidence and mathematical formalism concerning decoherence rates of bioprocesses keep these frameworks from satisfactorily accounting for the physical nature of cognitive-like events. This study, inspired by the discovery that preferential attachment rules computed by complex technological networks obey Bose-Einstein statistics, is the first rigorous attempt to examine whether analogues of Bose-Einstein condensation precipitate learned decision making in live biological systems as bioenergetics optimization predicts. By exploiting the ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum's capacity to learn and store behavioral strategies advertising mating availability into heuristics of topologically invariant computational networks, three distinct phases of strategy use were found to map onto statistical distributions described by Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac, and classical Maxwell-Boltzmann behavior. Ciliates that sensitized or habituated signaling patterns to emit brief periods of either deceptive 'harder-to-get' or altruistic 'easier-to-get' serial escape reactions began testing condensed on initially perceived fittest 'courting' solutions. When these ciliates switched from their first strategy choices, Bose-Einstein condensation of strategy use abruptly dissipated into a Maxwell-Boltzmann computational phase no longer dominated by a single fittest strategy. Recursive trial-and-error strategy searches annealed strategy use back into a condensed phase consistent with performance optimization. 'Social' decisions performed by ciliates showing no nonassociative learning were largely governed by Fermi-Dirac statistics, resulting in degenerate distributions of strategy choices. These findings corroborate

  19. Effects of histamine on ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells from guinea pigs nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    An, Fengwei; Xing, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Lei

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of histamine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) through combining high-speed digital microscopy and patch-clamp technology. Ciliated cells were obtained from septum and turbinate of 90-120-day-old healthy male guinea pigs. Tight seal was formed by applying negative pressure on the glass electrode after the drawing and pushing progress. Then, we enrolled high-speed digital microscopy to measure CBF before and after treatment with histamine of different concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol/L in Hank's solution and D-Hank's solution as well as after administrating adenosine triphosphate. One-way ANOVA, Student's t test or Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical comparisons. Glass electrode fix up ciliated cell is available at tip diameter of 2-5 μm and negative pressure of 10-20 cmH2O column. The baseline CBF in Hank's solution was higher than in D-Hank's solution. Treatment with 10(-6)-l0(-3) mol/L histamine of concentrations can stimulate a rise of CBF. Nevertheless, CBF in all groups decreased to baseline CBF within 20 min. Generally, 10(-2) mol/L histamine can stimulate a rise of CBF; meanwhile, the high concentration of histamine killed 50% ciliated cell. Histamine at 10(-1) mol/L killed all ciliated cells. Ciliary beating activity decreased in Ca(2+)-free solution. Moreover, adenosine triphosphate could increase CBF effectively after the stimulation effect of histamine. We construct an effective technology integrating patch-clamp technique with CBF measurements on ciliated cells. Extracellular histamine stimulation could increase CBF effectively.

  20. De Novo Transcriptomes of a Mixotrophic and a Heterotrophic Ciliate from Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Santoferrara, Luciana F.; Guida, Stephanie; Zhang, Huan; McManus, George B.

    2014-01-01

    Studying non-model organisms is crucial in the context of the current development of genomics and transcriptomics for both physiological experimentation and environmental characterization. We investigated the transcriptomes of two marine planktonic ciliates, the mixotrophic oligotrich Strombidium rassoulzadegani and the heterotrophic choreotrich Strombidinopsis sp., and their respective algal food using Illumina RNAseq. Our aim was to characterize the transcriptomes of these contrasting ciliates and to identify genes potentially involved in mixotrophy. We detected approximately 10,000 and 7,600 amino acid sequences for S. rassoulzadegani and Strombidinopsis sp., respectively. About half of these transcripts had significant BLASTP hits (E-value <10−6) against previously-characterized sequences, mostly from the model ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. Transcriptomes from both the mixotroph and the heterotroph species provided similar annotations for GO terms and KEGG pathways. Most of the identified genes were related to housekeeping activity and pathways such as the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and vitamins. Although S. rassoulzadegani can keep and use chloroplasts from its prey, we did not find genes clearly linked to chloroplast maintenance and functioning in the transcriptome of this ciliate. While chloroplasts are known sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), we found the same complement of antioxidant pathways in both ciliates, except for one enzyme possibly linked to ascorbic acid recycling found exclusively in the mixotroph. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find qualitative differences in genes potentially related to mixotrophy. However, these transcriptomes will help to establish a basis for the evaluation of differential gene expression in oligotrichs and choreotrichs and experimental investigation of the costs and benefits of mixotrophy. PMID:24983246

  1. The D1-D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA as barcode for ciliates.

    PubMed

    Stoeck, T; Przybos, E; Dunthorn, M

    2014-05-01

    Ciliates are a major evolutionary lineage within the alveolates, which are distributed in nearly all habitats on our planet and are an essential component for ecosystem function, processes and stability. Accurate identification of these unicellular eukaryotes through, for example, microscopy or mating type reactions is reserved to few specialists. To satisfy the demand for a DNA barcode for ciliates, which meets the standard criteria for DNA barcodes defined by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL), we here evaluated the D1-D2 region of the ribosomal DNA large subunit (LSU-rDNA). Primer universality for the phylum Ciliophora was tested in silico with available database sequences as well as in the laboratory with 73 ciliate species, which represented nine of 12 ciliate classes. Primers tested in this study were successful for all tested classes. To test the ability of the D1-D2 region to resolve conspecific and congeneric sequence divergence, 63 Paramecium strains were sampled from 24 mating species. The average conspecific D1-D2 variation was 0.18%, whereas congeneric sequence divergence averaged 4.83%. In pairwise genetic distance analyses, we identified a D1-D2 sequence divergence of <0.6% as an ideal threshold to discriminate Paramecium species. Using this definition, only 3.8% of all conspecific and 3.9% of all congeneric sequence comparisons had the potential of false assignments. Neighbour-joining analyses inferred monophyly for all taxa but for two Paramecium octaurelia strains. Here, we present a protocol for easy DNA amplification of single cells and voucher deposition. In conclusion, the presented data pinpoint the D1-D2 region as an excellent candidate for an official CBOL barcode for ciliated protists.

  2. Cutaneous ciliated cyst: a case report with focus on mullerian heterotopia and comparison with eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Bivin, William W; Heath, Jonathon E; Drachenberg, Cinthia B; Strauch, Eric D; Papadimitriou, John C

    2010-10-01

    Cutaneous ciliated cyst is an exceedingly rare, benign lesion most commonly found in the dermis or subcutis of the lower extremities of young female patients in their second and third decades. The pathogenesis of the cyst is unknown. We report a cutaneous ciliated cyst in the lower extremity of a 13-year-old female patient. On histologic examination, clusters of eccrine sweat glands were observed adjacent to the cyst. Upon comparison of the immunohistochemical profile of the cutaneous ciliated cyst and the eccrine sweat glands, they appeared almost completely unrelated. The histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural findings of this case and the literature provide evidence in favor of the Mullerian heterotopia theory.

  3. Rumen ciliates in Brazilian sheep (Ovis aries), with new records and redescription of Entodinium contractum (Entodiniomorphida: Ophryoscolecidae).

    PubMed

    Cedrola, Franciane; Martinele, Isabel; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; Fregulia, Priscila; D'agosto, Marta

    2016-03-08

    The species composition, prevalence, and average relative abundance of rumen ciliates were analyzed in 16 Brazilian sheep. 28 species of ciliates were identified belonging to 3 families: Isotrichidae, Ophryoscolecidae, and Parentodiniidae. Among these ciliates, Entodinium alces, Metadinium esalqum, and M. rotundatum were found for the first time in sheep, and other 12 species for the first time in Brazilian sheep. Different morphotypes of parentodiniid ciliates were identified in 7 of the 16 sheep analyzed and this is the second report of this family in ruminants. The species Entodinium contractum was redescribed based on the new data on the general morphological features; for the first time, we described the oral infraciliature, which in this species is of the Entodinium-type. In this species, it is noteworthy that the prominent vestibular polybrachykinety can be used as an important identifying characteristic.

  4. Identification of a Ciliate (Oligohymenophorea: Scuticociliatia) Associated with Brown Band Disease on Corals of the Great Barrier Reef▿

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, David G.; Boyett, Holly V.; Henderson, Meegan E.; Muirhead, Andrew; Willis, Bette L.

    2008-01-01

    A ciliate associated with the coral disease brown band (BrB) was identified as a new species belonging to the class Oligohymenophorea, subclass Scuticociliatia. The ciliates were characterized by the presence of large numbers of intracellular dinoflagellates and displayed an elongated, tube-shaped body structure. They had uniform ciliature, except for three distinct cilia in the caudal region, and were typically 200 to 400 μm in length and 20 to 50 μm in width. PMID:18083868

  5. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Guénola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

    2006-01-01

    Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches. PMID:16472398

  6. The bacterivory of interstitial ciliates in association with bacterial biomass and production in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream.

    PubMed

    Königs, Sascha; Cleven, Ernst-Josef

    2007-07-01

    Rates of bacteria ingestion by interstitial ciliates were estimated and compared to bacterial biomass and production. Investigation was carried out in the hyporheic zone of a lowland stream. FISH was applied to quantitatively determine bacteria within the ciliate's food vacuoles. To estimate bacteria ingestion rates using FISH, we had to strike a new path. When numbers of bacteria in the food vacuoles remains constant with time (bacterial digestion and ingestion are at equilibrium), ingestion rate can be estimated based on the digestion time and the average number of bacteria per cell. Ciliate community was predominantly composed of bacterivorous ciliates. FISH-signals deriving from ingested bacteria were detected in Cinetochilum margaritaceum, 'other small scuticociliates', Pleuronema spp., and Vorticella spp. Ingestion rates for these taxa were 78, 150, 86, and 38 bacteria ind(-1) h(-1), respectively. The grazing impacts on bacterial biomass and carbon production were calculated based on these ingestion rates. Ciliate grazing caused a decrease in bacterial biomass of 0.024% day(-1) and in bacterial carbon production of 1.60%. These findings suggest that interstitial ciliate grazing impact on bacteria biomass and production was too low to represent an important link in the carbon flow of the hyporheic zone under study.

  7. Ciliate diversity, community structure, and novel taxa in lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Vick-Majors, Trista; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael; Priscu, John C; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2014-10-01

    We report an in-depth survey of next-generation DNA sequencing of ciliate diversity and community structure in two permanently ice-covered McMurdo Dry Valley lakes during the austral summer and autumn (November 2007 and March 2008). We tested hypotheses on the relationship between species richness and environmental conditions including environmental extremes, nutrient status, and day length. On the basis of the unique environment that exists in these high-latitude lakes, we expected that novel taxa would be present. Alpha diversity analyses showed that extreme conditions-that is, high salinity, low oxygen, and extreme changes in day length-did not impact ciliate richness; however, ciliate richness was 30% higher in samples with higher dissolved organic matter. Beta diversity analyses revealed that ciliate communities clustered by dissolved oxygen, depth, and salinity, but not by season (i.e., day length). The permutational analysis of variance test indicated that depth, dissolved oxygen, and salinity had significant influences on the ciliate community for the abundance matrices of resampled data, while lake and season were not significant. This result suggests that the vertical trends in dissolved oxygen concentration and salinity may play a critical role in structuring ciliate communities. A PCR-based strategy capitalizing on divergent eukaryotic V9 hypervariable region ribosomal RNA gene targets unveiled two new genera in these lakes. A novel taxon belonging to an unknown class most closely related to Cryptocaryon irritans was also inferred from separate gene phylogenies.

  8. Molecular evidence that phylogenetically diverged ciliates are active in microbial mats of deep-sea cold-seep sediment.

    PubMed

    Takishita, Kiyotaka; Kakizoe, Natsuki; Yoshida, Takao; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Cold seeps are areas of the seafloor where hydrogen sulfide- and methane-rich fluid seepage occurs, often sustaining chemosynthetic ecosystems. It is well known that both archaea and bacteria oxidize sulfides and methane to produce chemical energy and that several endemic animals use this energy to thrive in cold seeps. On the other hand, there is little knowledge regarding diversity and ecology of microbial eukaryotes in this ecosystem. In this study we isolated environmental RNA and DNA from microbial mats of cold-seep sediment in Sagami Bay, Japan, and retrieved eukaryotic small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences with polymerase chain reaction methods followed by clone library construction. Most RNA-derived clones obtained were from ciliates, although DNA-derived clones were mainly from the fungus Cryptococcus curvatus, suggesting that ciliates are active in the environment. The ciliate sequences were phylogenetically diverse, and represented eight known class lineages as well as undesignated lineages. Because most ciliates are bacterivorous, it is highly likely that the ciliates for which sequences were recovered play a role in the food web of this ecosystem as grazers of microbial mats. In addition, given that the environment studied is under highly reduced (anoxic) conditions, based on the prokaryotic community structure deduced from T-RFLP profiles, the ciliates detected may be obligatory or facultative anaerobes.

  9. Ciliates and their picophytoplankton-feeding activity in a high-altitude warm-monomictic saline lake.

    PubMed

    Pestová, Dana; Macek, Miroslav; Elena Martínez Pérez, María

    2008-02-01

    The impact of feeding on autotrophic picoplankton (APP) on the ciliate composition of the assemblage was surveyed monthly along a depth gradient in the maar crater, athalassohaline, warm monomictic Lake Alchichica (Puebla, Mexico) from June 2003 to December 2005. Numbers of APP were evaluated from their autofluorescence. DAPI staining and the Fluorescently Labeled Bacteria technique were employed to count ciliates and estimate their feeding rates. A total of 38 taxa of ciliates have been identified using Quantitative Protargol Staining. Peritrichs followed by minute spirotrichs (particularly Halteria grandinella) often numerically dominated the ciliate assemblage and emerged as the most efficient APP feeders. A maximum of 54 ciliate cells ml(-1) was observed in the surface layer at the end of the mixing period, during the development of diatoms (Cyclotella alchichicana), the cyanobacterial bloom (Nodularia sp.) and its decay. Vorticellids (Pelagovorticella natans, Vorticella sp.) had the highest APP uptake (median 130 APP cil(-1) h(-1)). Mixotrophic Euplotes cf. daidaleos were important APP grazers near the oxycline. Scuticociliates (Cyclidium glaucoma, Uronema nigricans and an anaerobic cf. Isocyclidium globossum), were numerically dominant within the hypolimnetic assemblages and did not ingest APP. Generally, APP were not an important food source for the majority of the ciliate assemblage, being positively selected by a few species during the APP decay in aerobic and microaerobic conditions.

  10. Ultrastructural modification of the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda following chronic exposure to partially degraded crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rogerson, A.; Berger, J.

    1982-06-01

    Protozoa are important consumers of the microflora that biodegrade oil spills. In the study presented, the ultrastructural effects induced by chronic oil stress in the ciliate protozoan, Colpidium colpoda are discussed. Colpidia were grown in control cultures containing a dilute organic medium and a dense suspension of prey bacteria. After 20 days' oil exposure, C. colpoda contained more stained cytoplasmic inclusions than ciliates grown in the control media. Although the extent of Sudan Black staining in the oil-stressed cells indicates the presence of lipids, these droplets are better termed lipid-hydrocarbon (LH) inclusions until their definitive composition is known. C. colpoda accumulated significant quantities of lipid-hydrocarbons accounting for up to 20% of their cellular volume. Studies are currently being conducted to characterized these inclusions and to evaluate the effects of feeding these ''oil-labeled'' prey to predators, an important issue with the increasing concern about the biomagnification of environmental pollutants. (JMT)

  11. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L.; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems. PMID:26680591

  12. Necessity Is the Mother of Invention: Ciliates, Transposons, and Transgenerational Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sarah E; Nowacki, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    Ciliates are a fascinating model system for the study of the interaction between eukaryotic germlines and somatic lines, especially with regard to the invasion and defence against transposable elements. They separate their germline and somatic line into two nuclei within the same cell, and they silence transposons and repetitive elements by way of deleting them from their somatic genome. This large-scale deletion event uses a series of intricate sequence targeting pathways involving small RNAs and transposases, part of which consists of a transnuclear comparison between maternal soma and daughter germline. We present recent progress in this dynamic field, and argue that these DNA targeting pathways provide an optimal system for the transgenerational inheritance of acquired traits. Ciliates thus also demonstrate the evolutionary value of transposable elements, both as sources of sequence diversity and also as drivers of adaptive evolution by necessitating defensive systems.

  13. Developing and Integrating Advanced Movement Features Improves Automated Classification of Ciliate Species.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Ali; Pennekamp, Frank; Petchey, Owen L; Weibel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in tracking technologies such as GPS or video tracking systems describe the movement paths of individuals in unprecedented details and are increasingly used in different fields, including ecology. However, extracting information from raw movement data requires advanced analysis techniques, for instance to infer behaviors expressed during a certain period of the recorded trajectory, or gender or species identity in case data is obtained from remote tracking. In this paper, we address how different movement features affect the ability to automatically classify the species identity, using a dataset of unicellular microbes (i.e., ciliates). Previously, morphological attributes and simple movement metrics, such as speed, were used for classifying ciliate species. Here, we demonstrate that adding advanced movement features, in particular such based on discrete wavelet transform, to morphological features can improve classification. These results may have practical applications in automated monitoring of waste water facilities as well as environmental monitoring of aquatic systems.

  14. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain <65% of the total variance. With the increase of the sampling frequency, the biotic data showed stronger correlations with seasonal variables (e.g., temperature, salinity) in combination with nutrients. It is suggested that the 8-sampling events per year may be an optimal sampling strategy for ciliated protozoan seasonal research in marine ecosystems.

  15. Assessing mariculture water quality with the structural and functional characteristics of a ciliate community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiqiu; Xu, Henglong; Lin, Xiaofeng; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated protozoa play important roles in micro-ecosystems, especially in marine biotopes. However, few studies have been carried out on the periphytic, or aufwuch, forms in mariculture waters so far. In this study, we sampled periphytic ciliate communities in two closed mariculture ponds (ponds CP1 and CP2) and a natural seawater reservoir (pond RP) using a glass slide method to evaluate their colonizing processes and general ecological features, as well as their application as water quality indicators. We analyzed species compositions, structural parameters (species number, richness, diversity, evenness, abundance and d BP) and functional parameters ( G, S eq and T 90%). Pond RP was characterized by higher levels of structural parameters (except for abundance and d BP) and more equal proportion of the major taxonomic groups. The values of S eq were significantly higher in pond RP and similar in both pond CP1 and CP2. It was also demonstrated that environmental factors, including NO2-H, NO3-H, NH3-H, soluble reactive phosphate, temperature and pH, were the first principal factors affecting the communities. Among them, temperature and chemical factors were all significantly and negatively correlated with species number ( P<0.01), richness ( P<0.01), diversity ( P<0.01), and positive correlated with abundance ( P<0.01). Opposite correlations between pH and structural parameters were observed. This study showed that there were significant differences in species composition, structural parameters and functional parameters of the periphytic ciliate communities among the ponds, which were in agreement with the water quality. Results of this study confirmed the periphytic ciliate communities to be useful bioindicators of water quality in intensive mariculture waters.

  16. A broad molecular phylogeny of ciliates: identification of major evolutionary trends and radiations within the phylum.

    PubMed Central

    Baroin-Tourancheau, A; Delgado, P; Perasso, R; Adoutte, A

    1992-01-01

    The cellular architecture of ciliates is one of the most complex known within eukaryotes. Detailed systematic schemes have thus been constructed through extensive comparative morphological and ultrastructural analysis of the ciliature and of its internal cytoskeletal derivatives (the infraciliature), as well as of the architecture of the oral apparatus. In recent years, a consensus was reached in which the phylum was divided in eight classes as defined by Lynn and Corliss [Lynn, D. H. & Corliss, J. O. (1991) in Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates: Protozoa (Wiley-Liss, New York), Vol. 1, pp. 333-467]. By comparing partial sequences of the large subunit rRNA molecule, and by using both distance-matrix and maximum-parsimony-tree construction methods (checked by boot-strapping), we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 22 species belonging to seven of these eight classes. At low taxonomic levels, the traditional grouping of the species is generally confirmed. At higher taxonomic levels, the branching pattern of these seven classes is resolved in several deeply separated major branches. Surprisingly, the first emerging one contains the heterotrichs and is strongly associated with a karyorelictid but deeply separated from hypotrichs. The litostomes, the oligohymenophorans, and the hypotrichs separate later in a bush-like topology hindering the resolution of their order of diversification. These results show a much more ancient origin of heterotrichs than was classically assumed, indicating that asymmetric, abundantly ciliated oral apparatuses do not correspond to "highly evolved" traits as previously thought. They also suggest the occurrence of a major radiative explosion in the evolutionary history of the ciliates, yielding five of the eight classes of the phylum. These classes appear to differ essentially according to the cytoskeletal architecture used to shape and sustain the cellular cortex (a process of essential adaptative and morphogenetic importance in

  17. Ciliates learn to diagnose and correct classical error syndromes in mating strategies

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Preconjugal ciliates learn classical repetition error-correction codes to safeguard mating messages and replies from corruption by “rivals” and local ambient noise. Because individual cells behave as memory channels with Szilárd engine attributes, these coding schemes also might be used to limit, diagnose, and correct mating-signal errors due to noisy intracellular information processing. The present study, therefore, assessed whether heterotrich ciliates effect fault-tolerant signal planning and execution by modifying engine performance, and consequently entropy content of codes, during mock cell–cell communication. Socially meaningful serial vibrations emitted from an ambiguous artificial source initiated ciliate behavioral signaling performances known to advertise mating fitness with varying courtship strategies. Microbes, employing calcium-dependent Hebbian-like decision making, learned to diagnose then correct error syndromes by recursively matching Boltzmann entropies between signal planning and execution stages via “power” or “refrigeration” cycles. All eight serial contraction and reversal strategies incurred errors in entropy magnitude by the execution stage of processing. Absolute errors, however, subtended expected threshold values for single bit-flip errors in three-bit replies, indicating coding schemes protected information content throughout signal production. Ciliate preparedness for vibrations selectively and significantly affected the magnitude and valence of Szilárd engine performance during modal and non-modal strategy corrective cycles. But entropy fidelity for all replies mainly improved across learning trials as refinements in engine efficiency. Fidelity neared maximum levels for only modal signals coded in resilient three-bit repetition error-correction sequences. Together, these findings demonstrate microbes can elevate survival/reproductive success by learning to implement classical fault-tolerant information processing in

  18. Seasonal cycle of the ciliated protozoan and micrometazoan biomass in a Gulf of Maine estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelante, Noelia; Gilmartin, Malvern

    1987-11-01

    The annual cycle of microzooplankton and their potential prey were followed in an estuary typical of the drowned river valleys of the Gulf of Maine. Changes in dominant components and size-class structure indicated an annual cycle forming a predator-prey link to the spring phytoplankton bloom, increasing in size-class structure to a maximum in early summer, implying a prey-predator link to larval fish populations. During most of the year the non-tintinnid ciliates dominated in both abundance and biomass, with tintinnids and micrometazoans only being important during a three-month period in late summer. The non-tintinnid ciliate seasonal cycle was more closely coupled with the nanoplankton prey crop compared with other components, indicating similar biological characteristics. Increases in the biomass of the phytoplankton prey crop occurred towards the head of the estuary, evenly across the size spectrum. In contrast, concurrent increases in the microzooplankton were biased towards the larger size classes into the estuary. The distribution of the phototrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum suggests it may be a potentially important primary producer in the estuary.

  19. Survival of Legionella pneumophila in the cold-water ciliate Tetrahymena vorax

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Somerville, H.E.; Huryn, V.B.; Walker, C.; Winters, A.L. )

    1991-09-01

    The processing of phagosomes containing Legionella pneumophila and Escerichia coli were compared in Tetrahymena vorax, a hymenostome ciliated protozoan that prefers lower temperatures. L. pneumophila did not multiply in the ciliate when incubated at 20 to 22C, but vacuoles containing L. pneumophila were retained in the cells for a substantially longer time than vacuoles with E. coli. Electron micrographs showed no evidence of degradation of L. pneumophila cells through 12 h, while E. coli cells in the process of being digested were observed in vacuoles 75 min after the addition of the bacterium T. vorax ingested L. pneumophila normally, but by 10 to 15 min, the vacuolar membrane appeared denser than that surrounding nascent or newly formed phagosomes. In older vacuoles, electron-dense particles lined portions of the membrane. Acidification of the phagosomes indicated by the accumulation of neutral red was similar in T. vorax containing L. pneumophila or E. coli. This ciliate could provide a model for the analysis of virulence-associated intracellular events independent of the replication of L. pneumophila.

  20. Ciliate biogeography in Antarctic and Arctic freshwater ecosystems: endemism or global distribution of species?

    PubMed

    Petz, Wolfgang; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Schiftner, Uwe; Quesada, Antonio; Cynan Ellis-Evans, J

    2007-02-01

    Ciliate diversity was investigated in situ in freshwater ecosystems of the maritime (South Shetland Islands, mainly Livingston Island, 63 degrees S) and continental Antarctic (Victoria Land, 75 degrees S), and the High Arctic (Svalbard, 79 degrees N). In total, 334 species from 117 genera were identified in both polar regions, i.e. 210 spp. (98 genera) in the Arctic, 120 spp. (73 genera) in the maritime and 59 spp. (41 genera) in the continental Antarctic. Forty-four species (13% of all species) were common to both Arctic and Antarctic freshwater bodies and 19 spp. to both Antarctic areas (12% of all species). Many taxa are cosmopolitans but some, e.g. Stentor and Metopus spp., are not, and over 20% of the taxa found in any one of the three areas are new to science. Cluster analysis revealed that species similarity between different biotopes (soil, moss) within a study area was higher than between similar biotopes in different regions. Distinct differences in the species composition of freshwater and terrestrial communities indicate that most limnetic ciliates are not ubiquitously distributed. These observations and the low congruence in species composition between both polar areas, within Antarctica and between high- and temperate-latitude water bodies, respectively, suggest that long-distance dispersal of limnetic ciliates is restricted and that some species have a limited geographical distribution.

  1. Chloroplast symbiosis in a marine ciliate: ecophysiology and the risks and rewards of hosting foreign organelles.

    PubMed

    McManus, George B; Schoener, Donald M; Haberlandt, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous use of both heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolism ("mixotrophy") is common among protists. Strombidium rassoulzadegani is a planktonic mixotrophic marine ciliate that saves chloroplasts from its algal food and obtains a nutritional subsidy via photosynthesis. Cultures from the northeast, northwest, and southwest Atlantic Ocean show similar numerical response parameters (maximum growth rate, food concentration at which growth is half its maximum, and threshold food concentration for growth), and some isolates have been maintained in vitro for over 3 years. This ciliate grows equally well when fed on the green alga Tetraselmis chui (strain PLY429) or the cryptophyte Rhodomonas lens (strain RHODO). It appears to be an obligate mixotroph, requiring both food and light to achieve positive growth, when feeding on either of these algae. However, it has also been grown for several weeks (>10 generations) heterotrophically on the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (strain EXUV) during which it grows better in dark than in light. In this paper, we review the ecology of S. rassoulzadegani, discuss some aspects of its photo- and feeding physiology, and speculate on benefits and costs to the ciliate of chloroplast symbiosis.

  2. Ciliate communities and hidden biodiversity in freshwater biotopes of the Pistoia province (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessia; Boscaro, Vittorio; Carducci, Daniela; Serra, Valentina; Modeo, Letizia; Verni, Franco; Fokin, Sergei I; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    Ciliates are essential components of aquatic environments, playing a pivotal role in microbial loops. Thus, the composition and dynamics of ciliate communities have been subjected to intense studying. Morphological methods have been traditionally employed, until the development of next-generation sequencing recently allowed to explore the topic with exclusively molecular techniques. However, the results of the two approaches are hardly comparable, and the pictures they offer can be quite different. This may be due, among other reasons, to two factors: (1) morphological descriptions may miss a large portion of "hidden biodiversity" (including rare species and resistance forms) that is detected instead by molecular methods; (2) identification errors may arise due to difficulties in recognizing microbial taxa without in-depth analyses. In this survey of freshwater systems of the Pistoia province (Tuscany, Italy) we address both issues, trying to quantify the hidden diversity through prolonged observations of differentially treated sample aliquots, combining morphological identification with Sanger sequencing. We provide the first insights into the ciliate fauna of this area presenting results that are suitable for future comparisons thanks to their multidisciplinary origin, and supply the first molecular data on well-known taxa such as Linostomella and Disematostoma.

  3. Chemical Defense by Erythrolactones in the Euryhaline Ciliated Protist, Pseudokeronopsis erythrina.

    PubMed

    Buonanno, Federico; Anesi, Andrea; Giuseppe, Graziano Di; Guella, Graziano; Ortenzi, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Pseudokeronopsis erythrina produces three new secondary metabolites, erythrolactones A2, B2 and C2, and their respective sulfate esters (A1, B1, C1), the structures of which have been recently elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data coupled to high resolution mass measurements (HR-MALDI-TOF). An analysis of the discharge of the protozoan pigment granules revealed that the non-sulfonated erythrolactones are exclusively stored in these cortical organelles, which are commonly used by a number of ciliates as chemical weapons in offense/defense interactions with prey and predators. We evaluated the toxic activity of pigment granule discharge on a panel of free-living ciliates and micro-invertebrates, and the activity of each single purified erythrolactone on three ciliate species. We also observed predator-prey interactions of P. erythrina with unicellular and multicellular predators. Experimental results confirm that only P. erythrina cells with discharged pigment granules were preferentially or exclusively hunted and eaten by at least some of its predators, whereas almost all intact (fully pigmented) cells remained alive. Our results indicate that erythrolactones are very effective as a chemical defense in P. erythrina.

  4. Methods for the cultivation of ciliated protozoa from the large intestine of horses.

    PubMed

    Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Miltko, Renata; Michałowski, Tadeusz; McEwan, Neil R

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cultivation methods for ciliates from the digestive tract of horses. Members of three different genera were successfully grown in vitro for short periods of time. However, only cells belonging to the genus Blepharocorys, which resides in the horse's large intestine, were maintained for longer periods. This Blepharocorys culture was successfully grown in vitro after inoculation of freshly excreted horse faeces in culture medium containing a population of bacteria. The ciliates survived for over six months, and the density of their population varied between 1.7 × 10(3) and 2.4 × 10(3) cells mL(-1). Favourable conditions for the prolonged cultivation of this ciliate were observed when the medium was prepared by mixing horse faeces and 'caudatum' salt solution in a 1:1 V/V ratio together with food (60% powdered meadow hay, 16% wheat gluten, 12% barley flour and 12% microcrystalline cellulose) supplied as 0.20 mg mL(-1) culture per day.

  5. Heavy metals generate reactive oxygen species in terrestrial and aquatic ciliated protozoa.

    PubMed

    Rico, Daniel; Martín-González, Ana; Díaz, Silvia; de Lucas, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Juan-Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction by exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cu or Zn) in diverse free-living ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena sp. and three strains of Colpoda steinii, isolated from freshwater and soils with different level of metal pollution) has been evaluated. Using specific fluorophores, such as 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, hydroethidine and dihydrorhodamine 123, and a fluorescence microscope with the program MetaMorph Imaging System 4.0, we have analyzed both the average fluorescence emission and the heterogeneous distribution of fluorescence in control and treated cells. This is the first time that these fluorophores are used to detect ROS production in ciliated protozoa. All metals generate ROS, mainly superoxide and peroxides, showing a remarkable inter- and intra-specific variations. Likewise, resistance against each metal was also very diverse. Cu and specially Cd, the most toxic heavy metal for these ciliates, are the best oxidative stress inducers. However, a correlation between fluorescence emission intensity and cellular metal sensitivity for each strain cannot be established. Results are discussed and compared with similar findings previously published in other unicellular and pluricellular organisms.

  6. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst with high intra-cystic carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Weidenfeld, Jonathan; Bradichevsky, Tania; Weitzman, Ella; Rimon, Uri; Inbar, Yael; Amitai, Michal; Bar-Zachai, Barak; Eshkenazy, Roni; Ariche, Arie; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-11-21

    A ciliated hepatic foregut cyst (CHFC) is a rare foregut developmental malformation usually diagnosed in adulthood. Five percent of reported cases of CHFC transform into squamous cell carcinoma. We report the presentation, evaluation, and surgical management of a symptomatic 45-year-old male found to have a 6.2 cm CHFC. Contrast tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration demonstrated columnar, ciliated epithelium consistent with the histologic diagnosis of CHFC. The intracystic levels of carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were extremely high (978118 U/mL and 973 μg/L, respectively). Histologically, the wall of the cyst showed characteristic pseudopapillae lined with a ciliated stratified columnar epithelium, underlying smooth muscle, an outer fibrous layer and no atypia. Immunohistochemistry for CA19-9 and CEA was positive. This is the first case report of a CHFC in which levels of CA 19-9 and CEA were measured. Our findings suggest that a large sized multilocular cyst and elevated cyst CA19-9 and CEA levels do not exclude a CHFC from consideration in the diagnosis. CHFCs should be included in the differential diagnosis of hepatic lesions. Accurate diagnosis of a CHFC is necessary given its potential for malignant transformation, and surgical excision is recommended.

  7. Genetic code deviations in the ciliates: evidence for multiple and independent events.

    PubMed Central

    Tourancheau, A B; Tsao, N; Klobutcher, L A; Pearlman, R E; Adoutte, A

    1995-01-01

    In several species of ciliates, the universal stop codons UAA and UAG are translated into glutamine, while in the euplotids, the glutamine codon usage is normal, but UGA appears to be translated as cysteine. Because the emerging position of this monophyletic group in the eukaryotic lineage is relatively late, this deviant genetic code represents a derived state of the universal code. The question is therefore raised as to how these changes arose within the evolutionary pathways of the phylum. Here, we have investigated the presence of stop codons in alpha tubulin and/or phosphoglycerate kinase gene coding sequences from diverse species of ciliates scattered over the phylogenetic tree constructed from 28S rRNA sequences. In our data set, when deviations occur they correspond to in frame UAA and UAG coding for glutamine. By combining these new data with those previously reported, we show that (i) utilization of UAA and UAG codons occurs to different extents between, but also within, the different classes of ciliates and (ii) the resulting phylogenetic pattern of deviations from the universal code cannot be accounted for by a scenario involving a single transition to the unusual code. Thus, contrary to expectations, deviations from the universal genetic code have arisen independently several times within the phylum. PMID:7621837

  8. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hegan, Peter S.; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M.; Mooseker, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost. PMID:26446290

  9. Antibody production using a ciliate generates unusual antibody glycoforms displaying enhanced cell-killing activity

    PubMed Central

    Calow, Jenny; Bockau, Ulrike; Struwe, Weston B.; Nowaczyk, Marc M.; Loser, Karin; Crispin, Max

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody glycosylation is a key parameter in the optimization of antibody therapeutics. Here, we describe the production of the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody rituximab in the unicellular ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. The resulting antibody demonstrated enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which we attribute to unusual N-linked glycosylation. Detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis revealed afucosylated, oligomannose-type glycans, which, as a whole, displayed isomeric structures that deviate from the typical human counterparts, but whose branches were equivalent to fragments of metabolic intermediates observed in human glycoproteins. From the analysis of deposited crystal structures, we predict that the ciliate glycans adopt protein-carbohydrate interactions with the Fc domain that closely mimic those of native complex-type glycans. In addition, terminal glucose structures were identified that match biosynthetic precursors of human glycosylation. Our results suggest that ciliate-based expression systems offer a route to large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies exhibiting glycosylation that imparts enhanced cell killing activity. PMID:27594301

  10. Myosin at the apical pole of ciliated epithelial cells as revealed by a monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (CC-212), obtained in a fusion experiment in which basal bodies from quail oviduct were used as immunogen, has been shown to label the apical pole of ciliated cells and to react with a 200-kD protein. This monoclonal antibody was demonstrated to be an anti- myosin from smooth muscle or from nonmuscular cells using the following criteria: On Western blots it reacted with the myosin heavy chains from gizzard and platelet extracts and from cultured cell line extracts, but did not react with striated muscle myosin heavy chains. By immunofluorescence it decorated the stress fibers of well-spread cells with a characteristic striated pattern, while it did not react with myotubes containing organized myofibrils. On native ciliated cells as well as on Triton-extracted ciliated cortices from quail oviduct, this monoclonal antibody decorated the apical pole with a stronger labeling of the periphery of the apical area. Ultrastructural localization was attempted using the immunogold technique on the same preparation. Myosin was associated with a filamentous material present between striated rootlets and the proximal extremities of the basal bodies. No labeling of the basal body itself or of axoneme was observed. PMID:3525577

  11. The effects of organic selenium supplementation on the rumen ciliate population in sheep.

    PubMed

    Mihaliková, K; Gresáková, L; Boldizárová, K; Faix, S; Leng, L; Kisidayová, S

    2005-01-01

    The effect of selenium supplementation on the rumen protozoan population of sheep was demonstrated. Both the total and generic counts of rumen ciliates in sheep fed a diet with basal Se content (70 microg/kg dry matter) were compared to those of animals given feed supplemented with inorganic (disodium selenite) or organic Se (selenized yeast) (310 microg/kg dry matter). The genera of Entodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Ophryoscolex, Diploplastron and Polyplastron occurred in all sheep except for the control, in which Ophryoscolex was not observed. The population of Ophryoscolex caudatus f. tricoronatus was significantly higher in sheep supplemented with organic Se than in animals given inorganic Se (by 160 %). Supplementation of feed with selenized yeast induced significant growth in the Diploplastron population (by 63 %) while no change occurred in sheep given selenite. The populations of Dasytricha ruminantium and Polyplastron multivesiculatum were higher than control in both Se-supplemented groups. The ciliate population of Entodinium spp. was not influenced by Se supplements. Our results suggest a protective effect of Se feed supplementation on the development of some rumen ciliate species in young ruminants.

  12. Partial cloning of putative G-proteins modulating mechanotransduction in the ciliate stentor.

    PubMed

    Marino, M J; Sherman, T G; Wood, D C

    2001-01-01

    Signal transduction systems known to utilize G-proteins in higher eukaryotes undoubtedly evolved prior to the development of metazoa. Pharmacological evidence indicates that the ciliates Paramecium, Stentor, and Tetrahymena all utilize signaling systems similar to those found in mammals. However, there has been relatively little direct evidence for the existence of G-proteins in ciliates. Since highly conserved heterotrimeric G-proteins form the basis of receptor-coupled signal transduction systems in a wide variety of metazoa, it is of interest to know if these important signaling molecules were early to evolve and are present and functionally important in a wide variety of unicellular organisms. We have previously shown that mechanotransduction in Stentor is modulated by opiates in a manner that may involve pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. Here we utilize drugs known to interact with G-proteins to further test for the involvement of these important signaling molecules in Stentor mechanotransduction. We present behavioral and electrophysiological data demonstrating that putative G-proteins in Stentor decrease mechanical sensitivity by modulating the mechanotransduction process. In addition, we report the partial cloning of 4 G-protein alpha-subunits from Stentor. We confirm that these clones are of Stentor origin and are transcribed. Furthermore, we employ antisense oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated knockout to demonstrate that these ciliate G-proteins exert a modulatory influence on Stentor behavior, and that a G1/G0-like clone mediates the inhibitory action of beta-endorphin on mechanotransduction.

  13. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hegan, Peter S; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M; Mooseker, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost.

  14. Integrative taxonomy of ciliates: Assessment of molecular phylogenetic content and morphological homology testing.

    PubMed

    Vďačný, Peter

    2017-02-24

    The very diverse and comparatively complex morphology of ciliates has given rise to numerous taxonomic concepts. However, the information content of the utilized molecular markers has seldom been explored prior to phylogenetic analyses and taxonomic decisions. Likewise, robust testing of morphological homology statements and the apomorphic nature of diagnostic characters of ciliate taxa is rarely carried out. Four phylogenetic techniques that may help address these issues are reviewed. (1) Split spectrum analysis serves to determine the exact number and quality of nucleotide positions supporting individual nodes in phylogenetic trees and to discern long-branch artifacts that cause spurious phylogenies. (2) Network analysis can depict all possible evolutionary trajectories inferable from the dataset and locate and measure the conflict between them. (3) A priori likelihood mapping tests the suitability of data for reconstruction of a well resolved tree, visualizes the tree-likeness of quartets, and assesses the support of an internal branch of a given tree topology. (4) Reconstruction of ancestral morphologies can be applied for analyzing homology and apomorphy statements without circular reasoning. Since these phylogenetic tools are rarely used, their principles and interpretation are introduced and exemplified using various groups of ciliates. Finally, environmental sequencing data are discussed in this light.

  15. Respiration, growth and grazing rates of three ciliate species in hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Emma; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-08-30

    Marine hypoxic episodes are affecting both marine and freshwater bodies all over the world. Yet, limited data exists with regard to the effects of decreasing oxygen on protist metabolism. Three ciliate species were therefore isolated from Hong Kong coastal waters. Controlled hypoxic conditions were simulated in the lab environment, during which time growth, respiration and grazing rates were measured. Euplotes sp. and a Oxytrichidae-like ciliate showed decreased growth and respiration below 2.5 mg O2 L(-1), however Uronema marinum kept steady growth and respiration until below 1.5 mg O2 L(-1). Euplotes sp. and the Oxytrichidae-like ciliate had the highest ingestion rate, which dropped significantly below 3.0 mg O2 L(-1). U.marinum grazing rates were affected at and below 1.5 mg O2 L(-1), correlating with their drop in growth and respiration at this lower concentration. This study illustrates the slowing metabolism of key grazing protists, as well as species-specific tolerance in response to hypoxia.

  16. Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst: four case reports with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ayako W; Steelman, Charlotte K; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Ricketts, Richard R; Durham, Megan; Clifton, Matthew; Pandya, Samir; Shehata, Bahig M

    2011-01-01

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts (CHFCs) are rare congenital legions that arise from the embryonic foregut. The cysts are formed during fetal development by evagination from their respective portions of the foregut, and are characterized by a ciliated epithelial lining. Approximately 100 cases of CHFC have been reported, of which only 13 were in children. Although CHFC is typically benign, malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been reported in 3 cases. Survival rate after progression to malignancy is poor, as SCC in this setting is biologically aggressive. We present 4 new cases of CHFC in children between 5 months and 17 years old. Our cases are unusual, as some of the cysts exhibit multilocularity and biliary communication, and 2 of our patients were diagnosed under the age of 1. Additionally, 1 of the cysts was 19.3 cm in diameter, making it the largest reported CHFC to our knowledge. Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of hepatic lesions.

  17. Microstome--macrostome transformation in the polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax leads to mechanosensitivity associated with prey-capture behaviour.

    PubMed

    Grønlien, Heidi K; Hagen, Bjarne; Sand, Olav

    2011-07-01

    Ciliates feed by phagocytosis. Some ciliate species, such as Tetrahymena vorax, are polymorphic, a strategy that provides more flexible food utilization. Cells of the microstomal morph of T. vorax feed on bacteria, organic particles and organic solutes in a non-selective manner, whereas macrostome cells are predators that consume specific prey ciliates. In the present study, we investigated a possible correlation between phagocytosis and mechanosensitivity in macrostome T. vorax. Microstome cells seem to be insensitive to mechanical stimulation whereas macrostome cells depolarise in response to mechanical stimulation of the anterior part of the cell. The amplitude of the receptor potential induced by either a prey ciliate or a 5 μm push by a glass needle was sufficient to elicit a regenerative Ca²⁺ spike. The difference in mechanosensitivity of the two forms correlates with the swimming behaviour when hitting an obstacle; microstome cells swim alongside the obstacle whereas macrostome cells swim backwards, turn and resume forward swimming. Macrostome cells prevented from backward swimming and the subsequent turn failed to capture prey cells in their pouch. Macrostome cells consumed heterospecific prey ciliates preferentially over conspecific microstome cells. This selectivity is not due to electrical membrane responses elicited by physical contact. Both microstome and macrostome cells accumulated in an area containing putative substances released from heterospecific prey ciliates, but the substances did not elicit any electrophysiological membrane responses. We conclude that the mechanosensitivity of macrostome cells is associated with the prey-capture behaviour, whereas the selective phagocytosis is probably due to chemo-attraction to heterospecific prey ciliates.

  18. A tale of the ciliate tail: investigation into the adaptive significance of this sub-cellular structure

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, Brad J.; Jiang, Houshuo; Buskey, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Ciliates can form an important link between the microbial loop and higher trophic levels primarily through consumption by copepods. This high predation pressure has resulted in a number of ciliate species developing rapid escape swimming behaviour. Several species of these escaping ciliates also possess a long contractile tail for which the functionality remains unresolved. We use high-speed video, specialized optics and novel fluid visualization tools to evaluate the role of this contractile appendage in two free-swimming ciliates, Pseudotontonia sp. and Tontonia sp., and compare the performance to escape swimming behaviour of a non-tailed species, Strobilidium sp. Here, we show that ‘tailed’ species respond to hydrodynamic disturbances with extremely short response latencies (less than or equal to 0.89 ms) by rapidly contracting the tail which carries the cell body 2–4 cell diameters within a few milliseconds. This provides an advantage over non-tailed species during the critical first 10–30 ms of an escape. Two small, short-lived vortex rings are created during contraction of the tail. The flow imposed by the ciliate jumping can be described as two well-separated impulsive Stokeslets and the overall flow attenuates spatially as r−3. The high initial velocities and spatio-temporal arrangement of vortices created by tail contractions appear to provide a means for rapid escape as well as hydrodynamic ‘camouflage’ against fast striking, mechanoreceptive predators such as copepods. PMID:26180066

  19. Major epiplasmic proteins of ciliates are articulins: cloning, recombinant expression, and structural characterization

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The cytoskeleton of certain protists comprises an extensive membrane skeleton, the epiplasm, which contributes to the cell shape and patterning of the species-specific cortical architecture. The isolated epiplasm of the ciliated protist Pseudomicrothorax dubius consists of two major groups of proteins with molecular masses of 78-80 kD and 11- 13 kD, respectively. To characterize the structure of these proteins, peptide sequences of two major polypeptides (78-80 kD) as well as a cDNA representing the entire coding sequence of a minor and hitherto unidentified component (60 kD; p60) of the epiplasm have been determined. All three polypeptides share sequence similarities. They contain repeated valine- and proline-rich motifs of 12 residues with the consensus VPVP--V-V-V-. In p60 the central core domain consists of 24 tandemly repeated VPV motifs. Within the repeat motifs positively and negatively charged residues, when present, show an alternating pattern in register with the V and P positions. Recombinant p60 was purified in 8 M urea and dialyzed against buffer. Infrared spectroscopic measurements indicate 30% beta-sheet. Electron microscopy reveals short filamentous polymers with a rather homogenous diameter (approximately 15-20 nm), but variable lengths. The small polymers form thicker filaments, ribbons, and larger sheets or tubes. A core domain similar to that of P. dubius p60 is also found in the recently described epiplasmic proteins of the flagellate Euglena, the so-called articulins. Our results show that the members of this protein family are not restricted to flagellates, but are also present in the distantly related ciliates where they are major constituents of the epiplasm. Comparison of flagellate and ciliate articulins highlights common features of this novel family of cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:7559761

  20. Low Base-Substitution Mutation Rate in the Germline Genome of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophil.

    PubMed

    Long, Hongan; Winter, David J; Chang, Allan Y-C; Sung, Way; Wu, Steven H; Balboa, Mariel; Azevedo, Ricardo B R; Cartwright, Reed A; Lynch, Michael; Zufall, Rebecca A

    2016-09-15

    Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation and is, therefore, central to evolutionary change. Previous work on Paramecium tetraurelia found an unusually low germline base-substitution mutation rate in this ciliate. Here, we tested the generality of this result among ciliates using Tetrahymena thermophila. We sequenced the genomes of 10 lines of T. thermophila that had each undergone approximately 1,000 generations of mutation accumulation (MA). We applied an existing mutation-calling pipeline and developed a new probabilistic mutation detection approach that directly models the design of an MA experiment and accommodates the noise introduced by mismapped reads. Our probabilistic mutation-calling method provides a straightforward way of estimating the number of sites at which a mutation could have been called if one was present, providing the denominator for our mutation rate calculations. From these methods, we find that T. thermophila has a germline base-substitution mutation rate of 7.61 × 10 (-)  (12) per-site, per cell division, which is consistent with the low base-substitution mutation rate in P. tetraurelia Over the course of the evolution experiment, genomic exclusion lines derived from the MA lines experienced a fitness decline that cannot be accounted for by germline base-substitution mutations alone, suggesting that other genetic or epigenetic factors must be involved. Because selection can only operate to reduce mutation rates based upon the "visible" mutational load, asexual reproduction with a transcriptionally silent germline may allow ciliates to evolve extremely low germline mutation rates.

  1. On the marine ciliate, Pseudocohnilembus hargisi (Protozoa, ciliophora, scuticociliatida) with comparison of its related species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jun; Ma, Hong-Wei; Song, Wei-Bo

    2002-09-01

    The living morphology, nuclear apparatus, infraciliature and silverline system of the poorly-known ciliate Pseudocohnilembus hargisi Evans & Thompson, 1964, collected from a shrimp culture pond in Qingdao, China, were examined by observation of the live specimen; and by the pyridinated carbonate method and Chatton-Lwoff technique. The main characteristics: 13 14 (usually 13) longitudinal or slightly spirally arranged somatic kineties; single contractile vacuole with usually 2 (1 2) pores at posterior ends of the fourth and fifth somatic kineties to the right of the buccal cavity. Several related congeners were compared and morphometrically tabulated.

  2. Using Sorting by Reversal: Breakpoint Graph for Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brijder, Robert; Jan Hoogeboom, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has much in common with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper we show that the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, has many uses in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  3. CNT suspended nanofluid analysis in a flexible tube with ciliated walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher Akbar, Noreen; Wahid Butt, Adil

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: The current investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of heat transfer in a flexible tube with ciliated walls and carbon nanotubes. The problem has been formulated in the form of non-linear partial differential equations, which are then reduced to ordinary differential equation form using the dimensionless variables and the conditions of low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Exact solutions have been obtained for velocity, temperature and pressure gradient and graphs for velocity, temperature and pressure gradient have been plotted for a better analysis of the solution.

  4. What factors drive the variations of phytoplankton, ciliate and mesozooplankton communities in the polluted southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia?

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Drira, Zaher; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-08-01

    We studied the spatial distribution of phytoplankton, ciliate and mesozooplankton communities coupled with environmental factors in the southern coast of Sfax (central eastern coastline of Tunisia). Phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by Dinophyceae (69.99%) and Bacillariophyceae (15.88%). The ciliate community consisted of Spirotrichea with a dominance of Tintinnopsis beroidea (57.69%). The mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods representing 66.12% of the total zooplankton. Oithona nana showed a high frequency mainly in stations 9 and 10 with 66.86 and 64.65%, respectively. Some toxic phytoplankton species were recorded in the present study site. For this reason, the pollution generated in this area presents a slight degradation of the water quality and can be responsible for the bloom generated by the high proliferation of these toxic microalgae. The pollution generated by industrial activities has an effect on the spatial distribution of phytoplankton, ciliate and copepod communities with a reduction of their diversity indexes.

  5. Rare Freshwater Ciliate Paramecium chlorelligerum Kahl, 1935 and Its Macronuclear Symbiotic Bacterium “Candidatus Holospora parva”

    PubMed Central

    Lebedeva, Natalia; Migunova, Alexandra; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated protists often form symbioses with many diverse microorganisms. In particular, symbiotic associations between ciliates and green algae, as well as between ciliates and intracellular bacteria, are rather wide-spread in nature. In this study, we describe the complex symbiotic system between a very rare ciliate, Paramecium chlorelligerum, unicellular algae inhabiting its cytoplasm, and novel bacteria colonizing the host macronucleus. Paramecium chlorelligerum, previously found only twice in Germany, was retrieved from a novel location in vicinity of St. Petersburg in Russia. Species identification was based on both classical morphological methods and analysis of the small subunit rDNA. Numerous algae occupying the cytoplasm of this ciliate were identified with ultrastructural and molecular methods as representatives of the Meyerella genus, which before was not considered among symbiotic algae. In the same locality at least fifteen other species of “green” ciliates were found, thus it is indeed a biodiversity hot-spot for such protists. A novel species of bacterial symbionts living in the macronucleus of Paramecium chlorelligerum cells was morphologically and ultrastructurally investigated in detail with the description of its life cycle and infection capabilities. The new endosymbiont was molecularly characterized following the full-cycle rRNA approach. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the novel bacterium is a member of Holospora genus branching basally but sharing all characteristics of the genus except inducing connecting piece formation during the infected host nucleus division. We propose the name “Candidatus Holospora parva” for this newly described species. The described complex system raises new questions on how these microorganisms evolve and interact in symbiosis. PMID:27992463

  6. Phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a are significant factors controlling ciliate communities in summer in the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao; Cao, Wenqing; Zheng, Lianming; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates (protozoa) are ubiquitous components of plankton community and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems in regards of their abundance, biomass, diversity and energy turnover. Based on the stratified samples collected from the northern Beibu Gulf in August 2011, species composition, abundance, biomass, diversity and spatial pattern of planktonic ciliates were studied. Furthermore the main environmental factors controlling ciliate communities were determined. A total of 101 species belonging to 44 genera and 7 orders (i.e., Oligotrichida, Haptorida, Euplotida, Sessilida, Pleurostomatida, Scuticociliatida and Tintinnida) were identified. The variation of ciliate communities was significant at horizontal level, but that was not at vertical level. Based on cluster analysis, ciliate communities were divided into three main groups. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that Group A, existing in the waters with higher concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen, was dominated by Tintinnidium primitivum. Group B in the waters with lower temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by Leegaardiella ovalis. Group C, existing in the waters with higher temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by large Strombidium spp. and Mesodinium rubrum. Combining multiple analytic methods, our results strongly supported that phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a were the most significant factors affecting the ciliate communities in the northern Beibu Gulf in summer. Concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen primarily influenced ciliate biomass, implying a potential impact of eutrophication on ciliate growth. The correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration, on one hand indicate the response of ciliates to the food availability, and on the other hand, the ciliates containing chloroplasts or endosymbionts may contribute greatly to the chlorophyll-a.

  7. Helical arrays of U-shaped ATP synthase dimers form tubular cristae in ciliate mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Mühleip, Alexander W.; Joos, Friederike; Wigge, Christoph; Frangakis, Achilleas S.; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Davies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    F1Fo-ATP synthases are universal energy-converting membrane protein complexes that synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. In mitochondria of yeast and mammals, the ATP synthase forms V-shaped dimers, which assemble into rows along the highly curved ridges of lamellar cristae. Using electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging, we have determined the in situ structure and organization of the mitochondrial ATP synthase dimer of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. The ATP synthase forms U-shaped dimers with parallel monomers. Each complex has a prominent intracrista domain, which links the c-ring of one monomer to the peripheral stalk of the other. Close interaction of intracrista domains in adjacent dimers results in the formation of helical ATP synthase dimer arrays, which differ from the loose dimer rows in all other organisms observed so far. The parameters of the helical arrays match those of the cristae tubes, suggesting the unique features of the P. tetraurelia ATP synthase are directly responsible for generating the helical tubular cristae. We conclude that despite major structural differences between ATP synthase dimers of ciliates and other eukaryotes, the formation of ATP synthase dimer rows is a universal feature of mitochondria and a fundamental determinant of cristae morphology. PMID:27402755

  8. Diversity of apostome ciliates, Chromidina spp. (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae), parasites of cephalopods of the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chromidina spp. are enigmatic apostome ciliates (Oligohymenophorea, Opalinopsidae) that parasitise the renal and pancreatic appendages of cephalopods. Only four species have been described, among which only three have been formally named. No DNA sequence has been reported so far. To investigate Chromidina spp. diversity, we sampled cephalopods in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunis, Tunisia, and identified two distinct Chromidina spp. in two different host species: Loligo vulgaris and Sepia officinalis. From haematoxylin-stained slides, we described morphological traits for these parasitic species and compared them to previous descriptions. We also re-described the morphology of Chromidina elegans (Foettinger, 1881) from Chatton and Lwoff’s original materials and designated a neohapantotype and paraneohapantotypes for this species. We describe a new species, Chromidina chattoni Souidenne, Florent and Grellier n. sp., found in L. vulgaris off Tunisia, and evidence for a probable novel species, found in S. officinalis off Tunisia, although this latter species presents similarities to some morphological stages previously described for Chromidina cortezi Hochberg, 1971. We amplified, for the first time, an 18S rDNA marker for these two Chromidina species. Phylogenetic analysis supports the association of Chromidina within apostome ciliates. Genetic distance analysis between 18S rDNA sequences of representative apostomes indicates Pseudocollinia as the most closely related genus to Chromidina. PMID:27530149

  9. Soil Ciliates from Saudi Arabia, Including Descriptions of Two New Genera and Six New Species

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm; QUINTELA-ALONSO, Pablo; AL-RASHEID, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Summary Six soil samples from natural and cultivated sites of Saudi Arabia were investigated for ciliate diversity, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, and silver impregnation. We identified 135 species, all new for the fauna of Saudi Arabia, of which seven were undescribed: Spathidium alqasabi nov. spec.; Enchelyodon alqasabi nov. spec.; Metauroleptus arabicus nov. gen., nov. spec.; Pseudohemisincirra arabica nov. gen., nov. spec.; Saudithrix terricola​ Berger, Al-Rasheid and Foissner, 2006; Oxytricha arabica nov. spec.; and Erimophrya monostyla nov. spec. Based on Spathidium alqasabi, S. seppelti foissneri​ Vd’ačný et al., 2006 and S. seppelti etoschense​ Foissner et al., 2002 are raised to species rank; for the latter, a new name is required to avoid homonymy: Spathidium fraterculum nov. nom. The new genus Metauroleptus, which possesses two long and two to three short ventral cirral rows, generates all dorsal kineties intrakinetally and produces caudal cirri exclusively in dorsal kinety 1. Metauroleptus belongs to the hypotrichs, while family classification remains doubtful. The same applies to the new hypotrich genus Pseudohemisincirra, which has frontoventral and transverse cirri, while buccal cirri and caudal cirri are absent. The number of species contained in Saudi Arabian soils, including sand dunes, is in the range reported from other regions of the earth, suggesting that ciliates are well adapted to dry habitats, possibly mainly by their ability to produce very resistant resting cysts, most surviving for a long time due to reduced metazoan predation. PMID:20890459

  10. Membrane trafficking in protozoa SNARE proteins, H+-ATPase, actin, and other key players in ciliates.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Due to their well-defined pathways of vesicle trafficking and manyfold mutants ciliates have served as good model systems. Further studies required the development of databases, now available for Paramecium and Tetrahymena. A variety of key players have been identified and characterized based on BLAST search, domain analysis, localization, and gene-silencing studies. They include NSF (N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor), SNAREs (soluble NSF attachment protein [SNAP] receptors), the H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and actin, while Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) and Rab-type small GTPases, COPs (coatamer proteins) and many others remain to be elucidated. The number of SNAREs, H(+)-ATPase subunits, and actins ever found within one cell type are unexpectedly high and most of the manifold vesicle types seem to be endowed with specific molecular components pertinent to trafficking. As in higher eukaryotes, multifactorial targeting likely occurs. It appears that, in parallel to higher organisms, ciliates have evolved a similar structural and molecular complexity of vesicle trafficking.

  11. Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes

    PubMed Central

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. PMID:20714425

  12. A cover of glass: first report of biomineralized silicon in a ciliate, Maryna umbrellata (Ciliophora: Colpodea).

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Weissenbacher, Birgit; Krautgartner, Wolf-Dietrich; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Using hydrofluoric acid, scanning electron microscope-assisted X-ray microanalysis, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy, we present the first definite proof of biomineralized silicon [(SiO(2))](n) in a ciliophoran protist, Maryna umbrellata, a common inhabitant of ephemeral pools. In the trophic specimen, the amorphic silicon (glass) granules are accumulated in the anterior half of the body. When entering the dormant stage, most glass granules are excreted to form the surface cover of the globular resting cyst. Most likely, the silicon granules are synthesized in vesicles of the Golgi apparatus. First, nanospheres with a size of 20-40 nm are formed in a fibrous matrix; they grow to be spongious complexes, eventually becoming amorphous glass granules with an average size of 819 nm x 630 nm. In the transmission electron microscope, the silicon granules show the characteristic fracture pattern of glass known from many other silicon-bearing organisms. A literature survey suggests that silicon is very rare in ciliates. The fine structure and genesis of silicon granules in M. umbrellata are very similar to those of other organisms, including vascular plants and animals, indicating a common mechanism. Light perception and protection against mechanical stress and predators might be functions of the silicon granules in M. umbrellata. The palaeontological significance of glass cysts in ciliates is also discussed.

  13. Growth phase and elemental stoichiometry of bacterial prey influences ciliate grazing selectivity.

    PubMed

    Gruber, David F; Tuorto, Steven; Taghon, Gary L

    2009-01-01

    Protozoa are known to selectively graze bacteria and can differentiate prey based on size and viability, but less is known about the effects of prey cellular composition on predator selectivity. We measured the effect of growth phase and elemental stoichiometry of Escherichia coli on grazing by two ciliates, Euplotes vannus and Cyclidium glaucoma. Bacterial cells of a single strain were transformed with green and red fluorescent protein and harvested from culture at differing growth stages. Cells in exponential growth phase had low carbon:phosphorus (39) and nitrogen:phosphorus (9) ratios, while cells from stationary phase had high carbon:phosphorus of 104 and nitrogen:phosphorus of 26. When offered an equal mixture of both types of bacteria, Cyclidium grazed stationary phase, high carbon:phosphorus, high nitrogen:phosphorus cells to 22% of initial abundance within 135 min, while Euplotes reduced these cells to 33%. Neither ciliate species decreased the abundance of the exponential phase cells, lower carbon:phosphorus and nitrogen:phosphorus, relative to control treatments. Because protozoa have higher nitrogen:phosphorus and carbon:phosphorus ratios than their prokaryotic prey, this study raises the possibility that it may be advantageous for protozoa to preferentially consume more slowly growing bacteria.

  14. Packaging of Campylobacter jejuni into Multilamellar Bodies by the Ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis

    PubMed Central

    Trigui, Hana; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Transmission to humans occurs through consumption of contaminated food or water. The conditions affecting the persistence of C. jejuni in the environment are poorly understood. Some protozoa package and excrete bacteria into multilamellar bodies (MLBs). Packaged bacteria are protected from deleterious conditions, which increases their survival. We hypothesized that C. jejuni could be packaged under aerobic conditions by the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii or the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, both of which are able to package other pathogenic bacteria. A. castellanii did not produce MLBs containing C. jejuni. In contrast, when incubated with T. pyriformis, C. jejuni was ingested, packaged in MLBs, and then expelled into the milieu. The viability of the bacteria inside MLBs was confirmed by microscopic analyses. The kinetics of C. jejuni culturability showed that packaging increased the survival of C. jejuni up to 60 h, in contrast to the strong survival defect seen in ciliate-free culture. This study suggests that T. pyriformis may increase the risk of persistence of C. jejuni in the environment and its possible transmission between different reservoirs in food and potable water through packaging. PMID:26921427

  15. Strengths and Biases of High-Throughput Sequencing Data in the Characterization of Freshwater Ciliate Microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Boscaro, Vittorio; Rossi, Alessia; Vannini, Claudia; Verni, Franco; Fokin, Sergei I; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-12-28

    Molecular surveys of eukaryotic microbial communities employing high-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques are rapidly supplanting traditional morphological approaches due to their larger data output and reduced bench work time. Here, we directly compare morphological and Illumina data obtained from the same samples, in an effort to characterize ciliate faunas from sediments in freshwater environments. We show how in silico processing affects the final outcome of our HTS analysis, providing evidence that quality filtering protocols strongly impact the number of predicted taxa, but not downstream conclusions such as biogeography patterns. We determine the abundance distribution of ciliates, showing that a small fraction of abundant taxa dominates read counts. At the same time, we advance reasons to believe that biases affecting HTS abundances may be significant enough to blur part of the underlying biological picture. We confirmed that the HTS approach detects many more taxa than morphological inspections, and highlight how the difference varies among taxonomic groups. Finally, we hypothesize that the two datasets actually correspond to different conceptions of "diversity," and consequently that neither is entirely superior to the other when investigating environmental protists.

  16. Heterogeneous rates of molecular evolution among cryptic species of the ciliate morphospecies Chilodonella uncinata

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Laura A.; DeBerardinis, Jennifer; Hall, Meaghan S.; Kovner, Alexandra M.; Dunthorn, Micah; Muse, Spencer V.

    2012-01-01

    While molecular analyses have provided insight into the phylogeny of ciliates, the few studies assessing intraspecific variation have largely relied on just a single locus (e.g. nuclear small subunit rDNA (nSSU-rDNA) or mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I). In this study, we characterize the diversity of several nuclear protein-coding genes plus both nSSU-rDNA and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA (mtSSU-rDNA) of five isolates of the ciliate morphospecies Chilodonella uncinata. Although these isolates have nearly identical nSSU-rDNA sequences, they differ by up to 8.0% in mtSSU-rDNA. Comparative analyses of all loci, including β-tubulin paralogs, indicate a lack of recombination between strains, demonstrating that the morphospecies C. uncinata consists of multiple cryptic species. Further, there is considerable variation in substitution rates among loci as some protein-coding domains are nearly identical between isolates while others differ by up to 13.2% at the amino acid level. Combining insights on macronuclear variation among isolates, the focus of this study, with published data from the micronucleus of two of these isolates indicates that C. uncinata lineages are able to maintain both highly divergent and highly conserved genes within a rapidly evolving germline genome. PMID:22258433

  17. Structures, biological activities and phylogenetic relationships of terpenoids from marine ciliates of the genus Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Guella, Graziano; Skropeta, Danielle; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando

    2010-07-08

    In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.

  18. A sequence-based analysis of the pointer distribution of stichotrichous ciliates.

    PubMed

    Verlan, Sergey; Alhazov, Artiom; Petre, Ion

    2010-08-01

    Micronuclear genes in stichotrichous ciliates are broken into blocks separated by noncoding sequences, sometimes with the blocks in a shuffled order, some even inverted. During reproduction, all blocks are assembled in the correct order and orientation. This process is possible due to the special structure of micronuclear genes: each coding block M ends with a short nucleotide sequence (called pointer) that is repeated at the beginning of the coding block that should follow M in the assembled gene. Many of the pointers have multiple occurrences along both strands of the gene. This yields a very high number of pointer-induced possible divisions into coding and noncoding blocks. We investigate the distribution of pointers for all currently sequenced micronuclear ciliate genes with the goal of identifying what distinguishes the real gene structure among all possible coding/noncoding divisions. We find a sharp criterion in the average a/t-content of the noncoding blocks: the real division has, in most cases, the maximum such content among all possible combinations. Even for pointers as short as two nucleotides, the real division is one of very few with an average a/t-content of its noncoding blocks over 80%. The separation is most clear when the loci of pointers of up to four nucleotides (even three in the case of unscrambled genes) are fixed (e.g., through a template-based recombination mechanism).

  19. The fluid dynamics of the ciliate Pseudotontonia sp. jumping by ``tail'' contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Gemmell, Brad; Buskey, Edward

    2015-11-01

    The marine planktonic ciliate Pseudotontonia sp. (~ 80 μm in cell size) possesses two sets of propulsive machinery: (1) an anteriorly located ciliary band that beats to let the cell swim backward, and (2) a long, contractile appendage (i.e. the `tail') that at times contracts rapidly to pull the cell body backward, resulting in the tail contraction and body jumping motion being oppositely directed inwards towards the same location. We use high-speed microscale imaging and micro-particle image velocimetry techniques to measure the ciliate swimming and jumping kinematics and imposed flow fields. We show that the cilia-propelled swimming achieves a sustained swimming speed ~ 10 mm s-1 that can last more than 100 ms. The swimming imposed flow conforms to the steady stresslet flow field that decays spatially at r-2. On the other hand, the tail contraction causes the cell to jump at a peak speed ~ 55 mm s-1 and cover a jumping distance 2-4 cell lengths within ~ 12 ms jumping time. The jumping imposed flow fits quite well to the unsteady impulsive stokeslet flow field that decays spatially at r-3. Based on the measured jumping kinematics, we develop a fluid dynamics model to explain the thrust generation due to the tail contraction.

  20. Compositionally distinct nuclear pore complexes of functionally distinct dimorphic nuclei in ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masaaki; Osakada, Hiroko; Mori, Chie; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Nagao, Koji; Obuse, Chikashi; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2017-04-06

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC), a gateway for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, is composed of about 30 different proteins called nucleoporins. It remains unknown whether the NPCs within a species are homogeneous or vary depending on the cell type, or physiological condition. Here, we present evidence for compositionally distinct NPCs that form within a single cell in a binucleated ciliate. In Tetrahymena thermophila, each cell contains both a transcriptionally-active macronucleus (MAC) and a germline micronucleus (MIC). By combining in silico analysis, mass spectrometry analysis for immuno-isolated proteins, and subcellular localization analysis of GFP fused proteins, we identified numerous novel components of MAC and MIC NPCs. Core members of the Nup107-160 scaffold complex were enriched in MIC NPCs. Strikingly, two paralogs of Nup214 and of Nup153 localized exclusively to either MAC or MIC NPCs. Furthermore, the transmembrane components Pom121 and Pom82 localize exclusively to MAC and MIC NPCs, respectively. Our results argue that functional nuclear dimorphism in ciliates is likely to depend on compositional and structural specificity of NPCs.

  1. The contractile process in the ciliate, Stentor coeruleus. I. The role of microtubules and filaments.

    PubMed

    Huang, B; Pitelka, D R

    1973-06-01

    The structural basis for the function of microtubules and filaments in cell body contractility in the ciliate Stentor coeruleus was investigated. Cells in the extended state were obtained for ultrastructural analysis by treatment before fixation with a solution containing 10 mM EGTA, 50-80 mM Tris, 3 mM MgSO(4), 7.5 mM NH(4)Cl, 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.1). The response of Stentor to changes in the divalent cation concentrations in this solution suggests that Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) are physiologically important in the regulation of ciliate contractility. The generation of motive force for changes in cell length in Stentor resides in two distinct longitudinal cortical fiber systems, the km fibers and myonemes. Cyclic changes in cell length are associated with (a) the relative sliding of parallel, overlapping microtubule ribbons in the km fibers, and (b) a distinct alteration in the structure of the contractile filaments constituting the myonemes. The microtubule and filament systems are distinguished functionally as antagonistic contractile elements. The development of motive force for cell extension is accomplished by active microtubule-to-microtubule sliding generated by specific intertubule bridges. Evidence is presented which suggests that active shortening of contractile filaments, reflected in a reversible structural transformation of dense 4-nm filaments to tubular 10-12-nm filaments, provides the basis for rapid cell contraction.

  2. Enumeration of protozoan ciliates in activated sludge: determination of replicate number using probability.

    PubMed

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, N F

    2009-08-01

    A new approach to the enumeration of ciliate protozoa in activated sludge is described. A 25 microL sub-sample volume is optimal for routine analysis using a standard slide and 24 x 24 mm cover slip requiring between 20 and 40 min per sub-sample for full enumeration and identification of species. However, to achieve high probability (>or=95%) of recovering all species large numbers of replicates are required (i.e. 23-47). To achieve high probabilities of recovery using less replicates it is necessary to neglect rare species with low densities (<0.5%); based on the assumption that they do not play a significant role in plant performance. The precise number of replicates required for different probabilities of recovering species is determined by conducting an initial pilot survey analysing a minimum of 8 replicates and using a probability equation to determine the optimum replicate number for that particular plant. Six replicate 25 microL sub-samples provided excellent species recovery (90-95% excluding up to 3 rare species), while analysing just two or three replicates, as commonly used in previous wastewater studies, only gave probabilities of 25 and 50% respectively for the same recovery. Ciliate analysis should be completed within 8h of collection with significant changes in community structure occurring beyond this period.

  3. Ciliated adenocarcinomas of the lung: a tumor of non-terminal respiratory unit origin.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Young; Kim, Mi Hyun; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jung Hee; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Jee Yeon; Park, Do Youn; Lee, Chang Hun; Sol, Mee Young

    2012-09-01

    Whereas most carcinomas occur through a sequential step, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma pathway is known for pulmonary adenocarcinoma. This type is known as terminal respiratory unit adenocarcinoma. Based on our observation of transitions from normal ciliated columnar cells to adenocarcinoma via dysplastic mucous columnar cells, we reviewed our archive of pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma was defined as adenocarcinoma with type II pneumocyte, Clara cell, or bronchiolar cell morphology according to previous reports. Among 157 cases, 121 cases have been identified as terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma and 36 cases as non-terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma. Among non-terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma, 24 cases revealed mucous columnar cell changes that were continuous with bronchial ciliated columnar cells. The mucous columnar cells became dysplastic showing loss of cilia, disorientation, and enlarged nuclei. Adenocarcinoma arose from these dysplastic mucous columnar cells and, characteristically, this type of adenocarcinoma showed acute inflammation, and honeycombing changes in the background. TTF1 immunostaining was consistently negative. In a case study with 14 males and 10 females, including 12 smokers or ex-smokers, EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 3 and 6 patients, respectively. We think that this kind of adenocarcinoma arising through mucous columnar cell change belongs to non-terminal respiratory unit type adenocarcinoma, and mucous columnar cell change is a precursor lesion of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.

  4. Ciliates use both variant and universal genetic codes: evidence of omnipotent eRF1s in the class Litostomatea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oanh Thi Phuong; Sakurai, Aki; Saito, Kazuki; Ito, Koichi; Ikehara, Kenji; Harumoto, Terue

    2008-07-01

    Stop codon reassignments have occurred very frequently in ciliates. In some ciliate species, the universal stop codons UAA and UAG are translated into glutamine, while in some other species, the universal stop codon UGA appears to be translated into cysteine or tryptophan. The class Litostomatea has been hypothesized to be the only group of ciliates using the universal genetic code. However, the hypothesis was based on a statistical analysis of quite small sequence dataset which was insufficient to elucidate the codon usage of the class among such highly deviated phylum. In this study, together with the updated database sequence analysis for the class, we approached the problem of stop codon usage by examining the capacity of the translation termination factor eRF1 for recognizing stop codons. Using in vivo assay systems in budding yeast, we estimated the activity of eRF1 from two litostome species Didinium nasutum and Dileptus margaritifer. The results clearly showed that Didinium and Dileptus eRF1s efficiently recognize all three stop codons. This is the first experimental evidence that strongly supports the hypothesis that litostome ciliates use universal genetic code.

  5. Notes on soil ciliates from Singapore, with description of Suturothrix monoarmata nov. gen., nov. spec. (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    PubMed Central

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available on soil ciliates from Asia. Thus, seven samples were collected in Singapore in February 1987 and investigated between December 1987 and May 1989, using the non-flooded Petri dish method, live observation, and silver impregnation. One hundred and three ciliate taxa, all new for the fauna of Singapore and Malaysia, were found. This applies also to Hemimastix amphikineta, a highly characteristic, euglenid flagellate with Gondwanan distribution. At least three undescribed ciliate species were discovered, viz., Ottowphrya magna, which has been published by Foissner (1993), Dileptus microstoma Vd’ačný & Foissner (2008), and Suturothrix monoarmata, which is described in the present paper. The new genus Suturothrix belongs to the order Haptorida and is unique in having a heteromorphic dorsal brush consisting of three staggered rows, thus forming a suture with the last right side ciliary row. Suturothrix monoarmata is a slender, middle-sized (~ 100 × 15 μm) ciliate easily recognisable by the single or two thick extrusomes in the centre of the minute oral bulge. The species is not restricted to Asia but has been found also in soil from the Amazon floodplain, Brazil. PMID:21151764

  6. Meiosis gene inventory of four ciliates reveals the prevalence of a synaptonemal complex-independent crossover pathway.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jingyun; Mahé, Frédéric; Loidl, Josef; Logsdon, John; Dunthorn, Micah

    2014-03-01

    To establish which meiosis genes are present in ciliates, and to look for clues as to which recombination pathways may be treaded by them, four genomes were inventoried for 11 meiosis-specific and 40 meiosis-related genes. We found that the set of meiosis genes shared by Tetrahymena thermophila, Paramecium tetraurelia, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and Oxytricha trifallax is consistent with the prevalence of a Mus81-dependent class II crossover pathway that is considered secondary in most model eukaryotes. There is little evidence for a canonical class I crossover pathway that requires the formation of a synaptonemal complex (SC). This gene inventory suggests that meiotic processes in ciliates largely depend on mitotic repair proteins for executing meiotic recombination. We propose that class I crossovers and SCs were reduced sometime during the evolution of ciliates. Consistent with this reduction, we provide microscopic evidence for the presence only of degenerate SCs in Stylonychia mytilus. In addition, lower nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation rates of some of the meiosis genes suggest that, in contrast to most other nuclear genes analyzed so far, meiosis genes in ciliates are largely evolving at a slower rate than those genes in fungi and animals.

  7. Survival characteristics of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes and Helicobacter pylori during passage through the free-living ciliate, Tetrahymena sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ciliates prey on bacteria in water and waste water systems. Compartmentalization of ingested material (including bacteria) in the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena and its egestion in the fecal pellet has been described and the survival of Salmonella enterica and E. coli O157:H7 in such fecal pellets ha...

  8. Factors involved in the distribution pattern of ciliates in the water column of a transparent alpine lake

    PubMed Central

    SONNTAG, BETTINA; SUMMERER, MONIKA; SOMMARUGA, RUBEN

    2011-01-01

    The recurrent depth preference of three ciliate species (two prostomatids and one haptorid) in a transparent alpine lake indicates the existence of niche partitioning among them involving potential factors such as avoidance of high ultraviolet radiation levels and zooplankton predation, as well as competition for food resources. PMID:21984852

  9. Polymorphism, recombination and alternative unscrambling in the DNA polymerase alpha gene of the ciliate Stylonychia lemnae (Alveolata; class Spirotrichea).

    PubMed Central

    Ardell, David H; Lozupone, Catherine A; Landweber, Laura F

    2003-01-01

    DNA polymerase alpha is the most highly scrambled gene known in stichotrichous ciliates. In its hereditary micronuclear form, it is broken into >40 pieces on two loci at least 3 kb apart. Scrambled genes must be reassembled through developmental DNA rearrangements to yield functioning macronuclear genes, but the mechanism and accuracy of this process are unknown. We describe the first analysis of DNA polymorphism in the macronuclear version of any scrambled gene. Six functional haplotypes obtained from five Eurasian strains of Stylonychia lemnae were highly polymorphic compared to Drosophila genes. Another incompletely unscrambled haplotype was interrupted by frameshift and nonsense mutations but contained more silent mutations than expected by allelic inactivation. In our sample, nucleotide diversity and recombination signals were unexpectedly high within a region encompassing the boundary of the two micronuclear loci. From this and other evidence we infer that both members of a long repeat at the ends of the loci provide alternative substrates for unscrambling in this region. Incongruent genealogies and recombination patterns were also consistent with separation of the two loci by a large genetic distance. Our results suggest that ciliate developmental DNA rearrangements may be more probabilistic and error prone than previously appreciated and constitute a potential source of macronuclear variation. From this perspective we introduce the nonsense-suppression hypothesis for the evolution of ciliate altered genetic codes. We also introduce methods and software to calculate the likelihood of hemizygosity in ciliate haplotype samples and to correct for multiple comparisons in sliding-window analyses of Tajima's D. PMID:14704164

  10. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P < 0.05), while no similar result was observed at other sites. At 75 m deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  11. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Song, Weibo; Lu, Lu; Alan, Warren

    2005-09-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32 x 9.51 ( R 2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was found to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86 x+0.89 ( R 2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2 862.85 e -0.08 x ( R 2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=127.15 e -0.13 x ( R 2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  12. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  13. Evaluation of double formalin--Lugol's fixation in assessing number and biomass of ciliates: an example of estimations at mesoscale in NE Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Karayanni, Hera; Christaki, Urania; Van Wambeke, France; Dalby, Andrew P

    2004-03-01

    Ciliated protozoa are potential grazers of primary and bacterial production and act as intermediaries between picoplankton and copepods and other large suspension feeders. Accurate determination of ciliate abundance and feeding mode is crucial in oceanic carbon budget estimations. However, the impact of different fixatives on the abundance and cell volume of ciliates has been investigated in only a few studies using either laboratory cultures or natural populations. Lugol's solution and formalin are the most commonly used fixatives for the preservation of ciliates samples. In the present study, the aim was to compare 0.4% Lugol's solution and 2% borated-formalin fixation and evaluate the need of counting duplicate samples each using a different fixative. For this, a large number of samples (n = 110) from the NE Atlantic was analyzed in the frame of POMME program (Multidisciplinary Mesoscale Ocean Program). We established a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.0001) between Lugol's and formalin fixed samples for both abundance (r2 = 0.50) and biomass (r2 = 0.76) of aloricate ciliates which showed that counts were higher in Lugol's solution by a factor of 2 and a non-taxon specific cell-loss in formalin. However, loricate ciliate abundance in our samples which were represented primarily by Tintinnus spp. did not show any difference between the two treatments. Abundance and biomass of mixotrophic ciliates (chloroplast-bearing cells) were for various reasons underestimated in both treatments. Our results show that unique fixation by formalin may severely underestimate ciliates abundance and biomass although their population may not alter. For this reason, Lugol's solution is best for the estimation of their abundance and biomass. However, for counts of mixotrophs and the evaluation of the ecological role of ciliates in carbon flux, double fixation is essential. Compromises regarding the fixatives have lead to severe underestimations of mixotrophs in studies

  14. A simplified experimental model for clearance of some pathogenic bacteria using common bacterivorous ciliated spp. in Tigris river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Talib Hassan; Saleh, Dhuha Saad

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria-specific uptake rates of three different protozoan taxa on a pure and mixed bacterial community was studied by means of a simplified and functionally reproducible experimental model. The bacterial species Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were isolated and classified from stool samples of patients suffering from diarrhea. Paramecium caudatum, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Halteria grandinella, free living ciliate Protozoans, were isolated and identified from Tigris river water. Pure and mixed ( E. coli + S. typhi), ( E. coli + Sh. flexneri) bacterial cultures were used with each ciliate genera to evaluate the following: predator duplication rate, prey reduction rate, clearance rate and net grazing rate. We used selective lactose fermentation phenomena of enteric bacteria on MacConkey medium for the quantification of bacteria cultural characteristics. The final bacteria concentration was reduced by growing protozoa of 98-99.9 % compared to protozoa-free controls. It showed that Tetrahymena pyriformis had the highest duplication rate (4.13 time/day) in both types of cultures (pure and mixed), followed by Paramecium caudatum and Halteria grandinella, respectively. Paramecium caudatum had the highest rate of ingestion in both types of cultures (26 × 103 bacteria/organism/hr) and yielded the longest time required for 90 % bacterial reduction in a pure suspension of S. typhi (166 h). Clearance rates of pathogenic bacteria by ciliates ranged between 106 nanoliter/organism/h by P. caudatum to S. typhi and 1.92 nanoliter/organism/h seen in T. pyriformis in ( E. coli + S. typhi) mixed culture. We used aquatic experimental microcosms under controlled conditions to explore bacteria-dependent ciliate growth and examined whether these ciliates could discriminate between equally sized bacterial preys in a mixture.

  15. Effect of Cypermethrin on the Growth of Ciliate Protozoan Paramecium caudatum

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the effect of cypermethrin on the growth of ciliate protozoan Paramecium caudatum. Materials and Methods: Monoxenic culture of P. caudatum, were exposed to different doses (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 µg/L) of cypermethrin along with control for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h time interval. The total numbers of live and dead cells were counted after trypan blue staining in Neubauer hemocytometer. Results: Marked decrease in the number of living cells with the increase in the concentration of cypermethrin and with increasing exposure time intervals was recorded. Conclusion: The results indicate that cypermethrin is toxic to P. caudatum even at low concentrations when it enters in the aquatic system through runoff. PMID:26862268

  16. Current status of parasitic ciliates Chilodonella spp. (Phyllopharyngea: Chilodonellidae) in freshwater fish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Bastos Gomes, G; Jerry, D R; Miller, T L; Hutson, K S

    2016-07-30

    Freshwater fish farming contributes to more than two-thirds of global aquaculture production. Parasitic ciliates are one of the largest causes of production loss in freshwater farmed fishes, with species from the genus Chilodonella being particularly problematic. While Chilodonella spp. include 'free-living' fauna, some species are involved in mortality events of fish, particularly in high-density aquaculture. Indeed, chilodonellosis causes major productivity losses in over 16 species of farmed freshwater fishes in more than 14 countries. Traditionally, Chilodonella species are identified based on morphological features; however, the genus comprises yet uncharacterized cryptic species, which indicates the necessity for molecular diagnostic methods. This review synthesizes current knowledge on the biology, ecology and geographic distribution of harmful Chilodonella spp. and examines pathological signs, diagnostic methods and treatments. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics and the ability to culture Chilodonella spp. in vitro will enable the development of preventative management practices and sustained freshwater fish aquaculture production.

  17. Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar

    2017-03-01

    The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.

  18. Population dynamics of marine ciliate Euplotes vannus (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in different artificial seawaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Jiang, Yong; Gao, Shan; Min, Gi-Sik; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2011-01-01

    To study population dynamics of marine ciliates in different artificial seawaters (ASW), the population growth dynamics of a common marine ciliate Euplotes vannus were investigated using beef extract media and rice media for five types of ASW and natural seawater (NSW). The results show that: (1) the population growth rate was in the order of NSW>Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW and was considerably higher in rice media than in beef extract media (apart from Subow ASW); (2) the maximum density of E. vannus in stationary phase in each treatment was ranked as Flack ASW>Nakamula ASW>Schmadz ASW>NSW>Oshima ASW>Subow ASW, and was again higher in rice media than in beef extract media (except for Subow ASW); (3) the exponential and stationary phases were longer in rice media than in beef extract media; (4) strains of E. vannus that had been domesticated for >1 year in ASW grew significantly slower, with lower maximum density and longer stationary phase than those isolated and maintained in NSW. It was demonstrated that: (1) E. vannus may grow well in Flack, Nakamula and Schmads ASW compared with NSW (mainly in terms of growth rate); and (2) Oshima ASW is the preferred choice for stock cultures of E. vannus, but the ASWs Flack, Nakamula and Schmadz are preferred for mass culture. These findings suggest that these three ASWs are effective for the cultivation of marine protozoa for experimental studies on ecology, toxicology and molecular biology.

  19. Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

    PubMed

    Hook, S E; Dijkstra, J; Wright, A-D G; McBride, B W; France, J

    2012-01-01

    The flow of ciliate protozoa from the reticulo-rumen is significantly less than expected given the total density of rumen protozoa present. To maintain their numbers in the reticulo-rumen, protozoa can be selectively retained through association with feed particles and the rumen wall. Few mathematical models have been designed to model rumen protozoa in both the free-living and attached phases, and the data used in the models were acquired using classical techniques. It has therefore become necessary to provide an updated model that more accurately represents these microorganisms and incorporates the recent literature on distribution, sequestration, and generation times. This paper represents a novel approach to synthesizing experimental data on rumen microorganisms in a quantitative and structured manner. The development of a linear programming model of rumen protozoa in an approximate steady state will be described and applied to data from healthy ruminants consuming commonly fed diets. In the model, protozoa associated with the liquid phase and protozoa attached to particulate matter or sequestered against the rumen wall are distinguished. Growth, passage, death, and transfer of protozoa between both pools are represented. The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa, 63 to 90%, are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall. A slightly greater proportion of protozoa are found in the attached phase in animals fed a hay diet compared with a starch diet. This suggests that experimental protocols that only sample protozoa from the rumen fluid could be significantly underestimating the size of the protozoal population of the rumen. Further data are required on the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of healthy animals to improve model development, but the model described herein

  20. PLASTID DYNAMICS DURING SURVIVAL OF DINOPHYSIS CAUDATA WITHOUT ITS CILIATE PREY(1).

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Gil; Park, Jong Soo; Kim, Miran; Yih, Wonho

    2008-10-01

    To survive, the marine dinoflagellate Dinophysis caudata Saville-Kent must feed on the plastidic ciliate Myrionecta rubra (=Mesodinium rubrum), itself a consumer of cryptophytes. Whether D. caudata has its own permanent chloroplasts or retains plastids from its ciliate prey, however, remains unresolved. Further, how long D. caudata plastids (or kleptoplastids) persist and remain photosynthetically active in the absence of prey remains unknown. We addressed those issues here, using the first established culture of D. caudata. Phylogenetic analyses of the plastid 16S rRNA and psbA gene sequences directly from the three organisms (D. caudata, M. rubra, and a cryptophyte) revealed that the sequences of both genes from the three organisms are almost identical to each other, supporting that the plastids of D. caudata are kleptoplastids. A 3-month starvation experiment revealed that D. caudata can remain photosynthetically active for ∼2 months when not supplied with prey. D. caudata cells starved for more than 2 months continued to keep the plastid 16S rRNA gene but lost the photosynthesis-related genes (i.e., psaA and psbA genes). When the prey was available again, however, D. caudata cells starved for more than 2 months were able to reacquire plastids and slowly resumed photosynthetic activity. Taken all together, the results indicate that the nature of the relationship between D. caudata and its plastids is not that of permanent cellular acquisitions. D. caudata is an intriguing protist that would represent an interesting evolutionary adaptation with regard to photosynthesis as well as help us to better understand plastid evolution in eukaryotes.

  1. Nuclear Architecture and Patterns of Molecular Evolution Are Correlated in the Ciliate Chilodonella uncinata

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Alcalá, Xyrus X.; Katz, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life is not well understood, partly because molecular evolution is traditionally explored as changes in base pairs along a linear sequence without considering the context of nuclear position of chromosomes. The ciliate Chilodonella uncinata is an ideal system to address the relationship between nuclear architecture and patterns of molecular evolution as the somatic macronucleus of this ciliate is composed of a peripheral DNA-rich area (orthomere) and a DNA-poor central region (paramere) to form a “heteromeric” macronucleus. Moreover, because the somatic chromosomes of C. uncinata are highly processed into “gene-sized” chromosomes (i.e., nanochromosomes), we can assess fine-scale relationships between location and sequence evolution. By combining fluorescence microscopy and analyses of transcriptome data from C. uncinata, we find that highly expressed genes have the greatest codon usage bias and are enriched in DNA-poor regions. In contrast, genes with less biased sequences tend to be concentrated in DNA abundant areas, at least during vegetative growth. Our analyses are consistent with recent work in plants and animals where nuclear architecture plays a role in gene expression. At the same time, the unusual localization of nanochromosomes suggests that the highly structured nucleus in C. uncinata may create a “gene bank” that facilitates rapid changes in expression of genes required only in specific life history stages. By using “nonmodel” organisms like C. uncinata, we can explore the universality of eukaryotic features while also providing examples of novel properties (i.e., the presence of a gene bank) that build from these features. PMID:27189988

  2. Tetrahymena pyriformis in the ciliate mobility test. Validation and description of a testing procedure for the registration of harmful substances in the air as well as the effects of cigarette smoke on the human respiratory ciliated epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gräf, W; Gräf, H; Wenz, M

    1999-02-01

    The damage of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium or its ciliar activity caused by mixtures of harmful substances in the air and cigarette smoke is a considerable parameter for the judgment of acute harmful influences on the human respiratory tract. As an immediate measuring or a quantitative statement about the influence on cilia in vivo at human beings is extremely difficult and problematic, a convenient model experimental system in form of the so called ciliate mobility test (CMT) has been used. In this connection the influence on cilia of the protozan single-celled organism Tetrahymena pyriformis, regarding its average speed of locomotion has been taken as standard. The proof, that the cilia are identical in morphological and functional respect at the human ciliated epithelium and at T. pyriformis has been reached by electron optical comparative representation and bibliographical known substances, influencing cilia (theophylline, bromhexine, ambroxol, terpin hydrate, mercaptoethanesulfonat-sodium, amrinon, salbutamol, tetracosactid-hexaacetate, histamine, and phenol). With regard to the comparability and applicability to the human respiratory ciliated epithelium we have been able to gain statements by means of the CMT. By constructing a special reaction vessel the influence of harmful gases at a thin layer of ciliate culture suspension (1 cm) for a standardised exposure time (1 hour) has been made possible and with that a model for the comparability with the conditions of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium has been created. A number of harmful gases, that are relevant in the air hygiene (CO, CO2, N2, N2O, NO2, O3, SO2) as well as cigarette smoke at active smokers (primary stream smoke) and the inhalation of the smoke of other people's cigarettes has been tested. It turned out, that especially NO2 (nitric oxide) shows a high ciliar toxicity, while the controversially discussed ozone (O3) has not resulted in detraction of cilia. CO, N2O and SO2 have

  3. Ciliate community structure and interactions within the planktonic food web in two alpine lakes of contrasting transparency.

    PubMed

    Kammerlander, Barbara; Koinig, Karin A; Rott, Eugen; Sommaruga, Ruben; Tartarotti, Barbara; Trattner, Florian; Sonntag, Bettina

    2016-11-01

    Climate warming is accelerating the retreat of glaciers and recently, many 'new' glacial turbid lakes have been created. In the course of time, the loss of the hydrological connectivity to a glacier causes, however, changes in their water turbidity and turns these ecosystems into clear ones.To understand potential differences in the food-web structure between glacier-fed turbid and clear alpine lakes, we sampled ciliates, phyto-, bacterio- and zooplankton in one clear and one glacial turbid alpine lake, and measured key physicochemical parameters. In particular, we focused on the ciliate community and the potential drivers for their abundance distribution.In both lakes, the zooplankton community was similar and dominated by the copepod Cyclops abyssorum tatricus and rotifers including Polyarthra dolichoptera, Keratella hiemalis, Keratella cochlearis and Notholca squamula. The phytoplankton community structure differed and it was dominated by the planktonic diatom Fragilaria tenera and the cryptophyte alga Plagioselmis nannoplanctica in the glacial turbid lake, while chrysophytes and dinoflagellates were predominant in the clear one.Ciliate abundance and richness were higher in the glacial turbid lake (∼4000-27 800 Ind L(-1), up to 29 species) than in the clear lake (∼570-7150 Ind L(-1), up to eight species). The dominant species were Balanion planctonicum, Askenasia cf. chlorelligera, Urotricha cf. furcata and Mesodinium cf. acarus. The same species dominated in both lakes, except for Mesodinium cf. acarus and some particle-associated ciliates, which occurred exclusively in the glacial turbid lake. The relative underwater solar irradiance (i.e. percentage of PAR and UVR at depth) significantly explained their abundance distribution pattern, especially in the clear water lake. In the glacial turbid lake, the abundance of the dominating ciliate taxa was mainly explained by the presence of predatory zooplankton.Our results revealed an unexpected high

  4. Primers to block the amplification of symbiotic apostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene in a PCR-based copepod diet study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2014-05-01

    Pelagic copepods play an important role in the marine food web. However, a full understanding of the ecological status of this zooplankton group depends on the careful study of their natural diets. In previous PCR-based copepod diet studies, we found many apostome ciliates that live symbiotically under the exoskeleton of the copepods, and their sequences were often over-represented in the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) libraries. As a first step to address this issue, we designed three apostome ciliate 18S rDNA blocking primers, and tested their blocking efficiency against apostome ciliate 18s rDNA under various PCR conditions. Using a semi-quantitative PCR method, we optimized the conditions to efficiently amplify the 18S rDNA of the prey while simultaneously excluding the symbiotic apostome ciliates. This technique will facilitate PCR-based diet studies of copepods and other zooplankton in their natural environments.

  5. Structure and seasonal dynamics of the protozoan community (heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates, amoeboid protozoa) in the plankton of a large river (River Danube, Hungary).

    PubMed

    Kiss, Aron Keve; Acs, Eva; Kiss, Keve Tihamér; Török, Júlia Katalin

    2009-05-01

    Seasonal dynamics of all major protozoan groups were investigated in the plankton of the River Danube, upstream of Budapest (Hungary), by bi-weekly sampling over a 1-year long period. Sixty-one heterotrophic flagellate, 14 naked amoeba, 50 testate amoeba, 4 heliozoan and 83 ciliate morphospecies were identified. The estimated abundance ranges of major groups throughout the year were as follows: heterotrophic flagellates, 0.27-7.8 x 10(6)ind.l(-1); naked amoebae, max. 3300ind.l(-1); testaceans, max. 1600ind.l(-1); heliozoans, max. 8500ind.l(-1); ciliates, 132-34,000ind.l(-1). In terms of biovolume, heterotrophic flagellates dominated throughout the year (max. 0.58mm(3)l(-1)), and ciliates only exceeded their biovolume in summer (max. 0.76mm(3)l(-1)). Naked amoeba and heliozoan biovolume was about one, and testacean biovolume 1-3, orders of magnitude lower than that of ciliates. In winter, flagellates, mainly chrysomonads, had the highest biomass, whilst ciliates were dominated by peritrichs. In 2005 from April to July a long spring/summer peak occurred for all protozoan groups. Beside chrysomonads typical flagellates were choanoflagellates, bicosoecids and abundant microflagellates (large chrysomonads and Collodictyon). Most abundant ciliates were oligotrichs, while Phascolodon, Urotricha, Vorticella, haptorids, Suctoria, Climacostomum and Stokesia also contributed significantly to biovolume during rapid succession processes. In October and November a second high protozoan peak occurred, with flagellate dominance, and slightly different taxonomic composition.

  6. Colonisation and succession of marine biofilm-dwelling ciliate assemblages on biocidal antifouling and fouling-release coatings in temperate Australia.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew G; Scardino, Andrew J; Zalizniak, Liliana; Shimeta, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Ciliate assemblages are often overlooked, but ubiquitous components of microbial biofilms which require a better understanding. Ciliate, diatom and bacterial colonisation were evaluated on two fouling-release (FR) coatings, viz. Intersleek 970 and Hempasil X3, and two biocidal antifouling (AF) coatings, viz. Intersmooth 360 and Interspeed 5640, in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. A total of 15 genera were identified during the 10 week deployment. Intersleek 970 displayed the most rapid fouling by ciliates, reaching 63.3(± 5.9) cells cm(-2). After 10 weeks, all four coatings were extensively fouled. However, the toxicity of the AF coatings still significantly inhibited microbial fouling compared to the FR coatings. On all treatments, colonies of sessile peritrichs dominated the ciliate assemblage in the early stage of succession, but as the biofilm matured, vagile ciliates exerted more influence on the assemblage structure. The AF coatings showed selective toxic effects, causing significant differences in the ciliate species assemblages among the treatments.

  7. Ectopic Ciliated Cyst in the Mandible Secondary to Genioplasty and Lefort after Two Years: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Safoura; Sohanian, Shabnam; Khakbaz, Oveis; Abesi, Farida; Aliakbarpour, Fatemeh; Rayani, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The ectopic ciliated cyst is a rare non-odontogenic cyst which occurs as a delayed complication after maxillary sinus radical surgery; this lesion emerges due to the destruction of the sinus mucosa during the surgery and entrapment of the respiratory epithelium in the region. This lesion has been observed in very rare cases following genioplasty and bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Case Report: We reported a case of the ectopic ciliated cyst in in the mandible of a 37-year-old Iranian woman following genioplasty and Lefort 1 surgery after 2 years. Its treatment was enucleation. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up after cosmetic surgery of both jaws is recommended due to the probability of this cyst. PMID:27738612

  8. Enzymatic and chemical mapping of nucleosome distribution in purified micro- and macronuclei of the ciliated model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Gao, Shan; Liu, Yifan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yurui; Song, Weibo

    2016-09-01

    Genomic distribution of the nucleosome, the basic unit of chromatin, contains important epigenetic information. To map nucleosome distribution in structurally and functionally differentiated micronucleus (MIC) and macronucleus (MAC) of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified MIC and MAC and performed micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion as well as hydroxyl radical cleavage. Different factors that may affect MNase digestion were examined, to optimize mono-nucleosome production. Mono-nucleosome purity was further improved by ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient. As MNase concentration increased, nucleosomal DNA sizes in MIC and MAC converged on 147 bp, as expected for the nucleosome core particle. Both MNase digestion and hydroxyl radical cleavage consistently showed a nucleosome repeat length of ~200 bp in MAC of Tetrahymena, supporting ~50 bp of linker DNA. Our work has systematically tested methods currently available for mapping nucleosome distribution in Tetrahymena, and provided a solid foundation for future epigenetic studies in this ciliated model organism.

  9. Preferential Feeding by the Ciliates Chilodonella and Tetrahymena spp. and Effects of These Protozoa on Bacterial Biofilm Structure and Composition▿

    PubMed Central

    Dopheide, Andrew; Lear, Gavin; Stott, Rebecca; Lewis, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Protozoa are important components of microbial food webs, but protozoan feeding preferences and their effects in the context of bacterial biofilms are not well understood. The feeding interactions of two contrasting ciliates, the free-swimming filter feeder Tetrahymena sp. and the surface-associated predator Chilodonella sp., were investigated using biofilm-forming bacteria genetically modified to express fluorescent proteins. According to microscopy, both ciliates readily consumed cells from both Pseudomonas costantinii and Serratia plymuthica biofilms. When offered a choice between spatially separated biofilms, each ciliate showed a preference for P. costantinii biofilms. Experiments with bacterial cell extracts indicated that both ciliates used dissolved chemical cues to locate biofilms. Chilodonella sp. evidently used bacterial chemical cues as a basis for preferential feeding decisions, but it was unclear whether Tetrahymena sp. did also. Confocal microscopy of live biofilms revealed that Tetrahymena sp. had a major impact on biofilm morphology, forming holes and channels throughout S. plymuthica biofilms and reducing P. costantinii biofilms to isolated, grazing-resistant microcolonies. Grazing by Chilodonella sp. resulted in the development of less-defined trails through S. plymuthica biofilms and caused P. costantinii biofilms to become homogeneous scatterings of cells. It was not clear whether the observed feeding preferences for spatially separated P. costantinii biofilms over S. plymuthica biofilms resulted in selective targeting of P. costantinii cells in mixed biofilms. Grazing of mixed biofilms resulted in the depletion of both types of bacteria, with Tetrahymena sp. having a larger impact than Chilodonella sp., and effects similar to those seen in grazed single-species biofilms. PMID:21602372

  10. Can the halophilic ciliate Fabrea salina be used as a bio-control of microalgae blooms in solar salterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Joong Ki

    2015-09-01

    The microlage Dunaliella salina, a major producer in salterns, is a serious problem for salt production. In this study we tried to assess if Fabrea salina can control D. salina. By parameterising numerical and functional response (growth and grazing vs prey abundance, respectively) at 90 psu and 30°C, where the ciliate is abundant and grows well, we developed a predator-prey model. The model is used to explore how change in microalga growth rate affect the dynamics, and the functional response is used in combination with field data to assess the potential impact of F. salina on D. salina. Over the 20 d simulation the ciliate controlled the prey population under all prey growth rates; although once D. salina were exhausted below the threshold level, F. salina died due to starvation, allowing the alga to increase in abundance, resulting in one or two predatorprey cycle, depending on prey growth rate. In general, the model predicted trends observed by others in the field, suggesting that it provided a good prediction of what may occur under the conditions we examined. Likewise we show that the ciliate can have a high impact on microalgal populations in the field. Finally, a literature review indicated that F. salina could be a good competitor with other protozoa and metazoan in salterns, depending on salinity and temperature, which requires further study and attention. In summary, we encourage continued studies on this unique ciliate on solar salterns and suggest that it may be useful in the bio-control of micoalgae.

  11. Determination of trace elements in freshwater rotifers and ciliates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woelfl, S.; Óvári, M.; Nimptsch, J.; Neu, T. R.; Mages, M.

    2016-02-01

    Element determination in plankton is important for the assessment of metal contamination of aquatic environments. Until recently, it has been difficult to determine elemental content in rotifers or ciliates derived from natural plankton samples because of the difficulty in handling and separation of these fragile organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for separation of rotifers and large ciliates from natural plankton samples (μg range dry weight) and subsequent analysis of their elemental content using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). Plankton samples were collected from different aquatic environments (three lakes, one river) in Chile, Argentina and Hungary. From one to eighty specimens of five rotifer species (Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus falcatus, Asplanchna sieboldii, Asplanchna sp., Philodina sp.) and four to twelve specimens of one large ciliate (Stentor amethystinus) were prepared according to the dry method originally developed for microcrustaceans, and analysed by TRXF following in situ microdigestion. Our results demonstrated that it possible to process these small and fragile organisms (individual dry mass: 0.17-9.39 μg ind- 1) via careful washing and preparation procedures. We found species-dependent differences of the element mass fractions for some of the elements studied (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb), especially for Cu, Fe and Mn. One large rotifer species (A. sieboldii) also showed a negative correlation between individual dry weight and the element content for Pb, Ni and Cr. We conclude that our application of the in situ microdigestion-TRXF method is suitable even for rotifers and ciliates, greatly expanding the possibilities for use of plankton in biomonitoring of metal contamination in aquatic environments.

  12. Chibby functions to preserve normal ciliary morphology through the regulation of intraflagellar transport in airway ciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Siller, Saul S; Burke, Michael C; Li, Feng-Qian; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Airway cilia provide the coordinated motive force for mucociliary transport, which prevents the accumulation of mucus, debris, pollutants, and bacteria in our respiratory tracts. As airway cilia are constantly exposed to the environment and, hence, are an integral component of the pathogenesis of several congenital and chronic pulmonary disorders, it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms that control ciliated cell differentiation and ciliogenesis. We have previously reported that loss of the basal body protein Chibby (Cby) results in chronic upper airway infection in mice due to a significant reduction in the number of airway cilia. In the present work, we demonstrate that Cby is required for normal ciliary structure and proper distribution of proteins involved in the bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT) system, which consists of 2 distinct sub-complexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, and is essential for ciliary biogenesis and maintenance. In fully differentiated ciliated cells, abnormal paddle-like cilia with dilated ciliary tips are observed in Cby-/- airways and primary cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTECs). In addition, IFT88, an IFT-B sub-complex protein, robustly accumulates within the dilated tips of both multicilia in Cby-/- MTECs and primary cilia in Cby-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Furthermore, we show that only IFT-B components, including IFT20 and IFT57, but not IFT-A and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins, amass with IFT88 in these distended tips in Cby-/- ciliated cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that Cby plays a role in the proper distribution of IFT particles to preserve normal ciliary morphology in airway ciliated cells.

  13. Detection and localization of a putative cyclic-GMP-activated channel protein in the protozoan ciliate Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Walerczyk, M; Fabczak, H; Fabczak, S

    2006-05-01

    Immunoblotting and immunocytochemical assays were employed to identify and localize a channel protein activated by cyclic GMP (cGMP) in the protozoan ciliate Stentor coeruleus. Analysis of whole-cell homogenate with antibodies raised against the alpha-subunit of the cGMP-activated channel protein from bovine rod outer segments and against cGMP revealed four major protein bands with molecular masses of 40 kDa, 63 kDa, and over 120 kDa, which bound cGMP. However, only a cGMP-binding protein of 63 kDa, corresponding to the alpha-subunit of the cGMP-activated ion channel protein from bovine rod outer segments, was found in the ciliate cortex fraction. The functional cGMP-activated channel protein was also shown to be present in the cortex fraction of S. coeruleus by patch-clamp measurements of artificial liposomes. Incorporation of the cortex fraction into liposomes resulted in the appearance of ion channel activity related to cGMP. The reconstituted protein channels were strongly inhibited by l-cis-diltiazem, a known potent blocker of many types of cyclic-nucleotide-activated channels. The results presented here are the first demonstration of the existence and localization of a putative cGMP-activated channel protein in the ciliate S. coeruleus. Cyclic-nucleotide-activated channel proteins are nonspecific cation channels which mediate the receptor potentials in photoreceptor cells and in cells of the olfactory epithelium. On the basis of these data, we suggest that the 63 kDa protein identified in Stentor coeruleus is also a cGMP-activated ion channel and that it may be involved as an effector in the photosensory transduction pathway leading to the motile photophobic response in this ciliate protist.

  14. Morphology, ultrastructure, and molecular phylogeny of the ciliate Sonderia vorax with insights into the systematics of order Plagiopylida

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ciliates of the family Sonderiidae are common members of the eukaryotic communities in various anoxic environments. They host both ecto- and endosymbiotic prokaryotes (the latter associated with hydrogenosomes) and possess peculiar morpho-ultrastructural features, whose functions and homologies are not known. Their phylogenetic relationships with other ciliates are not completely resolved and the available literature, especially concerning electron microscopy and molecular studies, is quite scarce. Results Sonderia vorax Kahl, 1928 is redescribed from an oxygen-deficient, brackish-water pond along the Ligurian Sea coastlines of Italy. Data on morphology, morphometry, and ultrastructure are reported. S. vorax is ovoid-ellipsoid in shape, dorsoventrally flattened, 130 x 69 μm (mean in vivo); it shows an almost spherical macronucleus, and one relatively large micronucleus. The ventral kinetom has a “secant system” including fronto-ventral and fronto-lateral kineties. A distinctive layer of bacteria laying between kineties covers the ciliate surface. Two types of extrusomes and hydrogenosomes-endosymbiotic bacteria assemblages are present in the cytoplasm. The phylogeny based on 18S rRNA gene sequences places S. vorax among Plagiopylida; Sonderiidae clusters with Plagiopylidae, although lower-level relationships remain uncertain. The studied population is fixed as neotype and the ciliate is established as type species of the genus, currently lacking. Conclusions This is the first description of a representative of Sonderiidae performed with both morphological and molecular data. To sum up, many previous hypotheses on this interesting, poorly known taxon are confirmed but confusion and contradictory data are as well highlighted. PMID:23418998

  15. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2012-08-01

    Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

  16. Genome structure drives patterns of gene family evolution in ciliates, a case study using Chilodonella uncinata (Protista, Ciliophora, Phyllopharyngea).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Song, Weibo; Katz, Laura A

    2014-08-01

    In most lineages, diversity among gene family members results from gene duplication followed by sequence divergence. Because of the genome rearrangements during the development of somatic nuclei, gene family evolution in ciliates involves more complex processes. Previous work on the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata revealed that macronuclear β-tubulin gene family members are generated by alternative processing, in which germline regions are alternatively used in multiple macronuclear chromosomes. To further study genome evolution in this ciliate, we analyzed its transcriptome and found that (1) alternative processing is extensive among gene families; and (2) such gene families are likely to be C. uncinata specific. We characterized additional macronuclear and micronuclear copies of one candidate alternatively processed gene family-a protein kinase domain containing protein (PKc)-from two C. uncinata strains. Analysis of the PKc sequences reveals that (1) multiple PKc gene family members in the macronucleus share some identical regions flanked by divergent regions; and (2) the shared identical regions are processed from a single micronuclear chromosome. We discuss analogous processes in lineages across the eukaryotic tree of life to provide further insights on the impact of genome structure on gene family evolution in eukaryotes.

  17. Revealing the Diversity and Quantity of Peritrich Ciliates in Environmental Samples Using Specific Primer-based PCR and Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xihan; Gong, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Peritrichs are a diverse, ecologically important ciliate group usually with a complex life cycle. To date, the community of the peritrichs has been investigated by using morphology-based methods such as living observation and silver staining. Here we show a molecular approach for characterizing the diversity and quantity of free-living peritrichs in environmental samples. We newly designed four peritrich-specific primers targeting 18S rRNA genes that allow clone library construction, screening and analysis. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to quantify peritrichs in environmental samples by using rDNA copy number as an indicator. DNA extracted from four water samples of contrasting environmental gradients was analysed. The results showed that the peritrich community was differentiated among these samples, and that the diversity decreased with the increase of water salinity. The qPCR results are consistent with the library sequence analysis in terms of quantity variations from sample to sample. The development of peritrich-specific primers, for the first time, for conventional PCR and qPCR assays, provides useful molecular tools for revealing the diversity and quantity of peritrich ciliates in environmental samples. Also, our study illustrates the potential of these molecular tools to ecological studies of other ciliate groups in diverse environments. PMID:23100023

  18. Connecting alveolate cell biology with trophic ecology in the marine plankton using the ciliate Favella as a model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, Michael L; Wolfe, Gordon V; Strom, Suzanne L; Taylor, Alison R

    2014-10-01

    Planktonic alveolates (ciliates and dinoflagellates), key trophic links in marine planktonic communities, exhibit complex behaviors that are underappreciated by microbiologists and ecologists. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are still poorly understood except in a few freshwater model ciliates, which are significantly different in cell structure and behavior than marine planktonic species. Here, we argue for an interdisciplinary research approach to connect physiological mechanisms with population-level outcomes of behaviors. Presenting the tintinnid ciliate Favella as a model alveolate, we review its population ecology, behavior, and cellular/molecular biology in the context of sensory biology and synthesize past research and current findings to construct a conceptual model describing the sensory biology of Favella. We discuss how emerging genomic information and new technical methods for integrating research across different levels of biological organization are paving the way for rapid advance. These research approaches will yield a deeper understanding of the role that planktonic alveolates may play in biogeochemical cycles, and how they may respond to future ocean conditions.

  19. Rumen ciliates of domestic cattle (Bos taurus taurus) in Kastamonu, Turkey, with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Gürelli, Gözde

    2016-10-01

    Species composition and distribution of ciliates were investigated in the rumen contents of 25 domestic cattle (Bos taurus taurus L.) living in Kastamonu, Turkey. Forty-seven species and 37 morphotypes representing 15 genera were identified. Of them, a new species of Ostracodinium was recognized and described as Ostracodinium anatolicum n. sp. This new species has two caudal lobes. The dorsal lobe is small and rounded and the ventral lobe is triangular shaped and bent toward the dorsal side like a thick hook. Furthermore, the anterior end of the macronucleus (1/5 of the length) is bent toward the left like a hook. The density of rumen ciliates in cattle was 96.8±43.3×10(4)cellsmL(-1) and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 14.2±4.4. Entodinium longinucleatum, E. nanellum, E. simulans and Isotricha prostoma were the most abundant species, each with a prevalence of 88%. Entodinium chatterjeei, E. bifidum m. monospinosum, Hsiungia triciliata, Oligoisotricha bubali, Ostracodinium dogieli, O. mammosum and O. munham are new host records for cattle from Turkey.

  20. Common and Rare Taxa of Planktonic Ciliates: Influence of Flood Events and Biogeographic Patterns in Neotropical Floodplains.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Bianca Trevizan; Dias, Juliana Déo; Cabral, Adalgisa Fernanda; Meira, Bianca Ramos; Lansac-Tôha, Fernando Miranda; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio Amodêo; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Velho, Luiz Felipe Machado

    2017-04-06

    After much discussion about the cosmopolitan nature of microbes, the great issue nowadays is to identify at which spatial extent microorganisms may display biogeographic patterns and if temporal variation is important in altering those patterns. Here, planktonic ciliates were sampled from shallow lakes of four Neotropical floodplains, distributed over a spatial extent of ca. 3000 km, during high and low water periods, along with several abiotic and biotic variables potentially affecting the ciliate community. We found that common ciliate species were more associated with environmental gradients and rare species were more related to spatial variables; however, this pattern seemed to change depending on the temporal and spatial scales considered. Environmental gradients were more important in the high waters for both common and rare species. In low waters, common species continued to be mainly driven by environmental conditions, but rare species were more associated with the spatial component, suggesting dispersal limitation likely due to differences in dispersal ability and ecological tolerance of species. We also found that common and rare species were related to different environmental variables, suggesting different ecological niches. At the largest spatial extents, rare species showed clear biogeographic patterns.

  1. Photosensory transduction in ciliates. Role of intracellular pH and comparison between Stentor coeruleus and Blepharisma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Fabczak, H; Fabczak, S; Song, P S; Checcucci, G; Ghetti, F; Lenci, F

    1993-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that light signal transduction in the unicellular ciliates Stentor coeruleus and Blepharisma japonicum involves a change in intracellular pH as an initial signal following photoexcitation, we studied the dependence of the photophobic responses of the cells to changes in extracellular pH and to reagents that specifically affect intracellular pH. The extracellular pH can modify not only the intracellular pH, but can even reverse the sign of the pH gradient across the cell membrane. Thus, as predicted by the hypothesis, low extracellular pH reversibly inhibited the photophobic response of the ciliates. The intracellular pH-modulating reagents tested included ammonium chloride, a membrane-permeable weak acid that lowers the intracellular pH, and the protonophores carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP) and carbonylcyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenyl-hydrazone (FCCP), which collapse the pH gradient across the cell membrane. The low pH and protonophore treatments caused a gradual inhibition of the photophobic responses in both ciliates. The observed reduction of the responsiveness of the cells to visible light can be attributed to the alteration of the intracellular pH, which is suggested to play a specific role in the photosensory transduction in both Stentor coeruleus and Blepharisma japonicum.

  2. Insights into bioassessment of marine pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates based on a modified trait hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Guangjian

    2016-06-15

    Based on a modified trait hierarchy of body-size units, the feasibility for bioassessment of water pollution using body-size distinctness of planktonic ciliates was studied in a semi-enclosed bay, northern China. An annual dataset was collected at five sampling stations within a gradient of heavy metal contaminants. Results showed that: (1) in terms of probability density, the body-size spectra of the ciliates represented significant differences among the five stations; (2) bootstrap average analysis demonstrated a spatial variation in body-size rank patterns in response to pollution stress due to heavy metals; and (3) the average body-size distinctness (Δz(+)) and variation in body-size distinctness (Λz(+)), based on the modified trait hierarchy, revealed a clear departure pattern from the expected body-size spectra in areas with pollutants. These results suggest that the body-size diversity measures based on the modified trait hierarchy of the ciliates may be used as a potential indicator of marine pollution.

  3. The differentiated airway epithelium infected by influenza viruses maintains the barrier function despite a dramatic loss of ciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nai-Huei; Yang, Wei; Beineke, Andreas; Dijkman, Ronald; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Thiel, Volker; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Meng, Fandan; Herrler, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Virus-host interactions in the respiratory epithelium during long term influenza virus infection are not well characterized. Therefore, we developed an air-liquid interface culture system for differentiated porcine respiratory epithelial cells to study the effect of virus-induced cellular damage. In our well-differentiated cells, α2,6-linked sialic acid is predominantly expressed on the apical surface and the basal cells mainly express α2,3-linked sialic acid. During the whole infection period, release of infectious virus was maintained at a high titre for more than seven days. The infected epithelial cells were subject to apoptosis resulting in the loss of ciliated cells together with a thinner thickness. Nevertheless, the airway epithelium maintained trans-epithelial electrical resistance and retained its barrier function. The loss of ciliated cells was compensated by the cells which contained the KRT5 basal cell marker but were not yet differentiated into ciliated cells. These specialized cells showed an increase of α2,3-linked sialic acid on the apical surface. In sum, our results help to explain the localized infection of the airway epithelium by influenza viruses. The impairment of mucociliary clearance in the epithelial cells provides an explanation why prior viral infection renders the host more susceptible to secondary co-infection by another pathogen. PMID:28004801

  4. Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol's iodine solution to a marine ciliate, Pleuronema coronatum (ciliophora, scuticociliatida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yantao, Qiu; Weibo, Song

    2002-10-01

    Acute toxicities of potassium permanganate, formalin, and Lugol’s iodine solution to a commonly occurred marine ciliate Pleuronema coronatum (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) were measured. Linear regression analysis of the results highlighted the close relationships between doses of the medicines and mortalities of the organisms, thus providing a capability to predict toxicity effects from the dose. Toxic effects of the medicines on the ciliates were described in the present paper, and the median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) were given. Results of measurements indicated that 2 h-LC50 and 12 h-LC50 values of formalin on P. coronatum were 59.00×10-6 and 43.57×10-6, while those of Lugol’s solutions were 90.13 and 67.84×10-6 respectively. The tolerance of P. coronatum to formalin is apparently lower than that to Lugol’s iodine solution and potassium permanganate is a suitable medicine to kill ciliates in short time.

  5. Voltage dependence of two inward currents carried by calcium and barium in the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus.

    PubMed Central

    Deitmer, J W

    1986-01-01

    Two voltage-dependent inward currents in the fresh-water hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia mytilus have been investigated, using two intracellular micro-electrodes, when either Ca ions or Ba ions are the charge carriers. In cells bathed in Ca-free Ba solution the two inward currents, named current I and current II, could be identified and studied in the absence of outward currents. The two inward currents could also be separated by addition of the plant lectin concanavalin A (0.5 microgram/ml) to the external medium, which resulted in the selective inhibition of current I. When the holding potential was set at values between -45 and -65 mV (normal resting potential is -50 mV), current I was shifted parallel to the holding potential along the voltage axis. This shift was 7.6 mV per 10 mV change in holding potential. The amplitude and voltage relationship of current II was not affected by these changes in the holding potential. The amplitude of current I in Ba solution was maximal when the membrane potential was held at -55 mV; it decreased with higher and lower holding potentials. The rate of activation of current I remained virtually unaffected at holding potentials between -45 and -60 mV, and was somewhat reduced at a holding potential of -65 mV. When the extracellular Ca concentration was varied between 0.1 and 5.0 mM, or when the cells were loaded with EGTA to reduce the intracellular level of ionized Ca, the resting membrane potential and the voltage relationships of both current I and II and of the outward current were shifted along the voltage axis according to the expected changes in membrane surface potential. Double-pulse experiments with varying interval potentials suggested voltage-dependent inactivation of current I and Ca-dependent inactivation of current II. Pre-hyperpolarizing steps of only 1 mV amplitude and 30 ms duration could result in the activation of current I, indicating that the activation voltage of current I closely followed the actual

  6. Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Jonathan A; Coyne, Robert S; Wu, Martin; Wu, Dongying; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Wortman, Jennifer R; Badger, Jonathan H; Ren, Qinghu; Amedeo, Paolo; Jones, Kristie M; Tallon, Luke J; Delcher, Arthur L; Salzberg, Steven L; Silva, Joana C; Haas, Brian J; Majoros, William H; Farzad, Maryam; Carlton, Jane M; Smith, Roger K; Garg, Jyoti; Pearlman, Ronald E; Karrer, Kathleen M; Sun, Lei; Manning, Gerard; Elde, Nels C; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Asai, David J; Wilkes, David E; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Collins, Kathleen; Stewart, B Andrew; Lee, Suzanne R; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Weinberg, Zasha; Ruzzo, Walter L; Wloga, Dorota; Gaertig, Jacek; Frankel, Joseph; Tsao, Che-Chia; Gorovsky, Martin A; Keeling, Patrick J; Waller, Ross F; Patron, Nicola J; Cherry, J Michael; Stover, Nicholas A; Krieger, Cynthia J; del Toro, Christina; Ryder, Hilary F; Williamson, Sondra C; Barbeau, Rebecca A; Hamilton, Eileen P; Orias, Eduardo

    2006-09-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC) has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC), which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases), using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters), and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins). In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates), no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from other model

  7. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell D; Vaughan, Joshua M; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12-13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6-11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  8. Impact of acute exposure to WTC dust on ciliated and goblet cells in lungs of rats

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Mitchell D.; Vaughan, Joshua M.; Garrett, Brittany; Prophete, Colette; Horton, Lori; Sisco, Maureen; Ghio, Andrew; Zelikoff, Judith; Lung-chi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies and the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry have revealed increases in the incidence of chronic (non-cancer) lung disorders among first responders (FR) who were at Ground Zero during the initial 72 h after the collapse. Our previous analyses of rats exposed to building-derived WTC dusts using exposure scenarios/levels that mimicked FR mouth-breathing showed that a single WTC dust exposure led to changes in expression of genes whose products could be involved in the lung ailments, but few other significant pathologies. We concluded that rather than acting as direct inducers of many of the FR health effects, it was more likely inhaled WTC dusts instead may have impacted on toxicities induced by other rescue-related co-pollutants present in Ground Zero air. To allow for such effects to occur, we hypothesized that the alkaline WTC dusts induced damage to the normal ability of the lungs to clear inhaled particles. To validate this, rats were exposed on two consecutive days (2 h/d, by intratracheal inhalation) to WTC dust (collected 12–13 September 2001) and examined over a 1-yr period thereafter for changes in the presence of ciliated cells in the airways and hyperplastic goblet cells in the lungs. WTC dust levels in the lungs were assessed in parallel to verify that any changes in levels of these cells corresponded with decreases in host ability to clear the particles themselves. Image analyses of the rat lungs revealed a significant decrease in ciliated cells and increase in hyperplastic goblet cells due to the single series of WTC dust exposures. The study also showed there was only a nominal non-significant decrease (6–11%) in WTC dust burden over a 1-yr period after the final exposure. These results provide support for our current hypothesis that exposure to WTC dusts caused changes in airway morphology/cell composition; such changes could, in turn, have led to potential alterations in the clearance/toxicities of other pollutants inhaled

  9. Macronuclear Genome Sequence of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a Model Eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Jonathan A; Coyne, Robert S; Wu, Martin; Wu, Dongying; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Wortman, Jennifer R; Badger, Jonathan H; Ren, Qinghu; Amedeo, Paolo; Jones, Kristie M; Tallon, Luke J; Delcher, Arthur L; Salzberg, Steven L; Silva, Joana C; Haas, Brian J; Majoros, William H; Farzad, Maryam; Carlton, Jane M; Smith, Roger K; Garg, Jyoti; Pearlman, Ronald E; Karrer, Kathleen M; Sun, Lei; Manning, Gerard; Elde, Nels C; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Asai, David J; Wilkes, David E; Wang, Yufeng; Cai, Hong; Collins, Kathleen; Stewart, B. Andrew; Lee, Suzanne R; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Weinberg, Zasha; Ruzzo, Walter L; Wloga, Dorota; Gaertig, Jacek; Frankel, Joseph; Tsao, Che-Chia; Gorovsky, Martin A; Keeling, Patrick J; Waller, Ross F; Patron, Nicola J; Cherry, J. Michael; Stover, Nicholas A; Krieger, Cynthia J; del Toro, Christina; Ryder, Hilary F; Williamson, Sondra C; Barbeau, Rebecca A; Hamilton, Eileen P; Orias, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC) has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC), which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases), using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters), and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins). In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates), no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from other model

  10. Distribution of a centrosomal antigen during morphogenesis in the ciliated protozoan Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Fleury, A; Lemullois, M; Coffe, G

    1998-07-01

    Ciliates assemble basal bodies in great number at many stages of the life-cycle. In order to understand their assembly mechanisms, we screened a library of monoclonal antibodies directed against pericentriolar material. One of these antibodies, CTR210, was used previously to follow steps of this assembly process: in Paraurostyla, new basal bodies appear along a scaffold of linear structures recognized by this antibody. The very unusual behavior of this antigen deserved confirmation in other species. In the present study, we show by immunofluorescence that, in another phylogenetically very distant species, Euplotes, basal bodies are assembled in the same pathway during division. In addition, this antibody recognizes a filamentous ring located at the division furrow and linking many basal body assemblages. By cell fractionation and cytoskeletal extraction, we obtained fractions enriched in basal bodies and associated material. Such fractions still display a high complexity in protein composition. These fractions were used to characterize the main target of the antibody as a doublet of 45 kDa. These results confirm previous results in terms of functionality of the protein recognized by the antibody, but raise new questions in terms of the assignment of the recognized protein to the HSP70 family as hypothesized previously.

  11. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of the photoreceptor stentorins from the ciliate stentor coeruleus

    SciTech Connect

    Savikhin, S.; Struve, W.S. ); Tao, N.; Song, P.S. )

    1993-11-25

    Polarized absorption difference profiles have been obtained with 3-6-ps resolution between 565 and 630 nm for the chromoproteins stentorin I and stentorin II, isolated from the protozoan ciliate Stentor coeruleus. Control experiments were performed on hypericin and on the stentorin chromophore in methanol. The isotropic decays of stentorin I and the stentorin chromophore are dominated by components with lifetimes conservatively longer than 1 ns. Stentorin I, the stentorin chromophore, and hypericin all develop, within <5 ps, an intense excited-state absorption band that is blue-shifted from and polarized essentially perpendicular to the main long-wavelength absorption band. The presence of this excited-state absorption band is signaled by the appearance of strongly wavelength-dependent initial anisotropies r(0), which assume large positive as well as negative values (>0.4 and <[minus]0.2). To our knowledge, such anisotropies have not been reported in polarized pump-probe studies of rotational diffusion in solution or of energy-transfer kinetics in photosynthetic antennae. Hypericin itself exhibits 0.4-6-ps excited-state absorption decay kinetics, which are likely associated with intramolecular excited-state proton transfer. 19 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Role of the Cytosolic Heat Shock Protein 70 Ssa5 in the Ciliate Protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Akematsu, Takahiko; Attiq, Rizwan; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka; Pearlman, Ronald E

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is a member of a family of conserved chaperone proteins whose function is well investigated in many model organisms. Here we focus on an Hsp70 called Ssa5 in the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, and reveal that its translation is heat inducible as for general Hsps. Moreover, the protein is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm during sexual reproduction (conjugation) as well as in response to heat-stress. Knocking out of SSA5 (ΔSSA5) does not affect the survival of the cell under heat-stress, likely due to other Hsp70 paralogs compensating for the defect. During conjugation, ΔSSA5 leads to a fertilization defect in which the two pronuclei are in close proximity but never fuse. The unfertilized pronuclei differentiate, resulting in a heterokaryon with developed haploid germline and somatic nuclei. In addition, degeneration of the parental somatic nucleus is not affected. These results suggest a specific involvement of Ssa5 in pronuclear fusion and fertilization.

  13. Impact of local temperature increase on the early development of biofilm-associated ciliate communities.

    PubMed

    Norf, Helge; Arndt, Hartmut; Weitere, Markus

    2007-03-01

    Indications of global climate change and associated unusual temperature fluctuations have become increasingly obvious over the past few decades. Consequently, the relevance of temperature increases for ecological communities and for whole ecosystems is one of the major challenges of current ecological research. One approach to investigating the effects of increasing temperatures on communities is the use of fast-growing microbial communities. Here we introduce a river bypass system in which we tested the effect of temperature increases (0, 2, 4, 6 degrees C above the long-term average) on both the colonization speed and the carrying capacity of biofilm-associated ciliate communities under different seasonal scenarios. We further investigated interactions of temperature and resource availability by cross-manipulations in order to test the hypothesis that temperature-mediated effects will be strongest in environments that are not resource-limited. Strong seasonal differences in both tested parameters occurred under natural conditions (no resource addition), and the effects of temperature increase at a given time were relatively low. However, increasing temperature can significantly accelerate the colonization speed and reduce the carrying capacity in particular seasons. These effects were strongest in winter. Simultaneous manipulation of temperature and of resource availability amplified the response to temperature increase, adumbrating strong interactive control of populations by temperature and resource availability. Our results show that the response of communities to local temperature increases strongly depends on the seasonal setting, the resource availability and the stage of succession (early colonization speed vs. carrying capacity).

  14. Ultrastructural features of the tomont of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Fan, Xinpeng; Yin, Fei; Ni, Bing; Gu, Fukang

    2017-01-30

    Numerous studies have been conducted on the cellular morphology of Cryptocaryon irritans. However, details regarding the tomont stage of its life cycle remain lacking. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the tomont stage throughout encystment and cell division using light and electron microscopy. Results showed that there was no secretion of encystation-specific secretory vesicles or extrusomes during formation of the cyst wall. Instead, the synthesis and construction of the C. irritans cyst wall materials may involve molecular events at the pellicle. The somatic cilia and the cytostome were present during encystment and covered by the newly formed cyst wall. New somatic cilia were continuously created between old cilia and showed various lengths during cell division, a process that was similar to morphogenesis in many free-living ciliates. During cell division inside the tomont, dividing daughter cells formed temporary cell chains with no oral primordia before separating from each other into dissociative tomite precursors. The process of cell division may not be accompanied by stomatogenesis, and new oral primordia in offspring cells likely formed before the dividing cell chains split into dissociative spherical tomites. Mitochondrial autophagy was observed in encysting C. irritans cells. Numerous endosymbionts and Golgi structures were observed in the tomont cytoplasm. Cellular metabolic activity in the C. irritans tomont was quite high, with large amounts of materials or cellular organelles potentially being synthesized and prepared for the following infective theront stage.

  15. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B.; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (106 cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity. PMID:26627232

  16. Studies on the in vitro cultivation of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach.

    PubMed

    Dehority, Burk A; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-08-01

    The methods used for culturing rumen protozoa were found to be unsatisfactory for growth of ciliate protozoa from the kangaroo forestomach. Based on published measurements of physical parameters in the marsupial forestomach, several modifications were incorporated into the procedure, i.e., an increase in % hydrogen in the gas phase, adjustment of initial pH of the medium to 6.9-7.0 range, feed only forage as a substrate and incubate at a lower temperature (33-36 °C). Only incubation at the lower temperature increased survival time of the kangaroo protozoa. Two species of Bitricha were still viable after 28 d in culture. Cultures had to be terminated at that time. One of the species differed considerably in size and shape from previously described species and based on 18S rRNA data, may represent a new species of Bitricha. The second species, present in low numbers was identified as Bitricha oblata. In a separate trial, Macropodinium yalanbense survived for 11 d, at which time these cultures also had to be terminated.

  17. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Silva, Malan; Haas, Leonard; Morsci, Natalia; Nguyen, Ken C.Q.; Hall, David H.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to their small size (100nm). We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Intraflagellar transport (IFT) and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating related behaviors. PMID:24530063

  18. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Silva, Malan; Haas, Leonard A; Morsci, Natalia S; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Hall, David H; Barr, Maureen M

    2014-03-03

    Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to the small size (100 nm) of the ECVs. We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies. Intraflagellar transport and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail-chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating-related behaviors.

  19. Lithium-induced developmental anomalies in the spirotrich ciliate Stylonychia lemnae (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida).

    PubMed

    Makhija, Seema; Gupta, Renu; Toteja, Ravi

    2015-08-01

    Lithium is known to have profound biological effects of varying intensity in different life forms. In the present investigation, the effect of lithium was studied on the spirotrich ciliate Stylonychia lemnae. Lithium treatment brings about quantitative changes in the patterning of ciliary structures in S. lemnae. The dorsal surface of the affected cells develops supernumerary ciliary kineties due to excessive proliferation of the kinetosomes. The ventral surface on the other hand develops fewer than normal cirri formed from reduced numbers of ciliary primordia. The adoral zone of membranelles (AZM) fails to remodel properly as, in certain segments, membranelles become disarranged and misaligned. Lithium-induced changes are transitory as the normal pattern is restored during recovery after the cells are shifted to normal medium, suggesting non-genic regulation of cortical pattern. Lithium also affects the process of cell proliferation as the number of cells undergoing division is negligible as compared to reorganizing cells. The results point to the extremely complex and heterogeneous organization of the cellular cortex (plasma membrane and cytoskeleton) which is capable of exerting autonomous control over the phenotype and cortical pattern.

  20. Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda).

    PubMed

    Irwin, Nicholas A T; Lynn, Denis H

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate subclass Peritrichia, composed of the orders Mobilida and Sessilida, have recently come under debate as morphological and molecular analyses have struck contrasting conclusions as to the monophyly of the group. We provide additional molecular data to assess the monophyly of the Peritrichia by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of two symbiotic peritrichs, Urceolaria korschelti and Scyphidia ubiquita, found inhabiting the mantle cavity of limpets. Although phylogenetic analyses indicated a nonmonophyletic Peritrichia, approximately unbiased tests revealed that the monophyletic hypothesis could not be rejected. With regard to the Mobilida, our analysis showed divergence within the family Trichodinidae related to host taxa-a molluscan clade and a fish clade. For the Sessilida, the family Scyphidiidae was sister to the Astylozoidae. In our sampling of U. korschelti and S. ubiquita, both species showed significant genetic divergence among geographically isolated, yet morphologically indistinguishable populations. We hypothesize that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argue that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs.

  1. Adaptation responses of individuals to environmental changes in the ciliate Euplotes crassus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ju, Se-Jong

    2017-02-01

    Although the response unit of living organisms to environmental changes is at the individual level, most experiments on the adaptation responses of ciliates have been conducted in batches, comprising multiple-individuals, due to their microscopic size. However, here, we confirmed that individuals undergo different division cycles in monocultures of Euplotes crassus. They also exhibited transcript variations of 4.63-fold in SSU and of 22.78- fold in Hsp70. Additionally, in salt-stressed E. crassus individuals, SSU transcripts of individuals varied by 6.92-fold at 27 psu, 8.69- fold at 32 psu, and 2.51-fold at 37 psu. However, the maximum difference in Hsp70 was only 4.23-fold under all conditions. These results suggest there may be different biological rhythms even in siblings derived from the same parent. It can also be inferred that various environmental factors have different effects on different E. crassus individuals. Therefore, to elucidate relationships between organism adaptations and environmental changes, studies at the individual level should be conducted with multi-individual approaches.

  2. Adaptation responses of individuals to environmental changes in the ciliate Euplotes crassus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Ju, Se-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Although the response unit of living organisms to environmental changes is at the individual level, most experiments on the adaptation responses of ciliates have been conducted in batches, comprising multiple-individuals, due to their microscopic size. However, here, we confirmed that individuals undergo different division cycles in monocultures of Euplotes crassus. They also exhibited transcript variations of 4.63-fold in SSU and of 22.78- fold in Hsp70. Additionally, in salt-stressed E. crassus individuals, SSU transcripts of individuals varied by 6.92-fold at 27 psu, 8.69- fold at 32 psu, and 2.51-fold at 37 psu. However, the maximum difference in Hsp70 was only 4.23-fold under all conditions. These results suggest there may be different biological rhythms even in siblings derived from the same parent. It can also be inferred that various environmental factors have different effects on different E. crassus individuals. Therefore, to elucidate relationships between organism adaptations and environmental changes, studies at the individual level should be conducted with multi-individual approaches.

  3. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin W H; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion.

  4. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Barsi, Julius C; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis.

  5. Cytoskeletal architecture and immunocytochemical localization of fodrin in the terminal web of the ciliated epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Hirokawa, N

    1988-01-01

    In order to understand the cytoskeletal architecture at the terminal web of the ciliated cell, we examined chicken tracheal epithelium by quick-freeze deep-etch (QFDE) electron microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry of fodrin. At the terminal web, the cilia ended into the basal bodies and then to the rootlets. The rootlets were composed of several filaments and globular structures attached regularly to them. Decoration with myosin subfragment 1 (S1) revealed that some actin filaments ran parallel to the apical plasma membrane between the basal bodies, and other population traveled perpendicularly or obliquely, i.e., along the rootlets. Some actin filaments were connected to the surface of the basal bodies and the basal feet. Among the basal bodies and the rootlets there existed three kinds of fine crossbridges, which were not decorated with S1. In the deeper part of the terminal web, intermediate filaments were observed between the rootlets and were sometimes crosslinked with the rootlets. Immunocytochemistry combined with the QFDE method revealed that fodrin was a component of fine crossbridges associated with the basal bodies. We concluded that an extensive crosslinker system among the basal bodies and the rootlets along with networks of actin and intermediate filaments formed a structural basis for the effective beating of cilia.

  6. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity.

  7. Influence of enumeration time periods on analyzing colonization features and taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum for marine bioassessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Henglong; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2012-09-01

    Colonization features and taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliate communities have been used as useful indicators for marine bioassessment. The influence of enumeration time periods on analyzing colonization features measures of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, during the period of May-June 2010. Ciliated protozoan samples were collected at depths of 1 m using an artificial substratum and were analyzed with different enumeration schemes. The ciliate species were identified using living observation and silver impregnation. Data analyses were conducted using a range of multivariate statistical routines. Enumeration time periods represented a strong influence on analyzing both colonization and taxonomic relatedness features of periphytic ciliate communities, although no significant changes occurred in colonization patterns between two enumeration schemes (within 24 and 24-48 h after sampling). The delayed enumeration (within 24-48 h) may result in the species richness, individual abundance, colonization rate decreasing to standard errors of >10 % in samples with almost all colonization ages, and in the similarities of the communities being reduced to 11-38 %. However, the species biodiversity (e.g., species diversity and evenness, except species richness) and taxonomic relatedness (taxonomic diversity, taxonomic distinctness and average taxonomic distinctness, except variation in taxonomic distinctness) measures of periphytic ciliate communities were weakly sensitive to disturbance from the delayed enumeration, achieving standard errors of <10 and <5 % during the colonization periods, respectively. These results suggest that the enumeration should be completed as soon as possible within 24 h after sampling to analyze colonization and taxonomic relatedness features of periphytic ciliate communities, and that the species diversity and taxonomic distinctness measures can be used on a robust bioindicator

  8. Ultrastructure of the ciliated cells of the free-swimming larva, and sessile stages, of the marine sponge Haliclona indistincta (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida).

    PubMed

    Stephens, Kelly M; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Lalor, Pierce; McCormack, Grace P

    2013-11-01

    We provide a detailed, comparative study of the ciliated cells of the marine haplosclerid sponge Haliclona indistincta, in order to make data available for future phylogenetic comparisons at the ultrastructural level. Our study focuses on the description and analysis of the larval epithelial cells, and choanocytes of the metamorphosed juvenile sponge. The ultrastructure of the two cell types is sufficiently different to prevent our ability to conclusively determine the origin of the choanocytes from the larval ciliated cells. However, ciliated, epithelial cells were observed in a migratory position within the inner cell mass of the larval stages. Some cilia were observed within the cell's cytoplasm, which is indicative of the ciliated epithelial cell undergoing transdifferentiation into a choanocyte; while traces of other ciliated epithelial cells were contained within phagosomes, suggesting they are phagocytosed. We compared our data with other species described in the literature. However, any phylogenetic inference must wait until further detailed comparisons can be made with species whose phylogenetic position has been determined by other means, such as phylogenomics, in order to more closely link genomic, and morphological information.

  9. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand.

  10. Photosensory transduction in unicellular eukaryotes: a comparison between related ciliates Blepharisma japonicum and Stentor coeruleus and photoreceptor cells of higher organisms.

    PubMed

    Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Fabczak, Hanna; Fabczak, Stanisław

    2006-06-01

    Blepharisma japonicum and Stentor coeruleus are related ciliates, conspicuous by their photosensitivity. They are capable of avoiding illuminated areas in the surrounding medium, gathering exclusively in most shaded places (photodispersal). Such behaviour results mainly from motile photophobic response occurring in ciliates. This light-avoiding response is observed during a relatively rapid increase in illumination intensity (light stimulus) and consists of cessation of cell movement, a period of backward movement (ciliary reversal), followed by a forward swimming, usually in a new direction. The photosensitivity of ciliates is ascribed to their photoreceptor system, composed of pigment granules, containing the endogenous photoreceptor -- blepharismin in Blepharisma japonicum, and stentorin in Stentor coeruleus. A light stimulus, applied to both ciliates activates specific stimulus transduction processes leading to the electrical changes at the plasma membrane, correlated with a ciliary reversal during photophobic response. These data indicate that both ciliates Blepharisma japonicum and Stentor coeruleus, the lower eukaryotes, are capable of transducing the perceived light stimuli in a manner taking place in some photoreceptor cells of higher eukaryotes. Similarities and differences concerning particular stages of light transduction in eukaryotes at different evolutional levels are discussed in this article.

  11. Swimming performance in early development and the "other" consequences of egg size for ciliated planktonic larvae.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kathryn A; Grünbaum, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    The evolutionary significance of egg size in marine invertebrates is commonly perceived in energetic terms. Embryonic size should also have direct effects upon the forces that govern swimming, a behavior common to early larval development in the plankton. If swimming is ecologically important, early larvae may need to perform to a certain "standard", or threshold of speed and/or stability. The existence of performance standards in early development could therefore act to constrain the evolution of egg size and the evolution of development. Here we present the key parameters that characterize the upward swimming speed of ciliated spheroidal larvae moving at very low Reynolds numbers. The dependence of maximum supported mass upon larval size, and the independence of neutral-weight swimming speed from size, lead to hypotheses about scaling of swimming speed with size. Experimental studies with thirteen broadcast-spawning planktotrophs demonstrate that free-living embryonic swimmers in all of these species conform to a strong negative scaling of density with size that offsets increases in mass with increasing size. This trend suggests that swimming ability is broadly under selection in early development. In experimental studies and in a hydrodynamic model of larval swimming, the performance of trochophore larvae provides support for our hypothesized scaling relationships, and also for the concept of a standard in swimming speed. Echinoid blastulae, however, show relationships between speed and size that are not predicted by our scaling arguments. Results for echinoids suggest that differences in ciliary tip speed, or possibly in spatial density of cilia over the blastula's surface, result in significant differences in species' performance. Strong phyletic differences in the initial patterning and growth of structures used for swimming thus appear to cause significant differences in the relationship of swimming ability with embryo size.

  12. Chemotactic effect of odorants and tastants on the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Láng, Júlia; Rákász, Virág; Magyar, Anna; Pállinger, Éva; Kohidai, László

    2011-12-01

    Naturally occurring aroma compounds are able to elicit physiological and migratory responses such as chemotaxis even at nano to femtomolar concentrations in organisms at different levels of phylogeny. Despite the amazing chemical variety of these substances the apparatus by which they can be detected i.e. the chemosensory receptors and the signaling pathways seem to be rather uniform and evolutionary well-conserved. The intracellular signaling process is supposed to be mediated by either cAMP or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The present work aimed to investigate the chemotactic behavior of 11 odorants that occur naturally in foods and are also used by the industry as additives, on the eukaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. Intracellular signaling pathways that might be activated by these compounds were also investigated. Activation of the phospholipase C (PLC) was measured by FACS and the stimulation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinases (IP3K) was measured using two specific inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002. The strongest chemoattractant character was observed for isoamyl acetate (10(⁻6) M), propyl isobutyrate (10(⁻8) M), isobutyl propionate (10(⁻6) M). The strongest repellent action was exerted by benzyl acetate (10(⁻8) M), furfuryl thioacetate (10(⁻12) M). Our results suggest that Tetrahymena responds in a very sensitive way to slight changes in the molecular structure. According to our study, tracer amounts of solvents do not contribute significantly to the chemotactic profile of the respective odorants. No significant activation of PLC or PI3K could be observed following stimulation with attractant odorants which implies that some other pathways may be involved, hence further investigation is needed.

  13. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy, Jason W; Xu, Peng; Li, Ping; Xu, De-Hai; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Klesius, Phillip; Arias, Covadonga; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2007-01-01

    Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate). Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan). BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value < 10-5) hits and further Gene Ontology (GO) analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289). Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence. PMID:17577414

  14. Lutetium(III)-dependent self-assembly study of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lian; Zhao, Ya-Qin; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Li, Guo-Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua; Yang, Bin-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    Ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) is a member of the EF-hand superfamily of calcium-binding proteins, which often associated with the centrosomes and basal bodies. To explore the possible structural role of EoCen, we initiated a physicochemical study of the self-assembly properties of the purified protein in vitro. The native PAGE results indicate that only the integral protein shows multimers in the presence of Lu(3+). The dependence of Lu(3+) induced self-assembly of EoCen on various chemical and physical factors, including temperature, protein concentration, ionic strength and pH, was characterized using resonance light scattering (RLS). Control experiments with different metal ions suggest that Ca(2+) and Lu(3+) bindings to the N-terminal domain of EoCen are all positive to the self-assembly of the protein, and Lu(3+) exhibits the stronger effect, however, Mg(2+) alone cannot take the same effect. The experiments of 2-ptoluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) binding and ionic strength demonstrate that the lutetium(III)-dependent self-assembly is closely related to the exposure of hydrophobic cavity. Control experiment on pH value with EoCen and the fragments of it, N-terminal domain of EoCen (N-EoCen), indicates that the electrostatic effect is of small tendency to be served as the main driving force in the self-assembly of EoCen. The specific oligomerization form of the protein was exhibited by cross-linking experiment.

  15. Mechanical strain determines the axis of planar polarity in ciliated epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Keller, Ray; Kintner, Chris; Shook, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelia containing multiciliated cells align beating cilia along a common planar axis specified by the conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Specification of the planar axis is also thought to require a long-range cue to align the axis globally, but the nature of this cue in ciliated and other epithelia remains poorly understood. We examined this issue using the Xenopus larval skin where ciliary flow aligns to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We first show that a planar axis initially arises in the developing skin during gastrulation, based on the appearance of polarized apical microtubules and cell junctions with increased levels of stable PCP components. This axis also arises in severely ventralized embryos despite their deficient embryonic patterning. Since ventralized embryos still gastrulate, producing a mechanical force that strains the developing skin along the A-P axis, we asked whether this strain alone drives global planar patterning. Isolated skin explanted before gastrulation lacks strain, fails to acquire a global planar axis, but responds to exogenous strain by undergoing cell elongation, forming polarized apical microtubules, and aligning stable components of the PCP pathway orthogonal to the axis of strain. The planar axis in embryos can be redirected by applying exogenous strain during a critical period around gastrulation. Finally, we provide evidence that apical microtubules and the PCP pathway interact to align the planar axis. These results indicate that oriented tissue strain generated by the gastrulating mesoderm plays a major role in determining the global axis of planar polarity of the developing skin. PMID:26441348

  16. Three rDNA Loci-Based Phylogenies of Tintinnid Ciliates (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea, Choreotrichida).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Agatha, Sabine; Zhang, Wuchang; Dong, Jun; Yu, Ying; Jiao, Nianzhi; Gong, Jun

    2017-03-01

    To improve understanding of diversity, phylogeny and evolution in tintinnid ciliates, it is essential to link multiple molecular markers with properly identified and documented morphospecies. Accordingly, 54 tintinnid morphospecies/isolates mainly from the Yellow and East China Seas were collected and analysed. Using single-cell approaches, sequences were obtained for three rDNA loci (18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, D1-D5 region of 28S). Twenty-six tintinnid morphospecies (29 isolates) are documented by micrographs, measurements, morphologically described, and compared with the original species description. Three rDNA loci-based phylogenetic analyses were then performed for these identified isolates. Sequences from 25 unidentified species/isolates were also included in the comparison of the three rDNA loci. Ribosomal DNA genes of the genus Leprotintinnus were analysed for the first time, showing that Leprotintinnus was closely related to Tintinnopsis radix and branched distinctly apart from the family Tintinnidiidae. Four novel clades (VI to IX) of the Tintinnopsis complex emerged in the 18S genealogies. Analyses of the relative variability in the ITS and 28S regions vs. the 18S rDNA showed that the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and ITS2 regions well co-varied with the 18S rDNA when the variations of the latter were less than 3%, whereas at difference of less than 1%, no correlation was found between the compared loci. These findings highlight the difficulties in using variable locus-based cut-off divergences in circumscribing tintinnid morphospecies.

  17. Excitable Membranes and Action Potentials in Paramecia: An Analysis of the Electrophysiology of Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Schlaepfer, Charles H.; Wessel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The ciliate Paramecium caudatum possesses an excitable cell membrane whose action potentials (APs) modulate the trajectory of the cell swimming through its freshwater environment. While many stimuli affect the membrane potential and trajectory, students can use current injection and extracellular ionic concentration changes to explore how APs cause reversal of the cell’s motion. Students examine these stimuli through intracellular recordings, also gaining insight into the practices of electrophysiology. Paramecium’s large size of around 150 µm, simple care, and relative ease to penetrate make them ideal model organisms for undergraduate students’ laboratory study. The direct link between behavior and excitable membranes has thought provoking evolutionary implications for the study of paramecia. Recording from the cell, students note a small resting potential around −30 mV, differing from animal resting potentials. By manipulating ion concentrations, APs of the relatively long length of 20–30 ms up to several minutes with depolarizations maxing over 0 mV are observed. Through comparative analysis of membrane potentials and the APs induced by either calcium or barium, students can deduce the causative ions for the APs as well as the mechanisms of paramecium APs. Current injection allows students to calculate quantitative electric characteristics of the membrane. Analysis will follow the literature’s conclusion in a V-Gated Ca++ influx and depolarization resulting in feedback from intracellular Ca++ that inactivates V-Gated Ca++ channels and activates Ca-Dependent K+ channels through a secondary messenger cascade that results in the K+ efflux and repolarization. PMID:26557800

  18. Mechanical strain determines the axis of planar polarity in ciliated epithelia.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Keller, Ray; Kintner, Chris; Shook, David R

    2015-11-02

    Epithelia containing multiciliated cells align beating cilia along a common planar axis specified by the conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Specification of the planar axis is also thought to require a long-range cue to align the axis globally, but the nature of this cue in ciliated and other epithelia remains poorly understood. We examined this issue using the Xenopus larval skin, where ciliary flow aligns to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We first show that a planar axis initially arises in the developing skin during gastrulation, based on the appearance of polarized apical microtubules and cell junctions with increased levels of stable PCP components. This axis also arises in severely ventralized embryos, despite their deficient embryonic patterning. Because ventralized embryos still gastrulate, producing a mechanical force that strains the developing skin along the A-P axis, we asked whether this strain alone drives global planar patterning. Isolated skin explanted before gastrulation lacks strain and fails to acquire a global planar axis but responds to exogenous strain by undergoing cell elongation, forming polarized apical microtubules, and aligning stable components of the PCP pathway orthogonal to the axis of strain. The planar axis in embryos can be redirected by applying exogenous strain during a critical period around gastrulation. Finally, we provide evidence that apical microtubules and the PCP pathway interact to align the planar axis. These results indicate that oriented tissue strain generated by the gastrulating mesoderm plays a major role in determining the global axis of planar polarity of the developing skin.

  19. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Barsi, Julius C.; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H.

    2015-01-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis. PMID:25655703

  20. Cross-study analysis of genomic data defines the ciliate multigenic epiplasmin family: strategies for functional analysis in Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Damaj, Raghida; Pomel, Sébastien; Bricheux, Geneviève; Coffe, Gérard; Viguès, Bernard; Ravet, Viviane; Bouchard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background The sub-membranous skeleton of the ciliate Paramecium, the epiplasm, is composed of hundreds of epiplasmic scales centered on basal bodies, and presents a complex set of proteins, epiplasmins, which belong to a multigenic family. The repeated duplications observed in the P. tetraurelia genome present an interesting model of the organization and evolution of a multigenic family within a single cell. Results To study this multigenic family, we used phylogenetic, structural, and analytical transcriptional approaches. The phylogenetic method defines 5 groups of epiplasmins in the multigenic family. A refined analysis by Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA) identifies structural characteristics of 51 epiplasmins, defining five separate groups, and three classes. Depending on the sequential arrangement of their structural domains, the epiplasmins are defined as symmetric, asymmetric or atypical. The EST data aid in this classification, in the identification of putative regulating sequences such as TATA or CAAT boxes. When specific RNAi experiments were conducted using sequences from either symmetric or asymmetric classes, phenotypes were drastic. Local effects show either disrupted or ill-shaped epiplasmic scales. In either case, this results in aborted cell division. Using structural features, we show that 4 epiplasmins are also present in another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Their affiliation with the distinctive structural groups of Paramecium epiplasmins demonstrates an interspecific multigenic family. Conclusion The epiplasmin multigenic family illustrates the history of genomic duplication in Paramecium. This study provides a framework which can guide functional analysis of epiplasmins, the major components of the membrane skeleton in ciliates. We show that this set of proteins handles an important developmental information in Paramecium since maintenance of epiplasm organization is crucial for cell morphogenesis. PMID:19493334

  1. Scuticociliatid ciliate outbreak in Australian potbellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1827): clinical signs, histopathologic findings, and treatment with metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Di Cicco, Emiliano; Paradis, Erika; Stephen, Craig; Turba, Maria Elena; Rossi, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    A severe outbreak of scuticociliatosis occurred in Australian pot-bellied seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis (Lesson, 1872), kept at the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada). Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, irregular respiration, and death. Cytology and histopathology revealed a high number of histophagous ciliated protozoa within the tissues. The parasite, identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi, was observed in several internal organs that appeared edematous and hemorrhagic upon postmortem examination. Severe histopathologic lesions were reported in particular in the ovary, the kidney, and the intestine. This infection was successfully treated with metronidazole via bath therapy. No further evidence of this parasite was found in the treated fish.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Phosphoinositide Kinome from Two Ciliates Reveals Novel Evolutionary Links for Phosphoinositide Kinases in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leondaritis, George; Siokos, John; Skaripa, Irini; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity of phosphoinositide signaling in higher eukaryotes is partly due to expansion of specific families and types of phosphoinositide kinases (PIKs) that can generate all phosphoinositides via multiple routes. This is particularly evident in the PI3Ks and PIPKs, and it is considered an evolutionary trait associated with metazoan diversification. Yet, there are limited comprehensive studies on the PIK repertoire of free living unicellular organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a genome-wide analysis of putative PIK genes in two free living ciliated cells, Tetrahymena and Paramecium. The Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia genomes were probed with representative kinases from all families and types. Putative homologs were verified by EST, microarray and deep RNA sequencing database searches and further characterized for domain structure, catalytic efficiency, expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships. In total, we identified and characterized 22 genes in the Tetrahymena thermophila genome and 62 highly homologues genes in Paramecium tetraurelia suggesting a tight evolutionary conservation in the ciliate lineage. Comparison to the kinome of fungi reveals a significant expansion of PIK genes in ciliates. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlights four important aspects concerning ciliate and other unicellular PIKs. First, ciliate-specific expansion of PI4KIII-like genes. Second, presence of class I PI3Ks which, at least in Tetrahymena, are associated with a metazoan-type machinery for PIP3 signaling. Third, expansion of divergent PIPK enzymes such as the recently described type IV transmembrane PIPKs. Fourth, presence of possible type II PIPKs and presumably inactive PIKs (hence, pseudo-PIKs) not previously described. Taken together, our results provide a solid framework for future investigation of the roles of PIKs in ciliates and indicate that novel functions and novel regulatory pathways of

  3. Purinergic stimulation of rabbit ciliated airway epithelia: control by multiple calcium sources.

    PubMed Central

    Korngreen, A; Priel, Z

    1996-01-01

    1. Simultaneous measurements of average intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were carried out on ciliated rabbit tracheal cells in order to determine quantitatively the role of calcium in the regulation of mucus-transporting cilia. 2. Extracellular ATP caused a rapid increase in both [Ca2+]i and CBF in the 0.1-1000 microM concentration range. The rise in [Ca2+]i levelled off to an elevated [Ca2+]i plateau while the cilia remained in a high activation state. The magnitude of the rise in [Ca2+]i and CBF as well as the value of the elevated [Ca2+]i plateau and the value of the sustained CBF were dependent on the concentration of ATP in the solution. 3. No correlation was found between the mean values of [Ca2+]i and CBF at rest but a sigmoidal relationship was found to exist between the maximal rises of these parameters following excitation with extracellular ATP. This sigmoidal correlation incorporated the experiments where [Ca2+]i rise was induced by depletion of internal calcium stores with thapsigargin or by entry of calcium induced by ionomycin. 4. Extracellular ATP caused both the release of calcium from internal stores and calcium influx from the extracellular solution. The release of calcium was identified as originating from a thapsigargin-sensitive and a thapsigargin-insensitive calcium store. It is suggested that the release of calcium from these stores induces the initial rise in CBF. 5. The sustained activation of the cilia and elevated calcium plateau were found to be the result of the extracellular ATP-induced calcium influx. This calcium influx was insensitive to the voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitors verapamil and diltiazem, but was completely eliminated by lowering the extracellular calcium concentration to 0.1 microM. 6. We propose that the initial jump in the CBF is mediated by the calcium released from a thapsigargin-insensitive calcium store adjacent to the cilia, while the later, and longer, rise in

  4. Two T-box genes play independent and cooperative roles to regulate morphogenesis of ciliated Kupffer's vesicle in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amack, Jeffrey D; Wang, Xinghao; Yost, H Joseph

    2007-10-15

    The brain, heart and gastro-intestinal tract develop distinct left-right (LR) asymmetries. Asymmetric cilia-dependent fluid flow in the embryonic node in mouse, Kupffer's vesicle in zebrafish, notochordal plate in rabbit and gastrocoel roof plate in frog appears to be a conserved mechanism that directs LR asymmetric gene expression and establishes the orientation of organ asymmetry. However, the cellular processes and genetic pathways that control the formation of these essential ciliated structures are unknown. In zebrafish, migratory dorsal forerunner cells (DFCs) give rise to Kupffer's vesicle (KV), a ciliated epithelial sheet that forms a lumen and generates fluid flow. Using the epithelial marker atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) and other markers to analyze DFCs and KV cells, we describe a multi-step process by which DFCs form a functional KV. Using mutants and morpholinos, we show that two T-box transcription factors-No tail (Ntl)/Brachyury and Tbx16/Spadetail-cooperatively regulate an early step of DFC mesenchyme to epithelial transition (MET) and KV cell specification. Subsequently, each transcription factor independently controls a distinct step in KV formation: Tbx16 regulates apical clustering of KV cells and Ntl is necessary for KV lumen formation. By targeting morpholinos to DFCs, we show that these cell autonomous functions in KV morphogenesis are necessary for LR patterning throughout the embryo.

  5. Effect of antibiotics, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and pyromellitic diimide on methanogenesis in rumen ciliate cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Váradyová, Z; Kisidayová, S; Zelenák, I; Siroka, P

    2001-01-01

    The effects of penicillin G, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and pyromellitic diimide on total gas, methane, volatile fatty acid production and food degradability after 24 h of incubation in vitro were investigated in the cultures of two rumen ciliates. The inocula of both rumen ciliates Entodinium caudatum and Epidinium ecaudatum were used at a volume of 34 ml into the 50 ml glass syringes together with the feed and compounds tested. Despite penicillin G--streptomycin treatment methane production in both cultures was significantly decreased by the inhibitors for Epidinium ecaudatum. Methane production of the bacterial fraction of both protozoan species was significantly lower than in the whole cultures. No epifluorescence of methanogens on (or in) the cells of Entodinium caudatum was observed in contrast to Epidinium with which strong epifluorescence of methanogens on the cell surface was detected. Microscopic observation could indicate that the methane production by Entodinium caudatum was probably caused by their intracellular methanogenic activity, while methane production by Epidinium ecaudatum could be related to both the methanogenic bacterial fraction from their external surface and probably also to intracellular activity. Decreased feed degradability and differences in the fermentation end products accompanied the inhibition of methanogenesis in both in vitro cultures. Entodinium caudatum appeared to be more sensitive than Epidinium ecaudatum to the compounds tested.

  6. Several RNase T2 enzymes function in induced tRNA and rRNA turnover in the ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kasper L; Collins, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    RNase T2 enzymes are produced by a wide range of organisms and have been implicated to function in diverse cellular processes, including stress-induced anticodon loop cleavage of mature tRNAs to generate tRNA halves. Here we describe a family of eight RNase T2 genes (RNT2A-RNT2H) in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We constructed strains lacking individual or combinations of these RNT2 genes that were viable but had distinct cellular and molecular phenotypes. In strains lacking only one Rnt2 protein or lacking a subfamily of three catalytically inactive Rnt2 proteins, starvation-induced tRNA fragments continued to accumulate, with only a minor change in fragment profile in one strain. We therefore generated strains lacking pairwise combinations of the top three candidates for Rnt2 tRNases. Each of these strains showed a distinct starvation-specific profile of tRNA and rRNA fragment accumulation. These results, the delineation of a broadened range of conditions that induce the accumulation of tRNA halves, and the demonstration of a predominantly ribonucleoprotein-free state of tRNA halves in cell extract suggest that ciliate tRNA halves are degradation intermediates in an autophagy pathway induced by growth arrest that functions to recycle idle protein synthesis machinery.

  7. Effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and fibre breakdown in the rumen ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G; Withers, S E

    1991-02-01

    The effect of ciliate protozoa on the activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in microbial populations from the digesta solids and liquor fractions of rumen contents was examined after the refaunation of ciliate-free sheep with an A-type rumen protozoal population. Although the culturable rumen bacterial population was reduced after refaunation the number of fibrolytic micro-organisms detected was higher; the xylanolytic bacterial population and numbers of fungal zoospores were increased after refaunation. The proportion of propionic acid was lower in the refaunated animals, whereas the concentration of ammonia and the acidic metabolites acetate, butyrate and valerate were all increased. The range of enzyme activities present in the digesta subpopulations were the same in defaunated and refaunated animals. The activities of the polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, however, were increased in the microbial populations associated with the digesta solids after refaunation, and at 16 h after feeding the activities were 4-8 times (beta-D-xylosidase 20 times) higher than the levels detected in the adherent population from defaunated sheep. The protozoa, either directly through their own enzymes or indirectly as a consequence of their effects on the population size and activity of the other fibrolytic micro-organisms present, have an important role in determining the level of activity of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in the rumen ecosystem. Although the extent of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) hay digestion was similar after 24 h in the absence or presence of protozoa, the initial ruminal degradation was higher in refaunated sheep.

  8. Fate of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles in an aquatic environment and their toxicity toward 14 ciliated protist species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Pu, Zhichao; Du, Songyan; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Lin

    2016-05-01

    The potential environmental impacts of engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) on aquatic organisms have remained largely unknown. Therefore, the laboratory study featured herein was performed to determine the fate of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment and their toxicity towards 14 different ciliated protist species at a specified population level. An investigation of 48 h aggregation kinetics in the Dryl's solution showed the CeO2 NPs to be relatively stable. The pH values in three test medium were too far away from PZC, which explained the stability of CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs generally elicited more toxicity with increasing NP concentration, following certain dose-response relationships. Nano-CeO2 resulted in greater toxicity in a particle state than when added as bulk material. LC50 values showed a negative correlation with the surface-to-volume ratio for these protists, suggesting that surface adsorption of CeO2 NPs might contribute to the observed toxicity. Additionally, acute toxic responses of 14 ciliated protist species to CeO2 NPs were not significantly phylogenetically conserved. The results of these observations provide a better insight into the potential risks of CeO2 NPs in an aquatic environment.

  9. Cell-specific transcriptional profiling of ciliated sensory neurons reveals regulators of behavior and extracellular vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Kaletsky, Rachel; Silva, Malan; Williams, April; Haas, Leonard; Androwski, Rebecca; Landis, Jessica; Patrick, Cory; Rashid, Alina; Santiago-Martinez, Dianaliz; Gravato-Nobre, Maria; Hodgkin, Jonathan; Hall, David H.; Murphy, Coleen T.; Barr, Maureen M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cilia and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are signaling organelles[1]. Cilia act as cellular sensory antennae, with defects resulting in human ciliopathies. Cilia both release and bind to EVs[1]. EVs are submicron-sized particles released by cells and function in both short and long range intercellular communication. In C. elegans and mammals, the Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) gene products polycystin-1 and polycystin-2 localize to both cilia and EVs, act in the same genetic pathway, and function in a sensory capacity, suggesting ancient conservation[2]. A fundamental understanding of EV biology and the relationship between the polycystins, cilia, and EVs is lacking. To define properties of a ciliated EV-releasing cell, we performed RNAseq on 27 GFP-labeled EV releasing neurons (EVNs) isolated from adult C. elegans. We identified 335 significantly overrepresented genes, of which 61 were validated by GFP reporters. The EVN transcriptional profile uncovered new pathways controlling EV biogenesis and polycystin signaling and also identified EV cargo, which included an antimicrobial peptide and ASIC channel. Tumor necrosis associated factor (TRAF) homologues trf-1 and trf-2 and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pmk-1 acted in polycystin signaling pathways controlling male mating behaviors. pmk-1 was also required for EV biogenesis, independent of the innate immunity MAPK signaling cascade. This first high-resolution transcriptome profile of a subtype of ciliated sensory neurons isolated from adult animals reveals the functional components of an EVN. PMID:26687621

  10. Stimulus-response coupling in mammalian ciliated cells. Demonstration of two mechanisms of control for cytosolic [Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Villalón, M; Hinds, T R; Verdugo, P

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cytosolic [Ca2+] have been proposed to couple stimulation of ciliary movement, however, quantitative measurements of fluctuations of intracellular free [Ca2+] associated with stimulation of ciliated cells have not been investigated. In primary cultures of rabbit oviductal ciliated cells, the stimulation of ciliary activity produced by micromolar concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) was associated with a transient increase of intracellular [Ca2+]. Whereas the increase of cytosolic [Ca2+] and beat frequency produced by ATP were inhibited by the Ca-channel blocker LaCl3, the rise of cytosolic [Ca2+] and frequency of ciliary beat produced by PGF2 alpha was not affected by LaCl3. These results are the first direct demonstration that fluctuations of cytosolic [Ca2+] are associated with increased ciliary beat frequency in mammalian epithelial cells. The present findings suggest two different calcium-dependent mechanisms for stimulus-coupling in ciliary epithelium: ATP acting via purinergic receptor coupled to transmembrane influx of Ca2+, and PGF2 alpha acting via receptor-mediated release of intracellular sequestered Ca. PMID:2611335

  11. OCT-based quantification of flow velocity, shear force, and power generated by a biological ciliated surface (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Brendan K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Loewenberg, Michael; Choma, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    In cilia-driven fluid flow physiology, quantification of flow velocity, shearing force, and power dissipation is important in defining abnormal ciliary function. The capacity to generate flow can be robustly described in terms of shearing force. Dissipated power can be related to net ATP consumption by ciliary molecular motors. To date, however, only flow velocity can be routinely quantified in a non-invasive, non-contact manner. Additionally, traditional power-based metrics rely on metabolic consumption that reflects energy consumption not just from cilia but also from all active cellular processes. Here, we demonstrate the estimation of all three of these quantities (flow velocity, shear force, and power dissipation) using only optical coherence tomography (OCT). Specifically, we develop a framework that can extract force and power information from vectorial flow velocity fields obtained using OCT-based methods. We do so by (a) estimating the viscous stress tensor from flow velocity fields to estimate shearing force and (b) using the viscous stress tensor to estimate the power dissipation function to infer total mechanical power. These estimates have the advantage of (a) requiring only a single modality, (b) being non-invasive in nature, and (c) being reflective of only the net power work generated by a ciliated surface. We demonstrate our all-optical approach to the estimation of these parameters in the Xenopus animal model system under normal and increased viscous loading. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that the Xenopus ciliated surface can increase force output under loading conditions.

  12. "Candidatus anadelfobacter veles" and "Candidatus cyrtobacter comes," two new rickettsiales species hosted by the protist ciliate Euplotes harpa (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea).

    PubMed

    Vannini, Claudia; Ferrantini, Filippo; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Verni, Franco; Petroni, Giulio

    2010-06-01

    The order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) is a well-known group containing obligate endocellular prokaryotes. The order encompasses three families (Rickettsiaceae, Anaplasmataceae, and Holosporaceae) and a fourth, family-level cluster, which includes only one candidate species, "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii," as well as several unnamed bacterial symbionts. The broad host range exhibited by the members of the "Candidatus Midichloria" clade suggests their eventual relevance for a better understanding of the evolution of symbiosis and host specificity of Rickettsiales. In this paper, two new bacteria belonging to the "Candidatus Midichloria" clade, hosted by two different strains of the ciliate protist Euplotes harpa, are described on the basis of ultrastructural observations, comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and an estimation of the percentage of infection. Ultrastructure of these bacteria shows some unusual features: one has an electron-dense cytoplasm, and the other one lacks a symbiosomal membrane. The latter was up to now considered an exclusive feature of bacteria belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis unambiguously places the new bacteria in the "Candidatus Midichloria" clade, although their phylogenetic relationships with other members of the clade are not clearly resolved. This is the first report of a ciliate-borne bacterium belonging to the "Candidatus Midichloria" clade. On the basis of the data obtained, the two bacteria are proposed as two new candidate genera and species, "Candidatus Anadelfobacter veles" and "Candidatus Cyrtobacter comes."

  13. Ciliated HPV-related Carcinoma: A Well-differentiated Form of Head and Neck Carcinoma That Can Be Mistaken for a Benign Cyst.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2015-11-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal carcinomas (HPV-OPCs) are generally regarded as "poorly differentiated," they actually maintain a close resemblance to the lymphoepithelium of the tonsillar crypts from which they arise: they are basaloid, exhibit minimal keratinization, and are often permeated by lymphocytes. In rare cases, the presence of cilia in a primary HPV-OPC and their persistence in lymph node metastasis can confound the distinction between a benign and malignant process. Three cases of ciliated HPV-OPCs were identified from the archives of The Johns Hopkins Head and Neck Pathology consultation service. HPV status was determined using p16 immunohistochemistry and high-risk HPV in situ hybridization. All 3 patients presented with a cystic lymph node metastasis without a known primary carcinoma. One metastasis was originally diagnosed as a branchial cleft cyst only to regionally recur 7 years later. In 2 cases, a primary HPV-OPC was found in the tonsil. The carcinomas exhibited both nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium and cystic/microcystic spaces lined by ciliated columnar cells. Both the squamous and ciliated cells were HPV positive. This report draws attention to a novel variant of HPV-related head and neck cancer that exhibits ciliated columnar cells. This variant challenges prevailing notions that: (1) HPV-OPCs are uniformly poorly differentiated cancers; (2) cilia are an infallible feature of benignancy; and (3) presence of cilia is a reliable criterion for establishing branchial cleft origin when dealing with cystic lesions of the lateral neck.

  14. Marked amplification and diversification of products of ras genes from rat brain, Rab GTPases, in the ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Nakahara, Tohru; Nakano, Kentaro; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Numata, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Small GTPase Rab (products of ras genes from rat brain) is a widely conserved molecular switch among eukaryotes and regulates membrane trafficking pathways. It is generally considered that the number of Rab encoded in the genome correlates with multicellularity; however, we found that unicellular ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila (Tt) and Paramecium tetraurelia (Pt) possess many more Rab genes in their genome than the 64 HsRab genes in the human genome. We succeeded in isolating 86 cDNA clones of 88 TtRab genes in the Tetrahymena genome. By comparing the amino acid sequence of Rab in humans and the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 42 TtRab belonged to subfamilies functionally characterized and designated as conventional Rab, while the remaining 44 TtRab were considered to be species-specific. To examine the diversity of Rab in ciliates, we searched for Rab genes in the genome database of P. tetraurelia. Overall, 229 PtRab genes were found and categorized as 157 conventional and 72 species-specific PtRab, respectively. Among them, nine PtRab genes showed high homology to seven TtRab, suggesting the conservation of ciliate-specific Rab. These data suggested that the range of Rab is markedly amplified and diversified in ciliates, which may support the elaborate cellular structures and vigorous phagocytosis of those organisms.

  15. Mullerian-Type Ciliated Cyst of the Thigh with PAX-8 and WT1 Positivity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fabien-Dupuis, Corinthia; Cooper, Brian; Upperman, Jeffrey; Zhou, Shengmei

    2016-01-01

    Mullerian-type ciliated cysts are uncommon lesions usually found in the lower extremities and perineal region of young females. They have however been reported in males and in other anatomic sites. The cyst lining is typically positive for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), PAX-8, and WT1 immunohistochemical stains. This staining pattern has led to the notion that these cysts are of Müllerian origin. The vast majority of cases are located in the dermis where the preferred nomenclature is cutaneous ciliated cyst (CCC). We report a case of Müllerian-type ciliated cyst in the thigh of a 16-year-old girl. Unlike most of the cases reported in the English literature, this cyst was not centered in the dermis. Only a few other cases of Müllerian-type ciliated cysts with no cutaneous connection have been reported. We propose the term ectopic Müllerian cyst for this rare subset of lesions that are not skin based as is the current case. PMID:28070193

  16. Directed Induction of Functional Multi-ciliated Cells in Proximal Airway Epithelial Spheroids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Satoshi; Gotoh, Shimpei; Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Korogi, Yohei; Nagasaki, Tadao; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Ito, Isao; Tsukita, Sachiko; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Summary Multi-ciliated airway cells (MCACs) play a role in mucociliary clearance of the lung. However, the efficient induction of functional MCACs from human pluripotent stem cells has not yet been reported. Using carboxypeptidase M (CPM) as a surface marker of NKX2-1+-ventralized anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs), we report a three-dimensional differentiation protocol for generating proximal airway epithelial progenitor cell spheroids from CPM+ VAFECs. These spheroids could be induced to generate MCACs and other airway lineage cells without alveolar epithelial cells. Furthermore, the directed induction of MCACs and of pulmonary neuroendocrine lineage cells was promoted by adding DAPT, a Notch pathway inhibitor. The induced MCACs demonstrated motile cilia with a “9 + 2” microtubule arrangement and dynein arms capable of beating and generating flow for mucociliary transport. This method is expected to be useful for future studies on human airway disease modeling and regenerative medicine. PMID:26724905

  17. Does the oral apparatus of the ciliate Stentor inhibit oral development by release of a diffusible substance?

    PubMed

    de Terra, N

    1985-06-01

    In the ciliate Stentor, many thousands of basal bodies assemble on the ventral cell surface to form a new oral apparatus during cell division, regeneration and reorganization (oral replacement during interphase). During interphase, oral development is normally inhibited by the presence of the anteriorly placed oral apparatus. A glass needle was used to cut the oral apparatus of interphase stentors in two so that the parts remained intact but separate at the anterior end of the cell. These cells initiated basal body assembly and oral development, usually within 8 h. Basal body assembly can therefore result from disconnection of fibrous structures within the oral apparatus but is unlikely to be regulated by an inhibitor diffusing from it.

  18. Natural products from aquatic eukaryotic microorganisms for cancer therapy: Perspectives on anti-tumour properties of ciliate bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Catalani, Elisabetta; Proietti Serafini, Francesca; Zecchini, Silvia; Picchietti, Simona; Fausto, Anna Maria; Marcantoni, Enrico; Buonanno, Federico; Ortenzi, Claudio; Perrotta, Cristiana; Cervia, Davide

    2016-11-01

    Several modern drugs, including those for cancer therapy, have been isolated from natural sources, are based on natural products and its derivatives, or mime natural products. Some of them are in clinical use, others in clinical trials. The success of natural products in drug discovery is related to their biochemical characteristics and to the technologic methods used to study their feature. Natural compounds may acts as chemo-preventive agents and as factors that increase therapeutic efficacy of existing drugs, thus overcoming cancer cell drug resistance that is the main factor determining the failure in conventional chemotherapy. Water environment, because of its physical and chemical conditions, shows an extraordinary collection of natural biological substances with an extensive structural and functional diversity. The isolation of bioactive molecules has been reported from a great variety of aquatic organisms; however, the therapeutic application of molecules from eukaryotic microorganisms remains inadequately investigated and underexploited on a systematic basis. Herein we describe the biological activities in mammalian cells of selected substances isolated from ciliates, free-living protozoa common almost everywhere there is water, focusing on their anti-tumour actions and their possible therapeutic activity. In particular, we unveil the cellular and molecular machine mediating the effects of cell type-specific signalling protein pheromone Er-1 and secondary metabolites, i.e. euplotin C and climacostol, in cancer cells. To support the feasibility of climacostol-based approaches, we also present novel findings and report additional mechanisms of action using both in vitro and in vivo models of mouse melanomas, with the scope of highlighting new frontiers that can be explored also in a therapeutic perspective. The high skeletal chemical difference of ciliate compounds, their sustainability and availability, also through the use of new organic synthesis

  19. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  20. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  1. Impacts of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on summer distribution of phytoplankton, copepods and ciliates in relation to abiotic variables along the near-shore of the southwestern Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Drira, Zaher; Guermazi, Wassim; Elloumi, Jannet; Maalej, Sami; Aleya, Lotfi; Ayadi, Habib

    2012-02-01

    In connection with the Taparura Project, studies of spatial distribution of the crustacean zooplankton community, nutrients, phytoplankton and ciliates were conducted in July 2007 at 45 stations spread over fifteen transects along the coast north of Sfax. The results showed that the N/P ratio was lower than the Redfield ratio, suggesting potential N limitation. Phytoplankton was characterised by the proliferation of several diatoms, while ciliates were largely dominated by spirotrichs. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton present during the entire study period, comprising 61% of the total zooplankton community. Twelve copepod families were identified at every station, with a high percentage of Oithonidae (77% of copepods) dominated by Oithona nana. The abundance of this species was correlated with that of diatoms, Cocoolithophorideae and ciliated Colpodea, suggesting that O. nana may feed on a wide range of prey. Despite human pressure and industrial activities, the coastal waters north of Sfax showed a wide diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates and zooplankton.

  2. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia.

    PubMed

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss.

  3. [Morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of astome ciliates Almophrya bivacuolata and A. maediovacuolata (protozoa: ciliophora) endocommensal of terricolous oligochaetes in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Nana, P A; Ngassam, P; Fokam, Z; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Coffe, G; Sime, Gando T; Zébazé, Togouet S H

    2010-12-01

    The silver impregnation supplemented by DAPI and Feulgen nuclear coloration enabled us to study the morphological variations of the nuclear apparatus of two species of endocommensal Astome ciliates, Almophrya bivacuoloata (de Puytorac & Dragesco, 1968) and A. mediovocuolata (Ngassam, 1983). We highlighted important digitations and the presence of dark bands in the structure of the "H" macronucleus of the small cellular types as well as the presence of intermediate forms between "H" and "X" in these two species.

  4. Impacts of restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on the seasonal distribution of abiotic variables, phytoplankton, copepods, and ciliates in a man-made solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Kobbi-Rebai, Rayda; Annabi-Trabelsi, Neila; Khemakhem, Hajer; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2013-03-01

    The restoration of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum landfill was investigated for its effects on the seasonal distribution of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods. Sampling was carried out monthly from September 2007 to August 2008 at four ponds of increasing salinity (A1, 41 psu; A5, 46 psu; A16, 67 psu; and C31, 77 psu) in the Sfax solar saltern (southeastern Tunisia). Physicochemical and biological analyses were carried out using standard methods. Results showed drastic reduction of phosphate input and greater diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates, and copepods than before restoration. Pennate diatoms and new ciliates, considered bio-indicators of less-stressed marine ecosystems, proliferated in the A1 pond for the first time after restoration. Copepods appeared to feed on a wide range of prey. Economically, removal of the 1.7 million m(3) of phosphate improved the quality of the site's salt production, enabling the salt company to receive the quality ISO 9001 accreditation.

  5. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    SciTech Connect

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  6. Can a fermentation gas mainly produced by rumen Isotrichidae ciliates be a potential source of biohydrogen and a fuel for a chemical fuel cell?

    PubMed

    Piela, Piotr; Michałowski, Tadeusz; Miltko, Renata; Szewczyk, Krzysztof; Sikora, Radosław; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Sikora, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Bacteria, fungi and protozoa inhabiting the rumen, the largest chamber of the ruminants' stomach, release large quantities of hydrogen during the fermentation of carbohydrates. The hydrogen is used by coexisting methanogens to produce methane in energy-yielding processes. This work shows, for the first time, a fundamental possibility of using a hydrogen-rich fermentation gas produced by selected rumen ciliates to feed a low-temperature hydrogen fuel cell. A biohydrogen fuel cell (BHFC) was constructed consisting of (i) a bioreactor, in which a hydrogen-rich gas was produced from glucose by rumen ciliates, mainly of the Isotrichidae family, deprived of intra- and extracellular bacteria, methanogens, and fungi, and (ii) a chemical fuel cell of the polymer-electrolyte type (PEFC). The fuel cell was used as a tester of the technical applicability of the fermentation gas produced by the rumen ciliates for power generation. The average estimated hydrogen yield was ca. 1.15 mol H2 per mol of fermented glucose. The BHFC performance was equal to the performance of the PEFC running on pure hydrogen. No fuel cell poisoning effects were detected. A maximum power density of 1.66 kW/m2 (PEFC geometric area) was obtained at room temperature. The maximum volumetric power density was 128 W/m3 but the coulombic efficiency was only ca. 3.8%. The configuration of the bioreactor limited the continuous operation time of this BHFC to ca. 14 hours.

  7. Detecting In Situ Copepod Diet Diversity Using Molecular Technique: Development of a Copepod/Symbiotic Ciliate-Excluding Eukaryote-Inclusive PCR Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J.; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey

  8. Detecting in situ copepod diet diversity using molecular technique: development of a copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-inclusive PCR protocol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Simin; Guo, Zhiling; Li, Tao; Carpenter, Edward J; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Senjie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of in situ copepod diet diversity is crucial for accurately describing pelagic food web structure but is challenging to achieve due to lack of an easily applicable methodology. To enable analysis with whole copepod-derived DNAs, we developed a copepod-excluding 18S rDNA-based PCR protocol. Although it is effective in depressing amplification of copepod 18S rDNA, its applicability to detect diverse eukaryotes in both mono- and mixed-species has not been demonstrated. Besides, the protocol suffers from the problem that sequences from symbiotic ciliates are overrepresented in the retrieved 18S rDNA libraries. In this study, we designed a blocking primer to make a combined primer set (copepod/symbiotic ciliate-excluding eukaryote-common: CEEC) to depress PCR amplification of symbiotic ciliate sequences while maximizing the range of eukaryotes amplified. We firstly examined the specificity and efficacy of CEEC by PCR-amplifying DNAs from 16 copepod species, 37 representative organisms that are potential prey of copepods and a natural microplankton sample, and then evaluated the efficiency in reconstructing diet composition by detecting the food of both lab-reared and field-collected copepods. Our results showed that the CEEC primer set can successfully amplify 18S rDNA from a wide range of isolated species and mixed-species samples while depressing amplification of that from copepod and targeted symbiotic ciliate, indicating the universality of CEEC in specifically detecting prey of copepods. All the predetermined food offered to copepods in the laboratory were successfully retrieved, suggesting that the CEEC-based protocol can accurately reconstruct the diets of copepods without interference of copepods and their associated ciliates present in the DNA samples. Our initial application to analyzing the food composition of field-collected copepods uncovered diverse prey species, including those currently known, and those that are unsuspected, as copepod prey

  9. The water-born protein pheromones of the polar protozoan ciliate, Euplotes nobilii: Coding genes and molecular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallesi, Adriana; Alimenti, Claudio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Dini, Fernando; Pedrini, Bill; Wüthrich, Kurt; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2010-08-01

    The protozoan ciliate Euplotes nobilii found in Antarctic and Arctic coastal waters relies on secretion of water-soluble cell type-specific signal proteins (pheromones) to regulate its vegetative growth and sexual mating. For three of these psychrophilic pheromones we previously determined the three-dimensional structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with protein solutions purified from the natural sources, which led to evidence that their adaptation to cold is primarily achieved by increased flexibility through an extension of regions free of regular secondary structures, and by increased exposure of negative charges on the protein surface. Then we cloned the coding genes of these E. nobilii pheromones from the transcriptionally active cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus) and characterized the full-length sequences. These sequences all contain an open reading frame of 252-285 nucleotides, which is specific for a cytoplasmic pheromone precursor that requires two proteolytic cleavages to remove a signal peptide and a pro segment before release of the mature protein into the extracellular environment. The 5‧ and 3‧ non-coding regions are two- to three-fold longer than the coding region and appear to be tightly conserved, probably in relation to the inclusion of intron sequences destined to be alternatively removed to play key regulatory roles in the mechanism of the pheromone gene expression.

  10. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria João R; Pereira, António S; Ferreira, Paula G; Guimarães, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P O; Grande, Nuno R; Aguas, Artur P

    2005-03-01

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P<0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection.

  11. Passive immunization of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by use of murine monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T L; Clark, T G; Dickerson, H

    1996-01-01

    Fish acquire immunity against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis following sublethal infection. The immune response includes the elaboration of humoral antibodies against a class of abundant surface membrane proteins referred to as immobilization antigens (i-antigens). Antibodies against these proteins immobilize the parasite in vitro, suggesting a potential role for the i-antigens in protective immunity. To test this hypothesis, passive immunization experiments were carried out with naive channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, using immobilizing murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Fish were completely protected against lethal challenge following intraperitoneal injection of 20 to 200 micrograms of MAb. Although fish succumbed to infection at lower doses, palliative effects were observed with as little as 2 micrograms of antibody. In experiments in which animals were challenged at various times following inoculation, an inverse relationship between parasite load and serum immobilizing activity was seen. Of seven MAbs which conferred protection, all were immunoglobulin G class antibodies. The only immobilizing MAb that failed to protect was an immunoglobulin M antibody that was absent from surface mucosa as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The implications of these findings for the development of a vaccine against I. multifiliis and immunity against surface pathogens of fish are discussed. PMID:8926073

  12. Temperature-dependent transmission and latency of Holospora undulata, a micronucleus-specific parasite of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum

    PubMed Central

    Fels, Daniel; Kaltz, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Transmission of parasites to new hosts crucially depends on the timing of production of transmission stages and their capacity to start an infection. These parameters may be influenced by genetic factors, but also by the environment. We tested the effects of temperature and host genotype on infection probability and latency in experimental populations of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum, after exposure to infectious forms of its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. Temperature had a significant effect on the expression of genetic variation for transmission and maintenance of infection. Overall, low temperature (10 °C) increased levels of (multiple) infection, but arrested parasite development; higher temperatures (23 and 30 °C) accelerated the onset of production of infectious forms, but limited transmission success. Viability of infectious forms declined rapidly at 23 and 30 °C, thereby narrowing the time window for transmission. Thus, environmental conditions can generate trade-offs between transmission relevant parameters and alter levels of multiple infection or parasite-mediated selection, which may affect evolutionary trajectories of parasite life history or virulence. PMID:16627290

  13. Primary and secondary siRNA synthesis triggered by RNAs from food bacteria in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Carradec, Quentin; Götz, Ulrike; Arnaiz, Olivier; Pouch, Juliette; Simon, Martin; Meyer, Eric; Marker, Simone

    2015-01-01

    In various organisms, an efficient RNAi response can be triggered by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an endogenous gene. However, the detailed mechanisms and natural functions of this pathway are not well understood in most cases. Here, we studied siRNA biogenesis from exogenous RNA and its genetic overlap with endogenous RNAi in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia by high-throughput sequencing. Using wild-type and mutant strains deficient for dsRNA feeding we found that high levels of primary siRNAs of both strands are processed from the ingested dsRNA trigger by the Dicer Dcr1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases Rdr1 and Rdr2 and other factors. We further show that this induces the synthesis of secondary siRNAs spreading along the entire endogenous mRNA, demonstrating the occurrence of both 3′-to-5′ and 5′-to-3′ transitivity for the first time in the SAR clade of eukaryotes (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria). Secondary siRNAs depend on Rdr2 and show a strong antisense bias; they are produced at much lower levels than primary siRNAs and hardly contribute to RNAi efficiency. We further provide evidence that the Paramecium RNAi machinery also processes single-stranded RNAs from its bacterial food, broadening the possible natural functions of exogenously induced RNAi in this organism. PMID:25593325

  14. Morphology of four cyrtophorian ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Yangtze Delta, China, with notes on the phylogeny of the genus Phascolodon.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongbo; Wang, Liqing; Jiang, Jiamei; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    The morphology of four cyrtophorian ciliates, Dysteria ovalis, D. semilunaris, Phascolodon vorticella, and Chlamydonellopsis calkinsi, were investigated using living observation and protargol-staining. The morphology of D. ovalis is revealed in detail for the first time, and it is characterized by the following combination of features: size 40-50×20-30μm in vivo; oval in outline; four right kineties, including two frontoventral kineties and one shortened leftmost right kinety; three left frontal kineties; two ventrally located contractile vacuoles; marine habitat. New Chinese populations of three other species correspond well with previous descriptions, but a well-developed alveolar layer on the cell surface of P. vorticella is reported for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences clustered Dysteria ovalis with Mirodysteria decora, whereas D. semilunaris is grouped with D. lanceolata. Although Phascolodon appeared as sister to Pseudochilodonopsis in the present work, its accurate phylogenetic position is still uncertain because AU test did not reject the possibility that it clustered with Odontochlamys and Chilodonella.

  15. D-3 phosphoinositides of the ciliate Tetrahymena: characterization and study of their regulatory role in lysosomal enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Leondaritis, George; Tiedtke, Arno; Galanopoulou, Dia

    2005-09-30

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, PtdIns3P, is a phosphoinositide which is implicated in regulating membrane trafficking in both mammalian and yeast cells. It also serves as a precursor for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PtdIns3,5P2, a phosphoinositide, the exact functions of which remain unknown. In this report, we show that these two phosphoinositides are constitutive lipid components of the ciliate Tetrahymena. Using HPLC analysis, PtdIns3P and PtdIns3,5P2 were found to comprise 16% and 30-40% of their relevant phosphoinositide pools, respectively. Treatment of Tetrahymena cells with wortmannin (0.1-10 microM) resulted in the depletion of PtdIns3P and PtdIns3,5P2 without any effect on D-4 phosphoinositides. Wortmannin was further used for the investigation of D-3 phosphoinositide involvement in the regulation of lysosomal vesicular trafficking. Incubation of Tetrahymena cells with wortmannin resulted in enhanced secretion of two different lysosomal enzymes without any change in their total activities. Experiments performed with a T. thermophila secretion mutant strain verified that the wortmannin-induced secretion is specific and it is not due to a diversion of lysosomal enzymes to other secretory pathways. Moreover, experiments performed with a phagocytosis-deficient T. thermophila strain showed that a substantial fraction of wortmannin-induced secretion was dependent on the presence of functional phagosomes/phagolysosomes.

  16. Biogeography and Character Evolution of the Ciliate Genus Euplotes (Spirotrichea, Euplotia), with Description of Euplotes curdsi sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Syberg-Olsen, Mitchell J.; Irwin, Nicholas A. T.; Vannini, Claudia; Erra, Fabrizio; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Boscaro, Vittorio; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Ciliates comprise a diverse and ecologically important phylum of unicellular protists. One of the most specious and best-defined genera is Euplotes, which constitutes more than 70 morphospecies, many of which have never been molecularly tested. The increasing number of described Euplotes taxa emphasizes the importance for detailed characterizations of new ones, requiring standardized morphological observations, sequencing of molecular markers and careful comparison with previous literature. Here we describe Euplotes curdsi sp. nov., distinguishable by the combination of the following features: 45–65 μm length, oval or elongated shape with both ends rounded, narrow peristome with 25–34 adoral membranelles, conspicuous paroral membrane, double-eurystomus dorsal argyrome type, 6–7 dorsolateral kineties and 10 frontoventral cirri. Three populations of the novel species have been found in brackish and marine samples in the Mediterranean and the White Sea. We provide the SSU rRNA gene sequences of these populations, and an updated phylogeny of the genus Euplotes. Using the molecular phylogenetic tree, we inferred aspects of the biogeographical history of the genus and the evolution of its most important taxonomic characters in order to provide a frame for future descriptions. Ultimately, these data reveal recurrent trends of freshwater invasion and highlight the dynamic, yet convergent, morphological evolution of Euplotes. PMID:27828996

  17. Morphology of Clapsiella magnifica gen. n., sp. n., a new hypotrichous ciliate with a curious dorsal ciliary pattern.

    PubMed

    Küppers, Gabriela Cristina

    2014-08-01

    The present work describes the morphology and infraciliature of a new hypotrichous ciliate, Clapsiella magnifica gen. n., sp. n., found in rewetted soil from a temporal pond in Argentina. It was studied by means of live observation and protargol impregnation. Its main diagnostic features are: Flexible hypotrich measuring 250-320 μm × 70-140 μm in vivo; two macronuclear nodules and 4-6 micronuclei. Single contractile vacuole. Cytoplasm transparent, cortical granules absent. Somatic ciliature composed of a tricorona of cirri, three buccal(?) cirri, 6-9 ventral rows, 3-5 right marginal(?) rows, one left marginal row, and 12-17 transverse cirri. Dorsal pattern rather complicated, with about 14 kineties and kinety fragments, with scattered kinetids among them; 17-28 caudal cirri arranged in three rows on dorsal kineties 1, 3, and 7. Remarkably, dorsal kinetids have two or four basal bodies, bearing a stiff bristle arising from left anterior basal body. Adoral zone composed of 70-92 membranelles, occupying about 40% of body length in protargol preparations; paroral and endoral curved, resembling a cyrtohymenid pattern. The peculiar dorsal ciliary arrangement and the unique combination of other characters require the establishment of a new genus for this new species, which is considered incertae sedis in the Hypotricha but possibly related to the oxytrichids.

  18. Primary and secondary siRNA synthesis triggered by RNAs from food bacteria in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Carradec, Quentin; Götz, Ulrike; Arnaiz, Olivier; Pouch, Juliette; Simon, Martin; Meyer, Eric; Marker, Simone

    2015-02-18

    In various organisms, an efficient RNAi response can be triggered by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an endogenous gene. However, the detailed mechanisms and natural functions of this pathway are not well understood in most cases. Here, we studied siRNA biogenesis from exogenous RNA and its genetic overlap with endogenous RNAi in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia by high-throughput sequencing. Using wild-type and mutant strains deficient for dsRNA feeding we found that high levels of primary siRNAs of both strands are processed from the ingested dsRNA trigger by the Dicer Dcr1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases Rdr1 and Rdr2 and other factors. We further show that this induces the synthesis of secondary siRNAs spreading along the entire endogenous mRNA, demonstrating the occurrence of both 3'-to-5' and 5'-to-3' transitivity for the first time in the SAR clade of eukaryotes (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria). Secondary siRNAs depend on Rdr2 and show a strong antisense bias; they are produced at much lower levels than primary siRNAs and hardly contribute to RNAi efficiency. We further provide evidence that the Paramecium RNAi machinery also processes single-stranded RNAs from its bacterial food, broadening the possible natural functions of exogenously induced RNAi in this organism.

  19. Morphological and molecular phylogeny of dileptid and tracheliid ciliates: Resolution at the base of the class Litostomatea (Ciliophora, Rhynchostomatia)

    PubMed Central

    Vďačný, Peter; Orsi, William; Bourland, William A.; Shimano, Satoshi; Epstein, Slava S.; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Dileptid and tracheliid ciliates have been traditionally classified within the subclass Haptoria of the class Litostomatea. However, their phylogenetic position among haptorians has been controversial and indicated that they may play a key role in understanding litostomatean evolution. In order to reconstruct the evolutionary history of dileptids and tracheliids, and to unravel their affinity to other haptorians, we have used a cladistic approach based on morphological evidence and a phylogenetic approach based on 18S rRNA gene sequences, including eight new ones. The molecular trees demonstrate that dileptids and tracheliids represent a separate subclass, Rhynchostomatia, that is sister to the subclasses Haptoria and Trichostomatia. The Rhynchostomatia are characterized by a ventrally located oral opening at the base of a proboscis that carries a complex oral ciliature. We have recognized two orders within Rhynchostomatia. The new order Tracheliida is monotypic, while the order Dileptida comprises two families: the new, typically bimacronucleate family Dimacrocaryonidae and the multimacronucleate family Dileptidae. The Haptoria evolved from the last common ancestor of the Litostomatea by polarization of the body, the oral opening locating more or less apically and the oral ciliature simplifying. The Trichostomatia originated from a microaerophylic haptorian by further simplification of the oral ciliature, possibly due to an endosymbiotic lifestyle. PMID:21641780

  20. Prototapirella ciliates from wild habituated Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Rwanda with the descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Eckardt, Winnie; Stoinski, Tara S; Gillespie, Thomas R; Tokiwa, Toshihiro

    2016-06-01

    The morphology of Prototapirella fosseyi n. sp., P. rwanda n. sp. and P. gorillaeImai, Ikeda, Collet, and Bonhomme, 1991 in the Entodiniomorphida were described from the mountain gorillas, Gorilla beringei beringei, in Rwanda. The ciliates have a retractable adoral ciliary zone, four non-retractable ciliary tufts in four caudalia, and one broad skeletal plate beneath the body surface. P. rwanda has a dorsal lobe and ventral lobes in two rows whereas P. fosseyi has no lobes. These two new species have an elongated body, a flat tail flap leaning to the ventral, a macronucleus with a tapering anterior end, a round posterior end and a shallow depression on the dorsal side, a micronucleus lying near the anterior end of macronucleus, a thin left region of the skeletal plate, a distinct skeletal rod plate, and four contractile vacuoles. P. gorillae has some variations in the nuclei and the skeletal plate. The infraciliary bands of three Prototapirella species were the same as some Triplumaria species; a C-shaped adoral polybrachykinety, a slender perivestibular polybrachykinety, and paralabial kineties in their retractable adoral ciliary zone and short lateral polybrachykineties in their four caudalia. The perivestibular polybrachykinety is joined only to the right end of adoral polybrachykinety.

  1. A P450 gene associated with robust resistance to DDT in ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila by efficient degradation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lifang; Fu, Chengjie; Yuan, Dongxia; Miao, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of metabolic mechanisms of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) accumulation and degradation in microorganisms, which could be used to reduce its hazard to higher organisms at the higher in the food chain, have not been investigated. Robust resistance to DDT (grows well in 256 mg/L DDT) and a surprising ability to degrade DDT (more than 70% DDT within 4h) were found in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. A P450 gene (CYP5013C2) was found to respond specifically to DDT treatment. In the presence of 256 mg/L DDT, cells with overexpressing CYP5013C2 (p450-OE) grew faster and degraded DDT more efficiently than wild-type (WT) cells, while cells with CYP5013C2 partially knocked down (p450-KD) grew slower and exhibited reduced ability to degrade DDT compared to WT cells. Both dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) were detected in cells after exposure to DDT, and the concentration of DDD in the p450-OE strain gradually decreased from 0.5 to 4h. Thus, we argue that this P450 gene (CYP5013C2), by efficiently degrading DDT to DDD, is associated with robust resistance to DDT in Tetrahymena, and that a strain overexpressing this gene has the potential to serve as bioreactor that degrades environmental DDT.

  2. Notes on two marine ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China: Placus salinus and Strombidium apolatum (Protozoa, Ciliophora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dapeng; Song, Weibo; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2005-04-01

    The living morphology and infraciliature of two rare marine ciliates, Placus salinus Dietz, 1964 and Strombidium apolatum Wilbert and Song, 2005, collected from the coastal waters near Qingdao, China, were investigated by in vivo observation and protargol impregnation technique. The improved diagnosis for Placus salinus is as follows: medium-sized marine Placus, in vivo (50-60)µm×(30-40)µm; cell elliptical to barrel-shaped; 28-31 somatic kineties; single macronucleus usually ellipsoid and one micronucleus located in the indention of the macronucleus; one contractile vacuole posteriorly positioned. Strombidium apolatum is characterized by: marine strombidium (40-60)µm×(30-45)µmm in vivo, cordiform in shape with somewhat pointed posterior end and conspicuous apical protrusion; extrusomes prominent, about 15µm in length and evenly arranged along the circle kinety; about 16 collar and 5-6 buccal membranelles; one elongate macronucleus and one micronucleus; circle and ventral kineties consisting of about 53 and 45 dikinetids respectively.

  3. Morphogenesis of the marine ciliate, Pseudoamphisiella alveolata (Kahl, 1932) Song & Warren, 2000 (Ciliophora, Stichotrichia, Urostylida) during binary fission.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chen; Song, Weibo; Warren, Alan; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gong, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Morphogenesis during the binary fission of the stichotrich ciliate Pseudoamphisiella alveolata, isolated from Jiaozhou Bay near Qingdao, China, was investigated using protargol silver impregnation. The process is characterized as follows: (1) in the proter, only the posterior part of the parental adoral zone of membranelles is renewed, where the membranelles dedifferentiate and then rebuild the UM-anlage and the missing membranelles, (2) the oral primordium in the opisthe and the FVT-anlagen in both dividers are formed de novo on the cell surface, (3) an "extra" anlage, which is generated on the right of the right marginal anlage, develops into three or four "extra" marginal cirri that connect the caudal cirri with the marginal rows, (4) the right marginal anlage is formed within the old structure, (5) the FVT-cirri develop in a primary mode, and (6) unlike most stichotrichs, the right marginal anlagen in both dividers generate closely together. As an additional contribution, the diversity of morphogenetic patterns within the genus Pseudoamphisiella is discussed. Based on both morphogenetic and SS rRNA gene sequencing data, the systematic position of the genus Pseudoamphisiella as well as the family Pseudoamphisiellidae Song et al. 1997 is briefly analyzed. The results indicate that they should very possibly represent a higher evolved group in the order Urostylida.

  4. Formation and ingression of division furrow can progress under the inhibitory condition of actin polymerization in ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuhta; Kushida, Yasuharu; Kiriyama, Shuhei; Nakano, Kentaro; Numata, Osamu

    2013-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells that multiply by binary fission, the interaction of actin filaments with myosin II in the contractile ring is widely recognized to generate force for membrane ingression into the cleavage furrow; however, the expression of myosin II is restricted in animals, yeast, fungi, and amoeba (collectively, unikonts). No corresponding motor protein capable of forming mini-filaments that could exert sufficient tension to cleave the cell body is found in bikonts, consisting of planta, algae, and most protozoa; however, cells in some bikont lineages multiply by binary fission, as do animal cells. Of these, the ciliate Tetrahymena is known to form an actin ring beneath the division furrow in cytokinesis. Here, we investigated the role of filamentous actin in the cytokinesis of Tetrahymena pyriformis by treating synchronized dividing cells with an actin-inhibiting drug, Latrunculin-A. Video microscopic observation of live cells undergoing cytokinesis was performed, and contrary to expectation, we found that initiation of furrow ingression and its progress are not suppressed under the inhibitory condition of actin polymerization in Tetrahymena cells. We suggest that an actin filament-independent mechanism of binary fission may have been acquired during the evolution in this organism.

  5. The rumen ciliate fauna of domestic sheep (Ovis ammon aires) from the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Göçmen, B; Dehority, B A; Talu, G H; Rastgeldy, S

    2001-01-01

    Concentration and composition of ciliate protozoa in the families Ophryoscolecidae and Isotrichidae were determined in rumen contents of domestic sheep (Ovis ammon aries) from Cyprus. A total of five genera of Ophryoscolecidae were identified, Metadinium, Enoploplastron, Polyplastron, Epidinium, and Ophrvoscolex, which included six species: Metadinium affine, Enoploplastron triloricatum, Polyplastron multivesiculatum, Epidinium ecaudatum, Epidinium graini, and Ophryoscolex purkynjei. Eight separate forms of Epidinium were identified (E. ecaudatum f. ecaudatum, E. e. f. caudatum, E. e. f. bicaudatum, E. e. f. tricaudatum, E. e. f. quadricaudatum, E. graini f. graini, E. g. f. caudatricoronatum, and E. g. f. caudaquadricoroniatum), along with five forms of Ophryoscolex purkynjei (O. p. f. purkynjei, O. p. f. bifidobicinctus, O. p. f. bifidoquadricinctus, O. p. f. bicoronatus, O. p. f. tricoronatus, and O. p. f. quadricoronatus). Three species of Isotrichidae were observed, Isotricha intestinalis, I. prostoma, and Dasytricha ruminantium. This study reports new host records for three forms of Epidinium graini and Ophryoscolex purkynjei f. bifidobicinctus. The rumen fauna in the family Ophryoscolecidae from Cypriote domestic sheep appear to have limited diversity compared to those from Turkish and Far Eastern (Chinese/Japanese) sheep, while they are more diverse than those found in Western European (Scottish) and North American (Canadian/Alaskan) sheep.

  6. An integrative approach to phylogeny reveals patterns of environmental distribution and novel evolutionary relationships in a major group of ciliates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Clamp, John; Xu, Dapeng; Huang, Bangqin; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2016-02-16

    Peritrichs are a major group of ciliates with worldwide distribution. Yet, its internal phylogeny remains unresolved owing to limited sampling. Additionally, ecological distributions of peritrichs are poorly known. We performed substantially expanded phylogenetic analyses of peritrichs that incorporated SSU rDNA sequences of samples collected from three continents, revealing a number of new relationships between and within major lineages that greatly challenged the classic view of the group. Interrogation of a dataset comprising new environmental sequences from an estuary and the open ocean generated with high throughput sequencing and clone libraries plus putative environmental peritrich sequences at Genbank, produced a comprehensive tree of peritrichs from a variety of habitats and revealed unique ecological distribution patterns of several lineages for the first time. Also, evidence of adaptation to extreme environments in the Astylozoidae clade greatly broadened the phylogenetic range of peritrichs capable of living in extreme environments. Reconstruction of ancestral states revealed that peritrichs may have transitioned repeatedly from freshwater to brackish/marine/hypersaline environments. This work establishes a phylogenetic framework for more mature investigations of peritrichs in the future, and the approach used here provides a model of how to elucidate evolution in the context of ecological niches in any lineage of microbial eukaryotes.

  7. Photosensory transduction in ciliates. II. Possible role of G-protein and cGMP in Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Fabczak, H; Park, P B; Fabczak, S; Song, P S

    1993-04-01

    The heterotrichous ciliate, Stentor coeruleus, exhibits a well-defined photophobic response to a sudden increase in the intensity of visible light. The phobic reactions usually appear with a latency period (i.e. a time delay between the onset of the stimulus and the stop response). This latency of phobic response was significantly increased when the cells were incubated with 8-bromo-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. In the presence of this nucleotide, a reduction of cell responsiveness (i.e. the number of photophobically responding cells) was also observed. Similar effects were observed when cells were treated with pertussis toxin, a G-protein activity modulator, and 3'-isobutyl-methylxanthine, an inhibitor of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase. The G-protein activator fluoroaluminate and 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY 83583) (an effective agent for lowering cellular cGMP levels) showed opposite effects on the cell photophobic response. These results indirectly suggest that the level of cytoplasmic cGMP, possibly modulated by a G-protein-coupled cGMP phosphodiesterase, plays a phototransducing role in Stentor. In addition, using an antiserum raised against bovine transducin, a cross-reacting protein with an apparent molecular mass of 39 kDa was detected on immunoblots. The alpha-subunit of a Stentor G-protein has also been partially cloned and sequenced. However, the possible coupling between the G-protein and the putative phosphodiesterase remains to be established.

  8. An integrative approach to phylogeny reveals patterns of environmental distribution and novel evolutionary relationships in a major group of ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Clamp, John; Xu, Dapeng; Huang, Bangqin; Shin, Mann Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    Peritrichs are a major group of ciliates with worldwide distribution. Yet, its internal phylogeny remains unresolved owing to limited sampling. Additionally, ecological distributions of peritrichs are poorly known. We performed substantially expanded phylogenetic analyses of peritrichs that incorporated SSU rDNA sequences of samples collected from three continents, revealing a number of new relationships between and within major lineages that greatly challenged the classic view of the group. Interrogation of a dataset comprising new environmental sequences from an estuary and the open ocean generated with high throughput sequencing and clone libraries plus putative environmental peritrich sequences at Genbank, produced a comprehensive tree of peritrichs from a variety of habitats and revealed unique ecological distribution patterns of several lineages for the first time. Also, evidence of adaptation to extreme environments in the Astylozoidae clade greatly broadened the phylogenetic range of peritrichs capable of living in extreme environments. Reconstruction of ancestral states revealed that peritrichs may have transitioned repeatedly from freshwater to brackish/marine/hypersaline environments. This work establishes a phylogenetic framework for more mature investigations of peritrichs in the future, and the approach used here provides a model of how to elucidate evolution in the context of ecological niches in any lineage of microbial eukaryotes. PMID:26880590

  9. Morphology, morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny of a soil ciliate, Pseudouroleptus caudatus caudatus Hemberger, 1985 (Ciliophora, Hypotricha), from Lhalu Wetland, Tibet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Xiaolu; Ma, Honggang; Warren, Alan; Shao, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Pseudouroleptus caudatus caudatus Hemberger, 1985, a soil ciliate isolated from Tibet, was studied in vivo and after protargol impregnation. The Tibetan population is mainly characterized by: elongate body with narrowly rounded anterior end and tapered posterior end; length of buccal area relative to body length ca. 20-25%; cortical granules colourless, round, densely distributed throughout sub-pellicular layer of cell; one parabuccal cirrus; post-peristomial cirrus lacking in 75% of specimens analyzed; left and right ventral rows commence at same level; four dorsal kineties; 3-6 inconspicuous caudal cirri; two macronuclear nodules; 2-7 micronuclei; contractile vacuole located at about 33% of body length near left margin. Morphogenesis is characterized by: (1) parental adoral zone of membranelles retained completely; (2) anterior segments of streaks VI and IV and the whole of streak V form the anterior, middle, posterior segments of the mixed row, respectively; (3) right ventral row originates de novo in both daughter cells; (4) marginal rows develop intrakinetally; (5) dorsal kinety anlage 3 develops de novo in the proter and intrakinetally in the opisthe; and (6) the two macronuclear nodules fuse into a single mass which then divides. Molecular phylogenies corroborate the morphological identification and support the close relationship between Pseudouroleptus and Strongylidium.

  10. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species

    PubMed Central

    Bastidas, Carolina; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD) and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day). However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day) and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day). Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean. PMID:27547525

  11. Morphology, ontogeny and molecular phylogeny of a novel saline soil ciliate, Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp. (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Lyu, Zhao; Warren, Alan; Wang, Feng; Shao, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new ciliate, Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp., collected from saline soil in Weinan, China, were studied in vivo and after protargol staining. Urosomoida paragiliformis n. sp. is characterized as follows: body elongate-elliptical with no tail, flexible and slightly contractile; cortical granules dark-brown, 0.5μm across, arranged in short irregular rows; about 33 adoral membranelles; 14 frontoventral-transverse cirri; right and left marginal rows not confluent posteriorly; two macronuclear nodules. Morphogenesis of U. paragiliformis n. sp. corresponds well with that of other Urosomoida-species except that in reorganisers the oral primordium develops membranelles that replace those at the proximal end of the old adoral zone, whereas in dividers the entire parental adoral zone of membranelles is inherited by the proter. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequence data suggest a close relationship between U. paragiliformis n. sp. and Paraurosomoida indiensis. A new combination is made: Oxytrichella subtropica (Fan et al., 2015) comb. nov. (basionym Urosomoida subtropica).

  12. Tissue mortality by Caribbean ciliate infection and white band disease in three reef-building coral species.

    PubMed

    Verde, Alejandra; Bastidas, Carolina; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean ciliate infection (CCI) and white band disease (WBD) are diseases that affect a multitude of coral hosts and are associated with rapid rates of tissue losses, thus contributing to declining coral cover in Caribbean reefs. In this study we compared tissue mortality rates associated to CCI in three species of corals with different growth forms: Orbicella faveolata (massive-boulder), O. annularis (massive-columnar) and Acropora cervicornis (branching). We also compared mortality rates in colonies of A. cervicornis bearing WBD and CCI. The study was conducted at two locations in Los Roques Archipelago National Park between April 2012 and March 2013. In A. cervicornis, the rate of tissue loss was similar between WBD (0.8 ± 1 mm/day, mean ± SD) and CCI (0.7 ± 0.9 mm/day). However, mortality rate by CCI in A. cervicornis was faster than in the massive species O. faveolata (0.5 ± 0.6 mm/day) and O. annularis (0.3 ± 0.3 mm/day). Tissue regeneration was at least fifteen times slower than the mortality rates for both diseases regardless of coral species. This is the first study providing coral tissue mortality and regeneration rates associated to CCI in colonies with massive morphologies, and it highlights the risks of further cover losses of the three most important reef-building species in the Caribbean.

  13. Transcription-Independent Functions of an RNA Polymerase II Subunit, Rpb2, During Genome Rearrangement in the Ciliate, Oxytricha trifallax

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Jaspreet S.; Wang, Xing; Chen, Xiao; Perlman, David H.; Landweber, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II (Pol-II) holoenzyme, responsible for messenger RNA production, typically consists of 10–12 subunits. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that maternally deposited, long, noncoding, template RNAs are essential for programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. Here we show that such RNAs are bidirectionally transcribed and transported to the zygotic nucleus. The gene encoding the second-largest subunit of Pol-II, Rpb2, has undergone gene duplication, and the two paralogs, Rpb2-a and -b, display different expression patterns. Immunoprecipitation of double-stranded RNAs identified an association with Rpb2-a. Through immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we show that Rpb2-a in early zygotes appears surprisingly unassociated with other Pol II subunits. A partial loss of function of Rpb2-a leads to an increase in expression of transposons and other germline-limited satellite repeats. We propose that evolutionary divergence of the Rpb2 paralogs has led to acquisition of transcription-independent functions during sexual reproduction that may contribute to the negative regulation of germline gene expression. PMID:24793090

  14. Protist-Bacteria Associations: Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria Are Prevalent as Digestion-Resistant Bacteria in Ciliated Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jun; Qing, Yao; Zou, Songbao; Fu, Rao; Su, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian

    2016-01-01

    Protistan bacterivory, a microbial process involving ingestion and digestion, is ecologically important in the microbial loop in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. While bacterial resistance to protistan ingestion has been relatively well understood, little is known about protistan digestion in which some ingested bacteria could not be digested in cells of major protistan grazers in the natural environment. Here we report the phylogenetic identities of digestion-resistant bacteria (DRB) that could survive starvation and form relatively stable associations with 11 marine and one freshwater ciliate species. Using clone library and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, we found that the protistan predators could host a high diversity of DRB, most of which represented novel bacterial taxa that have not been cultivated. The localization inside host cells, quantity, and viability of these bacteria were checked using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The DRB were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Parcubacteria (OD1), Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria, with Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria being the most frequently occurring classes. The dominance of Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria corresponds well to a previous study of Global Ocean Sampling metagenomic data showing the widespread types of bacterial type VI and IV secretion systems (T6SS and T4SS) in these two taxa, suggesting a putatively significant role of secretion systems in promoting marine protist-bacteria associations. In the DRB assemblages, opportunistic bacteria such as Alteromonadaceae, Pseudoalteromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae often presented with high proportions, indicating these bacteria could evade protistan grazing thus persist and accumulate in the community, which, however, contrasts with their well-known rarity in nature. This begs the question whether viral lysis is significant in killing these indigestible bacteria in microbial communities. Taken together, our study on

  15. Free-living ciliates as potential reservoirs for eukaryotic parasites: occurrence of a trypanosomatid in the macronucleus of Euplotes encysticus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flagellates of the family Trypanosomatidae are obligate endoparasites, which can be found in various hosts. Several genera infect insects and occur as monoxenous parasites especially in representatives of Diptera and Hemiptera. These trypanosomatid flagellates probably share the worldwide distribution of their hosts, which are often infested by large numbers of endoparasites. Traditionally, their taxonomy was based on morphology, host origin, and life cycle. Here we report the characterization of a trypanosomatid infection detected in a protozoan, a ciliate collected from a polluted freshwater pond in a suburb of New Delhi (India). Methods Live observations and morphological studies applying light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy were conducted. Molecular analyses of host and parasite were performed and used for phylogenetic reconstructions and species (host) or genus level (parasite) identification. Results Although the morphological characteristics were not revealing, a high similarity of the trypanosomatids 18S rRNA gene sequence to Herpetomonas ztiplika and Herpetomonas trimorpha (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae), both parasites of biting midges (Culicoides kibunensis and Culicoides truncorum, respectively) allowed the assignment to this genus. The majority of the host population displayed a heavy infection that significantly affected the shape of the host macronucleus, which was the main site of parasite localization. In addition, the growth rate of host cultures, identified as Euplotes encysticus according to cell morphology and 18S rRNA gene sequence, was severely impacted by the infection. Conclusions The host-parasite system described here represents a recent example of free-living protists acting as environmental reservoirs for parasitic eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:24774858

  16. UV Radiation and Visible Light Induce hsp70 Gene Expression in the Antarctic Psychrophilic Ciliate Euplotes focardii.

    PubMed

    Fulgentini, Lorenzo; Passini, Valerio; Colombetti, Giuliano; Miceli, Cristina; La Terza, Antonietta; Marangoni, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    The psychrophilic ciliate Euplotes focardii inhabits the shallow marine coastal sediments of Antarctica, where, over millions of years of evolution, it has reached a strict molecular adaptation to such a constant-temperature environment (about -2 °C). This long evolution at sub-zero temperatures has made E. focardii unable to respond to heat stress with the activation of its heat shock protein (hsp) 70 genes. These genes can, however, be expressed in response to other stresses, like the oxidative one, thus indicating that the molecular adaptation has exclusively altered the heat stress signaling pathways, while it has preserved hsp70 gene activation in response to other environmental stressors. Since radiative stress has proved to be affine to oxidative stress in several organisms, we investigated the capability of UV radiation to induce hsp70 transcription. E. focardii cell cultures were exposed to several different irradiation regimes, ranging from visible only to a mixture of visible, UV-A and UV-B. The irradiation values of each spectral band have been set to be comparable with those recorded in a typical Antarctic spring. Using Northern blot analysis, we measured the expression level of hsp70 immediately after irradiation (0-h-labeled samples), 1 h, and 2 h from the end of the irradiation. Surprisingly, our results showed that besides UV radiation, the visible light was also able to induce hsp70 expression in E. focardii. Moreover, spectrophotometric measurements have revealed no detectable endogenous pigments in E. focardii, making it difficult to propose a possible explanation for the visible light induction of its hsp70 genes. Further research is needed to conclusively clarify this point.

  17. Ciliated protists from the nepheloid layer and water column of sites affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Tominack, Sarah; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    Benthic marine protists have been well documented from shallow marine benthic habitats but remain understudied in deeper habitats on continental shelves and slopes, particularly in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM). This region was affected by a deep water oil well failure (BP-Deepwater Horizon, 2010). The combination of a lack of information on deep sea microbenthic communities and the potential for benthic microbial petroleum mineralization prompted this investigation. Water column and nepheloid layer samples were obtained via Niskin bottles and a multicorer respectively at stations across the NEGOM to: (1) determine whether nepheloid and water column communities are distinct and (2) assess benthic species richness relative to sediment PAH contamination. Phylum specific 18S rRNA gene amplification was used to construct clone libraries of ciliate assemblages. BLAST searches in the NCBI database indicated that a majority (~75%) of the clone sequences corresponded (94-100% similarity) with listed, yet unclassified sequences. Several putative species were common at most site locations and depths. Many known benthic ciliates, such as Uronychia transfuga, Uronychia setigera, and Spirotrachelostyla tani, were common in the nepheloid layer samples and not recovered in water column samples. Ciliated protist species richness increased with PAH levels found in surface sediments, suggesting a positive microbial response to petroleum enrichment of the benthos. The presence of previously unknown microbenthic communites in the nephaloid layer over oceanic clay-silt muds alters our view of microbial processes in the deep sea and merits investigation of the microbial processes and rates of microbial mineralization and biomass production important to global biogeochemistry.

  18. Two-step freezing procedure for cryopreservation of rumen ciliates, an effective tool for creation of a frozen rumen protozoa bank.

    PubMed

    Nsabimana, E; Kisidayová, S; Macheboeuf, D; Newbold, C J; Jouany, J P

    2003-07-01

    The present study aimed at the long-term storage of rumen protozoa as living cells in liquid nitrogen. The two-step or interrupted slow freezing procedure was used to cryopreserve six of the dominant species of rumen ciliates isolated from monofaunated animals, Dasytricha ruminantium, Entodinium caudatum, Epidinium ecaudatum caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Isotricha prostoma, and Polyplastron multivesiculatum. We optimized the first step in the interrupted slow freezing procedure, from the extracellular ice nucleation temperature to the holding temperature, and studied the effects of the cooling rates on survival. In addition to the nature of the cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide), the equilibration temperature and equilibration time (25 degrees C and 5 min, respectively), and the holding time at subzero temperature (45 min) recommended previously (S. Kisidayová, J. Microbiol. Methods 22:185-192, 1995), we found that a holding temperature of -30 degrees C, a cooling rate from extracellular ice nucleation temperature to holding temperature of between 1.2 degrees C/min and 2.5 degrees C/min, depending on the ciliate, and rumen juice as the freezing and thawing medium markedly improved the survival rate. Survival rates determined after 2 weeks in liquid nitrogen were 100% for Isotricha, 98% for Dasytricha, 85% for Epidinium, 79% for Polyplastron, 63% for Eudiplodinium, and 60% for Entodinium. They were not significantly modified after a period of 1 year in liquid nitrogen. Four of the five ciliate species cryopreserved for 8 months in liquid nitrogen successfully colonized the rumen when inoculated into defaunated animals. These results have made it possible to set up a bank of cryopreserved rumen protozoa.

  19. Mating of the Stichotrichous Ciliate Oxytricha trifallax Induces Production of a Class of 27 nt Small RNAs Derived from the Parental Macronucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zahler, Alan M.; Neeb, Zachary T.; Lin, Athena; Katzman, Sol

    2012-01-01

    Ciliated protozoans possess two types of nuclei; a transcriptionally silent micronucleus, which serves as the germ line nucleus, and a transcriptionally active macronucleus, which serves as the somatic nucleus. The macronucleus is derived from a new diploid micronucleus after mating, with epigenetic information contributed by the parental macronucleus serving to guide the formation of the new macronucleus. In the stichotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax, the macronuclear DNA is highly processed to yield gene-sized nanochromosomes with telomeres at each end. Here we report that soon after mating of Oxytricha trifallax, abundant 27 nt small RNAs are produced that are not present prior to mating. We performed next generation sequencing of Oxytricha small RNAs from vegetative and mating cells. Using sequence comparisons between macronuclear and micronuclear versions of genes, we found that the 27 nt RNA class derives from the parental macronucleus, not the developing macronucleus. These small RNAs are produced equally from both strands of macronuclear nanochromosomes, but in a highly non-uniform distribution along the length of the nanochromosome, and with a particular depletion in the 30 nt telomere-proximal positions. This production of small RNAs from the parental macronucleus during macronuclear development stands in contrast to the mechanism of epigenetic control in the distantly related ciliate Tetrahymena. In that species, 28–29 nt scanRNAs are produced from the micronucleus and these micronuclear-derived RNAs serve as epigenetic controllers of macronuclear development. Unlike the Tetrahymena scanRNAs, the Oxytricha macronuclear-derived 27 mers are not modified by 2′O-methylation at their 3′ ends. We propose models for the role of these “27macRNAs” in macronuclear development. PMID:22900016

  20. In the polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax, the non-selective phagocytosis seen in microstomes changes to a highly selective process in macrostomes.

    PubMed

    Grønlien, Heidi K; Berg, Trond; Løvlie, Arne M

    2002-07-01

    Ciliates use phagocytosis to acquire edible particles. The polymorphic ciliate Tetrahymena vorax appears in two forms ('microstomes' and 'macrostomes'). Transformation of microstomes into macrostomes takes place in the presence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and enables the macrostome to phagocytose the latter species. The non-specific, constitutive phagocytosis in microstomes thereby changes into a specific inducible process in macrostomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the phagocytotic process in macrostomes is specifically aimed at catching T. thermophila. The two forms of phagocytosis represent an interesting model system for studying the mechanism whereby phagosomes are formed. The macrostomal form capture deciliated and ciliated Tetrahymena thermophila, latex beads with diameters of 20.3 and 30.0 microm and small microstomal cells. However, the macrostomes select T. thermophila as a prey when they have the opportunity to choose between deciliated T. thermophila and latex beads and between T. thermophila and microstomes. The non-selective formation of phagosomes seen in microstomes changes to a highly selective process during the transformation to macrostomes. Unlike microstomes, macrostomes do not form a closed vacuole after capturing a latex bead, indicating that mechanical stimulation by the prey does not in itself trigger phagocytosis in the macrostomal form of T. vorax. Although macrostomes captured T. thermophila in preference to microstomes, phagocytosis of microstomes started immediately following capture, indicating that the substance/molecule that triggers the formation of the phagosome is not specific for T. thermophila cells. After capturing a T. thermophila cell, the macrostomal cell, which normally swims in a forward direction, reverses direction and swims backwards for a short time before starting to rotate. Macrostomal cells did not change their swimming pattern after capturing a latex bead. We believe, therefore

  1. Ku-mediated coupling of DNA cleavage and repair during programmed genome rearrangements in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Marmignon, Antoine; Bischerour, Julien; Silve, Aude; Fojcik, Clémentine; Dubois, Emeline; Arnaiz, Olivier; Kapusta, Aurélie; Malinsky, Sophie; Bétermier, Mireille

    2014-08-01

    During somatic differentiation, physiological DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) can drive programmed genome rearrangements (PGR), during which DSB repair pathways are mobilized to safeguard genome integrity. Because of their unique nuclear dimorphism, ciliates are powerful unicellular eukaryotic models to study the mechanisms involved in PGR. At each sexual cycle, the germline nucleus is transmitted to the progeny, but the somatic nucleus, essential for gene expression, is destroyed and a new somatic nucleus differentiates from a copy of the germline nucleus. In Paramecium tetraurelia, the development of the somatic nucleus involves massive PGR, including the precise elimination of at least 45,000 germline sequences (Internal Eliminated Sequences, IES). IES excision proceeds through a cut-and-close mechanism: a domesticated transposase, PiggyMac, is essential for DNA cleavage, and DSB repair at excision sites involves the Ligase IV, a specific component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. At the genome-wide level, a huge number of programmed DSBs must be repaired during this process to allow the assembly of functional somatic chromosomes. To understand how DNA cleavage and DSB repair are coordinated during PGR, we have focused on Ku, the earliest actor of NHEJ-mediated repair. Two Ku70 and three Ku80 paralogs are encoded in the genome of P. tetraurelia: Ku70a and Ku80c are produced during sexual processes and localize specifically in the developing new somatic nucleus. Using RNA interference, we show that the development-specific Ku70/Ku80c heterodimer is essential for the recovery of a functional somatic nucleus. Strikingly, at the molecular level, PiggyMac-dependent DNA cleavage is abolished at IES boundaries in cells depleted for Ku80c, resulting in IES retention in the somatic genome. PiggyMac and Ku70a/Ku80c co-purify as a complex when overproduced in a heterologous system. We conclude that Ku has been integrated in the Paramecium DNA cleavage

  2. Ku-Mediated Coupling of DNA Cleavage and Repair during Programmed Genome Rearrangements in the Ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Marmignon, Antoine; Bischerour, Julien; Silve, Aude; Fojcik, Clémentine; Dubois, Emeline; Arnaiz, Olivier; Kapusta, Aurélie; Malinsky, Sophie; Bétermier, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    During somatic differentiation, physiological DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) can drive programmed genome rearrangements (PGR), during which DSB repair pathways are mobilized to safeguard genome integrity. Because of their unique nuclear dimorphism, ciliates are powerful unicellular eukaryotic models to study the mechanisms involved in PGR. At each sexual cycle, the germline nucleus is transmitted to the progeny, but the somatic nucleus, essential for gene expression, is destroyed and a new somatic nucleus differentiates from a copy of the germline nucleus. In Paramecium tetraurelia, the development of the somatic nucleus involves massive PGR, including the precise elimination of at least 45,000 germline sequences (Internal Eliminated Sequences, IES). IES excision proceeds through a cut-and-close mechanism: a domesticated transposase, PiggyMac, is essential for DNA cleavage, and DSB repair at excision sites involves the Ligase IV, a specific component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. At the genome-wide level, a huge number of programmed DSBs must be repaired during this process to allow the assembly of functional somatic chromosomes. To understand how DNA cleavage and DSB repair are coordinated during PGR, we have focused on Ku, the earliest actor of NHEJ-mediated repair. Two Ku70 and three Ku80 paralogs are encoded in the genome of P. tetraurelia: Ku70a and Ku80c are produced during sexual processes and localize specifically in the developing new somatic nucleus. Using RNA interference, we show that the development-specific Ku70/Ku80c heterodimer is essential for the recovery of a functional somatic nucleus. Strikingly, at the molecular level, PiggyMac-dependent DNA cleavage is abolished at IES boundaries in cells depleted for Ku80c, resulting in IES retention in the somatic genome. PiggyMac and Ku70a/Ku80c co-purify as a complex when overproduced in a heterologous system. We conclude that Ku has been integrated in the Paramecium DNA cleavage

  3. The Anti-Oxidant Defense System of the Marine Polar Ciliate Euplotes nobilii: Characterization of the MsrB Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Francesca; Lauro, Federico M; Grzymski, Joseph J; Read, Robert; Bakiu, Rigers; Santovito, Gianfranco; Luporini, Pierangelo; Vallesi, Adriana

    2017-01-18

    Organisms living in polar waters must cope with an extremely stressful environment dominated by freezing temperatures, high oxygen concentrations and UV radiation. To shed light on the genetic mechanisms on which the polar marine ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, relies to effectively cope with the oxidative stress, attention was focused on methionine sulfoxide reductases which repair proteins with oxidized methionines. A family of four structurally distinct MsrB genes, encoding enzymes specific for the reduction of the methionine-sulfoxide R-forms, were identified from a draft of the E. nobilii transcriptionally active (macronuclear) genome. The En-MsrB genes are constitutively expressed to synthesize proteins markedly different in amino acid sequence, number of CXXC motifs for zinc-ion binding, and presence/absence of a cysteine residue specific for the mechanism of enzyme regeneration. The En-MsrB proteins take different localizations in the nucleus, mitochondria, cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum, ensuring a pervasive protection of all the major subcellular compartments from the oxidative damage. These observations have suggested to regard the En-MsrB gene activity as playing a central role in the genetic mechanism that enables E. nobilii and ciliates in general to live in the polar environment.

  4. Conversion of omnipotent translation termination factor eRF1 into ciliate-like UGA-only unipotent eRF1.

    PubMed

    Seit-Nebi, Alim; Frolova, Ludmila; Kisselev, Lev

    2002-09-01

    In eukaryotic ribosomes, termination of translation is triggered by class 1 polypeptide release factor, eRF1. In organisms with a universal code, eRF1 responds to three stop codons, whereas, in ciliates with variant codes, only one or two codon(s) remain(s) as stop signals. By mutagenesis of the Y-C-F minidomain of the N domain, we converted an omnipotent human eRF1 recognizing all three stop codons into a unipotent 'ciliate-like' UGA-only eRF1. The conserved Cys127 located in the Y-C-F minidomain plays a critical role in stop codon recognition. The UGA-only response has also been achieved by concomitant substitutions of four other amino acids located at the Y-C-F and NIKS minidomains of eRF1. We suggest that for eRF1 the stop codon decoding is of a non-linear (non-protein-anticodon) type and explores a combination of positive and negative determinants. We assume that stop codon recognition is profoundly different by eukaryotic and prokaryotic class 1 RFs.

  5. The Anti-Oxidant Defense System of the Marine Polar Ciliate Euplotes nobilii: Characterization of the MsrB Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Francesca; Lauro, Federico M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Read, Robert; Bakiu, Rigers; Santovito, Gianfranco; Luporini, Pierangelo; Vallesi, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Organisms living in polar waters must cope with an extremely stressful environment dominated by freezing temperatures, high oxygen concentrations and UV radiation. To shed light on the genetic mechanisms on which the polar marine ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, relies to effectively cope with the oxidative stress, attention was focused on methionine sulfoxide reductases which repair proteins with oxidized methionines. A family of four structurally distinct MsrB genes, encoding enzymes specific for the reduction of the methionine-sulfoxide R-forms, were identified from a draft of the E. nobilii transcriptionally active (macronuclear) genome. The En-MsrB genes are constitutively expressed to synthesize proteins markedly different in amino acid sequence, number of CXXC motifs for zinc-ion binding, and presence/absence of a cysteine residue specific for the mechanism of enzyme regeneration. The En-MsrB proteins take different localizations in the nucleus, mitochondria, cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum, ensuring a pervasive protection of all the major subcellular compartments from the oxidative damage. These observations have suggested to regard the En-MsrB gene activity as playing a central role in the genetic mechanism that enables E. nobilii and ciliates in general to live in the polar environment. PMID:28106766

  6. A morphogenetic survey on ciliate plankton from a mountain lake pinpoints the necessity of lineage-specific barcode markers in microbial ecology

    PubMed Central

    Stoeck, Thorsten; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Filker, Sabine; Ostermaier, Veronika; Kammerlander, Barbara; Sonntag, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of high-throughput environmental sequencing data have become the ‘gold-standard’ to address fundamental questions of microbial diversity, ecology and biogeography. Findings that emerged from sequencing are, e.g. the discovery of the extensive ‘rare microbial biosphere’ and its potential function as a seed-bank. Even though applied since several years, results from high-throughput environmental sequencing have hardly been validated. We assessed how well pyrosequenced amplicons [the hypervariable eukaryotic V4 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene] reflected morphotype ciliate plankton. Moreover, we assessed if amplicon sequencing had the potential to detect the annual ciliate plankton stock. In both cases, we identified significant quantitative and qualitative differences. Our study makes evident that taxon abundance distributions inferred from amplicon data are highly biased and do not mirror actual morphotype abundances at all. Potential reasons included cell losses after fixation, cryptic morphotypes, resting stages, insufficient sequence data availability of morphologically described species and the unsatisfying resolution of the V4 SSU rRNA fragment for accurate taxonomic assignments. The latter two underline the necessity of barcoding initiatives for eukaryotic microbes to better and fully exploit environmental amplicon data sets, which then will also allow studying the potential of seed-bank taxa as a buffer for environmental changes. PMID:23848238

  7. Analyses of chromosome copy number and expression level of four genes in the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata reveal a complex pattern that suggests epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Bellec, Laure; Katz, Laura A

    2012-08-10

    Chilodonella uncinata, like all ciliates, contains two distinct nuclei in every cell: a germline micronucleus and a somatic macronucleus. The macronucleus develops from the zygotic nucleus through a series of chromosomal rearrangements. Macronuclear development in C. uncinata yields a nucleus with highly amplified gene-sized chromosomes. The macronucleus is transcriptionally active during vegetative growth while there is no expression in the micronucleus except during a brief period following conjugation. Gene family evolution in ciliates occurs through complex processes including gene duplication and an alternative processing of scrambled genes. Here we use quantitative PCR to compare relative expression levels of eight genes (SSU-rDNA, actin, α-tubulin and five β-tubulin sequences) to their abundance as macronuclear chromosomes. We show that three strains of the morphospecies C. uncinata share similar patterns across all loci. For example, we find an inverse correlation among five β-tubulin genes whereby the more abundant macronuclear chromosomes have lower levels of expression compared to less abundant chromosomes. We discuss the implication of our findings, which suggest that epigenetic mechanisms maintain chromosome copy number in C. uncinata.

  8. A morphogenetic survey on ciliate plankton from a mountain lake pinpoints the necessity of lineage-specific barcode markers in microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Stoeck, Thorsten; Breiner, Hans-Werner; Filker, Sabine; Ostermaier, Veronika; Kammerlander, Barbara; Sonntag, Bettina

    2014-02-01

    Analyses of high-throughput environmental sequencing data have become the 'gold-standard' to address fundamental questions of microbial diversity, ecology and biogeography. Findings that emerged from sequencing are, e.g. the discovery of the extensive 'rare microbial biosphere' and its potential function as a seed-bank. Even though applied since several years, results from high-throughput environmental sequencing have hardly been validated. We assessed how well pyrosequenced amplicons [the hypervariable eukaryotic V4 region of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene] reflected morphotype ciliate plankton. Moreover, we assessed if amplicon sequencing had the potential to detect the annual ciliate plankton stock. In both cases, we identified significant quantitative and qualitative differences. Our study makes evident that taxon abundance distributions inferred from amplicon data are highly biased and do not mirror actual morphotype abundances at all. Potential reasons included cell losses after fixation, cryptic morphotypes, resting stages, insufficient sequence data availability of morphologically described species and the unsatisfying resolution of the V4 SSU rRNA fragment for accurate taxonomic assignments. The latter two underline the necessity of barcoding initiatives for eukaryotic microbes to better and fully exploit environmental amplicon data sets, which then will also allow studying the potential of seed-bank taxa as a buffer for environmental changes.

  9. Utility of combining morphological characters, nuclear and mitochondrial genes: An attempt to resolve the conflicts of species identification for ciliated protists.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Gentekaki, Eleni; Zhan, Aibin; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Song, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Ciliates comprise a highly diverse protozoan lineage inhabiting all biotopes and playing crucial roles in regulating microbial food webs. Nevertheless, subtle morphological differences and tiny sizes hinder proper species identification for many ciliates. Here, we use the species-rich taxon Frontonia and employ both nuclear and mitochondrial loci. We attempt to assess the level of genetic diversity and evaluate the potential of each marker in delineating species of Frontonia. Morphological features and ecological characteristics are also integrated into genetic results, in an attempt to resolve conflicts of species identification based on morphological and molecular methods. Our studies reveal: (1) the mitochondrial cox1 gene, nuclear ITS1 and ITS2 as well as the hypervariable D2 region of LSU rDNA are promising candidates for species delineation; (2) the cox1 gene provides the best resolution for analyses below the species level; (3) the V2 and V4 hypervariable regions of SSU rDNA, and D1 of LSU rDNA as well as the 5.8S rDNA gene do not show distinct barcoding gap due to overlap between intra- and inter-specific genetic divergences; (4) morphological character-based analysis shows promise for delimitation of Frontonia species; and (5) all gene markers and character-based analyses demonstrate that the genus Frontonia consists of three groups and monophyly of the genus Frontonia is questionable.

  10. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and gene expression changes under different growth conditions for the ciliate Anophryoides haemophila, the causative agent of bumper car disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Acorn, Adam R; Clark, K Fraser; Jones, Sarah; Després, Béatrice M; Munro, Sarah; Cawthorn, Richard J; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2011-06-01

    The scuticociliate Anophryoides haemophila, causes bumper car disease in American lobster (Homarus americanus) in commercial holding facilities in Atlantic Canada. While the parasite has been recognized since the 1970s and much has been learned about its biology, minimal molecular characterization exists. With genome consortiums turning to model organisms like the ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium, the amount of relevant sequence data available has made sequence surveys more attractive for gene discovery in related ciliates. We sequenced 9984 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a non-normalized A. haemophila cDNA library to characterize gene expression patterns, functional gene distribution and to discover novel genes related to the parasitic life history. The A. haemophila ESTs were grouped into 843 clusters and singletons with 658 EST clusters having identifiable homologs, while 159 ESTs were unique and had no similarity to any sequences in the public databases. Not unexpectedly, about 67% of the A. haemophila ESTs have similarity to annotated and hypothetical genes from the related oligohymenophorean ciliate, Tetrahymena. Numerous cysteine proteases, hypothetical proteins and novel sequences possess putative secretory signal peptides suggesting that they may contribute to the pathogenesis of bumper car disease in lobster. Real time RT-qPCR analysis of cathepsin L and two homologs of cathepsin B did not show any changes in gene expression under varying in vitro growth conditions or during a modified-in vivo infection which may be suggestive of the opportunistic life history strategy of this ciliate.

  11. ParameciumDB in 2011: new tools and new data for functional and comparative genomics of the model ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda

    2011-01-01

    ParameciumDB is a community model organism database built with the GMOD toolkit to integrate the genome and biology of the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia. Over the last four years, post-genomic data from proteome and transcriptome studies has been incorporated along with predicted orthologs in 33 species, annotations from the community and publications from the scientific literature. Available tools include BioMart for complex queries, GBrowse2 for genome browsing, the Apollo genome editor for expert curation of gene models, a Blast server, a motif finder, and a wiki for protocols, nomenclature guidelines and other documentation. In-house tools have been developed for ontology browsing and evaluation of off-target RNAi matches. Now ready for next-generation deep sequencing data and the genomes of other Paramecium species, this open-access resource is available at http://paramecium.cgm.cnrs-gif.fr.

  12. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  13. Growth restriction of an experimental live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine in human ciliated airway epithelium in vitro parallels attenuation in African green monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Scull, Margaret A.; Schmidt, Alexander C.; Murphy, Brian R.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are common causes of severe pediatric respiratory viral disease. We characterized wild-type HPIV2 infection in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium (HAE) and found that the virus replicates to high titer, sheds apically, targets ciliated cells, and induces minimal cytopathology. Replication of an experimental, live attenuated HPIV2 vaccine strain, containing both temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating mutations, was restricted >30-fold compared to rHPIV2-WT in HAE at 32°C and exhibited little productive replication at 37°C. This restriction paralleled attenuation in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, supporting the HAE model as an appropriate and convenient system for characterizing HPIV2 vaccine candidates. PMID:20139039

  14. Euplotespora binucleata n. gen., n. sp. (Protozoa: Microsporidia), a parasite infecting the hypotrichous ciliate Euplotes woodruffi, with observations on microsporidian infections in ciliophora.

    PubMed

    Fokin, Sergei I; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Erra, Fabrizio; Dini, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    A new microsporidian species, Euplotespora binucleata n. gen., n. sp., from the brackish-water ciliate Euplotes woodruffi is described and defined on the basis of life history characteristics, light and electron microscopic features, and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. The life cycle of E. binucleata n. sp. probably has rather short merogonic and relatively long sporogonic phases. Some uninuclear meronts and sporonts, along with diplokaryotic sporoblasts and spores, were found in experimentally infected host cells. Such a peculiar life cycle has been induced experimentally in Euplotes eurystomus and constitutively microsporidian-free stocks of E. woodruffi. Spores of E. binucleata n. sp. are monomorphic, ovoid-cylindrical in shape, 3.44+/-0.17 x 1.65+/-0.22 microm in size, and characterized by a diplokaryotic condition and a large posterior vacuole. The polar tube is isofilar, 4.5-5.5 microm in length when ejected, and lacking a distinctive coiled region (half-coiled). The polaroplast is divided into two regions: the anterior part has a few lamellae close to the anchoring disc; and the posterior part is a rounded body (sack), about one-quarter of the spore length. Spores do not appear to cluster together as a group. Each spore is surrounded by a sporophorous membrane closely adjacent to the exospore layer. A phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA sequences by different methods placed E. binucleata n. sp. in a clade with representatives of the microsporidian genera Cystosporogenes and Vittaforma. Observations of microsporidia in several other ciliates are discussed in view of the microsporidian infection frequency in the phylum Ciliophora.

  15. The effect of rumen ciliates on chitinolytic activity, chitin content and the number of fungal zoospores in the rumen fluid of sheep.

    PubMed

    Miltko, Renata; Bełżecki, Grzegorz; Herman, Andrzej; Kowalik, Barbara; Skomiał, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of selected protozoa on the degradation and concentration of chitin and the numbers of fungal zoospores in the rumen fluid of sheep. Three adult ewes were fed a hay-concentrate diet, defaunated, then monofaunated with Entodinium caudatum or Diploplastron affine alone and refaunated with natural rumen fauna. The average density of the protozoa population varied from 6.1 · 10(4) (D. affine) to 42.2 · 10(4) cells/ml rumen fluid (natural rumen fauna). The inoculation of protozoa in the rumen of defaunated sheep increased the total activity of chitinolytic enzymes from 2.9 to 3.6 μmol N-acetylglucosamine/g dry matter (DM) of rumen fluid per min, the chitin concentration from 6.3 to 7.2 mg/g DM of rumen fluid and the number of fungal zoospores from 8.1 to 10.9 · 10(5) cells/ml rumen fluid. All examined indices showed diurnal variations. Ciliate population density was highest immediately prior to feeding and lowest at 4 h thereafter. The opposite effects were observed for the numbers of fungal zoospores, the chitin concentration and chitinolytic activity. Furthermore, it was found that chitin from zoospores may account for up to 95% of total microbial chitin in the rumen fluid of sheep. In summary, the examined ciliate species showed the ability of chitin degradation as well as a positive influence on the development of the ruminal fungal population.

  16. Effect of high levels of the rotifer Lecane inermis on the ciliate community in laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs).

    PubMed

    Fyda, Janusz; Babko, Roman; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kocerba-Soroka, Wioleta; Sobczyk, Mateusz; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Due to its ability to feed on filamentous bacteria, the rotifer Lecane inermis has already been recognized as a potential control agent of activated sludge bulking, which is usually caused by the excessive growth of filamentous microorganisms. However, their effectiveness depends, in part, on their abundance. We studied the influence of high densities of L. inermis on the protozoan community in activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in 4 laboratory-scale sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs). Two treatments and two controls were subjected to nutrient removal system in process similar to that used in a WWTP. The experiment lasted 9 days and was repeated in 24-h cycles, including phases of agitation with feeding, aeration and agitation and sedimentation with decantation at the end of the cycle. In total, 32 taxa were identified, among which 25 were ciliated protozoa, 4 were amoebae, 2 were flagellates, and one was a nematode. Rotifers were then introduced to 2 bioreactors at a final concentration of 500ind.mL(-1), and the taxonomic composition and abundance of the activated sludge microfauna were assessed 2, 5 and 8 days thereafter. The mean density of ciliates on the first day of experiment was 12,610ind.mL(-1) and diminished to 4868±432ind.mL-±432ind.mL(-1) in the control and 5496±638ind.mL(-1) in the rotifer-treated group on the last day. Thus, even extremely high densities of artificially introduced rotifers did not negatively affect the protozoan community. On the contrary, the protozoan community was more diverse in the treatment group than in the control.

  17. Identification and molecular characterization of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family genes in the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus: the effect of benzo[a]pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone.

    PubMed

    Yim, Bora; Kim, Hokyun; Kim, Jisoo; Kim, Haeyeon; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-03-21

    Marine ciliate Euplotes crassus, a single-cell eukaryote, and has been considered as a model organism for monitoring of environmental pollutions in sediments. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) monooxygenase are phase I enzyme involved in detoxification of environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, little information on CYP450 family genes in ciliate is available. In the present study, acute toxicity of PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH-like model compound, beta-naphthoflavone (β-NF), was investigated; full-length cDNA sequences and genomic structure of five CYP450 genes (CYP5680A1, CYP5681A1, CYP5681B1, CYP5682A1, and CYP5683A1) were analyzed; and finally their activities and transcriptional changes were measured after exposure to PAHs for 48h. According to the results, B[a]P exposure showed a negative effect on E. crassus survival, whereas β-NF exposure showed no significant effect. The 8 h-LC50 value of B[a]P was determined to be 2.449 μM (95%-C.L., 7.726-3.619 μM). Five genes belonging to the CYP450 family had conserved domains and clustered with those of ciliate group, as revealed in phylogenetic analysis. CYP activity did not change after exposure to B[a]P, whereas it was slightly, but significantly, induced after exposure to β-NF. The mRNA expression of five CYP450 genes was significantly modulated in a concentration- and time-dependent manner after exposure to both the chemicals. Our findings suggest that CYP450 genes in E. crassus may be involved in detoxification of B[a]P and β-NF. This study would give a better understanding about the mode of action of B[a]P and β-NF in marine ciliates at the molecular level.

  18. A single amino acid substitution alters omnipotent eRF1 of Dileptus to euplotes-type dualpotent eRF1: standard codon usage may be advantageous in raptorial ciliates.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Kim, Oanh Thi Phuong; Ito, Koichi; Saito, Kazuki; Suzaki, Toshinobu; Harumoto, Terue

    2013-05-01

    Most ciliates use a deviant genetic code. Eukaryotic release factor (eRF1) appears to play an important role in the process of reassignment of stop codons. Although the precise site on eRF1 for recognition of stop codons remains obscure, studies have suggested that the tip region NIKS and its adjacent YxCxxxF motifs in domain 1 are important for stop codon recognition. Litostomatea is a class of ciliate that appears to use the standard genetic code. We used Dileptus (Litostomatea) eRF1 in this study to identify key residues located in or near the YxCxxxF motif. We predicted sites involving stop codon recognition by computational calculation of RNA-protein interaction propensity. We introduced mutations at the predicted sites of Dileptus eRF1 and examined the activity of the mutated Dileptus eRF1 using in vivo assay systems. The results show that the single mutation R128I (Dileptus eRF1 numbering) in the YxCxxxF motif converted the omnipotent recognition of Dileptus eRF1 to Euplotes-type dualpotent eRF1. Our results indicate that R128 is one of the key residues preserving the ability to recognize all three stop codons, especially UGA, in Dileptus. We discuss a possible advantage that ciliates from the Litostomatea class may gain from using the standard genetic code.

  19. Ciliate and mesozooplankton community response to increasing CO2 levels in the Baltic Sea: insights from a large-scale mesocosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischka, Silke; Bach, Lennart T.; Schulz, Kai-Georg; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Community approaches to investigating ocean acidification (OA) effects suggest a high tolerance of micro- and mesozooplankton to carbonate chemistry changes expected to occur within this century. Plankton communities in the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea frequently experience pH variations partly exceeding projections for the near future both on a diurnal and seasonal basis. We conducted a large-scale mesocosm CO2 enrichment experiment ( ˜ 55 m3) enclosing the natural plankton community in Tvärminne-Storfjärden for 8 weeks during June-August 2012 and studied community and species-taxon response of ciliates and mesozooplankton to CO2 elevations expected for this century. In addition to the response to fCO2, we also considered temperature and chlorophyll a variations in our analyses. Shannon diversity of ciliates significantly decreased with fCO2 and temperature with a greater dominance of smaller species. The mixotrophic Myrionecta rubra seemed to indirectly and directly benefit from higher CO2 concentrations in the post-bloom phase through increased occurrence of picoeukaryotes (most likely Cryptophytes) and Dinophyta at higher CO2 levels. With respect to mesozooplankton, we did not detect significant effects for either total abundance or for Shannon diversity. The cladocera Bosmina sp. occurred at distinctly higher abundance for a short time period during the second half of the experiment in three of the CO2-enriched mesocosms except for the highest CO2 level. The ratio of Bosmina sp. with empty to embryo- or resting-egg-bearing brood chambers, however, was significantly affected by CO2, temperature, and chlorophyll a. An indirect CO2 effect via increased food availability (Cyanobacteria) stimulating Bosmina sp. reproduction cannot be ruled out. Although increased regenerated primary production diminishes trophic transfer in general, the presence of organisms able to graze on bacteria such as cladocerans may positively impact organic matter transfer to higher

  20. Life Cycle, Morphology, Ontogenesis, and Phylogeny of Bromeliothrix metopoides nov. gen., nov. spec., a Peculiar Ciliate (Protista, Colpodea) from Tank Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Summary Bromeliothrix metopoides was discovered in tank bromeliads from Central and South America. Pure cultures could be established in various media stimulating growth of its food, i.e. bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates of the genus Polytomella. The new ciliate was investigated in the light- and scanning electron microscope, with various silver impregnation techniques, and with molecular methods, using the small-subunit rDNA. The morphology and its changes during the life cycle are documented by 167 figures and a detailed morphometry. Bromeliothrix metopoides is about 27–55 × 22–36 μm in size and has a complex life cycle with Metopus-shaped, bacteriophagous theronts and trophonts (microstomes) and obovate, flagellate-feeding macrostomes having a large, triangular oral apparatus. The thin-walled resting cysts of the theronts and trophonts are uniquely ellipsoidal, while the thick-walled cyst of the macrostome morph is globular. Reproduction occurs in freely motile condition either by binary fission or polytomy, producing a unique, motile “division chain” composed of four globular offspring, of which the central ones are connected by a curious, plug-like holdfast. Division is associated with a complete reorganization of the parental oral and somatic infraciliature. Stomatogenesis is merotelokinetal as in other members of the order Colpodida. The right polykinetid is generated by the rightmost postoral kinety, while the left polykinetid is produced by the two left postoral kineties and five left side kineties. The division in freely motile condition resembles the Exocolpodidae Foissner et al., 2002, to which Bromeliothrix is tentatively assigned, differing from Exocolpoda mainly by the formation of a macrostome morph and a division chain. Bromeliothrix has a ciliary and silverline pattern typical for members of the family Colpodidae. This matches the molecular classification which, however, hardly reflects the outstanding division and life cycle

  1. Life Cycle, Morphology, Ontogenesis, and Phylogeny of Bromeliothrix metopoides nov. gen., nov. spec., a Peculiar Ciliate (Protista, Colpodea) from Tank Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-11-15

    Bromeliothrix metopoides was discovered in tank bromeliads from Central and South America. Pure cultures could be established in various media stimulating growth of its food, i.e. bacteria and heterotrophic flagellates of the genus Polytomella. The new ciliate was investigated in the light- and scanning electron microscope, with various silver impregnation techniques, and with molecular methods, using the small-subunit rDNA. The morphology and its changes during the life cycle are documented by 167 figures and a detailed morphometry. Bromeliothrix metopoides is about 27-55 × 22-36 μm in size and has a complex life cycle with Metopus-shaped, bacteriophagous theronts and trophonts (microstomes) and obovate, flagellate-feeding macrostomes having a large, triangular oral apparatus. The thin-walled resting cysts of the theronts and trophonts are uniquely ellipsoidal, while the thick-walled cyst of the macrostome morph is globular. Reproduction occurs in freely motile condition either by binary fission or polytomy, producing a unique, motile "division chain" composed of four globular offspring, of which the central ones are connected by a curious, plug-like holdfast. Division is associated with a complete reorganization of the parental oral and somatic infraciliature. Stomatogenesis is merotelokinetal as in other members of the order Colpodida. The right polykinetid is generated by the rightmost postoral kinety, while the left polykinetid is produced by the two left postoral kineties and five left side kineties. The division in freely motile condition resembles the Exocolpodidae Foissner et al., 2002, to which Bromeliothrix is tentatively assigned, differing from Exocolpoda mainly by the formation of a macrostome morph and a division chain. Bromeliothrix has a ciliary and silverline pattern typical for members of the family Colpodidae. This matches the molecular classification which, however, hardly reflects the outstanding division and life cycle, suggesting some

  2. Influence of CO sub 2 and low concentrations of O sub 2 on fermentative metabolism of the ruminal ciliate Polyplastron multivesiculatum

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.E.; Lloyd, D. ); McIntyre, P.S.; Saleh, M. ); Williams, A. )

    1991-05-01

    The effects of ruminal concentrations of CO{sub 2} and oxygen on the end products of endogenous metabolism and fermentation of D-glucose by the ruminal entodiniomorphid ciliate Polyplastron multivesiculatum were investigated. The principal metabolic products were butyric, acetic, and lactic acids, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identified glycerol as a previously unknown major product of D-(1-{sup 13}C) glucose fermentation by this protozoan. Metabolite formation rates were clearly influenced by the headspace gas composition. In the presence of 1 to 3 {mu}M O{sub 2}, acetate, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} formation was partially depressed. A gas headspace with a high CO{sub 2} content (66 kPa) was found to suppress hydrogenosomal pathways and to favor butyrate accumulation. Cytochromes were not detected ({lt}2 pmol/mg of protein) in P. multivesiculatum; protozoal suspensions, however, consumed O{sub 2} for up to 3 h at 1 kPa of O{sub 2}. Under gas phases of {gt}2.6 kPa of O{sub 2}, the organisms rapidly became vacuolate and the cilia became inactive. The results suggest that fermentative pathways in P. multivesiculatum are influenced by the O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations that prevail in situ in the rumen.

  3. Morphology and SSU rDNA sequence analysis of two hypotrichous ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia) including the new species Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Borong; Wang, Chundi; Huang, Jie; Shi, Yuhong; Chen, Xiangrui

    2016-10-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of two hypotrichous ciliates, Metaurostylopsis parastruederkypkeae n. sp. and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) Chen et al., 2013 were investigated based on morphology, infraciliature and the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequence. The new species, M. parastruederkypkeae n. sp. was identified according to its characteristics: body shape ellipsoidal, size about (165-200) × (45-60) μm in vivo, cell color reddish; two types of cortical granules including wheat grain-like and yellow-greenish larger ones along the marginal cirri rows and dorsal kineties and dot-like and reddish smaller ones, grouped around marginal cirri on ventral side and arranged in short lines on dorsal side; 26-41 adoral membranelles; three frontal and one parabuccal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, and three to six transverse cirri; seven to thirteen midventral pairs; five to nine unpaired ventral cirri, five to seven left and three to five right marginal rows; and three complete dorsal kineties. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that both Metaurostylopsis and Neourostylopsis are monophyletic. As the internal relationship between and within both genera are not clear, further studies on the species in these two genera are necessary. The key characteristics of all known twelve Metaurostylopsis-Apourostylopsis-Neourostylopsis species complex were updated.

  4. Morphology, morphogenesis and small subunit rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate, Perisincirra paucicirrata (Ciliophora, Kahliellidae), from the shoreline of the Yellow River, North China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengchao; Xing, Yi; Li, Jiamei; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; He, Songke; Shao, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, morphogenesis, and 18S rRNA gene sequence of a soil hypotrichous ciliate Perisincirra paucicirrata, isolated from north China, were investigated. Perisincirra paucicirrata differs from its congeners in: (1) having a body length to width ratio in vivo of 4:1, (2) its adoral zone occupying between 15% and 25% of the total body length, and (3) the presence of two parabuccal cirri, three left (with 10-16 cirri each) and two right marginal rows (with 14-24 cirri each), and three dorsal kineties. Our study offers a first attempt to begin to map the morphogenetic processes of the genus, which are mainly characterised by the following: the formation of four frontal ventral transverse anlagens for each daughter cell, with the proter's anlage I originating from the reorganised anterior part of the parental paroral; the paroral and endoral anlage developed from the reorganised old endoral and do not contribute the first frontal cirrus; the frontoventral transverse anlage I contributing the left frontal cirrus; anlage II generating the middle frontal and the buccal cirri; anlage III developing the right frontal cirrus and the anterior parabuccal cirrus; and anlage IV contributing the posterior parabuccal cirrus. As an additional contribution, we judge that the inner one or the two right rows of P. kahli and P. longicirrata are marginal rows. Phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA sequences suggests that Perisincirra is related to sporadotrichids, but provides no credible evidence for its taxonomic position.

  5. Morphology of four new solitary sessile peritrich ciliates from the Yellow Sea, China, with description of an unidentified species of Paravorticella (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Warren, Alan; Ma, Honggang

    2017-02-01

    Sessile peritrichs are a large assemblage of ciliates that have a wide distribution in soil, freshwater and marine waters. Here, we document four new and one unidentified species of solitary sessile peritrichs from aquaculture ponds and coastal waters of the northern Yellow Sea, China. Based on their living morphology, infraciliature and silverline system, four of the five forms were identified as new members belonging to one of three genera, Vorticella, Pseudovorticella and Scyphidia, representing two families, Vorticellidae and Scyphidiidae. The other isolate was found to be an unidentified species of the poorly known genus Paravorticella. Vorticella chiangi sp. nov. is characterized by its inverted bell-shaped zooid, short row 3 in infundibular polykinety 3 and marine habitat. Pseudovorticella liangae sp. nov. posseses a thin, broad peristomial lip and a granular pellicle. Pseudovorticella haiboensis sp. nov. is differentiated from its congeners by having an elongated zooid that is covered by a layer of thin pellicular vesicles, and two rows of kineties in infundibular polykinety 3. Scyphidia perezuzae sp. nov. and Paravorticella sp. are stalkless ectoparasites or ectocommensals of aquatic animals. The former has a short, plump body, a narrow peristomial lip and a conspicuous, flattened, disc-shaped scopula for adhesion. Paravorticella sp. has an extremely elongated clavate body, a broad peristomial lip, and a narrow scopula.

  6. Auto-/heterotrophic endosymbiosis evolves in a mature stage of ecosystem development in a microcosm composed of an alga, a bacterium and a ciliate.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki; Sano, Akiko; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2009-05-01

    We investigate an ecological mechanism by which endosymbiotic associations evolve, with a particular focus on the relationship between the evolution of endosymbiosis between auto- and heterotrophic organisms, and the stages of ecosystem development. For this purpose we conducted a long-term microcosm culture composed of three species, a green alga (Chlorella vulgaris), a bacterium (Escherichia coli), and a ciliated protozoan (Tetrahymena thermophila) for 3 years. During this culture T. thermophila cells harboring Chlorella cells emerged by phagocytotic uptake, and increased in frequency, reaching ca. 80-90%. This level was maintained in the late stage of ecosystem dynamics. Analysis of the ecosystem dynamics in the microcosm revealed that a complex causal process through direct/indirect interactions among ecosystem components led to reduction in dissolved O2 and food (E. coli) available to the T. thermophila, which gave a selective advantage to the organisms in the endosymbiotic association. This result suggests that the endosymbiosis evolves in a mature stage of ecosystem development, where reproduction and survival of prospective partner organisms is highly resource-limited and density-dependent, favoring efficient matter/energy transfers among participating organisms due to physical proximity. Consequently, a complex web of interactions and pathways of matter/energy flow in ecosystem evolves from an initially simple one.

  7. Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties.

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec. was discovered in the tanks of the Mexican bromeliad Tillandsia heterophylla. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Cotterillia has many cirral rows on both sides of the body. Uniquely, and thus used to diagnose the new genus Cotterillia, it has dorsal kineties originating de novo, producing neokinetal waves where the parental dorsal kineties reorganize to "combined rows", consisting of dorsal bristles anteriorly and of cirri posteriorly. Thus, up to four generations of bristles and cirri occur on the dorsal body surface. Cotterillia bromelicola has a gonostomatid body and adoral zone of membranelles, while the dense ciliature and the neokinetal waves resemble kahliellid hypotrichs. However, the de novo origin of anlage 1 and the molecular analyses show convincingly that Cotterillia belongs to the GonostomatidaeSmall and Lynn, 1985, for which an improved diagnosis is provided. Thus, neokinetal waves originated several times independently. The molecular differences between Trachelostyla, Gonostomum, and Cotterillia are small (≤ 5%) compared to their distinct morphologies and ontogeneses, suggesting that the 18S rDNA underestimates generic diversity. Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates.

  8. Historical trends in the species inventory of tintinnids (ciliates of the microzooplankton) in the Bay of Villefranche (NW Mediterranean Sea): Shifting baselines.

    PubMed

    Dolan, John R

    2017-02-01

    In the Bay of Villefranche, tintinnid ciliates have been studied since 1879 yielding a unique time series. The species inventory, excluding likely synonymous records, numbers 108. Temporal increases in the inventory appear linearly related to sampling effort up until the 2000s with a cumulative sampling effort of about 200 dates. Subsequently, with a large increase in sampling to currently over 460 dates, the rate of increases in species numbers declines. Surprisingly, the inventory is not highly inflated by unique occurrences, as species found but once are only 17 out of the 108. However, in recent years many previously recorded taxa have not been seen. Missing from a species list derived solely from intensive sampling from 2013 to 2016 are 38 previously recorded species. Most (26 out of 38) were recorded from a single year and thus may have been temporary residents. However, 12 species were found in multiple years by different investigators suggesting relatively common occurrence in the past. The substantial effort required to adequately sample a locality and possible historical changes in species inventories suggest that claims of a species as 'new' to a locality should be made with caution & caveats.

  9. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: involvement of interleukin-2 system.

    PubMed

    Cervia, Davide; Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Perrotta, Cristiana; Picchietti, Simona; Alimenti, Claudio; Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria; Vallesi, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell-cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth.

  10. The water-borne protein signals (pheromones) of the Antarctic ciliated protozoan Euplotes nobilii: structure of the gene coding for the En-6 pheromone.

    PubMed

    La Terza, Antonietta; Dobri, Nicoleta; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2009-01-01

    The marine Antarctic ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, secretes a family of water-borne signal proteins, denoted as pheromones, which control vegetative proliferation and mating in the cell. Based on the knowledge of the amino acid sequences of a set of these pheromones isolated from the culture supernatant of wild-type strains, we designed probes to identify their encoding genes in the cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus). The full-length gene of the pheromone En-6 was determined and found to contain an open-reading frame specific for the synthesis of the En-6 cytoplasmic precursor (pre-pro-En-6), which requires 2 proteolytic cleavages to remove the signal peptide (pre) and the prosegment before secretion of the mature protein. In contrast to the sequence variability that distinguishes the secreted pheromones, the pre- and pro-sequences appear to be tightly conserved and useful for the construction of probes to clone every other E. nobilii pheromone gene. Potential intron sequences in the coding region of the En-6 gene imply the synthesis of more En-6 isoforms.

  11. Use of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis for the assessment of toxicity and quantitative structure--activity relationships of xenobiotics: comparison with the Microtox test.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, P; Bohatier, J; Bonnemoy, F

    2001-07-01

    Cytotoxicity and quantitative structure-activity relationships of 13 inorganic and 21 organic substances were determined using three bioassays performed on the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The best concordance of toxicity results was observed between the T. pyriformis FDA--esterase activity and population growth inhibition tests for the organic compounds. The sensitivity of these two assays is compared with that of the Microtox test. The T. pyriformis FDA test showed a high sensitivity is most cases. The aim of the current research was to determine whether the relative toxicity of metal ions and organic molecules, with these three bioassays, was predictable using three ion characteristics and hydrophobicity, respectively. For metal ions, the variable that best modeled the toxicity data obtained with the two T. pyriformis tests was the softness index [sigma(p), i.e., (coordinate bond energy of the metal fluoride--coordinate bond energy of the metal iodide)/(coordinate bond energy of the metal fluoride)]. No correlation was found with the Microtox test. For organic compounds, a significant correlation was observed between the hydrophobicity coefficient and the toxicity data. This correlation is closer with the two tests using Tetrahymena.

  12. Sulphur-cycling bacteria and ciliated protozoans in a Beggiatoaceae mat covering organically enriched sediments beneath a salmon farm in a southern Chilean fjord.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Carlos P; Valenzuela, Cristian; Matamala, Yessica; Godoy, Félix A; Aranda, Nicol

    2015-11-15

    The colourless mat covering organically enriched sediments underlying an intensive salmon farm in Estero Pichicolo, southern Chile, was surveyed by combined 454 PyroTag and conventional Sanger sequencing of 16S/18S ribosomal RNA genes for Bacteria and Eukarya. The mat was dominated by the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Candidatus Isobeggiatoa, Candidatus Parabeggiatoa and Arcobacter. By order of their abundances, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were represented by diverse deltaproteobacterial Desulfobacteraceae, but also within Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfuromonadaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. The eukaryotic PyroTags were dominated by polychaetes, copepods and nematodes, however, ciliated protozoans were highly abundant in microscopy observations, and were represented by the genera Condylostoma, Loxophyllum and Peritromus. Finally, the abundant Sulfurimonas/Sulfurovum also suggest the occurrence of zero-valence sulphur oxidation, probably derived from Beggiatoaceae as a result of bacteriovorus infaunal activity or generated as free S(0) by the Arcobacter bacteria. The survey suggests an intense and complex sulphur cycle within the surface of salmon-farm impacted sediments.

  13. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    SciTech Connect

    Cervia, Davide; Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Perrotta, Cristiana; Picchietti, Simona; Alimenti, Claudio; Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria; Vallesi, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  14. Species boundaries in tintinnid ciliates: a case study--morphometric variability, molecular characterization, and temporal distribution of Helicostomella species (Ciliophora, Tintinnina).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dapeng; Sun, Ping; Shin, Mann Kyoon; Kim, Young Ok

    2012-01-01

    Tintinnids are a large group of planktonic ciliates with diverse morphologies. The range of variability in lorica shapes and sizes can be very high even within a single species depending on life stages and environmental conditions, which makes the delimitation of different species based on morphological criteria alone very difficult. Accordingly, comparisons of morphological and molecular variability in tintinnids are necessary to provide a pragmatic approach for establishing species boundaries within this diverse and poorly understood group. We investigated the temporal distribution of species of the hyaline tintinnid Helicostomella (Ciliophora, Tintinnina), which were collected daily from September 2008 to August 2009 in Jangmok Bay of Geoje Island on the south coast of Korea. Two forms - a long form and a short form, were discovered. The long form was found in cold waters in February and March whereas the short form occurred in warm waters from June to October. Thus, these two forms were seasonally isolated. However, all the morphological characteristics for these two forms overlap to some degree. A comparison of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, and ITS2 sequences from two forms revealed 0.5%, 3.8%, and 5.6% divergences, respectively. Morever, one compensatory base change (CBC) and three hemi-CBCs were identified from ITS2 secondary structures of these two forms. All these data suggest that these two forms represent two distinct species despite their highly similar lorica morphology. The phylogenetic position of the genus Helicostomella was also examined using SSU rDNA sequences.

  15. Role of four conserved aspartic acid residues of EF-loops in the metal ion binding and in the self-assembly of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Duan, Lian; Sun, Tijian; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-12-01

    Ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein closely related to the prototypical calcium sensor protein calmodulin. Four mutants (D37K, D73K, D110K and D146K) were created firstly to elucidate the importance of the first aspartic acid residues (Asp37, Asp73, Asp110 and Asp146) in the beginning of the four EF-loops of EoCen. Aromatic-sensitized Tb(3+) fluorescence indicates that the aspartic acid residues are very important for the metal-binding of EoCen, except for Asp73 (in EF-loop II). Resonance light scattering (RLS) measurements for different metal ions (Ca(2+) and Tb(3+)) binding proteins suggest that the order of four conserved aspartic acid residues for contributing to the self-assembly of EoCen is Asp37 > Asp146 > Asp110 > Asp73. Cross-linking experiment also exhibits that Asp37 and Asp146 play critical role in the self-assembly of EoCen. Asp37, in site I, which is located in the N-terminal domain, plays the most important role in the metal ion-dependent self-assembly of EoCen, and there is cooperativity between N-terminal and C-terminal domain (especially the site IV). In addition, the dependence of Tb(3+) induced self-assembly of EoCen and the mutants on various factors, including ionic strength and pH, were characterized using RLS. Finally, 2-p-toluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) binding, ionic strength and pH control experiments indicate that in the process of EoCen self-assembly, molecular interactions are mediated by both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces, and the hydrophobic interaction has the important status.

  16. On the reliability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum research: Do we need standardized testing methods?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nivium (Fon) is a pathogen highly variable in aggressiveness that requires a standardized testing method to more accurately define isolate aggressiveness (races) and to identify resistant watermelon lines. Isolates of Fon vary in aggressiveness from weakly to highly aggres...

  17. [Revision of of the subfamily of Metaracoelophryinae de Puytorac 1972 (Oligohymenophora: Hoplytophryida: Hoplytophryidae), astome ciliates of the digestive tract of Oligochaeta worms of Africa: description of five new species].

    PubMed

    Fokam, Z; Ngassam, P; Nana, P A; Bricheux, G; Bouchard, P; Sime Ngando, T

    2012-02-01

    Five new species belonging to the astome ciliates, living in the digestive tract of Oligochaeta worms belonging to the genus Alma from Cameroon, have been described. The techniques used are: vital staining, staining of the nucleus with Diamidino Phenyl Indol (DAPI), scanning electron microscopy and silver staining method (Fernandez Galiano, 1976, 1994). This work confirms the presence of the genus Paracoelophrya and Dicoelophrya in the digestive track of the oligochaete Alma from Gabon and Cameroon; it helps to understand the general taxonomy of this Metaracoelophryinae subfamily. Moreover, the homogeneity of this group is confirmed and the phylogenetic relationship inside the Hoplitophryida order need more studies to be solved.

  18. Morphology, Ontogenesis and Molecular Phylogeny of Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea nov. subgen., nov. spec. (Ciliophora: Hypotricha), a New African Flagship Ciliate Confirms the CEUU Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm; STOECK, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea nov. subgen., nov. spec. was discovered in soil from the floodplain of a small river in the Krueger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Furthermore, we supplemented the data on N. (N.) spectabilis by reinvestigating the preparations deposited in the British Museum of Natural History. Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea is a very conspicuous ciliate because it has an average size of 330 × 120 μm and is golden yellow due to the orange-coloured cytoplasm and citrine cortical granules. Further main characteristics include the semirigid body; the urostylid cirral pattern with a distinct corona of frontal and pseudobuccal cirri both originating from the midventral rows; multiple anterior fragmentation of dorsal kineties 1–3; multiple posterior fragmentation of kinety 3, commencing with an unique whirl of kinetofragments; three caudal cirri; an oxytrichid/cyrtohymenid oral apparatus with polystichad paroral membrane and buccal depression; a single oral primordium developing along the transverse cirral row; and an oxytrichid 18S rDNA. These peculiarities are used to establish the new oxytrichid family Neokeronopsidae, the new subgenus Afrokeronopsis, and the new species N. (A.) aurea. Further, these features confirm the CEUU hypothesis, i.e., convergent evolution of a midventral cirral pattern in urostylid and oxytrichid hypotrichs; additionally, N. (A.) aurea is the first (semi)rigid hypotrich with cortical granules and the second one with midventral rows, breaking the granule and flexibility dogmas. These and other observations show that the phylogeny of the hypotrichs is full of convergences. Thus, only a combined effort of classical and molecular phylogeneticists will provide the data needed for a natural classification. Based on the CEUU hypothesis, the molecular data, and literature evidence, we suggest that midventral oxytrichids

  19. The contribution of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) conductance to amino-acid-induced inward current responses of ciliated olfactory neurons of the rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Suzuki, N

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether amino-acid-induced inward currents of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) include a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) conductance, we first studied changes in reversal potential and the current/voltage relationships of the responses of ORNs to an amino acid mixture (l-alanine, l-arginine, l-glutamate and l-norvaline; all 10 mmol l(-)(1)) with different concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the perfusion and recording pipette solutions. We also examined the effects of six different Cl(-) channel blockers on the responses of ORNs using a conventional whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. The amino acid mixture and one blocker were applied focally to the cilia of ORNs using a double-barrelled micropipette and a pressure ejection system. The expected shifts in reversal potential, indicating the contribution of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) conductance, occurred in both positive and negative directions depending on the external and internal Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations. Niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, NPPB [5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzonate] and DCDPC (3', 5-dichlorodiphenylamine-2-carboxylate), at 0.5 mmol l(-)(1), reversibly blocked both the amino-acid-induced inward currents and the background activity in most ORNs. The effectiveness of these blocking agents varied from 77 to 91 % for ORNs perfused externally with standard Ringer's solution. SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate), at 5.0 mmol l(-)(1), irreversibly inhibited the physiological response (100 % inhibition), whereas DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2'-disulphonate), at 5.0 mmol l(-)(1), had the smallest effect (45 %) of the inhibitors tested. The dose of niflumic acid inducing 50 % inhibition (IC(50)), determined specifically for the current component of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, was 70 micromol l(-)(1). Our results suggest that these blockers are not specific for Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels and that

  20. Morphology, Ontogenesis and Molecular Phylogeny of Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea nov. subgen., nov. spec. (Ciliophora: Hypotricha), a New African Flagship Ciliate Confirms the CEUU Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2008-04-04

    Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea nov. subgen., nov. spec. was discovered in soil from the floodplain of a small river in the Krueger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Furthermore, we supplemented the data on N. (N.) spectabilis by reinvestigating the preparations deposited in the British Museum of Natural History. Neokeronopsis (Afrokeronopsis) aurea is a very conspicuous ciliate because it has an average size of 330 × 120 μm and is golden yellow due to the orange-coloured cytoplasm and citrine cortical granules. Further main characteristics include the semirigid body; the urostylid cirral pattern with a distinct corona of frontal and pseudobuccal cirri both originating from the midventral rows; multiple anterior fragmentation of dorsal kineties 1-3; multiple posterior fragmentation of kinety 3, commencing with an unique whirl of kinetofragments; three caudal cirri; an oxytrichid/cyrtohymenid oral apparatus with polystichad paroral membrane and buccal depression; a single oral primordium developing along the transverse cirral row; and an oxytrichid 18S rDNA. These peculiarities are used to establish the new oxytrichid family Neokeronopsidae, the new subgenus Afrokeronopsis, and the new species N. (A.) aurea. Further, these features confirm the CEUU hypothesis, i.e., convergent evolution of a midventral cirral pattern in urostylid and oxytrichid hypotrichs; additionally, N. (A.) aurea is the first (semi)rigid hypotrich with cortical granules and the second one with midventral rows, breaking the granule and flexibility dogmas. These and other observations show that the phylogeny of the hypotrichs is full of convergences. Thus, only a combined effort of classical and molecular phylogeneticists will provide the data needed for a natural classification. Based on the CEUU hypothesis, the molecular data, and literature evidence, we suggest that midventral oxytrichids should be

  1. High-Level Genetic Diversity but No Population Structure Inferred from Nuclear and Mitochondrial Markers of the Peritrichous Ciliate Carchesium polypinum in the Grand River Basin (North America)▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gentekaki, E.; Lynn, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    Studies that assess intraspecific genetic variation in ciliates are few and quite recent. Consequently, knowledge of the subject and understanding of the processes that underlie it are limited. We sought to assess the degree of intraspecific genetic variation in Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia), a cosmopolitan, freshwater ciliate. We isolated colonies of C. polypinum from locations in the Grand River basin in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. We then used the nuclear markers—ITS1, ITS2, and the hypervariable regions of the large subunit rRNA—and an 819-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (cox-1) to investigate the intraspecific genetic variation of C. polypinum and the degree of resolution of the above-mentioned markers at the population level. We also sought to determine whether the organism demonstrated any population structure that mapped onto the geography of the region. Our study shows that there is a high degree of genetic diversity at the isolate level, revealed by the mitochondrial markers but not the nuclear markers. Furthermore, our results indicate that C. polypinum is likely not a single morphospecies as previously thought. PMID:19304815

  2. Sialo-oligosaccharide receptors for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and related oligosaccharides of poly-N-acetyllactosamine series are polarized at the cilia and apical-microvillar domains of the ciliated cells in human bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Loveless, R W; Feizi, T

    1989-04-01

    The occurrence and distribution of the sialo-oligosaccharide receptors (sialosyl-I and sialosyl-i) for Mycoplasma pneumoniae as well as other related oligosaccharide structures of poly-N-acetyllactosamine type, and their short-chain analogs based on galactose linked beta 1-4 or beta 1-3 to N-acetylglucosamine (Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc or Gal beta 1-3GlcNAc, respectively) were investigated in the human bronchial epithelium by histochemistry by using sequence-specific monoclonal antibodies and lectins. Among the mature epithelial cells, only ciliated cells were found to express the long-chain antigens, whereas mucus-secreting cells contained the short-chain antigens associated with mucus globules. The long-chain oligosaccharides were found to be highly polarized at the luminal aspects of the ciliated cells where the branched structures (I and sialosyl-I antigens) were detected both at the apical-microvillar border and on the cilia, but the linear structures (i, sialosyl-i, and VIM-2 antigens) were detected exclusively at the apical-microvillar border. These observations provide the first in situ visualization of the receptor structures for M. pneumoniae at the primary site of infection. The lack of sialo-oligosaccharide receptors in secretory cells and the mucus they produce provides a biochemical basis for evasion by this microorganism of the secreted mucus barrier.

  3. Characterization and expression of the gene encoding En-MAPK1, an intestinal cell kinase (ICK)-like kinase activated by the autocrine pheromone-signaling loop in the Polar Ciliate, Euplotes nobilii.

    PubMed

    Candelori, Annalisa; Luporini, Pierangelo; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana

    2013-04-03

    In the protozoan ciliate Euplotes, a transduction pathway resulting in a mitogenic cell growth response is activated by autocrine receptor binding of cell type-specific, water-borne signaling protein pheromones. In Euplotes raikovi, a marine species of temperate waters, this transduction pathway was previously shown to involve the phosphorylation of a nuclear protein kinase structurally similar to the intestinal-cell and male germ cell-associated kinases described in mammals. In E. nobilii, which is phylogenetically closely related to E. raikovi but inhabits Antarctic and Arctic waters, we have now characterized a gene encoding a structurally homologous kinase. The expression of this gene requires +1 translational frameshifting and a process of intron splicing for the production of the active protein, designated En-MAPK1, which contains amino acid substitutions of potential significance for cold-adaptation.

  4. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, commonly known as Ich, is a highly pathogenic ciliate responsible for 'white spot', a disease causing significant economic losses to the global aquaculture industry. Options for disease control are extremely limited, and Ich's obligate parasitic lifestyle makes experimental studies challenging. Unlike most well-studied protozoan parasites, Ich belongs to a phylum composed primarily of free-living members. Indeed, it is closely related to the model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Genomic studies represent a promising strategy to reduce the impact of this disease and to understand the evolutionary transition to parasitism. Results We report the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the Ich macronuclear genome. Compared with its free-living relative T. thermophila, the Ich genome is reduced approximately two-fold in length and gene density and three-fold in gene content. We analyzed in detail several gene classes with diverse functions in behavior, cellular function and host immunogenicity, including protein kinases, membrane transporters, proteases, surface antigens and cytoskeletal components and regulators. We also mapped by orthology Ich's metabolic pathways in comparison with other ciliates and a potential host organism, the zebrafish Danio rerio. Conclusions Knowledge of the complete protein-coding and metabolic potential of Ich opens avenues for rational testing of therapeutic drugs that target functions essential to this parasite but not to its fish hosts. Also, a catalog of surface protein-encoding genes will facilitate development of more effective vaccines. The potential to use T. thermophila as a surrogate model offers promise toward controlling 'white spot' disease and understanding the adaptation to a parasitic lifestyle. PMID:22004680

  5. A novel trypanoplasm-like flagellate Jarrellia atramenti n. g., n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Bodonidae) and ciliates from the blowhole of a stranded pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (Physeteridae): morphology, life cycle and potential pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Poynton, S L; Whitaker, B R; Heinrich, A B

    2001-04-10

    The successful 6 mo rehabilitation of a stranded juvenile pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps afforded the opportunity to study the poorly known protozoan fauna of the upper respiratory tract of cetaceans. Mucus samples were collected by holding either a petri dish or glass slides over the blowhole for 3 to 5 exhalations; preparations were examined as wet mounts, and then stained with Wrights-Giemsa or Gram stain. Blood smears were stained with Wrights-Giemsa. Unidentified spindle-shaped and unidentified broad ciliates, reported from the blowhole of the pygmy sperm whale for the first time, were seen only initially, while yeast-like organisms and bacteria were seen intermittently. Epithelial cells and white blood cells were often present in the blowhole mucus, but red blood cells were never seen. A novel trypanoplasm-like bodonid kinetoplastid biflagellate (Order Kinetoplastida) was commonly encountered in the blowhole mucus, but never in the blood. Both mature flagellates and those undergoing longitudinal binary fission were present. The elongate flagellate had a long whiplash anterior flagellum; the recurrent flagellum was attached along at least two-thirds of the body length, forming a prominent undulating membrane, and the trailing portion was short. The kinetoplast was irregularly fragmented. The flagellates were either free-swimming, or attached to host material via the free portion of the posterior flagellum. The prominent undulating membrane was characteristic of Trypanoplasma, while the fragmented kinetoplast was characteristic of some species of Cryptobia. For the novel bodonid kinetoplastid, with its unique combination of morphological features (prominent undulating membrane and fragmented kinetoplast), we propose the creation of a new genus Jarrellia. We believe this to be the first published description of a flagellate from a marine mammal, and among the first reports of a trypanoplasm-like flagellate from a warm-blooded host. We expect that a diversity

  6. CX3CR1 Is Expressed in Differentiated Human Ciliated Airway Cells and Co-Localizes with Respiratory Syncytial Virus on Cilia in a G Protein-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwang-Il; Piepenhagen, Peter A.; Kishko, Michael; DiNapoli, Joshua M.; Groppo, Rachel P.; Zhang, Linong; Almond, Jeffrey; Kleanthous, Harry; Delagrave, Simon; Parrington, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the principal cause of bronchiolitis in infants and a significant healthcare problem. The RSV Glycoprotein (G) mediates attachment of the virus to the cell membrane, which facilitates interaction of the RSV Fusion (F) protein with nucleolin, thereby triggering fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. However, a host protein ligand for G has not yet been identified. Here we show that CX3CR1 is expressed in the motile cilia of differentiated human airway epithelial (HAE) cells, and that CX3CR1 co-localizes with RSV particles. Upon infection, the distribution of CX3CR1 in these cells is significantly altered. Complete or partial deletion of RSV G results in viruses binding at least 72-fold less efficiently to cells, and reduces virus replication. Moreover, an antibody targeting an epitope near the G protein’s CX3CR1-binding motif significantly inhibits binding of the virus to airway cells. Given previously published evidence of the interaction of G with CX3CR1 in human lymphocytes, these findings suggest a role for G in the interaction of RSV with ciliated lung cells. This interpretation is consistent with past studies showing a protective benefit in immunizing against G in animal models of RSV infection, and would support targeting the CX3CR1-G protein interaction for prophylaxis or therapy. CX3CR1 expression in lung epithelial cells may also have implications for other respiratory diseases such as asthma. PMID:26107373

  7. Classification of the peritrich ciliate Opisthonecta matiensis (Martín-Cereceda et al. 1999) as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb., based on new observations and SSU rDNA phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cereceda, Mercedes; Guinea, Almudena; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Dyal, Patricia; Novarino, Gianfranco; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2007-11-01

    New observations on Opisthonecta matiensis Martín-Cereceda et al. [1999. Description of Opisthonecta matiensis n. sp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora), a new peritrich ciliate from wastewater. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 46, 283-289] especially the lack of an epistomial membrane, reveal that the species does not belong to the genus Opisthonecta, but to Telotrochidium, the other genus within the family Opisthonectidae Foissner, 1975. The contractile vacuole and the cytopyge are on the dorsal wall of the vestibulum and the trochal band is limited distally and proximally by rows of narrowly spaced pellicular pores. Thus the species is redefined as Telotrochidium matiense nov. comb. The morphological, cortical and nuclear events occurring during conjugation are illustrated, compared with those in other species, and phylogenetically discussed. Invariably, the microconjugants attach to and penetrate the lateral side of the macroconjugants. Nuclear processes are very similar to those reported from other peritrichs. The small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) is sequenced and the phylogeny within Opisthonectidae and peritrichs examined. T. matiense is more closely related to Epistylis (63% Maximum Parsimony (MP), 85% Maximum Likelihood (ML)) than to any other genus, while another representative of the family, viz., Opisthonecta henneguyi, is closely related to Vorticella microstoma, Astylozoon enriquesi and clone RT3n18 (100% MP, 100% ML). Morphology and gene sequences suggest that Telotrochidium and Opisthonecta have derived from different lineages of stalked peritrichs: Opisthonecta could have arisen from peritrichs with stalk myonemes, while Telotrochidium probably evolved from peritrichs without stalk myonemes.

  8. Disentangling the Taxonomy of Rickettsiales and Description of Two Novel Symbionts (“Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis” and “Candidatus Fokinia cryptica”) Sharing the Cytoplasm of the Ciliate Protist Paramecium biaurelia

    PubMed Central

    Szokoli, Franziska; Castelli, Michele; Sabaneyeva, Elena; Schrallhammer, Martina; Krenek, Sascha; Doak, Thomas G.; Berendonk, Thomas U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the past 10 years, the number of endosymbionts described within the bacterial order Rickettsiales has constantly grown. Since 2006, 18 novel Rickettsiales genera inhabiting protists, such as ciliates and amoebae, have been described. In this work, we characterize two novel bacterial endosymbionts from Paramecium collected near Bloomington, IN. Both endosymbiotic species inhabit the cytoplasm of the same host. The Gram-negative bacterium “Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis” occurs in clumps and is frequently associated with the host macronucleus. With its electron-dense cytoplasm and a distinct halo surrounding the cell, it is easily distinguishable from the second smaller symbiont, “Candidatus Fokinia cryptica,” whose cytoplasm is electron lucid, lacks a halo, and is always surrounded by a symbiontophorous vacuole. For molecular characterization, the small-subunit rRNA genes were sequenced and used for taxonomic assignment as well as the design of species-specific oligonucleotide probes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that “Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis” clusters with the so-called “basal” Rickettsiales, and “Candidatus Fokinia cryptica” belongs to “Candidatus Midichloriaceae.” We obtained tree topologies showing a separation of Rickettsiales into at least two groups: one represented by the families Rickettsiaceae, Anaplasmataceae, and “Candidatus Midichloriaceae” (RAM clade), and the other represented by “basal Rickettsiales,” including “Candidatus Bealeia paramacronuclearis.” Therefore, and in accordance with recent publications, we propose to limit the order Rickettsiales to the RAM clade and to raise “basal Rickettsiales” to an independent order, Holosporales ord. nov., inside Alphaproteobacteria, which presently includes four family-level clades. Additionally, we define the family “Candidatus Hepatincolaceae” and redefine the family Holosporaceae. IMPORTANCE In this paper, we provide the

  9. Using the Ciliate Protozoan Vorticella in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alick R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for collection, culture, observation, and making permanent stained preparations of the protozoan vorticella. Suggestions are made for experiments to investigate growth, reproduction, settlement, ecology, feeding, and osmoregulation. (CS)

  10. Sex determination: ciliates' self-censorship.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gareth

    2014-07-07

    Differentiation involves the expression of certain latent cellular characteristics and the repression of others. A new study has revealed how Paramecium uses short RNAs to delete information from the somatic genome of one of its two sexes.

  11. Small nuclear RNAs in the ciliate Tetrahymena.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, N; Hellung-Larsen, P; Engberg, J

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated and partially characterized a family of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) from three different species of the protozoan Tetrahymena. We find six distinct snRNAs ranging in size from 100 to 250 nucleotides. The two largest snRNAs, as well as an abundant, heterogenous group of smaller snRNAs are found in the nucleolar RNA fraction. None of the snRNAs are transcription products of the ribosomal RNA gene or its flanking regions, as shown by hybridization tests. The snRNAs are metabolically stable as determined by pulse/chase experiments and several of them contain a number of modified nuclotides. The snRNAs from Tetrahymena all have slightly different sizes from mammalian snRNAs. The cap structure of the snRNAs from Tetrahymena differs from that of the snRNAs from mammalian cells, but has not yet been fully characterized. The relative amount of snRNAs to total RNA is less in Tetrahymena (greater than 0.1%) than in mammalian cells (2%). Images PMID:2409533

  12. Ecotoxicity assessment using ciliate cells in millifluidic droplets

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Rico; Burkart, Corinna; Pfitzner, Daniel; Jungmann, Dirk; Baraban, Larysa; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2016-01-01

    Precise analysis of the aquatic cells and their responses to the toxic chemicals, i.e., water disinfective agents, is of crucial importance due to their role in the ecosystem. We demonstrate the application of the droplets based millifluidic tool for isolating and longtime monitoring of single Paramecium tetraurelia cells using a large number of water-in-oil emulsion droplets. Due to the automated monitoring of the fluorescence signal, the droplets containing cells are distinguished from the empty reservoirs. A viability indicator is used to follow the metabolic dynamic of the cells in every single droplet. Finally, we perform ecotoxicity tests in droplets, exposing the encapsulated paramecia cells to silver nitrate for determination of EC50 levels, and compare the output with the conventional microtiter plate assay. PMID:27051472

  13. Numerical simulations of flagellated micro-swimmers and ciliated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, Henry; Tripathi, Anurag; Yeomans, Julia; Balazs, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Cilia are filamentous organelles found in many organisms for achieving locomotion or for driving fluid flows within the body. Cilia-like structures can be constructed and have potential for application in microfluidics, where they may be used to locally control flow and the motion of particles in the fluid. We implement a lattice Boltzmann method to simulate fluid flows produced by externally actuated artificial cilia and explore the influence of such cilia on objects in the surrounding fluid. In particular, we show examples of interactive effects between cilia arrays and self-motile swimmers propelled by a rotating helical flagellum. Artificial swimmers mimicking the motion of flagellated bacteria in this way have been experimentally realized in recent years and our simulations produce testable predictions for the behavior of such swimmers in the presence of cilia.

  14. Persistent disruption of ciliated epithelium following paediatric lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Biju; Aurora, Paul; Spencer, Helen; Elliott, Martin; Rutman, Andrew; Hirst, Robert A; O'Callaghan, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    It is unclear whether ciliary function following lung transplantation is normal or not. Our aim was to study the ciliary function and ultrastructure of epithelium above and below the airway anastomosis and the peripheral airway of children following lung transplantation. We studied the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and beat pattern, using high speed digital video imaging and ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy, of bronchial epithelium from above and below the airway anastomosis and the peripheral airway of 10 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 10 non-suppurative lung disease (NSLD) paediatric lung transplant recipients. Compared to epithelium below the anastomosis, the epithelium above the anastomosis in the CF group showed reduced CBF (median (interquartile range): 10.5 (9.0-11.4) Hz versus 7.4 (6.4-9.2) Hz; p<0.01) and increased dyskinesia (median (IQR): 16.5 (12.9-28.2)% versus 42.2 (32.6-56.4)%; p<0.01). In both CF and NSLD groups, compared with epithelium above the anastomosis, the epithelium below the anastomosis showed marked ultrastructural abnormalities (median duration post-transplant 7-12 months). Ciliary dysfunction is a feature of native airway epithelium in paediatric CF lung transplant recipients. The epithelium below the airway anastomosis shows profound ultrastructural abnormalities in both CF and NSLD lung transplant recipients, many months after transplantation.

  15. 21 CFR 529.1030 - Formalin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... For control of external protozoan parasites Bodo spp., Epistylis spp., and Zoothamnium spp. (ii) All... protozoan parasites on shrimp: Shrimp Concentration of formalin (microliters per liter) Tanks and...

  16. The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum, its symbionts and helminths as bioindicators of chemical pollution in Campeche Sound, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Del Rio-Rodríguez, R; Gold-Bouchot, G; Rendón-von Osten, J; Miranda-Rosas, G A

    2006-06-01

    The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum may acquire pollutants, helminths and symbionts from their environment. Statistical associations were studied between the symbionts and helminths of F. duorarum and pollutants in sediments, water and shrimps in Campeche Sound, Mexico. The study area spatially overlapped between offshore oil platforms and natural shrimp mating grounds. Spatial autocorrelation of data was controlled with spatial analysis using distance indices (SADIE) which identifies parasite or pollutant patches (high levels) and gaps (low levels), expressing them as clustering indices compared at each point to produce a measure of spatial association. Symbionts included the peritrich ciliates Epistylis sp. and Zoothamnium penaei and all symbionts were pooled. Helminths included Hysterothylacium sp., Opecoeloides fimbriatus, Prochristianella penaei and an unidentified cestode. Thirty-five pollutants were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides and heavy metals. The PAHs (2-3 ring) in water, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), Ni and V in sediments, and Zn, Cr and heptachlor in shrimps were significantly clustered. The remaining pollutants were randomly distributed in the study area. Juvenile shrimps acquired pesticides, PAHs (2-3 rings) and Zn, while adults acquired PAHs (4-5 rings), Cu and V. Results suggest natural PAH spillovers, and continental runoff of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), PCBs and PAHs (2-3 ring). There were no significant associations between pollutants and helminths. However, there were significant negative associations of pesticides, UCM and PCBs with symbiont numbers after controlling shrimp size and spatial autocorrelation. Shrimps and their symbionts appear to be promising bioindicators of organic chemical pollution in Campeche Sound.

  17. 21 CFR 529.1030 - Formalin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protozoan parasites Bodo spp., Epistylis spp., and Zoothamnium spp. (iv) All finfish. For control of... formalin used is 1,000 to 2,000 microliters per liter. (iii) For control of external protozoan parasites...

  18. 21 CFR 529.1030 - Formalin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protozoan parasites Bodo spp., Epistylis spp., and Zoothamnium spp. (iv) All finfish. For control of... formalin used is 1,000 to 2,000 microliters per liter. (iii) For control of external protozoan parasites...

  19. 21 CFR 529.1030 - Formalin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protozoan parasites Bodo spp., Epistylis spp., and Zoothamnium spp. (iv) All finfish. For control of... formalin used is 1,000 to 2,000 microliters per liter. (iii) For control of external protozoan parasites...

  20. 21 CFR 529.1030 - Formalin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental water as follows: (1) Indications for use. (i) Select finfish. For control of external protozoa... Bodo spp., Epistylis spp., and Zoothamnium spp. (iv) All finfish. For control of external...

  1. EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID ON UPTAKE AND TRANSFER OF COPPER FROM MICROBES TO CILIATES TO COPEPODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is part of an ongoing project designed to determine the effect of humic acid on the uptake and transfer of metals by marine organisms at the lower end of the food chain. Binding affinities for Cu, Cd, Zn, and Cr to Suwannee River humic acid were determined at variou...

  2. Ciliated cultured dermal fibroblasts in a patient with hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haust, M D

    1995-10-01

    Hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria (HHH)-syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle, probably caused by a defect in ornithine transport across the hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane. Single rudimentary cilia were present in approximately ten percent of post-divisional or dividing fibroblasts cultured from the skin of a patient with the HHH-syndrome, whereas no such organelles were observed in dermal fibroblasts cultured from normal controls. Since single rudimentary ("primary," "oligo," "solitary") cilia have been observed in a variety of cells in animals and men but the stimuli for their formation and their significance remain controversial, a brief report on their presence in the as yet unreported condition (HHH-syndrome) was considered of interest; hopefully, it might contribute to the ultimate unravelling of some of the unresolved problems. It is of note that unlike the author's previous findings of these unusual organelles in cells affected by a pathological process (atherosclerosis), the rudimentary cilia were observed in the present instance in dividing or postdivisional cells. The implications of these (and other) observations must await further work.

  3. Studies of Ciliated Microorganism Swimming with and against a Magnetic Field Tuned Apparent Weight Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ilyong; Mickalide, Harry; Valles, James M., Jr.

    2012-11-01

    There is a class of microorganisms that are small enough to swim at low Reynolds number but large enough for gravity to influence their behavior. Remarkably, Paramecia exert a stronger (weaker) propulsion force when swimming against (with) their apparent weight force, W -->. To investigate the source of the swimming speed response, we are examining how the trajectories of single swimmers change when they reverse their direction relative to W -->. We characterize their helical trajectories with three parameters that we can relate to their beating of their cilia using a simple model. The latest results will be described.

  4. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Paisie, Taylor K; Miller, Thomas E; Mason, Olivia U

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria) community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems.

  5. Discomorphella pedroeneasi sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Odontostomatida): An anaerobic ciliate hosting multiple cytoplasmic and macronuclear endocytobionts.

    PubMed

    da Silva Paiva, Thiago; Küppers, Gabriela Cristina; Lahr, Daniel José Galafasse; Schweikert, Michael; da Silva-Neto, Inácio Domingos

    2017-01-19

    Odontostomatids are among the less studied representatives of the Ciliophora. They are anaerobic microeukaryotes usually occurring as rare species in sapropelic environments. Here we describe a novel species of Discomorphella, named Discomorphella pedroeneasi sp. nov., using light and electron microscopy observations. Discomorphella pedroeneasi displays many complex morphological features, for which new terms are introduced, such as the auricules, epistomial fringe spacer, frontal awning, odontostomatid ciliary sockets, oral lips and ventral flap. Remarkably, D. pedroeneasi has at least six types of endocytobionts, including intramacronuclear ones, and organelles ultrastructurally similar to the M/H bodies of the odontostomatid Saprodinium dentatum. Based on the new data and revision of the literature, we propose two new diagnostic characters for species separation within Discomorphella: the fringe spacer ratio and the posterior fringe ratio. The taxonomy of Discomorphella is revised and an identification key is provided.

  6. Preliminary identification schemes for some unicellular ciliated and flagellated parasites of warmwater fishes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few keys for the identification of small unicellular parasites of warmwater fishes and few experts who can confidently identify these parasites to species. Molecular identification tools for these parasites are largely unavailable. For fishery biologists and even fish health diagnosticia...

  7. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    Habitat destruction is the main cause for the biodiversity crisis. Surviving populations are often fragmented, i.e., small and isolated from each other. Reproduction of plants in small populations is often reduced, and this has been attributed to inbreeding depression, reduced attractiveness for pollinators, and reduced habitat quality in small populations. Here we present data on the effects of fragmentation on the rare, self-compatible perennial herb Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae), a species with very small and presumably well-dispersed seeds. We studied the relationship between population size, plant size, and the number of flowers produced in 63 populations from 1996-1998. In one of the years, leaf and flower size and the number of seeds produced per fruit was studied in a subset of 25 populations. Plant size, flower size, and the number of seeds per fruit and per plant increased with population size, whereas leaf length and the number of flowers per plant did not. The effects of population size on reproduction and on flower size remained significant if the effects were adjusted for differences in plant size, indicating that they could not be explained by differences in habitat quality. The strongly reduced reproduction in small populations may be due to pollination limitation, while the reduced flower size could indicate genetic effects.

  8. Reduced fecundity in small populations of the rare plant Gentianopsis ciliate (Gentianaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Matthies, D.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat destruction is the main cause for the biodiversity crisis. Surviving populations are often fragmented, i.e., small and isolated from each other. Reproduction of plants in small populations is often reduced, and this has been attributed to inbreeding depression, reduced attractiveness for pollinators, and reduced habitat quality in small populations. Here we present data on the effects of fragmentation on the rare, self-compatible perennial herb Gentianopsis ciliata (Gentianaceae), a species with very small and presumably well-dispersed seeds. We studied the relationship between population size, plant size, and the number of flowers produced in 63 populations from 1996-1998. In one of the years, leaf and flower size and the number of seeds produced per fruit was studied in a subset of 25 populations. Plant size, flower size, and the number of seeds per fruit and per plant increased with population size, whereas leaf length and the number of flowers per plant did not. The effects of population size on reproduction and on flower size remained significant if the effects were adjusted for differences in plant size, indicating that they could not be explained by differences in habitat quality. The strongly reduced reproduction in small populations may be due to pollination limitation, while the reduced flower size could indicate genetic effects.

  9. Structures linking the myonemes, endoplasmic reticulum, and surface membranes in the contractile ciliate Vorticella.

    PubMed

    Allen, R D

    1973-02-01

    An electron microscope investigation of the interface between the myonemes of Vorticella convallaria and their associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has revealed structures of a complex morphology linking these two organelles. These structures are named "linkage complexes". Each complex contains a spindle-shaped midpiece which lies in a groove of the ER membrane. Microfilaments splay out from the tips of the midpiece and may come in contact with the inner alveolar sac membrane. Three to six raillike structures lie on each side of the midpiece and parallel it. The ER membrane appears to pass through the sides of the rails. In the lumen of the ER these rails are associated with a meshwork of filaments. A cradle of five rods lies within the groove under the midpiece. The ER membrane also passes through these rods which contact the same meshwork. In the scopular region and in the stalk the microfilaments from the midpiece form a bundle which passes into the lumen of modified basal bodies. These basal bodies are connected to the alveolar sac which, in the stalk, passes as a flattened tube along its length. The parts of the dissociated linkage complex are scattered throughout the spasmoneme of the stalk along membranes of the intraspasmonemal tubules. Thus, both stalk and body contractile bundles have linkage complexes that link their associated membrane systems to the microfibrils and, in turn, connect this membrane-microfibrillar interface to the pellicular membranes. The arrangement of the linkage complex suggests an involvement in the control of the transport of calcium ions between ER and microfibrils, and possibly the transfer of a message from the surface membranes to the sites of calcium release to trigger myonemal contraction.

  10. Uptake, localization and clearance of quantum dots in ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Monika; Kahru, Anne; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2014-07-01

    Protozoa as phagocytizing cells have been shown to integrate engineered nanoparticles (NPs), while the mechanism, dynamics and extent of such uptake are unclear. Here our fluorescence microscopy data showed that CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with primary size of 12 nm were readily phagocytized into the food vacuoles of Tetrahymena thermophila in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Twenty hours after the exposure to QDs in sublethal concentration the clearance of the QDs from the cells was incomplete suggesting that phagocytosis of QDs into food vacuoles was not the only pathway of uptake by T. thermophila. This was further proven by the results that the inhibition of phagocytosis did not block the internalization of QDs into protozoans. This study provides a new insight into uptake and cellular trafficking of subtoxic concentrations of nanoparticles that may, due to prolonged retention times in the cells, pose risks by potentially becoming available to higher trophic levels.

  11. Exploring the Transcriptome of Ciliated Cells Using In Silico Dissection of Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ivliev, Alexander E.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M. C.; Peters, Dorien J. M.; Sergeeva, Marina G.

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are cell organelles that play important roles in cell motility, sensory and developmental functions and are involved in a range of human diseases, known as ciliopathies. Here, we search for novel human genes related to cilia using a strategy that exploits the previously reported tendency of cell type-specific genes to be coexpressed in the transcriptome of complex tissues. Gene coexpression networks were constructed using the noise-resistant WGCNA algorithm in 12 publicly available microarray datasets from human tissues rich in motile cilia: airways, fallopian tubes and brain. A cilia-related coexpression module was detected in 10 out of the 12 datasets. A consensus analysis of this module's gene composition recapitulated 297 known and predicted 74 novel cilia-related genes. 82% of the novel candidates were supported by tissue-specificity expression data from GEO and/or proteomic data from the Human Protein Atlas. The novel findings included a set of genes (DCDC2, DYX1C1, KIAA0319) related to a neurological disease dyslexia suggesting their potential involvement in ciliary functions. Furthermore, we searched for differences in gene composition of the ciliary module between the tissues. A multidrug-and-toxin extrusion transporter MATE2 (SLC47A2) was found as a brain-specific central gene in the ciliary module. We confirm the localization of MATE2 in cilia by immunofluorescence staining using MDCK cells as a model. While MATE2 has previously gained attention as a pharmacologically relevant transporter, its potential relation to cilia is suggested for the first time. Taken together, our large-scale analysis of gene coexpression networks identifies novel genes related to human cell cilia. PMID:22558177

  12. A Cladistic Approach for the Classification of Oligotrichid Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotricha)

    PubMed Central

    AGATHA, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Summary Currently, gene sequence genealogies of the Oligotrichea Bütschli, 1889 comprise only few species. Therefore, a cladistic approach, especially to the Oligotrichida, was made, applying Hennig's method and computer programs. Twenty-three characters were selected and discussed, i.e., the morphology of the oral apparatus (five characters), the somatic ciliature (eight characters), special organelles (four characters), and ontogenetic particulars (six characters). Nine of these characters developed convergently twice. Although several new features were included into the analyses, the cladograms match other morphological trees in the monophyly of the Oligotrichea, Halteriia, Oligotrichia, Oligotrichida, and Choreotrichida. The main synapomorphies of the Oligotrichea are the enantiotropic division mode and the de novo-origin of the undulating membranes. Although the sister group relationship of the Halteriia and the Oligotrichia contradicts results obtained by gene sequence analyses, no morphologic, ontogenetic or ultrastructural features were found, which support a branching of Halteria grandinella within the Stichotrichida. The cladistic approaches suggest paraphyly of the family Strombidiidae probably due to the scarce knowledge. A revised classification of the Oligotrichea is suggested, including all sufficiently known families and genera. PMID:20396404

  13. Evidence for a relationship between bovine erythrocyte lipid membrane peculiarities and immune pressure from ruminal ciliates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erythrocytes of bovines and other ruminants have a strikingly anomalous phospholipid composition, with low or absent phosphatidylcholine (PC) together with high sphingomyelin (SM) content. Here, we report the presence in normal bovine serum of high levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies of IgM isoty...

  14. Swimming of a model ciliate near an air-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Ardekani, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the role of the hydrodynamic forces on a swimming microorganism near an air-liquid interface is studied. The lubrication theory is utilized to analyze hydrodynamic effects within the narrow gap between a flat interface and a small swimmer. By using an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimming model called “squirmer,” we find that the magnitude of the vertical swimming velocity is on the order of O(ɛlnɛ), where ɛ is the ratio of the gap width to the swimmer's body size. The reduced swimming velocity near an interface can explain experimental observations of the aggregation of microorganisms near a liquid interface.

  15. Swimming of a model ciliate near an air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Ardekani, A M

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the role of the hydrodynamic forces on a swimming microorganism near an air-liquid interface is studied. The lubrication theory is utilized to analyze hydrodynamic effects within the narrow gap between a flat interface and a small swimmer. By using an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimming model called "squirmer," we find that the magnitude of the vertical swimming velocity is on the order of O(εlnε), where ε is the ratio of the gap width to the swimmer's body size. The reduced swimming velocity near an interface can explain experimental observations of the aggregation of microorganisms near a liquid interface.

  16. Highly Conserved Elements and Chromosome Structure Evolution in Mitochondrial Genomes in Ciliates

    PubMed Central

    Gershgorin, Roman A.; Gorbunov, Konstantin Yu.; Zverkov, Oleg A.; Rubanov, Lev I.; Seliverstov, Alexandr V.; Lyubetsky, Vassily A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses are incorporating ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and highly conserved elements (HCEs). Models of evolution of the genome structure and HCEs initially faced considerable algorithmic challenges, which gave rise to (often unnatural) constraints on these models, even for conceptually simple tasks such as the calculation of distance between two structures or the identification of UCEs. In our recent works, these constraints have been addressed with fast and efficient solutions with no constraints on the underlying models. These approaches have led us to an unexpected result: for some organelles and taxa, the genome structure and HCE set, despite themselves containing relatively little information, still adequately resolve the evolution of species. We also used the HCE identification to search for promoters and regulatory elements that characterize the functional evolution of the genome. PMID:28264444

  17. Functional modulation of IFT kinesins extends the sensory repertoire of ciliated neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Evans, James E; Snow, Joshua J; Gunnarson, Amy L; Ou, Guangshuo; Stahlberg, Henning; McDonald, Kent L; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2006-02-27

    The diversity of sensory cilia on Caenorhabditis elegans neurons allows the animal to detect a variety of sensory stimuli. Sensory cilia are assembled by intraflagellar transport (IFT) kinesins, which transport ciliary precursors, bound to IFT particles, along the ciliary axoneme for incorporation into ciliary structures. Using fluorescence microscopy of living animals and serial section electron microscopy of high pressure-frozen, freeze-substituted IFT motor mutants, we found that two IFT kinesins, homodimeric OSM-3 kinesin and heterotrimeric kinesin II, function in a partially redundant manner to build full-length amphid channel cilia but are completely redundant for building full-length amphid wing (AWC) cilia. This difference reflects cilia-specific differences in OSM-3 activity, which serves to extend distal singlets in channel cilia but not in AWC cilia, which lack such singlets. Moreover, AWC-specific chemotaxis assays reveal novel sensory functions for kinesin II in these wing cilia. We propose that kinesin II is a "canonical" IFT motor, whereas OSM-3 is an "accessory" IFT motor, and that subtle changes in the deployment or actions of these IFT kinesins can contribute to differences in cilia morphology, cilia function, and sensory perception.

  18. The influence of flap inclination angle on fluid transport at ciliated walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockenbach, A.; Schnakenberg, U.

    2017-01-01

    In optimizing fluid flow at walls, research has turned to artificial cilia to mimic the propulsion of their whip-like beat of a metachronal traveling wave. Recently we developed a pneumatically actuated micro-membrane device which has rows of long flaps positioned off-center on membranes over a row of cavities, much like the comb row of a ctenophore. As little is known about how the flap inclination angle influences the fluid transport near the wall of such devices, this paper presents a detailed modeling and experimental investigation of this question using combined FEM-FVM (finite element method-finite volume method)-based simulations for inclination angles of 0°, 20°, 30°, and 45°. The experimental results agree well with those of the FEM-FVM simulations. Antiplectic fluid transport was observed for flap inclination angles lower than 20° whereas symplectic fluid transport was determined for those higher than 20°. In conclusion, the inclination angle of the flaps decisively affects the fluid transport direction and velocity.

  19. Notes on the use of invertebrates, especially ciliates, in studies on pollution and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Komala, Z

    1995-01-01

    After treatment of the paramecia with 0.0005% cartap solution a high mortality of the paramecia in the postautogamic experimental group was observed. In the studied postautogamic experimental daily isolation line some defective paramecia were found. The abnormality was manifested by a defective separation of animals during binary fission resulting in the formation of chain forms.

  20. Identification and functional characterization of an uncharacterized antimicrobial peptide from a ciliate Paramecium caudatum.

    PubMed

    Cui, Pengfei; Dong, Yuan; Li, Zhijian; Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-07-01

    The global ever-growing concerns about multi-drug resistant (MDR) microbes leads to urgent demands for exploration of new antibiotics including antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here we demonstrated that a cDNA from Ciliata Paramecium caudatum, designated Pcamp1, coded for a protein with features characteristic of AMPs, which is not homologous to any AMPs currently known. Both the C-terminal 91 amino acid residues of PcAMP1, cPcAMP1, expressed in Escherichia coli and the C-terminal 26 amino acid residues (predicted mature AMP), cPcAMP1/26, synthesized, underwent a coil-to-helix transition in the presence of TFE, SDS or DPC. Functional assays revealed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were both able to kill Aeromonas hydrophila and Staphylococcus aureus. ELISA showed that cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to bind to microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules LPS and LTA, which was further corroborated by the observations that cPcAMP1 could deposit onto the bacterial membranes. Importantly, both cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were able to induce bacterial membrane permeabilization and depolarization, and to increase intracellular ROS levels. Additionally, cPcAMP1 and cPcAMP1/26 were not cytotoxic to mammalian cells. Taken together, our results show that PcAMP1 is a potential AMP with a membrane selectivity towards bacterial cells, which renders it a promising template for the design of novel peptide antibiotics against MDR microbes. It also shows that use of signal conserved sequence of AMPs can be an effective tool to identify potential AMPs across different animal classes.

  1. A molecular perspective on ecological differentiation and biogeography of cyclotrichiid ciliates.

    PubMed

    Bass, David; Brown, Nick; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jackie; Dyal, Patricia; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Vepritskiy, Alexey A; Richards, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    Cyclotrichiids are of ecological and evolutionary interest by virtue of their importance in red tide formation, their highly divergent small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, kleptoplastidy, and utility as indicators of eutrophication. However, only seven strains have had their SSU rRNA genes sequenced and their environmental diversity and distribution are largely unknown. We probed 67 globally dispersed freshwater column/sediment and soil DNA samples (eDNAs) and constructed 24 environmental gene libraries using polymerase chain reaction primers specific to an uncharacterised cyclotrichiid subgroup. We reveal a novel, globally ubiquitous freshwater clade comprising 25 genetically distinct SSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences (SSU-types). Some identical SSU-types were detected at globally widely distributed sites. The SSU-types form four distinct phylogenetic clusters according to marine or non-marine provenance, suggesting at least one major marine-freshwater evolutionary transition within the cyclotrichiids. We used the same primers to sample intensively 18 sampling points in 13 closely situated lakes, each characterised by 14 environmental variables, and showed that molecular detection or non-detection of cyclotrichiids was most significantly influenced by levels of total phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and chlorophyll a. Within the subset of lakes in which cyclotrichiids were detected, closely related SSU-types differed in their ecological preferences to pH, total phosphorus, and sample depth.

  2. Rigidosticha italiensis n. gen., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotricha), a novel large hypotrich ciliate from the soil of Lombardia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Daizy; Kumar, Santosh; La Terza, Antonietta

    2016-10-01

    The morphology of Rigidosticha italiensis n. gen., n. sp., which was found in a soil sample collected from an uncultivated field in Lombardia, Italy, was investigated using live observation and protargol staining. Rigidosticha n. gen. is characterised by a rigid body, undulating membranes resembling a Steinia pattern, oxytrichid frontal ciliature, distinct mid-ventral cirral pairs, transverse cirri, one right and one left row of marginal cirri, absence of dorsal kinety 3 fragmentation, more than two dorsomarginal rows, and caudal cirri. The new species shows the following features: size in vivo 230-330×100-170μm, on average 230×115μm in protargol preparations; two ellipsoidal macronuclear nodules; 51 adoral membranelles; one buccal cirrus; one parabuccal cirrus; two frontoterminal cirri; 16 mid-ventral cirral pairs; and three transverse cirri. Rigidosticha mainly differs from Rigidothrix, Afrophrya, Uroleptus, and Territricha, in having the undulating membranes in Rigidosticha (vs. oxytrichid and cyrtohymenid) pattern. The oxytrichid frontal ciliature and midventral pattern in the present species further support the CEUU (Convergent Evolution of Urostylids and Uroleptids) hypothesis.

  3. Size based separation of micro-particles using adhesive ciliated surfaces: Mimicing the behaviour of suspension feeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Anurag; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Balazs, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Separation of different size micro-particles in microfluidic devices is important for many biomedical applications. Inspired by the selective intake of small food particles by marine suspension feeders, we propose a novel separation mechanism of micro-particles using active cilia arrays with adhesive tips. By means of Lattice Boltzmann simulations, we show that mixture of two different size particles with size ratio greater than or equal to two can be nearly completely separated by tuning adhesion strength and cilia stiffness. The proposed technique can be used even at low Reynolds number (Re << 1) where separation mechanisms based on inertial effects will be of little use. For a given cilia-particle interaction, the balance of hydrodynamic and adhesive forces favors capture of particles below a critical size, which can be predicted by a simple analytical model.

  4. The basal apparatus. Mass isolation from the molluscan ciliated gill epithelium and a preliminary characterization of striated rootlets

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    The basal apparatus, consisting of an array of interconnected basal bodies bearing bifurcating striated rootlets encompassing a nucleus, has been isolated from hypertonically deciliated columnar gill epithelial cells of the bay scallop Aequipecten irradians through gentle lysis with Triton X-100. The rootlets, 8-10 mum in length, were not easily preserved with conventional electron microscope fixatives, suggesting that the extent of their contribution to cellular architecture has been somewhat underestimated, even though Englemann described many of the structural details of the basal apparatus in 1880. The striated rootlets were soluble at high but not at low pH, in 2 M solutions of sodium azide and potassium thiocyanate but not sodium or potassium chloride, in 1% deoxycholate but not digitonin, and in the denaturing solvents 6 M guanidine-HC1, 8 M urea, and 1% sodium dodecylsulfate at 100 degrees C. The protein found consistently when rootlets were solubilized migrated on SDS-polyacrylamide gels as a closely spaced doublet with apparent molecular weights of 230,000 and 250,000 daltons. This unique protein, distinct from tropocollagen or various muscle components, has been named ankyrin because of the rootlet's anchor-like function in the cell. PMID:1090630

  5. Ciliate protozoa of the forestomach of llamas (Lama glama) from locations
    at different altitude in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, María Cerón; Marcoppido, Gisela; Dekker, Anna; Fondevila, Manuel; Fuente, Gabriel De La; Morici, Gabriel; Cravero, Silvio

    2016-01-20

    This study describes the diversity and concentration of the protozoal population from the forestomach of llamas in Argentina at three altitudinal locations. Protozoal diversity was studied in samples from eight llamas from Hurlingham (Buenos Aires, 43 m altitude), four from Tilcara (Jujuy, 2465 m altitude) and six llamas from Cieneguillas (Jujuy, 3800 m altitude). The total concentrations of protozoa in the forestomach contents were 7.9, 9.1 and 4.1 cells x 104 ml-1 in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively (P>0.05). Entodinium spp. represented 97.9, 92.3 and 71.4% of the protozoal community in Hurlingham, Tilcara and Cieneguillas, respectively, and the remaining protozoa belonged to the Eudiplodinium genus. Entodinium spp. were identified as E. caudatum (mostly morphotype dubardi), E. longinucleatum, E. parvum, E. bovis, E. exiguum, E. dubardi, and a minor presence of E. bimastus (in three animals) and E. ovibos (in one animal). In regards to the rest of protozoal species, Eudiplodinium maggii is the first reported host record for the genus in llamas. This species was present in the forestomach of 14 out of 18 llamas tested, and in one case it was the unique protozoal species. The vestibuliferids, Dasytricha and Isotricha were absent from the forestomach of llamas. Similarly, other species such as those from the Caloscolex genus, Diplodinium cameli and Entodinium ovumrajae, commonly found in Old World Camelids, were also absent from llamas.

  6. The All-Data-Based Evolutionary Hypothesis of Ciliated Protists with a Revised Classification of the Phylum Ciliophora (Eukaryota, Alveolata)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Warren, Alan; Zhang, Qianqian; Gong, Jun; Miao, Miao; Sun, Ping; Xu, Dapeng; Huang, Jie; Yi, Zhenzhen; Song, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Ciliophora plays important roles in a wide range of biological studies. However, the evolutionary relationships of many groups remain unclear due to a lack of sufficient molecular data. In this study, molecular dataset was expanded with representatives from 55 orders and all major lineages. The main findings are: (1) 14 classes were recovered including one new class, Protocruziea n. cl.; (2) in addition to the two main branches, Postciliodesmatophora and Intramacronucleata, a third branch, the Mesodiniea, is identified as being basal to the other two subphyla; (3) the newly defined order Discocephalida is revealed to be a sister clade to the euplotids, strongly suggesting the separation of discocephalids from the hypotrichs; (4) the separation of mobilids from the peritrichs is not supported; (5) Loxocephalida is basal to the main scuticociliate assemblage, whereas the thigmotrichs are placed within the order Pleuronematida; (6) the monophyly of classes Phyllopharyngea, Karyorelictea, Armophorea, Prostomatea, Plagiopylea, Colpodea and Heterotrichea are confirmed; (7) ambiguous genera Askenasia, CyclotrichiumParaspathidium and Plagiocampa show close affiliation to the well known plagiopyleans; (8) validity of the subclass Rhynchostomatia is supported, and (9) the systematic positions of Halteriida and Linconophoria remain unresolved and are thus regarded as incertae sedis within Spirotrichea. PMID:27126745

  7. Ecology of the red-tide dinoflagellate Ceratium furca: distribution, mixotrophy, and grazing impact on ciliate populations of Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Gabriela W; Coats, D Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Ceratium furca is a primarily photosynthetic dinoflagellate also capable of ingesting other protists. During 1995 and 1996, we documented the abundance of C. furca in Chesapeake Bay and determined grazing rates on prey labeled with fluorescent microspheres. Abundance usually remained below 20 cells ml(-1), although the species was capable of localized late-summer blooms (< or = 478 cells ml(-1)) in the more saline lower to mid-Bay region. Feeding rates ranged from 0 to 0.11 prey dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1) or from 0 to 37 pg C dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1) and were highest at lower salinities. Clearance rates averaged 2.5 +/- 0.35 microl dinoflagellate(-1) h(-1). Impact of C. furca feeding on prey populations was higher in the lower Bay, averaging 67% of Strobilidium spp. removed d(-1). Ingestion rates were positively correlated with prey abundance and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but negatively with salinity, depth, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, and inorganic P:N ratio. Daily consumption of prey biomass by C. furca averaged 4.6% of body carbon, 6.5% of body nitrogen, and 4.0% of body phosphorus. with maximal values of 36, 51, and 32%, respectively. Thus, the ability to exploit an organic nutrient source when inorganic nutrients are limiting may give C. furca a competitive advantage over purely photosynthetic species.

  8. Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Two New Brackish Water Ciliates of Bakuella (Ciliophora: Urostylida: Bakuellidae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Euna; Jung, Jae-Ho; Min, Gi-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Bakuella, B. (B.) incheonensis n. sp. and B. (Pseudobakuella) litoralis n. sp., were discovered in brackish water near Aamdo Shore Park, Incheon, South Korea. We conducted a morphological study based on live observations and protargol-impregnated specimens, and a molecular analysis using nuclear SSU rRNA gene sequences. Bakuella (B.) incheonensis is diagnosed by: body size 70-105 × 20-40 μm in vivo, 21-25 adoral membranelles, three or four frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of 7-10 midventral pairs with one or two rows and terminating at about 62% of body length, 20-28 left and 25-32 right marginal cirri, 58-87 macronuclear nodules, and yellowish cortical granules. Bakuella (Pseudobakuella) litoralis is diagnosed by: body size 90-125 × 30-40 μm in vivo, 25-33 adoral membranelles, 3-5 buccal cirri, midventral complex composed 10-15 midventral pairs with one or two rows and terminated at 70% of body length, one or two pretransverse cirri, 3-6 transverse cirri, 26-39 left and 29-47 right marginal cirri, 49-84 macronuclear nodules, and two types of cortical granules. Molecular phylogeny using SSU rRNA gene sequences shows a nonmonophyletic relationship among Bakuella species and emphasizes the need for further morphogenetic studies of this genus and other related hypotrichs.

  9. TPP1 is a homologue of ciliate TEBP-β and interacts with POT1 to recruit telomerase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Huawei; Liu, Dan; Wan, Ma; Safari, Amin; Kim, Hyeung; Sun, Wen; O'Connor, Matthew S.; Songyang, Zhou

    2007-02-01

    Telomere dysfunction may result in chromosomal abnormalities, DNA damage responses, and even cancer. Early studies in lower organisms have helped to establish the crucial role of telomerase and telomeric proteins in maintaining telomere length and protecting telomere ends. In Oxytricha nova, telomere G-overhangs are protected by the TEBP-α/β heterodimer. Human telomeres contain duplex telomeric repeats with 3' single-stranded G-overhangs, and may fold into a t-loop structure that helps to shield them from being recognized as DNA breaks. Additionally, the TEBP-α homologue, POT1, which binds telomeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), associates with multiple telomeric proteins (for example, TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and RAP1) to form the six-protein telosome/shelterin and other subcomplexes. These telomeric protein complexes in turn interact with diverse pathways to form the telomere interactome for telomere maintenance. However, the mechanisms by which the POT1-containing telosome communicates with telomerase to regulate telomeres remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that TPP1 is a putative mammalian homologue of TEBP-β and contains a predicted amino-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) fold. TPP1-POT1 association enhanced POT1 affinity for telomeric ssDNA. In addition, the TPP1 OB fold, as well as POT1-TPP1 binding, seemed critical for POT1-mediated telomere-length control and telomere-end protection in human cells. Disruption of POT1-TPP1 interaction by dominant negative TPP1 expression or RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in telomere-length alteration and DNA damage responses. Furthermore, we offer evidence that TPP1 associates with the telomerase in a TPP1-OB-fold-dependent manner, providing a physical link between telomerase and the telosome/shelterin complex. Our findings highlight the critical role of TPP1 in telomere maintenance, and support a yin-yang model in which TPP1 and POT1 function as a unit to protect human telomeres, by both positively and negatively regulating telomerase access to telomere DNA.

  10. Acute effects of heavy metals on the expression of glutathione-related antioxidant genes in the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Hun; Kim, Se-Joo; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Young-Mi

    2014-08-30

    Euplotes crassus, a single-celled eukaryote, is directly affected by environmental contaminants. Here, exponentially cultured E. crassus were exposed to cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc and then the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and total glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Subsequently, the transcriptional modulation of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. After an 8-h exposure, significantly higher increases in the relative ROS and total GSH levels were observed in exposed group, compared to the controls. Real-time PCR data revealed that the expression levels of GPx and GR mRNA were sensitively modulated within 8h of exposure to all heavy metals. These findings suggest that these genes may be involved in cellular defense mechanisms by modulating their gene expression against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. Thus, they may be useful as potential molecular biomarkers to assess sediment environments for contaminants.

  11. A new entodiniomorphid ciliate, Troglocorys cava n. g., n. sp., from the wild eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Modrý, David; Ito, Akira; Pomajbíková, Katerina; Petrzelková, Klára J; Imai, Soichi

    2010-01-01

    Troglocorys cava n. g., n. sp. is described from the feces of wild eastern chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, in Uganda. This new species has a spherical body with a frontal lobe, a long vestibulum, a cytoproct located at the posterior dorsal side of the body, an ovoid macronucleus, a contractile vacuole near the cytoproct, and a large concavity on the left surface of the body. Buccal ciliature is non-retractable and consists of three ciliary zones: an adoral zone surrounding the vestibular opening, a dorso-adoral zone extending transversely at the basis of the frontal lobe, and a vestibular zone longitudinally extending in a gently spiral curve to line the surface of the vestibulum. Two non-retractable somatic ciliary zones comprise arches over the body surface: a short dorsal ciliary arch extending transversely at the basis of the frontal lobe and a wide C-shaped left ciliary arch in the left concavity. Because of the presence of three ciliary zones in the non-retractable buccal ciliature, the present genus might be a member of the family Blepharocorythidae, but the large left concavity and the C-shaped left ciliary arch are unique, such structures have never been described from other blepharocorythids.

  12. Toxicity of ammonia nitrogen to ciliated protozoa Stentor coeruleus and Coleps hirtus isolated from activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Beata; Fyda, Janusz; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Kocerba, Wioleta; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Sobczyk, Mateusz

    2012-11-01

    We assessed the toxicity of ammonia ions to Stentor coeruleus and Coleps hirtus (Protozoa) isolated from activated sludge taken from two municipal wastewater treatment plants in southern Poland. Stentor coeruleus is a rarely occurring species in activated sludge, unlike the widespread Coleps hirtus. The mean LC50 values (concentration causing 50 % mortality) calculated for the 24 h tests differed hugely between the tested species: 43.03 mg NH(4+) dm(-3) for Stentor coeruleus and 441.12 mg NH(4+) dm(-3) for Coleps hirtus. The ammonia ion concentration apparently is an important factor in the occurrence of these protozoan species in activated sludge.

  13. Cytoskeletal discontinuities in the cell body cortex initiate basal body assembly and oral development in the ciliate Stentor.

    PubMed

    de Terra, N

    1985-06-01

    My previous work has shown that disconnecting the oral apparatus of Stentor into two parts induces mass assembly of basal bodies on the ventral cell surface and thus initiates oral development. This operation severs the extensive microtubule tracts joining the oral membranelles at their bases. To determine whether basal body assembly and oral development are also induced by permanently disconnecting the longitudinal microtubule fibre tracts (mt fibre tracts) of the cell body cortex, I interposed a ring of inverted (heteropolar) cortex between the anterior and posterior halves of interphase stentors. When successful, this operation made it impossible for these fibre tracts to rejoin at the heteropolar boundaries and always induced basal body assembly and oral development in the graft complex. By contrast, tripartite homopolar graft complexes rarely initiated oral development; when they did, it was apparently in response to the presence of disproportionately small oral structures, which is the normal stimulus for oral development in Stentor. The mt fibre tracts of tripartite homopolar grafts also eventually became continuous. These results support the hypothesis that permanent, extensive discontinuities anywhere within the cortical cytoskeleton can trigger basal body assembly and oral development. Since the onset of these processes is known to initiate cell division in Stentor, the results also suggest that development of discontinuities within the cortical cytoskeleton during interphase growth may be the endogenous stimulus initiating cell division in Stentor.

  14. Photosensory transduction in ciliates. I. An analysis of light-induced electrical and motile responses in Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Fabczak, S; Fabczak, H; Tao, N; Song, P S

    1993-04-01

    Light-induced membrane potential changes and motile responses have been studied in Stentor cells with intracellular microelectrodes and video microscopy, respectively. Intracellular microelectrode recordings showed that step-up increase in light intensity induced an electrical membrane response which consisted of an initial membrane depolarization (photoreceptor potential) followed by an action potential and maintaining phase of depolarization (afterdepolarization). The amplitude of the receptor potential is dependent on the intensity of light stimulus and the action potential appears with a lag period (latency) after the onset of light stimulus. The extent of the membrane afterdepolarization is dependent on the intensity and duration of stimulus used. A close time correlation has been established between the latency for the action potential and the onset of ciliary reversal (stop response). A time correlation was also observed between the duration of the membrane afterdepolarization and the duration of backward swimming. The action spectrum for the photoreceptor potential amplitude of Stentor resembled the action spectra for the latency of ciliary reversal and the photoresponsiveness, indicating that the photomovement response and membrane potential changes are coupled through the same photosensor system. A hypothesis on the photosensory transduction chain in Stentor is discussed according to which the photoreceptors and the ciliary apparatus is mediated by the membrane potential changes.

  15. Divergences in the response to ultraviolet radiation between polar and non-polar ciliated protozoa: UV radiation effects in Euplotes.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Cervia, Davide; Vallesi, Adriana

    2012-02-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has detrimental effects on marine ecosystems, in particular in the polar regions where stratospheric ozone reduction causes higher levels of solar radiation. We analyzed two polar species of Euplotes, Euplotes focardii and Euplotes nobilii, for the sensitivity to UV radiation in comparison with two akin species from mid-latitude and tropical waters. Results showed that they face UV radiation much more efficiently than the non-polar species by adopting alternative strategies that most likely reflect different times of colonization of the polar waters. While E. focardii, which is endemic to the Antarctic, survives for longer exposed to UV radiation, E. nobilii, which inhabits both the Antarctic and Arctic, recovers faster from UV-induced damage.

  16. An enzymically catalysed reaction between d-glucose and the protein cyst coat of the ciliate Colpoda steinii

    PubMed Central

    Tibbs, J.; Marshall, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    1. The isolated protein cyst coat of Colpoda steinii reacted with [14C]glucose to bind 14C label in a reaction that was not an artifact of bacterial contamination or of adsorption. 2. The reaction was enzymically catalysed, had optimum pH7.0–7.4 and a temperature optimum of 36–38°C, was non-competitively and reversibly inhibited by 10μm-p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and was specific for d-glucose. It had Km8.2×10−6m. 3. With the exception of C-1, all the carbon atoms of glucose were bound to the same extent and, measured relative to C-2 or C-6, the binding of C-1 varied between 0.45 and 0.82. The lost C-1 was not accounted for as carbon dioxide. 4. On prolonged incubation a coat preparation reacted with 3.6% of its own weight of glucose. 5. The label was tightly bound, but after acid treatment a variable proportion was recovered as glucose and there was no evidence for the release of any other 14C-containing compound. 6. Even after dissolution of the coat protein, bound label was not removed by treatment with periodate or lead tetra-acetate. PMID:4321892

  17. Characterizing dose-responses of catalase to nitrofurazone exposure in model ciliated protozoan Euplotes vannus for ecotoxicity assessment: enzyme activity and mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiqiu; Zhou, Liang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2014-02-01

    In environmental studies, some biological responses, known as biomarkers, have been used as a powerful bioassay tool for more than four decades. Disparity between enzyme activity and mRNA abundance leads to correlation equivocality, which makes the application of biomarkers for environmental risk assessment more complicated. This study investigates this disparity in the case of catalase when used as a biomarker for detecting ecotoxicity induced by antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, dose-responses for catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance were investigated in Euplotes vannus which were exposed to graded doses of nitrofurazone for several discrete durations, and dose-response models were developed to characterize the dose-response dynamics. Significant differences were found in both catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance among the E. vannus treated with nitrofurazone. Catalase activity showed a hormetic-like effect in terms of dose-response, characterized by a biphasic relationship which was more clearly evident after a longer exposure period, while mRNA expression abundance increased linearly with the exposure duration. Additionally, the correlation between catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance reversed along with the duration of exposure to nitrofurazone. Taken together, our results demonstrate that catalase mRNA expression offers a more straightforward dose-response model than enzyme activity. Our findings suggest that both catalase enzyme activity and mRNA expression abundance can be used jointly as bioassay tools for detecting ecotoxicity induced by nitrofurazone in aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Digestion, ruminal fermentation, ciliate protozoal populations, and milk production from dairy cows fed cinnamaldehyde, quebracho condensed tannin, or Yucca schidigera saponin extracts.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; McAllister, T A; Chouinard, P Y

    2008-12-01

    Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) to determine the effects of cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 1 g/cow per day), condensed tannins from quebracho trees (QCT, containing 70% tannins, 150 g/cow per day), and saponins from Yucca schidigera extract (YSE, containing 10% saponins; 60 g/cow per day) on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoal populations, and milk production. Intake of dry matter was not affected by the addition of CIN or QCT, but cows fed YSE had lesser intake than cows fed the control diet (21.8 vs. 23.2 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were unaffected by dietary treatments. Supplementation with CIN, QTE, or YSE did not affect in situ ruminal degradation of soybean meal, grass silage, or corn grain. Ruminal pH (6.67), total volatile fatty acid concentration (135 mM), and molar proportions (mol/100 mol of total volatile fatty acid) of acetate (65.0), propionate (19.6), and butyrate (11.2) were similar among treatments. Ruminal NH(3)-N concentration was not changed by the addition of CIN and YSE, but tended to decrease in cows fed QCT compared with cows fed the control diet (132 vs. 160 mg/L). Total numbers of ruminal protozoa were not changed by adding CIN, QCT, or YSE in the diet (5.85 log(10)/mL). However, the number of Isotricha was greater in ruminal fluid of cows fed CIN than in ruminal fluid of cows fed the control diet (4.46 vs. 4.23 log(10)/mL). Milk production (33.1 kg/d), milk fat (4.3%), and milk protein (3.5%) remained unchanged between dietary treatments. Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions, supplementing dairy cow diets with CIN, QCT, or YSE had limited effects on digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and protozoal populations. The lack of effects observed in this study suggests that these antimicrobials require administration at greater doses to favorably alter rumen microbial fermentation.

  19. Morphology, ontogenetic features and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of a soil ciliate, Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Stichotrichia).

    PubMed

    Fan, Yangbo; Hu, Xiaozhong; Gao, Feng; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2014-12-01

    The morphology, ontogeny and SSU rRNA gene-based phylogeny of Bistichella cystiformans spec. nov., isolated from the slightly saline soil of a mangrove wetland in Zhanjiang, southern China, were investigated. The novel species was characterized by having five to eight buccal cirri arranged in a row, three to five transverse cirri, four macronuclear nodules aligned, and 17-32 and 20-34 cirri in frontoventral rows V and VI, respectively, both extending to the transverse cirri. The main ontogenetic features of the novel species were as follows: (1) the parental adoral zone of the membranelles is completely inherited by the proter; (2) the frontoventral and transverse cirri are formed in a six-anlagen mode; (3) basically, the frontal-ventral-transverse cirral anlagen II-V generate one transverse cirrus each at their posterior ends, while anlage VI provides no transverse cirrus; (4) both marginal rows and dorsal kineties develop intrakinetally, no dorsal kinety fragment is formed; and (5) the macronuclear nodules fuse into a single mass at the middle stage. Phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU rRNA gene showed that the novel species groups with the clade containing Bistichella variabilis, Parabistichella variabilis, Uroleptoides magnigranulosus and two species of the genus Orthoamphisiella. Given present knowledge, it was considered to be still too early to come to a final conclusion regarding the familial classification of the genus Bistichella; further investigations of key taxa with additional molecular markers are required.

  20. Two new species of symbiotic ciliates from the respiratory tract of cetaceans with establishment of the new genus Planilamina n. gen. (Dysteriida, Kyaroikeidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongwei; Overstreet, Robin M; Sniezek, James H; Solangi, Mobashir; Wayne Coats, D

    2006-01-01

    Examination of mucus discharged from the blowhole of Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) at Marine Life Oceanarium, Gulfport, Mississippi, and false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) and Atlantic bottlenose dolphin at SeaWorld Orlando, Orlando, Florida, using live observations and protargol impregnation revealed mixed infections of Kyaroikeus cetarius and two new species. Planilamina n. gen. is characterized by a C-shaped argentophilic band located along the laterally flattened margin of cell and extending from the cell apex to subposterior cone-shaped podite; a deep oral cavity containing one short preoral kinety, two circumoral kineties, seven to 13 infundibular kineties, and a cytostome; a broadly funnel-shaped cytopharynx reinforced by argentophilic fibers but without nematodesmata; closely packed postoral kinetofragments set in a pocket located anterior left of the podite; and somatic kineties as a right field closely situated at the right surface and a left field bordering the anterior left margin of the oral cavity. The type species for the genus, Planilamina ovata n. sp., is distinguished from its sister species Planilamina magna n. sp. by the following characteristics: body size (28-65 x 20-43 microm vs. 57-90 x 40-63 microm), number of right field kineties (38-55 vs. 79-99), and position of the anterior end of the leftmost kinety in the right somatic field (anterior one-third vs. mid-body). The morphogenesis of Planilamina ovata is similar to that of K. cetarius. The diagnosis of Kyaroikeidae is emended to accommodate the new genus.

  1. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the moose rumen from different geographical locations reveals a core ruminal methanogenic archaeal diversity and a differential ciliate protozoal diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sundset, Monica A.; Crouse, John; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2015-01-01

    Moose rumen samples from Vermont, Alaska and Norway were investigated for methanogenic archaeal and protozoal density using real-time PCR, and diversity using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Vermont moose showed the highest protozoal and methanogen densities. Alaskan samples had the highest percentages of Methanobrevibacter smithii, followed by the Norwegian samples. One Norwegian sample contained 43 % Methanobrevibacter thaueri, whilst all other samples contained < 10 %. Vermont samples had large percentages of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, as did two Norwegian samples. Methanosphaera stadtmanae represented one-third of sequences in three samples. Samples were heterogeneous based on gender, geographical location and weight class using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Two Alaskan moose contained >70 % Polyplastron multivesiculatum and one contained >75 % Entodinium spp. Protozoa from Norwegian moose belonged predominantly (>50 %) to the genus Entodinium, especially Entodinium caudatum. Norwegian moose contained a large proportion of sequences (25–97 %) which could not be classified beyond family. Protozoa from Vermont samples were predominantly Eudiplodinium rostratum (>75 %), with up to 7 % Diploplastron affine. Four of the eight Vermont samples also contained 5–12 % Entodinium spp. Samples were heterogeneous based on AMOVA, principal coordinate analysis and UniFrac. This study gives the first insight into the methanogenic archaeal diversity in the moose rumen. The high percentage of rumen archaeal species associated with high starch diets found in Alaskan moose corresponds well to previous data suggesting that they feed on plants high in starch. Similarly, the higher percentage of species related to forage diets in Vermont moose also relates well to their higher intake of fibre. PMID:28348818

  2. Description and phylogenetic position of Corlissina maricaensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Karyorelictea, Geleiidae), a novel interstitial ciliate from Brazil, with redefinition of the family Geleiidae.

    PubMed

    Campello-Nunes, Pedro H; Fernandes, Noemi; Schlegel, Martin; Silva-Neto, Inácio D

    2015-12-01

    Corlissina maricaensis gen. nov., sp. nov. was obtained from samples of sediment collected in a brackish lagoon of Maricá city, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The morphological description was based on live observations, after protargol staining, and scanning electron microscopy. The novel species has a cylindrical body shape that is slightly contractile, 230-550 × 35-65 μm, a cytoplasm with many globular inclusions, one row of irregular cortical granules between each somatic kinety, approximately 40-62 somatic kineties, two globular macronuclei measuring 9-24 μm and one micronucleus of approximately 4-9 μm. A subapical oral cavity was approximately 20-80 × 9-25 μm, with an adoral zone on the left side of the buccal field, which was composed of 32-60 polykineties and a paroral at the right side that was composed of 40-57 short polykineties. The new genus is distinguished from other geleiids by a loop-shaped posterior end of the paroral ciliature, made up of two rows of short polykineties, and the oralization of the central superior kinety (K0i), forming a row of dikinetids that borders the adoral zone internally, followed by several rows of monokinetids. In the phylogenetic analyses, the novel species was recovered as the sister group of Parduczia orbis with full support values based on 18S rRNA gene sequences. This work also indicates some problems in the definitions of the Geleiidae and proposes a new diagnosis for this karyorelictid family.

  3. "Candidatus Sonnebornia yantaiensis", a member of candidate division OD1, as intracellular bacteria of the ciliated protist Paramecium bursaria (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea).

    PubMed

    Gong, Jun; Qing, Yao; Guo, Xiaohong; Warren, Alan

    2014-02-01

    An intracellular bacterium was discovered in an isolate of Paramecium bursaria from a freshwater pond in Yantai, China. The bacteria were abundant and exclusively found in the cytoplasm of the host which, along with the green alga Chlorella, formed a three-partner consortium that could survive in pure water for at least one week. Cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed that the bacterium belonged to the uncultured candidate division OD1, which usually forms part of the rare biosphere. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific probes showed that the bacteria were usually located close to the perialgal membranes of endosymbiotic Chlorella cells, and occasionally irregularly distributed throughout the host cytoplasm. The name "Candidatus Sonnebornia yantaiensis" gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for the new bacterium. A strongly supported monophyletic subclade, OD1-p, which included the new species, was recognized and this study highlights that protists can be important hosts for rare bacterial taxa.

  4. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the moose rumen from different geographical locations reveals a core ruminal methanogenic archaeal diversity and a differential ciliate protozoal diversity.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Sundset, Monica A; Crouse, John; Wright, André-Denis G

    2015-10-01

    Moose rumen samples from Vermont, Alaska and Norway were investigated for methanogenic archaeal and protozoal density using real-time PCR, and diversity using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Vermont moose showed the highest protozoal and methanogen densities. Alaskan samples had the highest percentages of Methanobrevibacter smithii, followed by the Norwegian samples. One Norwegian sample contained 43 % Methanobrevibacter thaueri, whilst all other samples contained < 10 %. Vermont samples had large percentages of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, as did two Norwegian samples. Methanosphaera stadtmanae represented one-third of sequences in three samples. Samples were heterogeneous based on gender, geographical location and weight class using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Two Alaskan moose contained >70 % Polyplastron multivesiculatum and one contained >75 % Entodinium spp. Protozoa from Norwegian moose belonged predominantly (>50 %) to the genus Entodinium, especially Entodinium caudatum. Norwegian moose contained a large proportion of sequences (25-97 %) which could not be classified beyond family. Protozoa from Vermont samples were predominantly Eudiplodinium rostratum (>75 %), with up to 7 % Diploplastron affine. Four of the eight Vermont samples also contained 5-12 % Entodinium spp. Samples were heterogeneous based on AMOVA, principal coordinate analysis and UniFrac. This study gives the first insight into the methanogenic archaeal diversity in the moose rumen. The high percentage of rumen archaeal species associated with high starch diets found in Alaskan moose corresponds well to previous data suggesting that they feed on plants high in starch. Similarly, the higher percentage of species related to forage diets in Vermont moose also relates well to their higher intake of fibre.

  5. Design and validation of four new primers for next-generation sequencing to target the 18S rRNA genes of gastrointestinal ciliate protozoa.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Suzanne L; Wright, André-Denis G

    2014-09-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen.

  6. Identification and localization of a protein immunologically related to Caltractin (Centrin) in the Myonemes and Membranelles of the Heterotrich ciliate Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Michael S; McDaniel, W Scott; Locknar, Sarah A; Torlina, Heather M

    2005-01-01

    The contractile properties of the myonemes of Stentor are very similar to caltractin (centrin)-containing fibers of other organisms. We investigated whether the calcium-binding protein caltractin was present in Stentor by using three different antibodies to caltractin or caltractin-related proteins, in conjunction with immunofluorescence microscopy and protein blotting. Immunofluorescence demonstrated that a protein immunologically similar to caltractin is present in the myonemes and in the bases of the membranelles of Stentor. The localization to the myonemes is observed in intact cells, osmotically lysed cells, and isolated cortices. Double-label immunofluorescence with anti-alpha-tubulin and anti-caltractin antibodies showed that the fluorescence in the myonemes was not in the overlying Km fibers. The myonemes in the posterior one-third of the cell appear as thick fibers with no cross-bridging. They become thinner as they approach the anterior end of the cell and show extensive cross-bridging here. Staining in the bases of the membranelles shows a distinct comma-like immunofluorescence pattern similar to that seen with protargol-stained cells and SEM views of the membranellar band reported by others. Western blots demonstrated that the caltractin-like protein in Stentor has an apparent molecular weight of 23 kDa compared with the 20-kDa protein from Chlamydomonas and is a calcium-binding protein.

  7. Design and Validation of Four New Primers for Next-Generation Sequencing To Target the 18S rRNA Genes of Gastrointestinal Ciliate Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, André-Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Four new primers and one published primer were used to PCR amplify hypervariable regions within the protozoal 18S rRNA gene to determine which primer pair provided the best identification and statistical analysis. PCR amplicons of 394 to 498 bases were generated from three primer sets, sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with Titanium, and analyzed using the BLAST database (NCBI) and MOTHUR version 1.29. The protozoal diversity of rumen contents from moose in Alaska was assessed. In the present study, primer set 1, P-SSU-316F and GIC758R (amplicon of 482 bases), gave the best representation of diversity using BLAST classification, and the set amplified Entodinium simplex and Ostracodinium spp., which were not amplified by the other two primer sets. Primer set 2, GIC1080F and GIC1578R (amplicon of 498 bases), had similar BLAST results and a slightly higher percentage of sequences that were identified with a higher sequence identity. Primer sets 1 and 2 are recommended for use in ruminants. However, primer set 1 may be inadequate to determine protozoal diversity in nonruminants. The amplicons created by primer set 1 were indistinguishable for certain species within the genera Bandia, Blepharocorys, Polycosta, and Tetratoxum and between Hemiprorodon gymnoprosthium and Prorodonopsis coli, none of which are normally found in the rumen. PMID:24973070

  8. Isolation and genetic mapping of NBS-LRR disease resistance gene analogs in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-six watermelon disease resistance gene analogs (WRGA) were isolated from genotypes possessing disease resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 0, 1, and 2, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain, cucumber mosaic virus, and watermelon mosaic virus. Deg...

  9. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  10. A major QTL associated with Fusarium oxysporum race 1 resistance identified in genetic populations derived from closely related watermelon lines using selective genotyping and genotyping-by-sequencing for SNP discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major soil-borne disease of watermelon caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). In this study, a genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous distribution for Fon race ...

  11. A major quantitative trait locus is associated with Fusarium Wilt Race 1 resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). A genetic population of 186 F3 families (24 plants in each family) exhibited continuous segregation for Fon race 1 response. Geno...

  12. Impact of five cover crop green manures and Actinovate on Fusarium Wilt of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triploid watermelon cultivars are grown on more than 2,023 ha in Maryland and in Delaware. Triploid watermelons have little host resistance to Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum). The effects of four different fall-planted cover crops that were tilled in the spring as gree...

  13. Morphology and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the new brackish water ciliate Neobakuella flava n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotricha, Bakuellidae) and SSU rRNA gene sequences of six additional hypotrichs from Korea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiong; Khan, Sadia Nawroz; Ji, Daode; Shin, Mann Kyoon; Berger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The morphology and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the hypotrich Neobakuella flava n. g., n. sp. from the estuary of the Taehwagang River (Ulsan, South Korea) were investigated. The three frontal cirri, the composition of the midventral complex of cirral pairs and rows, and the simple dorsal kinety pattern of three bipolar kineties assign it to the urostyloid taxon Bakuellidae. The increased number of buccal and parabuccal cirri, the presence of transverse cirri, and more than one left marginal row, as well as the lack of caudal cirri separate Neobakuella n. g. from the other bakuellids. Neobakuella flava n. sp. has many 0.3 μm sized green and/or yellow usually dark-green cortical granules and some sparsely distributed, 2 × 1 μm sized grass green with yellowish shimmer granules. The gene sequence data indicate a close relationship with Diaxonella and a distinct separation from the bakuellid Metaurostylopsis and parabirojimid Parabirojimia. The SSU rRNA gene sequences of four further urostyloids (i.e. Diaxonella pseudorubra, Anteholosticha monilata, Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae, Pseudourostyla cristata) and two stylonychines (i.e. Sterkiella cavicola, Sterkiella histriomuscorum) from Korea were analyzed. Anteholosticha monilata, type of the genus, is clearly separated from the Holosticha clade, supporting the morphological separation from Holosticha. Sterkiella cavicola, type of Sterkiella, clusters within the stylonychines and is obviously closely related with S. histriomuscorum.

  14. The influence of zooplankton enrichment on the microbial loop in a shallow, eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Zingel, Priit; Agasild, Helen; Karus, Katrit; Kangro, Kersti; Tammert, Helen; Tõnno, Ilmar; Feldmann, Tõnu; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-02-01

    With increasing primary productivity, ciliates may become the most important members of the microbial loop and form a central linkage in the transformation of microbial production to upper trophic levels. How metazooplankters, especially copepods, regulate ciliate community structure in shallow eutrophic waters is not completely clear. We carried out mesocosm experiments with different cyclopoid copepod enrichments in a shallow eutrophic lake to examine the responses of ciliate community structure and abundance to changes in cyclopoid copepod biomass and to detect any cascading effects on bacterioplankton and edible phytoplankton. Our results indicate that an increase in copepod zooplankton biomass favours the development of small-sized bacterivorous ciliates. This effect is unleashed by the decline of predaceous ciliate abundance, which would otherwise graze effectively on the small-sized ciliates. The inverse relationship between crustacean zooplankton and large predaceous ciliates is an important feature adjusting not only the structure of the ciliate community but also the energy transfer between meta- and protozooplankton. Still we could not detect any cascading effects on bacterio- or phytoplankton that would be caused by the structural changes in the ciliate community.

  15. What Underpins the Trophic Networks of the Plankton in Shallow Oxbow Lakes?

    PubMed

    Kosiba, J; Wilk-Woźniak, E; Krztoń, W; Strzesak, M; Pociecha, A; Walusiak, E; Pudaś, K; Szarek-Gwiazda, E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships in the microbial trophic network underpinning them about communities of plankton ciliates in shallow oxbow lakes of the Vistula River in southern Poland (Jeziorzany 1, Jeziorzany 2, Piekary, Tyniec). The plankton components (phytoplankton, ciliates, zooplankton) were grouped by dietary preference. The studied oxbows differed in physicochemical parameters and in phytoplankton. Cyanobacteria dominated in the total biomass of phytoplankton in the Tyniec oxbow, big green algae (>30 μm) in Piekary and Jeziorzany 1, and euglenoids in Jeziorzany 2 oxbow. The dominance pattern of ciliates and zooplankton were similar in all oxbows. Algivorous ciliates were the main dominant ciliates, and among zooplankton the dominant ones were herbivores that feed on small algae (<30 μm). The oxbows differed significantly in total phytoplankton biomass, cyanobacteria biomass, euglenoid biomass, small green algae (<30 μm) biomass, total biomass of zooplankton, biomass of zooplankton feeding on bacteria + algae, and biomass of zooplankton feeding on big algae (>30 μm). There was no significant differences in ciliate biomass between oxbows. In redundancy analyses, the variability at the trophic groups of plankton was described by explanatory variables in 42.3 %, and positive relationships were found: e.g., between omnivorous zooplankton biomass, the biomass of ciliates feeding on bacteria + algae, and NH4 level; between euglenoid biomass and dinoflagellate biomass; and between cyanobacteria biomass and bacterivorous ciliate biomass. Spearman correlation analysis revealed several relationships between different groups of plankton. In general, phytoplankton group shows more connection among themselves and with different zooplankton groups, e.g., phytoplankton biomass with herbivorous zooplankton biomass (-0.33); and cyanobacteria biomass with dinoflagellate biomass (0.65). Ciliates showed more connections among their

  16. Balantidiasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    ciliates. Clin Lab Med. 1999;19:621-638. 28. Wolfe MS. Miscellaneous intestinal protozoa . In: Strickland GT, ed. Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging...Amebae and ciliated protozoa as causal agents of waterborne zoonotic disease. Vet Parasitol. 2004;126:91-120. Acknowledgement 15.12 Drawing by Frank O. Raasch

  17. Spatiotemporal distribution of protozooplankton and copepod nauplii in relation to the occurrence of giant jellyfish in the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Kuidong

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, has been a frequent phenomenon in the Yellow Sea. However, the relationship between the giant jellyfish and protozoa, in particular ciliates, remains largely unknown. We investigated the distribution of nanoflagellates, ciliates, Noctiluca scintillans, and copepod nauplii along the transect 33°N in the Yellow Sea in June and August, 2012, during an occurrence of the giant jellyfish, and in October of that year when the jellyfish was absent. The organisms studied were mainly concentrated in the surface waters in summer, while in autumn they were evenly distributed in the water column. Nanoflagellate, ciliate, and copepod nauplii biomasses increased from early June to August along with jellyfish growth, the first two decreased in October, while N. scintillans biomass peaked in early June to 3 571 μg C/L and decreased in August and October. In summer, ciliate biomass greatly exceeded that of copepod nauplii (4.61-15.04 μg C/L vs. 0.34-0.89 μg C/L). Ciliate production was even more important than biomass, ranging from 6.59 to 34.19 μg C/(L·d) in summer. Our data suggest a tight and positive association among the nano-, micro-, and meso-zooplankton in the study area. Statistical analysis revealed that the abundance and total production of ciliate as well as loricate ciliate biomass were positively correlated with giant jellyfish biomass, indicating a possible predator-prey relationship between ciliates and giant jellyfish. This is in contrast to a previous study, which reported a significant reduction in ciliate standing crops due to the mass occurrence of N. nomurai in summer. Our study indicates that, with its high biomass and, in particular, high production ciliates might support the mass occurrence of giant jellyfish.

  18. Screening of parasitic and IHHNV infections in wild giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Rejang River at Kuching, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Kua, Beng Chu; Choong, F C; Hazreen Nita, M K; Muhd Faizul H, A H; Bhassu, S; Imelda, R R; Mohammed, M

    2011-04-01

    A preliminary survey of parasitic and infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) infections in giant freshwater prawn from the Damak Sea of Rejang River, Kuching, Sarawak was conducted. Symptoms of black spots/patches on the rostrum, carapace, pleopods or telson were observed in most of the 107 samples collected. Parasitic examination revealed sessiline peritrichs such as (Zoothamnium sp.), nematode larvae, gregarine stage and cocoon of leech with prevalences of 1.2%, 1.2%, 5% and 17% respectively. Under histopathological examination, changes like accumulation of hemocytes around hepatopancreatic tubules due to vibriosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions in the epithelium and E-cell of hepatopancreatic tubules as a result of HPV were seen through the section. No positive infection of IHHNV was detected in 78 samples. As such, the wild giant freshwater prawns in Damak Sea of Rejang River in Kuching are IHHNV-free though infections of parvo-like virus and bacteria were seen in histopathology.

  19. Effect of phosducin silencing on the photokinetic motile response of Blepharisma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Joachimiak, Ewa; Bregier, Cezary; Fabczak, Stanisław; Fabczak, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    The coloured ciliate Blepharisma japonicum changes swimming velocity (positive photokinesis) and elongates its body in response to a prolonged illumination. We have recently proposed that alterations in the phosphorylation level of the ciliate phosducin (Pdc) may be involved in light-induced cell elongation, which in turn affects the interaction of βγ-dimer of G-proteins (Gβγ) with β-tubulin and subsequent cytoskeletal remodelling. The cellular mechanism that governs the photokinetic effect in this ciliate has not been elucidated. In the present study, we utilise real-time PCR to demonstrate that the levels of ciliate Pdc mRNA are significantly reduced in Pdc-RNAi-treated cells compared to cells fed with bacteria carrying the empty vector (control cells). Using western immunoblotting, we confirmed that these cells treated with Pdc-RNAi expressed a substantially lower level of the Pdc protein. The assay also revealed that in ciliates treated with Pdc-RNAi and exposed to light, the cytosolic level of Gβ (~36 kDa) was reduced, whereas the level of Gβ localized to the membrane (~32 kDa) was increased compared to control cells. In addition, behavioural analysis of the cells indicated a substantial reduction of photokinesis. The findings in this study provide additional characterization of the functional properties of the ciliate Pdc protein and we discuss a likely role for this phosphoprotein in the photokinetic phenomenon of the ciliate protist Blepharisma.

  20. Comparison of human nasal epithelial cells grown as explant outgrowth cultures or dissociated tissue cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian; Meng, Na; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Luo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cell growth characteristics, ciliated cell differentiation, and function of human nasal epithelial cells established as explant outgrowth cultures or dissociated tissue cultures. Human nasal mucosa of the uncinate process was obtained by endoscopy and epithelial cell cultures were established by explant outgrowth or dissociated tissue culture methods. Epithelial cell growth characteristics were observed by inverted phase contrast microscopy. Ciliated cell differentiation was detected by β-tubulin IVand ZO-1 immunocytochemistry. Basal and ATP-stimulated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured using a highspeed digital microscopic imaging system. Both the explant and dissociated tissue cultures established as monolayers with tight junctions and differentiated cell composition, with both types of cultures comprising ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells. Fibroblasts were also frequently found in explant cultures but rarely seen in dissociated tissue cultures. In both culture systems, the highest ciliated cell density appeared at 7th-10th culture day and declined with time, with the lifespan of ciliated cells ranging from 14 to 21 days. Overall, 10% of the cells in explant cultures and 20% of the cells in the dissociated tissue cultures were ciliated. These two cultures demonstrated similar ciliary beat frequency values at baseline (7.78 ± 1.99 Hz and 7.91 ± 2.52 Hz, respectively) and reacted equivalently following stimulation with 100 μM ATP. The results of this study indicate that both the explant outgrowth and dissociated tissue culture techniques are suitable for growing well-differentiated nasal ciliated and non-ciliated cells, which have growth characteristics and ciliary activity similar to those of nasal epithelial cells in vivo.

  1. Changes in the oviducal epithelium during the estrous cycle in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    PubMed Central

    Kress, Annetrudi; Morson, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    The Monodelphis oviduct can be divided into four anatomical segments: preampulla (comprising fimbriae and infundibulum), ampulla, isthmus with crypts and uterotubal junction. Ovaries are enclosed in a periovarial sac, the bursa, and in some specimens tubules of an epoophoron could be identified. In both structures non-ciliated cells develop small translucent vesicles, which accumulate in the cell apices and presumably produce fluid as often seen in the bursa and in the tubules of the epooophoron. These vesicles do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS. The same applies also to the non-ciliated cells of the fimbriae. The oviducal epithelium of ampulla and the surface epithelium of the isthmus consisting of ciliated and non-ciliated, secretory cells undergo considerable changes during the estrous cycle. Proestrus shows low numbers of ciliated cells, some are in the process of neo-ciliogenesis, non-ciliated cells carry solitary cilia and few remnant secretory granules from the previous cycle may be found. At estrus the amount of ciliated cells in ampulla and isthmus has increased, most non-cililated cells lost the solitary cilia, developed longer microvilli and formed numerous secretory granules in their cell apices. At postestrus secretory products, often surrounded by membranes, are extruded into the oviducal lumen and contribute towards egg coat formation. First signs of deciliation processes are apparent. Solitary cilia reappear. At metestrus only few secretory cells are left with some secretory material. The lumen is often filled with shed cilia and cell apices. Proliferation of basal bodies within non-secretory cells indicate the formation of new ciliated cells. The non-ciliated epithelial cells of the isthmic crypts form no secretory granules but accumulate a great number of translucent vesicles, which in contrast to the secretory granules do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS. PMID:17883438

  2. Changes in the oviducal epithelium during the estrous cycle in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Kress, Annetrudi; Morson, Gianni

    2007-10-01

    The Monodelphis oviduct can be divided into four anatomical segments: preampulla (comprising fimbriae and infundibulum), ampulla, isthmus with crypts and uterotubal junction. Ovaries are enclosed in a periovarial sac, the bursa, and in some specimens tubules of an epoophoron could be identified. In both structures non-ciliated cells develop small translucent vesicles, which accumulate in the cell apices and presumably produce fluid as often seen in the bursa and in the tubules of the epooophoron. These vesicles do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS. The same applies also to the non-ciliated cells of the fimbriae. The oviducal epithelium of ampulla and the surface epithelium of the isthmus consisting of ciliated and non-ciliated, secretory cells undergo considerable changes during the estrous cycle. Proestrus shows low numbers of ciliated cells, some are in the process of neo-ciliogenesis, non-ciliated cells carry solitary cilia and few remnant secretory granules from the previous cycle may be found. At estrus the amount of ciliated cells in ampulla and isthmus has increased, most non-cililated cells lost the solitary cilia, developed longer microvilli and formed numerous secretory granules in their cell apices. At postestrus secretory products, often surrounded by membranes, are extruded into the oviducal lumen and contribute towards egg coat formation. First signs of deciliation processes are apparent. Solitary cilia reappear. At metestrus only few secretory cells are left with some secretory material. The lumen is often filled with shed cilia and cell apices. Proliferation of basal bodies within non-secretory cells indicate the formation of new ciliated cells. The non-ciliated epithelial cells of the isthmic crypts form no secretory granules but accumulate a great number of translucent vesicles, which in contrast to the secretory granules do not stain with Alcian blue or PAS.

  3. Experimental infections of Orchitophrya stellarum (Scuticociliata) in American blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and fiddler crabs (Uca minax).

    PubMed

    Miller, Terrence L; Small, Hamish J; Peemoeller, Bhae-Jin; Gibbs, David A; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2013-11-01

    Outbreaks of an unidentified ciliate have occurred on several occasions in blue crabs from Chesapeake Bay held during winter months in flow-through systems. The parasite was initially thought to be Mesanophrys chesapeakensis, but molecular analysis identified it as Orchitophyra stellarum, a facultative parasite of sea stars (Asteroidea). We investigated the host-parasite association of O. stellarum in the blue crab host. Crabs were inoculated with the ciliate, or they were held in bath exposures after experimentally induced autotomy of limbs in order to determine potential mechanisms for infection. Crabs inoculated with the ciliate, or exposed to it after experimental autotomy, rapidly developed fatal infections. Crabs that were not experimentally injured, but were exposed to the ciliate, rarely developed infections; thus, indicating that the parasite requires a wound or break in the cuticle as a portal of entry. For comparative purposes, fiddler crabs, Uca minax, were inoculated with the ciliate in a dose-titration experiment. Low doses of the ciliate (10 per crab) were sometimes able to establish infections, but high intensity infections developed quickly at doses over 500 ciliates per crab. Chemotaxis studies were initiated to determine if the ciliate preferentially selected blue crab serum (BCS) over other nutrient sources. Cultures grown on medium with BCS or fetal bovine serum showed some conditioning in their selection for different media, but the outcome in choice experiments indicated that the ciliate was attracted to BCS and not seawater. Our findings indicate that O. stellarum is a facultative parasite of blue crabs. It can cause infections in exposed crabs at 10-15°C, but it requires a portal of entry for successful host invasion, and it may find injured hosts using chemotaxis.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, biological activity and theoretical calculations of novel isoxazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jin, R Y; Sun, X H; Liu, Y F; Long, W; Chen, B; Shen, S Q; Ma, H X

    2016-01-05

    Series of isoxazole derivatives were synthesized by substituted chalcones and 2-chloro-6-fluorobenzene formaldehyde oxime with 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The target compounds were determined by melting point, IR, (1)H NMR, elemental analyses and HRMS. The crystal structure of compound 3a was detected by X-ray diffraction and it crystallizes in the triclinic space group p2(1)/c with z=4. The molecular geometry of compound 3a was optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-31G+(d,p) basis set in the ground state. From the optimized geometry of the molecule, FT-IR, FT-Raman, HOMO-LUMO and natural bond orbital (NBO) were calculated at B3LYP/6-31G+(d,p) level. Finally, the antifungal activity of the synthetic compounds were evaluated against Pythium solani, Gibberella nicotiancola, Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. niveum and Gibberella saubinetii.

  5. Changes in nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity during germination of nonconventional legumes.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Díaz, María Felicia; Jiménez, Tania; Benítez, Vanesa; Herrera, Teresa; Cuadrado, Carmen; Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2013-08-28

    The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 μmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, biological activity and theoretical calculations of novel isoxazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, R. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Liu, Y. F.; Long, W.; Chen, B.; Shen, S. Q.; Ma, H. X.

    2016-01-01

    Series of isoxazole derivatives were synthesized by substituted chalcones and 2-chloro-6-fluorobenzene formaldehyde oxime with 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The target compounds were determined by melting point, IR, 1H NMR, elemental analyses and HRMS. The crystal structure of compound 3a was detected by X-ray diffraction and it crystallizes in the triclinic space group p2(1)/c with z = 4. The molecular geometry of compound 3a was optimized using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with the 6-31G+(d,p) basis set in the ground state. From the optimized geometry of the molecule, FT-IR, FT-Raman, HOMO-LUMO and natural bond orbital (NBO) were calculated at B3LYP/6-31G+(d,p) level. Finally, the antifungal activity of the synthetic compounds were evaluated against Pythium solani, Gibberella nicotiancola, Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. niveum and Gibberella saubinetii.

  7. Drivers of Plankton Patch Formation, Persistence and Decline in East Sound, Orcas Island, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    protist grazing rates ( Montagnes & Lessard 1999), and cellular carbon content (Putt & Stoecker 1989, Crawford & Stoecker 1996). The radiolabeling...Harmful Algae Montagnes , D. J. S. and Lessard, E. J. 1999. Population dynamics of the marine planktonic ciliate Strombidinopsis multiauris: its

  8. Quantifying Trophic and Demographic Rates of Plankton-Rich Layers in East Sound, Orcas Island, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    ratios (Welschmeyer & Lorenzen, 1984), heterotrophic protist grazing rates ( Montagnes & Lessard, 1999), and cellular carbon content (Putt & Stoecker 1989... Montagnes , D. J. S. and Lessard, E. J. 1999 Population dynamics of the marine planktonic ciliate Strombidinopsis multiauris: its potential to control

  9. Epithelial surfaces of the trachea and principal bronchi in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, I; Ritchie, B C; Maloney, J E; Hunter, C R

    1975-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces in the trachea and principal bronchi of healthy rats were examined by scanning electron microscopy. A system of four cell types, ciliated, microvillous, brush, and goblet cells, in this order of frequency, were found and intermediate type cells were not seen. An extensive area of the surface examined was covered by densely ciliated epithelium. The presence of other cell types beneath the cilia was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Areas up to 1 mm in diameter and randomly distributed were observed where microvillous cells predominated and only occasional ciliated cells were found. Most ciliated cells in these areas were adjacent to glandular openings or goblet cells. The larger microvilli of the brush cells were arranged in a coronal configuration elucidated by the scanning electron microscope. Preparatory techniques recently introduced for the examination of soft tissue in the scanning electron microscope facilitated the confirmation of cell types present and the microarchitecture of the epithelial surface. Images PMID:1179314

  10. Gravitaxis in unicellular microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häder, D.-P.

    1999-01-01

    Orientation of organisms with respect to the gravitational field of the Earth has been studied for more than 100 years in a number of unicellular microorganisms including flagellates and ciliates. Several hypotheses have been developed how the weak stimulus is perceived. Intracellular statoliths have been found to be involved in gravitaxis of Loxodes, while no specialized organelles have been detected in other ciliates, e.g. Paramecium. Also in the slime mold Physarum no specialized gravireceptors have been identified yet. In the flagellate Euglena gracilis the whole cell body, which is denser than the surrounding medium, seems to act as a statolith pressing onto the lower membrane where it activates mechanosensitive ion channels. Similar results were obtained for the ciliate Paramecium. In contrast to the flagellate Euglena, several ciliates have been found to show gravikinesis, which is defined as a dependence of the swimming velocity on the direction of movement in the gravity field.

  11. Use of Tetrahymena thermophila to study the role of protozoa in inactivation of viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Power, Mary E; Butler, Barbara J; Dayeh, Vivian R; Slawson, Robin; Lee, Lucy E J; Lynn, Denis H; Bols, Niels C

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a ciliate to inactivate bacteriophage was studied because these viruses are known to influence the size and diversity of bacterial populations, which affect nutrient cycling in natural waters and effluent quality in sewage treatment, and because ciliates are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, including sewage treatment plants. Tetrahymena thermophila was used as a representative ciliate; T4 was used as a model bacteriophage. The T4 titer was monitored on Escherichia coli B in a double-agar overlay assay. T4 and the ciliate were incubated together under different conditions and for various times, after which the mixture was centrifuged through a step gradient, producing a top layer free of ciliates. The T4 titer in this layer decreased as coincubation time increased, but no decrease was seen if phage were incubated with formalin-fixed Tetrahymena. The T4 titer associated with the pellet of living ciliates was very low, suggesting that removal of the phage by Tetrahymena inactivated T4. When Tetrahymena cells were incubated with SYBR gold-labeled phage, fluorescence was localized in structures that had the shape and position of food vacuoles. Incubation of the phage and ciliate with cytochalasin B or at 4 degrees C impaired T4 inactivation. These results suggest the active removal of T4 bacteriophage from fluid by macropinocytosis, followed by digestion in food vacuoles. Such ciliate virophagy may be a mechanism occurring in natural waters and sewage treatment, and the methods described here could be used to study the factors influencing inactivation and possibly water quality.

  12. alpha-Tubulin of Histriculus cavicola (Ciliophora; Hypotrichea).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Romero, P; Villalobo, E; Díaz-Ramos, C; Calvo, P; Santos-Rosa, F; Torres, A

    1997-03-01

    An alpha-tubulin gene fragment amplified by PCR from the hypotrichous ciliate Histriculus cavicola has been sequenced. This fragment, 1,182 bp long, contains an in-frame "stop" codon (UAA), which in other hypotrichous species codes for a glutamine residue. The comparison of the alpha-tubulin genes from several ciliates classes have revealed amino acid positions which could serve to distinguish these taxonomic groups.

  13. Insensitivity of ciliary outgrowth in situ by Stentor to far UV.

    PubMed

    Burchill, B R

    1979-10-01

    Outgrowth of membranellar cilia in situ by the ciliate protozoan Stentor coeruleus is not affected by either far UV or by postirradiation exposure to cycloheximide, while UV does affect the outgrowth of membranellar cilia during the more elaborate process of oral regeneration in this ciliate, and cycloheximide prolongs the UV effect. These results suggest that direct damage to outgrowing ciliary shafts cannot explain the UV sensitivity of oral regeneration.

  14. Ecological Traits of the Algae-Bearing Tetrahymena utriculariae (Ciliophora) from Traps of the Aquatic Carnivorous Plant Utricularia reflexa.

    PubMed

    Šimek, Karel; Pitsch, Gianna; Salcher, Michaela M; Sirová, Dagmara; Shabarova, Tanja; Adamec, Lubomír; Posch, Thomas

    2016-09-10

    Trap fluid of aquatic carnivorous plants of the genus Utricularia hosts specific microbiomes consisting of commensal pro- and eukaryotes of largely unknown ecology. We examined the characteristics and dynamics of bacteria and the three dominant eukaryotes, i.e. the algae-bearing ciliate Tetrahymena utriculariae (Ciliophora), a green flagellate Euglena agilis (Euglenophyta), and the alga Scenedesmus alternans (Chlorophyta), associated with the traps of Utricularia reflexa. Our study focused on ecological traits and life strategies of the highly abundant ciliate whose biomass by far exceeds that of other eukaryotes and bacteria independent of the trap age. The ciliate was the only bacterivore in the traps, driving rapid turnover of bacterial standing stock. However, given the large size of the ciliate and the cell-specific uptake rates of bacteria we estimated that bacterivory alone would likely be insufficient to support its apparent rapid growth in traps. We suggest that mixotrophy based on algal symbionts contributes significantly to the diet and survival strategy of the ciliate in the extreme (anaerobic, low pH) trap-fluid environment. We propose a revised concept of major microbial interactions in the trap fluid where ciliate bacterivory plays a central role in regeneration of nutrients bound in rapidly growing bacterial biomass.

  15. Comparison of microfauna communities in full scale subsurface flow constructed wetlands used as secondary and tertiary treatment.

    PubMed

    Puigagut, Jaume; Salvadó, Humbert; García, David; Granes, Francesc; García, Joan

    2007-04-01

    In order to evaluate the microfauna composition and distribution in two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands used as secondary and tertiary treatment a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was monitored during five months. Results indicate that total microfauna abundance in the wetland treating primary influents is around five times higher than that found in the wetland treating secondary influents. Ciliated protozoa and microflagellates are the most important microfauna groups in both wetlands; microflagellates in terms of abundance and ciliates in terms of biomass. The most abundant ciliate species in the wetland treating primary influents are polysaprobic organisms as Dexiostoma campylum, Trimyema compressum, and to a lesser extend Metopus spp. On the other hand, the most important ciliate species found in the wetland treating secondary influents are mainly aerobic ciliates as Vorticella comvallaria-complex, Aspidisca cicada, Litonotus lamella and some ciliates belonging to the group of the scuticociliates and Hypotrichidae. The sort of the organic matter treated (particulated or dissolved) is at least as important as the amount of it in order to explain microfauna dynamics in constructed wetlands.

  16. Involvement of protozoa in anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2007-12-01

    It is only very rarely recognised in literature that anaerobic reactors may contain protozoa in addition to various bacterial and archeal groups. The role of protozoa in anaerobic degradation was studied in anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch tests. Anaerobic protozoa, especially the ciliated protozoa, have direct influence on the performance of CSTR at all organic loading rates (1-2g CODl(-1)d(-1)) and retention times (5-10 days). The studies revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is strongly correlated to ciliate density in CSTR fed with oleate (suspended COD) and acetate (soluble COD). There was no significant difference in COD removal between reactors fed suspended COD and those fed soluble COD. However, the diversity and number of ciliates is greater in CSTR fed with particulate feed. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) representing biomass was significantly lower (16-34%) in CSTR with protozoa. In batch tests, increased COD removal and methane production was observed in sludge having ciliates as compared with sludge without protozoa. Methane production increased linearly with number of ciliates (R(2)=0.96) in batch tests with protozoa. Direct utilization of COD by flagellates and ciliates was observed in bacteria-suppressed cultures. The technological importance of these results is that reactors with protozoa-rich sludge can enhance the rate of mineralization of complex wastewater, especially wastewater containing particulate COD.

  17. Morphological and ultrastructural study of the efferent ductules in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad Yasir; Liu, Tengfei; Yang, Ping; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Lisi; Hong, Chen; Chen, Qiusheng

    2016-02-01

    Comparative study of the turtle excurrent duct system increases our understanding the evolution of sperm motility and fertility maintenance in higher vertebrates. Therefore, in this study we observed the histology and ultrastructure organization of efferent ductules in the Pelodiscus sinensis using light and transmission electron microscopy. The efferent ductules are extra- testicular and 22-28 in number originate from rete testis. The epithelium is entirely composed of two types of cells, the predominant non-ciliated and ciliated cells. The ciliated cells have long cilia that protrude into the lumen to form a meshwork. These cells associated with clusters of mitochondria in the supranuclear cytoplasm and possess coated vesicles, vacuole, intracellular spaces, and junction complexes. Ciliated cells in the proximal portion of the ductules contain an endocytic apparatus with coated pits and tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Interdigitations and lipid droplets are predominantly present around the nuclei of these cells. The non-ciliated cells have clusters of mitochondria present in both the supranuclear and perinuclear cytoplasm whereas, the nuclei of these cells are lightly stained. Moreover, the contour of the epithelium towards lumen is irregular as it has a deep indentation. The apical cytoplasm goes deep into the lumen to form cytoplasmic processes. This is the first study to describe the detailed features of efferent ductules in Pelodiscus sinensis with, special focus on the morphology of ciliated cells, as these cells are involved in the mixing of luminal fluid and transport of spermatozoa towards the distal region.

  18. Ciliatological characterization of a biological reactor that eliminates nitrogen with intermitent aeration.

    PubMed

    Luna-Pabello, V M; Plisson-Saune, S; Paul, E; Durán de Bazúa, C

    1996-01-01

    Ciliates present in an activated sludge biological reactor used for removal of nitrogen compounds with intermitent aeration were determined. The reactor had a working volume of 30 liters, a hydraulic residence time of 20 hours, and a cell retention time of 15 days. Operating temperature was 15 degrees C, and it was fed with domestic sewage. Aeration was given in pulses, one hour aeration and one hour without aeration, feeding sodium acetate to favour denitrification processes. Elimination efficiency was 95% of the dissolved organic matter. During the pseudostable operating phase, 16 species of ciliates (Phylum Ciliophora) were found. They were distributed as follows: 13 Genera; 12 Families; 7 Orders; 6 Subclasses; 5 Classes, and 3 Subphyla. From them, 9 are free swimmers and 7 are pedunculates. The Subphylum with higher diversity of species was the Ciliophora. The Oligohymenophorea Class was the best represented, corresponding to the Peritricha Subclass the highest number of species. Almost all the ciliates found have been reported as common inhabitants of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with high removal efficiencies. They are catalogued as saprobe ciliates, within a and b masosaprobe levels. The presence of this ciliate community agrees with the carbon and nitrogen compounds removal efficiencies. Consequently, there exists the possibility of evaluating the operational efficiency of an aerobic/anoxic reactor using direct ciliates observations.

  19. Further scanning electron microscope studies of lizard auditory papillae.

    PubMed

    Miller, M R

    1978-06-01

    The papillae basilares of 12 species of lizards from seven different families were studied by SEM. The iguanids, Sceloporus magister and S. occidentalis, have typical "iguanid type" papillae with central short-ciliated unidirectional hair cell segments and apical and basal long-ciliated bidirectional hair cell segments. These species of Sceloporus are unique among iquanids in that the bidirectional segments consist of but two rows of hair cells. The agamids, Agama agama and Calotes nigrolabius, have an "agamid-anguid type" papilla consisting of an apical short-ciliated unidirectional segment. Agama agama is unusual in having a few long-ciliated hair cells at the apical end of the apical short-ciliated segment. The agamid, Uromastix sp., has an "iguanid type" papilla with a central short-ciliated unidirectional segment and apical and basal bidirectional segments. The anguid, Ophisaurus ventralis, has an "iguanid" papillar pattern with the short-ciliated segment centrally located. All the short-ciliated hair cells of the above species are covered by a limbus-attached tectorial network or cap and the long-ciliated hair cells, only by loose tectorial strands. The lacertids, Lacerta viridis and L. galloti, have papillae divided into two separate segments. The shorter apical segment consists of opposingly oriented, widely separated short-ciliated cells covered by a heavy tectorial membrane. The apical portion of the longer basal segment consists of unidirectionally oriented hair cells, while the greater part of the segment has opposingly oriented hair cells. The xantusiids, Xantusia vigilis and X. henshawi, have papillae made up of separate small apical segments and elongated basal segments. The apical hair cells are largely, but not exclusively, unidirectional and are covered by a heavy tectorial cap. The basal strip is bidirectional and the hair cells are covered by sallets. The kinocilial heads are arrowhead-shaped. The papilla of the cordylid, Cordylus jonesii, is

  20. Tumour-like anomaly of copepods-an evaluation of the possible causes in Indian marine waters.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, L; Jyothibabu, R

    2016-04-01

    Globally, tumour-like anomalies (TLA) in copepods and the critical assessment of their possible causes are rare. The exact causative factor and ecological consequences of TLA in copepods are still unclear and there is no quantitative data available so far to prove conclusively the mechanism involved in developing TLA in copepods. TLA in copepods are considered as a potential threat to the well-being of the aquatic food web, which prompted us to assess these abnormalities in Indian marine waters and assess the possible etiological agents. We carried out a focused study on copepods collected from 10 estuarine inlets and five coastal waters of India using a FlowCAM, advanced microscopes and laboratory-incubated observations. The analysis confirmed the presence of TLA in copepods with varying percentage of incidence in different environments. TLA was recorded in 24 species of copepods, which constituted ~1-15 % of the community in different environments. TLA was encountered more frequently in dominant copepods and exhibited diverse morphology; ~60 % was round, dark and granular, whereas ~20 % was round/oval, transparent and non-granular. TLA was mostly found in the dorsal and lateral regions of the prosome of copepods. The three suggested reasons/assumptions about the causes of TLA such as ecto-parasitism (Ellobiopsis infection), endo-parasitism (Blastodinium infection) and epibiont infections (Zoothamnium and Acineta) were assessed in the present study. We did find infections of endo-parasite Blastodinium, ecto-parasite Ellobiopsis and epibiont Zoothamnium and Acineta in copepods, but these infectious percentages were found <1.5 % to the total density and most of them are species specific. Detailed microscopical observations of the samples collected and the results of the incubation experiments of infected copepods revealed that ecto-parasitism, endo-parasitism and epibiont infections have less relevance to the formation of TLA in copepods. On the other hand

  1. Crown-of-thorns starfish predation and physical injuries promote brown band disease on corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Sefano M.; Pollock, F. Joseph; Bourne, David G.; Willis, Bette L.

    2014-09-01

    Brown band (BrB) disease manifests on corals as a ciliate-dominated lesion that typically progresses rapidly causing extensive mortality, but it is unclear whether the dominant ciliate Porpostoma guamense is a primary or an opportunistic pathogen, the latter taking advantage of compromised coral tissue or depressed host resistance. In this study, manipulative aquarium-based experiments were used to investigate the role of P. guamense as a pathogen when inoculated onto fragments of the coral Acropora hyacinthus that were either healthy, preyed on by Acanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns starfish; COTS), or experimentally injured. Following ciliate inoculation, BrB lesions developed on all of COTS-predated fragments ( n = 9 fragments) and progressed up to 4.6 ± 0.3 cm d-1, resulting in ~70 % of coral tissue loss after 4 d. Similarly, BrB lesions developed rapidly on experimentally injured corals and ~38 % of coral tissue area was lost 60 h after inoculation. In contrast, no BrB lesions were observed on healthy corals following experimental inoculations. A choice experiment demonstrated that ciliates are strongly attracted to physically injured corals, with over 55 % of inoculated ciliates migrating to injured corals and forming distinct lesions, whereas ciliates did not migrate to healthy corals. Our results indicate that ciliates characteristic of BrB disease are opportunistic pathogens that rapidly migrate to and colonise compromised coral tissue, leading to rapid coral mortality, particularly following predation or injury. Predicted increases in tropical storms, cyclones, and COTS outbreaks are likely to increase the incidence of coral injury in the near future, promoting BrB disease and further contributing to declines in coral cover.

  2. The ultrastructure of the epithelium of the ductuli efferentes testis in the common starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, S J; Kendall, M D

    1985-01-01

    The ductuli efferentes of male common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were prepared for light and electron microscopy. The epithelium of breeding birds was pseudostratified, consisting of ciliated cells, which were of the same type throughout the ductules, and of two types of non-ciliated cells: an electron-dense form with complex lateral invaginations, long microvilli and apical invaginations found in proximal ductuli efferentes (Type 1 a) and a less dense, taller, seemingly more secretory cell found distally (Type 1 b). Both types contained crystal-like structures in granular and transitional endoplasmic reticulum, which were occasionally seen in ciliated cells and not elsewhere. These 'intracisternal bodies' were probably proteinaceous in nature. The ciliated cells were typically more electron-lucent than the non-ciliated cells. They adopted the height and interdigitation characteristics of the surrounding epithelium. Occasional annulate lamellae were encountered. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were seen occasionally, notably in non-breeding birds. The epithelial morphology of the non-breeding common starling is briefly mentioned. The tubules were collapsed and apparently inactive, although signs of proliferative activity were seen in birds killed in February. The distinction of the epithelial cells into one ciliated and two non-ciliated types in this study is discussed in the light of previous work, as differences were found to exist. It is suggested that care should be taken in the use of mammalian tubule nomenclature when it is applied to birds. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:4077685

  3. Benthic bacterial production and protozoan predation in a silty freshwater environment.

    PubMed

    Wieltschnig, C; Fischer, U R; Kirschner, A K T; Velimirov, B

    2003-07-01

    The interrelation of heterotrophic bacteria with bacterivorous protists has been widely studied in pelagic environments, but data on benthic habitats, especially in freshwater systems, are still scarce. We present a seasonal study focusing on bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and ciliates in the silty sediment of a temperate macrophyte-dominated oxbow lake. From January 2001 to February 2002 we monitored the standing stock of bacteria and protozoa, bacterial secondary production (BSP, (3)H-thymidine, and (14)C-leucine incorporation), and grazing rates of HNF and ciliates on bacteria (FLB uptake) in the oxic sediment of the investigated system. BSP ranged from 470 to 4050 micro g C L(-1) wet sediment h(-1). The bacterial compartment turned out to be highly dynamic, indicated by population doubling times (0.6-10.0 d), which were comparable to those in the water column of the investigated system. Yet, the control mechanisms acting upon the bacterial population led to a relative constancy of bacterial standing stock during a year. Ingestion rates of protozoan grazers were 0-20.0 bacteria HNF(-1) h(-1) and 0-97.6 bacteria ciliate(-1) h(-1). HNF and ciliates together cropped 0-14 (mean 4)% of BSP, indicating that they did not significantly contribute to benthic bacterial mortality during any period of the year. The low impact of protozoan grazing was due to the low numbers of HNF and ciliates in relation to bacteria (1.8-3.5 x 10(4) bacteria HNF(-1), 0.9-3.1 x 10(6) bacteria ciliate(-1)). Thus, grazing by HNF and ciliates could be ruled out as a parameter regulating bacterial standing stock or production in the sediment of the investigated system, but the factors responsible for the limitation of benthic protistan densities and the fate of benthic BSP remained unclear.

  4. The Green Tetrahymena utriculariae n. sp. (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) with Its Endosymbiotic Algae (Micractinium sp.), Living in Traps of a Carnivorous Aquatic Plant.

    PubMed

    Pitsch, Gianna; Adamec, Lubomír; Dirren, Sebastian; Nitsche, Frank; Šimek, Karel; Sirová, Dagmara; Posch, Thomas

    2016-09-10

    The genus Tetrahymena (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) probably represents the best studied ciliate genus. At present, more than forty species have been described. All are colorless, i.e. they do not harbor symbiotic algae, and as aerobes they need at least microaerobic habitats. Here, we present the morphological and molecular description of the first green representative, Tetrahymena utriculariae n. sp., living in symbiosis with endosymbiotic algae identified as Micractinium sp. (Chlorophyta). The full life cycle of the ciliate species is documented, including trophonts and theronts, conjugating cells, resting cysts and dividers. This species has been discovered in an exotic habitat, namely in traps of the carnivorous aquatic plant Utricularia reflexa (originating from Okavango Delta, Botswana). Green ciliates live as commensals of the plant in this anoxic habitat. Ciliates are bacterivorous, however, symbiosis with algae is needed to satisfy cell metabolism but also to gain oxygen from symbionts. When ciliates are cultivated outside their natural habitat under aerobic conditions and fed with saturating bacterial food, they gradually become aposymbiotic. Based on phylogenetic analyses of 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 genes T. utriculariae forms a sister group to Tetrahymena thermophila.

  5. Feeding behaviour of adult Centropages hamatus (Copepoda, Calanoida): Functional response and selective feeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saage, Andrea; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    The feeding behaviour of adults of the marine calanoid copepod Centropages hamatus was studied in laboratory experiments with ciliates and phytoplankton as food sources. The ingestion rate of algal (flagellates, diatoms) and ciliate prey (oligotrichs) as a function of prey concentration could be described by a Holling type III functional response, with close to zero ingestion rates at concentrations below 5 µg C l - 1 . In general, ingestion of ciliates was higher than ingestion of algae, and maximum feeding rates by adult males reached were half the feeding rates of adult females at prey concentrations exceeding 50 µg C l - 1 . When diatoms and ciliates were offered together C. hamatus (both sexes) fed exclusively on ciliates as long as they contributed with more than 5% to the mixture. This indicates the capability of active prey selection and switching between suspension feeding and ambush predation. Therefore, the feeding behaviour of adult C. hamatus can be characterised as omnivorous with a preference for larger motile prey. This implies a trophic level above two, if there is a sufficient abundance of protozoan food available.

  6. The perennial organelle: assembly and disassembly of the primary cilium

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, E. Scott; Nachury, Maxence V.

    2010-01-01

    Primary cilia contain signaling receptors of diverse classes, and ciliary dysfunction results in a variety of developmental defects. Thus, primary cilia are thought to have an important role in sensing and transducing cellular signals. Although there is clear evidence demonstrating that these organelles are assembled and disassembled dynamically as cells progress through the cell cycle, the mechanisms by which the cell cycle controls the assembly and disassembly of the primary cilium remain poorly understood. In this Commentary, we review the basic cellular mechanisms that underlie the early stages of cilium assembly and discuss how the cell cycle communicates with the ciliation program. A commonly held view is that ciliation occurs exclusively in cells that have exited the cell cycle and entered quiescence or differentiation. However, this concept is at odds with the finding that, during development, many actively proliferating cells require cilia-mediated signaling pathways to instruct their developmental fate. Here, we reassess the quiescence-centric view of ciliation by reviewing historic and current literature. We discuss ample evidence that cilia are in fact present on many proliferating cells, and that a transient peak of ciliation before the G1-S transition might be tightly coupled to entry into the DNA replication phase. Finally, we touch on the relationship between the ciliation and cell-division cycles and the tissue distribution of primary cilia in order to highlight potential roles for the primary cilium in restraining cells from the hyperproliferative state that contributes to cancer. PMID:20144999

  7. Chronic exposure of rats to cotton-mill-room noise changes the cell composition of the tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria João R; Pereira, António S; Guimarães, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P O; Grande, Nuno R; Aguas, Artur P

    2002-12-01

    The work environment of cotton mill rooms of modern textile plants is characterized by noise pollution. We have taped and reproduced this noisy environment to study its effects on experimentally exposed rats. Because we have previously documented that chronic noise causes alterations in the respiratory epithelium, we have focused our investigation on the morphology of the tracheal lining. Wistar rats were exposed to the textile-type noise from 1 up to 7 months, with an average 40 hours weekly exposure of the animals. The rats were sacrificed monthly and the tracheas were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to quantify the areas of the airway lining that were covered by ciliated, serous or other cells of the epithelium. We found that noise exposure of the rats caused a significant loss of tracheal ciliated cells; an increased density of serous cells on the epithelium balanced this change. This modification of the rat trachea was already established after 1 month of noise treatment of the animals; it did not change significantly throughout the 7-month course of the herein investigation. Loss of ciliated cells was more intense in areas of the tracheal epithelium located between the regions of cartilage rings. We conclude that the ciliated cell is an elective target for damage caused on the respiratory epithelium by the workplace noise occurring in cotton mill rooms. This modification of the respiratory epithelium is likely to impair clearance of the airways since this function depends on the activity of ciliated cells.

  8. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD(5)/m(3) d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  9. Effects of Predation by Protists on Prokaryotic Community Function, Structure, and Diversity in Anaerobic Granular Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hirakata, Yuga; Oshiki, Mamoru; Kuroda, Kyohei; Hatamoto, Masashi; Kubota, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Araki, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Predation by protists is top-down pressure that regulates prokaryotic abundance, community function, structure, and diversity in natural and artificial ecosystems. Although the effects of predation by protists have been studied in aerobic ecosystems, they are poorly understood in anoxic environments. We herein studied the influence of predation by Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates—ciliates frequently found in anoxic ecosystems—on prokaryotic community function, structure, and diversity. Metopus and Caenomorpha ciliates were cocultivated with prokaryotic assemblages (i.e., anaerobic granular sludge) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for 171 d. Predation by these ciliates increased the methanogenic activities of granular sludge, which constituted 155% of those found in a UASB reactor without the ciliates (i.e., control reactor). Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons using Illumina MiSeq revealed that the prokaryotic community in the UASB reactor with the ciliates was more diverse than that in the control reactor; 2,885–3,190 and 2,387–2,426 operational taxonomic units (>97% sequence similarities), respectively. The effects of predation by protists in anaerobic engineered systems have mostly been overlooked, and our results show that the influence of predation by protists needs to be examined and considered in the future for a better understanding of prokaryotic community structure and function. PMID:27431197

  10. A Colpoda aspera isolate from animal faeces: In vitro cultivation and identification.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tuanyuan; Shi, Xinlu; Lu, Fuzhuang; Yu, Fuxian; Fu, Yuan; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2014-02-01

    A colpodean ciliate was found in the faeces of experimental rabbits. It was initially cultivated in medium mixed with 2% (w/v) rabbit faeces. Subsequently, two chemically defined media, designated CA-1 and CA-2, were found to be suitable for axenical cultivation of the ciliate. The maximum abundance of the ciliate isolate in the CA media was 1-2 × 10(5) cells/ml. The ciliate isolate was further identified with silver impregnation and molecular analysis. Features of the left oral polykinetid, somatic dikinetids, and sliverline pattern were similar to those of Colpoda aspera as described by Foissner (1993). The 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of the ciliate isolate shared 99% sequence identity with that of C. aspera, with 100% coverage, and formed a sister clade in the phylogenetic tree with the reference C. aspera isolate. In addition, the trophozoite of C. aspera could proliferate over a temperature range from 25-37°C. When resting cysts were cultivated in CA-1 medium at 30-35°C, 98.2% of the trophozoites were detached from the cyst wall after 7 h.

  11. Redescription of Strombidium oculatum Gruber 1884 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

    PubMed

    Montagnes, David J S; Lowe, Chris D; Poultonb, Alex; Jonsson, Per R

    2002-01-01

    The marine, tide pool-dwelling ciliate Stombidium oculatum was redescribed using live, stained, SEM, and TEM material prepared from samples collected from pools on the Isle of Man (Irish Sea) and Brittany (France). Also, we reviewed the older German and French works that reported on ciliates collected in the Mediterranean and Brittany, respectively. The Brittany and Isle of Man populations of the ciliate were considered identical. Some morphological and behavioural differences exist between the Brittany-Isle of Man populations and the Mediterranean populations, but they were insufficient to distinguish different taxa. Thus, taxa from all three locations were considered to be conspecific. Key features used to describe the ciliate were: morphology and ultrastructure of the free-swimming ciliate; cyst morphology; presence of mixotrophic-chloroplasts; presence of an eye spot composed of stigma obtained from chlorophyte prey; division, morphogenesis, and nuclear structure; live observations and behaviour, including the encystment-excystment cycle. Based on morphological and behavioural characteristics the taxon was